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ELEMENTE DE GEOGRAFIE POLITICA Part 2

GRANITELE (frontierele)
limitele teritoriului de stat Granite naturale Granite conventionale

-Suprafata Terrei:

510 072 000 kmp din care

uscat:148,94 mil kmp (29,2%) apa: 361 132 kmp( 70,8%)

-Lungimea granitelor pe uscat:


250 708 km China si Rusia

2 state se invecineaza fiecare cu cate 14 state:

-44 state si teritorii nu au iesire la mare

94 state si teritorii sunt insule si nu se invecineaz a cu niciun alt stat (decat la nivelul apelor teritoriale):

American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Baker Island, Barbados, Bermuda, Bouvet Island, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Clipperton Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Comoros, Cook Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominica, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Howland Island, Iceland, Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jan Mayen, Japan, Jarvis Island, Jersey, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Kiribati, Madagascar, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Midway Islands, Montserrat, Nauru, Navassa Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palmyra Atoll, Paracel Islands, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Virgin Islands, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna, Taiwan

Granite naturale obstacole naturale intre state au, in general, un traseu sinuos

rauri, fluvii, lacuri, fasii maritime; creste muntoase

GRANITE CONVENTIONALE
Stabilite intre state in doua moduri: se traseaza pe harti si apoi pe de comun acord, prin Au traseu:
negocieri si tratate internationale Impuse cu forta in urma unor conflicte intre state Sinuos (linii curbe) Rectiliniu:de-a lungul paralelelor si/sau meridianelor de linii frante

STATELE CU CELE MAI LUNGI GRANITE: China 13,759 miles Russia 12,514 miles Brazil 9,129 miles India 8,763 miles USA 7,611 miles Democratic Republic of Congo 6,382 miles Argentina 6,006 miles Canada 5,526 miles Mongolia 5,042 miles Sudan 4,783 miles

Cea mai lunga frontiera intre 2 state:

Canada - SUA , 8.893 km (nepazita), de-a lungul paralelei de 490 lat N

Rusia: 57 000 km de granita cu 14 tari diferite:

Coreea de Nord, China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Ucraina, Belarus, Letonia, Estonia, Finlanda, Norvegia, Lituania, Polonia

Romania

2,508 km

Bulgaria: 608 km Hungary: 443 km Moldova: 450 km Serbia: 476 km Ukraine : 531 km

State alungite in lungul unor lanturi muntoase sau tarmuri: Chile, Argrntina, Somalia, Nepal State extinse de-a lungul unor zone climatice: Rusia, Canada, SUA, Pozitia geografica si State cu forma cvasicirculara: Romania traseul State cu forma poligonala: Franta frontierelor determina State cu forma suprapusa unor bazine forma statelor; hidrografice:Venezuela, Pakistan State -continent: Australia State peninsula: India, Turcia State- insula: Madagascar, Islanda, Nauru State-arhipelag: Indonezia, UK State continental-insulare: Grecia, Italia, Danemarca State enclava; Leshoto, Swaziland

Clasificarea statelor dupa marimea teritoriului


Statele ocupa supr.diferite pe cont. si insule. SINGURUL continent neteritorializat (fara state) este ANTARCTICA Marimea teritoriului influenteaza:
evolutia si dezv. ec. si soc. a statelor, organizarea administrativa, repartitia geografica si densitatea populatiei, sistemul de cai de comunicatii si transporturi, etc.

Cu cat e mai extins un stat are o mai mare varietate de cond. si resurse

1.) state cu dimensiuni continentale, >7 mil km2 ) impreuna, ocupa 42% din suprafata uscatului Terrei

Ran k

Country

Total Area (km2)

Coastline (km)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Federatia Rusa Canada China USA Brazil Australia

17,075,000 9,985,000 9,634,000 9,631,400 8,512,000 7,686,850

37,650 202,080 16,840 19,920 7,490 25,760

Ran k

Country

Total Area (km2)

Coastline (km)

7.

India Argentina Kazakhstan Sudan Algeria R D Congo

3,287,600 2,760,000 2,717,300 2,505,000

7,000 4,900 0 850

2.) state f. mari (1-3 mil km2)

8. 9. 10. 11 12

13

Arabia Saudita Mexic Indonezia Lybia Iran Mongolia Peru Chad Niger Angola Mali RSA Columbia Etiopia Bolivia Mauritania Egipt

2 149 690 1 964 375

1 002 000

3.) state mari (500 km2 - 1 mil km2)

Tanzania Nigeria Venezuela Namibia Mozambic Pakistan Turcia Chile Zambia Myanmar Afganistan Somalia Franta R. Central Africana Ucraina Madagascar Botswana Kenia Yemen Thailanda Spania

4. state mijlocii (500 km2 100 000 km2 55 state, inclusiv Romania

Ex: Turkmenistan 488 100 km2 Islanda 103 000 km2

4. state mici (10 000 - 100 000 km2)

Ex: Corea: 99 678 km2 Liban: 10 452 km2

5. state f. mici (<10 000 km2)

1 Vatican: 0,44 km2 ; 1000 loc. 2 Monaco: 1,95 km2 ; 32 000loc 3 San Marino: 60,57km2 ; 30 000 loc 4 Liechtenstein: 160km2 ; 30 000loc 5 Andorra: 430 km2 ; 70 000 loc

Componenta demografica
POPULATIA CU TOATE CARACTERISTICILE EI GEOEMOGRAFICE

NATIUNEA forma istorica de comunitate umana, caract. prin unitatea de: teritoriu limba viata sociala cultura si civilizatie

N o. 1. China

Country

Population 1,347,380,882

2.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

India
United States Indonesia Brazil Pakistan Bangladesh Nigeria Russia

1,184,130,123
310,207,441 243,001,006 201,122,152 179,674,399 158,067,060 152,198,748 139,387,254 126,835,958

10 Japan

Statele cel mai putin populate


1. Vatican City Europa 826 loc 2. Tuvalu Pacific 12 373 3. Nauru Pacific 14 019 4. Palau Pacific 20 000 5. San Marino Europa 30,167 6. Monaco Europa 32 9657. 7.Liechtenstein Europa 35 446 8. Saint Kitts and Nevis Caribbean- 52 000 9. Marshall Islands Pacific 62 000 10. Dominica Caribbean 72 660

3.componenta politico- administrativa


-Forma de guvernamant -Regimul politic Forma de organizare interna

Clasificarea statelor dupa forma de guvernamant


Kuwait

Iordania

Spania

FORMA DE GUVERNAMANT

Monarhie Republica

MONARHIILE
Monarhii constitutionale Monarhii absolute

SUVERANUL/ MONARHUL:
Imparat (Japonia) Rege (UK,Spania, Suedia, Arabia Saudita, Iordania, Lesotho, Sultan (Brunei, Oman) Emir (Kuwait, Oman, EAU)

Print (Monaco, Liechetenstein) Mare Duce (Luxemburg)

monarchy
Commonwealth realm (state foste sau actuale teritorii dependente de coroana britanica) -constitutional monarchy -Absolute monarchy -Monarchy in some subnational entities

MONARHII ABSOLUTE

Brunei Saudi Arabia Swaziland Vatican

MONARHII CONSTITUTIONALE Italics red indicate Commonwealth realms, of which the monarch of the United Kingdom is Head of State.

Antigua and Barbuda Australia Andorra Bahamas Bahrain Barbados Belize Belgium Bhutan Cambodia Canada Denmark Grenada Jamaica Japan Jordan Kuwait Liechtenstein Lesotho Luxembourg Malaysia Monaco Morocco Netherlands New Zealand Norway Oman Papua New Guinea Qatar Spain Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Solomon Islands Sweden Thailand Tonga Tuvalu United Arab Emirates United Kingdom

MONARHII ELECTIVE

Andorra Cambodgia Kuwait Malaysia Swaziland Vatican

Subnationale (provincii/regiuni in cadrul unor state)

Ghana
Ashanti Dagbon

Uganda
Ankole Buganda Bunyoro Busoga Toro

REPUBLICILE republici prezidentiale parlamentare

red - presidential republics, full presidential system green - presidential republics, executive presidency linked to a parliament olive - presidential republics, semi-presidential system orange parliamentary republics brown - republics whose constitutions grant only a single party the right to govern

REGIMUL POLITIC Regimul politic


State cu regim politic democratic
Alegeri libere Pluripartitism Drepturi si libertati cetatenesti Stat de drept

State cu regim politic autoritar/dictatorial


Partid unic Limitarea/nerespectarea drepturilor si libertatilor cetatenesti

CLASIF. ST DUPA ORGANIZAREA ADTIVA INTERNA

STATE UNITARE STATE FEDERATIVE( FEDERATII)

STATELE UNITARE Unitatile ad-tive au o autonomie mai redusa, ele se subordoneaza guvernului central Legislatia nationala este valabila si obligatorie peste tot

STATELE FEDERALE FEDERATII- stat format prin asocierea a 2 sau mai multe state care au un statut egal in cadrul acesteia Sunt autonome Au organizare, legislatie si conducere proprie Se supun atat legislatiei federale cat si celei proprii

SUA Canada India Australia Malaysia Germania Nigeria Federatia Rusa Elvetia Mexic
exemple

State federale

CLASIFICAREA STATELOR DUPA GRADUL DE DEZVOLTARE ECONOMICA


Valoarea PIB/tara;loc Consumul de energie Valoarea exporturilor

1. STATE PUTERNIC DEZVOLTATE

Forta financiara si tehnologica Pozitii cheie in economia mondiala Controleaza comertul mondial

2. STATE RECENT INDUSTRIALIZATE(emergente)

Tari cu potential natural si uman important, care au investit, in ultimele decenii, mari resurse financiare in dezvoltarea tehologica si industriala

3.TARI IN DEZVOLTARE State de pe toate cont care fac eforturi importante pentru dezvoltarea economica

GLOBALIZAREA