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Marketing xut nhp khu Marketing & marketing quc t

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I.BN CHT CA MARKETING QUC T:

(The Nature of International Marketing) 1. Marketing l g?


Khi nim Marketing c nh ngha bng nhiu cch bi nhiu tc gi khc nhau. Tuy nhin, nh ngha y ch gii hn theo quan im ca doanh nghip nh sau: Marketing l cu ni gia hai chc nng c bn: sn xut v tiu th.

C hai cch nh ngha c th hn v Marketing :


* Marketing l mt hot ng hng ti s tha mn nhng th m khch hng cn (need) v mun(want) thng qua hot ng trao i trn th trng * Marketing l tin trnh qun tr c nhim v pht hin, d on v tha mn cc yu cu ca khch hng nhm mc ch li nhun

Nh vy, Marketing phi bao gm cc hot ng nh sau:


*Phn tch th trng v th trng tim nng. - Sau khi chn la v xc nh th trng mc tiu, p dng Marketing Mix vo chng trnh tip th : + Product : Thit k v xy dng chin lc sn phm . + Price : Chin lc ga

+ Place ( Distribution) : Thit lp knh phn phi . + Promotion : Xc tin sn phm . 2. Marketing Quc T (International Marketing) Khi nim Marketing Quc T ch khc vi Marketing ch Hng ha (v dch v) c tip th ra khi phm vi bin gii ca mt Quc Gia D s khc bit ny khng ln lm, nhng n li c ngha thay i quan trng trong cch qun tr Marketing (Marketing Management), cch gii quyt cc tr ngi ca Marketing, vic thnh lp cc chnh sch Marketing k c vic thc hin cc chnh sch ny.

Marketing quc t gm c 3 dng:

2.1 Marketing Xut Khu (Export Marketing)

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y l hot ng Marketing nhm gip cc doanh nghip a hng ha xut khu ra th trng bn ngoi. Nh vy, Marketing xut khu khc Marketing ni a bi v nhn vin tip th (marketer) phi nghin cu nn kinh t mi, k c chnh tr, lut php, mi trng VH-XH u khc vi cc iu kin, mi trng trong nc, buc doanh nghip phi thay i chng trnh Marketing trong nc ca mnh nhm a hng ha thm nhp th trng nc ngoi. 2.2 Marketing ti nc s ti (The Foreign Marketing) Hot ng Marketing bn trong cc quc gia m Cng ty ca ta thm nhp; Marketing ny khng ging Marketing trong nc v chng ta phi ng u vi mt loi cnh tranh mi, cch ng x ca ngi tiu th cng khc, h thng phn phi, qung co khuyn mi khc nhau v s vic cng phc tp hn na v mi quc gia u c mi trng Marketing khc nhau, th thch quan trng y l cc Cng ty phi hiu mi trng khc nhau tng nc c chnh sch ph hp, l l do ti sao cc chuyn vin Marketing cao cp thnh cng mt nc ny nhng li rt ngn ngi khi c yu cu iu ng sang mt nc khc. 2.3 Marketing a quc gia (Multinational Marketing) Nhn mnh n s phi hp v tng tc hot ng Marketing trong nhiu mi trng khc nhau. Nhn vin Marketing phi c k hoch v kim sot cn thn nhm ti u ha s tng hp ln nht l tm ra s iu chnh hp l nht cho cc chin lc Marketing c vn dng tng quc gia ring l. II. TI SAO PHI THAM GIA VO TH TRNG QUC T Trong sut thp nin 1990 c mt s gia tng ng k nhiu n v sn xut kinh doanh tham gia vo kinh doanh quc t. y l kt qu ca qu trnh quc t ha . Cc Cng ty ch chuyn doanh trong nc n lc nhn ra rng cung ca h vt cu, t ra l phng din nng sut sn xut ngy mt nng cao; iu ny nh hng n mt s nhn t lm gim dn s tng trng ca th trng (hoc chng li), lm gia tng thm s cnh tranh gia cc x nghip trong nc k c i vi cc Cng ty ngoi quc. Vic tho d bt mt s hng ro quan thu hoc phi quan thu, th d nh cc nc trong lin hip Chu Au (EU) phi i ph vi mt th trng ni b ca lin hip, c gi l chng trnh EC.92, chng trnh ny c thit lp bi mt o lut ring ca Chu u vo nm 1987. Hoc chng trnh AFTA ca cc nc trong khi ASEAN, m Vit Nam l thnh vin. - Thng 7/2000 Vit Nam v Hoa K k hip nh khung Thng mi VitM, trong u thng 9/2001 c H Vin M thng qua v ang ch s ph chun mt cch y ca quc hi hai bn .

Tm li, vic tham gia vo hot ng thng mi quc t l mt xu th bt buc, mt yu cu khch quan, m khi tham gia vo mu dch th

gii, doanh nghip tm thy mt s thun li nh sau: - Thng qua xut khu, doanh nghip m rng c th trng tiu th, k c dch v, v r rng l th trng nc ngoi ln hn nhiu so vi th trng trong nc; m rng c u t.

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- Khi th trng ni a khng tiu th ht sn phm ca Cng ty, th th trng quc t l mt li thot duy nht tiu th sn phm d tha, kt qu nh xut khu c th phn b chi ph c nh cho nhiu sn phm, h thp gi thnh, nng cao li nhun, dn n gi bn c kh nng h thp to iu kin tc ng tr li y mnh khi lng hng ha bn ra hn na. - Gim c ri ro: bn nhiu th trng tt hn ch bn mt nc. - c vng ca cc nh lnh o: cc nh lnh o cao cp, c ng u mun Cng ty ca h tham gia thng mi quc t. - M rng chu k sng ca sn phm. - Khai thc li th hin c trong th trng cha c khai thc. - To thm thu nhp t nhng k thut hin c thng qua nhng bn quyn

(licensing) c quyn kinh tiu ( franchising).

- Nng cao hiu bit v cnh tranh quc t. - Pht trin thm li nhun u t, to cng n vic lm. - Thc hin tt qun tr nhn vin cng nh tin b ca sn phm (do thng qua cnh tranh). III. QU TRNH TIN HNH MARKETING XUT KHU 1. Phn tch im mnh yu: Mc tiu l khng nh Cng ty c iu kin xut khu hay khng?, trc khi i n nhng quyt nh c th gylng ph cng sc. iu quan trng l trong phn tch phi ch n k hoch pht trin kinh t quc dn, lnh vc c nh nc khuyn khch c hng u i ca chnh ph, phi lm r mc tiu ln ca xut khu l hng v th trng mc tiu, c cu t chc sao cho ph hp vi kh nng ti chnh, k thut v i ng cn b. 2. Phn tch v nhn bit sn phm dnh cho xut khu, mc ch l tm ra nhng sn phm c nhu cu tiu th trn th trng m Cng ty c kh nng sn xut. 3. Nhn bit c th trng xut khu tim nng. 4. Xp hng th t u tin th trng tim nng. 5. Phn tch t m a ra quyt nh chn th trng xut khu. 6. Xy dng k hoch Marketing. K HOCH MARKETING TT I MC LC Tm tt tng qut NI DUNG Gii thiu nhng vn chnh ca Cng ty, nhng vn cn gii quyt v mt Marketing trng Nghin cu mi trng kinh t, php lut, chnh tr, vn ha

II

Nghin cu Marketing

mi

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III IV V VI

Phn tch im mnh, yu Mc tiu Chin lc Marketing K hoch hot ng

im im yu Doanh s, th phn, li nhun

mnh

ra cc chin lc t mc tiu Cc bc, khong thi gian, phng tin D bo khi lng, kt qu ti chnh

VII Kt qu d bo

IV. 9 IM CN GHI NH I VI NH MARKETING XUT NHP KHU 1. Trc khi quyt nh xut khu phi chn cn thn sn phm m th trng mc tiu c th chp nhn trn c s nghin cu ti bn (DeskResearch) 2. Khi quyt nh chn th trng no th phi t chc nghin cu thc t (Field Research) 3. chuyn i u tin ra th trng nc ngoi khng nn bt u bng mc tiu kinh doanh ngay m nn phc v cho vic chun b chin lc thm nhp th trng v sau. 4. nh gi tt c nhng thng tin nhn c sau pht tho ra chin lc Marketing v xy dng k hoch Marketing. 5. t c v tr vng chc c hiu qu trn th trng nc ngoi trn mt c s di hn, qu trnh ny i hi nhiu tn km cho nn cn phi c kinh ph cho hot ng Marketing. 6. Nh xut khu phi m bo i hi ca ngi mua hng trc khi ha thc hin n t hng, ng thi m bo giao hng ng cht lng, ng hn nh hp ng, gi c ph hp. 7. Nn nghin cu tt khch hng t chc sn xut v bn hng ph hp vi yu cu ca h. 8. Mt s sn phm sm b li thi trn th trng th gii, v vy nh xut khu phi thc vn ny, phi lm cho sn phm theo kp xu th pht trin ca th gii. 9. Th trng th gii l mt th trng c phn khc cao (tr mt vi sn phm c bit) nn nh xut khu thuc lng iu ny trc khi thc hin vic nghin cu th trng.

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Nghin cu th trng th gii

I. NHIM V CA VIC NGHIN CU TH TRNG TH GII Th trng th gii ca doanh nghip l tp hp nhng khch hng nc ngoi tim nng ca doanh nghip . Nghin cu th trng th gii l mt qu trnh thu thp ti liu v cc thng tin v th trng, so snh v phn tch cc thng tin , rt ra kt lun v xu hng bin ng ca th trng th gii trong tng ngnh hng, nhm hng to c s xy dng cc chin lc marketing ca cc doanh nghip. C th qu trnh ny phi gii quyt cc vn sau: Xc nh nc no l th trng c trin vng nht cho vic xut khu hng ca ta hoc h p ng vic nhp khu vi iu kin thun li, kh nng mua bn l bao nhiu. Xc nh mc cnh tranh trn th trng hin ti v tng lai, c im mnh yu ca i th cnh tranh . p dng nhng phng thc mua bn cho ph hp sn phm ca chng ta mun thm nhp th trng cn t yu cu v cht lng (ISO.9000; HACCP), s lng, bao b ng gi... Thu thp thng tin chnh xc, y kp thi v tnh hnh th trng. Tin hnh rt ra s vn ng ca th trng, d bo c dung lng ca th trng, mc bin ng ca gi c, trn c s x l cc ngun thng tin, ra cc chin lc Marketing. 1. Cc thng tin i cng: Din tch nc s ti. Dn s: chng tc, tn gio, tui. Tc pht trin trung bnh hng nm. Ngn ng . Cc vng v cc trung tm cng nghip thng mi quan trng. a l v kh hu. Truyn thng, tp qun. Hin php, trch nhim ca chnh ph TW v a phng. 2. Mi trng kinh t - Ti chnh - C s h tng: Tnh hnh sn xut v sn lng ca mt quc gia no v tng mt hng c th. Ch tiu GNP v GDP/ u ngi.
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T gi hi oi v s bin ng gi ca n, chn ng tin bo gi. H thng ngn hng: Quc gia v Quc t. Tnh hnh lm pht, gim pht, thiu pht. C s h tng: h thng thng tin lin lc, h thng giao thng, kh nng gii phng phng tin cc sn bay, bn cng; h thng in nc, nng lng cung cp cho kinh doanh; h thng kho tng ... C s h tng ca thng mi: bn bun, bn l, Cng ty qung co, Hi ch, T chc t vn, nghin cu Marketing. 3. Mi trng php lut, chnh tr: Thi ca chnh ph i vi ngoi thng: bo h mu dch hay mu dch t do. Tha c quc t m quc gia tham gia. Qui ch ca chnh ph i vi cc lut l, vn phng i din v chi nhnh ca Cng ty nc ngoi. Cc th tc hi quan, thu hi quan nhng qui nh v cc yu t nh hng n bun bn. Giy php xut nhp khu, hi chuyn li tc, qui nh v lng thc, thc phm, y t, an ton kim dch cn phi m bo. Lut u t nc ngoi v cc vn bn c lin quan . Thu ngoi thu xut nhp khu: thu VAT, tiu th c bit, thu nhp doanh nghip Hn ngch xut nhp khu. (quota) Lut php trong qung co ca tng nc, lut chng ph gi. Chnh tr c n nh khng? 4. Mi trng cnh tranh: bng nhiu cch Bng sn phm: a ra sn phm cht lng cao hn, bao b p hn. Bng gi: nh gi thp hn i th, bt gi.

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Bng h thng phn phi: u i cho nhng thnh vin trong knh phn phi cao hn i th. Bng qung co v khuyn mi. i vi sau bn hng tt hn. Phng thc chi tr thun li hn.

Khi nghin cu cnh tranh, cn xc nh:


Ai l i th ca mnh. i th t u n?, nu i th t nc khc n nh mnh nh xut khu tm cch cnh tranh bng gi c, cht lng; nu i th ngay nc s ti, nh xut khu c th thnh cng bng sn phm mi cht lng cao hn. i th c li th g v nh xut khu c li th g hn i th. C ch no cho Cng ty v i th cng hp tc vi nhau hay khng? 5. Mi trng vn ha - x hi: nh hng n hnh vi thi ca khch hng, n l nhng yu t hp thnh th trng. S khc bit nhau v vn ha s nh hng n cch thc giao dch loi sn phm m ngi ta yu cu, hnh thc qung co v khuyn mi no c th c chp nhn. Ni cch khc vn ha l mt bin s mi trng nh hng n mi hot ng ca Marketing. c im vn ha - x hi khc nhau cc nc thng c th hin cc mt nh quan nim v thi gian, khng gian, ngn ng, tn gio. Hiu r nhng nt c trng ca tng nn vn ha l c s to nn sn phm ph hp vi nhu cu v ch ng trong m phn kinh doanh, c p t ln i tc ca mnh nhng cch c x cng nh ca mnh, l mt cch trc tip gy kh chu cho khch hng v c th rt d tht bi trong kinh doanh. Tuy trong qu trnh nghin cu v vn ha, cn nghin cu cc gc ngn ng tn gio, t chc x hi, truyn thng. T chc to thnh x hi: gia nh, chng tc, giai cp, cc hip hi, nh hng n tp qun ca ngi tiu dng. II. TNG QUAN MT S TH TRNG CHNH TRN TH GII 1. Khu vc mu dch t do Bc M: NAFTA (North America Free Trade Area)
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Gm: - United States - Canada - Mexico 2. Lin hip Chu Au: (European Union - EU) Italy Luxembourg - France - Finland - Germany - Greek - Ireland ( Republic Ireland ) 3. Hip hi hp nht cc nc Chu M La Tinh: - Argentina - Bolivia - Brazil - Chile - Colombia - Ecuador 4. Th trng Nht Bn. 5. Th trng Trung Quc 6. Th trng ng Au: Hin nay cha hnh thnh r rng. - Mexico - Paraguay - Peru - Uruguay - Venezuela - Portugal - Spain - United Kingdom Belgium - Austria Denmark - Sweden - Netherlands -

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7. Th trng cc nc ng Nam . Trong cc th trng trng trn ng ch hng ha ca Vit Nam c th thm nhp l: Th trng Chu u, th trng Bc M, th trng cc nc ng Nam v th trng Nht Bn III. HIP HI CC NC NG NAM - ASEAN (Asssociation of South East Asian National)

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A. Qu trnh hnh thnh v pht trin ca ASEAN: ASEAN c thnh lp ngy 8/8/1967 ti Bangkok gm: Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippine, Singapore, Thailand. 1984 : Brunei 28/7/1995: Vit Nam 23/7/1997: Laos v Myanmar 30/4/1999 Cambodia.

- Hin nay ang cn mt quc gia mi c lp l ng Timo, do chnh ph nc ny ang trong qa trnh hnh thnh, nn vic gia nhp Asean cha c t ra . Mc tiu c bn ca ASEAN: Thc y tng trng kinh t, tin b x hi v pht trin vn ha trong khu vc thng qua nhng c gng chung. y mnh ho bnh v n nh khu vc. To ra quan h hp tc tch cc kinh t, x hi, vn ha, k thut, khoa hc v hnh chnh B. Cc nguyn tc hp tc ASEAN 1. Cc nguyn tc c bn: 1.1 Cng tn trng c lp, ch quyn, bnh ng ton vn lnh th v bn sc dn tc ca mi quc gia. 1.2 Quyn ca mi quc gia c tn ti m khng c s can thip, lt hoc p bc ca bn ngoi. 1.3 Khng can thip vo cng vic ni b ca nhau. 1.4 Gii quyt bt ng v tranh chp bng bin php ho bnh. 1.5 T b vic e da hoc s dng v lc. 1.6 Hp tc vi nhau mt cch c hiu qu.
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2. Cc nguyn tc hot ng ca ASEAN: 2.1 Nguyn tc nht tr. 2.2 Nguyn tc bnh ng. 2.3 Nguyn tc 9-X C. C hi, thch thc, trin vng hp tc Vit Nam: ASEAN

C hi:
Vit Nam l th trng ln khong 80 triu dn, l mt th trng hp dn ( ASEAN khong 500 triu dn ) Vit Nam c tim nng pht trin ln, c cc hi cng quc t, l u mi giao thng quan trng ca khu vc. Ngun ti nguyn Vit Nam di do, a dng, mi khai thc v ch bin mc thp; y l c h u t vn v cng ngh c kh nng em li hiu qu kinh t cao.

Thch thc:
Khong cch v trnh pht trin gia Vit Nam v cc nc ASEAN cn qu ln. Trnh cng ngh sn xut, c bit trong cc ngnh cng nghip ch to, ch bin cn mc yu km, do cht lng hng ha khng sc cnh tranh vi cc nc khc trong khu vc. Trnh ca i ng cn b qun l kinh t cn thp cha p ng c nhu cu tnh hnh mi. Cc mt hng xut khu ca Vit Nam v cc nc ASEAN khc tng i ging nhau, trong khi sc cnh tranh ca hng ha Vit Nam qu yu t, do Vit Nam ng trc mt thch thc ln l phi ui kp v vt cc nc trong khu vc v cht lng, mu m v gi c hng ha. Cc qui nh v th tc hnh chnh cn rm r, khng r rng. D. VIT NAM THAM GIA KHU VC MU DCH T DO ASEAN (AFTA) (ASEAN Free Trade Area) 1. Ni dung ca CEPT/ AFTA. AFTA c k kt vo nm 1992, nhm t c nhng mc tiu kinh t . T do ha thng mi ASEAN bng vic loi b cc hng ro thu quan trong ni b khu vc cng cc hng ro cn phi quan thu.
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Thu ht cc nh u t nc ngoi vo khu vc bng vic a ra mt khi th trng thng nht. Lm cho ASEAN thch nghi vi nhng iu kin kinh t quc t ang thay i, c bit l vic pht trin ca cc tha thun thng mi khu vc trn th gii. Cng c ch yu thc hin thnh cng khu vc mu dch t do ASEAN l Hip nh u i thu quan c hiu lc chung (CEPT) (The Agreement on theCommon Effective Preferential Tariff) c cc nc thnh vin ASEAN k nm 1992. CEPT l mt tha thun gia cc nc thnh vin ASEAN trong vic gim thu quan trong thng mi ni b ASEAN xung cn t 0-5%, ng thi loi b tt c cc hn ch v nh lng v cc hng ro phi quan thu trong vng 10 nm, bt u t 1/1/1993 v hon thnh vo 1/1/2003 (Vit Nam: 2006). Hip nh CEPT p dng i vi mi sn phm ch to, k c sn phm c bn v nng sn. 2. L trnh thc hin AFTA ca Vit Nam: Vit Nam s thc hin chng trnh gim thu ny t 1996-2006, chm hn cc nc khc 3 nm, cc mt hng c a vo 4 danh mc hng ha vi cc tin trnh gim thu c th cho tng mt hng khc nhau thc hin CEPT. Cc danh mc c th: Danh mc cc sn phm ct gim thu quan: gm cc mt hng phi c thc hin ct gim thu quan ngay. Cc mt hng thuc danh mc ny s bt u gim thu t 1/1/1996 v kt thc vi thu sut 0-5% vo ngy 1/1/2006. Cc mt hng c thu sut trn 20% phi gim xung 20% vo ngy 1/1/2001. Cc mt hng c thu sut nh hn hoc bng 20% s gim xung n 0-5% vo 1/1/2006. Hin c thu sut di 20% 1661 nhm mt hng # 51,6% (trung bnh ASEAN 85%) Danh mc cc sn phm tm thi cha gim thu quan: (c thu sut trn 20%, hng cn phi bo h, hng ang c hn ngch ...) Gm nhng mt hng c tm hon thc hin ct gim thu, do cc nc thnh vin s cn c mt thi gian nht nh chuyn i c cu sn xut ph hp vi chng trnh gim thu. Cc mt hng thuc danh mc tm thi cha gim thu s bt u gim thu t 1/1/2002 v kt thc vo 1/1/2006 vi thu sut cui cng l 0-5%. Mi nm (t 2002-2006) a 20% s cc mt hng thuc danh mc ny vo danh mc gim thu v cc thu sut cao phi c gim chm nht l 2-3 nm 1 ln v mi ln gim khng nh hn 5%. 1317 nhm mt hng chim 40,9% tng s nhm/ biu thu nhp khu.. Danh mc loi tr hon ton: (213 nhm mt hng 6,6%) Bao gm cc sn phmloi tr vnh vin. C th l nhng mt hng c nh hng n an ninh quc gia; cuc sng v sc khe con ngi, ng thc vt qu him; n gi tr lch s, ngh thut, kho c nh: cc loi ng vt

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sng, thuc phin, thuc n, v kh (k c thuc l, ru bia, xng du, t di 16 ch ngi) Danh mc hng nng sn cha ch bin : thi hn gim thu cho cc mt hng thuc danh mc ny l t 1/1/2004 - 1/1/2013. Cn c vo yu cu bo h cao ca sn xut trong nc i vi mt s mt hng nng sn cha ch bin, danh mc ny bao gm cc mt hng nh: tht, trng gia cm, ng vt sng, thc, go ... cc mt hng ny ang c p dng cc bin php phi thu quan nh: qun l theo hn ngch hng tiu dng, qun l ca B chuyn ngnh. Gm 26 nhm mt hng chim 0,8% nhm mt hng ca biu thu nhp khu. Cc hng ha c a vo 4 danh mc nu trn thc hin CEPT v lch trnh gim thu ca Vit Nam c xy dng theo cc nguyn tc do Uy Ban Thng V Quc hi ra l: Khng gy nh hng n ln n ngun thu ca ngn sch. Bo h hp l cho nn sn xut trong nc. To iu kin khuyn khch vic chuyn giao k thut. Hp tc vi cc nc ASEAN trn c s cc quy nh ca hip nh CEPT tranh th u i, m rng th trng cho xut khu v thu ht u t nc ngoi. 3. Kh khn v thun li ca Vit Nam khi thc hin CEPT/AFTA. Vi cc mc tiu trn ca mnh v t do ha thng mi, thu ht u t nc ngoi vo khu vc, lm cho ASEAN thch nghi vi nhng iu kin kinh t quc t ang thay i AFTA c th em li cho Vit Nam nhng iu kin thun li, gip cho kinh t pht trin nh: C iu kin thu ht vn u t t cc nc ASEAN cng nh cc nc ngoi ASEAN. Tn dng u th v lao ng r v c hm lng cht xm cao y mnh xutkhu hng ha Vit Nam sang cc nc trong khu vc . To thun li hn cho Vit Nam c hng quy ch h thng u i thu quan ph cp ca cc nc pht trin v c bit l ca M. Ngoi ra cn c mt ci li tim nng t vic tham gia AFTA, l cc x nghip trong nc phi sm b t trong mt mi trng cnh tranh quc t v vn ny c nh hng tch cc n sn xut trong nc.

Nhng kh khn:

Khon cch thp xa ca Vit Nam v trnh pht trin kinh t so vi cc nc ASEAN (thu nhp bnh qun u ngi, d tr ngoi t, vn u t, trnh cng ngh) Cc nc ASEAN ang nhp siu t cc nc ASEAN v trong lnh vc nhp khu, vic tham gia thc hin AFTA, xa b hng ro thu quan v phi thu quan c th tr thnh mt nguy c cho cc nh sn xut trong nc. Vit Nam ang trong qu trnh chuyn i t c ch qun l kinh t k hoch ha tp trung sang c ch th trng. S quan liu, bao cp trong qun l cn nng n. Trnh qun l ca doanh nghip Vit Nam cn non yu. S thu t thu nhp khu, cn chim mt phn quan trng ca thu ngn sch (25%)- Trong khi cc nc ASEAN thu t thu nhp khu ch chim

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#10% - Hin nay kim ngch nhp khu t khu vc ASEAN chim khong 1/3 tng kim ngch nhp khu hng nm ca Vit Nam. IV. PHNG PHP NGHIN CU TH TRNG TH GII Qu trnh nghin cu th trng th gii tri qua cc bc: 1. Thu thp thng tin: 2 cch a. Nghin cu ti bn (Desk Research) tm thng tin cp II l nhng thng tin c sn trong s liu thng k, sch bo, tp ch v nhng s liu t cc t chc, cc c quan.

a.1. Ngun thng tin bn trong:

Ly t cc t chc quc t, c quan chnh ph, cc d n nghin cu t sch bo, tp ch, Internet T c quan cc b: B thng mi, B nng nghip v pht trin nng thn v cc b khc. T c quan i din nc ta nc ngoi: To i s, Tng lnh s. T cc chuyn gia: lin h chuyn vin thng mi ca B thng mi v cc c quan chnh ph khc. Tham d cc hi tho. Thu t vn thng mi v tip th quc t. Tip xc chuyn tr vi cc nh xut nhp khu thnh cng. Lin h vi Phng cng nghip v thng mi ca Vit Nam hoc ca cc nc c lin quan. Ngun tin cp 2: ng tin cy.

a.2. Ngun thng tin bn ngoi:

L ngun thng tin ly t bn trong ca danh nghip, t s sch ca doanh nghip nh: bo co tng kt hot ng kinh doanh xut nhp khu ca danh nghip, t bo co quyt ton ca vn phng i din ca chi nhnh Cng ty, t b phn bn hng, nhng b phn tip xc khch hng, t phng marketing ca Cng ty, t CBCNV sau chuyn i cng tc th trng nc ngoi.

Thu thp thng tin cp 1 c cn b i iu tra, thu thp trc tip ti th trng nc ngoi. Phng php quan st: l nhng thut nghin cu ti ch bng cch quan st mt s c trng ca khch hng, ca hin trng v ghi chp li nhng vn quan trng, ng lu i vi doanh nghip. Phng vn c nhn: y l bc quan trng nht trong bt k mt cuc thm d no c c s qua thu c nhng thng tin c gi tr v thi ca ngi tr li i vi mt sn phm. C th phng vn: ng ph, c quan, nh ring: C 2 vn quan trng trong phng vn C ngi i lm phng vn Son tho cu hi phng vn
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b. Nghin cu ti hin trng: (field Research)

- Tnh hp thi ca d liu.

Marketing xut nhp khu

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4 loi cu hi: - Tr li duy nht (Yes/ no) - Ty chn - nh gi theo mc tr li - Cu hi m b ng. Phng vn qua in thoi: chi ph thp, tin cy khng cao so vi trc tip. Bng cu hi qua ng bu in: gi trc tip n ngi phng vn: t tn km bng cu hi ngn gn, n gin. Hn ch su cuc nghin cu t l tr li thp. iu tra nhm c nh: l mt nhm nhng ngi tiu dng, chuyn gia, nh bun, nh qun l. Hc thng qua vic lm (learn by doing) Trin lm/Hi ch thng mi.

2. X l thng tin:

Nhm xc nh th trng mc tiu v nhng vn lin quan n th trng mc tiu . a. Gn lc s khi: cc quc gia trn th gii phi qua mt s gn lc s khi xc nh quc gia no ha hn mt cuc kinh doanh mang n kt qu. Trong giai on ny ta cn ch nhng nhn t ch quan v khch quan sau: - Quan h chnh tr v thng mi trong mi nc. - V tr a l v dn s. - Cc bin php bo h mu dch trn th gii. - Cc hng ro cn quan thu. - Nhng kh khn cho vic gi bn quyn. Nhng kh khn : quota, thu, gi bn quyn ... cn loi b trc. b. Phng c tim nng: nn kinh t hin ti v tng lai ca mi nc c em ra phn tch.Xc nh mc tiu th hng nm ca sn phm v c tnh cho tng lai. c. Nghin cu phn khc th trng: xc nh phn khc th trng sn phm c th theo nhn khu, thu nhp, gii tnh tui tc. d. Phng c doanh s: Cng ty t c trong vi nm ti. e. Tuyn chn th trng mc tiu.
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Marketing xut nhp khu

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V. CHUYN I RA NC NGOI NHM MC CH KINH DOANH a. Chun b: Thit lp k hoch thi gian: lm g th trng nc s ti. D tr chi ph: i li, n , tip tn, chi ph nghin cu, sch v, ti liu, vic s dng v chuyn i ngoi t, tin boa (tip.) Chun b cc ti liu thch hp mang theo, gii thiu cng ty, catalog, brochure v nn dch ra ting nc ngoi thch hp, ly danh sch nhng ngi c th tip xc. Phin dch, cch s dng in thai c hiu qu v tit kim nht. In danh thip. iu kin bn hng, gi c. b. Nhng vn khc m bo chuyn i tt: Trnh n nc s ti vo nhng ngy ngh ton quc, ngy l, tt. Nn c 1 ngy ngh b khi n nc s ti. Thu thp danh mc cc i l, nh nhp khu, ngi mua hng. Tm hiu k c im, phong tc, tp qun nc ving thm. Khi lng mu hng v ti liu bn hng cn gi i trc bng ng hng khng hoc do ngi nghin cu mang theo. La chn khch sn mang li n tng tt. Nn t chc mt bui chiu i vo lc chuyn i gn kt thc by t s cm n. Tng qu. Hu ht nhng hot ng chnh tr nc ngoi nn trnh. Khng nn i thm qu nhiu nc v qu nhiu ni trong khong thi gian ngn; cc nh doanh nghip nn quan tm n vic i li t nc ny n nc khc c th b hn ch. Theo kinh nghim chung t 2-6 tun cho vic nghin cu, 2 hay 3 tun sau vit bo co nghin cu th trng, xc nhn n t hng v tin hnh nhng cng vic lm cho sn phm thch ng vi th trng. Phi gi th cm n n nhng ngi gip phi on sau khi on v. La nhng ngi c trnh kinh nghim i nghin cu. Cn tranh th nhng chuyn i c t chc do chnh ph, phng thng mi cng nghip, hip hi t chc: c li v chi ph, i li, n khch sn, tip n, tip xc. Kt lun: c 8 vn chnh chn th trng. 1. Tp trung 01 hoc 02 th trng cho bc khi u, khng nn tri u. 2. Khng xem xt nhng th trng nh, km r rng, cnh tranh cao.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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3. Nn k hoch ha thi gian, chi ph cho vic kho st th trng. 4. Nn duy tr nhng dch v khch hng theo yu cu c th chp nhn c. 5. Trong giai on u to nim tin l kinh doanh s mang li li nhun. 6. Tm kim nhu cu v tha mn n , iu ny s m bo thnh cng. 7. Khng nn dn thn vo th trng m c nhiu gii hn nhp khu hoc b kim sot gt gao. 8. m bo rng t chc xut khu y hiu lc, sn sng bc vo kinh doanh xut nhp khu trc khi nhn n t hng.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii

I. NHNG NHN T NH HNG N LA CHN CHIN LC THM NHP TH TRNG TH GII Chin lc ny c hiu l mt h thng nhng quan im mc tiu nh hng, nhng phng thc thm nhp th trng trong cc chin lc marketing a sn phm thm nhp c hiu qu vng chc th trng th gii, cn ch trng nhng vn : Xy dng nhng quan im mc tiu nh hng thm nhp th trng th gii mt cch hp l bi v nhng quan im mc tiu nh hng ny ch ra phng hng pht trin chung cng vi mc tiu cn phi t c trong mt giai on nht nh ca qu trnh thm nhp th trng th gii . V vy, tng doanh nghip xut nhp khu khi xy dng chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii phi qun trit nhng quan im mc tiu nh hng thm nhp th trng th gii ca c nc, ca a phng nhm m bo pht trin xut khu theo mc tiu nh. Xc nh nhng nhn t nh hng n vic la chn cc phng thc thm nhp th trng th gii ca cc doanh nghip v la chn phng thc thm nhp hp l. Xy dng v thc hin nhng chin lc marketing mix trong tng giai on c th. C nhiu nhn t nh hng n vic la chn chin lc: c im ca th trng: c im tng qut ca th trng mc tiu l iu chnh yu cn xem xt khi xy dng cch thc thm nhp v mi trng cnh tranh kinh t-x hi, chnh tr, lut php cc nc thng khng ging nhau. c im ca sn phm: tnh thng phm ca hng ha. Nhng hng ha d h hng i hi mua bn trc tip nhanh, t chc phn phi nhanh; nhng sn phm c gi tr cao, cn k thut cao cp i hi phi tip xc trc tip, gii thch phm cht ca sn phm, yu cu dch v sau bn hng. Nhng sn phm cng knh i hi gim thiu on ng chuyn ch. c im ca khch hng: s lng khch hng, s phn tn theo vng, li tc tp qun mua hng, mi trng vn ha m h chu nh hng. c im ca h thng trung gian: thng th cc nh trung gian ch chn la nhng sn phm c nhn hiu bn chy, hoa hng cao v y l mt iu tr ngi ln cho cc nh sn xut no mun thm nhp th trng mi vi sn phm mi. Tim lc cc doanh nghip: l nhn t ch quan ni ln kh nng v iu kin ca doanh nghip trong tin trnh thm nhp th trng. i vi cc cng ty a quc gia trn th gii c tim lc mnh, c th thc hin chin lc thm nhp tng th trng khc nhau trn c s ch ng la
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Marketing xut nhp khu

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chn cc phng thc thm nhp theo kh nng ca doanh nghip, nhng i vi cc doanh nghip c qui m nh, trung bnh, trnh khoa hc k thut v kh nng ti chnh hn ch khng nn la chn chin lc thm nhp th trng bng vic t chc sn xut nc ngoi. Trong trng hp ny nhng doanh nghip phi la chn phng thc duy nht l xut khu sn phm trc tip hoc gin tip ra th trng nc ngoi. II. NHNG CHIN LC THM NHP TH TRNG TH GII. Chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii t sn xut trong nc: y l phng thc thm nhp th trng c cc quc gia ang pht trin trn th gii thng vn dng, a sn phm ca mnh thm nhp vo th trng th gii thng qua xut khu. i vi qu trnh pht trin ca nn kinh t quc dn, phng thc ny c ngha quan trng sau y: S to ngun vn quan trng tho mn nhu cu nhp khu v tch ly pht trin sn xut trong nc. Thng qua xut khu s to ngun vn quan trng tho mn nhu cu nhp khu nhng t liu sn xut thit yu phc v cng nghip ha t nc. Trong thc tin xut khu v nhp khu c quan h mt thit vi nhau, va l kt qu va l tin ca nhau, y mnh xut khu m rng v tng kh nng sn xut. y mnh xut khu c xem l mt yu t quan trng kch thch s tng trng nn kinh t quc gia. Vic y mnh xut khu cho php m rng quy m sn xut, nhiu ngnh ngh mi ra i phc v cho xut khu. Chng hn pht trin xut khu go khng nhng to iu kin cho ngnh trng la m rng c din tch, tng v tng sn lng xut khu, m cn thc y pht trin cc ngnh khc nh: dt bao pp ng go, pht trin ngnh xay xt, ngnh chn nui... S kch thch cc doanh nghip trong nc i mi trang thit b v cng ngh sn xut. p ng yu cu cao ca th trng th gii v quy cch chng loi sn phm i hi mt mt sn xut phi i mi trang thit b cng ngh, mt khc ngi lao ng phi nng cao tay ngh, hc hi kinh nghim sn xut tin tin; c vy, sn phm mi c th xut khu n nh. y mnh xut khu s gp phn tch cc nng cao mc sng ca nhn dn. y mnh xut khu c vai tr tng cng s hp tc quc t gia cc nc v nng cao vai tr v tr ca nc xut khu trn th trng khu vc v quc t. Theo chin lc ny khi mun xut khu sn phm c sn xut trong nc, cc doanh nghip c th chn mt trong hai hnh thc xut khu, l xut khu trc tip v xut khu gin tip.
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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Hnh thc ny i hi chnh doanh nghip phi t lo bn trc tip cc sn phm ca mnh ra nc ngoi. Xut khu trc tip nn p dng i vi nhng doanh nghip c trnh v qui m sn xut ln, c php xut khu trc tip, c kinh nghim trn thng trng v nhn hiu hng ha truyn thng ca doanh nghip tng c mt trn th trng th gii. Hnh thc ny thng em li li nhun cao nu cc doanh nghip nm chc c nhu cu th trng, th hiu ca khch hng ... Nhng ngc li, nu cc doanh nghip t am hiu hoc khng nm bt kp thi thng tin v th trng th gii v i th cnh tranh th ri ro trong hnh thc ny khng phi l t. Hnh thc xut khu gin tip khng i hi c s tip xc trc tip gia ngi mua nc ngoi v ngi sn xut trong nc. bn c sn phm ca mnh ra nc ngoi, ngi sn xut phi nh vo ngi hoc t chc trung gian c chc nng xut khu trc tip. Vi thc cht , xut khu gin tip thng s dng i vi cc c s sn xut c qui m nh, cha iu kin xut khu trc tip, cha quen bit th trng, khch hng v cha thng tho cc nghip v kinh doanh xut nhp khu. Cc doanh nghip c th thc hin xut khu gin tip thng qua cc hnh thc sau y: Cng ty qun l xut khu l Cng ty qun tr xut khu cho Cng ty khc. Cc nh xut khu nh thng thiu kinh nghim bn hng ra nc ngoi hoc khng kh nng v vn t t chc b my xut khu ring. Do , h thng phi thng qua EMC xut khu sn phm ca mnh. Cc EMC khng mua bn trn danh ngha ca mnh. Tt c cc n cho hng, hp ng chuyn ch hng ha, lp ha n v thu tin hng u thc hin vi danh ngha ch hng. Thng thng, chnh sch gi c, cc iu kin bn hng, qung co ... l do ch hng quyt nh. Cc EMC ch gi vai tr c vn, thc hin cc dch v lin quan n xut nhp khu v khi thc hin cc dch v trn EMC s c thanh ton bng hoa hng. Mt khuynh hng mi ca EMC hin nay, c bit l nhng Cng ty c qui m ln l thng mua hng trc tip t nh sn xut v mang bn ra nc ngoi kim li. Ni chung, khi s dng EMC, v cc nh sn xut hng xut khu t c quan h trc tip vi th trng, cho nn s thnh cng hay tht bi ca cng tc xut khu ph thuc rt nhiu vo cht lng dch v ca EMC m h la chn. y l hnh thc xut khu thng qua cc nhn vin ca cc Cng ty nhp khu nc ngoi. H l nhng ngi c hiu bit v iu kin cnh tranh trn th trng th gii . Khi thc hin hnh thc ny, cc doanh nghip xut khu cng cn phi tm hiu k khch hng thit lp quan h lm n bn vng vi th trng nc ngoi.

a. Hnh thc xut khu trc tip: (Direct Exporting)

b. Hnh thc xut khu gin tip: (Indirect Exporting)

b.1 Cc cng ty qun l xut khu (EMC) (Export Management Company)

b.2

Thng qua khch hng nc ngoi (Foreign Buyer)

b.3

Qua y thc xut khu : (Export Commission House)

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Nhng ngi hoc t chc y thc thng l i din cho nhng ngi mua nc ngoi c tr trong nc ca nh xut khu . Nh y thc xut khu hnh ng v li ch ca ngi mua v ngi mua tr tin y thc. Khi hng ha chun b c t mua, nh y thc lp phiu t hng vi nh sn xut c chn v h s quan tm n mi chi tit c lin quan n qu trnh xut khu. Bn hng cho cc nh y thc l mt phng thc thun li cho xut khu. Vic thanh ton thng c bo m nhanh chng cho ngi sn xut v nhng vn v vn chuyn hng ha hon ton do cc nh c y thc xut khu chu trch nhim. Mi gii xut khu thc hin chng nng lin kt gia nh xut khu v nh nhp khu. Ngi mi gii c nh xut khu y nhim v tr hoa hng cho hot ng ca h. Ngi mi gii thng chuyn su vo mt s mt hng hay mt nhm hng nht nh. Hng bun xut khu thng ng ti nc xut khu v mua hng ca ngi ch bin hoc nh sn xut v sau h tip tc thc hin cc nghip v xut khu v chu mi ri ro lin quan n xut khu . Nh vy, cc nh sn xut thng qua cc hng bun xut khu thm nhp th trng nc ngoi. Phng thc thc hin chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii t sn xut trong nc l mt chin lc c nhiu doanh nghip nc ta s dng. 2. Cc hnh thc thc hin chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii t sn xut nc ngoi (Production in Foreign Countries) Trong chin lc ny, c mt s hnh thc thm nhp nh sau: CC CHIN LC THM NHP TH TRNG TH GII T SN XUT NC NGOI Theo ngha rng nhng bn quyn l mt phng thc iu hnh ca mt doanh nghip c bn quyn (Licensor) cho mt doanh nghip khc, thng qua vic h (licensee) c s dng cc phng thc sn xut, cc bng sng ch (patent), b quyt cng ngh (know-how), nhn hiu (trade mark) , tc quyn, chuyn giao cng ngh (transferengineering), tr gip k thut hoc mt vi k nng khc ca mnh v c nhn tin v bn quyn t h (Royalty). Hnh thc ny c nhng u im v nhc im sau: Doanh nghip c bn quyn (Licensor) thm nhp th trng vi mc ri ro thp hoc c th thm nhp th trng m b hn ch bi hn ngch nhp khu, thu nhp khu cao. Doanh nghip c bn quyn (Licensee) c th s dng cng ngh tin tin hoc nhn hiu ni ting. T sn xut sn phm c cht lng cao tiu th trong nc v xut khu. Doanh nghip c bn quyn t kim sot c bn c nhng bn quyn so vi vic t thit lp ra cc c xng sn xut do chnh mnh iu hnh. Khi hp ng nhng bn quyn chm dt, doanh nghip c bn quyn c th to ra mt ngi cnh tranh mi vi chnh mnh.
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b.4

Qua mi gii xut khu (Export Broker)

b.5

Qua hng bun xut khu (Export Merchant)

a.

Nhng bn quyn (licensing)

a.1 u im:

a.2 Nhc im:

Marketing xut nhp khu

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b. Sn xut theo hp ng ( Contract Manufacturing)

Sn xut theo hp ng l s hp tc hoc ch to hoc lp rp sn phm do nh sn xut thc hin th trng nc ngoi (gia cng) Hnh thc ny c nhng u im v nhc im sau:

Cho php doanh nghip thm nhp th trng th gii ri ro t hn cc hnh thc khc. Khai thc mnh sn phm mi th trng mi. Trnh c nhng vn nh vn u t, lao ng, hng ro thu quan v phi thu quan. To ra s nh hng ca nhn hiu ti th trng mi. Gi thnh sn phm c th h nu gi nhn cng, gi nguyn vt liu ti ni sn xut thp. Doanh nghip t kim sot quy trnh sn xut nc ngoi. Khi hp ng chm dt, doanh nghip c th to ra mt nh cnh tranh mi vi chnh mnh.

b.1 u im:

b.2 Nhc im:

c. Hot ng lp rp (Assembly operations)

Hot ng lp rp th hin s kt hp gia xut khu v sn xut nc ngoi. Mun c nhng thun li trong sn xut nc ngoi, mt s doanh nghip c th lp c s hot ng lp rp nc ngoi. Trong trng hp ny, cc doanh nghip ch xut khu cc linh kin ri ra nc ngoi, nhng linh kin s c lp rp thnh mt sn phm hon chnh. Bng cch xut cc linh kin ri c th tit kim cc khon chi ph v chuyn ch v bo him. Hot ng lp rp cng c th tn dng vi tin lung thp, t cho php gim chi ph sn xut, h gi thnh sn phm. y cng ty ni a cung cp b quyt qun tr cho mt cng ty nc ngoi di dng xut khu dch v qun tr, ch khng phi xut khu sn phm. Hp ng qun tr l mt hnh thc tham gia vo th trng th gii vi mc ri ro thp v n gip cho cng ty to ra li tc ngay t bui u. c bit hnh thc ny cng hp dn nu cng ty xut khu dch v qun tr k hp ng c dnh li s u i mua mt s c phn ca cng ty c qun tr trong mt thi hn n nh no . L mt t chc kinh doanh trong hai hoc nhiu bn c chung quyn s hu, quyn qun l, iu hnh hot ng v c hng cc quyn li v ti sn. Bn cnh nhng u im v kinh t nh: kt hp th mnh cc bn v k thut, vn v phng thc iu hnh hnh thc lin doanh cn c nhng hn ch nht nh nh: khi iu hnh cng ty c th to ra cc quan im khc nhau v sn xut kinh doanh, chin lc pht trin ...

d. Hp ng qun tr (Management Contracting):

e. Lin doanh (Joint Venture)

f. u t trc tip (Direct Investment)

Khi mt doanh nghip c kinh nghim v xut khu v nu th trng nc ngoi ln, th h lp c s sn xut nc ngoi. iu ny s mang n nhng u im nht nh nh: tit kim chi ph vn chuyn, to ra sn

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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3. Phng thc thc hin chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii ti khu thng mi t do:

phm thch hp vi th trng nc ngoi, kim sot hon ton sn xut kinh doanh ... Nhng im hn ch ca n l s ri ro s ln hn so vi cc hnh thc thm nhp trn.

Ngoi 2 phng thc thc hin chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii trn, cc doanh nghip xut khu cn c th thm nhp th trng thng qua cc hnh thc nh: c khu kinh t (Special Economic Zone) Khu ch xut (Export Processing Zone)

1. Phng thc thm nhp th trng th gii t sn xut trong nc: 1.1 u im:

Khu thng mi t do (Free Trade Zone) Phng thc ny c ngha quan trng l: Khi sn xut ti c khu kinh t, khu ch xut, cc doanh nghip s tn dng c nhng li th nh: min gim cc loi thu, chi ph thu mn nh ca, nhn cng thp. Trong khi ch i mt th trng thun li, nh xut khu c th gi hng ha vo khu thng mi t do gi li s ch hoc ng gi li trong mt thi gian nht nh m khng phi lm th tc hi quan hoc ng thu nhp khu. Qua phn tch cc phng thc thm nhp th trng th gii chng ta c th khi qut u v nhc im ca tng phng thc nh sau:

To ngun vn ngoi t p ng nhu cu nhp khu v tch ly pht trin sn xut. Khai thc tt tim nng ca t nc trn c s lin h vi th trng th gii . L phng thc truyn thng, d thc hnh i vi cc doanh nghip va v nh.

1.2 Nhc im:


2. Phng thc thm nhp th trng th gii t sn xut nc ngoi: 2.1 u im:
Tn dng th mnh ca nc s ti gim gi thnh sn phm. Khc phc hng ro thu quan v phi quan thu. S dng c th trng nc s ti (ch nh) Chuyn giao c cng ngh, k thut sang nhng quc gia chm pht trin.

Ph thuc vo quota nhp khu ca nc ngoi. Gp phi hng ro quan thu v phi quan thu ca nc ngoi. Cha linh hot trong thng mi quc t. Ph thuc nhiu vo h thng phn phi ti nc ngoi.

2.2 Nhc im:

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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3. Phng thc thm nhp th trng th gii ti vng thng mi t do: 3.1 u im:
Tn dng mt s ch u i v thu, gi nhn cng, lao ng Thun li cho cc hot ng tm nhp ti xut gia cng ch bin do th tc xut nhp khu d dng. D dng a cng ngh v thit b mi vo hot ng. Thun li trong vic t chc hi ch trin lm, hi ngh khch hng.

Nu c s bt n v kinh t v chnh tr nc s ti, cc doanh nghip (nh u t) c th b ri ro. i hi doanh nghip phi c vn ln v kh nng cnh tranh cao. i hi doanh nghip phi nghin cu k th trng mi ca nc s ti.

i hi doanh nghip phi c vn v kh nng cnh tranh cao u t vo khu ch xut, c khu kinh t. Cn tm kim th trng tiu th ti quc gia ch nh v ti xut ra quc gia th ba. C th ri ro do chi ph dch v ti ch cao. Trn y l 3 chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii m cc doanh nghip xut nhp khu c th chn la xy dng chin lc thm nhp th trng ca mnh. Trong thc tin, khng c quy lut tuyt i hoc cng thc no la chn chnh xc. Vic la chn cc chin lc thm nhp cc doanh nghip phi trn c s nghin cu cc nhn t nh hng n s la chn chin lc thm nhp ng thi trn c s hiu r c im ca tng chin lc thm nhp. nc ta vic m rng v nng cao hot ng ngoi thng phi c tp trung ch t khu sn xut n thu mua hng xut khu. Cc n v thuc cc thnh phn kinh t khc nhau c tham gia vo vic sn xut hng xut khu . C th bao gm cc hnh thc sau y: y thc xut nhp khu. Mua t, bn on cho n v kinh doanh xut nhp khu . Lin doanh , lin kt vi cc n v trc tip xut nhp khu . T chc xut nhp khu trc tip nu c iu kin qui nh ca B Thng Mi. V mt t chc hot ng kinh doanh xut nhp khu , cc n v xut nhp khu trc tip nn i vo chuyn doanh, ly chuyn doanh lm gc. Vic kinh doanh tng hp ch c th p dng trong mt phm vi nht nh; c nh vy, cc doanh nghip xut nhp khu mi pht huy th mnh s trng ca mnh, m bo kinh doanh c hiu qu. Nh vy, cn c vo tnh hnh thc t nc ta c th ni chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii t sn xut trong nc l ch yu, cc chin lc cn li ty theo s pht trin kinh t, khoa hc k thut trong tng lai m cc doanh nghip vn dng cho ph hp.
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Trong iu kin hin nay, cc chin lc sn xut nc ngoi cng cn c cc doanh nghip quan tm hiu r cc hnh thc hot ng ca cc cng ty nc ngoi ti Vit Nam. Trn c s xc nh ni chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii , cc doanh nghip xut nhp khu phi thit lp chin lc marketing mix nhm m bo cho chin lc thm nhp th trng th gii c th thc hin t hiu qu cao.

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Chnh sch sn phm quc t

i vi tt c cc loi cng ty, t cng ty xut khu nh nht n cng ty xut khu a quc gia ln nht, chnh sch sn phm c quan tm mi cp qun l. Mc d nhng nh lnh o cao nht phi a ra nhng quyt nh v sn phm, nhng trong thc t h phi da vo b phn marketing quc t c c nhng thng tin, nh thng tin v phn tch nhu cu ca th trng, thit k sn phm cng nh a ra cc quyt nh c lin quan n nhng c tnh ca sn phm, dy sn phm (product line), h sn phm (product mix), nhn hiu, bao b. Vn ny cng tr nn cc k phc tp i vi vic iu hnh mt cng ty ang thm nhp hng ha nhiu th trng nc ngoi khc nhau. Khch hng mi quc gia khc nhau s c nhng nhu cu i hi khc nhau, do vic thc hin chnh sch sn phm quc t nh th no cho ph hp va l mt s cn thit va v cng kh khn, th d nh 5 quc gia cng Chu u (Anh, c, Php, Thy in) nhng c cc yu cu khc nhau v loi my git s dng cho gia nh: t ng hay bn t ng, chiu cao, chiu rng ra sao, s dng nc nng, nc lnh hay nc bnh thng ... I. CHNH SCH SN PHM Chnh sch sn phm i vi marketing quc t c 2 vn lin quan mt thit vi nhau l: (1). Hnh thnh v pht trin sn phm. (2). Cc quyt nh chin lc sn phm. Chnh sch sn phm quc t c p dng cho tng sn phm ring l, cho tuyn sn phm hoc cho c h sn phm. 1. nh ngha sn phm: Chng ta xc nh sn phm l i tng c thng mi ha; theo nh ngha thng dng nht, sn phm hay dch v l: Tng s tt c nhng tha mn v tm l hay vt cht m ngi mua (hay ngi s dng) nhn c do vic mua hay s dng sn phm. Sn phm bao gm sn phm vt cht, dch v, con ngi, a im, t chc v tng. 2. Dy sn phm (product line)/ tuyn, ng sn phm: L mt tp hp nhng kiu mu (kiu, c, loi) mt sn phm c thng mi ha ti mt th trng ring bit no . VD: Procter & Gamble: - Bt git : Tide, Rejoice, Viso ... - X bng : Camay, Zest, Coast, CK ... 3. H sn phm (Product mix) L mt tp hp nhng dy sn phm c thng mi ha ca mt nh sn xut hoc cung cp cho mt knh phn phi no .

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VD: P & G: Bt git, kem nh rng, x bng, du gi u ... Tm li : Dy sn phm ni ln chiu di.

H phm ni ln chiu rng. 4. Thnh phn v yu t ca sn phm: - Thnh phn trng tm: l cht ca sn phm, sn phm c to ra bng cht g, nguyn liu g. - Thnh phn mc tiu: bao gm nhng yu t nhiu hay t ty theo mc tiu, ca doanh nghip, mc tiu ca doanh nghip c g th a ra cc thnh phn vo sn phm. VD: bao b, mu sc, nhn hiu, ch dn - Thnh phn b sung: bao gm dch v hu mi, bo hnh, tn dng (bn tr gp, bn chu ... ), c s giao hng. II.QU TRNH HNH THNH V PHT TRIN MT SN PHM

(Product Planning and Development)

1. Sn phm mi: Sn phm mi l mi i vi mc ch ca doanh nghip, chng ta khng quan tm n ngi tiu dng c xem chng l mi hay khng . Nh vy sn phm mi bao gm : Sn phm mi hon ton l sn phm xut pht t pht minh, sng kin hon ton mi p ng cho mt nhu cu hon ton mi. Sn phm mi ci tin hoc hon thin t sn phm hin c. Sn phm b sung cho sn phm hin c. Sn phm hin c c sn xut bng k thut mi v c kh nng chi ph h hn nhiu so vi trc. Sn phm c c tiu th ti th trng mi (c ngi mi ta) Sn phm c thng qua cc bin php marketing mi (ru c bnh mi) Trong thc t thng ch c 10% s sn phm mi l thc s mi hay c i mi i vi th gii .

Tnh hung:
C nhiu cch mt cng ty xut nhp khu to ra sn phm mi cho vic thm nhp th trng th gii:
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Cch d nht l xut khu nhng sn phm hin c, ang tiu th ni a; chin lc ny rt d dng thc hin, t nht l giai on u v n c th gip cho vic gim chi ph khi tip cn th trng th gii. Cch th hai tng i d, tt nhin l khng hon ton kinh t, l mua hn mt x nghip hoc mua mt phn nm quyn iu hnh x nghip v hng ny ang c sn phm tiu th th trng nc s ti hoc sn phm hng c th c xut khu sang mt quc gia th ba. VD: - Hng Matsushita Electrical Company ca Nht mua xng sn xut TV ca hng Motorola ca M ngay trn t M. - Ford mua hng Jaguar ca Anh. Vic mua mt hng hoc mt x nghip ang sn xut nc ngoi theo hnh thc trn c th s c nhiu tn km v tin bc, nhng v lu di th n vn r hn vi vic phi xy dng mt x nghip mi vi mt nhn hiu mi. Phng thc to ra mt sn phm mi bng cch mua mt cng ty hay mt x nghip c sn nc ngoi thng c thc hin bi cc cng ty rt ln, cc tp on quc t, cc cng ty a quc gia. VD: Vit Nam nhiu cng ty a quc gia lin doanh vi cc cng ty ang c sn phm v th phn nh: - Coca Cola - Chng Dng. Coca Cola - Ngc Hi. - Colgate Palmolive - Sn Hi. - Procter & Gamble v Cng ty Phng ng. - Sony - Viettronics. V thng l cc cng ty nc ngoi chim t l phn hn qu bn hoc p o h quyn iu hnh x nghip / cng ty lin doanh theo cc chin lc v chnh sch kinh doanh ca h. Mt cng ty cng c th sn xut ra mt sn phm mi t vic m phng mt sn phm c sn v ang c a chung trn th trng quc t lm sn phm mi ring ca mnh, t xut khu thm nhp th trng nc ngoi.Tt nhin cch lm ny khng phi l cch lm ca cc cng ty hng u, ang dn dt th trng trn th gii. Trong thc t, cc cng ty thuc cc quc gia mi cng nghip ha NICS (New Industrialized Countries) nh Korea, Taiwan, Singapore v Hong Kong tng i ln bng hnh thc ny. Cch lm ny hn nhin l gim c rt nhiu chi ph, gi thnh sn phm h c sc cnh tranh cao, to c nhiu iu kin thun li cho vic thm nhp th trng th gii. Nhng nh sn xut loi ny c gi l nhng ngi i theo th trng, ngc li vi nhng ngi dn dt th trng l cc cng ty lun t mnh to ra sn phm hon ton mi hoc ci tin trn c s sn phm ca mnh hin c. Ngc li vi cch m phng trn li c nhng cng ty c nhng sn phm vi cht lng tt h sn sng bn cho nhng cng ty nc ngoi v ng in nhn hiu theo yu cu ca cng ty nc ngoi. VD: Ti mt nh my sn xut computer ca Daewoo Corporation ngi ta thy rt nhiu thng carton mang nhn hiu ca c, EC v k c M na, nhng li c rt t nhn hiu ca Daewoo. K c mt loi xe hi ang c by bn M vi hiu Lemans do Cng ty General Motors sn xut thc cht phn ln cc b phn trong xe l do Daewoo cung cp.

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Tng t hng Caterpillar bn xe nng vi nhn hiu ca Caterpillar l do lin doanh vi Daewoo ... nhiu loi my thu hnh mang nhn hiu nhiu x nghip khc nhau, phn ln linh kin c sn xut bi Daewoo. Sau cng, cng ty c th to ra mt sn phm mi bng cch pht trin phn bn trong ca sn phm, Toyota, Nissan pht trin cc loi xe hi Lexus, Infiniti, Respectively bng s u t, ci tin. Tin hnh pht trin sn phm t bn trong c th c xem l mt qu trnh tin ho t tng chung n vic phn tch thng mi, n pht trin, n thng mi ha sn phm hoc gii thiu sn phm, mi giai on c tip tc thc hin to thm rt nhiu tn km kha cnh tin bc ln thi gian. 2. Qu trnh pht trin sn phm mi: (New product development process) pht t khch hng, bn thn ni b doanh nghip, t i th cnh tranh, ca nhng ngi bn bun, bn l, trung gian, i l, cung cp; t cc trung tm, vin nghin cu, cc n v thit k, cc chuyn gia, chuyn vin.

tng chung: thu thp nhng kin ca vic hnh thnh sn phm mi, xut

Gn lc tng: thnh lp hi ng khoa hc k thut gm chuyn gia thit k, kinh doanh, k thut ... am tng v sn phm v th trng.
Khi gn lc tng cn lu : (1). Khng st cc tng, sng kin c tim nng tt. (2). Khng pht trin cc tng trong c cha nhng khuyt im m hi ng khng kp nhn ra.

Phn tch kinh doanh : xem k hoch pht trin sn phm c tnh kh thi v hiu qu hay khng. Pht trin sn phm : sn phm cn c b sung nhng g v nh th no? Th nghim th trng: nu th trng khng chp nhn th phi loi b sn phm Thng mi ha sn phm
3. Qun l cht lng: Qun l cht lng ton din (TQM) - Total Quality Management. TQM tr nn mi quan tm hng u trong thp nin 1990, cc doanh nghip ua nhau tm kim mt m hnh qun l cht lng tuyt i hon ho, thay v phi thng xuyn iu chnh cht lng cho ph hp tng lc v khng chc chn. TQM v ang c xem l mt v kh chin lc i vi cc cng ty mun sn xut ra nhng sn phm c cht lng cao, gi thnh h so vi i th cnh tranh ca h; cc cng ty Nht Bn l mt th d in hnh, h ang c khuynh hng p dng h thng qun l cht lng TQM u t, iu
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chnh li ton b quy trnh sn xut t R & D n tip th v cc dch v c lin quan nhm trnh mi sai st, vi h thng ny sn phm s c a ra th trng nhanh hn, gim thiu ti a mi thiu st v c bit l h c chi ph sn xut t 10%-50%. Nhng cng ty p dng h thng TQM thng t c nhng kt qu ngon mc. VD: Cng ty Electrolux sau khi p dng TQM gim chi ph sn xut 40%. ISO 9000 (International Standards Organization) H thng qun l cht lng ISO 9000 c hnh thnh vo cui thp nin 1980 bi t chc Quc t v tiu chun ha, h thng ny quy nh 5 tiu chun k thut v 12 cng on t lc nguyn liu a vo nh my cho n khi sn phm c a ra th trng. c trn 50 quc gia, k c M v Lin minh Chu u tn thnh cc tiu chun quy nh ca ISO 9000. Nhiu chuyn vin kinh t quc t cho rng khng bao lu na ISO 9000 s l mt trong nhng tiu chun bt buc p dng cho cc loi hng ha v sn phm no c chng nhn bi ISO 9000 s c nh hng nhiu i vi th phn. ISO 9000 c i hi phi p dng trong mua bn hng ha thuc cc nc trong lin minh Chu u, nh vy mt nc no mun thm nhp hng ha vo th trng Chu u phi m bo v cht lng theo ISO 9000. Vo thi im 1992 c trn 20.000 cng ty Chu u v gn 1.000 cng ty ca M ng k v c cng nhn theo iu kin ISO 9000. - Vn kh khn hin nay l cc cng ty ng k thc hin ISO 9000 rt nhiu, nhng cc chuyn gia c thm quyn kim tra cp chng nhn th rt t. i vi mt cng ty Chu u t lc ng k cho n khi c ngi n xem xt phi mt t 3-4 thng v thng c 2/3 cng ty ng k b loi ngay k xem xt u tin. Mt cng ty mun chun b tt cho vic ng k ny phi mt t nht 2 nm v chi ph cho vic iu chnh li quy trnh sn xut tn khon vi trm nghn USD tu thuc vo quy m sn xut, dy sn phm, cc tiu chun cht lng v k c cng ty t vn c mi hay khng. - Hng Dupont tng ng k ISO 9000 cho trn 100 c s v nh my sn xut ca h v nhn c giy ng k cht lng vo loi rt tt. Chi ph trung bnh cho mi mt c s c trung bnh 300 cng nhn l 250.000USD v cng ty ny cho rng chi ph ny s thu hi rt nhanh bi v s giao hng ng thi hn tng t 70%-90% v thi gian lu kho ca hng ha gim t 15 ngy xung cn 1,5 ngy; v do c ISO 9000 vic kinh doanh ca h cng tng ln ng k v cc n t hng t Chu u u i phi c ISO 9000 i vi sn phm. Mc d cc tiu chun ca ISO 9000 l mt c gng hp l ha vic sn xut v m bo cht lng. Tuy nhin c mt s ngi ngh rng ch l mt ro cn mu dch, mt s quan liu khng cn thit c thit lp bi Lin Hip Chu u. - Ngoi 2 h thng qun l cht lng ISO 9000 cn c cc h thng qun l cht lng khc nh:

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- H

(Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Point)

thng

bo

an

ton

sinh

thc

phm

HACCP

y l mt h thng qun l cht lng rt quan trng c bit p dng i vi cc X Nghip ch bin lng thc v thc phm. H thng ny tm nhng im no yu nht v vic m bo v sinh trong x nghip gii quyt cc iu . - FDA: Food & Drug Administration (C quan qun l cht lng v thc phm v dc phm ca M) - VINA CONTROL: C quan qun l cht lng ch yu ca Vit Nam. Nhn xt chung v cng tc qun l cht lng ti Vit Nam: - Vit Nam s gp kh khn trong nhp khu, nu khng xy dng kp thi cho mnh mt h thng kim tra cht lng no , t ra l mt trong cc h thng c gii thiu trn. Hin nay EU t chi nhp hng thy sn ch bin ca An , Srilanka v x nghip ca cc nc ny cha ng k thc hin ISO 9000 - Vit Nam cn qu d di trong vic kim tra cht lng hng ha, nguyn liu nhp khu, khi nguyn liu u vo ca mt sn phm c m bo cht lng th u ra mi m bo. - Trong vic nhp sn phm nc ngoi Vit Nam t i hi cc d kin, thng s k thut i vi hng cng nghip v t quan tm n hm lng, thnh phn i vi hng thc phm ch bin hoc cc loi hng tiu dng khc. - Hng ti, mt mt Vit Nam phi t thn ngy cng nng cao cht lng trong qun l sn xut v ng thi phi c s kim sot cht ch i vi cht lng sn phm, nguyn liu nhp vo. Trong tng lai gn m bo cht lng hng ha l yu cu hng u trong tt c mi thuc tnh ca hng ha nu khng m bo c iu ny th chin lc sn phm th gii s khng thc hin c mt cch c hiu qu. 4. Nghin cu v pht trin : (Research & Development) R & D l mt nghin cu khoa hc va l thuyt va ng dng, chn lc v thay i cc quan nim v cc mu nghin cu hng n s pht trin cui cng ca qu trnh thng mi v ca sn phm. V vy, R & D va khm ph cc phng php k thut sn xut mi v cc sn phm mi va a cc pht minh ny ra th trng. i vi cng ty xut khu va v nh th lun lun tp trung cng tc R & D thm nhp sn phm ca h vo mt th trng no . i vi mt cng ty a quc gia va c b phn R & D nghin cu trong nc va c nc ngoi. Cng tc R & D nn c tp trung hay phn ra thnh 2 hoc nhiu b phn cn ty thuc vo vic cng ty a quc gia c th trng tht nhiu quc gia khc nhau hay khng? i vi mt cng ty c nhng bn quyn th h thy khng cn phi c b phn R & D.

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khuyn khch cho cng tc R & D, chnh ph thng buc cc cng ty a quc gia phi c b phn ny, ng thi cp quyn sng ch tm thi khen thng cc nh pht minh, nui dng s tin b cng ngh, y mnh s pht trin kinh t. III. QUYT NH H SN PHM: (Product mix decision) 1. Danh sch u t sn phm: (product portfolio) BCG Portfolio matrix Th phn tng i: l th phn m sn phm ang c c. Sut tng trng th trng: l t l m th trng ang c nhu cu dy sn phm pht trin thm. 1.1 i vi sn phm nm (question mark) thng l sn phm mi, sut tng trng th trng cao, nhng v l mi nn cc sn phm ny c th phn tng i thp v doanh s bn nh. Nu sn phm nm (question mark) mun cnh tranh thng li th cng ty phi u t cho sn phm ny mt s vn ng k ginh th phn. Do cn phi cn nhc k. 1.2 Nu sn phm nm (question mark) cnh tranh thng li th s chuyn sang (star), sn phm ny ang dn u th phn v cng ang ni c sut tng trng th trng cao, nn th trng ny c sc quyn r rt ln v do s c cnh tranh gay gt tip tc ginh th phn, cng ty cn phi u t thch ng cho n. 1.3 Theo thi gian nu sn phm (star) vn gi nguyn c v tr ca mnh v th phn th sut tng trng th trng gim dn v i vo n nh. Lc ny sn phm (star) s chuyn xung (cow) ra tin (cash cow), sn phm ny l ngun cung cp ti chnh cho cng ty. 1.4 Tuy nhin nu (cow) khng gi vng c v tr dn u ca mnh v th phn th n c th b chuyn sang (dog) th rt t c kh nng sinh ra li nhun, thng gy nn nhiu rc ri cho cng ty. Cng ty cn phi xem xt nn u t ln xy dng li sn phm (dog) hay gt hi ngay rt khi th trng hin ti hoc xa b sn phm ny i. VD: Mt cng ty c nm dy sn phm kinh doanh chin lc, k hiu l A, B, C, D, E vi cc s liu c ch ra bng sau y: Sn phm Tng doanh s Tng doanh s Sut tng bn bn ca 3 i th trng ca th dn u trng (triu USD) (triu USD) 0,600 1,800 3,240 0,720 1,2 ; 1,0 ; 0,6 1,8 ; 1,2 ; 1,0 3,24 ; 1,8 ; 0,5 2,4 ; 1,8 ; 1,6 16 % 14 % 8% 5%

A B C D

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2,660

2,66; 1,4 ; 0,7

4%

Hy thnh lp ma trn BCG v danh sch vn u t v ra quyt nh chin lc ca cng ty i vi mi dy sn phm. 2. Tng giai on ca sn phm trong chu k sng (Products stage in the lifecyle ) Chu k sng ca mt sn phm ti th trng ni a hoc ti mt th trng nht nh no thng th c 4 giai on: gii thiu, tng trng, trng thnh v suy thoi i vi chin lc sn phm quc t th chu k sng ca sn phm n s hng dn chng trnh pht trin sn phm.N c p dng cho vic thc hin chin lc sn phm hin c ln sn phm mi hon ton v n c lin quan n c sn phm c sa i ln quyt nh xo sn phm. Bi v mi quc gia khc nhau u c nhng nhu cu khc nhau v tng giai on trong chu k sng ca sn phm. V mi giai on sn phm mi quc gia khc nhau c th c cc qung thi gian ko di khc nhau. Mt sn phm c th ang giai on suy thoi ti th trng ni a, nhng cng sn phm c th li ang giai on gii thiu ti quc gia A, hoc ang giai on tng trng ti quc gia B, giai on trng thnh ti quc gia C. Hn na, mt sn phm mi thng c giai on gii thiu th trng ni a trc. Th nhng trong thc t li c nhng trng hp ngc li. VD: Cc nh sn xut TV mu ca Nht xut khu sn phm ny sang nc M trc khi marketing qu nh. Tng t hng Hitachi xut khu cc a vido sang M trc khi bn chng Nht. Nh vy cng mt sn phm nhng c kh nng cng mt lc c nhiu giai on ca chu k sng khc nhau trn th trng th gii. S khc bit ny s to ra nhiu kh khn i vi nh qun l, c bit l mt sn phm c trn 2 giai on ca chu k sng cng mt thi im, lc vic thc hin chnh sch sn phm quc t rt phc tp bi v s c s khc nhau v cc mc qung co, cnh tranh, chnh sch gi c... Do , khi hoch nh mt sn phm nn c ngay t u k hoch m rng chu k sng ca sn phm, ngay c sn phm c gii thiu ln u trn th trng. 3. Tiu chun ha sn phm hay sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi yu cu ca th trng

(Standardization VS Adaptation)
3.1 Tiu chun ha sn phm. Nu mt cng ty ch sn xut ra mt h sn phm theo mt tiu chun ging nhau, mt kiu dng ging nhau, mt cht lng ging nhau, cng mt lc cho hng cho th trng ni a ln th trng nc ngoi, cch lm ny gi l chin lc sn phm ton cu hay cn gi l tiu chun ha sn phm.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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3.2 Thch nghi ha sn phm Mt thi cc khc l sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi nhu cu c th ca ngi mua hay mt nhm ngi mua hoc th trng nc ngoi th c gi l sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi th trng. Sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi th trng c th l mt s bt buc hay t nguyn. Bt buc: - Do lut l ca mi nc khc nhau VD: nh xe auto phi c loi tay li bn phi, loi tay li bn tri ph hp vi lut giao thng ca nc nhp khu. - Do c s khc bit v in th, o lng thm ch do yu cu ca chnh ph. T nguyn: - Do nh xut khu quyt nh sa i, b sung to cho sn phm nhng nt hn hn i vi sn phm ca i th cnh tranh. VD: Xe hi Nht c kiu dng v mt s sn phm ph hn hn xe hi ca M. Vn trn c t ra bi v: ngi bn th mun tiu chun ha sn phm gim gi thnh sn phm, trong khi ngi mua th mun sn phm phi hon ton tha mn mun v nhu cu ca mnh. Trong khi th li c cc sn phm rt kh tiu chun ha. VD: nh thc phm hoc vic xy dng cc ta cao c, nh my, thit b cho cc yu cu v mc ch khc nhau, cn phi sn xut thch nghi vi th trng. Bn cnh th cng c nhng sn phm cng tng i d tiu chun ha nh mt s sn phm cng nghip bn, chc, s, thy tinh, sn phm ngh thut v c cc sn phm c phn khc th trng nh mi quc gia, nhng n li c mt th phn ln trn th gii nh ru Whisky, cc loi cameras c cht lng cao. Do , gii quyt cu hi trn l khng c sn p n. Trong thc t, cc quyt nh v sn phm quc t phi dung ha gia hai thi cc trn. IV. BAO B Bao b c nhim v chnh l bo v ( Protection ) v xc tin ( Promotion ) sn phm. Khi thit k bao b ngi ta p dng phng php kim tra VIEW cho mi th trng : V_ (Visibility tnh r rng): bao b phi lm cho sn phm ca doanh nghip c phn bit d dng i vi sn phm ca i th cnh tranh .

34

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

I_ (Informative - cung cp nhiu tin tc): bao b phi th hin c s thng tin tc thi v bn cht ca sn phm VD: tn sn phm, trng lng, ngy sn xut, thnh phn, iu kin d tr, ch dn cch s dng... E_ (Emotional impact - tc ng tnh cm) kiu dng bao b phi to n tng a thch i vi khch hng. W_ (Workability tnh kh dng) chc nng ca bao b va bo v sn phm v hu ch khi s dng nh. C mt s tiu chun chung cn c lu , c bit i vi hng tiu dng c bn theo phng thc t chn. Ty theo th trng ti mi quc gia m doanh nghip phi c chnh sch v ngn ng trn bao b cho ph hp. VD: Sn phm bn c, bao b phi in ting c. Sn phm bn Canada, bao b phi in song ng Anh v Php. Sn phm bn an mch v mt vi nc Chu u khc th bao b ch cn in ting Anh l . Hin nay bao b a ngn ng tr nn kh ph bin i vi khch hng tiu dng. VD: Hng Kellogg ca c in 10 th ting trn bao b ca a mm. . i vi nhng sn phm c tiu chun ha th s gim c chi ph bao b do: * Gim bt chi ph in cho qu nhiu loi bao b. * Gim chi ph u t cho bao b lu kho, nguyn liu lm bao b. * Gim din tch kho cha hng ti kho ca nh sn xut ln cc knh phn phi. * Thun li cho vic trng by sn phm v cho vic bn hng t chn. Vic gim chi ph ny gip cho h gi thnh sn phm, to cho sn phm c tnh cnh tranh hn v hp dn hn i vi ngi tiu dng. VD: Konica s dng bao b c mu xanh dng th trng Hoa K, Chu u, Vin ng m mc tiu l phn bit vi bao b mu vng ca Kodak v mu xanh l cy ca Fuji.

35

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

S lng sn phm v bao b bn trong cng c nhng s thch khc nhau ti mi th trng. VD: Mi bao b khng nn gi 4 n v sn phm th trng Nht v ch four ting Anh s c pht m ging nh ch cht trong ting Nht. Hp hoc thng bnh Biscuit M cn c cc bao b tng gi nh trong hp bnh, thay v cc nc khc ch cn 01 bao b gi chung l . Bao b sinh thi: l vt liu lm bao b v cch x l bao b khng c nh hng n mi trng. EU a ra ch th v bao b, ch th ny quy nh bao b phi c s dng li hoc ti sinh c v cc knh phn phi phi c h thng thu hi bao b, bao gm c bao b sn phm, bao b bn hng, bao b vn chuyn. Tt c bao b phi c nhng du hiu thch hp ngay trn bao b hoc nhn theo cc hnh v quy nh nh sau: Ti c c mt o lut quy nh v bao b nh quy nh ca Chu u v c hiu lc t nm 1991. V hin c Cng ty DSD ca c gip lm gim nh gnh nng cho cc nh sn xut, cc nh nhp khu v cc knh phn phi trong vic chp hnh o lut ny. l cng ty DSD s cp php cho cc nh sn xut in du hiu Green Dot ln bao b ca sn phm. Vn bao b sinh thi hin nay v ang c nhiu nc trn th gii quan tm v i vi cc nc thuc EU, M t vn bao b sinh thi ln hng u i vi sn phm. V. NHN HIU Nhn hin (Brand) l mt ci g nhn bit sn phm ca ngi sn xut v phn bit chng vi sn phm ca cc nh sn xut khc. Nhn hiu c th l mt ch, mt hay nhiu mu t, mt nhm ch, mt biu tng, mt kiu dng hocmt s kt hp no gia chng. Tn nhn hiu (Brand name): l s c c mt nhn hiu. Thng hiu (Trade mark) l nhn hiu hoc mt phn ca nhn hiu c bo v bi lut php. Nhn hiu ni ln xut x ca sn phm, ngm ni ln s bo m cht lng sn phm, n cung cp s tha mn tt nhu cu cho khch hng m sn phm khc khng th c c. Vic dn nhn l cn thit i vi ngi mua ln ngi bn. 1. Bo v nhn hiu: Vic bo v nhn hiu c t ra cp quc gia, khu vc v quc t.

36

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

Hu ht cc nc trn th gii u c c quan ng k v bo v nhn hiu cho sn phm trong nc, ngoi nc. Ring EU c mt ch th cho php s dng thng hiu ca lin hip. Tnh cht php l ca vic bo v nhn hiu c ng k hoc s dng l thuc vo quy nh ca lut php mi quc gia. Hu ht cc nc u quy nh ngi ch s hu nhn hiu l ngi ng k trc (EU) C mt s quc gia i hi nhn hiu phi c ng k v s dng lin tc th mi c bo v nh: Bolivia, France v Germany. Tuy nhin, mt vi quc gia vn bo v nhng nhn hiu mc d chng khng c ng k tr thnh thng hiu. Nh vy, quyn s hu nhn hiu c t trn c s u tin s dng, cc nc p dng lut ny l Canada, i Loan, Philippines, Hoa K v mt vi quc gia khc. Mt s nc khc th cch lm dung ha c thc hin. VD: Israel th c ngi ng k trc v ngi s dng trc u c quyn s dng chung nhn hiu. C nhng ngoi l cho vic bo v i vi cc nhn hiu qu ni ting trn th gii, d khng ng k hay s dng ti mt quc gia no vn c bo v. C cc hip c quc t quan trng cho vic bo v nhn hiu: * Hip c quc t v bo v ti sn cng nghip: c trn 70 quc gia cng tha thun hip c ny k c phn ln cc nc Ty u v Hoa K. Theo hip c ny mi quc gia phi c trch nhim bo v nhn hiu ca cc nh sn xut trn cc quc gia thnh vin. * Hip c Madrid v ng k nhn hiu quc t. Hin c 20 quc gia thnh vin. Theo quy nh mt ngi ng k s hu nhn hiu mt nc ny th xem nh np h s ng k ti cc quc gia thnh vin ca hip c.

37

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

* Tng t c Hip c Lin M p dng cho cc nc thnh vin Ty bn cu. Nhng ngi s hu thng hiu phi cnh gic thng xuyn i vi s bt chc hoc n cp nhn hiu mt cch trng trn i vi cc nhn hiu c xut khu ra nc ngoi. l vic kinh doanh hng gi, hng dm. phi t mnh Ngi s hu nhn hiu

cnh gic v khm ph s lm hng gi sn phm ging nhn hiu ca mnh sau chnh ph c lin quan mi c th tip tay x l, ngn chn ... 2. Quyt nh dn nhn: Vn dn nhn v thng hiu c th gom li thnh hai loi chnh: (1) Chn mt nhn hiu tt. (2) Quyt nh nn c bao nhiu nhn hiu trong dy sn phm ca cng ty. Chnh sch nhn hiu rt quan trng v chnh sch ny c th gip cho vic h tr hon thnh nhiu mc tiu khc nhau nh: 2.1 Mt nhn hiu duy nht hay cn gi l mt nhn chung cho dy sn phm, c th hu ch trong vic thuyt phc khch hng rng mi sn phm ca cng mt nhn hiu c cng mt cht lng hoc p ng mt s tiu chun no . Khi ngn ng ca hai hay nhiu quc gia ging nhau th mt nhn hiu chung nht c th c s dng hot ng qung co t nhiu hiu qu. VD: mt nhn hiu ring c th s dng cho c EU. i vi tt c cc loi cng ty, t cng ty xut khu nh nht n cng ty xut khu a quc gia ln nht, chnh sch sn phm c quan tm mi cp qun l. Mc d nhng nh lnh o cao nht phi a ra nhng quyt nh v sn phm, nhng trong thc t h phi da vo b phn marketing quc t c c nhng thng tin, nh thng tin v phn tch nhu cu ca th trng, thit k sn phm cng nh a ra cc quyt nh c lin quan n nhng c tnh ca sn phm, dy sn phm (product line), h sn phm (product mix), nhn hiu, bao b. Vn ny cng tr nn cc k phc tp i vi vic iu hnh mt cng ty ang thm nhp hng ha nhiu th trng nc ngoi khc nhau. Khch hng mi quc gia khc nhau s c nhng nhu cu i hi khc nhau, do vic thc hin chnh sch sn phm quc t nh th no cho ph hp va l mt s cn thit va v cng kh khn, th d nh 5 quc gia cng Chu u (Anh, c, Php, Thy in) nhng c cc yu cu khc nhau v loi my git s dng cho gia nh: t ng hay bn t ng, chiu cao, chiu rng ra sao, s dng nc nng, nc lnh hay nc bnh thng ... I. CHNH SCH SN PHM

38

Marketing xut nhp khu

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Chnh sch sn phm i vi marketing quc t c 2 vn lin quan mt thit vi nhau l: (1). Hnh thnh v pht trin sn phm (2). Cc quyt nh chin lc sn phm. Chnh sch sn phm quc t c p dng cho tng sn phm ring l, cho tuyn sn phm hoc cho c h sn phm. 1. nh ngha sn phm: Chng ta xc nh sn phm l i tng c thng mi ha; theo nh ngha thng dng nht, sn phm hay dch v l: Tng s tt c nhng tha mn v tm l hay vt cht m ngi mua (hay ngi s dng) nhn c do vic mua hay s dng sn phm. Sn phm bao gm sn phm vt cht, dch v, con ngi, a im, t chc v tng. 2. Dy sn phm (product line)/ tuyn, ng sn phm: L mt tp hp nhng kiu mu (kiu, c, loi) mt sn phm c thng mi ha ti mt th trng ring bit no . VD: Procter & Gamble: - Bt git - X bng : Tide, Rejoice, Viso .. : Camay, Zest, Coast, CK ...

3. H sn phm (Product mix) L mt tp hp nhng dy sn phm c thng mi ha ca mt nh sn xut hoc cung cp cho mt knh phn phi no . VD: P & G: Bt git, kem nh rng, x bng, du gi u ... Tm li : Dy sn phm ni ln chiu di. H phm ni ln chiu rng. 4. Thnh phn v yu t ca sn phm: - Thnh phn trng tm: l cht ca sn phm, sn phm c to ra bng cht g, nguyn liu g.

39

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

- Thnh phn mc tiu: bao gm nhng yu t nhiu hay t ty theo mc tiu, ca doanh nghip, mc tiu ca doanh nghip c g th a ra cc thnh phn vo sn phm. VD: bao b, mu sc, nhn hiu, ch dn - Thnh phn b sung: bao gm dch v hu mi, bo hnh, tn dng (bn tr gp, bn chu ... ), c s giao hng. II. QU TRNH HNH THNH V PHT TRIN MT SN PHM

(Product Planning and Development) 1. Sn phm mi:


Sn phm mi l mi i vi mc ch ca doanh nghip, chng ta khng quan tm n ngi tiu dng c xem chng l mi hay khng . Nh vy sn phm mi bao gm : Sn phm mi hon ton l sn phm xut pht t pht minh, sng kin hon ton mi p ng cho mt nhu cu hon ton mi. Sn phm mi ci tin hoc hon thin t sn phm hin c. Sn phm b sung cho sn phm hin c. Sn phm hin c c sn xut bng k thut mi v c kh nng chi ph h hn nhiu so vi trc. Sn phm c c tiu th ti th trng mi (c ngi mi ta) Sn phm c thng qua cc bin php marketing mi (ru c bnh mi) Trong thc t thng ch c 10% s sn phm mi l thc s mi hay c i mi i vi th gii .

Tnh hung:
C nhiu cch mt cng ty xut nhp khu to ra sn phm mi cho vic thm nhp th trng th gii: Cch d nht l xut khu nhng sn phm hin c, ang tiu th ni a; chin lc ny rt d dng thc hin, t nht l giai on u v n c th gip cho vic gim chi ph khi tip cn th trng th gii.

40

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

Cch th hai tng i d, tt nhin l khng hon ton kinh t, l mua hn mt x nghip hoc mua mt phn nm quyn iu hnh x nghip v hng ny ang c sn phm tiu th th trng nc s ti hoc sn phm hng c th c xut khu sang mt quc gia th ba. VD: - Hng Matsushita Electrical Company ca Nht mua xng sn xut TV ca

hng Motorola ca M ngay trn t M. - Ford mua hng Jaguar ca Anh. Vic mua mt hng hoc mt x nghip ang sn xut nc ngoi theo hnh thc trn c th s c nhiu tn km v tin bc, nhng v lu di th n vn r hn vi vic phi xy dng mt x nghip mi vi mt nhn hiu mi. Phng thc to ra mt sn phm mi bng cch mua mt cng ty hay mt x nghip c sn nc ngoi thng c thc hin bi cc cng ty rt ln, cc tp on quc t, cc cng ty a quc gia. VD: Vit Nam nhiu cng ty a quc gia lin doanh vi cc cng ty ang c sn phm v th phn nh: - Coca Cola - Chng Dng. Coca Cola - Ngc Hi. - Colgate Palmolive - Sn Hi. - Procter & Gamble v Cng ty Phng ng - Sony - Viettronics. V thng l cc cng ty nc ngoi chim t l phn hn qu bn hoc p o h quyn iu hnh x nghip / cng ty lin doanh theo cc chin lc v chnh sch kinh doanh ca h. Mt cng ty cng c th sn xut ra mt sn phm mi t vic m phng mt sn phm c sn v ang c a chung trn th trng quc t lm sn phm mi ring ca mnh,

41

Marketing xut nhp khu

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t xut khu thm nhp th trng nc ngoi.Tt nhin cch lm ny khng phi l cch lm ca cc cng ty hng u, ang dn dt th trng trn th gii. Trong thc t, cc cng ty thuc cc quc gia mi cng nghip ha NICS (New Industrialized Countries) nh Korea, Taiwan, Singapore v Hong Kong tng i ln bng hnh thc ny. Cch lm ny hn nhin l gim c rt nhiu chi ph, gi thnh sn phm h c sc cnh tranh cao, to c nhiu iu kin thun li cho vic thm nhp th trng th gii. Nhng nh sn xut loi ny c gi l nhng ngi i theo th trng, ngc li vi nhng ngi dn dt th trng l cc cng ty lun t mnh to ra sn phm hon ton mi hoc ci tin trn c s sn phm ca mnh hin c. Ngc li vi cch m phng trn li c nhng cng ty c nhng sn phm vi cht lng tt h sn sng bn cho nhng cng ty nc ngoi v ng in nhn hiu theo yu cu ca cng ty nc ngoi. VD: Ti mt nh my sn xut computer ca Daewoo Corporation ngi ta thy rt nhiu thng carton mang nhn hiu ca c, EC v k c M na, nhng li c rt t nhn hiu ca Daewoo. K c mt loi xe hi ang c by bn M vi hiu Lemans do Cng ty General Motors sn xut thc cht phn ln cc b phn trong xe l do Daewoo cung cp. Tng t hng Caterpillar bn xe nng vi nhn hiu ca Caterpillar l do lin doanh vi Daewoo ... nhiu loi my thu hnh mang nhn hiu nhiu x nghip khc nhau, phn ln linh kin c sn xut bi Daewoo. Sau cng, cng ty c th to ra mt sn phm mi bng cch pht trin phn bn trong ca sn phm, Toyota, Nissan pht trin cc loi xe hi Lexus, Infiniti, Respectively bng s

42

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

u t, ci tin. Tin hnh pht trin sn phm t bn trong c th c xem l mt qu trnh tin ho t tng chung n vic phn tch thng mi, n pht trin, n thng mi ha sn phm hoc gii thiu sn phm, mi giai on c tip tc thc hin to thm rt nhiu tn km kha cnh tin bc ln thi gian. 2. Qu trnh pht trin sn phm mi: (New product development process)

tng chung: thu thp nhng kin ca vic hnh thnh sn phm mi, xut
pht t khch hng, bn thn ni b doanh nghip, t i th cnh tranh, ca nhng ngi bn bun, bn l, trung gian, i l, cung cp; t cc trung tm, vin nghin cu, cc n v thit k, cc chuyn gia, chuyn vin.

Gn lc tng: thnh lp hi ng khoa hc k thut gm chuyn gia thit k,


kinh doanh, k thut ... am tng v sn phm v th trng. Khi gn lc tng cn lu : (1). Khng st cc tng, sng kin c tim nng tt. (2). Khng pht trin cc tng trong c cha nhng khuyt im m hi ng khng kp nhn ra.

Phn tch kinh doanh : xem k hoch pht trin sn phm c tnh kh thi v hiu
qu hay khng.

Pht trin sn phm : sn phm cn c b sung nhng g v nh th no? Th nghim th trng: nu th trng khng chp nhn th phi loi b sn phm Thng mi ha sn phm
3. Qun l cht lng: Qun l cht lng ton din (TQM) - Total Quality Management. TQM tr nn mi quan tm hng u trong thp nin 1990, cc doanh nghip ua nhau tm

43

Marketing xut nhp khu

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kim mt m hnh qun l cht lng tuyt i han ho, thay v ph thng xuyn iu chnh cht lng cho ph hp tng lc v khng chc chn. TQM v ang c xem l mt v kh chin lc i vi cc cng ty mun sn xut ra nhng sn phm c cht lng cao, gi thnh h so vi i th cnh tranh ca h; cc cng ty Nht Bn l mt th d in hnh, h ang c khuynh hng p dng h thng qun l cht lng TQM u t, iu chnh li ton b quy trnh sn xut t R & D n tip th v cc dch v c lin quan nhm trnh mi sai st, vi h thng ny sn phm s c a ra th trng nhanh hn, gim thiu ti a mi thiu st v c bit l h c chi ph sn xut t 10%-50%. Nhng cng ty p dng h thng TQM thng t c nhng kt qu ngon mc. VD: Cng ty Electrolux sau khi p dng TQM gim chi ph sn xut 40%. ISO 9000 (International Standards Organization) H thng qun l cht lng ISO 9000 c hnh thnh vo cui thp nin 1980 bi t chc Quc t v tiu chun ha, h thng ny quy nh 5 tiu chun k thut v 12 cng on t lc nguyn liu a vo nh my cho n khi sn phm c a ra th trng. c trn 50 quc gia, k c M v Lin minh Chu u tn thnh cc tiu chun quy nh ca ISO 9000. Nhiu chuyn vin kinh t quc t cho rng khng bao lu na ISO 9000 s l mt trong nhng tiu chun bt buc p dng cho cc loi hng ha v sn phm no c chng nhn bi ISO 9000 s c nh hng nhiu i vi th phn. ISO 9000 c i hi phi p dng trong mua bn hng ha thuc cc nc trong lin minh Chu u, nh vy mt nc no mun thm nhp hng ha vo th trng Chu u phi m bo v cht lng theo ISO 9000.

44

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

Vo thi im 1992 c trn 20.000 cng ty Chu u v gn 1.000 cng ty ca M ng k v c cng nhn theo iu kin ISO 9000. - Vn kh khn hin nay l cc cng ty ng k thc hin ISO 9000 rt nhiu, nhng cc chuyn gia c thm quyn kim tra cp chng nhn th rt t. i vi mt cng ty Chu u t lc ng k cho n khi c ngi n xem xt phi mt t 3-4 thng v thng c 2/3 cng ty ng k b loi ngay k xem xt u tin. Mt cng ty mun chun b tt cho vic ng k ny phi mt t nht 2 nm v chi ph cho vic iu chnh li quy trnh sn xut tn khon vi trm nghn USD tu thuc vo quy m sn xut, dy sn phm, cc tiu chun cht lng v k c cng ty t vn c mi hay khng. - Hng Dupont tng ng k ISO 9000 cho trn 100 c s v nh my sn xut ca h v nhn c giy ng k cht lng vo loi rt tt. Chi ph trung bnh cho mi mt c s c trung bnh 300 cng nhn l 250.000USD v cng ty ny cho rng chi ph ny s thu hi rt nhanh bi v s giao hng ng thi hn tng t 70%-90% v thi gian lu kho ca hng ha gim t 15 ngy xung cn 1,5 ngy; v do c ISO 9000 vic kinh doanh ca h cng tng ln ng k v cc n t hng t Chu u u i phi c ISO 9000 i vi sn phm. Mc d cc tiu chun ca ISO 9000 l mt c gng hp l ha vic sn xut v m bo cht lng. Tuy nhin c mt s ngi ngh rng ch l mt ro cn mu dch, mt s quan liu khng cn thit c thit lp bi Lin Hip Chu u. - Ngoi 2 h thng qun l cht lng ISO 9000 cn c cc h thng qun l cht lng khc nh: - H thng m bo an ton v sinh thc phm - HACCP (Hazard Analysis of

Critical

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Control Point)
y l mt h thng qun l cht lng rt quan trng c bit p dng i vi cc X Nghip ch bin lng thc v thc phm. H thng ny tm nhng im no yu nht v vic m bo v sinh trong x nghip gii quyt cc iu . - FDA: Food & Drug Administration (C quan qun l cht lng v thc phm v dc phm ca M) - VINA CONTROL: C quan qun l cht lng ch yu ca Vit Nam. Nhn xt chung v cng tc qun l cht lng ti Vit Nam: - Vit Nam s gp kh khn trong nhp khu, nu khng xy dng kp thi cho mnh mt h thng kim tra cht lng no , t ra l mt trong cc h thng c gii thiu trn. Hin nay EU t chi nhp hng thy sn ch bin ca An , Srilanka v x nghip ca cc nc ny cha ng k thc hin ISO 9000 - Vit Nam cn qu d di trong vic kim tra cht lng hng ha, nguyn liu nhp khu, khi nguyn liu u vo ca mt sn phm c m bo cht lng th u ra mi m bo. - Trong vic nhp sn phm nc ngoi Vit Nam t i hi cc d kin, thng s k thut i vi hng cng nghip v t quan tm n hm lng, thnh phn i vi hng thc phm ch bin hoc cc loi hng tiu dng khc. - Hng ti, mt mt Vit Nam phi t thn ngy cng nng cao cht lng trong qun l sn xut v ng thi phi c s kim sot cht ch i vi cht lng sn phm, nguyn liu nhp vo. Trong tng lai gn m bo cht lng hng ha l yu cu hng u trong tt c mi thuc tnh ca hng ha nu khng m bo c iu ny th chin lc sn phm th gii s khng thc hin c mt cch c hiu qu.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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4. Nghin cu v pht trin : (Research & Development) R & D l mt nghin cu khoa hc va l thuyt va ng dng, chn lc v thay i cc quan nim v cc mu nghin cu hng n s pht trin cui cng ca qu trnh thng mi v ca sn phm. V vy, R & D va khm ph cc phng php k thut sn xut mi v cc sn phm mi va a cc pht minh ny ra th trng. i vi cng ty xut khu va v nh th lun lun tp trung cng tc R & D thm nhp sn phm ca h vo mt th trng no . i vi mt cng ty a quc gia va c b phn R & D nghin cu trong nc va c nc ngoi. Cng tc R & D nn c tp trung hay phn ra thnh 2 hoc nhiu b phn cn ty thuc vo vic cng ty a quc gia c th trng tht nhiu quc gia khc nhau hay khng? i vi mt cng ty c nhng bn quyn th h thy khng cn phi c b phn R & D. khuyn khch cho cng tc R & D, chnh ph thng buc cc cng ty a quc gia phi c b phn ny, ng thi cp quyn sng ch tm thi khen thng cc nh pht minh, nui dng s tin b cng ngh, y mnh s pht trin kinh t. III. QUYT NH H SN PHM: (Product mix decision) 1. Danh sch u t sn phm: (product portfolio) BCG Portfolio matrix Th phn tng i: l th phn m sn phm ang c c. Sut tng trng th trng: l t l m th trng ang c nhu cu dy sn phm pht trin thm. 1.1 i vi sn phm nm (question mark) thng l sn phm mi, sut tng trng th trng cao, nhng v l mi nn cc sn phm ny c th phn tng i thp v doanh s bn nh.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Nu sn phm nm (question mark) mun cnh tranh thng li th cng ty phi u t cho sn phm ny mt s vn ng k ginh th phn. Do cn phi cn nhc k. 1.2 Nu sn phm nm (question mark) cnh tranh thng li th s chuyn sang (star), sn phm ny ang dn u th phn v cng ang ni c sut tng trng th trng cao, nn th trng ny c sc quyn r rt ln v do s c cnh tranh gay gt tip tc ginh th phn, cng ty cn phi u t thch ng cho n. 1.3 Theo thi gian nu sn phm (star) vn gi nguyn c v tr ca mnh v th phn th sut tng trng th trng gim dn v i vo n nh. Lc ny sn phm (star) s chuyn xung (cow) ra tin (cash cow), sn phm ny l ngun cung cp ti chnh cho cng ty. 1.4 Tuy nhin nu (cow) khng gi vng c v tr dn u ca mnh v th phn th n c th b chuyn sang (dog) th rt t c kh nng sinh ra li nhun, thng gy nn nhiu rc ri cho cng ty. Cng ty cn phi xem xt nn u t ln xy dng li sn phm (dog) hay gt hi ngay rt khi th trng hin ti hoc xa b sn phm ny i. VD: Mt cng ty c nm dy sn phm kinh doanh chin lc, k hiu l A, B, C, D, E vi cc s liu c ch ra bng sau y:

Sn phm

Tng doanh s Tng doanh s Sut tng bn bn ca 3 i trng ca th dn u th trng (triu USD) (triu USD) 0,600 1,800 1,2 ; 1,0 ; 0,6 1,8 1,0 ; 1,2 ; 16 % 14 %

A B

48

Marketing xut nhp khu

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C D E

3,240 0,720 2,660

3,24 ; 0,5

1,8

8% 5% 4%

2,4 ; 1,8 ; 1,6 2,66; 1,4 ; 0,7

Hy thnh lp ma trn BCG v danh sch vn u t v ra quyt nh chin lc ca cng ty i vi mi dy sn phm. 2. Tng giai on ca sn phm trong chu k sng (Products stage in the lifecyle ) Chu k sng ca mt sn phm ti th trng ni a hoc ti mt th trng nht nh no thng th c 4 giai on: gii thiu, tng trng, trng thnh v suy thoi i vi chin lc sn phm quc t th chu k sng ca sn phm n s hng dn chng trnh pht trin sn phm.N c p dng cho vic thc hin chin lc sn phm hin c ln sn phm mi hon ton v n c lin quan n c sn phm c sa i ln quyt nh xo sn phm. Bi v mi quc gia khc nhau u c nhng nhu cu khc nhau v tng giai on trong chu k sng ca sn phm. V mi giai on sn phm mi quc gia khc nhau c th c cc qung thi gian ko di khc nhau. Mt sn phm c th ang giai on suy thoi ti th trng ni a, nhng cng sn phm c th li ang giai on gii thiu ti quc gia A, hoc ang giai on tng trng ti quc gia B, giai on trng thnh ti quc gia C. Hn na, mt sn phm mi thng c giai on gii thiu th trng ni a trc. Th nhng trong thc t li c nhng trng hp ngc li. VD: Cc nh sn xut TV mu ca Nht xut khu sn phm ny sang nc M trc khi marketing qu nh. Tng t hng Hitachi xut khu cc a vido sang M trc
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Marketing xut nhp khu

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khi bn chng Nht. Nh vy cng mt sn phm nhng c kh nng cng mt lc c nhiu giai on ca chu k sng khc nhau trn th trng th gii. S khc bit ny s to ra nhiu kh khn i vi nh qun l, c bit l mt sn phm c trn 2 giai on ca chu k sng cng mt thi im, lc vic thc hin chnh sch sn phm quc t rt phc tp bi v s c s khc nhau v cc mc qung co, cnh tranh, chnh sch gi c... Do , khi hoch nh mt sn phm nn c ngay t u k hoch m rng chu k sng ca sn phm, ngay c sn phm c gii thiu ln u trn th trng. 3. Tiu chun ha sn phm hay sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi yu cu ca th trng

(Standardization VS Adaptation)
3.1 Tiu chun ha sn phm. Nu mt cng ty ch sn xut ra mt h sn phm theo mt tiu chun ging nhau, mt kiu dng ging nhau, mt cht lng ging nhau, cng mt lc cho hng cho th trng ni a ln th trng nc ngoi, cch lm ny gi l chin lc sn phm ton cu hay cn gi l tiu chun ha sn phm. 3.2 Thch nghi ha sn phm Mt thi cc khc l sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi nhu cu c th ca ngi mua hay mt nhm ngi mua hoc th trng nc ngoi th c gi l sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi th trng. Sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi th trng c th l mt s bt buc hay t nguyn. Bt buc: - Do lut l ca mi nc khc nhau VD: nh xe auto phi c loi tay li bn phi, loi tay li bn tri ph hp vi lut giao thng ca nc nhp khu.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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- Do c s khc bit v in th, o lng thm ch do yu cu ca chnh ph. T nguyn: - Do nh xut khu quyt nh sa i, b sung to cho sn phm nhng nt hn hn i vi sn phm ca i th cnh tranh. VD: Xe hi Nht c kiu dng v mt s sn phm ph hn hn xe hi ca M. Vn trn c t ra bi v: ngi bn th mun tiu chun ha sn phm gim gi thnh sn phm, trong khi ngi mua th mun sn phm phi hon ton tha mn mun v nhu cu ca mnh. Trong khi th li c cc sn phm rt kh tiu chun ha. VD: nh thc phm hoc vic xy dng cc ta cao c, nh my, thit b cho cc yu cu v mc ch khc nhau, cn phi sn xut thch nghi vi th trng. Bn cnh th cng c nhng sn phm cng tng i d tiu chun ha nh mt s sn phm cng nghip bn, chc, s, thy tinh, sn phm ngh thut v c cc sn phm c phn khc th trng nh mi quc gia, nhng n li c mt th phn ln trn th gii nh ru Whisky, cc loi cameras c cht lng cao. Do , gii quyt cu hi trn l khng c sn p n. Trong thc t, cc quyt nh v sn phm quc t phi dung ha gia hai thi cc trn. IV. BAO B Bao b c nhim v chnh l bo v ( Protection ) v xc tin ( Promotion ) sn phm. Khi thit k bao b ngi ta p dng phng php kim tra VIEW cho mi th trng : V_ (Visibility tnh r rng): bao b phi lm cho sn phm ca doanh nghip c phn bit d dng i vi sn phm ca i th cnh tranh . I_ (Informative - cung cp nhiu tin tc): bao b phi th hin c s thng tin tc thi v

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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bn cht ca sn phm VD: tn sn phm, trng lng, ngy sn xut, thnh phn, iu kin d tr, ch dn cch s dng... E_ (Emotional impact - tc ng tnh cm) kiu dng bao b phi to n tng a thch i vi khch hng. W_ (Workability tnh kh dng) chc nng ca bao b va bo v sn phm v hu ch khi s dng nh. C mt s tiu chun chung cn c lu , c bit i vi hng tiu dng c bn theo phng thc t chn. Tu theo th trng ti mi quc gia m doanh nghip phi c chnh sch v ngn ng trn bao b cho ph hp. VD: Sn phm bn c, bao b phi in ting c. Sn phm bn Canada, bao b phi in song ng Anh v Php. Sn phm bn an mch v mt vi nc Chu u khc th bao b ch cn in ting Anh l . Hin nay bao b a ngn ng tr nn kh ph bin i vi khch hng tiu dng. VD: Hng Kellogg ca c in 10 th ting trn bao b ca a mm. i vi nhng sn phm c tiu chun ha th s gim c chi ph bao b do: * Gim bt chi ph in cho qu nhiu loi bao b. * Gim chi ph u t cho bao b lu kho, nguyn liu lm bao b. * Gim din tch kho cha hng ti kho ca nh sn xut ln cc knh phn phi. * Thun li cho vic trng by sn phm v cho vic bn hng t chn. Vic gim chi ph ny gip cho h gi thnh sn phm, to cho sn phm c tnh cnh tranh hn v hp dn hn i vi ngi tiu dng. VD: Konica s dng bao b c mu xanh dng th trng Hoa K, Chu u, Vin

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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ng m mc tiu l phn bit vi bao b mu vng ca Kodak v mu xanh l cy ca Fuji. S lng sn phm v bao b bn trong cng c nhng s thch khc nhau ti mi th trng. VD: Mi bao b khng nn gi 4 n v sn phm th trng Nht v ch four ting Anh s c pht m ging nh ch cht trong ting Nht. Hp hoc thng bnh Biscuit M cn c cc bao b tng gi nh trong hp bnh, thay v cc nc khc ch cn 01 bao b gi chung l . Bao b sinh thi: l vt liu lm bao b v cch x l bao b khng c nh hng n mi trng. EU a ra ch th v bao b, ch th ny quy nh bao b phi c s dng li hoc ti sinh c v cc knh phn phi phi c h thng thu hi bao b, bao gm c bao b sn phm, bao b bn hng, bao b vn chuyn. Tt c bao b phi c nhng du hiu thch hp ngay trn bao b hoc nhn theo cc hnh v quy nh nh sau: Ti c c mt o lut quy nh v bao b nh quy nh ca Chu u v c hiu lc t nm 1991. V hin c Cng ty DSD ca c gip lm gim nh gnh nng cho cc nh sn xut, cc nh nhp khu v cc knh phn phi trong vic chp hnh o lut ny. l cng ty DSD s cp php cho cc nh sn xut in du hiu Green Dot ln bao b ca sn phm. Vn bao b sinh thi hin nay v ang c nhiu nc trn th gii quan tm v i vi cc nc thuc EU, M t vn bao b sinh thi ln hng u i vi sn phm. V. NHN HIU Nhn hin (Brand) l mt ci g nhn bit sn phm ca ngi sn xut v phn bit

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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chng vi sn phm ca cc nh sn xut khc. Nhn hiu c th l mt ch, mt hay nhiu mu t, mt nhm ch, mt biu tng, mt kiu dng hoc mt s kt hp no gia chng. Tn nhn hiu (Brand name): l s c c mt nhn hiu. Thng hiu (Trade mark) l nhn hiu hoc mt phn ca nhn hiu c bo v bi lut php. Nhn hiu ni ln xut x ca sn phm, ngm ni ln s bo m cht lng sn phm, n cung cp s tha mn tt nhu cu cho khch hng m sn phm khc khng th c c. Vic dn nhn l cn thit i vi ngi mua ln ngi bn. 1. Bo v nhn hiu: Vic bo v nhn hiu c t ra cp quc gia, khu vc v quc t. Hu ht cc nc trn th gii u c c quan ng k v bo v nhn hiu cho sn phm trong nc, ngoi nc. Ring EU c mt ch th cho php s dng thng hiu ca lin hip. Tnh cht php l ca vic bo v nhn hiu c ng k hoc s dng l thuc vo quy nh ca lut php mi quc gia. Hu ht cc nc u quy nh ngi ch s hu nhn hiu l ngi ng k trc (EU) C mt s quc gia i hi nhn hiu phi c ng k v s dng lin tc th mi c bo v nh: Bolivia, France v Germany. Tuy nhin, mt vi quc gia vn bo v nhng nhn hiu mc d chng khng c ng k tr thnh thng hiu. Nh vy, quyn s hu nhn hiu c t trn c s u tin s dng, cc nc p dng lut ny l Canada, i Loan, Philippines, Hoa K v mt vi quc gia khc.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Mt s nc khc th cch lm dung ha c thc hin. VD: Israel th c ngi ng k trc v ngi s dng trc u c quyn s dng chung nhn hiu. C nhng ngoi l cho vic bo v i vi cc nhn hiu qu ni ting trn th gii, d khng ng k hay s dng ti mt quc gia no vn c bo v. C cc hip c quc t quan trng cho vic bo v nhn hiu: * Hip c quc t v bo v ti sn cng nghip: c trn 70 quc gia cng tha thun hip c ny k c phn ln cc nc Ty u v Hoa K. Theo hip c ny mi quc gia phi c trch nhim bo v nhn hiu ca cc nh sn xut trn cc quc gia thnh vin. * Hip c Madrid v ng k nhn hiu quc t. Hin c 20 quc gia thnh vin. Theo quy nh mt ngi ng k s hu nhn hiu mt nc ny th xem nh np h s ng k ti cc quc gia thnh vin ca hip c. * Tng t c Hip c Lin M p dng cho cc nc thnh vin Ty bn cu. Nhng ngi s hu thng hiu phi cnh gic thng xuyn i vi s bt chc hoc n cp nhn hiu mt cch trng trn i vi cc nhn hiu c xut khu ra nc ngoi. l vic kinh doanh hng gi, hng dm. Ngi s hu nhn hiu phi t mnh cnh gic v khm ph s lm hng gi sn phm ging nhn hiu ca mnh sau chnh ph c lin quan mi c th tip tay x l, ngn chn ... 2. Quyt nh dn nhn: Vn dn nhn v thng hiu c th gom li thnh hai loi chnh: (1) Chn mt nhn hiu tt (2) Quyt nh nn c bao nhiu nhn hiu trong dy sn phm ca cng ty. Chnh sch nhn hiu rt quan trng v chnh sch ny c th gip cho vic h tr hon thnh nhiu mc tiu khc nhau nh: 2.1 Mt nhn hiu duy nht hay cn gi l mt nhn chung cho dy sn phm, c th hu ch

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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trong vic thuyt phc khch hng rng mi sn phm ca cng mt nhn hiu c cng mt cht lng hoc p ng mt s tiu chun no . Khi ngn ng ca hai hay nhiu quc gia ging nhau th mt nhn hiu chung nht c th c s dng hot ng qung co t nhiu hiu qu. VD: mt nhn hiu ring c th c s dng cho c o v c c bit khi qung co xuyn bin gii. 2.2 Nhn hiu c th (a phng) c th c s dng nhiu th trng quc gia khc nhau, p ng nhng nhu cu ca mi th trng ring l. VD: cng ty sa ca New Zealand, Dairy Board mt nh xut khu thc phm t sa dng nhng tn nhn cho sa bt ca h nh sau: Fernleaf (Malaysia), Fernleaf vng Caribbean, Magnolia (Singapore & Philippines) Mainland (Australia). Tng t, cng ty s dng tn nhn hiu Fern cho sn phm bng b, mc d tn Anchor l nhn hiu hng u ca hng v ni ting Ty u, c bit Anh. L do ti sao Anchor khng c s dng cho sn phm bng b v khng c xc tin cho sa bt ca h Malaysia bi v n trng tn vi mt loi bia a phng c qung co rng khp. Cc b ni tr mt x s m Hi gio l quc o th khng thch mua sn phm sa cho con h m chng c mi lin h tim thc vi mt loi nc gii kht c cn. 2.3 a nhn hiu c th c s dng nh l mt phn ca chnh sch i vi phn khc th trng bn mt sn phm c thnh phn c bn ging nhau cho cc phn khc th trng khc nhau trong mt th trng quc gia. Mt ln na tr li VD v hng sa ca New Zealand chng ta thy rng c nhiu nhn sa bt c s dng i Loan p ng cho cc yu cu khc nhau ca mt th trng c phn khc cao vi trn 30 nhn hiu cnh

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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tranh. Vic dn nhn c th l mt phng din hi nhp ca quyt nh tiu chun ha sn phm hoc sn phm thch nghi vi th trng. Ngay c phn ct li ca sn phm khng tiu chun ha, nhn hiu c th c s dng tho mn c mun ca cng tc qun l xut khu t c s nht qun i vi khch hng. iu c mt s tit kim chi ph rt ln trong vic to ra c mt nhn hiu thng nht xuyn quc gia. Mt nhn hiu nh vy n xa b cc kiu dng b sao chp, tc phm ngh thut, s sn xut knh phn phi, thng tin v cc vn c lin quan khc. Mt cng ty c quyn chn la vic s dng cng mt nhn hiu hu ht hoc tt c th trng nc ngoi ca hng hoc trong vic s dng cc nhn a phng, c th. C mt s li th v tip th v chi ph i vi vic s dng mt nhn hiu. Tuy nhin, cc nhn hiu a phng cng c th c cc li th ca n, cc nhn t m n cha ng trong s chn la ny bao gm: * Nhu cu ca khc hng. * Phng php phn phi v xc tin c s dng. * C cu th trng cnh tranh. * Tit kim do m rng quy m trong sn xut v phn phi. * Nhng hn ch v lut php. * C cu iu hnh. Nhng hn ch v lut php c th s tr thnh bt hp php nu cng mt nhn hiu c bn mt ni no . Mt kiu khc ca s nh hng vo cng ty Pepsi Coca khi h c cho php bn sn phm coca ca mnh n vo nm 1990. Thc ung c cho hng vi cc tn Lehar bi v chnh ph n ngn cn cc cng ty ngoi quc

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s dng tn nhn hiu quc t ca h, v nhng iu ny mang li li th hn hn ca h i vi cc i th cnh tranh ngi n. Mc d c nhng tr ngi, cc cng ty vn thch vic s dng nhn hiu ton cu. Tuy nhin, cc sn phm v th trng nn c lin h cho s hiu qu ti a. Sara Lee, mt cng ty hng tiu dng c c s rng khp m rng tn nhn hiu thnh cng ca h i vi nhng sn phm c lin quan. Dim, mt nhn hiu v v v lt hng u Php m rng cho lt nam v o T. Shirt cc sn phm Gerber s dng tn nhn hiu ca n 3 loi sn phm: thc phm, thc phm pha ch, sn phm chm sc tr em v qun o. Vn then cht l tt c 3 loi sn phm u c nhm vo tr em di 4 tui. Vic chn nhn hiu hoc thng hiu cho vic s dng trong a quc gia c lin quan c bn n nhng s xem xt ging nhau nh khi chn la mt nhn hiu cho vic s dng trong nc. Nhiu cng ty ngy nay ang chn bi cnh th gii cho vic chn la nhn hiu. Mt bi cnh nh vy i hi s nghin cu cn thn trnh nhng ch, hoc cm t c ngha khng tt. Va qua, mt s cng ty vi nhng nhn hiu c thit lp rt tt xt thy cng cn thit phi i nhn hiu ca h bi v n c ngha xui xo mt ngn ng khc. VD: cng ty VICKS chemical phi i thnh WISKS c bi v tn cng ty l mt t tc tu trong ngn ng c. cc nh xut khu Trung Quc c gng tip th vi th trng phng Ty cc sn phm nh son mi Fang Fang, Pin White Elephant v lt n ng Pansy. Cc hon cnh nh vy xy ra khi nh xut khu c s dng nhn hiu ni a.

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Khi mt cng ty c mt ci tn nhm m t mt sn phm n c th gp rc ri khi c hiu theo mt ngn ng khc. Mt cng ty cho hng mt loi thit b vi tn l Grab Bucket c n c dch ra l cc loi hoa c cng ngha trang. Vic chn tn nhn hiu c lin quan n c nhng vn php l v s sng to. nhiu quc gia c cc cng ty chuyn mn c th gii quyt mt trong cc vn ny nh l cc hng qung co h gip cho vic t cc nhn hiu, tn nhn hiu ... Tm li: Trong chng ny, chng ta tho lun mt lnh vc rng ln ca quyt nh sn phm , ca s quan tm n cc nh xut khu v tip th quc t l hnh thnh v pht trin sn phm cho th trng th gii v cc chin lc km theo.

Chin lc sn phm tp trung trn cc chnh sch xem xt n vic tiu chun
ha sn phm hay sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi th trng. Mt sn phm nh ngha nh l mt ci m ngi tiu dng hay ngi mua hoc ngi s dng nhn c khi thc hin vic mua hoc s dng sn phm. Cc lnh vc quyt nh c lin quan cho vic pht trin sn phm c xc nh nh l sn phm mi hon ton, thay i cc sn phm hin c, cch s dng mi cho mt sn phm hin c v xo sn phm. Mi phn c tho lun vi s nhn mnh c a ra s xem xt mi hon ton. K chng ta chuyn sang quyt nh h sn phm v s quan tm ca chng ta i vi cc nhn t quyt nh bn ngoi v bn trong c nh hng n chiu di v chiu rng ca h sn phm xut khu ca mt cng ty. Mt s tho lun nng phn v k thut phn tch, c bit i vi cch danh sch u t sn phm. Mt vn trng tm i mt vi tt c cc nh xut khu kinh doanh nhiu th trng th
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Marketing xut nhp khu

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gii khc nhau l tiu chun ha sn phm hay l thch nghi n. c bit khi qung co xuyn bin gii. 2.2 Nhn hiu c th (a phng) c th c s dng nhiu th trng quc gia khc nhau, p ng nhng nhu cu ca mi th trng ring l. VD: cng ty sa ca New Zealand, Dairy Board mt nh xut khu thc phm t sa dng nhng tn nhn cho sa bt ca h nh sau: Fernleaf (Malaysia), Fernleaf vng Caribbean, Magnolia (Singapore & Philippines) Mainland (Australia). Tng t, cng ty s dng tn nhn hiu Fern cho sn phm bng b, mc d tn Anchor l nhn hiu hng u ca hng v ni ting Ty u, c bit Anh. L do ti sao Anchor khng c s dng cho sn phm bng b v khng c xc tin cho sa bt ca h Malaysia bi v n trng tn vi mt loi bia a phng c qung co rng khp. Cc b ni tr mt x s m Hi gio l quc o th khng thch mua sn phm sa cho con h m chng c mi lin h tim thc vi mt loi nc gii kht c cn. 2.3 a nhn hiu c th c s dng nh l mt phn ca chnh sch i vi phn khc th trng bn mt sn phm c thnh phn c bn ging nhau cho cc phn khc th trng khc nhau trong mt th trng quc gia. Mt ln na tr li VD v hng sa ca New Zealand chng ta thy rng c nhiu nhn sa bt c s dng i Loan p ng cho cc yu cu khc nhau ca mt th trng c phn khc cao vi trn 30 nhn hiu cnh tranh. Vic dn nhn c th l mt phng din hi nhp ca quyt nh tiu chun ha sn phm hoc sn phm thch nghi vi th trng. Ngay c phn ct li ca sn phm khng tiu chun ha, nhn hiu c th c s dng
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Marketing xut nhp khu

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tho mn c mun ca cng tc qun l xut khu t c s nht qun i vi khch hng. iu c mt s tit kim chi ph rt ln trong vic to ra c mt nhn hiu thng nht xuyn quc gia. Mt nhn hiu nh vy n xa b cc kiu dng b sao chp, tc phm ngh thut, s sn xut knh phn phi, thng tin v cc vn c lin quan khc. Mt cng ty c quyn chn la vic s dng cng mt nhn hiu hu ht hoc tt c th trng nc ngoi ca hng hoc trong vic s dng cc nhn a phng, c th. C mt s li th v tip th v chi ph i vi vic s dng mt nhn hiu. Tuy nhin, cc nhn hiu a phng cng c th c cc li th ca n, cc nhn t m n cha ng trong s chn la ny bao gm: * Nhu cu ca khc hng. * Phng php phn phi v xc tin c s dng. * C cu th trng cnh tranh. * Tit kim do m rng quy m trong sn xut v phn phi. * Nhng hn ch v lut php. * C cu iu hnh. Nhng hn ch v lut php c th s tr thnh bt hp php nu cng mt nhn hiu c bn mt ni no . Mt kiu khc ca s nh hng vo cng ty Pepsi Coca khi h c cho php bn sn phm coca ca mnh n vo nm 1990. Thc ung c cho hng vi cc tn Lehar bi v chnh ph n ngn cn cc cng ty ngoi quc s dng tn nhn hiu quc t ca h, v nhng iu ny mang li li th hn hn ca h i vi cc i th cnh tranh ngi n. Mc d c nhng tr ngi, cc cng ty vn thch vic s dng nhn hiu ton cu. Tuy nhin, cc sn phm v th trng nn c lin h cho s hiu qu ti a.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Sara Lee, mt cng ty hng tiu dng c c s rng khp m rng tn nhn hiu thnh cng ca h i vi nhng sn phm c lin quan. Dim, mt nhn hiu v v v lt hng u Php m rng cho lt nam v o T. Shirt cc sn phm Gerber s dng tn nhn hiu ca n 3 loi sn phm: thc phm, thc phm pha ch, sn phm chm sc tr em v qun o. Vn then cht l tt c 3 loi sn phm u c nhm vo tr em di 4 tui. Vic chn nhn hiu hoc thng hiu cho vic s dng trong a quc gia c lin quan c bn n nhng s xem xt ging nhau nh khi chn la mt nhn hiu cho vic s dng trong nc. Nhiu cng ty ngy nay ang chn bi cnh th gii cho vic chn la nhn hiu. Mt bi cnh nh vy i hi s nghin cu cn thn trnh nhng ch, hoc cm t c ngha khng tt. Va qua, mt s cng ty vi nhng nhn hiu c thit lp rt tt xt thy cng cn thit phi i nhn hiu ca h bi v n c ngha xui xo mt ngn ng khc. VD: cng ty VICKS chemical phi i thnh WISKS c bi v tn cng ty l mt t tc tu trong ngn ng c. cc nh xut khu Trung Quc c gng tip th vi th trng phng Ty cc sn phm nh son mi Fang Fang, Pin White Elephant v lt n ng Pansy. Cc hon cnh nh vy xy ra khi nh xut khu c s dng nhn hiu ni a. Khi mt cng ty c mt ci tn nhm m t mt sn phm n c th gp rc ri khi c hiu theo mt ngn ng khc. Mt cng ty cho hng mt loi thit b vi tn l Grab Bucket c n c dch ra l cc loi hoa c cng ngha trang.

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Vic chn tn nhn hiu c lin quan n c nhng vn php l v s sng to. nhiu quc gia c cc cng ty chuyn mn c th gii quyt mt trong cc vn ny nh l cc hng qung co h gip cho vic t cc nhn hiu, tn nhn hiu ... Tm li: Trong chng ny, chng ta tho lun mt lnh vc rng ln ca quyt nh sn phm , ca s quan tm n cc nh xut khu v tip th quc t l hnh thnh v pht trin sn phm cho th trng th gii v cc chin lc km theo.

trng.

Chin lc sn phm tp trung trn cc chnh sch xem xt n vic tiu chun ha sn phm hay sn phm c sn xut thch nghi vi th

Mt sn phm nh ngha nh l mt ci m ngi tiu dng hay ngi mua hoc ngi s dng nhn c khi thc hin vic mua hoc s dng sn phm. Cc lnh vc quyt nh c lin quan cho vic pht trin sn phm c xc nh nh l sn phm mi hon ton, thay i cc sn phm hin c, cch s dng mi cho mt sn phm hin c v xo sn phm. Mi phn c tho lun vi s nhn mnh c a ra s xem xt mi hon ton. K chng ta chuyn sang quyt nh h sn phm v s quan tm ca chng ta i vi cc nhn t quyt nh bn ngoi v bn trong c nh hng n chiu di v chiu rng ca h sn phm xut khu ca mt cng ty. Mt s tho lun nng phn v k thut phn tch, c bit i vi cch danh sch u t sn phm. Mt vn trng tm i mt vi tt c cc nh xut khu kinh doanh nhiu th trng th gii khc nhau l tiu chun ha sn phm hay l thch nghi n.

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nh gi sn phm quc t

I.

NH NGHA V GI

1. Gi c l gi tr trao i m ngi tiu dng sn sng tr i ly li ch ca vic s dng mt loi hng ha. 2. Gi c l mt tp hp nhng ci khng hi lng m mt ngui mua sn sng chu ng t c mt tp hp nhng li ch. 3. Gi c l mt ch s v cht lng c cm nhn bi ngi tiu dng (Tin no ca )

(Determinants of an Export Price)


1. Chi ph (Costs):

II.

NHNG NHN T NH HNG N GI XUT KHU

Thng thng chi ph l nhn t quyt nh hnh thnh gi c. nh gi da trn c s chi ph l mt phng php n gin, c bit ph hp vi doanh nghip trong iu kin thiu thng tin v kh nng v sc mua ca khch hng. y l mt phng php nh gi cng bng hp l, bng cch ly gi thnh cng vi cc khon chi ph khc cho hot ng xut khu, cng vi mc k li cho ra gi xut khu. Mt phng php khc tnh gi sn phm xut khu c coi l c hiu qu hn c l phng php c mnh danh l gi thnh bin t (marginal price). Phng php ny thng xem cc chi ph trc tip v gin tip sn xut v bn mt sn phm xut khu l mt mc tnh ti thiu nh gi sn phm v nu di mc th s b l. Thng th gi thnh bin t ca sn phm cui cng bng vi chi ph kh bin ca n v sn phm . Phng php ny n gin n mc khi gi c n tay ngi tiu dng nc ngoi th n i ln mt cch ng k. Gi sn (price floor) : l gi thnh t gi thnh bin t cng vi chi ph trc tip cho xut khu khc nh: chi ph vn chuyn, chi ph nghin cu ca th trng v kim tra kh nng ti chnh ca khch hng, chi ph thng tin lin lc quc t, chi ph ci tin sn phm ... Trong thc t gi sn nm gia chi ph trc tip v chi ph y . Phng php nh gi sn phm theo chi ph l cch tnh c xc nh bi gi tr thay v gi tr s dng, ( l ch n li ch v s tho mn ca sn phm i vi ngi s dng) Phng php nh gi da vo chi ph khng linh hot, khng cnh tranh. 2. iu kin th trng: (Nhu cu) (Market Conditions - Demand)

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Gi tr s dng c xc nh bi ngi mua to nn gi trn (price ceiling). Nh vy vic nh gi theo gi tr s dng l mt qu trnh lin tc ca vic iu chnh gi sn phm xut khu cho ph hp vi s dao ng ca gi tr s dng trn th trng nc ngoi. VD: Nm 1988 hng Isuzu ca Nht nh gi cc loi xe th thao v xe Pick -up ti th trng M theo gi tr s dng v h rt thnh cng. Vic xc nh gi tr s dng c th thc hin bng nhiu cch nh thm d kin ca khch hng tim nng, so snh theo cch hng i hng, so snh i vi sn phm thay th, nh gi th nghim thm d phn ng ca th trng ... 3. S cnh tranh: (Competition) Cc iu kin v chi ph to ra gi sn, cc iu kin v nhu cu to ra gi trn, th nhng iu kin cnh tranh quyt nh gi xut khu thc s nm u gia hai gii hn . Trong mt th trng cnh tranh hon ton th nh xut khu c rt t quyn nh ot i vi gi c. Vn nh gi ch cn l quyt nh bn hay khng bn sn phm vo th trng . Trong mt th trng cnh tranh khng hon ton hoc c quyn th nh xut khu c mt s quyn hn nh gi ca mt s sn phm ph hp vi nhng phn khc th trng c chn la trc, v thng thng h c quyn nh gi sn phm xut khu mc cao hn so vi gi th trng trong nc. 4. S nh hng bi chnh tr v lut php: Nh xut khu phi chp nhn lut php nc ngoi s ti v cc chnh sch ca h nh: biu thu nhp khu, hn ch trong nhp khu, lut chng bn ph gi, k c chnh sch tin t. Biu thu nhp khu c th nh hng n chi ph v gi c nu mt nc c mc thu nhp khu nh vo thnh phm cao hn nguyn vt liu v linh kin ri, nh xut khu c th cn nhc gia chi ph v thu nhp khu quyt nh chnh sch xut khu cho sn phm. (SKD: Semi knock down, CKD: Completeknock down, IKD: Incomplete knock down) 5. Chnh sch ca cng ty & marketing hn hp Trc khi quyt nh gi cho mt sn phm xut khu, cng ty phi c chnh sch ring ca mnh l xut khu sn phm nhm mc tiu g. Li nhun. Gia tng doanh s bn (t th phn chim lnh)

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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To iu kin m rng ng cu ca sn phm. C kh nng cnh tranh trn th trng. Khi nh gi, nh xut khu hoc nh phn phi phi ch n yu t lm trn s, n gi tm l v gi ca i th cnh tranh. III. CHIN LC NH GI XUT KHU C BN

(Fundamental Export Pricing Stategy)

1. nh gi ht kem (Skimming pricing) y l chnh sch nh gi cao, gip nh xut khu t mc li cao trong mt thi hn nht nh, nh gi ht kem l cch nh gi cao trong thi gian u, sau h gi thu ht th phn mi. iu kin p dng phng php ny l ng cu khng co gin theo gi. Khng c nguy c gi cao s kch thch nhng i th cnh tranh nhy vo th trng. Sn phm phi c o mi l. nh gi cao gy n tng sn phm c cht lng. 2. nh gi thm nhp (penetration pricing) y l cch nh gi hng thp hn gi ph bin trn th trng th gii nhm m rng th phn. cng ty s thu li nhun qua vic chim u th trn th trng v trong nhng trng hp nht nh, ngi ta c th xc nh gi thp hn chi ph. Tuy nhin phi ch n iu kin p dng phng php nh gi thp l: Chi ph sn xut v phn phi cho mi n v sn phm s gim xung khi s lng sn phm tng. Th trng phi nhy bn vi gi c. Vic h gi phi lm nn lng i th cnh tranh, cng ty phi c ngun ti chnh mnh. Sau ny rt kh tng gi tr li v ngi tiu dng quen vi gi thp. 3. nh gi theo gi hin hnh (Going Rate Pricing) nh gi hin hnh l cch nh gi lm cho gi sn phm st mc gi ph bin trn th trng xc nh mc gi a ra cao hn, bng hoc thp hn. Cch nh gi ny n gin, ch cn theo di gi th trng th gii. Nhc im ca n l khi a ra th trng th gii mt sn phm hon ton mi th cha c gi ca sn phm tng ng so snh. Phng php ny t ch trng n chi ph hay sc cu ca sn phm. 4. nh gi hy dit (Extinction Pricing)

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Marketing xut nhp khu

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Mc tiu nh gi ny nhm loi b i th cnh tranh ang c ra khi th trng th gii, thng c cc cng ty a quc gia s dng nh mt phng php y nh sn xut yu hn ra khi ngnh cng nghip c quyn th trng. Tuy nhin khi p dng cch nh gi ny nn thn trng v mi nguy him thng xuyn e da l chnh ph nc s ti s p t nhng hn ch n vic nhp khu v tiu th sn phm v nguy him hn khi nh gi hy dit l khch hng quen mua gi thp cng ty s gp kh khn khi mun tng gi ln. 5. nh gi da vo chi ph bin t:(Marginal Cost Pricing) p dng cho sn phm xut khu, sn phm xut khu ch gnh chu phn bin ph v chi ph trc tip cho xut khu, cn sn phm ni a s gnh chu c phn nh ph v bin ph. Nh , sn phm xut khu c gi thp v t to ra kh nng cnh tranh cao trn th trng th gii. C nhiu cch tip cn khc nhau i vi chnh sch nh gi v khng c mt chnh sch ti u hoc cc phng php sn c p dng cho mi tnh hung hoc mt s th trng nc ngoi no . Chnh sch nh gi l mt vn lm th no cng c nhiu thng tin cng tt v gi tr sn phm i vi nhiu tng lp ngi tiu dng (khch hng) khc nhau cc th trng khc nhau. Vi ngun thng tin c c v s p dng mt cch thng minh, mi nguy him ca vic nh gi xut khu ca cng ty i vi cc th trng c li nhun tim nng c gim ng k. IV. MI QUAN H CA CC CHNH SCH GI XUT KHU I VI GI NI A Phng din th hai ca chnh sch gi i vi nh qun l tip th xut khu l mt mi lin h ca chnh sch gi xut khu i vi chnh sch (hoc cc chnh sch) gi ni a ca cng ty. Nh qun tr phi quyt nh cc mc gi cao hn, bng hoc thp hn gi ni a. C nhng lp lun thm ch i nghch nhau chng ta chn la. 1. Gi xut khu thp hn gi ni a

(Relation of Export to Domestic Price Policies)

(Export Prices Lower than Domestic)

C mt l lun cho rng gi xut khu thp hn gi ni a l do sn phm ca nh my c l t ni ting nc ngoi hn l trong nc. m bo s chp nhn ca th trng v sc mua ban u, mc gi c thp nht c th xy dng c nn c a ra cho. Hn na, c lp lun cho rng nh xut khu nn chu cc chi ph b sung nh vn chuyn, bo him hng hi v thm ch trong mt vi trng hp c bit c th chu c thu nhp khu . Nhng ngi khc tin rng gi xut khu nn c h thp v cc i th cnh tranh nc ngoi c th sn xut r hn bi chi ph nhn cng thp, s tr gip ca chnh ph hoc l nhng li th khc m h c hng. Vn cn mt l lun khc dn u trong vic ng h cho vic nh gi xut khu thp l s hp dn ca vic gia tng doanh s bn tr gip cho vic tp trung sn xut v cc chi ph cn thit.
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C mt l thuyt xa hn l nh my phi gnh chu mt s chi ph cn thit nht nh trong giai on u m hot ng kinh doanh ca h phi gnh chu v khng trnh khi. V vy, mi hot ng kinh doanh xut khu th nm trong ngha kinh doanh thm v khng nn tnh chi ph vi gnh nng ny. Mt tr ngi tim nng c th xy ra trong khi theo ui chnh sch ny l nh xut khu c th b cho l ph gi. V vy, nh xut khu nn ch n phn ng ca chnh ph cc th trng xut khu. 2. Gi xut khu cao hn gi ni a

(Export Prices Higher than Domestic)

Mt trong cc lp lun ph bin hng u trong vic ng h gi xut khu cao hn gi ni a l do s gia tng chi ph ca vic thit lp t chc thm nhp cc hot ng xut khu l cn c xem xt. Thng thng chi ph bn hng xut khu c th cao hn th trng ni a do c nhiu th tc phc tp, bt ng trong ngn ng, s khc nhau v tp qun thng mi v s khc nhau v cc yu cu php l, th hiu khch hng cc th trng nc ngoi. C s u t thm mt cch thng xuyn v cc chi ph b sung trong vic chun b cc ti liu c bit v cc hnh thc ng gi, chun b v sa i sn phm. C ngi cho rng chi ph ca vic m rng tn dng v ti tr vi cc nh bn hng nc ngoi lm gim tng s vn u t v tng chi ph. Mt vi nh my v cc nh xut khu cm thy s ri ro gia tng trong vic kinh doanh nc ngoi i vi cc iu kin chnh tr v kinh t khng n nh, v mc ri ro ny nn c n b cho hnh thc nh gi cao. 3. Gi xut khu bng gi ni a

(Export Prices on a Par with Domestic Prices)


Chnh sch mang gi ni a vo th trng xut khu c tn thnh rt ng o, c bit i vi cc x nghip, cc nh sn xut ln u tin thm nhp th trng th gii. Nhng ngi ny cha thm d mt cch y cc iu kin khc nhau m h s gp phi trn th trng th gii. C nhiu lp lun ng h chnh sch ny. N to iu kin cho nh sn xut nh gi xut khu m chi ph v kinh nghim th trng ni a c ch ra l cn thit v cng bng. N to cho nh xut khu cm gic an ton khi thm nhp th trng th gii khi cc c hi nghin cu tip th, s thng hiu v cc iu kin cnh tranh v nhng kinh nghim trc vn cn thiu. N xua tan ni s hi m nh sn xut c th b dnh lu n cc quy nh chng ph gi hin c ti nhiu nc trn th gii. N cng l mt chnh sch d dng c thay i khi nh sn xut gt hi c nhng kinh nghim v t c mt s hiu bit su sc hn v th trng xut khu. Phng php ny d thc hin, nhng c th khng thch hp nu gi ni a thp, v cc hon cnh bt thng nh c s cnh tranh mnh m. Trc khi tin hnh phng php ny nh qun tr nn nm chc rng trong thc t, gi ni a l mt gi ph bin, bnh thng. Vic nh gi xut khu ging nh gi ni a c gi nh rng cc i tng l ging nhau. Cch nh gi nh vy s
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c cng nhn, tuy nhin cc i tng ca cng ty v cc iu kin th trng c th khng ging nhau qua nhiu th trng khc nhau. 4. nh gi c s chnh lch (Differential Pricing) Do cc iu kin cnh tranh, th trng v cc yu t mi trng khc khng ging nhau t mt th trng ny i vi mt th trng khc, vn c th c t ra l cch nh gi xut khu khc nhau i vi mi th trng. C nhiu iu c cp trong cc quyn sch kinh t hc v cc hip c quc t ni v cc iu kin theo c cc s chnh lch v gi c xy ra gia cc th trng. Nhng iu kin quan trng hng u l (1) S co gin ng cu khc nhau . (2) Vic phn chia cc th trng mt cch chnh xc. Cc s co gin khc nhau ca ng cu l cn thit i vi nh xut khu nh gi mt th trng ny cao hn gi mt th trng khc. S co gin v gi cao th s a n gi thp. S khng co gin v gi th nn nh gi cao. Mt iu kin cn thit khc cho vic nh gi cao l cc th trng c lin quan phi c phn chia mt cch hiu qu. Tr ph, thu quan chi ph vn chuyn hoc chi ph ti xut th cao hn s chnh lch ca gi hoc tr phi cc s gii hn khc i vi lu thng t do ca hng ha xuyn qua cc quc gia. Tuy nhin, sn phm c bn mc gi thp c th t n tm ng n cc th trng c gi cao. Trong trng hp ni no m gi xut khu cao hn gi ni a nh xut khu phi bo m chng li vic nh gi qu cao n ni m khch hng nc ngoi hoc cc i din ca mnh b hp dn vi cch thm nhp vo th trng ni a v t h m nhn nhim v cng tc xut khu. l trng hp Cng ty Minotta, mt cng ty sn xut cameras hng u ca Nht Bn t pht hin vo u thp nin 1970. Do s chuyn ti t Hong Kong cameras c bn qua knh khng chnh thc bao gm bn s v bn l n cc khch hng Ty c vi mt gi thp hn rt nhiu so vi cc knh phn phi thng thng. R rng mt s nh bun s ca Hong Kong mua trc tip cc sn phm t Nht v tr thnh cc nh xut khu sang th trng Ty c. y l vn gi hng ha c to nn bi cc nh nhp khu song song hoc c gi l th trng ch en. N ngi mua hng mt nc c th mua c gi thp hn mt nc khc s l phn thng i vi khch hng th trng c gi thp hn bng cch chuyn hng ha n th trng c gi cao to ra li nhun. Hin nhin, cc nh phn phi v bn hng ca cng ty xut khu nhng nc c gi cao s khiu ni v s nhp khu khng chnh thc nh vy, v chng to ra s tn tht trong doanh s bn i vi h. Lut php ca nhiu nc k c lin hip Chu u v Nht Bn khuyn khch nhng s nhp khu song song nh mt phng tin kch thch cnh tranh v buc nh phn phi bn hng ra khi quc gia ca h c th b xem l vi phm lut php (nhng ch trong Lin hip Chu u m thi)

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Cc nh xut khu nghin cu vic nh gi c s chnh lch khc nhau cng phi ch n cc yu t khc k c s cnh tranh bn trong mi th trng, t l chi ph bin i/ chi ph c nh ca sn phm cng ty, s n nh ca ng cu trong th trng ni a v chin lc marketing tng th c s dng. Nhng l do cho vic theo ui chnh sch nh gi c s chnh lch thng c a ra do c s khc nhau v chin lc tip th gia th trng ny v th trng khc. VD: mt quc gia s phn phi c m rng gp i vi s qung co mnh m c th i km vi vic nh gi thp phc v cho th trng i chng. mt quc gia khc knh tip th trc tip vi s qung co t c th li ko cho vic nh gi cao trn mi n v sn phm phc v cho mt thiu s ngi c thu nhp cao. Vic xem xt dy sn phm cng c th ng gp ng k i vi vic nh gi c s chnh lch khc nhau. VD: ci gi l vic xem xt y dy sn phm c th tr nn quan trng, nu khch hng c nh mua mt s sn phm no t mt ngun chung, nh xut khu khng c tt c cc sn phm trong danh mc hng ha c t hng trong h sn phm dng nh gp kh khn trong vic bn mt loi hng trong c h sn phm. Ngi mua c th vin l do: ti sao ti phi tch n hng ca mnh cho nhiu nh cung cp trong khi ti c th t hng cho tt c yu cu ca ti i vi ch mt nh cung cp v cng mt lc. Nh vy va tit kim thi gian ln cng sc. Theo nhng iu kin ny n c th cn thit i vi ngi bn hng bao gm mt s hng ha trong mt dy sn phm n khng th bn vi gi cao nh mt s th trng khc. Nh vy, gi c ca nhm hng ha khc nhau gia cc quc gia. Vic nh gi dy sn phm mt ngha khc nhau cng c th ng gp i vi vic nh gi a dng ca mt s sn phm trong dy sn phm. Cc sn phm trong dy thng phi c nh gi c mi lin h hp l gia chng vi nhau. VD: cc loi my ko khc nhau v c cc c tnh khc nhau c th c mt mc thay th ln nhau. Tuy nhin, c mt mc m khng c s thay th l s nh gi bi khch hng cng nh i vi mc mt sn phm ny th tt hn hoc thch hp hn sn phm khc nn ng chng mt cch ph hp i vi s chnh lch ca gi c. V nhiu nhm khch hng trong nhiu th trng khc nhau c th nh gi sn phm mt cch khc nhau nhng s khc nhau thch hp trong gi c ca cc loi hng ha trong dy sn phm s khc nhau. Nh vy n c th c xem xt mt cch thch ng cho cc loi gi c ca nhng sn phm khc bit khc nhau gia quc gia ny v quc gia khc. Chnh sch nh gi sn phm cng c th c da trn nhng c s c hi. Trong cc ngnh cng nghip i hi vn u t c nh ln, s c li khi c nhng thi k tha cng sut do s dao ng nht thi ca ng cu, h gi sn phm cc th trng nc ngoi nu nhng doanh s nh vy ng gp vo chi ph c nh.

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Mc d s la chn v kho st cc th trng tip th ng nht i hi cc chin lc tip th khc nhau, c mt xc sut l mt x nghip c th c gng chn la cc mc tiu trn th trng ging nhau trong cc khc th trng khc nhau mi nc. VD: mt nh sn xut c th to ra mt sn phm hp dn i vi nhng ngi c v tr x hi hoc kinh t nht nh no khng phn bit quc tch. Cc th trng dn tc c th c phn khc trn c s thu nhp, gio dc, c gia nh, thi gian ri ... v nhng khc th trng ca Canada, Demark, France, Germany, Australia, Japan v mt s nc khc c nhng ng c hoc nhu cu ging nhau, chin lc tip th v cc sn phm tiu chun ha c th tha mn cc th trng ny. Nhng yu cu ca khch hng mt s khc th trng cho nhng sn phm nh dng gia nh, dch v hng khng, xe hi c th ging nhau nhiu phng din. Tng t, chin lc tip th, k c gi c c th ging nhau. Mt khc, cc c hi ln nht cho s tng trng tn ti cc khc th trng mi hoc ang pht trin n cha c vi ti hoc phc v mt cch y trong qu kh. Trong thc t, mt trong cc mc tiu c trnh by thng xuyn ca gi c c s chnh lch l thm nhp vo th trng mi hoc hp dn mt tng lp khch hng mi. Mc tiu ny i khi c th t c bi s chn lc v cc knh tip th b sung n c th cung cp mt h chc nng khc nhau v t n cc khc th trng b sung. Mt knh nh vy dng nh c mt c cu chi ph khc nhau i vi cc knh khc v iu ny s i hi mt bin t iu hnh khc nhau. Bin t iu hnh c i hi bi cc knh tip th c th khc nhau do nhiu l do k c chi ph pht trin th trng (VD: nhu cu ca vic qung co mnh m mt s khu vc, ni khc li nh nhng hn). chi ph nhn cng hay cc bin t, cung cp i vi cc hng marketing bi i th cnh tranh. Gi c ca nh sn xut cng nh gi c ca nh tip th trung gian hoc c hai nn khc nhau i vi gi c knh thng thng c thit lp trc y. Xt thy c s a dng ha gia cc th trng nc ngoi. V vy, chnh sch nh gi sn phm c s khc nhau thng l hp l. V mt thit b v hng ha t bn chng thng i hi phi c s sa i hoc sn phm c lm theo khch hng p ng cc nhu cu ca khch hng khc nhau v c bit khi gi c bao gm mt s dch v khc nhau trc, trong v sau khi bn hng n thng khng thc t kt hp i vi gi xut khu c tiu chun. Mt VD l hng Boeing v Airbus nh gi my bay ca h cho cc hng hng khng dn dng nhiu quc gia khc nhau. Khng ch khc nhau v chi ph, gi sn m cn l s thiu kh nng tng i ca khch hng so snh chi ph mt cch chnh xc cng cho php ngi bn i vi cc bin t li nhun khc nhau cnh tranh thnh cng v duy tr mc sn xut mc cao. Do vy vic gi tng chi ph mc thp c th c. VD: cng nn iu hnh li nhun bin t mc tng i thp trn mi chng trnh v chun b cho n mt cng vic tip theo hoc vi khch hng khc. Quy m ca nh xut khu v th phn ca h cng cha ng chnh sch nn theo ui l s nh gi c s chnh lch. Mt nh xut khu c quy
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m nh dng nh cm thy rng c s linh hot ln hn v cng ty c th phn tng i nh trong tng s th trng th gii. Nu khch hng t v ri rc, khch hng p lc cho cc loi gi tng ng c th l rt t. Tuy nhin, mt nh xut khu tm c l thuc vo s lng ln khch hng cho t l doanh s ng k c th nhn thy rng p lc ca khch hng i hi cho s ng nht gi c trnh s bt mn ca khch hng. Trong nhng trng hp ni m cc th trng khng c phn chia mt cch r rng v chi ph vn chuyn, thu quan, cc hng ro phi quan thu, s lng ln khch hng dng nh quyt nh mua cc quc gia c gi thp. Hoc nu sn phm l s quan trng mt th trng c l cc nh trung gian tip th s mua sn phm th trng c gi thp v bn chng th trng c gi cao di cy d gi c c cung cp bi nh sn xut , ngi bn vi s chnh lch gi rt ln mt cch khng bnh thng. C l iu ny chnh l hon cnh m Minolta t nhn thy vo thp nin 1970. Vic nh gi chnh lch cng c th thc hin theo ma hoc chu k. VD: mt sn phm c kiu dng c bn theo ma c bn Bc bn cu th n s c mt kiu ngc li Nam bn cu. Nh vy, nh sn xut pha bc c th tm thy th trng Nam M sut trong ma m trong nc. C th gi c khc nhau theo ma s ng gp n vic khai thc mt cch y c hai th trng. V. CHO GI (The Price Quotation) Giai on 3 ca vic nh gi xut khu nn c da trn s xem xt cc yu t bao gm vic cho gi. Mt yu t quyt nh nh vy s c thc hin bi nh xut khu kt hp vi khch hng ca ng ta nc ngoi. Gi xut khu c cho bi nhiu cch khc nhau. C hai h thng ch yu cho vic cho gi c gi l cc iu khon thng mi. Vic s dng cc iu khon nh: FOB, FAS, C&F v CIF rt quan trng v mt c th ha khng ch bn phn v trch nhim php l cui cng ca nh xut khu (v bn phn v trch nhim php l bt u ca ngi mua) m chng cn quyt nh cc chi ph m nh xut khu s gnh chu. Nh vy tuy cch tnh ton thng thng ca vic cho gi l cng thm cc chi ph hp l i vi gi c bn. C hai h thng nh ngha c s dng bi cc nh xut khu trn khp th gii - Incoterms 1990 (c xy dng bi Phng Thng mi th gii) v Revised American Foreign Trade Definitions - 1941 (c xy dng u tin bi Phng Thng mi Hoa K v hai t chc khc) Vic xc nh iu khon thng mi thng khng c lut sn tr phi c quy nh lut php c th c cung cp cho n hoc tr phi n c xc nh bi phn quyt ca To n. Nu ngi bn v ngi mua ng s chp nhn chng nh l mt phn ca hp ng bn hng, nhng s xc nh tr nn s rng buc php l ln c cc bn i vi vic bn hng. Chu u,

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s p dng Incoterms 1990 l t nguyn, To n v cc c quan trng ti kinh t c khuynh hng p dng chng nu khng c mt s quy nh c th. 1. So snh cc iu khon (Comparision of Terms) Cc nh ngha ngoi thng ca M (c hiu chnh) - 1941 v Incoterms 1990 mi loi c cha nh ngha ch ra im no th chm dt nhim v, chi ph, v trch nhim php l ca nh xut khu, nhng ri ro trch nhim v h hng mt cch chi tit gn vi cc hot ng c lin quan c trnh by trong cc ti liu khc. y chng ti ch trnh by mt cch tm tt cc iu khon chnh mt cch tng qut nh sau: 1. EX (Point of Origin) iu kin ny c lin quan n cc hnh thc nh: EX Factory, Ex Mill, EX Mine, EX Works, EX Ware-house ... Chi ph v trch nhim ca ngi bn hng chm dt ti quc gia ca ng ta. 2.Free on board (F.O.B) : giao ln mn tu mt cng c ch nh trc thuc quc gia xut khu. Trong trng hp hng ha khng giao ln mn tu m giao ln cc phng tin vn chuyn khc nh tu ha, my bay th c gi l Free carrier (F.C.A). Trch nhim ca ngui bn chm dt khi hng ha dc xp ln tu v c cp vn n (Bill of lading). Trong trng hp hng ha c giao n tn cng c ch nh trc nm nc nhp khu. Trong trng hp ny ngui bn phi chu trch nhim cho n khi hng ha n ni thch hp nc ngoi. Trng hp ny c gi l Delivered Duty Unpaid (DDU) hoc Delivered Duty Paid (DDP) 3. Free along side ship (FAS): ngui bn hng chu trch nhim giao hng n dc mn tu ti cng xut khu. Nh vy iu kin ny khc FOB ch thi gian v chi ph xp hng ln tu khng c tnh vo iu kin FAS. 4. Cost and Freight (C&F): C&F (hoc CFR, CPT) ngha l chi ph vn chuyn c m rng ra ngoi quc gia xut khu. Mc d trch nhim php l ca ngi bn chm dt khi hng c xp ln phng tin vn chuyn ti cng xut khu. Nhng ngi bn vn phi chu trch nhim hp ng v thanh ton tin vn chuyn hng ha n cng s bc d hng nc ngoi. Ngi mua chu trch nhim mua bo him. 5. Cost Insurance, and freight (CIF): iu kin ny th n cng ging nh C&F ch c iu l ngi bn phi mua thm bo him. 6.EX Dock: EX Dock (v DEQ) i ngi bn phi tn thm nhiu chi ph xp hng vo mt kho bn trong ca cng nhp khu nc ngoi k c phi chu chi ph thu nhp khu ca l hng . 2. La chn cc iu kin thng mi: (Selection of Trade Terms) quyt nh khi no nn s dng iu kin no, nh xut khu nn xem xt cc yu t sau:

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Vic vn chuyn c thc hin bi phng tin thuc trong nc hay thuc nc ngoi. Cc thng tin v chi ph nc ng bo him. Nhu cu ca nh xut khu l cn tin (l do ny khng ph hp vi iu kin C&F v CFR/CPT) Nhu cu ca nh nhp khu c nhiu bng biu ga t nhiu nh cung cp tin trong vic so snh (nn chn iu kin CIF & CIP) Cc vn chuyn i tin t. Ngi mua nn chn iu kin FOB thanh ton cc vn chuyn bng tin t ca nc mnh. Tuy nhin, nu hng vn ti thuc nc ngoi th n vn tip tc l vn trong chuyn i tin t. Nhng yu cu ca chnh ph nc nhp khu. VD: mt vi quc gia ang pht trin i hi phi mua hng vi iu kin FOB th h mi cp giy php nhp khu. iu ny nhm mc ch u v pht trin cc hng tu bin v bo him ca nc nhp khu. Nhiu nh nhp khu yu cu iu kin CIF (hoc CIP) h d dng so snh gi, sau h li mua hng vi gi FOB. S Bin gi l mt phn quan trng trong chin lc tip th xut khu. Mt cch l tng, s Bin gi nn thc hin hnh thc no thch hp nht i vi khch hng nh h c cung cp bi cc i th cnh tranh ca nh xut khu. Thng thng h hay i cho gi theo iu kin CIF hoc CIP v l mt cch duy nht h cho php ngi mua so snh gi c d dng t cc nh cung cp thuc cc a phng khc nhau. 3. Cho gi CIF: y l mt trong nhng cch cho gi ph bin nht trong ngoi thng. Cch cho gi CIF rt kh gii thch mt cch chnh xc. V theo thng l cc nh xut khu thng cng thm 10% i vi gi tr c bo him b p cc chi ph v tn tht khng c tnh trong gi CIF. V vy, gi tr CIF l tin hng ha, cc vn ti ti cng n v chi ph bo him trn 110% ca gi tr CIF. C hai phng php nh gi bo him khi gi C&F c xc nh. l phng php phng chng v phng php tnh theo cng thc.

3.1 Phng php phng chng (The Estimate Method)


Nh xut khu s dng phng php phng chng ch n gin thm 10% vo gi C&F. Sau , nu ph bo him l X% ng ta ly X% ca gi C&F v sau thm vo 10%. con s cui cng c cng thm vo gi C&F. C rt nhiu nh xut khu p dng phng php tnh phng chng ny v khng n cc cch tnh khc.

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3.2 Phng php theo cng thc (The Formula Method)

Vic thm vo 10% y ch l thng l nhm mc ch tnh mua bo him. Nhiu cng ty c th tnh 15% hoc mt t l phn trm no khc thay th cho t l 10%, khi t l phn trm thay i th con s tng ng trong cng thc cng c thay i cho ph hp.

3.3 Cch tnh ton cc hng hi: (Computation of Ocean Freight)


Long Ton : 2240 pounds 40 cubic feet Short Ton : 2000 pounds Metric Ton : 2204,62 pounds pound=0,454 Kg. VI. NH GI CHUYN NI B (Transfer Pricing) Vic nh gi khng ch p dng i vi cc sn phm bn cho khch hng c lp, m n cn thc hin i vi cc sn phm c chuyn cho cc cng ty con hoc ban iu hnh nc ngoi, ni m nh xut khu c mt phn s hu. Nh vy, vic nh gi sn phm c cung cp cho cc cng ty m nh xut khu c quyn s hu ton phn hoc mt phn i vi cc cng ty , c gi l gi chuyn ni b (Transfer Prices). Chnh sch nh gi chuyn ni b quc t v ngha rng th n cng ging nh chnh sch nh gi chuyn ni b trong nc. Tuy nhin, khi xem xt k th ngi ta nhn thy rng cc chi tit trong vic nh gi chuyn giao quc t phc tp hn nhiu i vi trong nc v tin trnh ra quyt nh cng b nh hng bi nhiu yu t quan trng. 1. Phn quyn v cc trung tm li nhun (Decentralization and Profit Centers) Trc ht cn phi lm r nhu cu ca vic nh gi chuyn giao ch xut hin khi cng ty phn cp qun l, giao quyn hn v trch nhim lm cho mi n v phi hch ton v li nhun t kt qu hot ng kinh doanh. Nhng l do phn quyn nh vy c th do yu cu ca lut php hoc cng tc qun l. Cc lut l lin quan n cc t chc ca cng ty, thu kha v cc vn khc cn c thc hin i vi n v c s , cc phng ban ca cng ty trong vic c phn cng hot ng mt cch c lp. Theo cc iu kin nh vy, cc chng t v ti chnh ca n v phi c gi y nh ca cng ty xut khu. Cng ty nh l mt trung tm li nhun. Nu khng v l do th vic nh gi chuyn ni b p ng theo yu cu ca cc c quan thu trong nc v ngoi nc. Thc ra, vic nh gi chuyn ni b c xem xt ch yu nh l mt phng tin kim tra vic thc hin ca cc phng ban v iu phi cc dng li nhun v tin bc i vi cc cng ty con nc ngoi. Tuy nhin, c mt bng chng vng chc rng vic nh gi chuyn ni b k c vic nh gi chuyn ni b ra nc ngoi c th c p dng cho quyt nh tip th. nh gi chuyn ni b c tm quan trng ln cho vic gip cc gim c tip th t c cc mc tiu chin lc trong vic lm thay i mi trng quc t.

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2. nh gi chuyn ni b i vi cc v tinh nc ngoi m cng ty s hu hon ton (Transfer Pricing to Wholly owned Foreign Subsidiaries) i vi cc v tinh cng ty xut khu s hu hon ton th cc yu t nh khong cch a l, chi ph thng tin lin lc v s phn quyn i vi tng cp a phng lm phc tp qu trnh nh gi chuyn ni b xut khu v hng lot phc tp do thu quan, quy nh ca chnh ph cng nh hng n s quyt nh. V cc iu kin th trng v cnh tranh rt khc nhau gia cc nc, tht l kh khn pht trin mt chnh sch c th p dng mt cch ng nht. Trong trng hp ni m cng ty s hu 100% th cng ty c ton quyn quyt nh ai s kim tra vic thit lp gi chuyn ni b, VD: Ban Gim c cng ty, cc n v bn hng, cc i th cnh tranh (bng gi th trng ) n v mua hng hoc mt s kt hp no . Nhn t quyt nh ai s nh gi chuyn ni b v phng php c p dng l thuc mt phn no cc yu cu ca cng ty i vi chi ph v thng tin v li nhun. Mt cch tiu biu, thng tin ny c s dng cho cc quyt nh lm hay mua. Vic ra quyt nh cho gi c ca sn phm cui cng, quyt nh thm vo hay rt i cc sn phm, v quyt nh cho kinh ph ca chi ph u t. Vn nh gi chuyn ni b c hai phm vi: (1) Nn c nh nh th no. (2) Ai s nh gi chuyn ni b. Nhng cu hi ny c s lin quan vi nhau v bt c ai nh gi s c mt nh hng nht nh n s quyt nh nhng yu t ca n cn nhc v c trng lng tng i a ra cho mi yu t.

2.1 Gi chuyn ni b nn c nh nh th no? (How should transfer prices to be set?)


Mt s phng php nh gi chuyn ni b c th v kim tra bi cc cng ty c cc quy m v dy sn phm khc nhau. Ngoi kinh nghim ny cn c mt s hng dn. Tuy nhin, vn cha c mt s thng nht chung l phng php nh ga no l tt nht, khng c phng php no l tt nht cho mi hon cnh v phng php tt nht cho mt cng ty ty thuc vo cc c im ca cng ty v mc ch ca gi c c chuyn i. Cc nhn t nh hng n vic nh gi chuyn ni b ri vo ba loi tng qut sau: Gi th trng cnh tranh k c gi danh sch v gi mua ca i th cnh tranh. Chi ph: bao gm chi ph sn xut, chi ph b my phn phi, thu quan trong v ngoi nc v thu thu nhp ca cng ty.

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Hn ch v lut php: bao gm cc chnh sch chnh tr, vic kim tra ca chnh ph v cc lut nc ngoi chng li cc vic thc hnh nh s phn bit gi v ph gi. c bit hn na, mt s nghin cu cc tng cng ty a quc gia ca M ch ra rng cc iu kin th trng v s cnh tranh nc ngoi l hai nhn t nh hng quan trng nht i vi gi chuyn ni b cho xut khu. Nu mc ch ca vic nh gi chuyn ni b l cung cp cc d kin v li nhun nh vy n l s cn thit c th xc nh c tnh hnh li nhun mt cch chnh xc. Nhng quyt nh nh vy phi c thc hin trn c s cc t l c chn la thu hi li nhun t s u t. Tuy ngn hn cng nh di hn chi ph c hi cng phi c xem xt. Nh vy, c s ca vic xem xt ny nn t gi chuyn ni b trn gi th trng cnh tranh hoc s phng on tt nht v gi th trng v yu cu n v mua hng phi mua vi gi ni b. Theo chnh sch ny, nu n v bn hng c chi ph qu cao, li nhun ca n s chu ng v vic qun l ca phn b s nhanh chng iu chnh tnh hnh hoc phi ng u vi Ban qun tr cng ty vi mt h s li nhun qu yu km. Nu mc ch ca gi chuyn ni b l gip Ban qun tr trong vic nh gi sn hoc gi ca cc sn phm cui cng hoc gi nh mc ch l chuyn dch li nhun cho mt Ban iu hnh nc ngoi, vic s dng chi ph ng c thc hin nh l mt phng tin mang tnh quyt nh i vi gi chuyn ni b. C nhng quan nim v chi ph c lin quan khc nhau xem xt. Trong ngn hn chi ph bin t c th l mt s lin quan ti thiu. V mi s lng chi ph vt qu nh vy s to ra nh hng trc tip n li nhun thun. V di hn, chi ph y hoc chi ph chun c th gn hn vi s ti thiu l tng n s gip Ban qun tr quyt nh nn hay khng nn ngun lc ca cng ty c s dng to li nhun ti a v nu khng, iu chnh tnh hnh. Theo quan im ca cc vin chc quan thu nc ngoi (nhm mc ch nh gi hng ha v p gi thu quan) cng rt quan trng. gim thiu ti a thu quan, thng nn xem xt cch nh gi cng st vi chi ph cng tt. Tuy nhin mt s nc i hi vic nh thu quan l Gi th trng cng bng hoc c quan nim v gi c lin quan n gi th trng ca danh mc hng ha quc gia xut khu. Cc quy nh v thu ca nc ngoi v trong nc v s bt buc ca h cng nh hng n chi ph nh l nhng nn tng ca gi c. T l thu khc nhau gia cc nc, khi thu thu nhp cng ty nc nh cao hn t l thu nc m cng ty con ang ng, phng php thc hin l nh gi chuyn i st vi chi ph theo mc c php. Tuy nhin, c quan thu li tc c th chng i vic s dng thu nh l mt tiu chun cho vic nh gi chuyn ni b. V li, lut chng ph gi c p dng ch hn ch s t do ca ngi bn trong vic nh gi da trn chi ph.

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Vic nh gi chuyn ni b cng thm chi ph c nhiu nhc im l khng th nh gi m bo li nhun ti a, nu n l mc tiu. Gi c c nh theo cch ny c th khng to ra s khuyn khch mt cch y i vi b phn sn xut chi ph gim thiu ti a. Tuy nhin, chi ph tiu chun c th c tha mn nh l mt c s cho gi c chuyn ni b cng thm chi ph nu tiu chun l chnh xc. Phng php nh gi chuyn ni b s dng c gi chi ph v gi th trng cnh tranh c th cho php hon ho cc mc tiu mong c khng phi gnh chu nhng nhc im m mi phng php c p dng ring l. VD: mt h thng c th c xy dng ni gi chuyn ni b th nh gi chi ph, nhng n v bn hng th c hng tn dng vi mt phn trm nht nh ca li nhun thun kt qu t mi tin trnh xa hn v s bn hng sau cng. Mt h thng nh vy c th c p dng gim thiu thu v thu quan cng mt lc to ra cc d liu li nhun. C mt s cn thit l phi c mt mc linh hot trong qu trnh thnh lp gi chuyn ni b c duy tr. Nu s linh hot c duy tr v nu li nhun ca n v bn v mua hng cng nh ton th cng ty ng c xem xt. Mt h thng thng lng hay tr gi l cn thit. Vic thng lng cng c mt s nhc im. Vic tho lun c th ko di v chn nn. Cc s thng lng ny c th to ra s ci v mt on kt gia cc phng ban. Mc d s thng lng v tha thun phi c xem xt trong mt thi hn, lng thi gian b ra cho s thng lng c th b gi trong nhng gii hn chp nhn c. C l, nhc im ln nht ca vic thng lng, mt phng din khc l xy ra s tranh chp khiu ni. Nu vic khiu ni c gii quyt trn c s bi sc mnh c nhn hoc v th quyn lc trong cng ty, mi quan h ni b, hp tc lnh mnh ca cng ty c th b hy dit. Nu gi chuyn ni b c p t trn cc nh qun tr, c cng c th lm cn ngi s trng thnh v li ch vt cht v tinh thn. iu ng c mong c ca mi h thng nh gi chuyn ni b c lin quan n cc c im ca cng ty v cc sn phm m cng ty bn. Mt cng ty tng i nh vi ch vi n v iu hnh nc ngoi, vic thu nhn thm nhn vin bi cc nh qun l, ngi ny bit rt rnh v nhng ngi khc thng c th iu hnh kh linh hot hn l cng ty ln. Quy m ca cng ty cng lin quan n mt s v kiu sn phm trong h sn phm ca cng ty. V gi chuyn ni b ca cc sn phm khc nhau c th nn c nh bi cc phng php khc nhau. Tnh hnh ny cc cng ty ln phi i u mt cch phc tp. C mt tc gi, cng nhn tnh hnh ny, cch y lu, gii thiu cc phng php nh gi chuyn ni b c thit lp bng cch phn loi sn phm thnh ba nhm: 1.Loi A: gm nhng sn phm m c l n cha tng c sn xut bi cc nh cung cp bn ngoi cng ty bi v sn phm khng sn c, s b mt
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c gi hoc cht lng c duy tr v n ch c sn xut trong ni b cng ty. 2.Loi B: gm nhng sn phm t khi t hng n khi sn xut phi mt mt thi gian di v i hi mt chi ph u t ng k. VD: sn xut cc b phn ca xe auto hoc xe gn my. 3. Loi C: bao gm nhng sn phm m ngi sn xut c th thay i trong mt thi gian ngn. Tc gi ny tip tc gii thiu rng: 1. Gi chuyn ni b cho sn phm loi A nn t mc cnh tranh di hn, ngay c mt s phng chng tng i cho loi gi c nh vy c th c thc hin. 2. Gi chuyn ni b cho sn phm loi B nn t mc cnh tranh di hn v c iu chnh cho ngn hn bt thng. 3.Vic nh gi chuyn ni b cho sn phm loi C nn c t mc cnh tranh hin hnh. Ni chung, hu ht cc ngi c thm quyn v vic nh gi chuyn ni b cm thy rng nu ti liu li nhun t cc trung tm li nhun c s dng hon thin cc mc tiu qun l, chnh sch nh gi phi nhm n vic nh gi c chuyn ni b cnh tranh l lut thu. Mt l do khc cho vic s dng gi c chuyn ni b cnh tranh l lut thu thng c t ra ngn chn vic di chuyn quyn ti phn v li tc trong s cc n v da th ca cng ty trn thu. Mt cuc kim tra quan trng dng nh vic gi chuyn ni b th hp l hn thay v ti phn. Mt trong nhng bng chng mnh m nht rng gi c th cng bng v hp l l gi khng ch da vo gi th trng m n c thit lp lin quan n mi quan h chiu di ca nhng cnh tay, yu cu chiu di ca nhng cnh tay cng l mt lp lun mnh m ng h vic cho php gi c c thit lp bi s tr gi gia cc n v mua bn vi n v mua c ton quyn mua bn ngoi nu h mun. V gi c cnh tranh c th khc nhau gia cc th trng mt cng ty ly gi chuyn ni b da trn c s cc iu kin cnh tranh mi th trng c th phi t nhiu gi khc nhau cho mi th trng. Mt cch tp hp nh gi nh vy khng ch phc tp tn km i vi nh qun l m s bt ha c th xut hin gia cc n v ca cng ty. V li, c quan thu li tc trong nc v ngoi nc c th chng i nu h cm thy rng gi chuyn ni b khc nhau c th to ra s di chuyn li nhun t mt nc ny sang mt nc khc v do nh hng n li tc chu thu. Mt cuc kim tra gi l mc ch kinh doanh yu cu rng ni c mc ch qun tr chng minh c cho vic p dng mt phng php ring cho vic nh gi chuyn ni b. Ni no c nhng phng php khc nhau nhng tha mn cn bng ca vic nh gi chuyn ni b c sn, x nghip kinh doanh khng b ngn nga t s chn la phng php m i vi h c li v thu. Tuy nhin, ni chung, mc ch kinh doanh phi ti cao. Nh vy, dng nh phng php nh gi chuyn ni b s c chnh ph chp

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nhn nu phng php ny p ng c chiu di ca nhng cnh tay hoc kim tra mc ch kinh doanh v khng phi l mc ch trnh thu.

2.2 Ai s nh gi chuyn ni b (Who should set transfer prices?)


Quyn lc nh gi chuyn ni b c th c duy tr bi Ban qun l cng ty hoc i biu i vi n v mua hoc n v bn. Mt s tha hip c th cho php n v bn nh gi nhng cng cho php n v mua mua ngoi nu h mun. Hoc Ban qun l c th cho cc b phn bn v mua nn thng lng vi nhau v gi chuyn ni b. Khi iu ny l mt chnh sch Ban qun l cng ty ch tham gia vo cc cuc thng lng khi c s tranh chp xy ra. 3. Vic nh gi chuyn ni b i vi cc x nghip m cng ty c mt phn s hu

(Transfer pricing to partially owned foreign enterprices)


Tng i ph bin cho cc cng ty c mt phn quyn li vic iu hnh nc ngoi trong vic i tc vi cng ty nc ngoi hoc x nghip khc ng cng quc gia nh. Khi vic nm gi quyn li mt phn hoc trong trng hp lin doanh, ngi bn khng th c quyn gi c i vi vic chuyn gi ni b. Bn cht c lp ca ngui mua yu cu gi c phi c nh theo quyn li ca cc ch s hu khc hoc cc i tc trong lin doanh. Vic nh gi chuyn ni b i vi ban iu hnh nc ngoi m cng ty khng s hu hon ton lin quan n mt s s xem xt thm, m s xem xt ny c lin quan n vic nh gi cho cc cng ty con m nh xut khu s hu hon ton. C rt t l do nh gi chuyn ni b cng st vi chi ph cng tt bi v s chuyn dch li nhun ra nc ngoi c ngha l i tc s chia x trong . Tng t, cng khng hp l nu vic chuyn i c thc hin nc ngoi cao hn gi th trng c cnh tranh. Trong thc t, c th c mt phn p lc ca i tc nc ngoi gi chuyn ni b phi thp hn gi th trng bn ngoi. Tin trnh nh gi chuyn ni b trong hon cnh nh vy th ging nh tin trnh nh gi i vi i tc th ba. Cch thc hnh thng thng th dng nh ging cuc m phn chiu di ca cnh tay vi iu kin ngi mua c ton quyn mua bn ngoi. Tuy nhin, nu lin doanh c thnh lp cho mt mc ch c bit, c l sn xut mt s sn phm khng c sn u , gi chuyn ni b c th c nh trn c s cc yu t thm vo v sn sng tho lun. VD: mc ch ca lin doanh l c thm nhp bi hai bn. Nh vy, mi li nhun m x nghip thu c s c chia l, hai phn tng ng cho hai c ng hoc gi li cho hot ng kinh doanh. Hoc mi bn u nhn c
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50% sn phm sn xut ra, c hai x nghip u c li tng ng vi nhau.Theo nhng iu kin nh vy, cch iu hnh hay nht i vi nh my l ly c s im ha vn. Gi c c tnh cho hai khch hng ca nh my c th tnh cao mt cch va phi b p chi ph. Tuy nhin, nu mt trong hai i tc nhn phn nhiu hn ca sn phm ca lin doanh, i tc ny s hng li nhiu hn i tc kia. Nu sn phm ca lin doanh yu cu cc b phn c sn xut bi mt trong cc i tc, tnh hnh tr nn phc tp hn nhiu. Ni chung, theo hon cnh ny, i tc bn b phn cho lin doanh rt mun nh gi cao, i tc kia mun nh gi thp. Khng c s hng dn chung hng dn cc bn trong vic nh gi chuyn ni b trong mt tnh hnh nh vy. Vic thc hnh thng thng i vi cc bn trong bi cnh ca mt lin doanh nh vy l: Tnh s lng b phn c cung cp bi mt hoc c hai bn. Phng chng phn sn lng ca lin doanh chia cho mi bn. Xem xt n cc yu t thu quan v thu. m phn mt hp ng c ni dung theo mt cng thc c th cho vic tnh ton gi chuyn ni b. Tm tt: Chng ny xem xt vic nh gi xut khu. Vn ch yu c a ra bao gm cc nhn t nh hng gi c, chin lc nh gi, gi xut khu v gi ni a c lin quan nh th no, cc yu t ca vic cho gi v nh gi chuyn ni b. Mc d cc vn nh gi xut khu c nhiu cch ging nh vic xem xt gi ni a, c cc yu t, ch ring i vi tip th ngoi thng mi gp phi; cc nh xut khu phi i ph vi nhiu vn phc tp hn khi s lng th trng m h thm nhp nhiu hn ( v cc th trng ny thng tri ngc nhau).

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Thng tin & xc tin Marketing xut khu

I. KHI NIM Thng tin ng mt vai tr rt quan trng trong marketing xut khu mc d thng tin khng to ra c sn phm hay dch v nhng n rt cn thit trong vic cung cp nhng tin tc gip cho khch hng a ra quyt nh mua hng. Thng tin trong marketing xut khu l mt loi thng tin xuyn vn ha, gia nhng ngi mt nn vn ha ny v nhng ngi mt nn vn ha khc. Thng thng nn vn ha ca mt nc ny s khc vi nn vn ha ca mt nc khc, v i khi trong mt nc li c s khc bit vi nhau v vn ha. VD: n , Trung Quc. Hoc cc khc th trng ca cc nc khc nhau v vn ha. VD: - S thch ca gii tr cc nc Chu u v xe mt hay m nhc li ging nhau. - Vn ha gia nh truyn thng ca mt s nc Trung Quc, Vit Nam, Hn Quc li tng t nhau. Xc tin marketing xut khu l lm th no chuyn c cc thng tin t nh xut khu n khch hng nc ngoi, vt qua c cc ro cn do s khc bit v vn ha nh: s khc nhau v ngn ng, quy nh ca chnh ph, phng tin truyn thng i chng ... II. CC QUYT NH THNG TIN V XC TIN XUT KHU Trong marketing xut nhp khu, doanh nghip xut khu phi a ra quyt nh trong hot ng xc tin c lin quan n cc vn sau: Cc loi thng tin no cn c chuyn ti khch hng? Chn la phng tin truyn thng no? Chi ph v n lc dnh cho hot ng ny l bao nhiu? Mun a ra cc quyt nh trn nh tip th xut nhp khu phi xem xt nhiu loi hnh xc tin khc nhau: Cho hng (personal selling) Qung co (advertising) Khuyn mi (sales promotion): bao gm tt c nhng hot ng nhm b sung v h tr cho vic cho hng v qung co. Cc hot ng ny thng khng lp li v c tng t ngn hn khc nhau. Mi quan h cng chng (publicity): bao gm tt c nhng thng tin v cng ty hoc sn

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phm ca cng ty c truyn t bi mt s c quan truyn thng v cng ty khng phi tr tin qung co (v l thuyt) Nh vy qung co ch l mt trong nhng b phn ca thng tin hay xc tin. Vn quan trng l cc hot ng xc tin hn hp, c p dng nhn mnh ln chin lc ko (pull) hoc y (push)

Chin lc ko: qung co v gii thiu nhiu v sn phm, to cho khch hng c nhu cu v mun mua sn phm trc khi sn phm c
a ra th trng. VD: G rn Kentucky.

1. Chin lc ko & y:

Chin lc y: Hng ha c a ra cc knh phn phi, n tn cc im bn l trong khi khch hng cha hiu bit nhiu v sn phm,

khch hng phi da vo s hng dn, gii thiu ca nhn vin bn hng trc khi a ra quyt nh mua. Vic chn chin lc y hay ko hoc kt hp c hai tu thuc vo iu kin ca th trng, sn phm v kh nng ca doanh nghip xut khu.

VD:

Xc tin bn qu kim Thi Lan. - Ru Henessy Vit Nam ko m khng y 2. Quyt nh thng tin : Nh xut khu thng tin n th trng mc tiu l cung cp nhng tin tc v sn phm i vi khch hng tim nng, thuyt phc h tr thnh nhng ngi mua hng, pht trin thi tch cc ca h i vi sn phm v to ra s thay i v suy ngh ca h i vi sn phm theo hng c li cho nh xut khu. Cc kh khn lm cho s thng tin c hiu qu l nh xut khu phi thng tin vi cc quc gia c nhng kiu mu v hnh vi thi gi tr c pht trin t cc nn vn ha khc nhau. Vn tr ngi khng nhng li ni hay ch vit m cn th hin cc vn khng th ni ra c nh: kiu cch n mc, vic nh thi gian tip xc, cc c ch, vic s dng khng gian khi tip cn khch hng ... Vn quan trng ca mt nh xut khu A i vi mt khch hng B l phi bit t mnh vo v tr ca ngi khch hng to ra mt s hiu bit v thng cm ln nhau. 3. Quyt nh biu tng: Biu tng c vai tr quan trng trong vic thit lp mi thin cm ca khch hng tim nng: Mu sc l mt loi biu tng nhn thy c.

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Nhng hnh nh ngi hoc vt (A beast is a beast and a man is a man - Allah VD: - Deer: ting lng Brazil t ny c hiu l ng tnh luyn i - Owl: l biu tng ca im xu. Cch b tr qung co. Ngi M thch c nhn thy sn phm vi cc thnh phn, yu t tnh nng ca n trong khi ngi Php thch thy biu tng v ngha ca sn phm. III. CC K THUT XC TIN 1. Cho hng (personnal selling) Vic cho hng l cng tc tip th thng qua con ngi. Vic thnh cng hay tht bi ty thuc vo cng tc chun b nhn s. i vi Nht Bn th phng php cho hng c da rt nhiu vo cc ti liu v d kin. Ngi i din bn hng lun mang theo mnh cc ti liu tr li mt cch thng sut cc cu hi ca khch hng mt cch nhanh chng. Hot ng cho hng phi t c mt s yu cu cn bn: + Hot ng bn hng thc s: cung cp nhng thng tin v sn phm cho khch hng v phi ly c n hng. + Mi quan h vi khch hng: nhn vin bn hng phi lun quan tm n vic duy tr v ci thin v tr ca cng ty vi khch hng v cng chng. + Thu thp tin tc v cung cp thng tin : nhn vin bn hng thng c th cung cp nhng thng tin c ch cho vic hoch nh cc chng trnh khuyn mi v qung co. 2. Khuyn mi: Nhng cng c khuyn mi nh: catalog, hng mu, film, slide film, hi ch v trin lm thng mi v cc ti liu, cng c ti im bn hng, ... Catalog: cc mc tiu m catalog cn phi t: + To nn s quan tm v hp dn ngi c nh: mu sc p, in n tt, ni dung d hiu. + Mu hng: to iu kin cho khch hng hiu r v trnh nhm ln khi t hng nht l v kiu, c ca sn phm. + i vi cc mu hng nh t gi tr c th gi tng cho khch hng thng qua ng bu in, i l bn hng ti nc ngoi, chi nhnh v ngi cho hng lu ng. + i vi sn phm c kch c ln, gi tr cao th nh xut khu c th thnh lp cc Showroom, Trade Show v cc cuc trin lm, hi ch trng by. Tp ch ca cng ty (company published magazine)

say so)

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Do cng ty t bin tp v n hnh thng tin v cc hot ng ca cng ty cho ni b v khch hng bit nh: s thnh cng ca cc i l, nh phn phi, cc tng tip th, tin ca cng ty, kt qu cuc thi c thng, khen thng nhn vin v cc thng tin v sn phm ca cng ty ... Phim, slide v my vi tnh: + Phim v bng vido dng gii thiu cng ty v sn phm ca cng ty i vi khch hng, cc i l, cc nh phn phi. + Slide: t tn km hn nhng khng gy n tng bng. + My vi tnh: cng ty nn t sn phn mm cung cp d liu v bo co cng nh mi quan h thng tin qua li gia cng ty v cc nh phn phi, i l. Seminas thng bo tuyn dng. Hi ch thng mi v trin lm (Trade fairs and Exhibitions) + Hi ch thng mi dng mua bn sn phm, k kt hp ng, to mi quan h gia cng ty v cc nh phn phi, i l. Hi ch thng mi khng nhng chng minh mt cng ty c t chc tt - nhm to uy tn, hnh nh tt p i vi cng chng, gii thiu sn phm - m cn cung cp sn phm cho khch hng vi gi chun ca n. + Trong hi ch thng mi nh xut khu trin lm sn phm ca mnh. 3. Mi quan h cng chng : (Publicity) L to mt hnh nh tt p ca ton b hot ng v sn phm ca cng ty thng qua bo ch v cc hot ng khc m theo l thuyt l cng ty khng phi tr tin qung co. 4. Qung co: Chi ph cho qung co Vit Nam: 1992: 8,1 triu USD 1993: 12 triu USD 1994: 70 triu USD 1995: 141 triu USD 1996: 271 triu USD (Ngun tin: Bo Tui Tr 11/12/1997) Khi tin hnh mt chng trnh qung co, qun tr vin marketing cn tin hnh nm quyt nh ch yu sau: (5M) - Mission : Mc tiu qung co l g? - Money : Chi ph l bao nhiu? - Message : Li truyn t cn phi gi ( AIDA) - Media : Phng tin knh thng tin no s dng? - Measurement : Kt qu c nh gi bng cch no?

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4.1 Khng kh qung co: (climate for advertising)


Khng kh qung co tt nht nn c nh gi thng qua vic xem xt cc yu t c lin quan n kinh t, x hi, vn ha, thi ca cng chng v php lut. Cc nhn t kinh t, x hi v vn ha: + H thng kinh t (Economic system): nn kinh t th trng thun li cho vic qung co hn l nn kinh t tp trung. Tuy nhin, ngay c trong nn kinh t tp trung, ngi ta cng c th s dng qung co iu chnh nhu cu i vi k hoch sn xut. + Cu trc x hi (social structure) : cu trc x hi hin i d chp nhn qung co hn i vi x hi thin v truyn thng. + Nn tng vn ha: (Cultural background): ngay c trong cc x hi hin i cng c s nhn nhn v thi khc nhau v qung co. C nc thin v c nhn ch ngha, c nc thin v cng ng. Dng nh nn vn ha thin v cng ng d chp nhn qung co hn. + Khng kh tn gio (Religious climate): cc nc ly tn gio lm quc o thng phn ng tiu cc i vi qung co hn l cc nc khng b nh hng qu nng n bi tn gio. Cc nhn t lut php v chnh tr: + c quyn quc gia: c mt s nc s hu v iu hnh hon ton hoc mt phn cc phng tin truyn thng c bit i vi pht thanh v truyn hnh. + Kim duyt (censorship): c mt s nc kim duyt rt gt gao i vi ni dung v hnh thc qung co. + Hn ch qung co (restriction on advertising): - S hn ch c th hon ton hoc mt phn v c th nh hng n hon ton cc phng tin truyn thng i chng hoc c s cho php hn ch. - C th c s hn ch mt s sn phm nh: ru, bia, thuc l ... - C nc hn ch thi lng qung co. - C nc cm so snh hn hoc so snh cao nht. - C nc quy nh qung co phi ni ng s tht.

4.2 Phng tin truyn thng quc t : t tn km hn phi qung co ti mi nc s ti.


VD: c / o; M / Canada Tp ch, bo ch chuyn ngnh.

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4.3 Truyn thng ti nc ngoi (foreign media)

- Bo ch , tp ch. - Bng hiu, poster, car card : p dng nhng nc c thu nhp thp. - Radio. - TV. - Th trc tip. - rp chiu phim. - a truyn thng.

4.4 Ni dung qung co:

Cn da theo nguyn tc AIDA A: get Attention (li cun s ch ) I : hold Interest (lm cho thch th) D: create Desire (to s ham mun) A: lead to Action (dn n hnh ng mua hng) 5. Nhn xt chung: Cho hng c nhn: l bin php c hiu qu cao nht, nhng cng tn km chi ph nht, nhn vin cho hng phi lun xa nh cho nhng qung thi gian di nht nh. Hi ch thng mi: c rt nhiu thun li. Quan h cng chng: vic quan trng nht l to c s tn nhim, ngoi ra cn c hnh thc ti tr cho cc cuc thi u th thao chng hn. i vi hng tiu dng th nn to ra s chp nhn nhn hiu th trng mc tiu mt cc rng ri. i vi sn phm cng nghip th vic cho hng c nhn l bin php tt nht. IV. CHIN LC V CHNG TRNH XC TIN Mc tiu cn t l: Thuyt phc khch hng v cht lng sn phm. M t v gii thiu tnh hiu qu ca sn phm trong vic tha mn mt nhu cu c th. To ra hnh nh tt p ca cng ty nh l mt nh cung cp ng tin cy. Vic hoch nh chin lc xc tin sn phm lin quan n cc vn . t ra mc tiu xc tin. Quyt nh loi hnh qung co v thng tin xc tin; chn la phng tin thng tin. n nh cc khon thi gian, n lc v tin bc u t cho k hoch xc tin.
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Phng php xut khu & h thng phn phi hng ha

Phng php xut khu thng thng nht l bn gin tip v bn trc tip. Trong trng hp bn gin tip nh xut khu phi thng qua cc t chc hoc c nhn lm trung gian. Trong vic bn hng trc tip, nh xut khu phi lm n trc tip vi mt nh nhp khu nc ngoi. quyt nh nn xut khu trc tip hoc gin tip, doanh nghip xut khu cn phi xem xt mt s yu t nh sau: Tm vc ca cng ty. c tnh ca sn phm do cng ty lm ra. Kinh nghim v xut khu qua v kh nng chuyn mn ca cng ty. Cc iu kin v kinh doanh ti cc th trng c tuyn chn nc ngoi. I. XUT KHU GIN TIP Loi hnh ny gip cho cc cng ty nh c mt phng thc thm nhp vo th trng nc ngoi m khng phi ng u vi nhng rc ri v ri ro nh trong xut khu trc tip. Nh sn xut c th xut khu gin tip thng qua cc t chc hoc c nhn nh sau: Cng ty qun l xut khu. Khch hng ngoi kiu. Nh y thc xut khu. Nh mi gii xut khu. Hng bun xut khu. II. XUT KHU TRC TIP

Thun li: cc li th i vi mt cng ty trc tip xut khu l kim sot c nhiu hn tin trnh xut khu, c kh nng thu c nhiu li

nhun v nm c mt cch cht ch hn mi quan h vi ngi mua bn ngoi v th trng lin quan.

Kh khn: cng ty mt nhiu thi gian, tn nhiu nhn s v s dng nhiu ngun ti lc ca cng ty hn xut khu gin tip.
Mt nh xut khu trc tip thng tuyn chn k cc th trng m h mun thm nhp vo, chn ra cc h thng phn phi ring cho mi th trng. 1. Ci t c cu t chc c th phc v xut khu:

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Cng ty nn tch ri vic qun l xut khu ra khi vic qun l kinh doanh trong nc, nhm tp trung c ti nng chuyn mn p ng nhu cu i ph vi th trng quc t v th hai l n lc tip th c tp trung s dn n kt qu l mc xut khu s tng. Thng thng cng ty s lp ra mt Phng xut nhp khu hoc Phng giao dch quc t. S thnh cng ca mt cng ty ti cc th trng nc ngoi ty thuc vo cc phng php tip th nhiu hn l cht lng sn phm. 2. H thng phn phi: Mt khi cng ty c t chc phc v xut khu th cn phi la chn h thng phn phi thch nghi cho mi th trng, cc h thng ny bao gm cc i din thng mi, cc i l, cc nh phn phi, cc nh bn l v nhng ngi tiu th sau cng.

2.1 Vn phng i din hoc chi nhnh ca cng ty nc ngoi. 2.2 i din thng mi:
Mt nh i din thng mi thng ph trch i din cho nhiu h thng thng mi hoc sn xut c th b sung cho nhau nhng khng cnh tranh vi nhau. i din thng mi thng hot ng trn c s c hng hoa hng, khng gnh chu ri ro hoc trch nhim. i din thng mi c th lm vic trn c s c quyn hoc khng c quyn.

2.3 i l:
Thng l mt ngi i din c nhiu quyn hn v c th c y nhim hnh x mi vn thay mt cng ty m ng ta lm i din.

2.4 Nh phn phi:


L mt nh bun mua hng ca nh xut khu vi mt gi c chit khu v bn li hng ha kim li. Nh phn phi chuyn nghip thng phn phi mt lot nhiu sn phm c th b sung cho nhau nhng khng cnh tranh li vi nhau.

2.5 Nh bn l nc ngoi:
Mt cng ty xut khu cng c th bn hng trc tip cho mt nh bn l nc ngoi mc d trong cc loi thng v nh th, th h thng ngi tiu dng ni chung thng b gii hn.

2.6 Bn hng trc tip cho ngi s dng sau cng:


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Mt cng ty xut khu c th bn sn phm hoc dch v ca mnh trc tip cho ngi s dng hoc tiu dng sau cng nc ngoi. Nhng ngi mua hng trc tip ny c th l cc chnh ph nc ngoi, cc c quan nh bnh vin, trng hc hoc cc doanh nghip. Thng thng mi sn phm bn ra nc ngoi phi km theo s bo m, bo hnh hoc dch v km theo nh xut khu c th t chc nh h thng phn phi ca mnh nc ngoi thc hin cc dch v trn. III. PHN PHI SN PHM XUT KHU CA VIT NAM Nhn chung, tnh hnh xut khu Vit Nam trong nhng nm qua nh sau: Mng li bn hng, khch hng hp, nhiu trng hp phi thng qua trung gian. Quy m hot ng cn hn ch nn cc cng ty cha c tham vng hnh thnh mt mng li tiu th nc ngoi, vic tiu th sn phm ca cng ty c xem nh chm dt khi hng ri khi Vit Nam. Mt khc, v hot ng a dng, a ngnh hng nn phn ln cc cng ty khng th i vo chuyn su nhm pht huy s trng ca mnh lnh vc nht nh no. Bn cnh , c s vt cht k thut trang b lm hng xut khu thiu ng b, lc hu, h thng kho chuyn dng bo qun, d tr cn qu km... Nhng hn ch ny nh hng n t chc phn phi hp l hng xut khu n cc phn on ca th trng

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Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

T chc cc hot ng Marketing quc t

I.

YU CU

Trong giai on u ca hot ng marketing quc t, doanh nghip xut khu c th n gin ch vic s dng cc nh trung gian hoc thit lp mt b phn xut khu nh iu hnh vic xut khu cc sn phm c tiu chun ha. Khi cc hot ng xut khu pht trin, s cnh tranh quc t gia tng, b my xut khu phi c t chc chuyn su hn p ng mt cch y cho nhng yu cu ca khch hng nc ngoi... cng c s quan tm v phi tr v kim tra cc hot ng th trng nc ngoi. Nhng k nng v s nhy cm mi trong qun l c t ra. Nhng s thay i trong v tr ca cc chc nng then cht v trong cch ra quyt nh c theo ui p ng mt cch ng b i vi nhng nhu cu ca a phng i vi vic iu hnh mt cch thng nht v tp trung. Cc quyt nh phi c a ra d l i vi t chc ch yu da vo chc nng, sn phm, a l hay ngay c nhm khch hng. Mc tiu vic t chc cc hot ng marketing quc t l trch nhim ca cc nh qun tr cao cp phi i ph trong vic trin khai b my t chc ph hp vi nhng nhu cu v c hi ca mnh. Nhng mi e da v c hi t ra i vi t chc cng phi thay i theo duy tr s cnh tranh ca cng ty.

Cc s xem xt ch yu v s tn ti ca t chc quc t:


Khng c mt b my t chc hon ho ring l cho marketing quc t. S a dng v a l to ra s m rng chin lc quc t. Hiu qu ca cc hot ng nhiu khu vc v quc gia khc nhau ng mt vai tr quan trng v ch yu ca t chc. mc cn bn nht, vic thit k b my t chc marketing quc t c lin quan n ba vn : - Xc nh cc n v t chc ph thuc da trn c s chc nng v phm vi hot ng. - Chn la tp trung hay phn cp cc chc nng v nhim v c nhn. - Phn cng h thng kim tra v bo co. Kt qu ca cc vn ny mang tnh quyt nh mt cch tng qut v b my t chc. II. C CU T CHC (Organizational structures) 1. Phng xut khu theo chc nng (Functional export department)

91

Marketing xut nhp khu

TheGioiEbook.com

i vi cc nh sn xut mi c hot ng xut khu th nn tuyn dng mt cn b chuyn trch lm cng tc xut khu, cn b ny chu trch nhim trc qun tr vin marketing ni a. Khi hot ng xut khu pht trin thm nhiu khch hng v lc s thnh lp mt phng xut khu ring. B my ny ph hp vi cc x nghip va v nh hoc ngay c cc cng ty ln chuyn sn xut cc sn phm c tiu chun ha giai on u trong hot ng xut khu. Cc cng ty ln ny thng l cc cng ty thuc ngnh cng nghip khai thc nh hm m, du kh ... 2. Phng giao dch quc t: (International division) p dng cho nhng cng ty c nhiu sn phm v ang chim th phn ln ti th trng ni a, mi bt u hot ng xut khu. Trong trng hp ny trng phng giao dch quc t thng phi l ph tng gim c, chu trch nhim mi hot ng ca mnh trc tng gim c iu hnh ca cng ty. 3. C cu t chc da trn sn phm: (Organization structure based on product) i vi cng ty c nhiu sn phm a dng khc nhau nn c t chc b my marketing quc t da trn sn phm. M hnh ny xem sn phm l trung tm ca hot ng marketing quc t. 4. C cu t chc da trn vng a l: (Organization structure based on geographic area) M hnh ny ph hp cho cc cng ty a quc gia c tm hot ng rng khp th gii, ang thi k trng thnh v c cc sn phm c sn xut theo tiu chun ha. Tm hot ng ca cc cng ty ny c chia ra nh sau: th gii c chia ra thnh tng vng, vng c chia ra lm nhiu khu vc, mi khu vc c chia ra thnh tng nc hoc nhiu nc.

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