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CC QUY TC NH DU TRNG M

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MT S QUY TC NH DU TRNG M TRONG TING ANH

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CC QUY TC NH DU TRNG M

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MT S QUY TC NH DU TRNG M TRONG TING ANH


Trng m l cha kho k diu hiu c ting Anh. .Nhng ngi bn x s dng trng m rt t nhin, n mc thm ch bn thn h cng khng bit l mnh ang dng chng. Ngi hc ting Anh, trong c ngi Vit Nam, nu khng pht m ng trng m, khi giao tip bng ting Anh vi ngi bn x, thng gp phi 2 vn sau : 1. Rt kh hiu ngi ta ang ni g, c bit l nhng ng ty, b ty ni rt nhanh. 2. V ngc li, cc ng ty, b ty cng cm thy rt kh hiu mnh.

QUY TC C BN KHI NH DU TRNG M


+ Nhng t thuc v ni dung c nh trng m + Nhng t thuc v cu trc khng nh trng m + Khong thi gian cho nhng t c nh trng m l bng nhau Hu ht cc t trong cu c chia lm 2 loi : + T thuc v ni dung : l nhng t cha kho ca mt cu. Chng l nhng t quan trng, cha ng ngha ca cu. + T thuc v mt cu trc : nhng t khng quan trng lm, ch cho cc cu ng v mt ng php. Ngha l nu bn b qua cc t ny khi ni, m i ngi vn hiu c ca bn. - T thuc v mt ni dung : c nh trng m, gm c : + ng t chnh: SELL, GIVE, EMPLOY + Danh t : CAR, MUSIC, MARY + Tnh t: RED, BIG, INTERESTING + Trng t: QUICKLY, LOUDLY, NEVER + Tr ng t (t/c ph nh ): CAN''T ,DON''T - T thuc v mt cu trc : khng nh trng m, gm c: + i t : he, we, they + Gii t : on, at, into + Mo t: a, an, the + Lin t: and, but, because + Tr ng t: do, be, have, can, must Ch : - i khi chng ta nh trng m vo nhng t m ch c ngha v mt cu trc, v d nh khi chng ta mun nhn mnh thng tin V d : "They've been to Mongolia, haven't they?" "No, THEY haven't, but WE have." - Khi "TO BE" l ng t chnh, n khng c nh trng m

CC QUY TC NH DU TRNG M

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Di y l mt s quy tc, phc tp hn , gip bn c th tm c cch nh trng m trong ting Anh. Tuy nhin, trong mt s trng hp vn c nhng ngoi l (th mi g i l ting Anh). N hu ch hn nhiu so vi vic nh trng m mt cch tu hng t nhin. 1. a s ng t c hai m tit th trng m ri vo m tit th hai V d : assit - collect - descend - escape - accept- forget- destroy -relax - allow - enjoy - attractmaintain- repeat- accent- consent Ngoi tr : Nhng ng t 2 m tit m c tn cng l er, ern, en, ie, ish, ow, y th trng m thng ri vo m tit th nht. V d : offer- happen- answer- enter- listen- open 2. a s danh t v tnh t c hai m tit th trng m ri vo m tit th nht V d : mountain - village- morning - evening - summer winter event handsome busy Ngoi tr : machine - mistake alone 3. Mt s t va mang ngha danh t va mang ngha ng t th khi l danh t trng m ri vo m tit th nht, khi l ng t trng m ri vo m tit th hai. V d : record - present - desert-export-object-suspect-insult-rebel-contrast-contract-produceincrease-protest-absent-conflict-extract Ngoi tr : visit-reply-picture-traval-promise 4. a s danh t ghp c trng m ri vo m tit u tin V d : raincoat /'reinkuot/ : o ma 5. a s tnh t ghp c trng m ri vo m tit u tin. Tuy nhin nu tnh t ghp c t u tin l tnh t hoc trng t, kt thc bng ed th trng m ri vo m tit th hai. Tng t, a s trng t ghp v ng t ghp c trng m ri vo m tit th hai V d : homesick/'houmsik/ : nh nh, well-dressed/ wel'drest/ : n mc p 6. Cc t c tn cng l -acy, -ate ,-age, -ure, -ular, -ety, -ity, -ion, -cial, -ous, -ian, -ior, iour, -iar, -ence, -iency, -ient, -ier, -ic, -ics, -ive th trng m ri vo t ngay trc n. V d : 'special, 'dicussion, 'nation, poli'tician, 'regular, ex'pensive, 'injury 7. Cc t c tn cng l -ee, -eer,- ese,- ain, -aire,-ique,-esque th trng m ri vo chnh m cui . V d : de'gree, engi'neer, chi'nese, re'main, questio'naire, tech'nique, pictu'resque

CC QUY TC NH DU TRNG M

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8. Cc t c tn cng l -ate, -ite, -ude,-ute th trng m ri vo m tit th 3 tnh t di ln . V d : 'institute, ap'preciate 9. Cc t ch mn hc c trng m ri vo m tit th hai tnh t di ln V d : ge'ology, bi'ology, 'physic

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Di y l cc quy tc nh du trng m khc. V c bn mt s ci cng kh ging vi 9 quy tc trn, nhng c m rng, i su hn. Trc ht, chng ta chia cc t trong ting anh thnh hai loi : simple word v complex word. Simple word l nhng t khng c preffix v suffix. Tc l t gc ca mt nhm t y. Cn Complex word th ngc li , l t nhnh.

v SIMPLE WORDS
1. Two-syllable words:
y s la chn rt n gin hoc trng m s nm m tit u, hoc m tit cui.

Qui tc i vi NG T/ TNH T:
Nu m tit th 2 c nguyn m di hay nguyn m i hoc n tn cng bng hn mt ph m th nhn vo m tit th 2: V d: apPLY - c nguyn m i arRIVE- nguyn m i atTRACT- kt thc nhiu hn mt ph m asSIST- kt thc nhiu hn mt ph m Nu m tit cui c nguyn m ngn v c mt hoc khng c ph m cui th chng ta nhn vo m tit th 1. V d: ENter - khng c ph m cui v nguyn m cu i l nguyn m ngn ENvy-khng c ph m cu i v nguyn m cu i l nguyn m ngn Open Equal

Lu : rt nhiu ng t v tnh t c hai m tit khng theo qui tc (ting anh m, c rt nhiu qui tc nhng phn bt qui tc li lun nhi hn). v d nh HOnest, PERfect.

Qui tc cho DANH T:


Nu m tit th 2 c nguyn m ngn th nhn vo m tit u: MOney PROduct LARlynx Nu khng th nhn vo m tit th 2: balLOON deSIGN esTATE

CC QUY TC NH DU TRNG M 2. Three-syllable words:


Qui tc i vi NG T/ TNH T:

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Nu m tit cui l nguyn m di, nguyn m i hoc tn cng bng hn mt ph m th chng ta nhn vo m tit cui: ex: enterTAIN resuRECT Nu m tit cui l nguyn m ngn th nhn vo m tit gia, nu m tit gia cng l nguyn m ngn th chng ta nhn vo m tit th 1. Nh vy i vi t c 3 m tit, chng ta s ch nhn vo m tit no l nguyn m di hoc nguyn m i, xt t m tit cui ln u.

Qui tc i vi DANH T:
Chng ta phi xt t m tit cui tr v trc Nu m th 3 l nguyn m ngn th m KHNG c nhn Nu m th 3 l nguyn m ngn v m th 2 l nguyn m di hay nguyn m i th nhn vo m tit th 2: Ex: poTAto diSASter Nu m tit th 3 l nguyn m di hoc nguyn m i, hoc kt thc bng nhiu hn mt ph m th chng ta nhn vo m tit th 1: Ex:QUANtity i vi danh t c 3 m tit th m th 1 thng c nhn: l i vi simple words, cn i vi complex words th kh khn hn v hu ht chng ta u phi nh my mc

CC QUY TC NH DU TRNG M

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v COMPLEX WORDS
Complex words c chia thnh hai loi : T tip ng (l nhng t c to thnh t t gc thm tip u ng hay tip v ng) v T ghp (l nhng t do hai hay nhiu t ghp li thnh, v d nh armchair...)

I.

Tip v ng (Suffixes)

1. Trng m nm phn tip v ng: i vi cc t gc(sterm) mang cc v ng sau y, th trng m nm chnh phn v ng : _ain (ch dnh cho ng t) nh entertain, ascertain _ee nh employee, refugee _eer nh volunteer, mountaineer _ese nh journalese, Portugese _ette nh cigarette, launderette _esque nh picturesque, unique 2. Tip v ng khng nh hng v tr trng m: Nhng tip v ng sau y, khi nm trong t gc th khng nh hng v tr trng m ca t gc , c ngha l trc khi c tip v ng, trng m nm u, th by gi n vn y : _able : comfortable, reliable.... _age : anchorage... _ al: refusal, natural _ en : widen _ ful : beautiful ... _ ing :amazing ... _ like : birdlike ... _ less : powerless ... _ ly: lovely, huriedly.... _ ment: punishment... _ ness: happpiness _ ous: dangerous _ fy: glorify _ wise : otherwise _ y(tnh t hay danh t) : funny _ ish (tnh t ) : childish, foolish ...(Ring i vi ng t c t gc hn mt m tit th chng ta nhn vo m tit ngay trc tip v ng: demolish, replenish).

3. Cn mt s tip v ng l _ance; _ant; _ary th cch xc nh:Trng m ca t lun t gc, nhng khng c cch xc nh r l m tit no, n tu thuc vo cc nguyn m ca t gc , cn c vo qui t c dnh cho simple words ri xc nh l c thi.

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II.

Tip u ng (Prefixes)

vi tip u ng(Prefixes) th chng ta khng c qui tc c th, do tc dng ca n i vi m gc khng ng u, c lp v khng tin on c. Do vy, cc bn phi hc my mc thi, khng c cch no khc !

III.

T ghp:

1. i vi t ghp gm hai loi danh t th nhn vo m tit u : typewriter; suitcase; teacup; sunrise 2. i vi t ghp c tnh t u, cn cui l t kt thc bng _ed, nhn vo m tit u ca t cui: bad-tempered 3. i vi t ghp c ting u l con s th nhn vo ting sau:three-wheeler 4. T ghp ng vai tr l trng ng th nhn vn sau: down-steam(h lu) 5. t ghp ng vai tr l ng t nhng ting u l trng ng th ta nhn m sau: downgrade(h b ) ; ill-treat(ngc i, hnh h) 6. Danh t kp: nhn yu t th nht ca danh t - `Noun-Noun: cl`assroom, t`eapot - `Noun + Noun: `apple tree, `fountain pen - `Gerund (V-ing) + Noun: wr`iting paper, sw`imming pool