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The following review notes state the concepts and equations necessary to solve potential

final examination questions in this subject. The following basic topics and their

corresponding equations and charts are covered in these notes:

• Major and Minor Friction Losses

• Energy Gains and Losses due to Pumps and Turbines

• Hydraulic Grade Lines and Energy Grade Lines

It is important to note that is this version of the equation, the unit for each term is a unit

of length. This length is what is referred to as “head”, with the first term representing

“pressure head”, the second term representing “velocity head”, and the third term

representing “elevation head”. For the remainder of these notes, all fluid energy terms

used will have the units of length and they will be referred to as “head”

This equation is valid for steady state, frictionless, incompressible fluid flow, along a

streamline. Of these requirements, some can be assumed for the practical purposes of

using this equation. Below is a review of each condition, how it is met, and what

situations are not valid to meet it’s condition

Steady State – in our analysis, we will assume a period of time has elapsed for the fluid

flow to reach steady state. Some example problems where this condition is not met are:

startup of a pump, initial filling of a pipeline, and fluid flow with fast cycling inputs.

Frictionless – this condition is not met in most fluid flow in a closed conduit situations.

Additionally the head losses due to friction are often too large to be considered

negligible. In the next section, we will classify different types of friction losses and give

equations for the quantification of the head lost.

Incompressible – this condition is not met in fluid flow in a closed conduit. However, for

most liquids, including water, the errors generated by fluid compressibility are small

enough to be considered negligible. The most common situations where the errors

generated are too significant to be ignored, are the fluid flow of gasses and vapors.

Streamline – this condition is met in fluid flow in a closed conduit, so long as there is

only one conduit that is being analyzed. If the conduit splits into multiple closed conduits

in parallel, then the equations are no longer valid and different analysis techniques must

be used.

Using the conditions previously stated, we must assure that the situation we are analyzing

and the resulting equation meets the following requirements:

Taking these into account, we arrive at the following Modified Bernoulli Equation, where

hf is the summation of all of the friction losses.

In the next section we will quantify the values for different friction losses for the purpose

of using them in the Modified Bernoulli Equation.

As previously stated, there are two categories of friction losses used in the analysis of

fluid flow in a closed conduit.

Major Losses – These are frictional losses created by fluid motion over the pipe walls.

For the purpose of these notes, we will not cover concepts such as boundary layers. We

will only state that these head losses are inherent in all pipes and they are dependent on

properties of both the pipe and the fluid.

Minor Losses – These are frictional losses created by fluid motion through outlets, inlets,

expansions, contractions, valves, and any other geometrical obstructions in the fluid flow.

The head losses in these cases are mostly caused by disturbances in the fluid flow that

result in increased turbulence and motion in other directions than the prevailing general

direction of fluid flow.

Below are the two equations used for the major losses is head. Please note that they are

separated by a range of values for the Reynolds Number (Re) that defines their validity.

For all cases, the Reynolds Number must first be determined.

Major 1 (where friction factor f is taken from the Moody Diagram using Re > 2000):

Major 1 (where Re < 2000 there is no need to use the Moody Diagram):

There are two widely used methods for quantifying minor losses. The first method

shown below uses a loss factor K and multiplies by the velocity head. In a separate

equation, the summation of all minor losses is added to the major loss to get the total

friction head loss. This is most common in undergraduate academic work, and table for

common values of K are used.

For sudden contraction ( K = 0.5 ), the velocity in the smaller pipe is used.

The second method, shown below, defines an equivalent length of pipe that would

generate the same friction loss as the particular component. This method is more

common in professional field work, where it is simpler to add the length of the pipe to the

summation of equivalent lengths of all minor losses, and then use one equation to find the

total friction head loss.

For the practical purposes of this course, you should be familiar with the equivalent

length method. However, most problems are easier to solve using the loss factor K

method.

In addition to friction losses, there are also two other methods for changing the head in a

fluid.

To account for head gains or losses from these devices, the Bernoulli Equation may be

further modified.

It should be noted that when using the equation above, the values for pump and turbine

energy given must be converted into the proper units of length that match the other terms

in the equation. Additionally, if the energy of the pump or turbine is given in terms of

mechanical energy, the efficiency of the devices must be account for. Often times,

electrical energy will be given. In this case both the efficiencies for the pump or turbine

as well as the efficiencies for the motor or generator must be included in the analysis.

For the practical purposes of this course, the above Modified Bernoulli Equation is the

equation that should be used. If there are no pumps or turbines in the conduit, then these

terms are taken as zero.

One common and convenient way of visually depicting fluid energy, is with hydraulic

grade lines (HGL) and energy grade lines (EGL). Each of these two lines is a graphical

representation of some of the terms in the Bernoulli Equation.

Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)

It is clear from the final equation, that the difference between these two lines is always

equal to the velocity head. If there is no velocity, then both lines have the same value.

Typically, the grade lines are graphed over a visual depiction of the system, with the

horizontal direction denoting the position in the system, and the vertical direction noting

the energy. In this method, the two grade lines are abbreviated as HGL and EGL, and

there are typically no quantifiable values labeled on the diagram. An example is given

below.

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