We would like to thanks our parents that has been contribute for the cost of the making this scrap book. We also would like to thanks to our subject teacher, Pn Aziah on her idea to make this scrap book happen. Further, thanks to our family member and friend that helping us on information for this project. All cooperation and help that giving to us, we will remember until forever.


Foreword Detail of Members Introduction of Force Push and Pull Combination of A Push And A Pull Effect of Force Friction


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Introduction of force

Most children enjoy playing with a ball. They enjoy kicking the ball and scoring goals with it. Do you know what makes the ball moves, What makes it slow down, stop or change direction? In this unit, you will learn that a force is a push or a pull. You will also learn about the effect of a force.

PUSH and pull
1. A force is a pull or a push.

2. Whenever we push or pull an object, we are applying a force to it. 3. We need force to do work or to carry out an activity. 4. Force cannot be seen but its effect can be felt and observed. 5. The effect of a force can be felt by doing the following activities. Example of PUSH and PULL :

6. Many actions such as stretching a rubber band or kicking a ball involve pulls and pushes. 7. Other example of pulls and pushes are shown in the following pages.

Example Of Pull :

Example Of Push :

8. In daily life, we only often apply the force that combines both the push and pull activities. 9. Listed nelow are few examples that combine pull and push.

Combination Of A push and A Push :

1. A force can : a) move a stationey object. b) change the motion of an object. c) change the shape of an object. 2. During a football game, we can cearly see various effects of a force to the motion of on object. • A FORCE CAN MOVE A STATIONERY OBJECT.

Khairul kicks the ball in the middle of the field. What does the kick do to the stationery object?

3. A stationery ball will move when it is kicked. 4. A force is applied to the ball when it is kicked. This force causes the ball to start moving. 5. The ball moves in the same direction as the applied force.

6. The ball will move faster or roll futher if we kick harder. • A FORCE CAN CHANGE THE MOTION OF AN OBJECT

1. The direction of the force applied to an object will determine its motion. 2. A moving ball will move faster if a force is applied in the same direction of its motion. 3. On the other hand, a moving ball will move slower if a force is applied in the opposite direction of its motion. 4. Also, a moving ball will change its direction when a force is applied from another direction of its motion.

5. A force can cause a moving object stop. a) For example, when a goalkeeper catches a moving ball with his hand, the ball will stop.

b) The goalkeeper exerts an opposing force • A FORCE CAN CHANGE THE SHAPE OF AN OBJECT

1. A force can cause the shape of an object to change. 2. Listed below are few examples on how force can change the shape of an object.

3. The changes on the objects when a force is applied may be temporary or permanent depending on the physical characteristics of the object. 4. Elastic objects such as the spring and rubber band only change shape when force is applied to them. 5. When the force removed, the object returns to its original shape. 6. When a force is exerted on a fragile object, the object will be broken apart. The change of shape is permanent.

1. Friction is a force that opposes motion.

2. Friction exists when two surfaces are in contact against each other. 3. The direction of the frictionel force is always opposite to the direction of movement of an object. 4. For example, a ball rolling on a floor will eventually stop.

a) The ball as shown above moves slower and slower and soon it stop moving. b) This happens because there is friction between the surfaces of the ball and the floor.

c) The friction opposes the motion of the ball, causing it to slow down and stop. • EFFECTS OF FRICTION

1. If we rub our palms together, we will feel our palms become warmer because frictipn produces heat. 2. If we try to move a heavy object, we will find that it is difficult to do so. This is because friction opposes the motion.

3. If we rub an eraser against a surface, we will findthat the eraser becomes smaller. This is because friction causes wear and tear. 4. Also, without friction, an object cannot be placed in a fixed position. 5. Friction stabilises the position of an object on a surface. This allows an object to be stationery.


1. The factors that affect friction are : a) the condition of the surfaces in contact. b) the weight of an object 2. A rough surface produces greater friction compared to a smooth surface. a) For example, it is harder to push or pull a heavy box along a carpet than along a tiled surface.

b) The carpet produces greater frictional force than the tiled surface.

c) The huge amount of frictional force impedes the box movement, making it very difficult to be moved. 3. We are more likely to slip whilewalking on a wet floor. This is because the wet floor is slippery and produces less friction. 4. Friction also depends on the weight of an object. a) A heavier object exerts a greater frictional force b) Therefore, a bigger and heavier box is more difficult to be moved than a smaller and lighter box. • ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF FRICTION

1. Frictional force brings many advantages and disadvantages in our lives. 2. The advantages of friction are as follows. a) Prevent us from slipping when walking or running, > Friction between the sole of a shoe an the surface of the ground prevents us from slipping. b) Stop a moving vehicle. > A moving vehicle will stop when the brake is pressed because there is friction between the tyres and the road surface. c) Keeps the position of an object on a surface. > Our furniture does not move because there is a friction between the base and the floor surface. d) Produces fire. > Friction between a match and the box can produce fire. e) Holds or grips things. > Friction helps us to hold a glass or grip a pencil and write. f) Sharpens a knife. > Friction causes an object to wear put. This enable us to sharpen a knife or pencil. 3. This disadvantages of friction are as follow. a) Slows down or stops the movement of an objects

i. ii.

A bigger force is needed to overcome the friction so that an object can move faster. For example, a bicycle will eventually stop if it is not cycled consistently. If you want to make the bicycle speed up, you have to cycle it faster. The means more energy is needed to overcome the frictional force.

b) Causes the surface of an object to wear out. > For example, soles of shoes and surfaces of tyres.

Soles of shoes and surface of tyres wear out because of frictional force.

c) Produces unnecessary heat. > Car engines become hotter because of friction. • WAYS TO REDUCE FRICTION

1. Friction cannot be elimanted. 2. Nevertheless, friction can be reduce by using certain matierails such as : a) Rollers b) Talcum powder c) Oil, wax, grease d) Air Cushion 3. Rollers are found in many objects such as roller blades, trolleys, chairs and skateboard. They reduce friction by reducing contact between moving surface.





4. Oil, waxing, grease and talcum powder are used as lubricants to reduce friction, so moving surfaces smoothly over one another. For example, oil is used to reduce friction between door hinges. 5. An air cushion (layer of air) under a hovercraft enables a hovercraft to glide easily above water. 6. Aircraft and trains are designed to have aerodynamic shapes to reduce friction so that air flows smoothly. Smoothly air flow means that less fuel is neended for higher speeds. • WAYS TO INCREASE FRICTION

1. Friction is also very important in everyday life. 2. We need to increase friction is safety. 3. Ways to increase friction are as follows. a) Patterns on the surface of tyres and on the soles of shoes. b) A carpet is used to cover the tilled surface.

c) Roads are made with rough surface to provide grip for tyres.