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Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9

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hc sinh khc b] s%n+'
6 5 ^% nh,n+ b0i t(p tRAn M. Rt R nh,n+ tnh
cht ho hc +G c ki. loi _
G4 5 62[n+ )dn hc sinh ch nh,n+ phn n+
khn+ UT R n?i tRAn /- hc sinh khmc s8% v
nh,n+ phn n+ c ki. loi khi n0o UT R v0
khi n0o khn+ UT R _
@A% cB% hc sinh +ii thch R R0n+'
G4 5 :% /? TA% cB% hc sinh h<T ho0n th0nh
tip b0i t(p s%'
6 5 6<T so snh tnh cht ho hc c NM v0 Pl'
6 5 Lho bit nh,n+ tnh cht ho hc +i&n+ nh%#
khc nh% _

!0i t(p a 5
4it JQJq thWc hi7n ch%Xi bin ho s% 5
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C NM
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.[i'
K) Qc )*n+ v[i )%n+ )1ch PUit .%&i .[i
E 6T/R'
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ki. loi .[i'
Lh 5
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.[i /sT /23c 6T/R R kh9i )%n+ )1ch'
- Qr cht $+ tRZ /i# nh,n+ ki. loi /n+
tR2[c c? th- /sT /23c nh,n+ ki. loi
/n+ s% R kh9i )%n+ )1ch .%&i'
- Ch,n+ ki. loi /n+ tR2[c $+ s th- /sT
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- C% cho ki. loi C v0 H tc )*n+ v[i
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cht DUit !"'
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Ll# :) v0 to R .%&i t2n+ n+'
Hhc nh% 5
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phs.# c{n nh. )%T nht ch c? .Yt loi
ho tR1 I'
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C NM E D
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C NM(D6)
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Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9
b) JQJq K
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tRon+ )<T hot /Yn+ ho hc' !it Rn+
P v0 ! /% tc )*n+ v[i )%n+ )1ch 6Ll v0 +ii
ph?n+ 6
K
'
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! tc )*n+ v[i )%n+ )1ch .%&i v0 +ii ph?n+ P'
= tc )*n+ v[i )%n+ )1ch .%&i L v0 +ii ph?n+
L'
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loi s% /8T R kh9i hXn h3p I ki. loi s% 5 Pl#
NM v0 L%'
4it JQJq UT R _
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ch c? Pl v0 NM tc )*n+ v[i PUit 6Ll# c{n
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ki. loi L%'
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f8T l0 )n+ b0i ton hXn h3p c? liAn F%n /n
cch +ii ph2n+ tRGnh b(c nht hi sn s&'
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cho /n khi /hn+ khn+ tn thA. /23c n,# lT
l /hn+ R Rp nhz l0. kh v0 c8n li# thG thT
kh&i l23n+ l /hn+ txn+ thA. a#iK +.' 6<T Uc
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I
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l /hn+'
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+i.
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th.
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a .ol K .ol K .ol
U .ol KlU .ol KlU .ol
t4lU + Kl(aOuU) +
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Kl(aOulU) t4lU n a#iK U n O#Oa

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th. +i
phn n+ 5

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aOO
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l K # O n
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Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9
!0i t(p v 5
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I
uj' :% .Yt
th}i +in n+8. lT v(t R v0 ki-. tR thT kh&i
l23n+ .%&i bc tRon+ )%n+ )1ch bn /B% +i. /i
uij'
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kh _
b) Qnh nhn+ /Y j c cc cht ho0 tn tRon+
)%n+ )1ch s% khi /< lT v(t R'
6 5 6<T t?. tmt / b0i _
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I
c? tRon+ KiO+ )%n+ )1ch uj'
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Lj
Lt
))
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= =
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th.
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phn n+ /- tG. R kt F%'
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c b0i ton'
.
Pl
th. +i phn n+ l0 5

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I
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l Kv .
Pl
= =
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L%
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aOO
KiO
l u .
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= =
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kh&i l23n+ P+ /< th. +i phn n+ 5

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aOO
ui
l KO .
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= =

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av
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Q c? JQJq l0 5
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= =
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L%
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P+CD
= =
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l0 5

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K I
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= =
4(T .
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K # KiI
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= =

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K # KiI
j aOO l I
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GD: TK*nJ Unh 3'n aa
Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9
3. Rt kinh nghim:
C+0T son 5 OubOIbKOOw C+0T +in+ 5 aO-avbOIbKOOw
Ah& MX V: HaFd! AAA BYN NHIeN 3IfU
~Dy L6 f !$ :Q [Qh}i l23n+ 4 tit)
HaFd! AAA BYN
Tit C 9 C 5 ;n li cc kin thc /< hc v cc h3p cht 6T/Ro Lc!on (L6
4
# L
K
6
4
# L
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6
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t
6
t
)'
Tit C 5 :p ch, .Yt v0i b0i t(pliAn F%n /n phBn '
Tit C 5 Hi-. tR'
I- M?c ti@, (i hc:
- Gip hc sinh hi-% R nm. li chmc hn nh,n+ kin thc /< hc v h3p cht c 6T/Ro
Lc!on (L6
4
# L
K
6
4
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6
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t
6
t
)'
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II-Ah,Bn (C c&' GD + HE:
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- 6:5 ;n li cc kin thc /< hc v0 h3p cht c 6T/Ro Lc!on'
III- PhK*nJ 7h7:
ID- Bi <Li :
a' n nh lp : G4 F%i /1nh vZ +hi# :GH# h2[n+ )dn cch hc bY .n'
2. Cc hot ng ng hc:
Ho#t MNnJ Jio +i@n + hc Oinh NNi H,nJ Jhi
G4 5 QRMo bn+ ph* c? cc c8% h9i TA%
cB% hc sinh tho l%(n nh?. (I pht)# s%
/? /i /i7n .Xi nh?. tRGnh bBT'
L8% a 5
Q /< hc /23c nh,n+ loi h3p cht c
6T/Ro Lc!on /in hGnh n0o _
6<T +i tAn v0 lAn vit cn+ thc c% to
c cc h3p cht c 6T/Ro Lc!on /?
)2[i )n+ cn+ thc c% to v0 th% +n'
y) ;n li cc kin thc /< hc 5
L8% a 5
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6 6 6
6 L 6 L n L 6 L L 6
6 6 6
L6
4
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GD: TK*nJ Unh 3'n aK
Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9
L8% K 5
:o snh th0nh phBn ph8n tp# /Sc /i-.# co
to c cc h3p cht c 6T/Ro Lc!on
n?i tRAn _
L8% I5
6<T so snh nh,n+ tnh cht v(t l v0 tnh
cht ho hc c cc h3p cht c 6T/Ro
Lc!on n?i tRAn _ tnh cht ho hc n0o l0
/Sc tR2n+ cho .Xi loi _
G4 5 Ghi phBn so snh lAn bn+ cho hc
sinh F%n st ph8n bi7t'
@A% cB% hc sinh lAn bn+ vit cc JQJq
ho hc UT R _
G4 5 @A% cB% hc sinh vit cc JQJq /Sc
tR2n+ c 4 h3p cht c 6T/Ro Lc!on
vr hc _
6 5 C+o0i phn n+ /Sc tR2n+ l0 th
!MnkMn c{n th. +i phn n+ cYn+# h<T
vit JQJq cYn+ c !MnkMn v[i Ll
K
v0
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L8% 45
6 5 6<T cho bit s& l23n+ c cc sn

L
t
6
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E L% to 5
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4
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K
6
4
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bn'
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6
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L? a liAn kt I# c? hi liAn kt k\. bn'
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L8% I5
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c? tnh cht t2n+ tW nh%# l0
cht kh khn+ .B%# khn+ .>i# t tn tRon+ n2[c'
L{n L
t
6
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l0 cht l9n+# c? .>i thn /Sc tR2n+#
khn+ .B% nh2n+ /Yc hn# khn+ tn tRon+ n2[c'
b) :o snh tnh cht ho hc 5
Gi&n+ nh% 5 L 4 h3p cht /% th. +i phn n+
chT'
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ch th. +i phn n+ th'
CL
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th. +i phn n+ cYn+'
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s& l23n+ sn phs. to R tRon+ phn n+ cYn+ l0 (a)
cht'
GD: TK*nJ Unh 3'n aI
Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9
phs. tRon+ phn n+ cYn+ v0 phn n+
th c? +G khc khn+ _
fi% ki7n /- cc h3p cht h,% c th. +i
phn n+ cYn+ l0 +G _
G4 5 :% khi cho hc sinh tho l%(n Uon+#
TA% cB% hc sinh tR l}i +io viAn b] s%n+
cho ho0n thi7n'
G4 5 Lho hc sinh l0. cc b0i t(p /1nh
tnh v0 /1nh l23n+ s%'
G4 5 QRMo bn+ ph* c? +hi / b0i t(p s%
lAn bn+ TA% cB% hc sinh /c# t?. tmt /
b0i tR2[c khi +ii# s% /? s l0. v0o +iT
nhp'
G4 5 :% khi cho hc sinh tho l%(n Uon+
TA% cB% cc M. /i )i7n lAn ch, b0i t(p'
G4 5
E G3i 5 $%&n l0. /23c b0i t(p tRAn t
phi )W v0o nh,n+ tnh cht khc nh%
c I cht /- tG. R cc bi-% hi7n v phn
n+ ho hc khc nh% c I cht kh /?'
6 5 4(T thMo M. /? l0 nh,n+ tnh cht
khc nh% +G _
6: 5
EL
K
6
K
l0. .t .0% )%n+ )1ch n2[c !R.
c{n L6
4
# LD
K
khn+ l0. .t .0% )%n+
)1ch n2[c !R.'
EL6
4
khn+ l0. vsn /*c )%n+ )1ch n2[c
vi tRon+ c{n LD
K
thG c?'
6 5 =W v0o nh,n+ tnh cht khc bi7t c
I cht tRAn M. h<T ph8n bi7t I cht tRAn'
G4 5 Lho cc hc sinh nh(n U\t v0 b]
U%n+ Gv /2 R kt l%(n'
!0i ton K 5 Gio viAn cho K hc sinh lAn
vit JQ66' QhWc hi7n s% /? cho cc M.
khc nh(n U\t# Gv ch, li phBn si'
G4 5 QRMo bn+ ph* +hi / b0i t(p I lAn
bn+ cho hc sinh F%n st v0 tR l}i'
- fi% ki7n /- cc h3p cht h,% c th. +i phn
n+ cYn+ l0 tRon+ c% to phi c? t nht .Yt liAn kt
/i# hT liAn kt I'
4 )* 5
!0i t(p a 5
Ch(n bit cc kh s% tRon+ cc l b1 .t nh<n
L6
4
# L
K
6
K
# LD
K
'
!0i t(p K 5
4it ph2n+ tRGnh ho hc thWc hi7n ch%Xi bin ho
s% 5
LLD
K
) a (

L
K
6
K
) K (

L
K
6
4
) I (

L
K
6
i

C
L
K
6
K
!R
K

) i (

L
K
6
K
!R
4
L
K
6
4
!R
K

- ~Bn l23c cho I kh tRAn v0o )%n+ )1ch n2[c vi
tRon+'
- C% thT n2[c vi tRon+ bi /*c thG kh /? l0 LD
K
'
LD
K
E L(D6)
K
LLD
I
E 6
K
D
- C% thT n2[c vi tRon+ khn+ b1 /*c thG l0 kh
L6
4
v0 L
K
6
K
'
- =dn K kh c{n li F% bGnh /Wn+ kh )%n+ )1ch
n2[c !R.'
C% thT )%n+ )1ch n2[c !R. ch%T-n tr .0% v0n+
sn+ .0% tRon+ s%&t thG /? l0 bGnh /Wn+ kh L
K
6
K
'
- Lht c{n li l0 L6
4
'
!0iK
C LL
K
E 6
K
D L(D6)
K
E L
K
6
K
C L
K
6
K
E 6
K
L
K
6
4
CL
K
6
4
E 6
K
D L
K
6
i
D6
CL
K
6
K
E !R
K
L
K
6
K
!R
K

CL
K
6
K
!R
K
E !R
K
L
K
6
K
!R
4

GD: TK*nJ Unh 3'n a4
Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9
!0i ton I 5
Lho K#u lt hXn h3p tTlMn v0 $A tn /i
F% bGnh /Wn+ )%n+ )1ch !R. (!R) thG
thT 4 +. !R. /< th. +i phn n+'
6<T tnh j v th- tch c cc kh tRon+
hXn h3p' !it phn n+ UT R ho0n to0n#
th- tch cc kh /o Z fHQL'
G4 5 Gi hc sinh lAn t?. tmt /c li /
b0i'
G4 5 G3i 5 QR2[c khi l0. b0i t(p n0T t
phi tG. s& .ol c !R. /< th. +i
phn n+ l0 bo nhiA% _
6 5 f- tG. s& .ol c )%n+ )1ch !R. c?
tRon+ 4 +. t p )*n+ cn+ thc n0o _
G4 5 QRon+ hi h3p cht tRAn thG cht n0o
khn+ th. +i phn n+ v[i )%n+ )1ch
!R. (L6
4
)'
6 5 4(T cht th. +i phn n+ v[i )%n+
)1ch !R. l0 L
K
6
4
thG ph2n+ tRGnh phn
n+ UT R thG b2[c tip thMo t l0. l0 vit
JQJq'
G4 5 =W v0o ph2n+ tRGnh v0 s& .ol c
cht /< bit /- tG. s& .ol c L
K
6
4
th.
+i phn n+ /23c khn+ _
_ 4 o _ 4
L6 6 L
4 4 K
= =
L
K
6
4
E !R
K
L
K
6
4
!R
K

Q?. tmt 5

(l) K#u 4
) 6 L # 6 L ( 66
4 K 4 K
=


(+) 4 .
K
!R
=
Qnh Lj 4
hh
n _ (Z fHQL# phn n+ UT R
ho0n to0n)

(.ol) O#OKi
atO
4
n
K
!R
= =
L
K
6
4
E !R
K
L
K
6
4
!R
K

a .ol a .ol
O#OKi .ol O#OKi .ol

) l ( it # O 4 # KK l OKi # O 4
6 L
4 K
= =
) l ( K4 # K it # O u # K 4
L6
4
= =

j KO
u # K
j aOO l it # O
6 jL
4 K
= =

j uO j KO j aOO jL6
4
= =
3. Rt kinh nghim:
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
g Bi $i;< t=' <Qn t chn :
Qh}i +in5 4i o $n ho hc'
Ih Ph8n t=ic nJhi5< $hc j,'n [V Mi;<h:
Ak, > [> Mi;<h:
Ch,n+ cht n0o s% /8T c? h3p cht 6T/Ro Lc!on 5
C L6
K
n L6
K
C
6 L L 6
C L6
I
L6
I
C L
K
6
i
D6
6 6 6
C
Ll L 6
L6
K
n L L6
I
C
Ll L L 6
6 6 6
a# i# t# v o b K# I# 4# i o c a# K# I# t o ) I# 4# i# t
GD: TK*nJ Unh 3'n ai
Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9
fp n 5 Lhn c8% /n+ l0 c8% c a# K# I# t
Ak, 2 [> Mi;<h:
QRon+ cc h3p cht /< cho# cht n0o c? kh nxn+ ph. +i phn n+ cYn+_
a# K# I o b i# t# v o c a# K# t o ) 4# i# t
fp n 5 Lhn c8% /n+ l0 c8% c a# K# t
Ak, V [> Mi;<h:
Lho cc cht s% 5 $A tn# tTlMn# Lcbonic' f- ph8n bi7t cc kh khi /Wn+ tRon+ cc bGnh RiAn+ bi7t
b1 .t nh<n n+2}i t )>n+ 5
=%n+ )1ch n2[c vi tRon+ o b =%n+ )1ch n2[c !R. o
c =%n+ )1ch n2[c vi tRon+ v0 )%n+ )1ch n2[c !R. o ) Qt c I cch tRAn /% /n+
fp n 5 Lhn c8% /n+ l0 c8% c =%n+ )1ch n2[c vi tRon+ v0 )%n+ )1ch n2[c !R.
IIh Ph8n t ",6n [1 Mi;<h:
Ak, > [20 Mi;<h:
LLK
) a (

L
K
6
K

) K (

L
K
6
4
!R
K

) I (

L
K
6
4
!R
4

C
L
K
6
4

) i (

L
K
6
4
!R
K

fp n 5
$Xi phn n+ vit /n+ /t O#i /i-.# n% c8n bn+ si tRr /i O#Ki /i-.'
C LL
K
E K6
K
D L(D6)
K
E L
K
6
K
CL
K
6
K
E !R
K
L
K
6
K
!R
K

CL
K
6
K
!R
K
E !R
K
L
K
6
K
!R
4

C L
K
6
K
E 6
K
L
K
6
4
C L
K
6
4
E !R
K
L
K
6
4
!R
K

Ak, 2 [W0 Mi;<h : !0i ton
Lho .Yt hXn h3p P +h. L6
4
v0 L
K
6
4
' f- /&t chT ho0n I#It lt hXn h3p P Z fHQL# Ri)
cho sn phs. /i F% )%n+ )1ch n2[c vi tRon+ lT )2 thT c? KO +. cht kt t' 6<T Uc /1nh j
v th- tch c hXn h3p '
fp n 5
) .ol ( K # O
aOO
KO
n
) .ol ( ai # O
4 # KK
It # I
n
I
) D6 ( L
hh
= =
= =
Jh2n+ tRGnh phn n+ 5
L6
4
EID
K
LD
K
E 6
K
D L
K
6
4
EID
K
KLD
K
E K6
K
D
a .ol a .ol a .ol K .ol
U .ol U .ol T .ol KT .ol
L(D6)
K
E LD
K
LLD
I
E 6
K
D
GD: TK*nJ Unh 3'n at
Gio n T chn Ho Hc 9

= +
= +
K # O T K U
ai # O T U

=
=
Oi # O T
a # O U
j tv # tt j II # II j aOO 6 4L
j II # II
ai # O
j aOO l Oi # O
4L6
4 K
4
= =
= =
GD: TK*nJ Unh 3'n av