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Name ________________________________________________________________ Date ____________________ US History Regents Review The Constitution and the Early American Government Part

I: Background to the constitution 1. Why did the American colonies No ta ation witho!t Representation declare independence? ". How did the Declaration o# 'ohn (oc)e*s theory o# Nat!ral rights + li#e li&erty and property $ndependence %!sti#y re&ellion? 'ohn (oc)e*s social contract theory + people have a right to revolt when government a&!se,s rights o# citi-ens .. How was the US governed !nder the /on#ederation o# states with a wea) central government Articles o# /on#ederation? ,. What were the wea)nesses o# the No president1 no power to ta 1 no money #or military1 no way to disp!te 0overnment !nder the Articles? arg!ments &etween the states Part II: Drafting the constitution 1. Why was a /onstit!tional /onvention called? ". What are the ma%or compromises em&edded in the /onstit!tion? Part III: Constitutional Principles 1. How did the a!thors o# the constit!tion hope to create a government power#!l eno!gh to govern1 &!t not so power#!l as to threaten individ!al li&erties? ". How does the /onstit!tion distri&!te the &asic powers o# government? .. How can the constit!tion &e changed? ,. Why did some people oppose rati#ication o# the /onstit!tion? Part I : The early government 1. How was the US placed on a #irm #inancial #ooting? ". What is the !n4written constit!tion? .. Why did the #irst political parties develop? ,. How did the =arshall /o!rt a##ect the power o# the government? 2o #i wea)nesses o# articles o# con#ederation &y dra#ting a new &ody o# laws1 the constit!tion 3i4cameral legislat!re 5large v small states6 .78 compromise + slaves co!nt as .78 pop!lation Adding the 3ill o# Rights 9ederalism1 separation o# powers1 chec)s and &alances1 pop!lar sovereignty1 &ill o# rights1 amendment process1 limited government

Separation o# powers #ederalism 5delegated1 conc!rrent1 reserved1 denied6 Amendment process + "7. ma%ority vote in &oth senate and the Ho!se o# Representatives 2hey &elieved a strong central government wo!ld a&!se the rights o# its citi-ens

:ey terms; 9ederalism1 Separation o# <owers1 /hec)s and 3alances1 <op!lar Sovereignty1 Amendment1 (imited 0overnment1 Delegated <owers1 /onc!rrent <owers1 Reserved <owers1 Denied <owers1 S!premacy /la!se1 Writ o# Ha&e!s /orp!s 5d!e process6

8. What early precedents were set in US #oreign policy?

Hamilton*s 9inancial <lan; 1)pay o## all war de&ts 5incl!ding state de&ts6 "6 raise government reven!es .6 create a national &an) =any laws and instit!tions have &een created to help r!n the government1 2hese powers are implied and not written o!t in the constit!tion 5> ; <residents ca&inet1 political parties1 national &an)6 9ederalist + loose interpretation o# the constit!tion Democratic4Rep!&licans + strict interpretation o# the constit!tion =ar&!ry ? =adison that the co!rt is the s!preme ar&itrator 5interpreter6 o# the constit!tion =c/!llo!gh ? =aryland !pheld #ederal governments power to esta&lish a national &an) 0i&&on ? @gden gives #ederal government power to reg!late interstate commerce 0eorge Washington Ne!trality; ASteer /lear o# <ermanent alliancesB =ani#est Destiny

US History Regents Review !anifest Destiny" #ectionalism" #ecession" Civil $ar" and %econstruction Part I: $est&ard E'pansion 1. How did the US physically e pand to the <aci#ic? ". How did the US settle the West? .. What was US policy toward Native Americans? How did it a##ect their lives? Part II: #ectionalism 1. How7Why had slavery developed in the US? ". What economic and political di##erences e isted &etween the North and the So!th? .. Who were some o# the leading a&olitionists in the US? ,. What compromises were made over the iss!e o# slavery? 8. Why did So!thern States Secede #rom the Union? Part III: %econstruction 1. Who were the two sides o# the civil war? What advantages led to Northern victory? ". What was (incolnFs war aim? What steps did he ta)e to accomplish it? .. How did 'ohnson and the Radical rep!&licans 5congress6 di##er on their plans #or reconstr!ction? ,. How did reconstr!ction help newly #reedmen? 8. Which amendments were passed d!ring reconstr!ction? E. How7why did reconstr!ction #ail? =ani#est Destiny %!sti#ied US gaining territory thro!gh p!rchase and #orce5war6 (o!isiana <!rchase1 2e as Anne ation1 =e ican /ession1 @regon /o!ntry1 0adsden <!rchase1 =e ican American War1 2reaty o# 0!adal!pe4Hidalgo 2he #ollowing helped to settle the west; transcontinental RR1 Homestead Act1 /ali#ornia gold r!sh1 Andrew 'ac)son*s $ndian Removal Act 5trail o# tears6 A$ndian WarsB Dawes Act + #orcing Native Americans to assimilate and live on reservations 2riangle slave trade1 >li Whitney*s cotton gin made cotton prod!ction increase as the need #or slaves. So!thern agric!lt!ral climate North; ind!strial economy1 slavery a&olished So!th; agric!lt!ral economy1 slavery legal Harriet 3eecher*s Stowe AUncle 2om*s /a&in1 William (loyd 0arrison1 Nat 2!rner1 'ohn 3rown1 Harriet 2!&man 5!ndergro!nd rail road6 =isso!ri /ompromise 51C"D61 /ompromise o# 1C8D1 :ansas4Ne&ras)a act 5pop!lar sovereignty6 >lection o# 1CED 5(incoln wins election with no so!thern vote N!lli#ication; Re#!sal or #ail!re o# a US state to recogni-e or en#orce a #ederal law. North; Union So!th; /on#ederate North*s ind!strial society led to more reso!rces North had a more mat!re Railway system A<reserve the UnionB >mancipation <roclamation Reconstr!ction; amnesty #or the so!th1 re%oin the !nion 'ohnson wanted amnesty #or the So!th Radical Rep!&licans wanted p!nishment and the passage o# amendments 9reedmen*s 3!rea! /arpet&aggers 5men #rom North came to help6 Scalawags 5so!thern Union sympathi-ers6 a&olished 5ended6 slavery 1,th eG!al rights #or al men 18th voting rights #or A#rican Americans 3lac) /odes1 ::: threats1 poll ta 1 literacy tests1 grand#ather cla!ses1 'im /rowe laws1 segregation 5<lessy ? 9erg!son; Separate &!t eG!al is eG!al6

US History Regents Review Industriali(ation" Immigration" and %eform <art $ Industriali(ation 1. What are the main characteristics o# ind!striali-ation? ". How did ind!striali-ation a##ect American li#e? .. What was the relationship &etween &!siness and government d!ring the early ind!strial period? ,. Who are some o# the ma%or players in the $nd!strial Revol!tion? <art $$ )a*or !ovement 1. What were wor)ing conditions li)e in the early ind!strial era? ". How7why did la&or !nions develop? .. How did Unions attempt to achieve their goals? ,. =a%or players in the la&or movement? ,. What are some ma%or events s!rro!nding the la&or !nions? <art $$$ Immigration ". Why did people migrate to the US? 1. How did immigration patterns change in the late 1Ith and early "Dth cent!ries? .. Why did JnativismJ develop? ,. How did the US limit immigration in the late 1Ith and early "Dth cent!ries? <art $? Populist movement 1. What pro&lems did #armers #ace at the end o# the 1Ith cent!ry? ". 2he 0ranger =ovement led to the development o# which political party? Rising railroad prices d!e to RR tr!sts setting prices and eliminating competition. <op!list party 3etter li#e1 %o&s1 political and religio!s #reedom $mmigration shi#ted #rom Western >!rope in the 1CDD*s to eastern >!rope and Asia in the early 1IDD*s to (atin America and middle east in the late 1IDD*s Nativists &elieve that immigrants ta)e away their %o&s and #ill the cities with #ilth and crime /hinese > cl!sion Act1 0entlemen*s agreement with 'apan1 (iteracy 2ests 5in their native lang!age61 >mergency K!ota Act o# 1I"11 National @rigins Acts o# 1I", L 1I"I (ow wages1 poor !n4sanitary wor)ing conditions1 long ho!rs1 no &rea)s1 a&!se o# child la&or <oor wor)ing conditions1 e cess wor)ers1 power in n!m&ers /ollective &argaining1 stri)es1 &oycotts1 American 9ederation o# (a&or 5A9(61 :nights o# (a&or Sam!el 0ompers 0reat Railway Stri)e o# 1CHH1 Haymar)et riot1 Homestead Stri)e1 <!llman stri)e1 triangle shirtwaist #actory #ire =ovement #rom an agric!lt!ral society to a man!#act!ring society. Ur&ani-ation1 growth o# immigration1 increased technology1 &ig &!siness Ur&ani-ation 5growth o# cities6 growth o# immigration1 &ig &!siness monopolies1 child la&or and wor)er a&!ses1 sl!ms and tenement homes1 growth o# technology1 growth o# a middle class1 re#orm movements1 growth o# ed!cation1 la&or !nions1 cons!merism1 (aisse-- #aire + government stay o!t o# &!siness Shi#t to more reg!lation; Sherman and /layton anti4tr!st acts /orporations1 tr!sts1 ARo&&er 3arons or /aptains o# $nd!stryB >ntreprene!rs; Andrew /arnegie1 'ohn D. Roc)e#eller1 Henry 9ord1 2homas >dison1 '.< =organ1

<art ? the Progressive !ovement 1. What pro&lems had ind!striali-ation and !r&ani-ation created #or people? ". $n what ways had the political system &ecome corr!pt? .. How did progressives hope to re#orm society? ,. Who were the )ey players in the progressive movement? ,. How did 2heodore Roosevelt advance the progressive agenda? 8. How did Woodrow Wilson advance the <rogressive Agenda? E. What is prohi&ition? H. How was repealed? 2enement ho!sing1 <oor living conditions1 !nsanitary conditions1 crime A<olitical machinesB wo!ld e change #avors #or votes1 voter #ra!d1 over &!dgeted contracts1 employing #riends NM/ political machine; 2ammany HallB 3oss 2weed 0overnment reg!lations; <!re 9ood and Dr!g Act1 =eat $nspection Act1 J2r!st43!stingJ1 <rimary >lection1 Direct elections1 &!ilding7#ire codes <hilanthropy5charity6; settlement ho!ses1 H!ll ho!se1 Amendments 51E41I6 'ane Adams1 =!c)ra)ers; Upton Sinclair 5the '!ngle61 'aco& Riis 5How the @ther Hal# (ives6 $da 2ar&ell 5History o# Standard @il6 2heodore RooseveltFs SG!are Deal Woodrow WilsonFs 2he New 9reedom 1Cth amendment <rohi&it the sale o# alcohol Started the American mo& 5Al /apone6 &ootlegging alcohol "1st amendment

US History Regents Review Imperialism" $$ I" the %oaring +,-s" and the Great Depression Part I Imperialism 1. How did the United States acG!ire Alas)a? 1. How did the United States acG!ire Hawaii? 1. How did the United States acG!ire <anama canal -one? ". What arg!ments were made #or and against imperialism? .. What were the ca!ses o# the Spanish American War? .. What were the res!lts o# the Spanish American War? 0adsden p!rchase Anne ation to sec!re strategic military &ases d!ring the Spanish American war US plantation owners and Hawaiians revolt 2heodore Roosevelt*s A3ig Stic) <olicyB Roosevelt /orollary .or: Spread American ideals1 spread /hristianity1 o&tain new mar)ets and raw materials Against: imperialism goes against the ideals o# democracy1 !nnecessary wars Mellow 'o!rnalism Asin)ing o# the USS =aine US emerged as a S!per imperialist nation Us acG!ired territories 50!am1 <hilippines6 and spheres o# in#l!ence 5<!erto Rico1 /!&a6

<art $$ $$I 1. What was US policy at the &eginning o# WW $? ". How7Why did the US get drawn into WW $? .. What was the impact o# WW $ on; Women? =inorities? /ivil (i&erties? ,. What was WilsonFs plan #or <eace? 8. Why did the Senate oppose the 2reaty o# ?ersailles? $solationism 5ne!trality6 <rotect A9reedom o# the SeasB1 $nterr!pted 2rade &y 0erman !4&oats Nimmerman telegram Women; opened !p %o& opport!nities =inorities; opened !p %o& opport!nities /ivil (i&erties; nativist sentiment towards immigrants 9o!rteen points and esta&lishment o# a (eag!e or Nations Senate wanted to maintain isolationism 5ne!trality6 and %oining the (eag!e wo!ld #orce them into alliances with >!ropean nations

<art $$$ %oaring +,/s 1. Why were the "D* roaring ". What is the Harlem Renaissance? .. What did the role o# credit play in the development o# cons!merism? <art $? Great Depression 1. What were the ca!ses o# the 0reat Depression? @verprod!ction and !nder cons!mption ca!sed &!sinesses to #ail. Americans were &!ying on credit thro!gho!t the "D*s1 when the stoc) mar)et crashed in 1I"I1 many people lost their %o&s and co!ld not pay &ac) their loans1 &an)s started to close &eca!se they were not receiving payments Unemployment1 lines #or %o&s and so!p )itchens1 Hooverville; shanty4towns in /entral par)1 D!st &owl At #irst Hoover &elieved that government relie# was not necessary1 toward the end o# his presidency he started relie# e##orts1 he &elieved m!ch intervention or coercion &y the government wo!ld destroy individ!ality and sel#4reliance Roosevelt &elieved government intervention and relie# was imminent to t!rning aro!nd the economy ARelie#1 Recovery1 Re#ormB 0overnment <rograms; >mergency 3an)ing Relie# Act1 9ederal Deposit $ns!rance /orporation 59D$/61 Agric!lt!ral Ad%!stment Act1 /ivilian /onservation /orps1 9ederal >mergency Relie# Act1 <!&lic Wor)s Administration1 2ennessee ?alley A!thority1 9ederal 2heater and WritersF <ro%ects1 Wor)s <rogress Administration @&%ectors #elt that the New Deal was too m!ch government intervention. 2hey &elieved in a capitalist system1 the individ!al was responsi&le #or livelihood Set a precedent #or #!rther economies and social government assistance to the American people. >conomic prosperity1 =ass cons!mption1 new pop!lar c!lt!re1 rise o# entertainment and ho!sehold technology1 9lapper; independent women1 A#rican American artists too) pride in their race and c!lt!re >mergence o# an A#rican American middle class Availa&le credit to the middle class allowed #or more technological p!rchases. A!tomo&iles

". What was li#e li)e d!ring the depression? ". How did Hoover respond to the 0reat Depression? .. How did RooseveltFs response to the depression di##er #rom HooverFs? ,. What were the ma%or components o# the New Deal?

8. What criticisms were made o# the New Deal? E. What was the legacy o# the New Deal?