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14 - 1 -

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I . : Fonctions Exponentielles :
1 . :
ln 0,

+ . ln
0,

+
0
lim ln , lim ln ,
x x
J x x
+
+

= = + = .
ln exp :

1
exp ln

=

2 . :
exp 0,

+ ) .
1
exp ln

= (
:
0
lim ln
x
x
+

= lim ln
x
x
+
= + . :
( )
lim exp 0
x
x

=
( )
lim exp
x
x
+
= +

( )
: exp 0 x x > .
exp R .
3 . :

( )
0, , : ln exp x y x y x y

+ = =
:
( ) ( )
ln 1 0 exp 0 1 = =

( ) ( )
ln 1 exp 1 e e = =

( ) ( )
2 2
ln 2 exp 2 e e = =
4 . :

:
:
( )
exp a x =
( )
exp b y = . :
( )
ln x a =
( )
ln y b = 0 a > 0 b > .
:
( ) ( ) ( )
ln ln ln ab a b x y = + = + 0 ab > . :
( )
exp ab x y = + . :
( ) ( ) ( )
exp exp exp x y x y + =
5 .
( )
exp x :
:
( )
: ln
r
r e r = . :
( )
: exp
r
r r e = . R :
:
( )
: exp
x
x x e =
( ) ( )
1
exp : 0,
exp ln x x x

+
=

x y n r :
( ) ( ) ( )
exp exp exp x y x y + =
( )
( )
1
exp
exp
x
x
=
( )
( )
( )
exp
exp
exp
x
y
x y =
( ) ( )
( )
exp exp
n
x nx =
( ) ( )
( )
exp exp
r
rx x =
14 - 2 -
6 . :

7 . :

:

x
t e = . :
x
t
+
+ . :
( ) ( )
1
lim lim lim
ln ln
x
x t t
e t
x t t
t
+ + +
= = = + .
: 0
x
t
+

. :
( )
0
lim lim ln
x
x t
xe t t
+

= = .
:
0
1
x
t

. :
( ) ( )
0 1 1
1 1 1
lim lim lim 1
ln ln
1
x
x t t
e t
x t t
t

= = =

.
: :
3 2
2
1
2
lim ; lim ; lim
lim ; lim 1 ; lim
x
x x
x x x
x x
x
x x x
e
C B x e A x e
x
F xe E x e D x e
+

+

= = =
= = =
8 . :
1 :

( )
( )
ln
: ln
0, :
x
x
x e x
x e x

=
+ =

2 :

: 0
; :
x
y x
y x
y x
x e
x y
e e x y
e e x y
e e x y
>

= =
< <

(i ; lim 0 lim
x x
x x
e e
+
= =+
( )
( 0, ; : ln
y
ii x y x y x e

+ = =
; ; : x y r (iii
( )
1
;
;
x y y
x x
x
x r
x y
rx x
y
e e e e
e
e
e e e
e
+

= =
= =

(iv :
( )
exp : 0,
exp
x
x x e

+
=

0
;
1
lim 1 lim 0 lim
x x
x
x x x
e e
xe
x x
+

= = = +
14 - 3 -
: 1 . :
( )
: 5 6 0
x x
E e e

+ = .
2 . :
( )
5 6 0 :
x x
e e I

+ > .
:
1 .
( )
E
x
e :

( ) ( )
2
2
5 6 0
5 6 0 /
x x
x
e e
t t t e
E + =
+ = =
: 1 = . : 2 t = 3 t = . :
3
x
e =
( )
2
x
E e =

( )
ln 3 x =
( )
ln 2 x =
:
( ) ( )
{ }
ln 2 , ln 3 S = .
2 . :
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
5 6 0
5 6 0 /
2 3
ln 2 ln 3
2 3 /
x x
x
x
x
F e e
t t t e
e
F x
t t e
+ <
+ < =
< <
< <
< < =
:
( ) ( )
ln 2 , ln 3 S

= .

II . : Drive de la fonction Exponentielle :

1 . exp :

:
1
exp ln : 0,

= + .
ln 0,

+ .

( )
1
0, : 0 x ln x
x

+ = .
:
1
exp ln

= :
( )
ln 0,

+ = :

( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1
1
1 1
: ln ln exp
1
ln
ln
x exp x x x x
ln x
x

= = = = =

.
:
( )
: '
x x
x e e = .
:

exp :
( )
: '
x x
x e e =
14 - 4 -
2 . exp :
:

:
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
' exp exp
u x u x
e u x u x exp u x u x u x u x e

= = = = .
:
( ) ( )
: '
x x x
x e x e e

= = .

( ) ( )
2 2 2
: ' 2 2
x x x
x e x e e

= = .
3 . exp :
exp :

exp :

u I . :

( )
u x
x e I :

( )
( )
( )
: '
u x u x
x e u x e

=
14 - 5 -
III . a : Fonction Exponentielle base a :
1 . :

2 . :

:

( ) ( )
log 1 0 exp 0 1
a a
= =

( ) ( )
log 1 exp 1
a a
a a = =

( ) ( )
2 2
log 2 exp 2
a a
a a = =
3 .
( )
exp
a
x :
0 a > 1 a . :
( )
: log
r
a
r a r = . :
( )
: exp
r
a
r r a = .
:
( )
: exp
x
a
x x a = . :
( )
exp : 0,
exp
a
x
a
x x a

+
=

4 . :
0 a > 1 a .

:

0 a > 1 a . log
a
0,

+ .
log
a
a
exp
a
:
( ) ( )
1
1
exp log : 0,
exp log
a a
a a
x x x

= +
=

( ) ( )
log exp
a a
x y x y = = 0, ; : x y

+
x y r :
( ) ( ) ( )
exp exp exp
a a a
x y x y + =
( )
( )
1
exp
exp
a
a
x
x
= ;
( )
( )
( )
exp
exp
exp
a
a
a
x
x y
y
=
( ) ( )
( )
exp exp
r
a a
rx x =
0 a > x y r :
( )
( )
; 1 1 ;
1
; ;
r
x y y rx x x x
x
y
xy x y x x
y x
a a a a a
a
a a a a
a a
+

= = =
= = =
14 - 6 -
: :
( )
exp
a
x =
( )
exp
a
y = .
:
( )
log
a
x =
( )
log
a
y = 0 > 0 > .
:
( ) ( ) ( )
log log log
a a a
x y = + = + 0 > .
:
( ) ( ) ( )
exp exp exp
a a a
x y x y + = = ...
:
( )
0, ; : log
y
a
x y x y x a

+ = =
: :
( )
3
ln2
3 2 log 2
ln3
x
x = = =
:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
3
ln 3 ln 2
ln 3 ln 2
ln2
ln3
3 2 log 2
3 2
x
x
x
x
x
x
=
=
=
= =
=

5 .
( )
exp
a
x :
- 0 a > 1 a . x . :
( )
exp
a
y x = . :
( ) ( )
( )
ln
exp
exp
log
ln
ln
ln ln
a
a
a
x a
y x
y x
x y
y
x
a
x a y
y e
=

=
=
=
=
=

1 : 0 a > 1 a :
( )
ln
: exp
x x a
a
x x a e = =
: :
5 5ln3
3 e = .
- 2 : 0 a > :
ln
:
x x a
x a e =
1 1 a = .
6 .
( )
exp
a
x 0 a > 1 a :
x :
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
ln ln ln
exp ln ln ln exp
x a x a x a
a a
x e x a e a e a x

= = = =
1 :
( ) ( ) ( )
: exp ln exp
a a
x x a x

=
2 :
( ) ( )
: ln
x x
x a a a

=
: :
( ) ( )
: 2 ln2 2 0
x x
x

= > .

14 - 7 -
IV . :
1 :
f x :
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
1
1 ; 1
ln
1 ; 1
x
f x x e x
x
f x x x
x

= <
=
1 . -
( )
lim
x
f x

( )
lim
x
f x
+
.
- f 1 .
2 . - f 1 .
-
( )
1
1
2
,1 :
1
x
x
x f x e
x

=

.
- f 1,

+ .
- f .
3 . -
( )
: 1 D y x =
( )
f
C +

( )
f
C
( )
D .
- :
( )
lim 0
x
f x x

= .
4 .
( )
f
C .
:
1 . - :
( ) ( )
1
1
lim lim 1
x
x x
f x x e

= =
( )
ln
lim lim 1
x x
x
f x x
x
+ +
= = + .
- f 1 :
:
( ) ( )
1 1
ln
lim lim 1 0 1
x x
x
f x x f
x
+ +

= = =
:
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1
1 1
1
lim 0 1 lim lim 1
t
x
t x x
e e f
t
f x x

= = = =
1
1
t
x
=

.
:
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
lim lim 1
x x
f x f x f
+

= = . f 1 .
2 . - f 1 :
:
( ) ( )
1 1
1
ln
1
1
ln 1
lim lim 1 1 1
1 1
0
1
lim
x x
x
x
x
f x f
x
x
x x x x
+ +

+

= = =

. :
f 1
( )
1 0
d
f = .
( )
f
C

( )
d
T 1 :
( )( ) ( )
1 1 1
1
d
y f x f
x

= +

. :
0
1
y
x

:
( )
d
T
:
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
lim lim lim 0
1 1
lim
x
t
t x x
x
x
e
f x f
x
e
x x
e

= =

=
1
1
t
x
=

: f 1
( )
1 0
g
f = .
( )
f
C
14 - 8 -

( ) g
T 1 :
( )( ) ( )
1 1 1
1
g
y f x f
x

= +

. :
0
1
y
x

:
( ) g
T

( ) ( )
1 1 0
g
d
f f = = f 1
( )
1 0 f = .

( )
f
C
( )
T 1 :
( )( ) ( )
1 1 1 y f x f = + . :
( )
: 0 T y =
- ,1 x

:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 1
1
1 1 1 1
1
x x x x x
f x x e x e x e e x e
x

= = + = +

( )
( )
( )
1
1
2
1
1 1
1
x
x
e x
x

= +

1
1
1
1
1
x
x
e

=

( )
1
1
2
1
x
x
f x e
x

=

- 1, x

+ :

( )
( ) ( )
2
ln ln
ln
1 1 0
x x x x
x
x
x
x
f x

= =

2
2 2 2
1
ln
1 ln 1 ln
1 1
x x
x x x
x
x x x

+
= = =

( )
( )( )
2
1 1 ln
x
x x x
x
f =
+ +

1 x > . : ln 0 x > 1 0 x + > 1 0 x >
2
0 x > . :
( )
0 f x > .
: f 1,

+ .
- ,1 x

. :
( )
1
1
2
1
x
x
f x e
x

=

1 0
2
1 0
1 2 1 0
x
x
x
x x

>

< >
< <

1
1
0
x
e

>
:
( )
,1 : 0 x f x

> . f ,1

.

14 - 9 -
f :

3 . - :
( ) ( )
ln
lim 1 lim 0
x x
x
f x x
x
+ +
= = .
( )
f
C
( )
D
+ 1 y x = .

( )
f
C
( )
D :
1, x

+ . :
( ) ( )
0
ln
1
x
f x x
x
< = .
( )
f
C
( )
D
1,

+ .
- :
( ) ( )
1
1
0
1
lim lim 1 lim 1
t
x
x x t
x
e
f x x e x
t t

+ +

= = +

0
1
lim 1 1 1 0
t
t
e
t

= = =

1
1
t
x
=

0
x
t
+
.

( )
y x =
( )
f
C .
4 .
( )
f
C :

14 - 10 -
2 :
f x :

( )
( )
1
1 ; 0
0 1
x
f x x
x
f

= +
=
: g x :
( )
1 1
ln 1
1
g x
x x

= +
+
1 .
g
D g .
2 . g
g
D .
3 .
( )
g x x
g
D g .
4 . :
( )
: 0
g
x g x > D .
:
1 .
f
D f .
2 . f
f
D .
3 . f 0 .
4 . f 0 0 .
5 .
( )
f x x { } 0
f
D f .
6 .
( )
f
C .
:
:
1 . g :
1
/ 1 0 0
g
x x
x

= + >

D

: , 1 0,
g

=

+ D .
2 . g
g
D :
:
( )
1 1
lim lim ln 1 l 0 n1 0
1
x x
g x
x x

= + = =
+
.
:
( )
0 0
1 lim lim
1 1
ln 1
1 x x
g x
x x
+ +

= + =

+ = +
+
. :
0
1
lim 1
x
x
+

+ = + .
14 - 11 -

1 1
1
x
t
x x
=
+
= + . :
( )
1
0
x
t

+

1
1
x
t
=

. :
1
1 1
1 1
t
x
t t
+ = + =

:

( )
0 0
1 1
ln 1
lim lim lim lim
1 1 1
ln 1 ln
1 t t
x x
t t t
t
t
g x t
x x t

+ +

+
= = =

+

= +
+
3 . x
g
D :

( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
2 2
1
1
1
1
1 1 1
ln 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
x
x
x
x x x
x x
x x
g x

+
+ = = +
+ +
+ + +
=

( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
1
1
1 1
1
1
x x
x x
x x
x
+ +
+
= +
+
+
=

( )
( )
2
1
1 x x
g x

+
=

( )
g x
g
D
( )
x g :

4 . : g , 1

. :
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
, 1 lim , lim 0,
x
x
g g x g x

= = + .
: g 0,

+ . :
( )
( ) ( )
0
0, 1 lim , lim 0,
x
x
g g x g x
+
+

+ = = +
:
( )
, 1 0, : 0 x g x

+ > .
:
1 . f :
{ }
1
/ 1 0 0 0
f
x x
x

= + > D

{ }
, 1 0, 0

= +
, 1 0,
f

= + D
14 - 12 -
2 . f
f
D :
:
( )
( )
1 ln 1
ln 1
0
1
lim lim 1 lim lim
x t
x
x
t
x x x t
g x e e e
x

+
+

= + = = =

1
t
x
= 0
x
t

.
( )
f
C y e = .

1
ln 1 t x
x

= +
( )
1 x
t

+ :
( )
1
1
lim 1 0
x
x

+

+ =
0
limln
t
t
+

= .
:
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1 1 1
1
ln 1
1
lim lim 1 lim lim
x
x x x
x
x
t
t
g x
x
e e

+
+

= + = = = + .

( )
f
C 1 x = .
3 . f 0 .
:
1
t
x
= . :
0 x
t
+

+ :

( )
0 0 0
1
ln 1
1
lim lim 1 lim
x
x x x
x
x
f x
x
e
+ + +

+

= + =

( )
1
ln 1
ln 1
lim lim
t
t t
t t
t t
e e

+

+

+ +
= =

1
ln 1
ln ln 1
0
1
ln 1
1 lim lim
t
t
t
t t
t
t
t t
e e e

+ +
+

+
+ +
= = = =

( ) ( )
0
1 0 lim
x
f f x
+

= =
f 0 .
4 . f 0 :
:
( ) ( )
0 0 0
1 1
ln 1 ln 1
1 1 1
ln 1
1 0
ln 1
0
lim lim lim
x x x
x x
x x
x x x
x
x
f x f
e e
+ + +

+ +

= +

+

=
:
1
ln 1 t x
x

+

= . :
0
0
x
t
+

:
)
1
u
x
=
( )
0 0
ln 1
1 ln 1 1
lim lim ln 1 lim lim ln 1 0
u u x x
u
u
t x
x u u u u
+ +
+ +

+
+ = = + + = = (
:
0 0
1
ln 1
1
1
ln 1
1
lim lim 1
t
t x
x
x
x
x
e
t
e
+

+

= = :
0
1
ln 1 lim
x
x
+

+

= + .
:
( ) ( )
0
0
1
0
lim
x
x
f x f
+

= + = + .
f 0 .
14 - 13 -
:
( )
f
C 0
.

5 . x { } 0
f
D :

( )
1
ln 1 x
x
f x e

+

1
ln 1
1
ln 1
x
x
x e
x

+

= +

1
ln 1
1 1
ln 1 ln 1
x
x
x x
x x
e

+

+ + + =

1
ln 1
1
1
1
ln 1
1
1
x
x x
x
x
x
e

+
+
= + +
+

2
1
ln 1
1
1
ln 1
1
x
x
x
x
x x
x
e

+

= + +
+

( )
1
ln 1
1 1
ln 1
1
x
x
x x
f x e

+

= +
+

( ) ( )
1
ln1 x
x
f x g x e

+
=

4 :
( )
, 1 0, : 0 x f x

+ > .
f :

14 - 14 -
6 .
( )
f
C :