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COMPUTERS AS ADDITIONAL RESOURCE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING. 1. VISUAL, AURAL AND AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS A number of new techniques for teaching English have been developed thanks to new technologies and the decease in price of appliances. These machines have contributed greatly to the diversification of teaching activities. They make learning more enjoyable and they are more and more widely used. Visual a!"#ials • N"$s%a%"#s: They are quite available and cheap. They include a wide variety of text types and a great amount of information from and about the target culture. t is an interesting way to bring the real world into the learning situation. t is also useful for integrating skills. !eading material leads easily into discussions and writing activities. "tories are interesting but date over very quickly. "o# it may be better to collect human interest stories which do not became out of date for a long period of time. $owever# even older pupils find newspapers difficult because of the special grammar conventions# unknown vocabulary# cultural references# etc. we should teach them some of the conventions of the newspaper style at a basic level. "ome activities can be: • %riting and replying small advertisements • %riting and replying to letters to agony aunts • !eordering paragraphs • !eplying to job ads • &redicting horoscopes • '. •E%is&'%": we can use this projector to show any material to the whole group. t is not useful for a long term. •O("#)"a* %#'+"&!'#: t is used with transparencies# which are very easy to elaborate. They can be partially covered and also superposed# so language can be presented gradually. They are good for presentation and correction.
They can be a guide for common expressions# reminders and visual aides. •P's!"#s: There is a wide range of posters and wall charts# in different types and si+es. •Flas)&a#*s: They must be small and resistant# easy to manipulate. *hildren.* s!'#-. t is good for spontaneous examples and presenting new language. They focus attention# being motivating and useful for story telling. The magnetic cut)outs can get moved and superposed.'a#*: t is the most used in school. t can be listened more than once. They can be used to fill the bubbles# ordering the sequence# describing# retelling. The magnetic ones can be used for presenting or illustrating an issue. / .ery useful for descriptions.•Sli*"s: They can be easily made by the teacher or the pupils. Au#al Ma!"#ials • Ra*i': s a wonderful way to develop listening skills.''/s: &ictures are very motivating for children and help to understand the story. *assettes provide a good model of spoken English. •C' i&s a. They usually have short texts# with similar structures. t is very useful for introducing new language and songs. There must be activities for pre# while and post)listening. They can contrast their performance with the good model and also it can be useful for checking pronunciation achievement."s: They have very attractive pictures# good for cut)outs. There could be a listening corner in the classroom. -ood for new vocabulary presentation# games# hide and seek# pointing# ' •2la&/. •Ma0a1i. -raded radio lessons offer the opportunity to listen to programmes adapted to the pupils. $owever# our pupils do not have the necessary linguistic abilities to cope with radio programmes.s utterances can be recorded to be conscious of pronunciation. . *hildren can create their own material or illustrate descriptions of famous people. • Cass"!!" #"&'#*"#: The development of listening skills in the classroom situation relies on recorder material. abilities# motivating them to future authentic listening.
1or the first time students watch video# we could set an active viewing task with techniques as silent viewing# prediction# thinking and feeling# sound only# true or false sentences# etc. . t is useful for practising oral drills. 3 . feelings and attitudes.as"* l"ss'.ideo recordings show language in a context. t can also be boring and with no purpose. %la. language programme offers audio)visual clues to meaning. t brings the outside world into the classroom# it is a powerful stimulus to talk about. Au*i'-(isual a!"#ials They include both# sound and pictures. Vi*"'-. The learners can see why things are said in a different way. t introduces the culture of the target language into the classroom and means a change from the teacher and the textbook# although it is difficult# for it cannot be repeated or stopped. • Vi*"' !ecordings offer the possibilities a live programme cannot. t is essential the gradual introduction of video in the classroom.0 1or a one)hour class# it is enough to use an extract of between three and five minutes. They generate interest and motivation and a good atmosphere for a successful learning. • T"l"(isi'. "tudents hear the language and see the context. A T.• La. 0earners must take part and not think they are being entertained or watching T.ideo recordings of classroom activities . .i.iewing the video about three times gives us the chance to get familiar with it# study the language and behaviour as well as language use. f its length is of (2 minutes or more# it is better to play it once through and then go back and concentrate on short extracts. Teachers must take advantage of the power of video)films to create a successful language environment. t should be used as another technique for facilitating language acquisition. programmes# documentaries • . f the video is difficult we may set the scene and explain a few words and sentences essential to understanding.ideo presentations allow reviewing and comprehension questions# follow)up ideas and suggestions. Teachers can plan the activities from a great range of sources: • 0anguage)teaching broadcast • 1ilms# cartoons# advertisements#' • T.0ua0" 3la. passively. t is a powerful motivator..4: *hildren work individually. They can pick speakers.
Then# they watch and contrast.ideo camera: four steps can be suggested to make use of the video recorder: • Talking head: one person talking to the camera • 8ialogues: people talking together • -roup discussion: a group is filmed while discussing 9 . The watchers explain to the listeners what they have seen. • Telling the story: the learners watch the end of a video sequence and try to construct the story.• There is a technique which requires answering these questions after viewing: where# when# who# what# why# how4 • "ilent viewing: the sound is turned down. t is good for describing things or people# identifying things by sounds or following a description of something. • 5ehaviour study: it focuses on non)verbal ways to express 6facial expressions# gesture# dresses# physical contact7 The main aim is to make learners conscious of the behaviour conventions in other cultures. 0earners can predict or guess what might be said. t is important to be able to transfer language from the situation on the screen to their own usage. • *ulture comparison: it focuses on differences and similarities between the own culture and the target culture. They can carry out creative activities like changing the setting somehow. • . • %atchers and listeners: half the class watches the scene and the other half listens.7 • "ound only: the screen must be covered or turned round. They could be compared to behaviour conventions in their own culture. • 1ree+e frame: pressing the pause button allows to look more closely at individual images# utterances# ' within a sequence. %hen the sound is played we can check whether their expectations were right. t is useful for detailed language study# observation and description. t makes learners aware of their own culture. • &rediction: the teacher stops the video and asks what is going to happen next 6look at the title and predict the topic# predict the end# guess the title# write the dialogue7 • Thinking and feeling: this technique focuses on emotions between characters and its relation with what it is said 6body language# certain words# what the characters are thinking# how they would feel in case '# etc. • !ole play: acting out involves practising the exact words of a dialogue. 1or that# learners will need to look at the script and reproduce gestures# expressions# etc. t is a good practice in speaking# observation and accurate reporting.
t can only be used for written skills. "ometimes it makes tasks easier and more enjoyable. performances in the target language. C' %u!"#s 0earning with computers is quite new# as there are only programmes for beginners in certain areas# such as word building# vocabulary# prepositions# etc. t is very useful at personal level but not in conventional schools. t is highly motivating. There is a programme called :-rammar *hecker.• A project work: the use of a camera for recording interesting items# and also the learners. They can use the spare time to assist weaker pupils. t is good for teachers if programmes are already made. if there are no specific learning aims# there is no point in making a film. for spelling mistakes# punctuation# usage# ' but it cannot correct meaning and style. t is quite expensive for a group and it needs some knowledge on how to operate it. The main activities are matching# gap)filling# sentence correction# multiple choice# odd out# putting the paragraphs in order# relating parts# true or false# etc. t can result boring sometimes. To evaluate the video# it must be reflected the aims of using it. 2 .
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