You are on page 1of 38

"A pupil from whom nothing is ever demanded that he

cannot do, never does all he can "


John Stuart Mill (1806-1873),
English philosopher and political economist


&



*





*


, , ,
,
, .
,

&

.

.
( )

.


,

.

&








( )

:
()
()

()

()
.

H


:
( )
( )
:
:
:

(behaviorism)
I. Pavlov
J.B. Watson, E.L.
Thorndike, B. F. Skinner
-: , ,
(feedback) (
)


, ,



.



Pavlov Ivan: (
)

B.F Skinner:
Pavlov - Skinner :
)


)

B. Skinner

( )

.
B.F. Skinner




( ).
4 :
)
)
)
) &


1.
2.

3. () &
()
4.
5.

6.

E. Thorndike
:




:

:

(
)

. .

.

.


.


.

Khler
*.


.

( Gestalt [ ] =

.
(The Mentality of Apes) (:


.

.
.

.
""
. ""
.
*

Lewin


(..
)
:
(.

..
)
(.
.. )

J. Piaget


.
(
)

:


:
( )
(

).

J. Bruner
:

( )
:

( )

( )

D. Ausubel



,



.


( )

.
: , ,
.

A. Maslow
(

)

.



.


( )

C. Rogers
.

.



, ,
, , ,

( ,
).
,
, .
( )
&
.
.

(. )

A. Combs

(
).
,
.
.

.

.


(
).

,


, , &

.

.


(.. , )

,
(, , , , , )
.

R. Gagn


(:
). ,
.
( ).
: .
[ ] : , ,
(
).
.

.


...

( )

: , ,

, , .

(
)

()

,






.

:

(2-8 )
( 15 )
(2-3

) :

,

.
Dewey : learning by doing (
)


,


Bloom

:
( &

)
(, , )
( )