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Emission Calculations

Introduction...........................................................................................................................4

Calculating Emissions for Air Permitting ..............................................................................4

Qualifying Emissions.....................................................................................................4
Quantifying Emissions...................................................................................................5
Calculations and Emission Limits from MDEQ Rules...................................................5
Particulate Matter ...................................................................................................6
Sulfur-Bearing Compounds....................................................................................6
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) ....................................................................7
Air Toxics................................................................................................................8

Emissions Inventory for the Renewable (Title V) Operating Permit ..................................10


Potential and Actual Emissions...................................................................................11
Point and Fugitive Emissions ......................................................................................12
Completing Your Emissions Inventory ........................................................................12
Compile Plant-Wide Information .................................................................................13
Identify Emission Units................................................................................................14
Identify Regulated Pollutants ......................................................................................15

Calculating Emissions for MAERS.....................................................................................17


What Pollutants Must Be Reported?...........................................................................17
Reporting Toxic Pollutants ..........................................................................................17
Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) and MAERS ...............................................18
Approaches to Emission Estimation ...........................................................................20
Direct Measurement....................................................................................................21
Stack Tests...........................................................................................................21
Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems...........................................................21
Step 1 – Calculating the Hourly Emission Rate ..........................................................22
Concentration of Air Pollutant in the Stack ..........................................................22
Stack Gas Flow Rate............................................................................................25
Calculating Hourly Mass Emission Rate ..............................................................28
Step 2 – Calculating the Source Specific Emission Factor.........................................29
Step 3 – Determining the Annual Mass Emission Rate..............................................31
Mass Balance..............................................................................................................32
Mass Balances Examples...........................................................................................33
Surface Coating Operations.................................................................................33
Considerations When Calculating VOC Emissions .............................................37
Laboratory Hoods.................................................................................................37
Combustion Sources............................................................................................38

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Emission Factors and Emission Models .....................................................................39
What are Emission Factors?................................................................................39
Emission Factor Examples..........................................................................................40
Grinding Operations .............................................................................................40
Foundry Emissions...............................................................................................41
Fuel Burning .........................................................................................................43
NOx Emissions Calculation for an Incinerator ......................................................44
Open Top Vapor Cleaners ...................................................................................45
Limitations of Emission Factors ...........................................................................48
Emission Factors Provided with MAERS .............................................................49
Emission Factor Resources ........................................................................................49
Emission Factor and Inventory Group .................................................................49
Emission Inventory Improvement Program..........................................................50
Clearinghouse for Inventories and Emission Factors (CHIEF)...................................50
Emission Factor Publications ......................................................................................53
Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors............................................................54
Pollutant Terminology and Conventions in AP-42 ......................................................55
Particulate Matter .................................................................................................55
Organic Compounds ............................................................................................56
Toxic, Hazardous, and Other Noncriteria Pollutants............................................57
Emission Factor Ratings .............................................................................................57
Other Ways to Obtain AP-42 Information and Updates .............................................60
Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) Preferred and
Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions ......................................................60
Others Ways to Obtain Information and Updates................................................62
Locating and Estimating(L&E) Document Series........................................................63
CHIEF Software and Computer Models .....................................................................63
Factor Information Retrieval (Fire) Data System ........................................................64
How MAERS Look-up Emission Factor Table and Fire Differ .............................65
TANKS ........................................................................................................................66
Storage Tank Standing and Working Storage Losses.........................................66
Landfill Gas Emissions Model.....................................................................................71
PM Calculator Program...............................................................................................71

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SPECIATE 3.2 ............................................................................................................71
WATER 9 ....................................................................................................................71
Wastewater Treatment Plants..............................................................................71
MDI Emissions Estimator Software......................................................................... 72
MOBILE 6....................................................................................................................74
AIR CHIEF...................................................................................................................74
Version 9.0 System Requirements ......................................................................75
How to Order Air CHIEF.......................................................................................75
Where to Go for Help on CHIEFS........................................................................76
Source-Specific Emission Factors ..............................................................................76
Industry-Specific Guidance .........................................................................................77

References.........................................................................................................................78

Appendix A. Federal Listed Air Toxics (Hazardous Air Pollutants)..................................79


Appendix B. List of Federal Regulated Air Pollutants ......................................................84
Appendix C. Source Categories for Fugitive Emissions ..................................................88
Appendix D. AP-42 Contents, Fifth Edition......................................................................90
Appendix E. Emission Calculation Fact Sheets...............................................................97

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Emission Calculations
Introduction

There are at least three activities that require a facility to calculate the emissions of air
contaminants: applying for and complying with an air permit, determining applicability to
the Renewable Operating Permit program, and complying with the Michigan Air
Emissions Reporting System (MAERS). The methods of calculating emissions are
common to all three activities. Therefore, the emission calculation examples and
discussions found under the MAERS section of this tab are pertinent to air permitting and
ROP applicability.

Calculating Emissions for Air Permitting

An estimate of actual emissions is the first step in evaluating the impact of the proposed
installation or modification of a process. A source must first qualify and quantify the
emissions to determine which federal and/or state regulations might apply. When
emissions are characterized, control and pollution prevention techniques can be planned
for compliance with the appropriate emission standards. The permitting agency, the
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), establishes the allowable limits
for air emissions in the special conditions of the permit to install.

Qualifying Emissions

Qualifying emissions means identifying what compounds, elements or particles are being
released from the given source or process. The emitted materials are process or industry
specific. A reference for understanding various types of sources is the Air Pollution
Engineering Manual (AP-40). Frequently, industry-specific trade organizations can
provide information about sources.

Steps in qualifying emissions for a specific processes include:

• Making an inventory of raw materials used in the process.

• Outlining the physical, chemical or biological changes that occur to those raw
materials.

• Determining which of the raw materials pass through unchanged and also have
the potential to be emitted to the atmosphere.

• Determining what by-products are produced as a result of the process and have
the potential to be emitted to the atmosphere.

• Combining the raw materials and by-products for an overall list of the type of
emissions which could be released from the source.

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From the list of materials emitted to the atmosphere, determine which are subject to
regulation. Are any criteria pollutants (sulfur dioxide, particulates, carbon monoxide,
oxides of nitrogen, ozone precursors, haze precursors, or lead) emitted? Are toxic air
contaminants, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), or other similar compounds present?
This will give an indication of which federal and state regulations need to be consulted for
further information.

Quantifying Emissions

Once the emissions have been identified, the next step is quantifying them. This means
determining how much of each chemical is being released to the atmosphere.
Regulations are based on quantified emissions expressed in units such as pounds per
hour and tons per year. Emissions are quantified based on one or a combination of
several factors. These include sampling, emission factors, equipment data and
information from chemical MSDS sheets, and the mass balance approach.

An explanation and examples of each emission estimation technique is found under


“Calculating Emissions for MAERS” beginning on page 17.

The present Michigan Permit to Install application package requires supporting


information that includes an emissions summary. Each process needs a one-page
emissions summary covering amounts of all pollutants in pounds per hour and tons per
year. Emissions from each vent or stack need to be quantified with each toxic air
contaminant listed individually as maximum pounds per hour, stack concentration in
micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3), and predicted ambient impact in µg/m3. Emission
estimates need to provide a reasonable margin of safety to ensure that the process can
operate within the levels quantified.

Calculations and Emission Limits from MDEQ Rules

Specific guidance for calculation of air releases and information regarding emission limits
can be found in the Michigan Administrative Rules for Air Pollution Control. Certain
sources and pollutants are also specifically addressed in federal regulations for National
Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs), New Source Performance
Standards (NSPS) provisions, and the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)
program.

Some of the major sections of the Rules are devoted to provisions for sources of
Particulate Matter (Part 3), Sulfur-bearing compounds (Parts 4 and 5), and Volatile

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Organic Compounds (Parts 6 and 7). Other pollutants are addressed within the context
of other sections. Specific applicability of some of the rules is dependent upon whether a
source is located in an area where air quality meets standards (attainment) or not
(nonattainment).

In some cases, specific methods for source emission testing are referenced in the Rules.
These methods which are based largely on the provisions of 40 CFR part 60 (1989) are
listed in Part 10, Intermittent Testing and Sampling, Rule 1004 (R 336.2004). A complete
copy of Part 10 is available from the MDEQ Air Quality Division.

Particulate Matter

Emissions of particulate matter are discussed in Part 3, Emission Limitations and


Prohibitions--Particulate Matter of the Rules. Table 31 lists maximum allowable
emissions at operating conditions for fuel burning equipment, incinerators, steel
manufacturing, ferrous cupola foundry operations, chemical and mineral kilns, asphalt
paving plants, cement manufacture, iron ore pelletizing, fertilizer plants, and various
exhaust systems. Coke ovens are addressed in Rules 349-357 and 360; steel
manufacturing in Rules 358-359, 361-363, 365-366; basic oxygen furnaces in Rule 364;
and sintering operations in Rule 367. Figure 31 presents a chart relating emissions to
steam capacity rating and Table 32 provides information on allowable rate of emission
based on process weight rate.

Sulfur-Bearing Compounds

Parts 4 and 5 of the Rules provide information on emission limitations and prohibitions for
sulfur-bearing compounds. Part 5 rules are essentially obsolete at this point. Power
plants are the subject of Rule 401. Table 41 presents the amount of sulfur in fuel
limitations for fuel-burning equipment and Table 42 lists equivalent emission rates.
Guidance for fuel burning sources other than power plants is found in Rule 402. Oil- and
natural gas-producing or transporting facilities and natural gas-processing facilities are
regulated under Rule 403. Sulfuric acid plants are addressed in Rule 404.

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Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

Emission limitations for existing volatile organic compound (VOC) sources are found in
Part 6 of the Rules with VOC limitations for new sources in Part 7. However, new
sources will need to reference Part 6 Rules for emission rates. There are presently
revisions and additions to these rules that may come into effect in the future.

The purpose of the Part 6 and 7 Rules is to reduce emissions of VOCs, specifically in
ozone nonattainment areas so that attainment with National Ambient Air Quality
Standards can be achieved. Table 1 lists the current Part 6 rules.

Reference to the Rules for your specific industry prior to performing calculations can
provide guidance as to the type of calculation that needs to be done. For instance,
surface coating emission rates are frequently expressed in pounds of volatile organic
compounds minus water as applied or pounds of VOCs per gallon of applied coating
solids (Tables 62, 63, 65, 66, 67 of the Rules). Applications such as graphic arts may
express limits in pounds VOC per pound of solids (Table 64), and flat wood paneling
coating line VOCs are given in pounds per 1,000 square feet of product.

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EXAMPLE #1: Automobile and Light Duty Truck Painting

For Automobile and Light Duty Truck painting, you may have to calculate VOC
emissions for surface coating operations in units of pounds of VOC per gallon of
applied coating solids (lb VOC/gal coating applied). To complete this calculation,
additional information is needed on the solids content by volume of the coating and the
application equipment transfer efficiency.

Coating A
VOC Content of Coating = 3.2 lbs. VOC/gal of coating
Solids Content (by volume) = 54%
Transfer Efficiency = 55% (i.e., solids applied; varies with spray gun type)

lb VOC lb VOC gal. coating gal. coating solids


= x x
gal. of applied coating solids gal. coating gal. coating solids gal. applied coating solids

3.2 lb VOC gal. coating gal coating solids


= x x
gal. coating 0.54 gal. coating solids 0.55 gal. of applied coating solids
lb VOC 10.7 lb VOC
=
gal. of applied coating solids gal. of applied coating solids

Air Toxics

The current Michigan air toxics program applies to new or modified sources of toxic air
contaminants. A discussion of the Michigan air toxics program is found in Part 2, Rules
224 through 232. The Michigan toxic air contaminants go beyond the 188 hazardous air
pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. All known substances can be
regulated as toxic air contaminants with the exception of some specifically listed
substances. Amounts of toxic air contaminants (TACs) are calculated on a pound per
hour basis for maximum allowable emission rates. Information is also needed to
calculate micrograms of TAC per cubic meter for various screening levels.

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Table 1.
Air Part 6 Rules, Emission Limitations and Prohibitions --
Existing Sources of Volatile Compound Emissions

[Promulgated as of January 1994]

601 Definitions.

602 General provisions for existing sources of volatile organic compound emissions.

603 Rescinded.

604 Storage of organic compounds having a true vapor pressure of more than 1.5 psia, but
less than 11 psia, in existing fixed roof stationary vessels of more than 40,000-gallon capacity.

605 Storage of organic compounds having a true vapor pressure of 11 or more psia in existing
stationary vessels of more than 40,000-gallon capacity.

606 Loading gasoline into existing stationary vessels of more than 2,000-gallon capacity at dispensing
facilities handling 250,000 or more gallons per year.

607 Loading gasoline into existing stationary vessels of more than 2,000-gallon capacity at loading
facilities.

608 Loading gasoline into delivery vessels at existing loading facilities handling less than 5,000,000 gallons
per year.

609 Loading delivery vessels with organic compounds having true vapor pressure of more than
1.5 psia at existing loading facilities handling 5,000,000 or more gallons of such compounds per
year.

610 Existing coating lines; emission of volatile organic compounds from existing automobile, light-duty
truck, and other product and material coatings.

611 Existing cold cleaners.

612 Existing open top vapor degreasers.

613 Existing conveyorized cold cleaners.

614 Existing conveyorized vapor degreasers.

615 Existing vacuum-producing systems at petroleum refineries.

616 Process unit turnarounds at petroleum refineries.

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Table 1.
(continued)
617 Existing organic compound-water separators at petroleum refineries.

618 Use of cutback paving asphalt

619 Perchloroethylene; emission from existing dry cleaning equipment.

620 Emission of volatile organic compounds from existing flat wood paneling coating lines.

621 Emission of volatile organic compounds from existing metallic surface coating lines.

622 Emission of volatile organic compounds from existing components petroleum refineries; refinery
monitoring program.

623 Storage of petroleum liquids having a true vapor pressure of more than 1.0 psia, but less than
11.0 psia, in existing external floating roof stationary vessels of more than 40,000-gallon capacity.

624 Emission of volatile organic compound from an existing graphic arts line.

625 Emission of volatile organic compound from existing equipment utilized in the manufacturing of
synthesized pharmaceutical products.

626 Rescinded

627 Delivery vessels; vapor collection systems.

628 Emission of volatile organic compounds from components of existing process equipment used in
manufacturing synthetic organic chemicals and polymers; monitoring program.

629 Emission of volatile organic compounds from components of existing process equipment used in
processing natural gas; monitoring program.

630 Emission of volatile organic compounds from existing paint manufacturing processes.

631 Emission of volatile organic compounds from existing process equipment utilized in manufacture of
polystyrene or other organic resins.

632 Emission of volatile organic compounds from existing automobile, truck, and business machine
plastic part coating lines.

651 Standards for degreasers.

Emissions Inventory for the Renewable Operating Permit

One of the first steps in evaluating the potential impacts of the Clean Air Act (CAA)
Amendments of 1990 is to develop an accurate inventory of all actual and potential

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air emissions from emission units at your facility. Individual pieces of equipment or
processes with the potential to emit pollutants used to be referred to as "sources."
Under the CAA Amendments, individual pieces of equipment or processes are referred
to as "emissions units," while a "source" now represents the entire facility.
The primary purpose for conducting an air emissions inventory is to allow your facility to
quantify actual and potential emissions of all regulated air pollutants to then determine
your major source status under the CAA. This section provides guidance on completing
inventories of criteria pollutants, newly regulated hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as
found in Appendix A, and other regulated pollutants in Appendix B. The inventory is
used in determining whether your facility is subject to specific regulatory requirements,
including Title V of the CAAA. Keep in mind that if your are subject to Title V, you will
be asked to gather information beyond emissions estimates. This section describes
this "emissions-related" information.

Potential and Actual Emissions

An emissions inventory containing potential and actual emissions is essential because


the determination of the applicability of many aspects of the CAA, and hence what
needs to be included in the renewable (Title V) operating permit application, depends
on a facility’s "potential to emit" a pollutant. Potential to emit is formally defined as...

the maximum capacity of a stationary source to emit a pollutant under its physical
and operational design. Any physical or operational limitation on the capacity of the
source to emit a pollutant, including air pollution control equipment and restrictions
on hours of operation or on the type or amount of material combusted, stored, or
processed, shall be treated as part of its design only if the limitation or the effect it
would have on emissions is federally enforceable (emphasis added) (40 CFR part
70).

Potential emissions differ from actual emissions in the following two ways:
• Potential emissions are calculated using maximum allowable hourly emissions,
based on an enforceable permit or regulatory limit, whereas actual emissions
use average hourly emissions. If no maximum allowable hourly emissions limit
exists, then potential emissions must be calculated using maximum hourly
emissions. The maximum hourly emission rates will either be 1) maximum
allowable hourly emission rates or 2) the maximum hourly capacity or design rate
of the unit.
• Potential emissions must take into account potential hours of operation,
assumed to be 24 hours per day, 365 days per year (equal to 8,760 hours per
year), unless a facility's federally enforceable permit constrains it to some lesser
number of annual hours of operation. Actual emissions are calculated according
to the hours an emissions unit was actually emitting over a given year.

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If permit limitations exist for an operation at your facility, such as a pollution control
device or limits on hours of operation, those may be considered in determining your
facility’s potential to emit, it is imperative that these limitations be federally enforceable.

State construction or preconstruction permits were historically the prevalent means for
obtaining a federally enforceable limit on an emissions unit. Existing (pre-Title V) state
operating permit programs have varying degrees of federal enforceability.

Point and Fugitive Emissions

A complete emission inventory will include actual and potential emissions from all
emissions units, including point sources and fugitive emissions at your facility. Point
sources are emissions units with a discrete emission point, such as stacks, chimneys,
vents, or other functionally-equivalent openings. Fugitive emissions are those that do
not arise from a discrete emission point, such as solvent releases in a paint mix room,
or oil mist emissions from metal working equipment released into the building and then
eventually into the atmosphere through plant windows and doors. Most facilities are
more familiar with point source emissions.

The role of fugitive emissions in major source applicability determinations varies


depending upon the relevant major source definition (see Table 2). For nonattainment
pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), fugitives always count toward the
applicability thresholds. However, for the 100 tons per year (tpy) general threshold,
fugitives only count if the facility may be considered one of the 27 source categories
listed in the permit rule (See Appendix C).

Table 2. Role of Fugitive Emissions in Applicability Determination

CAA Program Includes Fugitive Emissions?


Nonattainment pollutants Yes
HAPs Yes
100 tpy general threshold Only for 27 named source categories

Completing Your Emission Inventory

The rest of this section provides step-by-step guidance on completing a facility-wide


emissions inventory. Some of the steps involve techniques to estimate emissions of
pollutants. However, an emissions inventory for Title V application purposes requires
much more information than simply pound per hour or ton per

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year emission rates.

The steps for conducting an emissions inventory are:

• Compiling emissions data

• Identifying applicable requirements

• Quantifying emissions

• Assembling the inventory

Compile Plant-Wide Information

The first step in conducting an emissions inventory is to identify and gather background
data and information that will be used throughout the inventory process. Sources of
information, such as those listed below, should be assembled from plant and corporate
files to help identify and characterize the facility's air emissions:

• Emissions reports, test results, ventilation surveys, stack inventories

• Air permit applications and air permits

• Toxic chemical release reporting forms prepared for SARA Title III, Section 313

• Production, raw material usage rates

• Emission composition and product information found in Material Safety Data


Sheets (MSDSs), inventory reports

• Process or block flow diagrams, or roof drawings

• Michigan air quality regulations to define allowable emissions

• Potential hours of operation for the calendar year (8,760 or as constrained by


permit or design) and actual hours of operation for each emissions unit

• Emissions characterization information from other similar facilities

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• State Implementation Plan (SIP) emission inventory descriptions for your facility,
or similar facilities

Identify Emissions Units

The next step in the emissions inventory process involves the systematic identification
of all emissions units (both point and fugitive) at your facility. For the inventory to be
complete, we recommend that you include any piece of equipment involved in
operations or support of operations that could release pollutants to the atmosphere.
You should include units even if they have been exempt from state permitting or are
considered "grandfathered" from permitting requirements. You generally do not need to
include equipment associated with office activities (such as "white out" fluid, paint spray
cans for office use, or cleaners for office lavatories). You should include seemingly
insignificant activities, such as use of paint spray cans for marking items being
manufactured at your facility, if the equipment or activity is part of, or supports
operations. Some items that should be included, but that are often overlooked include:

• product, raw material, and waste material storage and handling operations
• storm water run-off, sewage and process wastewater treatment plants
• laboratories
• cooling towers
• CFC sources

Point and fugitive emission units can be initially identified by reviewing plant flow and
design drawings, prior or current air pollution and other environmental permits, emission
reports made to regulatory agencies, and other information describing the plant that has
been collected. In addition, emission units can be identified through discussions with
plant operations and maintenance personnel.

Your list of identified emissions units should be visually verified during a plant walk-
through by personnel that are familiar with the plant and its operations. This plant walk-
through should be thorough to identify any emissions units that have not previously
been included in existing inventories. Care should be taken to identify emissions units
that are not operating at the time of the walk-through, but may be operated at other
times during the year.

All identified emissions units should be given a unique designation or identification number
to facilitate record keeping and data entry into a database. This designation can be as
simple as a unit number or a code that designates the building, facility, or process. The
designations should be consistent with any other designations that may

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have been assigned in current air pollution permits or in any reports submitted to
regulatory authorities.

In addition to identifying emissions units, we recommend that you also identify


personnel responsible for design, operations, and maintenance of each identified unit.
These personnel will be able to provide important information for each unit that will be
useful during the preparation of the inventory.

Note again that you need to address emissions from units that may seem insignificant
and that you may not have had to address in the past. It may eventually turn out that
you will not need to address these units in your Title V permit beyond identifying them;
however, you cannot adequately calculate your facility-wide potential to emit regulated
pollutants unless you include all emissions units in your inventory.

Identify Regulated Pollutants

After identifying emissions units at your facility, you will need to identify the regulated
pollutants emitted from each unit. These pollutants can be identified from the information
sources mentioned previously, as well as from your general knowledge of the
manufacturing processes and operations that take place at your facility.

Compounds regulated under the CAA are: the six criteria pollutants for which the
USEPA has promulgated National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS), the 188
chemicals to be regulated as HAPs, Title VI stratospheric ozone depletion pollutants,
and pollutants regulated under the NESHAP and NSPS regulations.

These compounds constitute the universe of federally regulated air pollutants, and are
the pollutants you must address under the Title V operating permit program.

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Table 3. Facility Emissions Summary

Table from the Title V Operating Permit Workbook prepared for the
American Automobile Manufacturers Association is an example of
how to organize emission inventory information
Plant:
Date:
Criteria Pollutants Potential Emissions Actual Emissions

SO2

PM-10

VOC

CO
NOx

Lead
Hazardous Air Pollutants Potential Emissions Actual Emissions
(HAPs) List each HAP*: (tpy) (tpy)

Other Regulated Pollutants Potential Emissions Actual Emissions


List those Applicable*: (tpy) (tpy)

*
Lists of HAPs and other regulated pollutants are found in Appendices A and B.

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Calculating Emissions for MAERS

Facilities, under Rule 2 (R336.202) of the Michigan Administrative Rules for Air
Pollution Control are required to report their annual emissions of air pollutants to the Air
Quality Division of the MDEQ. Operational Memorandum No. 13 (see Tab 16 – AQD
Guidance) provides information on which facilities must report. The AQD has a set of
forms and instructions facilities must use and follow to report their emissions. In 1999,
AQD replaced the Michigan Air Pollution Reporting (MAPR) forms with an entirely new
set, including an electronic version. This new reporting mechanism is referred to as the
Michigan Air Emissions Reporting System (MAERS). For more information about
MAERS, see Tab 10 – Complying with Permit and Reporting Requirements.

Some of the information contained in this section was taken from the emission factor
publications found in the USEPA, Office of Air Quality Planning & Standards’
Technology Transfer Network (TTN). The TTN is a collection of technical Web sites
containing information about many areas of air pollution, including emission estimation.
The TTN can be accessed directly from the Internet via the World Wide Web. The
Internet address is www.epa.gov/ttn.

What Pollutants Must Be Reported?

Emissions for the following pollutants must be reported:

• Ammonia
• Carbon monoxide (CO);
• Nitrogen oxides (NOx) expressed as NO2;
• Particulate matter (PM);
• Particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM-10);
• Particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM-2.5)
• Sulfur oxides (SOx) expressed as SO2
• Volatile organic compounds (VOC); and
• Lead (Pb).

However, if the emission of one of the above pollutants from a source classification
code (SCC) is less than 0.01 tons (20 pounds) per year, the emission does not have to
be reported. Additional discussion of pollutant terminology and conventions begins on
page 55.

Reporting Toxic Pollutants

Under MAERS, the reporting of approximately 240 toxic pollutants is optional. MDEQ,
AQD will analyze the emissions data submitted by each company and estimate the
toxic air pollutant emissions from the information provided for the criteria pollutants.
This includes activity information such as source classification codes and material
throughput. Facilities submitting their MAERS report electronically will be able to view
the estimation of toxics prior to submitting their report. The MAERS software is

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equipped with an emission calculator. If the emission estimates are in error, the AQD
would appreciate the facility’s help in correcting those estimates of toxic emissions.

Toxic Chemical Release Inventory (TRI) and MAERS

Section 313 of the federal Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act
(EPCRA) of 1986, also known as Title III of the Superfund Amendments and
Reauthorization Act, requires certain facilities to report Toxic Chemical Release
Inventory (TRI) information for any listed chemicals manufactured, processed, or
otherwise used by the facility above specific thresholds.

Manufacture - production, preparation, import, or compound of an EPCRA


Section 313 chemical. Example: manufacturing benzene on-site for distribution
and sale.

Process - preparation or process of a listed toxic chemical for distribution in


commerce. This is usually the incorporation of a toxic chemical into a product. An
EPCRA Section 313 chemical is processed as a reactant, as a formulation or
article component, repackaged, or as an impurity. Example: process paint
containing certain glycol ethers.

Otherwise use - use of a listed toxic chemical that is not covered by the terms
“manufacture” or process.” EPCRA Section 313 chemicals are otherwise used as
chemical processing or manufacturing aids, or for ancillary or other use.
Example: using Freon 113 as a coolant in a closed-loop refrigerant system to
cool process streams.

There are about 650 toxic chemical categories covered by Section 313. A small number
of these are identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT). Activity
thresholds for non-PBT chemicals are more than 25,000 pounds manufactured, or
more than 25,000 pounds processed, or more than 10,000 pounds otherwise used.
PBT chemical thresholds are significantly lower regardless of the activity - more than 10
pounds or 100 pounds, depending on the chemical; for dioxin and dioxin-like
compounds the activity threshold is more than 0.1 grams.

The USEPA can add, remove, or modify the list of toxic chemicals that must be
reported. Facilities should check each year for any changes to the Section 313
chemicals and chemical categories and reporting requirements.

Michigan has over 900 TRI facilities and almost 2,000 MAERS facilities. Although the
MDEQ does not have an exact knowledge of how many facilities are filing both reports,
it is estimated that well over half of the TRI facilities report under MAERS.

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Facilities that report toxic pollutants under MAERS and are subject to EPCRA Section
313 TRI reporting requirements should develop a system that could satisfy both. This
would eliminate the redundancy of calculations. The following outlines MAERS and TRI
requirements.

y The reporting period for both MAERS and TRI is the calendar year. The initial
submittal dates of the reports differ. MAERS forms are due March 15. TRI forms
are due July 1.

y Under MAERS, facilities must estimate and report their releases of seven criteria air
contaminants and may report an additional 240 toxic pollutants (80 requested by the
Great Lakes Commission and 160 requested by the Toxics Unit of the Air Quality
Division). All 188 Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) are included in the list of 240
toxic pollutants. A majority of the MAERS toxic pollutants are included in one form or
another on the list of TRI chemicals. Under EPCRA Section 313, facilities must
estimate and report releases (including disposal) and other waste management
activities for approximately 650 chemicals and chemical compound categories.

y The submittal of emission data collected by MAERS to EPA must be made on a


process-by-process basis, as defined by EPA source classification codes (SCCs). In
addition to emission estimates, several other parameters such as material
throughput, operating schedules, stack parameters, and emission factors must be
reported at the process level. EPCRA Section 313 TRI requires facilities to report at
the facility level.

y Under MAERS, facilities do not have to report an emission if it is less than 20


pounds per year for each activity (SCC process). EPCRA Section 313 has no
minimum threshold for quantity released; once a facility meets the reporting
threshold for chemical use mentioned above, it must submit a report, even if there
are no releases.

A facility should consider developing an effective emission estimation system that can
adequately address MAERS and EPCRA Section 313 TRI reporting requirements.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 19


Approaches to Emission Estimation

There are numerous approaches to estimating emissions of air contaminants. Figure 1


depicts the various approaches to emission estimation that should be considered when
analyzing the tradeoffs between the cost and quality of the resulting estimates. In this
section, three approaches will be discussed including some examples on how to use
them: direct measurement, mass balance, and emission factors and models. Most of
the following examples are calculations of actual yearly emissions as required by
MAERS. However, a few potential emission calculations, as required by the Renewable
Operating Permit program, will also be included.

Figure 1. Approach to Emission Estimation

Source: Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42) Fifth Edition, Volume 1: Stationary Point and Area Sources,
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park,
North Carolina.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 20


Direct Measurement

The most accurate way of estimating emissions from a source is directly measuring the
concentration of air pollutants in the stack gas. Stack tests and continuous emission
monitoring systems (CEMS) are two methods of collecting actual emission data. This
section explains how source testing data from stack tests and CEMS can be used in the
completion of a facility’s Michigan Air Emission Reporting System (MAERS) submittal.
The discussion will focus on the methodology to follow in converting data collected
during source testing into a pollutant mass emission rate, i.e., tons of pollutant emitted
per year. Albeit very important for compliance demonstration purposes, this discussion
will not include comparison of stack testing and CEMS results, or all of the various air
pollutant concentration limits contained within the state and federal air quality
regulations.

The use of source test data reduces the number of assumptions regarding the
applicability of emissions data to a source (a common consideration when emission
factors are used); as well as the control device efficiency, equipment variations, and
fuel characteristics. Even then, the results will be applicable only to the conditions
existing at the time of the testing or monitoring. To provide the best estimate of longer-
term (e.g., yearly or typical day) emissions, these operating conditions should be
representative of the source's routine operations.

Stack Tests

Stack tests provide a means to determine the concentration of emissions of an air


pollutant at the point of release. These tests are conducted according to established
procedures. Stack tests provide a snapshot of emissions during the period of the test.
Samples are collected using probes inserted into the stack, then pollutants are
collected in or on various media and sent to a laboratory for analysis or analyzed on-
site by continuous analysis. Pollutant concentrations are obtained by dividing the
amount of pollutant collected during the test by the volume of the air sampled. Only
trained stack testers should perform the stack tests.

Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems

Continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS) involve the installation of monitoring


equipment that accumulates data on a pre-determined time schedule in a stack or duct.
The continuous measurements provide data under all operating conditions. Use of
CEMS requires attention to detail and strict adherence to state and federal guidelines.
Emissions data are available through direct measurement using continuous emissions
monitors, usually located in the exhaust downstream of a combustion device.
Information obtained from CEMS is considered reliable,

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 21


provided the devices are subject to a quality control/quality assurance (QA/QC)
program that includes appropriate calibration. A CEMS provides a continuous record of
emissions over an extended and uninterrupted period of time. Various principles are
employed to measure the concentration of pollutants in the gas stream. These
principles are usually based upon photometric measurements. Instrument calibration
drift can be problematic for CEMS. The owner is responsible for proper calibration,
operation, and validation of the monitoring equipment and emission data.

Stack tests and CEMS directly measure two important values: the concentration of a
specific air pollutant ([air pollutant]) in the stack gas and stack gas flow rate. Multiplying
these two values together will equal a mass emission rate typically expressed as
pounds of air pollutant per hour (see Equation 1 and Step 1). Once the hourly mass
emission rate is calculated, it can be easily converted to a source specific emission
factor by dividing the hourly mass emission rate by the hourly activity (i.e., hourly
material throughput during the stack test or CEMS measurement, such as ton of coal
combusted per hour [see Equation 2 and Step 2]). The annual emission rate of the air
contaminant is simply the product of the source specific emission factor and annual
activity (i.e., annual material throughput, such as tons of coal combusted during the
year) (see Equation 3 and Step 3).

Eq (1) [air pollutant] * stack gas flow rate = hourly mass emission rate

Eq (2) hourly mass emission rate / hourly activity = source specific emission factor

Eq (3) source specific emission factor * annual activity = annual emission rate of
air pollutant

Step 1 - Calculating the Hourly Emission Rate

According to Equation 1, the hourly mass emission rate is the concentration of air
pollutant multiplied by the stack gas flow rate. The concentration of air pollutants and
stack gas flow rate can be reported in a number of different ways or units, such as
milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3) or pounds per standard cubic foot (lbs/scf). To
correctly calculate the hourly emission rate, the concentration and gas flow rate must be
in units that are compatible with each other.

Concentration of Air Pollutant in the Stack

The concentration of an air pollutant is calculated by dividing the mass of the air
pollutant collected by the volume or mass of stack gas sampled (see Equation 4).
During a stack test, most air pollutants are collected on some type of media. The

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 22


type of media depends on the type of air contaminant being measured. For example,
particulate matter and metals, which are solids, are collected on a filter. Benzene, which
is in a gaseous state, is collected on a solid sorbent, such as charcoal. The total
volume of stack gas sampled is typically measured by a dry gas meter. Continuous
emission monitoring systems (CEMS) measure gaseous air pollutants directly by
fluorescence (SO2), infrared spectroscopy (CO), chemiluminescence (NOx), and flame
ionization detection (VOCs). Table 4 identifies the concentrations of the criteria air
pollutants typically found in stack test and CEMS results. Concentrations can be
reported on a mass or volume basis.

mass of air pollutant collected


Eq (4) ________________________ = concentration
volume or mass of air sampled

Table 4 - Source Testing Results

Pollutant Mass of Volume of Concentration of Concentration


Pollutant Stack Gas Pollutant in Stack Gas Units
Collected Sampled
VOCs, SO2, ppmvd
NOx, CO,
HCL
PM, M(grams) Vd(m3@ dry M * 1000mg/g mg/m3
TOXICS standard Vd
conditions)
PM M(grams) Vdw(scf) M * 1 lb/453.59 grams lbs/scf
Vdw
PM M(grams) Vd(dscf) M * 1 lb/453.59 grams lbs/dscf
Vd
PM M(grams) Vd(dscf) M * 15.432 grains/gram grains/dscf
Vd
PM M(grams) Vdw(acf) M * 1 lb/453.59 lbs/1000 lbs
grams*1000 (actual)
Vdw * pdw
PM M(grams) Vd(dscf) M * 1 lb/453.59 lbs/1000 lbs
grams*1000 (dry)
Vd * p d

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 23


Table 5 - Nomenclature

acf actual cubic feet


acfm actual cubic feet per minute
C concentration (mass of air pollutant/mass or volume of air)
dscf dry standard cubic feet
dscfm dry standard cubic feet per minute
Fd fuel factor (dscfm/MMBtu)
ft3 cubic feet
Hin heat input rate (MMBtu/hr)
HHV higher heating value (Btu/lb, Btu/gallon, or Btu/cubic feet)
M mass of air pollutant
m3 cubic meters @ dry standard conditions
mg milligrams
MW molecular weight of the pollutant. The molecular weight of the air
pollutant is the sum of the atomic weights of all atoms in the
molecule. One mole of molecules contains 6.022 x 1023 molecules.
The mass of one mole of pollutant is its molecular weight * lb/lb-
mole.
P pressure
pdw density of all sampled gas at standard conditions
pd density of dry gas at standard conditions
ppmvd pollutant concentration expressed in units of parts per million
volume dry. 1 ppmvd = 1 lb-mole of pollutant/106 lb-moles of air at
dry conditions. Since ppmvd is a volume to volume ratio, it is
independent of temperature and pressure.
Q stack gas flow rate
R mass fuel rate (lbs/hr)
scf standard cubic feet
scfm standard cubic feet per minute
STP Standard temperature (70oF) and pressure (29.92 inches of Hg
absolute) as defined in Michigan Rule 119(M).
T temperature
Vd volume of dry gas @ STP
Vw volume of water vapor @ STP

Vdw volume of all sampled gas @ STP


Videal volume occupied by one lb-mole of ideal gas will occupy a volume
of 386.5 ft3 @ 70o F and 29.92 inches of Hg

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 24


Table 6 - Conversion Factors

1 gram/1000 milligram 60 minutes/hour 0.02832 m3/ft3


1 gram/15.432 grains 1 lb/453.59 grams 1 lb/7000 grains

Combustion Sources: The stack gas leaving a combustion device (e.g. incinerator or
boiler) contains certain levels of air pollutants which can be made to appear smaller if
the total stack gas quantity is increased by adding non-pollutant gas to the stream. The
volume fraction of any gas present in the stack gas can be reduced by dilution, i.e.,
adding air. It is for this reason that combustion equipment concentration emission
standards are written with a specified amount of excess air (e.g., 0.08 grains/dscf
corrected to 12% carbon dioxide). These excess air corrections are important when
comparing stack test results to the emission standards but not when calculating the
mass emission rate. No matter how much the stack gas is diluted, the mass emission
rate will not change because the decrease in concentration will be offset by the
increase in stack gas flow rate.

If concentrations from stack tests are corrected to 50% excess air, 7% CO2, or 7% O2,
make sure the stack flow rate is in the same units when calculating the mass emission
rate.

Stack Gas Flow Rate

The second piece of information needed to calculate the hourly mass emission rate is
the stack gas flow rate (see Equation 1). As one can see in Table 4, the concentrations
are based upon volumes of air at actual or standard pressure and temperature, and dry
or wet conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to know how to convert acfm to scfm and
scfm to dscfm.

Flow rates can be determined using continuous volume flow rate monitor, stack
sampling data or, for combustion sources, can be estimated based on heat input using
fuel factors.

Converting ACFM to SCFM

The volume of a gas varies with changes in pressure and temperature. In order to
simplify comparison of gases, chemists adopted a set of standard conditions of
temperature and pressure. Accordingly, Rule 119(m) of the Michigan Administrative
o
Rule for Air Pollution Control defines standard conditions as a gas temperature of 70
Fahrenheit (460 + 70o F = 530o R) and a gas pressure of 1 atmosphere (29.92 inches
of mercury absolute).

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 25


The volume of a gas or volume flow rate of a gas at one temperature and pressure can
be converted to its volume or volume flow rate at standard conditions by using the ideal
gas equation which relates pressure, volume, and temperature.

According to the ideal gas law:

Eq (5) Qstd = Qo(Tstd/To) (Po/Pstd)

Where:
Qstd = gas flow rate at standard temperature and pressure
Qo = gas flow rate at actual conditions
Pstd = pressure at standard conditions is 29.92 inches Hg or 1 atmosphere
Tstd = temperature at standard conditions is 70o F
Po = pressure at actual conditions (inches Hg)
o
To = temperature at actual conditions ( F)
o
Eq (6) Qscfm = Qacfm * (460 + 70 F ) * Po
(460 + To) * Ps

Converting SCFM to DSCFM

Certain processes will generate moisture in the stack gas

Eq (7) Qdscfm = Qscfm * (100 -% moisture)


100

This approach can only be used for exhaust flows < 5% moisture

For Combustion Sources: When direct measurements of stack gas flow rate are not
available, Q can be calculated using fuel factors (Fd factors):

Eq (8) Qdscfm = Fd * 20.9 * Hin


(20.9 - %O2) * 60 min/hr

Where:
Fd = fuel factor, dry basis
%O2 = measured oxygen concentration, dry basis expressed as a percentage
Hin = heat input rate in MMBtu/hr

Eq (9) Hin = R * HHV


106

Emission Calculations Spring 2000 Page 26


Where:
R = mass fuel rate in lbs/hr
HHV = higher heating value of the fuel in Btu/lb

The average Fd factors are provided in EPA Reference Test Method 19 for different
fuels and are shown in Table 7. Also in Table 7 are the higher heating values (HHV) of
fuel.

Table 7- Fuel Factors and Higher Heating Values

Fuel Type Fd (dscf/MMBtu) HHV(Btu)


Coal
anthracite 10,100 12,300/lb
bituminous 9,780 13,000/lb
lignite 9,860 7,200/lb
Oil
residual 9,190 150,000/gal
distillate 9,190 140,000/gal
Gas
natural 8,710 1,050/scf
Wood 9,240/lb 5,200/lb
Wood Bark 9,600/lb 4,500/lb

EXAMPLE #2:

Company A operates a distillate oil-fired boiler. The fuel rate is 20 gallons of


oil per hour. The percent O2 in their exhaust gas is 2.1%. Determine the stack
gas flow rate Qdscfm.

Step 1 - Calculate the heat input rate (Hin) MMBtu/hr


Hin = (R * HHV)/ 106

Hin = (20 gal/hr * 140,000 Btu/gal * 1MM)/106

Hin = 2.8 MMBtu/hr

Step 2 - Calculate the stack gas flow rate Qdscfm

From Table 7, the Fd factor for distillate oil is 9,190 dscf/MMBtu


Q = Fd* ((20.9)/(20.9 - %O2 )) * (Hin /60)
Q = 9,190 * ((20.9)/(20.9 - 2.1)) * (2.8/60)
Qdscfm = 477

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 27


Calculating the Hourly Mass Emission Rate

According to Equation 1 (see page 22), calculating the mass emission rate might
appear to be quite simple; just multiply the stack gas concentration of air pollutant by
the stack gas flow rate to get a mass emission rate. The trick in making this calculation
is being sure the units of concentration of air pollutants are compatible with the units of
the stack gas flow rate. The following equations will explain how the air pollutant
concentrations reported in stack tests and CEMS data (see Table 4) can be converted
to the hourly mass emission rate expressed in units of pounds per hour (lbs/hr).

Converting ppmvd to lbs/hr

Eq (10) C ppmvd * MW * Q dscfm * 60 min/hr = lbs/hr


Videal * 106

lb-mole pollutant lb pollutant lb-mole air ft3 air 60 min = lb/hr


MM lb-mole air lb-mole pollutant 386.5 ft3 air min hr

EXAMPLE #3:

Company B operates a boiler equipped with a CEMS for SO2. According to the CEMS,
the in-stack concentration of SO2 is 33 ppmvd. The stack gas flow rate Qdscfm is
155,087. What is the emission rate of SO2 in lbs/hr?

Using Equation (10) and the molecular weight of SO2 is 64 (i.e., 32+(16 * 2)):

33 * 64 * 155,087 * 60 = 51 lbs of SO2/hr


386.5 * 106

Converting mg/m3 to lbs/hr


3
The mass of air pollutant per volume of stack gas (mg/m ) is corrected to dry standard
conditions. Thus, to calculate the mass emission rate, the concentration of air pollutant
is multiplied by the stack gas flow rate, in units of dscfm.

Eq (11) C mg/m3 * V dscfm * 60 min/hr * 0.02832 m3/ft3 = lbs/hr


453.6 gram/lb * 1000 mg/gram
3
mg ft lb min m3 gram = lbs/hr
m3 min gram hr ft3 mg

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 28


Converting lbs/scf to lbs/hr

Eq (12) C lb/scf * Q scfm * 60 min/hr = lbs/hr

lb * ft3 * min = lbs/hr


ft3 min hr

Converting lbs/dscf to lbs/hr

Eq (13) C lb/dscf * Q dscfm * 60 min/hr = lbs/hr


3
lb * ft * min = lbs/hr
ft3 min hr

Converting grains/dscf to lbs/hr

Eq (14) C grains/dscf * 1 lb/7000 grains * Q dscfm * 60 min/hr = lbs/hr

grains * lb * ft3 * min = lbs/hr


3
ft * grains * min * hr

Converting lb/1,000 lbs (actual) to lbs/hr

Eq (15) lb pollutant * Q acfm * 60 min/hr * paw = lbs/hr


1000 lb air

lb pollutant ft3 min lb air = lbs/hr


lb air min hr ft3

Converting lb/1,000 lbs (dry) to lbs/hr

The density of air at dry standard conditions is 0.075 lbs/ft3

Eq (16) lb pollutant * Q dscfm * 60 min/hr * 0.075 lb/ft3 = lbs/hr


1000 lb air

lb pollutant * ft3 * min * lb air = lbs/hr


lb air * min * hr * ft3

Step 2 - Calculating the Source Specific Emission Factor

The hourly mass emission rate determined from CEMS or stack test data (see Step 1)
can be converted into a source specific emission factor. An emission factor is the
amount of pollutant emitted per activity. Activities are typically expressed in

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 29


terms of material usage, e.g., tons of coal or gallons of oil fired. The basic equation
used in emission factor calculations is:

Eq (17) Emission Factor (EF) = Emission Rate (ERhourly)


Activity (Ahourly)

lb of pollutant emitted = lb pollutant emitted hr


ton of material ton of material/hr

See page 76 for additional discussion on source specific emission factors.

EXAMPLE #4:

Company B operates a boiler that has an SO2 emission rate (ER) of 51 lbs/hr. During
the stack test, the coal firing rate (A) was 6.7 tons/hr. Calculate the SO2 emission factor
(EF).

Using Equation 17:

EFSO2 = 51 lbs SO2/hr .


6.7 tons coal combusted/hr

EFSO2 = 7.612 lbs SO2/ton of coal

For Combustion Sources: Often a stack test may report emissions in units of
lbs/MMBtu. This is calculated by taking the lbs of pollutant/hr emission rate from the
test and dividing by the heat input rate Hin (see Step 1 below). To convert lbs/MMBtu to
an annual emission rate, use the fuel throughput and heating value of fuel (see Step 2
below).

Eq (18) lbs pollutant/MMBtu * MMBtu/year * ton/2000 lb = tons pollutant/yr

Step 1 - Converting lbs/hr to lbs/MMBtu:

(lbs pollutant/hr ) / Hin = lbs pollutant/MMBtu

Where: Hin = R * HHV


106

lbs pollutant * hr * lbs fuel * 106 = lbs pollutant


hr * lbs fuel * Btu * 1MM MMBtu

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 30


Step 2 - Calculating MMbtu/year

HHV * lbs fuel used/year = MMBtu/year

Btu * lbs fuel * MM = MMBtu


lbs fuel * year * 106 year

Step 3 - Converting lbs/MMBtu to tons/year

lbs pollutant* MMBtu * 1 ton = tons pollutant


MMBtu * year * 2000 lbs year

Step 3 - Determining the Annual Mass Emission Rate

The annual emission rate is the product of the source specific emission factor
(determined in Step 2) multiplied by an annual activity rate. Some examples of an
annual activity rate are tons of coal combusted per year or gallons of paint applied per
year.

EQ (19) Annual Emission (ERannual) = Emission Factor (EF) * Activity (Aannual)

lb of pollutant emitted = lb pollutant emitted * ton of material


yr ton of material * yr

EXAMPLE #5:
Company B burns 41,000 tons of coal during the year. What is the annual mass
emission rate (ER) of SO2?

Using Equation 19:

ER annual = 7.612 lbs SO2/ton of coal * 41,000 tons coal/yr * 1 ton/2000 lbs

ER annual = 156 tons of SO2/yr

One final key point to consider when deriving an annual mass emission rate from
source test data: stack tests are generally only conducted over several hours or days
at most. It’s a snap shot of the emission unit’s emissions. Over time, changes to the
emission unit may occur that could result in emission rates that are different than those
taken during the stack test. The facility may then have to conduct a new test to reflect
these new operating conditions.

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 31


Mass Balance

Mass balance is a method that estimates emissions by analyzing inputs of raw


materials to an emission unit and accounting for all of the various possible outputs of
the raw materials in the form of air emissions, wastewater, hazardous waste, and/or the
final product. As the term implies, one needs to account for all the materials going into
and coming out of the process for such an emission estimation to be credible.

M A SS BA LA NCE A PPROACH

air em issio n s

ra w m a te ria ls p ro d u c t
E M IS S IO N U N IT

w a ste w ate r h az a rd o u s w aste

Figure 2. Mass Balance

A mass balance approach can provide reliable average emission estimates for specific
emission units. For some emission units, a mass balance may provide a better
estimate of emissions than an emission test would. In general, mass balances are
appropriate for use in situations where a high percentage of material is lost to the
atmosphere (e. g., sulfur in fuel, or solvent loss in an uncontrolled coating process).

The use of mass balance involves the examination of a process to determine whether
emissions can be estimated solely on knowledge of operating parameters, material
compositions, and total material usage. The simplest mass balance assumes that all
solvent used in a process will evaporate to become air emissions somewhere at the
facility. For instance, for many surface coating operations, it can be assumed that all of
the solvent in the coating evaporates to the atmosphere during the application and
drying processes. In such cases, emissions equal the amount of solvent contained in
the surface coating plus any added thinners.

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 32


Mass balances are greatly simplified and very accurate in cases where all of the
consumed solvent is emitted to the atmosphere. But many situations exist where a
portion of the evaporated solvent is captured and routed to a control device such as an
afterburner (incinerator) or condenser. In these cases, the captured portion must be
measured or estimated by other means, and the disposition of any recovered material
must be accounted for. As a second example, in degreasing operations, emissions will
not equal solvent consumption if waste solvent is removed from the unit for recycling or
incineration. A third example is where some fraction of the diluent (which is used to
liquefy cutback asphalt, for example) is believed to be retained in the substrate
(pavement) rather than evaporated after application. In these examples, a method of
accounting for the non-emitted solvent is required to avoid an overestimation of
emissions.

Mass balances may be inappropriate where material is consumed or chemically


combined in the process, or where losses to the atmosphere are a small portion of the
total process throughput. As an example, applying mass balances to petroleum product
storage tanks is not generally feasible because the losses are too small relative to the
uncertainty of any metering devices. In these cases, emission factors can be used.

Mass Balance Examples

Below are some examples of using the mass balance approach of estimating
emissions. The processes included in the examples are surface coating operations,
laboratory hoods, and combustion sources.

Surface Coating Operations

Surface coating operations, including preparation of the articles to be coated, can involve
a variety of emissions such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particulates from
painting, metals from grinding, metals and VOCs from foundry operations, and other
criteria pollutants from fuel. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from
surface coating operations are a result of evaporation of thinners and solvents found in
the coating. The main factor affecting VOC emission rates is the percent of volatile
matter in the coating being applied. Most Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) indicate
the percent weight or volume of volatile matter in the coating. The MSDS may also
indicate the density of the coating, usually in units of pounds per gallon (lb/gal). The
density of the coating can also be calculated, if it is not specified on the MSDS, by
multiplying the specific gravity of the coating by 8.34 lb/gal, which is the density of water.
(This is assuming that the coating is being applied at close to atmospheric conditions.)

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 33


To quantify VOC emissions from surface coating operations, assume that all of the
volatile matter in the coating is emitted to the atmosphere. The following example
outlines the steps involved in quantifying VOC emissions from surface coating operations.

1. Identify the coating and amount used for a designated time period.

2. Locate the MSDS to identify the percent volatile by weight and the density of the
coating.

3. Complete the calculations as indicated in Example #6.

EXAMPLE #6: VOC Calculations

Coating A (assume the coating is solvent-based and applied as received)

Volatile percent (by weight) = 40%


Density = 8.00 lb/gal
Usage Rate = 2500 gal/yr
= 1 gal/hr (average)
= 3 gal/hr (maximum, based on maximum production rate)
Hours of operation = 2500 hr/yr
Permit limitations or other requirements = None that are federally enforceable
Hours of continuous operation = 24 hrs/day x 7 days/week x 52 weeks/year
= 8760 hrs/yr

Actual VOC Emissions:


gal lb 0.4 lb VOC lb VOC
Hourly average = 1 x 8.0 x = 3.2
hr gal lb coating hr
gal lb 0.4 lb VOC 1 ton ton VOC
Annual = 2500 x 8.0 x x = 4
yr gal lb coating 2000 lb yr

Potential VOC Emissions:


gal lb 0.4 lbs VOC lbs VOC
Hourly = 3 x 8.0 x = 9.6
hr gal lb coating hr
lbs VOC hr 1 ton tons VOC
Annual = 9.6 x 8760 x = 42
hr yr 2000 lb yr

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 34


The coating may also include a hazardous air pollutant (HAP) as one of its constituents.
The MSDS may indicate for example, the following:

Toluene = 10% (by weight)


n-Butyl Acetate = 10% (by weight)
Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) = 10% (by weight)
Xylene = 10% (by weight)

If so, you can estimate HAP emissions by assuming that the HAP is emitted into the
atmosphere at the same percentage as it is found in the coating. For example using the
previous example:

EXAMPLE #7: Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP) emissions)

Coating A

VOC Emission rate = 4.0 tons/year


Toluene = 10% (by weight)
n-Butyl Acetate = 10% (by weight)
MEK = 10% (by weight)
Xylene = 10% (by weight)

Actual HAP Emissions (toluene):

gal lb 0.1 lb Toluene lb Toluene


Hourly = 1 x 8.0 x = 0.8
hr gal lb coating hr
gal lb 0.1 lbs Toluene 1ton ton Toluene
Annual = 2500 x 8.0 x x = 1.0
yr gal lb coating 2000lb yr

Potential HAP Emissions (toluene):

gal lb 0.1 lbs Toluene lbs Toluene


Hourly = 3 x 8.0 x = 2.4
hr gal lb coating hr
lbs Toluene hr 1ton tons Toluene
Annual = 2.4 x 8760 x = 10.5
hr yr 2000lb yr

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 35


EXAMPLE #8: VOC Calculations

Estimating Emissions Using Mass Balance with a Single Component

In one process, Company C uses a solvent bath to clean its product, widgets. The
solvent density is 7.7 pounds per gallon. (The density of the solvent is used to convert
from gallons of solvent to pounds of solvent in the emission calculation). Xylene is the
only substance in the solvent for which emissions must be quantified, and it constitutes
87% of the solvent by weight. At the beginning of the year, Company C had 7,500
pounds of this solvent in storage and purchased another 9 tons over the year. At the
end of the year, the facility had 10,000 pounds in storage.

Assumptions: a. Xylene is a volatile organic compound and the total


volume is usually emitted to the atmosphere. Thus,
emissions equal amount of xylene used.

b. No control device is used to reduce the emissions of


solvent.

Because emissions equal the amount of xylene used, emissions (ER) are determined
using the following equation:

(20) ER = (SB + SI - SE) * F

Where:
ER = Annual emissions of xylene (lb/yr)
SB = Amount of solvent in storage at the beginning of the year (lb)
SI = Amount of solvent purchased during the year (lb)
SE = Amount of solvent left in storage at the end of the year (lb)
F = Fraction of xylene in the solvent, lb xylene/lb

ER = [7,500 lb + (9 tons x 2,000 lb/ton) - 10,000 lb]*0.87 lb xylene/lb solvent


= 15,500 lbs x 0.87 lb xylene/lb solvent
= 13,485 lbs of xylene emitted

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 36


Considerations When Calculating VOC Emissions

The VOC content of coating can be expressed in a number of different ways. Examples
are: lbs of VOC/ gallon of coating or lbs of VOC/ gallon of coating minus water and
exempt organic solvents. When calculating your annual emissions of VOC, make
certain that the total gallons of coating used in a year is compatible with what is in the
denominator of the VOC content of the coating.

EXAMPLE #9: VOC Calculations

Company D uses a coating that has a VOC content of 5.27 lb VOC /gal of coating
minus water and exempt organic solvent. The company used 5,452 gallons of coating
in the year. The percent by volume of water and exempt organic solvents in the coating
is 5 % and 15 %, respectively. Calculate their annual emissions of VOCs.

Step 1 - Determine volume of water and exempt organic solvents

5,452 gallons coating * (5% + 15%) = 1,090 gallons of water and exempt organic
solvents

Step 2 - Determine gallons of coating minus water and exempt organic solvents

5,452 - 1,090 = 4,362 gallons of coating minus water and exempt organic solvents

Step 3 - Calculate annual emissions of VOC

5.27 lb VOC/gallons of coating minus water and exempt solvent *


4,362 gallons of coating minus water and exempt solvents/year =
22,989 lbs VOC/year

Laboratory Hoods

There are no specific emission factors for calculating releases from laboratory hoods. The
most common approach to estimating releases is the use of a combination of material
balance and engineering calculations. In general, unless there is some information to the
contrary, you can conservatively assume that 100 percent of the volatile materials
collected by the hood are released to the atmosphere.

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 37


The key to making reasonable estimates of potential VOC emissions is to make sure that
the product consumption rates used in the calculations represent the maximum or design
capacity, rather than actual usage rates. For example, assume that your facility has been
operating for only 5 days/week, 24 hours/day (or 6240 hours/year) over the past year,
instead of the maximum possible 7 days/week, 24 hours/day (8760 hours/year).
Production rates for the year at a laboratory hood thus reflect operations at about 70
percent of capacity, and should be scaled up to full production capacities to estimate
potential releases.

EXAMPLE #10: Laboratory Hoods

Assume that in 1993 you consumed 3,800 lb of a volatile material at a laboratory hood
and operated 6240 hours/year. Total potential VOC emissions could be calculated as:

lb 1 year hours lb
Potential amount per year: 3800 x x 8760 = 5335
year 6240 actual hr year max year

lbs 1 year lbs


Potential amount per hr: 5335 x = 0.6
year 8760 hours hour

Combustion Sources

Fuel analysis can be used to predict emissions based on the application of mass
balance. The presence of certain elements in fuels may be used to predict their
presence in emission streams. These include toxic elements such as metals found in
coal; as well as other elements such as sulfur, that may be converted to other
compounds during the combustion process.

The basic equation used in fuel analysis emission calculations is:

(21) ER = R * PC * (MW p/MW f)

Where:
ER = pollutant emission rate
R = fuel flow rate (lb/hr)
PC = pollutant concentration in fuel ( %/100)
MW p = molecular weight of pollutant emitted (lb/lb-mole)
MW f = molecular weight of pollutant in fuel (lb/lb-mole)

For example, SO2 emissions from oil combustion can be calculated based on the

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 38


concentration of sulfur in the oil. This approach assumes complete conversion of sulfur
to SO2 . Therefore, for every pound of sulfur (MW = 32 g) burned, 2 lb of SO2 (MW = 64
g) are emitted. The application of this emission estimation technique is shown in
Example 11.

EXAMPLE #11: Calculations Using Fuel Analysis

Calculate the SO2 emissions from the combustion of oil based on fuel analysis results
and the fuel flow information.

fuel flow rate R = 46,000 lbs/hr


percent sulfur (% S) in fuel = 1.17

ER = R * PC * (MW p/MW f)
= (46,000) * (1.17/100) * (64/32)

= 1,076 lbs SO2/hr

Emission Factors and Emission Models

What are Emission Factors?

An emission factor is a representative value that attempts to relate the quantity of a


pollutant released to the atmosphere with an activity associated with the release of that
pollutant. An emission factor is a ratio of the amount of a pollutant emitted per
throughput of material (for example, pounds of NOx per gallon of residual oil burned).
Emission factors are founded on the premise that there exists a linear relationship
between the emissions of air contaminant and the activity level. A wide variety of
sources can use emission factors to estimate their emissions.

The general equation for calculating uncontrolled emissions using an emission factor is:

Eq (22) ERA = EFA * CF1 * CF2 * A1 * A2 * (100-EC/100)

Where:
ERA = emissions of pollutant A
EFA = emission factor of pollutant A
CF = 1 or more conversion factors (if necessary)
A = 1 or more activity values
EC = overall emission control efficiency (%) (if controlled).

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 39


Activity data (A) quantify the activities associated with a given emission factor
(examples include tons of raw material burned, processed, handled, charged, or
received and fuel burned). The conversion factors (CF) are those factors needed to
apply the emission factor to the activity data. This includes factors such as the heat
content of fuel expressed in BTUs per ton of fuel.

The following are examples of emission factor calculations.

• Calculation for fuel combustion requiring a single conversion factor and a single
activity value:

ER = EF (# benzene / MMBtu heat ) x CF ( MMBtu heat / ton coal ) x A (ton coal )

• Calculation of dust from hauling dirt requires two activity values:

ER = EF (# PM / yard 3 − mile dirt hauled ) x A1( yard 3 dirt ) x A2 (miles hauled )

Emission Factor Examples

Below are some examples of using emission factors to estimate emissions. The
processes included in the examples are grinding operations, foundries, boilers,
incinerators, and open top cleaners.

Grinding Operations

Particulate emissions associated with the grinding of metal can be estimated by


comparing the grinding operations to a scarfing operation at a steel mill. The scarfing
operation is used as a surface preparation step to remove surface defects from slabs
prior to shaping or rolling. Grinding operations can be assumed to follow the same basic
procedures as scarfing, and thus the emissions factors for scarfing (Table 8) can in some
instances be used to estimate emissions from grinding operations, although there may be
other methods to estimate emissions as well. For example, if a grinder is equipped with a
fabric filter, the control device vendor may provide you with a guaranteed particulate
emission rate.

Table 8. Particulate Emission Factors for Uncontrolled Grinding Operations


Process lb Particulate/ton metal
in grinding operation
Grindinga 0.1
a
Note: Grinding emission factor from Table 12.5-1 of AP-42 for metal scarfing.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 40


EXAMPLE #12: Grinding

Assume a grinding operations processes 50,000 tons of metal per year. The potential
particulate emissions from the grinding operations would be:

50,000 tons 0.1 lb Particulate 1 ton ton Particulate


Potential Emissions = x x = 2.5
year ton metal processed 2000 lb year

Foundry Emissions

Steel and gray iron foundries use the same basic processes to produce castings. Thus,
the emission factors and estimating techniques are similar for both types of foundry
operations. The main emissions from foundries occur during the metal melting step.
Table 9, taken from AP-42 Section 12.13-6, lists the emission factors for steel foundry
metal melting procedures. Emission factors for gray iron foundry metal melting can be
found in AP-42 section 12.10.

Table 9. Steel Foundry Metal Melting Emissions Factors (Uncontrolled)

Particulate Matter (a,b) Nitrogen Oxides (a)


Type of Furnace lb/ton of melt lb/ton of melt
Electric arc 13 (4-40) 0.2
Open hearth 11(2-20) 0.01
Open hearth oxygen 10 (8-11) -
lanced
Electric induction 0.1 -

(a) Expressed as units per unit weight of metal processed.


(b) If the scrap metal is very dirty or oily, the emission factor should be chosen from the upper end of the
range presented in parentheses.

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 41


EXAMPLE #13: Steel Foundry

An example potential emission estimate for a steel foundry using an electric arc furnace
which processed 50 tons of metal a day would be:

lb PM tons metal 13 lb PM lb PM
Potential Emissions = 50 x = 650
day day ton metal day

lb NO x tons metal 0.2 lb NO x lb NO x


Potential Emissions = 50 x = 10
day day ton metal day

Other foundry operations with the potential to emit pollutants include materials handling,
mold and core production, and casting and finishing. Particulate matter emission factors
that have been developed for other gray iron (uncontrolled) foundry processes are
summarized in Table 10, taken from AP-42 Section 12.10.

Table 10. Miscellaneous Foundry Emission Factors

Total Emission Emitted to Work Emitted to


Factor Environment Atmosphere
Process
Ib/ton lb/ton lb/ton
Scrap & charge 0.6 0.5 0.2
handling
Magnesium 1.8 1.8 0.4
treatment
Inoculation 3-5 - -
Pouring, cooling 4.2 - -
Shakeout 3.2 - -
Cleaning, finishing 17 0.3 0.1
Sand handling 3.6 - -
Core making, 1.1 1.1 1.1
baking

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 42


Fuel Burning

Calculating particulate matter emissions from distillate oil combustion serves as an


example of the fuel combustion emission factors. Fuel burning emission factors are
expressed as the weight of pollutant emitted per quantity of fuel combusted (e.g., pounds
of sulfur dioxide emitted per thousand gallons of oil burned (lb/1000 gal)).

EXAMPLE #14: Industrial Boiler Potential Emissions

Consider an industrial boiler with a rated heat capacity of 100 million Btu/hr. The
USEPA’s AP-42 emission factor document in a Table entitled "Uncontrolled Emission
Factors for Fuel Oil Combustion" indicates that the particulate matter emission factor
for distillate oil is 2 lb/1000 gal of oil burned.

(1) Assuming the oil has a heat content of 140,000 Btu/gal, the maximum oil firing
rate of the boiler would be

100,000,000 Btu / hour gal


Max. oil firing rate = = 714.3
140,000 Btu / gallon hour

(2) Potential particulate matter emission =

gallons oil 2 lbs particulate particulate


714.3 x = 1.43 lbs
hour 1000 gallons oil hour

Typical representative fuel heating values you may find useful are shown in Table 11.

Table 11: Representative Fuel Heating Values

Fuel Type Approximate Heat Content


Natural Gas 1,000 Btu/ft3
Distillate Oil (#2) 140,000 Btu/gallon
Residual Oil (#6) 150,000 Btu/gallon
Coal 13,000 Btu/lb

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 43


These approximate fuel heat content values can be used along with the rated heat
capacity of boilers and furnaces to estimate fuel firing rates of typical fuel burning
equipment.

EXAMPLE #15: Industrial Boiler Actual Emissions

To determine actual emissions, the actual quantity of fuel oil burned in a particular
period of time in the boiler is used in the calculation. Assume that your facility burned
1,000,000 gallons of #2 fuel oil in a year and the boiler was run at a 85% of the year
(310 days). Then the calculated actual emissions would be as follows:

gallons oil 2 lbs lbs ton


10 6 x = 2000 = 1
year 1000 gallons oil year year
ton 2000 lb 1 year 1 day lbs
1 x x x = 0.27
year 1 ton (365days)(.85) 24 hours hour

Other tables found in AP-42 provide uncontrolled emission factors for natural gas
combustion and subbituminous coal combustion, respectively.

NOx Emissions Calculation for an Incinerator

Thermal incinerators that are used to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) not only
have VOC emissions, but as with any combustion source, they also have fuel-related
emissions. These fuel-related emissions are calculated similarly to emissions from fuel
burning equipment. Thus, if you have an incinerator with a rated heat input capacity of 25
MMBtu/hr that burns natural gas, the potential NOx emissions would be calculated in the
following manner:

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 44


EXAMPLE #16: NOx Emissions from an incinerator

Rated input heat capacity = 25 MMBtu/hr


NOx = 140 lb/106 ft3 from AP-42 Table for Uncontrolled Emissions Factors for
Natural Gas Production

lb NO x MMBtu 1 ft 3 140 lb NO x lb NO x
Potential Emissions = 25 x x 6 3
= 3.5
hr hr 1000 Btu 10 ft hr

ton NO x lb NO x hr 1ton ton NO x


Potential Emissions = 3.5 x 8760 x = 15.33
yr hr year 2000 lb year

Assume that in 1993 the incinerator only operated for 7,000 hours. The actual
emissions would then be:
3.5 lb NO x hr 1 ton ton NO x
Actual Emissions = x 7000 x = 12.25
hr year 2000 lb year

Open Top Vapor Cleaners

There are three significant emission sources from open top vapor cleaners (OTVCs): 1)
idling losses associated with the air/solvent vapor interface; 2) working losses caused
from the introduction and extraction of parts and spraying; and 3) other losses such as
filling and draining losses, downtime losses, and leaks.

Emissions data from idling OTVCs are presented in Table 12. A summary of some
available data on emission rates for working OTVCs using electric (not manual) hoists is
presented in Table 13.

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 45


Table 12. Emissions from Idling OTVCS
.
Primary Condenser Emission
Temperature Rate
Solvent (Fq) (lb/ft2/hr)
1,1,1-TCA 50 0.087
1,1,1-TCA 70 0.120
1,1,1-TCA 85 0.143
CFC-113 40 0.062
CFC-113 50 0.094
CFC-113 70 0.169

Notes: Assumes a cleaner size of 0.9 m2, a freeboard ratio of 0.7, an uncovered machine with no refrigerated freeboard devices or
lip exhausts, and an AutoSonics device.
Source: USEPA - 450/3-89-030; August 1989, Alternative Control Technology Document - Halogenated Solvent Cleaners

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 46


Table 13. Emissions from Working OTVCs

Primary
Cleaner Cleaner Condenser Emission
Size Manufact- Air Speed Temperature Freeboard Ratea
Solvent (m2) urer (ft/min) (Fq) Ratio (lb/ft2/hr)

1,1,1-TCA 1.8 Detrex calm b 0.75 0.099

1,1,1-TCA 1.8 Detrex 130 b 0.75 0.173

1,1,1-TCA 1.8 Detrex 160 b 0.75 0.233

1,1,1-TCA 1.4 AutoSonics b b b 0.063

1,1,1-TCA 0.9 AutoSonics b 50 b 0.100

1,1,1-TCA 0.9 AutoSonics b 70 b 0.112

1,1,1-TCA 0.9 AutoSonics b 85 b 0.170

1,1,1-TCA 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 0.75 0.112

1,1,1-TCA 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 1.0 0.092

CFC-113 0.9 AutoSonics b 40 b 0.090

CFC-113 0.9 AutoSonics b 50 b 0.110

CFC-113 0.9 AutoSonics b 70 b 0.186

CFC-113 0.9 Branson b 60 1.0 0.775c

CFC-113 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 0.75 0.165

CFC-113 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 1.0 0.132

MCd 1.2 Crest b b 0.83 0.186

MC 1.2 Crest b b 0.75 0.354

MC 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 0.75 0.180

MC 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 1.0 0.145

MC blend 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 0.75 0.220

MC blend 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 0.75 0.125

MC blend 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 1.0 0.175

MC blend 0.4 AutoSonics 30 70 1.0 0.100

Notes: a Working emissions include diffusion, convection, and workload losses, but not leaks, solvent transfer losses, or
downtime losses.
b Information unknown or not available
c Constant cycling or parts into and out of machine and use of perforated metal basket that retained significant solvent
upon exit from machine account for elevated emission number.
d MC stands for Methylene Chloride
Source: USEPA - 450/3-89-030; August 1989, Alternative Control Technology Document - Halogenated Solvent Cleaners.

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 47


Losses from such sources as filling and draining, and leaks are difficult to quantify.
Equipment vendor estimates of downtime losses range from 0.03 to 0.07 pounds of
solvent per square foot of surface area per hour. Table 14 presents relative
evaporation rates of some halogenated solvents.

Table 14. Halogenated Solvent Evaporation Rates

Relative Evaporation
Solvent Rate
(CCL4 = 100)
TCE 84
PCE 39
1,1,1-TCA 100
Methylene Chloride 147
CFC-113 170

Source: USEPA -450/3-89-030; August 1989, Alternative Control


Technology Document - Halogenated Solvent Cleaners

Limitations of Emission Factors

Data from source-specific stack tests or continuous emission monitoring systems are
usually preferred for estimating a source’s emissions because those data provide the
best representation of the tested source’s emissions. However, test data from
individual sources are not always available and, even then, they may not reflect the
variability of actual emissions over time. Thus, emission factors are frequently the best
or only method available for estimating emissions, in spite of their limitations.

Average emissions differ significantly from source to source and, therefore, emission
factors frequently may not provide adequate estimates of the average emissions for a
specific source. The extent of between-source variability that exists, even among
similar individual sources, can be large depending on process, control system, and
pollutant. Although the causes of this variability are considered in emission factor
development, this type of information is seldom included in emission test reports used
to develop emission factors. As a result, some emission factors are derived from tests
that may vary by an order of magnitude or more. Even when the major process
variables are accounted for, the

Emission Calculations March 1999 Page 48


emission factors developed may be the result of averaging source tests that differ by
factors of five or more.

Air pollution control devices also may cause differing emission characteristics. The
design criteria of air pollution control equipment affect the resulting emissions. Design
criteria include such items as the type of wet scrubber used, the pressure drop across a
scrubber, the plate area of an electrostatic precipitator, and the alkali feed rate to an
acid gas scrubber. Often, design criteria are not included in emission test reports (at
least not in a form conducive to detailed analysis of how varying process parameters
can affect emissions) and therefore may not be accounted for in the resulting factors.

Before simply applying emission factors to predict emissions from new or proposed
sources, or to make other source-specific emission assessments, the user should
review the latest literature and technology to be aware of circumstances that might
cause such sources to exhibit emission characteristics different from those of other,
typical existing sources. Care should be taken to assure that the subject source type
and design, controls, and raw material input are those of the source(s) analyzed to
produce the emission factor. This fact should be considered, as well as the age of the
information and the user’s knowledge of technology advances.

Emission Factor Resources

Emission Factors Provided with MAERS

The MAERS software includes a look-up table of emission factors that may be used in
completing the report. The emission factors contained in the table are based upon
those listed in the Factor Information REtrieval (FIRE) Data System. The AQD, in
developing the look-up table of emission factors, edited and removed certain emission
factors from FIRE. See the discussion beginning on page 65 on how the MAERS look-
up table differs from the emission factors contained in FIRE.

The emission factors contained in the MAERS look-up table are provided to make it
easy for the user to estimate their annual emissions and report them to the state in
order to meet the annual reporting requirements. It must be understood, however, that
a general emission factor such as is found in the MAERS table is a default value. As
such, it may not be the best factor to represent emissions for the process being
evaluated. It is important to have an understanding of who develops emission factors
and what other emission estimation tools are available.

Emission Factor and Inventory Group (EFIG)


www.epa.gov/oar/oaqps/organization/emad/efig.html

Emission Factor and Inventory Group is part of the Emissions, Modeling, and Analysis
Division of the USEPA’s Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards. The program is
located at the USEPA's facility in Research Triangle Park, North

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 49


Carolina. The EFIG provides leadership in the development and use of emission factors
through: preparation and dissemination of technical guidance and information;
enhancements to and maintenance of reference guides (AP-42); and technical
information dissemination tools (e.g., Fax CHIEF, Air CHIEF, and the CHIEF web site);
training; and conferences.

Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP)


www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip

The Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) is a jointly sponsored effort of the
State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators/Association of Local Air
Pollution Control Officials (STAPPA/ALAPCO) and EPA. The EIIP Steering Committee
and technical committees are composed of state, local, industry, and EPA
representatives. The goal of EIIP is to provide cost-effective, reliable emission
inventories which are an aggregation of emission data from specific sources of air
pollution. State regulatory agencies use emission inventories in tracking trends in air
releases and the development of new regulations. Since reliable emission inventories
must be built upon the latest emission factors, the EIIP has developed some important
emission factor tools that facilities subject to MAERS should consult. Methods for
estimating air emissions from various industrial processes are available at
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip/techreport/volume02/index.html and
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip/techreport/volume03/index.html.

Clearinghouse for Inventories & Emission Factors (CHIEF)


(http://www.epa.gov/ttn/chief)

All of the latest information on air emission inventories and factors developed by the
EFIG and EIIP are organized on the CHIEF web site which is one of 16 web sites of the
Technology Transfer Network (TTN) (see Figure 3). The TTN Web is a computer
system administered by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS),
USEPA consisting of a collection of air quality related web sites. Each web site focuses
on a different aspect of air quality or the Clean Air Act. The various sites contain on-line
data bases, downloadable computer programs, bulletins, regulatory information, and
public forums for exchange of ideas. Because of the available functionality, the TTN Web
is being touted as a primary communication and outreach vehicle by the OAQPS. Many
of the reports and information found in the TTN are in Adobe® Acrobat® Reader 3.0
which can be viewed or printed.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 50


Figure 3. CHIEF

In addition to CHIEF, there is one other TTN web site containing emission factor
information: Clean Air Technology Center (CATC). The web site (www.epa.gov/ttn/catc)
offers free engineering assistance, a hotline, and technical guidance to state and local air
pollution control agencies in implementing air pollution control programs.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 51


Figure 4 is an overview of all the components of CHIEF.

Technology Transfer Network

CHIEF

Emissions Emissions Emission AirCHIEF


General EIIP Software
Inventory Modeling Factor CD Rom

Fax
Brochures National Technical AP-42
CHIEF
Emissions Document FIRE PM CALC
Inventory-US Series
Conferences
L&E SPECIATE
TANKS
Technical 3.2
North
Newsletters American Committees
LANDFILL
Emissions MOBILE 6
2.01
Systems -
Listserver Mexico
ACA
WATER 9
Interactive
Contacts General
Emission ASEM 1.0
AIR Data
Inventory Beta
Resource
OTAQE
CATC Emission

Emissions
SCRAM Modeling

MDI
Emissions
Estimator

Figure 4. Overview of CHIEF

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 52


Emission Factor Publications

There are three major publications containing criteria and toxic air pollutant emission
factor information:
y Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors
AP-42, Fifth Edition, Volume I: Stationary Point and Area Sources and
Supplements A, B, C, D, E & F,
y EIIP Technical Report Series, Volumes I - Point Sources and Volume II - Area
Sources, and
y Locating and Estimating (L&E) Air Toxic Emissions Document Series.

Each of these publications is available from the CHIEF web site.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 53


Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42)
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42/index/html

The fact that an emission factor for a pollutant or process is not available from the
USEPA does not imply that the Agency believes the source does not emit that pollutant
or that the source should not be inventoried, it is only that the USEPA does not have
enough data to provide any advice.

The Fifth Edition of the “Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42)”, Volume
I, compiles emission factors and descriptions of activities that produce criteria and toxic
pollutant emissions for most stationary point and area sources. The emissions data in
the AP-42 document have been gathered from source tests, material balance studies,
and engineering estimates. AP-42 is divided into an introduction, 14 chapters and 5
appendices (see Appendix D). Each chapter covers a different major industry or source
category, and contains at least one section describing a specific operation with common
products or similar process methodologies. Volume II of AP-42 deals with mobile
sources.

Since the February 1995 release of the Fifth Edition of AP-42, additions and changes to
the emission factors have been placed in supplements. For the latest updates of the
AP-42 emission factors, Supplements A-F should be reviewed in their entirety. The
supplements are found in CHIEF at www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/ap42supp.html.

Figure 6. AP-42

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 54


Pollutant Terminology and Conventions in AP-42

The need for clearly and precisely defined terms in AP-42 should be evident to all. The
factors in this document represent units of pollutants (or for ozone, precursors) for
which there are National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). These are often
referred to as "criteria" pollutants. Factors may be presented also for hazardous air
pollutants (HAPs) designated in the Clean Air Act and for other regulated and
unregulated air pollutants. If the pollutants are volatile organic compounds or particulate
matter, additional analytical information may be needed for specific applications.

Many pollutants are defined by their chemical names, which often may have synonyms
and trade names. Trade names are often given to mixtures to obscure proprietary
information, and the same components may have several trade names. For assurance
of the use of the proper chemical identification, the Chemical Abstract Service (CAS)
number for the chemical should be consulted along with the list of synonyms. The
pollutant terminology and conventions currently used in AP-42 are discussed below.

Particulate Matter

There are a number of terms commonly associated with the general pollutant,
"particulate matter" (PM). They include three different particle size forms, and four
different composition forms:

Particle Size Forms


y PM (particulate matter all sizes)
y PM-10 (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter)
y PM-2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter)

Composition Forms
y PRIMARY (sum of filterable particulate and condensable particulate
y TOTAL (same as PRIMARY, but both form names are currently being used)
y FILTERABLE (that portion of the particulate which is collected on a filter)
y CONDENSABLE (that portion of the particulate which is collected in impingers after
passing through a filter)

Within a stack sampling train there are two locations where particulate matter is
collected. In the front half of the train, particulate matter is collected on a filter. USEPA
Method 5 is used to determine the mass of this filterable particulate. In the back half of
the sampling train, particulate matter is condensed in the sampling train impingers.
USEPA Method 202 is used to determine this condensable particulate.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 55


The inorganic gas, AMMONIA (NH3) is being considered as a haze precursor and, as
such, is being added to the list of criteria pollutants. It is anticipated that reporting will
begin with the 2002 emissions inventory.

For MAERS reporting, the particulate matter form and AMMONIA, if present, are
required to be reported and are shown with their emission factors, in the color blue at
the bottom of the E-101 Emissions form within the software.

Organic Compounds

Precursors of the criteria pollutant "ozone" include organic compounds. "Volatile


organic compounds" (VOCs) are required in a State Implementation Plan (SIP)
emission inventory. VOCs have been defined by EPA (40 CFR 51.100, February 3,
1992) as "any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide,
carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which
participates in atmospheric chemical reactions." There are a number of compounds
deemed to have "negligible photochemical reactivity," and these are therefore exempt
from the definition of VOC.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 56


Toxic, Hazardous, and Other Noncriteria Pollutants

Hazardous Air Pollutants are defined for EPA regulatory purposes in Title III of the
Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA). However, many states and other authorities
designate additional toxic or hazardous compounds, organic or inorganic, that can exist
in gaseous or particulate form. Also, as mentioned, compounds emitted as VOCs may
be of interest for their participation in photochemical reactivity. Few EPA Reference
Test Methods exist for these compounds, which may come from the myriad of sources
covered in this document. However, test methods are available to allow reasonable
reliable quantification of many compounds, and adequate test results are available to
yield estimates of sufficient quality to be included in this document. Where such
compounds are quantified herein with emission factors, they represent the actual mass
of that compound emitted. Totals for PM or VOC, as appropriate, are inclusive of the
component species unless otherwise noted. There are a limited number of gaseous
hazardous or toxic compounds that may not be VOCs, and whenever they occur they
will be identified separately.

The Emission Inventory and Improvement Group (EIIP) produces a separate series of
reports that focus on a number of the more significant HAPs and related sources. The
title of these documents begin with “Locating And Estimating Emissions From Sources
of . . . (Substance).”

Emission Factor Ratings

Each AP-42 emission factor is given a rating from A through E and U, with A being the
best. The factor's rating is a general indication of its reliability. This rating is based on
the estimated validity of the tests used to develop the factor and on both the amount
and the representative characteristics of those data. In general, factors based on many
observations, or on more widely accepted test procedures, are assigned higher
rankings. The factors are determined by AP-42 authors and reviewers. Because
emission factors can be based on source tests, modeling, mass balance, or other
information, factor ratings can vary greatly.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 57


Test data quality is rated A through D, and ratings are thus assigned:

A = Tests are performed by a sound methodology and are reported in enough


detail for adequate validation.
B = Tests are performed by a generally sound methodology, but lacking
enough detail for adequate validation.
C = Tests are based on an unproven or new methodology, or are lacking a
significant amount of background information.
D = Tests are based on a generally unacceptable method, but the method may
provide an order-of-magnitude value for the source.

The AP-42 emission factor rating is an overall assessment of the reliability of a factor. It
is based on both the quality of the test(s) or information that is the source of the factor
and on how well the factor represents the emission source. Higher ratings are for
factors based on many unbiased observations, or on widely accepted test procedures.
For example, ten or more source tests on different randomly selected plants would
likely be assigned an "A" rating if all tests are conducted using a single valid reference
measurement method. Likewise, a single observation based on questionable methods
of testing would be assigned an "E," and a factor extrapolated from higher-rated factors
for similar processes would be assigned a "D" or an "E".

AP-42 emission factor quality ratings are thus assigned:

A (Excellent) Factor is developed from A- and B-rated source test data taken from
many randomly chosen facilities in the industry population. The source category
population is sufficiently specific to minimize variability.

B (Above Average) Factor is developed from A- or B-rated test data from a


"reasonable number" of facilities. Although no specific bias is evident, it is not clear if
the facilities tested represent a random sample of the industry. As with an A rating, the
source category population is sufficiently specific to minimize variability.
C (Average) Factor is developed from A-, B-, and/or C-rated test data from a
reasonable number of facilities. Although no specific bias is evident, it is not clear if the
facilities tested represent a random sample of the industry. As with the A rating, the
source category population is sufficiently specific to minimize variability.
D (Below Average) Factor is developed from A-, B- and/or C-rated test data from a
small number of facilities, and there may be reason to suspect that these facilities do
not represent a random sample of the industry. There also may be evidence of
variability within the source population.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 58


E (Poor) Factor is developed from C- and D-rated test data, and there may be reason
to suspect that the facilities tested do not represent a random sample of the industry.
There also may be evidence of variability within the source category population.

U (Unranked) Too little data to rank.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 59


Other Ways to Obtain AP-42 Information and Updates

In addition to downloading all or part of AP-42 from the CHIEF web site or Fax CHIEF,
the emission factors in the AP-42 are in the Air CHIEF CD (see page 80) and in the
Factor Information REtrieval System (FIRE) (see page 67).

Paper copies of AP-42 Volume I and four supplements are available from the
Government Printing Office (GPO):

AP-42 Volume 1 (Stock Number: 055-000-00500-1) $72


Supplement A (Stock Number: 055-000-00551-6) $32
Supplement B (Stock Number: 055-000-00565-6) $47.50
Supplement C (Stock Number: 055-000-00587-7) $11
Supplement D (NTIS Order Number: PB99-144628INZ) $58
Supplement E (not available from GPO)
Supplement F (not available from GPO)

To order, visit the Government Printing Office web site at:

http://bookstore.gpo.gov

GPO Access User Support Team contacts: Ph: (202) 512-1530


Toll Free: (888) 293-6498
Fax: (202) 512-1262
e-mail: gpoaccess@gpo.gov

Emission Inventory Improvement Program (EIIP) Preferred and Alternative


Methods For Estimating Air Emissions
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip/techreport

EIIP focuses on producing documents that maximize the use of existing emission
estimation information. EIIP documents present “preferred” and alternative methods for
collecting data and calculating emissions from point, area, mobile, and biogenic source
categories. For each document, EIIP assembles all available emissions and source
activity data information for a specific source category. A committee of technical experts
(from USEPA, state and local agencies, and industry) then chooses the most
appropriate procedures, standardizes their presentation, and describes the
circumstances in which to best use the information.

The EIIP guidance development process does not develop new emission factors, nor
will EIIP documents replace AP-42. EIIP relies on emission factors from AP-42. Users
of EIIP documents are referred to the appropriate sections(s) of AP-42 for selection of
emission factors or for more detailed process information. EIIP guidance and AP-42
have a complementary relationship. The following Table 15 contains the table of
contents.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 60


Table 15
Table of Contents of the Preferred and Alternative Methods For Estimating Air
Emissions

Volume I: Introduction
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip/techreport/volume01/index.html

Introduction and Use of EIIP Guidance for Emissions Inventory Development.

Volume II: Point Sources


www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip/techreport/volume02/index.html

Chapter 1: Introduction to Stationary Point Source Emission Inventory


Development.
Chapter 2: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Boilers.
Chapter 3: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Hot Mix Asphalt Plants.
Chapter 4: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Equipment Leaks.
Chapter 5: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Wastewater Collection and Treatment.
Chapter 6: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Ai Emissions from
Semiconductors.
Chapter 7: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Surface Coating Operations.
Chapter 8: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Paint and Ink Manufacturing
Chapter 9: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Secondary Metal Processing.
Chapter 10: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Oil and Gas Field Production and Processing Operations.
Chapter 11: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
Plastic Products Manufacturing.
Chapter 12: How to Incorporate Effects of Air Pollution Control Device Efficiencies
and Malfunctions into Emission Inventory Estimates.
Chapter 13: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions From
Stone Mining and Quarrying Operations.
Chapter 14: Uncontrolled Emission Factor Listing for Criteria A in Pollutants.
Chapter 15: Preferred and Alternative Methods for Estimating Air Emissions from
the Printing, Packaging, and Graphic Arts Industry.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 61


Table 15 - continued
Volume III: Area Sources
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/eiip/techreport/volume03/index.html
Chapter 1: Introduction to Area Source Emission Inventory Development
Chapter 2: Residential Wood Combustion
Chapter 3: Architectural Surface Coating
Chapter 4: Dry Cleaning
Chapter 5: Consumer and Commercial Solvent
Chapter 6: Solvent Cleaning
Chapter 7: Graphics Arts
Chapter 8: Industrial Surface Coating
Chapter 9: Pesticides - Agricultural and Nonagricultural
Chapter 10: Agricultural Operations (Not yet available.)
Chapter 11: Gasoline Marketing
Draft 1999 National VOC Inventory for Gasoline Distribution (addition)
Chapter 12: Marine Vessel Loading, Ballasting and Transit
Chapter 13: Autobody Refinishing
Chapter 14: Traffic Markings
Chapter 15: Municipal Landfills
Chapter 16: Open Burning
Chapter 17: Asphalt Paving
Chapter 18: Structure Fires
Chapter 24: Conducting Surveys for Area Source Inventories.

Volume IV: Mobile Sources


Volume V: Biogenic Sources
Volume VI: Quality Assurance Procedures and DARS Software
Volume VII: Data Management Procedures
Volume VIII: Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Volume IX: Particulate Emissions
Volume X: Emission Projections

Other Ways to Obtain Information and Updates

Volumes I through VII were printed in July 1997. In addition to being printed from the
web site, they are available in hardcopy by calling the Info CHIEF Help Desk. The
phone number is (919) 541-1000, the fax is (919)541-5680.

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 62


Locating and Estimating (L&E) Document Series
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/le/index.html

The L&E documents are the result of a USEPA program to compile and publish
information on specific toxic air pollutants and the source categories from which these
emissions are expected. These documents are pollutant, or source-specific. Each of
the L&Es identifies and quantifies emissions from specific source categories and
includes general process descriptions, potential release points, and emission factors.

L&Es are hazardous air pollutant (HAP) specific reports that present emission factors
and process flow diagrams. Emission factors from the L&Es are not subject to the
same strict development guidelines required for AP-42 and consequently, may be of
lower quality.

CHIEF Software and Computer Models


www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software

Emission models have been developed by the USEPA to estimate emissions for a
limited number of processes. These models are generally more accurate than an
emission factor used in a linear equation. All of the models may be downloaded from
the TNN Web (See Figure 7).

Figure 7. Models Available From CHIEF

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 63


Factor Information REtrieval (Fire) Data System
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/fire

Emission factors are available from the Factor Information REtrieval (FIRE) Data
System (see Figure 8). FIRE is a database management system containing over
18,500 emission factors to estimate the emission of criteria and hazardous air
pollutants from stationary, area, and mobile sources. FIRE allows easy access to
criteria and hazardous air pollutant emission factors obtained from the “Compilation of
Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42)”, “Locating and Estimating (L&E)” series
documents, factors derived from state-reported test data, and factors taken from
literature searches.

Figure 8. FIRE

Some of the emission factor data in the air toxics module of the FIRE tool come from a
number of emissions source testing reports developed under the California Air
Resources Board (CARB) air regulatory initiative (AB-2588). Some of these CARB data
are of particularly high quality because they are derived from pooled source tests of
similar sources within an industry in California. Sources in the CARB pooled emissions
source testing include oil and gas production, asphalt production, petroleum refining,
and fuel combustion.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 64


Each emission factor in FIRE also includes information about the pollutant (Chemical
Abstract Service [CAS] numbers and chemical synonyms) and about the source
(Standard Industrial Classification [SIC] codes and descriptions, and SCCs and
descriptions). Each emission factor entry includes comments about its development in
terms of the calculation methods and/or source conditions, as well as the references
where the data were obtained. The emission factor entry also includes a data quality
rating.

FIRE Version 6.23 (released October 2000) is a user-friendly, menu-driven Windows®


program that can run under Windows® 95/98 or Windows® NT. Users can browse
through records in the database or can select specific emission factors by source
category name or source classification code (SCC), by pollutant name or CAS number,
or by control device type or code. FIRE 6.23 contains emission factors from AP-42
through Supplement F.

How the MAERS Look-up Emission Factor Table and FIRE Differ
The Air Quality Division has installed an edited version of FIRE 6.23 in the MAERS
software referred to as the look-up table of emission factors. Below is an explanation of
how FIRE was edited.

y All FIRE emission factors that are identified as “less than or equal to” or as a “range”
have been changed to “equal to” or “mean” factors. Emission ranges are not
accepted by MAERS.

y When FIRE identifies more than one emission factor for a pollutant for one SCC
code, only one emission factor appears in the MAERS look-up table. For example,
a SCC code in FIRE may display emission factors for SO2 and SOx. Only one of
these emission factors will appear in MAERS.

y Some FIRE emission factors have been replaced with Michigan emission factors.
They primarily involve surface coating operations and were part of the old Michigan
Air Pollution Reporting (MAPR) system.

As a reminder, the emission factors contained in the MAERS look-up table are provided
for reference and should not be used if more accurate information is available.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 65


TANKS
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/tanks/index.html

TANKS is a Windows-based computer software program that estimates volatile organic


compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from fixed- and floating-
roof storage tanks. The TANKS program is based on the emission estimation
procedures from Chapter 7 of EPA’s Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, AP-
42. The user’s manual, available in Adobe Acrobat format and WordPerfect, explains
the many features and options of TANKS. The program includes on-line help for every
screen.

TANKS uses chemical, meteorological, roof fitting, and rim seal data to generate
emissions estimates for several types of storage tanks, including: vertical and horizontal
fixed roof tanks, internal and external floating roof tanks, dome external floating roof
tanks, and underground storage tanks. To use the program, enter specific information
about storage tank construction and the stored liquid. The TANKS program then
estimates the annual or seasonal emissions of VOC and produces a report. The
emissions can be separated into breathing and working losses. A batch mode of
operation is available to generate a single report for multiple tanks.

The TANKS program employs a chemical database of over 100 organic liquids, and a
meteorological database of over 240 cities in the United States. The program allows
the addition of more chemicals and cities, if desired. TANKS is capable of calculating
individual component emissions from known mixtures and estimating emissions from
crude oils and selected refined petroleum products using liquid concentration HAP
profiles supplied with the program.

Storage Tank Standing and Working Storage Losses

Emissions associated with the storage of organic liquids are due to the evaporation of
liquid, as well as changes in the liquid level during filling or unloading. The two types of
emissions associated with storage tanks are classified as standing storage and working
losses. Standing storage losses result from vapor expansion and contraction within the
tank due to fluctuations in temperature and pressure. Working losses result from
continual filling and emptying of tank contents.

There are five basic tank designs that are used for liquid storage vessels: fixed roof,
external floating roof, internal floating roof, variable vapor space, and pressure (low and
high). The following example illustrates the procedures for calculating working and
standing storage losses for a fixed roof vessel. The procedures for other tank types are
included in section 7 of the USEPA’s AP-42 document.

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 66


EXAMPLE #19: Storage Tank

Assume that a facility in Delaware stores acetonitrile in a fixed roof tank with a dome roof.
The tank has a diameter of 20 feet and a height of 10 feet, with a liquid capacity of
10,000 gallons. The following procedure may be used to estimate potential emissions
from this fixed roof storage tank.

LT = L S + LW
Where:
LT = Total losses (lb/yr)
LS = Standing storage losses (lb/hr)
LW = Working losses (lb/hr)

The standing storage losses may be calculated in the following manner:


L S = 365 x V V x W V x K E x K S
Where:
VV = Vapor space volume (ft3)
WV = Vapor density (lb/ft3)
KE = Vapor space expansion factor (dimensionless)
KS = Vented vapor saturation factor (dimensionless)

The vapor space volume is calculated using the following equation:


π
VV = x D2 x HVO
4
Where:
D = Tank diameter (ft)
= 20 ft
HVO = Vapor space outage (ft)
HVO = H S - H L + H RO
Where:
HS = Tank shell height (ft) = 10 ft
HL = Average liquid height (ft)
= assume equal to 0.5 tank height = 5 ft
HRO = Roof outage (ft)
H RO = 0.137 x RS

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 67


Where:
RS = Tank shell radius (ft)
= 10 ft
HRO = 1.37 ft

HVO = 10 - 5 + 1.37 = 6.37 ft

VV = π x 202 x 6.37 = 2001 ft3


4

The vapor density is calculated using the following:


M v x PVA
WV =
R x T LA

Where:
MV = Vapor molecular weight (lb/lb-mole)
= 40.05 lb/lb-mole (from Table 12.3-3)
R = Ideal gas constant (10.731 (psia-ft3)/(lb-mole-°R))
PVA = Vapor pressure at average liquid surface temperature (psia)
= 0.96 psia @ 54°F (Interpolated from Table 12.3-3)
TLA = Daily average liquid surface temperature (°R)
= 514°R (from Table 12.3-6 for Wilmington, DE)
41.05 x 0.96 lb
WV = = 0.007 3
10.731 x 514 ft
The vapor space expansion factor is calculated using the following equation:
∆ TV ∆ PV - ∆ P B
KE = +
T LA P A - PVA

Where:
∆TV = Daily vapor temperature range (°R)
∆PV = Daily Vapor pressure range (psi)
∆PB = Breather vent pressure setting rang (psi)
PA = Atmospheric pressure (14.7 psia)

∆ T V = 0.72 x ∆ T A + 0.028 x K P x I

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 68


Where:
∆TA = Daily ambient temperature range (°R)
= 19°R (from Table 12.3-6 for Wilmington, DE)
KP = Tank paint solar absorptance (dimensionless)
= Assumed to be 1.0
I = Daily total solar insolation factor (Btu/ft2-day)
= 1208 Btu/ft2-day (from Table 12.3-6)
∆ T V = 0.72 x 19 + 0.028 x 1.0 x 1208 = 47.5° R
∆ PV = PVX - PVN

Where:
PVX = Vapor pressure at daily maximum liquid surface temp. (psia)
= 1.20 psia (Interpolated from Table 12.3-3)
PVN = Vapor pressure at daily minimum liquid surface temp. (psia)
= 0.735 psia (Interpolated from Table 12.3-3)
∆ PV = 1.20 - 0.735 = 0.465 psia
∆ P B = P BP - P BV
Where:
PBP = Breather vent pressure setting (psig)
= assumed to be 0.03 psig
PBV = Breather vent vacuum setting (psig)

KE = 47.5 = 0.465 - 0.06 = 0.122


514 14.7 - 0.96

KS = 1
(1 + 0.053 x PVA x HVO)

KS = 1 = 0.755
(1 + 0.053 x 0.96 x 6.37)

Ls = 365 x 2001 x 0.007 x 0.122 x 0.755 = 471 lb


yr
= assumed to be -0.03
∆ P B = 0.03 - (-0.03) = 0.06 psig
The working loss is estimated using the following formula:

LW = 0.0010 x M V x PVA x Q x K N x K P

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 69


Where:
Q = Annual net throughput (bbl/yr)
= 250,000 gal/yr = 7937 bbl/yr
KN = Turnover factor (dimensionless)
KP = Working loss product factor (dimensionless)
= 0.75 for crude oils, and 1.0 for all other organic liquids

If the number of turnovers, N, is less than 36 KN = 1.0, otherwise:


180 + N
KN =
6xN

N = Number of turnovers per year (dimensionless)


5.614 x Q
N =
V LX
VLX = Tank liquid volume (ft3)
= 10,000 gal = 1337 ft3
5.614 x 7937
N = = 33.3
1337
lb
LW = 0.0010 x 41.05 x 0.96 x 7937 x 1 x 1 = 313
yr

Thus, the potential total losses for this example are:

lb
LT = 471 + 131 = 784
yr

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 70


Landfill Gas Emissions Model (Version 2.01)
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software

The Landfill Gas Emission Model was developed by the Clean Air Technology Center
(CATC), and can be used to estimate emission rates for methane, carbon dioxide,
nonmethane organic compounds, and individual HAPs from landfills. The program can
also be used by landfill owners and operators to determine if a landfill is subject to the
control requirements of the federal New Source Performance Standard (NSPS) for new
municipal solid waste landfills (40 CFR 60 Subpart WWW) or the emission guidelines for
existing municipal solid waste landfills (40 CFR 60 Subpart CC).

PM Calculator
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/pmcalc/index.html

PM Calculator is applicable to point sources only, and requires the user to input
uncontrolled emissions (either total filterable particulate or filterable PM-10) for each
source, the source category classification (SCC) and the control device, if any. The
program will then calculate controlled emissions for filterable PM-2.5 and filterable PM-10
for each point source.

SPECIATE 3.2
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/speciate

The SPECIATE database contains organic compound and particulate matter speciation
profiles for more than 300 source types. The profiles attempt to break the total VOC or
particulate matter (PM) emissions from a particular source into the individual compounds
(in the case of VOC) or elements (for PM).

WATER9
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/water

WATER9 is a Windows based computer program consisting of analytical expressions for


estimating air emissions of individual waste constituents in wastewater collection,
storage, treatment, and disposal facilities; a database listing many of the organic
compounds; and procedures for obtaining reports of constituent files, including air
emissions and treatment effectiveness. Contact the WATER9 and CHEMDAT8 hotline at
(919)541-5610 for more information.

Wastewater Treatment Plants

There is no one technique for estimating air emissions from an entire wastewater treatment
facility. One commonly employed technique is the use of a combination of engineering
calculations and mass transfer equations to model potential air emissions. This type of
modeling uses information on the chemical and physical characteristics of constituents of
the wastewater to predict rates at which volatile compounds in the water are released to
air. To use this technique, you must have detailed information on a variety of parameters,
including chemical and physical characteristics of the wastewater (e.g., concentration of
VOCs, Henry’s Law constants for constituents, volatility, diffusivity, vapor pressures, etc.),
physical characteristics of the treatment facility (liquid surface area, volume, etc.) and other
information, such as meteorological

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 71


The USEPA has published the guideline document Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage
and Disposal Facilities, which outlines how these models can be used to estimate air
releases.

There are a number of factors to keep in mind when using these predictive models for
estimating air releases from wastewater treatment plants. Obviously, the model can only be
as good as the data available as input. Further, these models were developed based on a
certain set of circumstances and are intended to be used only in certain situations.
Therefore, the models may not be able to accommodate all the characteristics of the
treatment facility. These and other factors are outlined in the USEPA document and should
be considered carefully before applying the models to your facility.

Additional methods for estimating VOC emissions from wastewater treatment facilities can
be found in the Chemical Manufacturers’ Association (1990) A Guide to Estimating
Secondary Emissions. In this volume, the use of mass balance equations and fields tracer
studies are discussed. The following is a simple example of the calculation of maximum
potential VOC emissions generated form a wastewater treatment facility.

MDI Emissions Estimator Software


www.polyurethane.org/regulatory/emissions.asp/index.html

MDI Emissions Estimator Software is a tool that provides a fast and convenient method
to estimate MDI emissions from typical process applications and activities. The software
program is based upon the methodology outlined in the MDI/ Polymeric MDI Emissions
Reporting Guidelines for the Polyurethane Industry. The program has built-in calculation
modules to estimate emissions for the following activities:
• Working and breathing losses from storage tanks
• Enclosed processes based upon cavity size
• Fugitive Emissions from process areas
• Enclosed processes based upon foam density
• Open continuous processes
• Filling/Blending operations
• Open processes involving adhesive/coating operations
• Spills

Included in the software are 18 illustrated examples based upon real-life applications.
Illustrated examples include:
Adhesives Boats Particleboard
Air Filter Doors Rebond
Appliance- Refrigerator Filling/Blending Recreation
Appliance -Truck Laminator Boardstock Spills
Automotive Mobile Homes Spray Foam
Boardstock Packaging Water heater

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 72


EXAMPLE #20: Wastewater Treatment Plant

Assume that using data from your Discharge Monitoring Reports (DMR) (required under your National
Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit), you estimate the presence of waste materials at the
concentrations listed in Table 16. Assume that 100% of the VOCs are released to the atmosphere.

Table #16. Example Waste Concentrations in Wastewater


Average Concentration Maximum Concentration
Constituent (from DMR) (from NPDES)
Arsenic 0.11 mg/l 0.14 mg/l
Lead 1.18 mg/l 1.20 mg/l
Methylene Chloride 100 µg/l 250 µg/l
Toluene 10 µg/l 200 µg/l
1,1,1-Trichloroethane 30 µg/l 250 µg/l
Vinyl Chloride 30 µg/l 35 µg/l
Total Volatiles 170 µg/l 735 µg/l

Assume the facility routinely discharges at 50 gpm for 24 hour per day, but could handle 75 gpm.
Actual VOC emissions may be calculated as follows:

µg g
170 = 1.7 x 10 -4
l l

g gal min 1000 l 1 lb lb


1.7 x 10 -4 x 50 x 60 x x = 4.3 x 10 -3
l min hr 264.17 gal 453.6 g hr

lb hr days lb
4.3 x 10 -3 x 24 x 365 = 37.7 VOCs
hr day year year

lb 1 ton tons
37.7 x = 0.019 VOCs
year 2000 lb year

Using maximum concentration and design flow rates the potential VOC emissions may be calculated
as follows:
g gal min 1000 l 1 lb lb
7.35 x 10 -4 x 75 x 60 x x = 2.8 x 10 -2
l min hr 264.17 gal 453.6 g hr

lb hr days lb
2.8 x 10 -2 x 24 x 365 = 245 VOCs
hr day year year

lb 1 to n to n s
245 x = 0 .1 2 VOCs
year 2 0 0 0 lb year

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 73


MOBILE6
www.epa.gov/otaq/m6.htm

The USEPA’s Vehicle Emission Modeling Software, MOBILE6, is an emission factor


model for predicting gram per mile emissions of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, PM, and toxics
from cars, trucks, and motorcycles under various conditions. It is used by the USEPA in
evaluating control strategies for highway mobile sources, by states, and other local and
regional planning agencies in the development of emission inventories and control
strategies for State Implementation Plans (SIPs) under the Clean Air Act, and in the
development of environmental impact statements (EISs).

AIR CHIEF
www.epa.gov/ttn/chief/software/airchief/index.html

As a part of its commitment to protecting global air quality, the USEPA is working to
provide current emissions data in convenient, easy-to-access formats to federal, state,
and local regulatory agencies, businesses, and the general public. An important tool in
this effort is the Air ClearingHouse For Inventories And Emission Factors (Air CHIEF) in
CD-ROM format.

The Air CHIEF CD-ROM gives the public and private sector users access to air
emission data specific to estimating the types and quantities of pollutants that may be
emitted from a wide variety of sources. Updated annually, Air CHIEF offers on one disc
literally thousands of pages contained in some of the USEPA’s most widely used and
requested documents. Included are the USEPA Emission Factor and Inventory Group’s
most popular emission estimation tools.
Air CHIEF is published annually.

Air CHIEF version 9.0 has been developed in Adobe Acrobat® format and is now
available for distribution by the Government Printing Office. This version of Air CHIEF
contains many features, such as linking between related documents, web links directly
to the CHIEF web site for easy access to the most recent updates, and enhanced full-
CD searching. Included on Air CHIEF version 9.0 are:

y Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42), Fifth Edition, Volume 1:


Stationary Point and Area Sources (including Supplements A, B, C, D, E, F and
Update 2001)
y Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors (AP-42), Fifth Edition, Volume 2:
Mobile Sources, selected tables
y EIIP Preferred and Alternative for Estimating Air Emissions from (source)
y AP-42 Background Files

Emission Calculations 2004 Page 74


y Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Version 6.23 Data
y Source Classification Codes (codes)/Area and Mobile Source (AMS) Codes,
October 2000
y 1997 North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) matched to 1987
U.S. Standard Industrial Classification Codes (SIC)
y 1999 National Toxics Inventory Documentation for Area and Mobile Sources
y Emission Inventory Guidance for the Implementation of Ozone and PM NAAQS and
Regional Haze Regulations
y Emission Inventory Training Material
y Handbook for Criteria Pollutants Emission Inventory Development
y National Air Pollutant Emission Trends Report 1900-1998
y National Air Pollutant Emission Trends Procedures 1985-1999

Also included on Air CHIEF are the installable copies of these software programs:

• BEIS • PMCALC
• CHEM9 • SPECIATE
• FIRE • WATER8
• Landfill Model • WATER9

Version 9.0 System Requirements

The minimum requirements to run Air CHIEF are an IBM-compatible PC with a 486
processor running at 33 megahertz or better (a 486 or Pentium processor is
recommended), with at least 4 MB RAM, 5 MB hard disk space, plus 7 MB additional
temporary disk space available during installation. Air CHIEF requires a CD-ROM drive
and must be used with Windows 95, Windows 98 or Windows NT to utilize all features.
For viewing PDF files inside of a Web browser, Netscape Navigator versions 3.0 or later
or Microsoft Internet Explorer or later are recommended (Data on the CD-ROM can be
retrieved using other operating systems with the appropriate Acrobat Reader.)

How to Order Air CHIEF

The Air CHIEF CD-ROM Version 9.0 is available by calling the Info Chief Help Desk at
(919) 541-1000 or send e-mail to info.chief@epa.gov.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 75


Where To Go For Help On CHIEFS

For information or assistance regarding the availability or use of any of the CHIEF tools
and services, contact the Info CHIEF help desk:

By e-mail: info.chief@.epa.gov

By phone: (919) 541-1000

By fax: (919) 541-5680

By mail: Info CHIEF


Emission Factor And Inventory Group (MD-14)
Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards
U. S. Environmental Protection Agency
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

Source-Specific Emission Factors

Source-specific emission factor data are similar to and are used in the same manner as
generic emission factor data, except that they are applicable to a specific
source/device/process. Source-specific emission factors can be developed from fuel
analyses, source tests, and laboratory analysis. These data are often available as a
part of the information developed for permitting and enforcement purposes; sometimes
the facility operator will have the required data as a result of monitoring and analysis
performed by the facility operator for purposes of quality control and process
optimization. Inquiries of the facility operator are necessary to determine the existence
and extent of the data available for use in developing emission factors for a specific
source/device/process.

Source-specific emission factors may also be available in the form of emissions per
hour that a process creates at a device. These data are often developed as a result of
permit processing and may be used as an allowable emission rate for the
device/process. Emission rate data can be used if it is representative of the actual
operating conditions and is not simply an upper limit that is seldom achieved.

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 76


Industry-Specific Guidance

The Environmental Science and Services Division and the Air Quality Division of the
Michigan Department of Environmental Quality are working closely with trade
associations to develop industry specific guidance on estimating annual air pollution
emissions from facilities. The guidance includes the SCC codes that should be
reported, along with emission factors, emission models, and other factors that sources
should consider when submitting their report. Currently, fact sheets have been
developed for the following nine industries:

Coating
Electroplating
Foundries
Hot Mix Asphalt Plants
Landfills
Mineral Product Processes
Oil And Gas Industry
Petroleum Bulk Plant Sand Terminals
Plastic Manufacturing

These fact sheets are located in Appendix F.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 77


References

A Guide to Estimating Secondary Emissions. Chemical Manufacturers Association,


1990.

Alternative Control Technology Document - Halogenated Solvent Cleaners.


USEPA -450/3-89-03, August 1989.

AP-40: Air Pollution Engineering Manual, 2nd Edition. USEPA, Los Angeles County Air
Pollution Control District, May 1973. Reprinted and updated by the Air & Waste
Management Association, 1992.

AP-42: Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 1: Stationary Point and
Area Sources, 4th Edition. USEPA. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards,
Research Triangle Park, N.C., September 1985.

AP-42: Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors, Volume 2: Mobile Sources, 4th
Edition. US EPA, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Research Triangle Park,
N.C., September 1985.

Control of volatile organic emissions from manufacture of synthesized pharmaceutical


products, Appendix B. EPA-450/2-78, December 1978.

Guidebook for Determining Applicability, Renewable Operating Permit Program.


Michigan Small Business Clean Air Assistance Program, 1995.

Protocol for determining the daily volatile organic compound emission rate of
automobile and light-duty truck topcoat operations. EPA-450/3-88-018, December
1988.

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 78


Appendix A.
Federal Air Toxics (Hazardous Air Pollutants)

Chemical Abstract
Services (CAS)
Number Chemical Name

75-07-0 Acetaldehyde
60-35-5 Acetamide
75-05-8 Acetonitrile
98-86-2 Acetophenone
53-96-32 2-Acetylaminofluorene
107-02-8 Acrolein
79-06-1 Acrylamide
79-10-7 Acrylic acid
107-13-1 Acrylonitrile
107-05-1 Allyl chloride
92-67-1 4-Aminobiphenyl
62-53-3 Aniline
90-04-0 o-Anisidine
1332-21-4 Asbestos
71-43-2 Benzene (including benzene from gasoline)
92-87-5 Benzidine
98-07-7 Benzotrichloride
100-44-7 Benzyl chloride
92-52-4 Biphenyl
117-81-7 Bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)
542-88-1 Bis(chloromethyl)ether
75-25-2 Bromoform
106-99-0 1,3-Butadiene
156-62-7 Calcium cyanamide
[105-60-2 Caprolactam - Removed 6/18/96 61 Federal Register 30816
133-06-2 Captan
63-25-2 Carbaryl
75-15-0 Carbon disulfide
56-23-5 Carbon tetrachloride
463-58-1 Carbonyl sulfide
120-80-9 Catechol
133-90-4 Chloramben
57-74-9 Chlordane
7782-50-5 Chlorine
79-11-8 Chloracetic acid
532-27-4 2-Chloracetophenone
108-90-7 Chlorobenzene

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 79


CAS Number Chemical Name

510-15-6 Chlorobenzilate
67-66-3 Chloroform
107-30-2 Chloromethyl methyl ether
126-99-8 Chloroprene
1319-77-3 Cresols/Cresylic acid (isomers and mixture)
95-48-7 o-Cresol
108-39-4 m-Cresol
106-44-5 p-Cresol
98-82-8 Cumene 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, including salts and
esters
72-55-9 DDE
334-88-3 Diazomethane
132-64-9 Dibenzofurans
96-12-8 1,2,-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
84-74-2 Dibutyl phthalate
106-46-7 1,4,-Dichlorobenzene(p)
91-94-1 3,3-Dichlorobenzidene
111-44-4 Dichloroethyl ether (Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether)
542-75-6 1,3-Dichloropropene
62-73-7 Dichlorvos
111-42-2 Diethanolamine
64-67-5 Diethyl sulfate
119-90-4 3,3-Dimethoxybenzidine
60-11-7 4-Dimethyl aminoazobenzene
121-69-7 N,N-Diethyl aniline (N,N-Dimethylaniline)
119-93-7 3,3-Dimethyl benzidine
79-44-7 Dimethyl carbamoyl chloride
68-12-2 N,N-Dimethyl formamide
57-14-7 1,1-Dimethyl hydrazine
131-11-3 Dimethyl phthalate
77-78-1 Dimethyl sulfate
534-52-1 4,6-Dinitro-o-cresol, and salts
51-28-5 2,4-Dinitrophenol
121-14-2 2,4-Dinitrotoluene
123-91-1 1,4-Dioxane (1,4-Diethyleneoxide)
122-66-7 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine
106-89-8 Epichlorohydrin (1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane)
106-88-7 1,2-Epoxybutane
140-88-5 Ethyl acrylate
100-41-4 Ethyl benzene
51-79-6 Ethyl carbamate (Urethane)
75-00-3 Ethyl chloride (Chlorethane)

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 80


CAS Nnumber Chemical Name

106-93-4 Ethylene dibromide (Dibromoethane)


107-06-2 Ethylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloroethane)
107-21-1 Ethylene glycol
151-56-4 Ethylene imine (Aziridine)
75-21-8 Ethylene oxide
96-45-7 Ethylene thiourea
75-34-3 Ethylidene dichloride (1,1-Dichloroethane)
50-00-0 Formaldehyde
76-44-8 Heptachlor
118-74-1 Hexachlorobenzene
87-68-3 Hexachlorobutadiene
77-47-4 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene
67-72-1 Hexachloroethane
822-06-0 Hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate
680-31-9 Hexamethylphosphoramide
110-54-3 Hexane
302-01-2 Hydrazine
7647-01-0 Hydrochloric acid
7664-39-3 Hydrogen fluoride
123-31-9 Hydroquinone
78-59-1 Isophorone
58-89-9 1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexachloro cyclohexane (all stereo isomers,
including Lindane
108-31-6 Maleic anhydride
67-56-1 Methanol
72-43-5 Methoxychlor
74-83-9 Methyl bromide (Bromomethane)
74-87-3 Methyl chloride (Chloromethane)
71-55-6 Methyl chloroform (1,1,1-Trichloroethane)
78-93-3 Methyl ethyl ketone (2-Butanone)
60-34-4 Methyl hydrazine
74-88-4 Methyl iodide (Iodomethane)
108-10-1 Methyl isobutyl ketone (Hexone)
624-83-9 Methyl isocyanate
80-62-6 Methyl methacrylate
1634-04-4 Methyl tert butyl ether
101-14-4 4,4’-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)
75-09-2 Methylene chloride (Dichloromethane)
101-68-8 Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)
101-77-9 4,4’-Methylenedianiline
91-20-3 Naphthalene
98-95-3 Nitrobenzene

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 81


CAS Number Chemical Name

92-93-3 4-Nitrobiphenyl
100-02-7 4-Nitrophenol
79-46-9 2-Nitropropane
684-93-5 N-Nitroso-N-methylurea
62-75-9 N-Nitrosodimethylamine
59-89-2 N-Nitrosomorpholine
56-38-2 Parathion
82-68-8 Pentachloronitrobenzene (Quintobenzene)
87-86-5 Pentachlorophenol
108-95-2 Phenol
106-50-3 p-Phenylenediamine
75-44-5 Phosgene
7803-51-2 Phosphine
7723-14-0 Phosphorus
85-44-9 Phthalic anhydride
1336-36-3 Polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclors)
1120-71-4 1,3-Propane sultone
57-57-8 beta-Propiolactone
123-38-6 Propionaldehyde
114-26-1 Propoxur (Baygon)
78-87-5 Propylene dichloride (1,2-Dichloropropane)
75-56-9 Propylene oxide
75-55-8 1,2-Propylenimine (2-Methyl aziridine)
91-22-5 Quinoline
106-51-4 Quinone
100-42-5 Styrene
96-09-3 Styrene oxide
1746-01-6 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
79-34-5 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane
127-18-4 Tetrachloroethylene (Perchloroethylene)
7550-45-0 Titanium tetrachloride
108-88-3 Toluene
95-80-7 2,4-Toluene diamine
584-84-9 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate
95-53-4 o-Toluidine
8001-35-2 Toxaphene (chlorinated camphene)
120-82-1 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
79-00-5 1,1,2-Trichloroethane
79-01-6 Trichloroethylene
95-95-4 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol
88-06-2 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

CAS Number Chemical Name

121-44-8 Triethylamine

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 82


Regulated Air Pollutants cont.

1582-09-8 Trifluralin
540-84-1 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane
108-05-4 Vinyl acetate
593-60-2 Vinyl bromide
75-01-4 Vinyl chloride
75-35-4 Vinylidene chloride (1,1-Dichloroethylene)
1330-20-7 Xylenes (isomers and mixture)
95-47-6 o-Xylenes
108-38-3 m-Xylenes
106-42-3 p-Xylenes
• Antimony Compounds
• Arsenic Compounds (inorganic including arsine)
• Beryllium Compounds
• Cadmium Compounds
• Chromium Compounds
• Cobalt Compounds
• Coke Oven Emissions
• Cyanide Compounds1
2
• Glycol ethers
• Lead Compounds
• Manganese Compounds
• Mercury Compounds
• Fine mineral fibers3
• Nickel Compounds
• Polycyclic Organic Matter4
5
• Radionuclides (including radon)
• Selenium Compounds

Note: For all listings above which contain the word "compounds" and for glycol ethers, the following applies: Unless otherwise
specified, these listings are defined as including any unique chemical substance that contains the named chemical (i.e., antimony
compound, arsenic, etc.) as part of that chemical’s infrastructure.

1. X’CN where X=H’ or any other group where a formal dissociation may occur. For example, KCN or Ca(CN)2
2. On January 12, 1999 (64FR1780), the EPA proposed to modify the definition of glycol ethers to exclude surfactant alcohol
ethoxylates and their derivatives (SAED). On August 2, 2000 (65FR47342), the EPA published the inal action. This action
deletes each individual compound in a group called the surfactant alcohol ethoxylates and their derivatives (SAED) from the
glycol ethers category in the list of hazardous air pollutants (HAP) established by section 112(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act (CAA).
EPA also made conforming changes in the definition of glycol ethers with respect to the designation of hazardous substances
under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).
"The following definition of the glycol ethers category of hazardous air pollutants applies instead of the definition set forth in 42
U.S.C. 7412(b)(1), footnote 2: Glycol ethers include mono- and di-ethers of ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and triethylene
glycol R-(OCH2CH2)n-OR’

Where: n= 1, 2, or 3
R= alkyl C7 or less, or phenyl or alkyl substituted phenyl
R’= H, or alkyl C7 or less, or carboxylic acid ester, sulfate, phosphate, nitrate, or sulfonate..
3. Under Review
4. Under Review
5. A type of atom which spontaneously undergoes radioactive decay.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 83


.

Appendix B.
List of Federal Regulated Air Pollutants

I. Pollutants for which a NAAQS has been established


Lead (Pb)
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2)
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Particulate matter (PM10) (PM2.5)
Ozone, including precursors: (O3)
Nitrogen oxides (NO, NO2, NO3, N2O, N2O3, N2O4, N2O5)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

As defined in 40 CFR 51.100(s), the term VOC includes any compound of carbon (excluding carbon monoxide,
carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate) which participates in
atmospheric photochemical reactions.

The following organic compounds are excluded from the federal definition of VOC because of they have been
determined to have negligible photochemical reactivity:

Methane 1-chloro 1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b)


Ethane 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124)
Methylene chloride (dichloromethane) Pentafluoroethane (HFC-125)
1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134)
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HFC-143a)
Trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a)
Dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) Acetone
Chlorodifluoromethane (CFC-22) Volatile methyl siloxanes
Trifluoromethane (FC-23) Parachlorobenzotrifluoride (PCPTF)
1,2-dichloro 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (CFC-114) Tetrachloroethane (perchloro ethylene)
Chloropentafluoroethane (CFC-115) 3,3-di-chloro-1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoropropane (HCFC225ea)
1,1,1-trifluoro 2,2-dichloroethane (HCFC-123) 1,3-dichloro-1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HCFC-225cb)
1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) 1,1,1,2,3,4,4,5,5,5-decafluoropentone (HFC-43-10mee)
1,1-dichloro 1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b)

And all Perfluorocarbon compounds which fall into these classes:


(i) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated alkanes;
(ii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated ethers with no unsaturations;
(iii) Cyclic, branched, or linear, completely fluorinated tertiary amines with no
unsaturations; and
(iv) Sulfur containing perfluorocarbons with no unsaturations and with sulfur bonds only to carbon and
fluorine.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 84


Regulated Air Pollutants cont.

The USEPA revised it’s definition of VOC, and this revision added the following list of compounds
excluded from the definition of VOC:

32 difluoromethane (HFC-32)
33 ethylfluoride (HFC-161)
1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236fa)
1,1,2,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ca)
1,1,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245ea)
1,1,1,2,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245eb)
1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa)
1,1,2,3,3-hexafluoropropane (HFC-236ea)
1,1,1,3,3-pentafluorobutane (HFC-365mfe)
chlorofluoromethan (HCFC-31)
1,2-dichloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123a)
1-chloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-151a)
1,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4-nonafluoro-4-methoxybutane (C4F90CH3)
2-(difluoromethoxymethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane [(CF3) 2CFCF20CH3]
1-ethoxy-1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,4,-nonafluorobutane (C4F9OCH2H5)
2-(ethoxydifluoromethyl)-1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane [(CF3) 2CFCF20C2H5]
methyl acetate

II. Pollutants Regulated Under New Source Performance Standards

Criteria pollutants (including VOCs and NOx) plus:

Cadmium
Dioxin/furan (defined in 40 CFR 60.53a to mean total tetra through octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins
*
and dibenzofurans)
Fluorides
*
Hydrogen chloride
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Mercury
Nonmethane organic compounds
Sulfuric acid mist
Total reduced sulfur
Reduced sulfur compounds
Total organic compounds
Total particulate matter

The new source performance standard (NSPS) for municipal waste combustors (MWC) controls
emissions of dioxin/furans and hydrogen chloride gas (40 CFR 60.53a and 60.54a) as surrogates for
controlling emissions of organic compounds and acid gases which are emitted in the exhaust gases from
MWC units. Thus, the indicated dioxin/furan compounds and hydrogen chloride are regulated pollutants.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 85


Regulated Air Pollutants cont.

III. Class I and Class II Substances Under Title VI

Class I Substances hydrochlorofluorocarbon-31 (HCFC-31)


hydrochlorofluorocarbon-121 (HCFC-121)
carbon tetrachloride hydrochlorofluorocarbon-122 (HCFC-122)
chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-123 (HCFC-123)
chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-124 (HCFC-124)
chlorofluorocarbon-13 (CFC-13) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-131 (HCFC-131)
chlorofluorocarbon-111 (CFC-111) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-132 (HCFC-132)
chlorofluorocarbon-112 (CFC-112) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-133 (HCFC-133)
chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC-113) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141 (HCFC-141)
chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC-114) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-142 (HCFC-142)
chlorofluorocarbon-115 (CFC-115) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-221 (HCFC-221)
chlorofluorocarbon-211 (CFC-211) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-222 (HCFC-222)
chlorofluorocarbon-212 (CFC-212) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-223 (HCFC-223)
chlorofluorocarbon-213 (CFC-213) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-224 (HCFC-224)
chlorofluorocarbon-214 (CFC-214) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC-225)
chlorofluorocarbon-215 (CFC-215) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-226 (HCFC-226)
chlorofluorocarbon-216 (CFC-216) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-231 (HCFC-231)
chlorofluorocarbon-217 (CFC-217) hydrochlorofluorocarbon-232 (HCFC-232)
halon-1211 halon-1301 hydrochlorofluorocarbon-233 (HCFC-233)
halon-2402 hydrochlorofluorocarbon-234 (HCFC-234)
methyl chloroform hydrochlorofluorocarbon-235 (HCFC-235)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-241 (HCFC-241)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-242 (HCFC-242)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-243 (HCFC-243)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-244 (HCFC-244)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-251 (HCFC-251)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-252 (HCFC-252)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-253 (HCFC-253)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-261 (HCFC-261)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-262 (HCFC-262)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-271 (HCFC-271)

Class II Substances

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-21 (HCFC-21)
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22)

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 86


Regulated Air Pollutants cont.

IV. Pollutants Regulated Under Section 112

Pollutants for which national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP’s) have been
established:

Arsenic
Asbestos
Beryllium
Benzene
Mercury
Radionuclides
Vinyl chloride

POLLUTANTS SUBJECT TO REGULATION UNDER SECTION 112

I. Pollutants listed in Section 112(b)

Most of the 188 listed pollutants became regulated when EPA promulgated the Hazardous Organic
NESHAP (HON) which is discussed below. The remaining pollutants will become regulated: (1) when
EPA promulgates a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standard for the pollutant under
section 112(d), (2) for a particular source, when case-by-case MACT determinations are made under
section 112(g) for the source, or (3) the later of June 15, 1994 or 18 months after EPA fails to issue
emissions standards for categories of sources in compliance with the timetable promulgated pursuant to
section 112(e) as mandated by Section 112(j).

II. Pollutants subject to the Hazardous Organic NESHAP (HON)

As part of the effort to regulate pollutants listed in section 112(b), the EPA has developed the Hazardous
Organic NESHAP (HON) which applies to the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry and
controls emissions of 149 volatile hazardous air pollutants (HAP’s). All of the pollutants listed in the HON
are among the 188 HAP’s listed in section 112(b). Pollutants addressed by the HON became regulated on
the effective date specified in the HON.

III. Pollutants listed under Section 112(r)

Section 112(r)(3) requires that EPA promulgate an initial list of at least 100 substances with threshold
quantities which would cause or may reasonably be anticipated to cause death, injury, or serious adverse
effects to human health or the environment if accidentally released. The EPA’s proposed rule to
implement 112(r)(3) was published in the Federal Register on January 19, 1993 (58 FR 5102). The
finalized list of substances includes 77 acutely toxic substances, 63 flammable gases and volatile
flammable liquids. At present, commercial explosives (classified by the Department of Transportation in
Division 1.1) are included in the finalized list, but EPA has recently proposed the deletion of Division 1.1
explosives from the list of regulated substances.

For more information regarding air contaminants, get a copy of the Clean Air Assistance Program’s “What
is an Air Contaminant/Pollutant” fact sheet. See Tab 18 – Clean Air Assistance Program Publications.

Emission Calculations Fall 2000 Page 87


Appendix C.

Source Categories for Fugitive Emissions

Fugitive emissions are included in emission calculations for the following sources.

1. coal cleaning plants (with thermal dryers)


2. kraft pulp mills
3. portland cement plants
4. primary zinc smelters
5. iron and steel mills
6. primary aluminum ore reduction plants
7. primary copper smelters
8. municipal incinerators capable of charging more than 250 tons of refuse per day
9. hydrofluoric, sulfuric, or nitric acid plants
10. petroleum refineries
11. lime plants
12. phosphate rock processing plants
13. coke oven batteries
14. sulfur recovery plants
15. carbon black plants (furnace process)
16. primary lead smelters
17. fuel conversion plants
18. sintering plants
19. secondary metal production plants
20. chemical process plants
21. fossil-fuel boilers (or combination thereof) totaling more than 250 million British thermal
units per hour heat input
22. petroleum storage and transfer units with a total storage capacity exceeding 300,000
barrels
23. taconite ore processing plants
24. glass fiber processing plants
25. charcoal production plants
26. fossil-fuel-fired steam electric plants of more than 250 million British thermal units per
hour heat input, or
27. all other stationary source categories regulated by a Clean Air Act standard relating to
hazardous air pollutants or any of the national emission standards for stationary
sources, but only with respect to those air pollutants that have been regulated for the
category in question.

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 88


Sources of Air Permit Information 2002 Page 89
APPENDIX D.

AP-42 Contents
Fifth Edition
CONTENTS

Page
Introduction ................................................................................................................................ 1
1. External Combustion Sources .................................................................................. 1.0-1
1.1 Bituminous And Subbituminous Coal Combustion ............................. 1.1-1
1.2 Anthracite Coal Combustion .............................................................. 1.2-1
1.3 Fuel Oil Combustion .......................................................................... 1.3-1
1.4 Natural Gas Combustion ................................................................... 1.4-1
1.5 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Combustion ............................................... 1.5-1
1.6 Wood Waste Combustion In Boilers .................................................. 1.6-1
1.7 Lignite Combustion............................................................................ 1.7-1
1.8 Bagasse Combustion In Sugar Mills .................................................. 1.8-1
1.9 Residential Fireplaces ....................................................................... 1.9-1
1.10 Residential Wood Stoves................................................................. 1.10-1
1.11 Waste Oil Combustion..................................................................... 1.11-1

2. Solid Waste Disposal................................................................................................ 2.0-1


2.1 Refuse Combustion ........................................................................... 2.1-1
2.2 Sewage Sludge Incineration .............................................................. 2.2-1
2.3 Medical Waste Incineration................................................................ 2.3-1
2.4 Landfills ............................................................................................. 2.4-1
2.5 Open Burning .................................................................................... 2.5-1
2.6 Automobile Body Incineration ............................................................ 2.6-1
2.7 Conical Burners ................................................................................. 2.7-1

3. Stationary Internal Combustion Sources................................................................... 3.0-1


3.1 Stationary Gas Turbines For Electricity Generation ........................... 3.1-1
3.2 Heavy-duty Natural Gas-fired Pipeline Compressor Engines............. 3.2-1
3.3 Gasoline And Diesel Industrial Engines ............................................. 3.3-1
3.4 Large Stationary Diesel And All Stationary
Dual-fuel Engines .............................................................................. 3.4-1

4. Evaporation Loss Sources ........................................................................................ 4.0-1


4.1 Dry Cleaning...................................................................................... 4.1-1
4.2 Surface Coating................................................................................. 4.2-1
4.2.1 Nonindustrial Surface Coating ........................................................ 4.2.1-1
4.2.2 Industrial Surface Coating .............................................................. 4.2.2-1
4.2.2.1 General Industrial Surface Coating.............................................. 4.2.2.1-1
4.2.2.2 Can Coating ................................................................................ 4.2.2.2-1
4.2.2.3 Magnet Wire Coating................................................................... 4.2.2.3-1
4.2.2.4 Other Metal Coating .................................................................... 4.2.2.4-1

Sources of Air Permit Information Fall 2000 Page 90


4.2.2.5 Flat Wood Interior Panel Coating................................................. 4.2.2.5-1
4.2.2.6 Paper Coating.............................................................................. 4.2.2.6-1
4.2.2.7 Polymeric Coating Of Supporting Substrates............................... 4.2.2.7-1
4.2.2.8 Automobile And Light Duty Truck Surface
Coating Operations...................................................................... 4.2.2.8-1
4.2.2.9 Pressure Sensitive Tapes And Labels ......................................... 4.2.2.9-1
4.2.2.10 Metal Coil Surface Coating ........................................................ 4.2.2.10-1
4.2.2.11 Large Appliance Surface Coating .............................................. 4.2.2.11-1
4.2.2.12 Metal Furniture Surface Coating ................................................ 4.2.2.12-1
4.2.2.13 Magnetic Tape Manufacturing ................................................... 4.2.2.13-1
4.2.2.14 Surface Coating Of Plastic Parts For
Business Machines.................................................................... 4.2.2.14-1
4.3 Waste Water Collection, Treatment And Storage .............................. 4.3-1
4.4 Polyester Resin Plastic Products Fabrication..................................... 4.4-1
4.5 Asphalt Paving Operations ................................................................ 4.5-1
4.6 Solvent Degreasing ........................................................................... 4.6-1
4.7 Waste Solvent Reclamation............................................................... 4.7-1
4.8 Tank And Drum Cleaning .................................................................. 4.8-1
4.9 Graphic Arts ...................................................................................... 4.9-1
4.9.1 General Graphic Printing ................................................................ 4.9.1-1
4.9.2 Publication Gravure Printing ........................................................... 4.9.2-1
4.10 Commercial/Consumer Solvent Use ................................................ 4.10-1
4.11 Textile Fabric Printing ...................................................................... 4.11-1

5. Petroleum Industry.................................................................................................... 5.0-1


5.1 Petroleum Refining ............................................................................ 5.1-1
5.2 Transportation And Marketing Of Petroleum Liquids ......................... 5.2-1
5.3 Natural Gas Processing..................................................................... 5.3-1

6. Organic Chemical Process Industry.......................................................................... 6.0-1


6.1 Carbon Black ..................................................................................... 6.1-1
6.2 Adipic Acid......................................................................................... 6.2-1
6.3 Explosives ......................................................................................... 6.3-1
6.4 Paint And Varnish.............................................................................. 6.4-1
6.5 Phthalic Anhydride............................................................................. 6.5-1
6.6 Plastics .............................................................................................. 6.6-1
6.6.1 Polyvinyl Chloride ........................................................................... 6.6.1-1
6.6.2 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) ........................................................... 6.6.2-1
6.6.3 Polystyrene..................................................................................... 6.6.3-1
6.6.4 Polypropylene................................................................................. 6.6.4-1
6.7 Printing Ink ........................................................................................ 6.7-1
6.8 Soap And Detergents ........................................................................ 6.8-1
6.9 Synthetic Fibers................................................................................. 6.9-1
6.10 Synthetic Rubber ............................................................................. 6.10-1
6.11 Terephthalic Acid............................................................................. 6.11-1
6.12 Lead Alkyl........................................................................................ 6.12-1
6.13 Pharmaceuticals Production ............................................................ 6.13-1
6.14 Maleic Anhydride ............................................................................. 6.14-1

Sources of Air Permit Information 2002 Page 91


6.15 Methanol.......................................................................................... 6.15-1
6.16 Acetone And Phenol ........................................................................ 6.16-1
6.17 Propylene ........................................................................................ 6.17-1
6.18 Benzene, Toluene And Xylenes....................................................... 6.18-1
6.19 Butadiene ........................................................................................ 6.19-1
6.20 Cumene........................................................................................... 6.20-1
6.21 Ethanol ............................................................................................ 6.21-1
6.22 Ethyl Benzene ................................................................................. 6.22-1
6.23 Ethylene .......................................................................................... 6.23-1
6.24 Ethylene Dichloride And Vinyl Chloride............................................ 6.24-1
6.25 Ethylene Glycol................................................................................ 6.25-1
6.26 Ethylene Oxide ................................................................................ 6.26-1
6.27 Formaldehyde.................................................................................. 6.27-1
6.28 Glycerine ......................................................................................... 6.28-1
6.29 Isopropyl Alcohol ............................................................................. 6.29-1

7. Liquid Storage Tanks................................................................................................ 7.0-1


7.1 Organic Liquid Storage Tanks ........................................................... 7.1-1

8. Inorganic Chemical Industry ..................................................................................... 8.0-1


8.1 Synthetic Ammonia............................................................................ 8.1-1
8.2 Urea .................................................................................................. 8.2-1
8.3 Ammonium Nitrate............................................................................. 8.3-1
8.4 Ammonium Sulfate ............................................................................ 8.4-1
8.5 Phosphate Fertilizers ......................................................................... 8.5-1
8.5.1 Normal Superphosphates ............................................................... 8.5.1-1
8.5.2 Triple Superphosphates.................................................................. 8.5.2-1
8.5.3 Ammonium Phosphate ................................................................... 8.5.3-1
8.6 Hydrochloric Acid............................................................................... 8.6-1
8.7 Hydrofluoric Acid ............................................................................... 8.7-1
8.8 Nitric Acid .......................................................................................... 8.8-1
8.9 Phosphoric Acid................................................................................. 8.9-1
8.10 Sulfuric Acid .................................................................................... 8.10-1
8.11 Chlor-Alkali ...................................................................................... 8.11-1
8.12 Sodium Carbonate........................................................................... 8.12-1
8.13 Sulfur Recovery ............................................................................... 8.13-1
8.14 Hydrogen Cyanide ........................................................................... 8.14-1

9. Food And Agricultural Industries............................................................................... 9.0-1


9.1 Tilling Operations............................................................................... 9.1-1
9.2 Growing Operations........................................................................... 9.2-1
9.2.1 Fertilizer Application ....................................................................... 9.2.1-1
9.2.2 Pesticide Application....................................................................... 9.2.2-1
9.2.3 Orchard Heaters ............................................................................. 9.2.3-1
9.3 Harvesting Operations ....................................................................... 9.3-1
9.3.1 Cotton Harvesting........................................................................... 9.3.1-1
9.3.2 Grain Harvesting............................................................................. 9.3.2-1
9.3.3 Rice Harvesting .............................................................................. 9.3.3-1

Sources of Air Permit Information Fall 2000 Page 92


9.3.4 Cane Sugar Harvesting .................................................................. 9.3.4-1
9.4 Livestock And Poultry Feed Operations............................................. 9.4-1
9.4.1 Cattle Feedlots ............................................................................... 9.4.1-1
9.4.2 Swine Feedlots ............................................................................... 9.4.2-1
9.4.3 Poultry Houses ............................................................................... 9.4.3-1
9.4.4 Dairy Farms .................................................................................... 9.4.4-1
9.5 Animal And Meat Products Preparation ............................................. 9.5-1
9.5.1 Meat Packing Plants ....................................................................... 9.5.1-1
9.5.2 Meat Smokehouses ........................................................................ 9.5.2-1
9.5.3 Meat Rendering Plants ................................................................... 9.5.3-1
9.5.4 Manure Processing......................................................................... 9.5.4-1
9.5.5 Poultry Slaughtering ....................................................................... 9.5.5-1
9.6 Dairy Products ................................................................................... 9.6-1
9.6.1 Natural And Processed Cheese...................................................... 9.6.1-1
9.7 Cotton Ginning................................................................................... 9.7-1
9.8 Preserved Fruits And Vegetables ...................................................... 9.8-1
9.8.1 Canned Fruits And Vegetables ....................................................... 9.8.1-1
9.8.2 Dehydrated Fruits And Vegetables ................................................. 9.8.2-1
9.8.3 Pickles, Sauces And Salad Dressings ............................................ 9.8.3-1
9.9 Grain Processing ............................................................................... 9.9-1
9.9.1 Grain Elevators And Processes ...................................................... 9.9.1-1
9.9.2 Cereal Breakfast Food.................................................................... 9.9.2-1
9.9.3 Pet Food......................................................................................... 9.9.3-1
9.9.4 Alfalfa Dehydration ......................................................................... 9.9.4-1
9.9.5 Pasta Manufacturing....................................................................... 9.9.5-1
9.9.6 Bread Baking .................................................................................. 9.9.6-1
9.9.7 Corn Wet Milling ............................................................................. 9.9.7-1
9.10 Confectionery Products ................................................................... 9.10-1
9.10.1 Sugar Processing ......................................................................... 9.10.1-1
9.10.1.1 Cane Sugar Processing............................................................. 9.10.1.1-1
9.10.1.2 Beet Sugar Processing .............................................................. 9.10.1.2-1
9.10.2 Salted And Roasted Nuts And Seeds ........................................... 9.10.2-1
9.10.2.1 Almond Processing.................................................................... 9.10.2.1-1
9.10.2.2 Peanut Processing .................................................................... 9.10.2.2-1
9.11 Fats And Oils ................................................................................... 9.11-1
9.11.1 Vegetable Oil Processing ............................................................. 9.11.1-1
9.12 Beverages ....................................................................................... 9.12-1
9.12.1 Malt Beverages............................................................................. 9.12.1-1
9.12.2 Wines And Brandy........................................................................ 9.12.2-1
9.12.3 Distilled Spirits .............................................................................. 9.12.3-1
9.13 Miscellaneous Food And Kindred Products ..................................... 9.13-1
9.13.1 Fish Processing ............................................................................ 9.13.1-1
9.13.2 Coffee Roasting............................................................................ 9.13.2-1
9.13.3 Snack Chip Deep Fat Frying......................................................... 9.13.3-1
9.13.4 Yeast Production .......................................................................... 9.13.4-1
9.14 Tobacco Products............................................................................ 9.14-1
9.15 Leather Tanning .............................................................................. 9.15-1
9.16 Agricultural Wind Erosion ................................................................ 9.16-1

Sources of Air Permit Information Fall 2000 Page 93


10. Wood Products Industry ......................................................................................... 10.0-1
10.1 Lumber ............................................................................................ 10.1-1
10.2 Chemical Wood Pulping .................................................................. 10.2-1
10.3 Pulp Bleaching................................................................................. 10.3-1
10.4 Papermaking ................................................................................... 10.4-1
10.5 Plywood ........................................................................................... 10.5-1
10.6 Reconstituted Wood Products ......................................................... 10.6-1
10.6.1 Waferboard And Oriented Strand Board....................................... 10.6.1-1
10.6.2 Particleboard ................................................................................ 10.6.2-1
10.6.3 Medium Density Fiberboard.......................................................... 10.6.3-1
10.7 Charcoal .......................................................................................... 10.7-1
10.8 Wood Preserving ............................................................................. 10.8-1

11. Mineral Products Industry ....................................................................................... 11.0-1


11.1 Hot Mix Asphalt Plants..................................................................... 11.1-1
11.2 Asphalt Roofing ............................................................................... 11.2-1
11.3 Bricks And Related Clay Products ................................................... 11.3-1
11.4 Calcium Carbide Manufacturing....................................................... 11.4-1
11.5 Refractory Manufacturing ................................................................ 11.5-1
11.6 Portland Cement Manufacturing ...................................................... 11.6-1
11.7 Ceramic Clay Manufacturing............................................................ 11.7-1
11.8 Clay And Fly Ash Sintering .............................................................. 11.8-1
11.9 Western Surface Coal Mining .......................................................... 11.9-1
11.10 Coal Cleaning ................................................................................ 11.10-1
11.11 Coal Conversion ............................................................................ 11.11-1
11.12 Concrete Batching ......................................................................... 11.12-1
11.13 Glass Fiber Manufacturing............................................................. 11.13-1
11.14 Frit Manufacturing.......................................................................... 11.14-1
11.15 Glass Manufacturing...................................................................... 11.15-1
11.16 Gypsum Manufacturing.................................................................. 11.16-1
11.17 Lime Manufacturing ....................................................................... 11.17-1
11.18 Mineral Wool Manufacturing .......................................................... 11.18-1
11.19 Construction Aggregate Processing .............................................. 11.19-1
11.19.1 Sand And Gravel Processing...................................................... 11.19.1-1
11.19.2 Crushed Stone Processing ......................................................... 11.19.2-1
11.20 Lightweight Aggregate Manufacturing ........................................... 11.20-1
11.21 Phosphate Rock Processing.......................................................... 11.21-1
11.22 Diatomite Processing..................................................................... 11.22-1
11.23 Taconite Ore Processing ............................................................... 11.23-1
11.24 Metallic Minerals Processing ......................................................... 11.24-1
11.25 Clay Processing............................................................................. 11.25-1
11.26 Talc Processing ............................................................................. 11.26-1
11.27 Feldspar Processing ...................................................................... 11.27-1
11.28 Vermiculite Processing .................................................................. 11.28-1
11.29 Alumina Manufacturing .................................................................. 11.29-1
11.30 Perlite Manufacturing..................................................................... 11.30-1
11.31 Abrasives Manufacturing ............................................................... 11.31-1

Sources of Air Permit Information Fall 2000 Page 94


12. Metallurgical Industry.............................................................................................. 12.0-1
12.1 Primary Aluminum Production ......................................................... 12.1-1
12.2 Coke Production .............................................................................. 12.2-1
12.3 Primary Copper Smelting................................................................. 12.3-1
12.4 Ferroalloy Production....................................................................... 12.4-1
12.5 Iron And Steel Production................................................................ 12.5-1
12.6 Primary Lead Smelting .................................................................... 12.6-1
12.7 Zinc Smelting................................................................................... 12.7-1
12.8 Secondary Aluminum Operations .................................................... 12.8-1
12.9 Secondary Copper Smelting And Alloying ....................................... 12.9-1
12.10 Gray Iron Foundries....................................................................... 12.10-1
12.11 Secondary Lead Processing .......................................................... 12.11-1
12.12 Secondary Magnesium Smelting ................................................... 12.12-1
12.13 Steel Foundries ............................................................................. 12.13-1
12.14 Secondary Zinc Processing ........................................................... 12.14-1
12.15 Storage Battery Production............................................................ 12.15-1
12.16 Lead Oxide And Pigment Production ............................................. 12.16-1
12.17 Miscellaneous Lead Products ........................................................ 12.17-1
12.18 Leadbearing Ore Crushing And Grinding....................................... 12.18-1
12.19 Electric Arc Welding ...................................................................... 12.19-1
12.20 Electroplating................................................................................. 12.20-1

13. Miscellaneous Sources ........................................................................................... 13.0-1


13.1 Wildfires And Prescribed Burning .................................................... 13.1-1
13.2 Fugitive Dust Sources...................................................................... 13.2-1
13.2.1 Paved Roads ................................................................................ 13.2.1-1
13.2.2 Unpaved Roads 13.2.2-1
13.2.3 Heavy Construction Operations .................................................... 13.2.3-1
13.2.4 Aggregate Handling And Storage Piles ........................................ 13.2.4-1
13.2.5 Industrial Wind Erosion................................................................. 13.2.5-1
13.3 Explosives Detonation ..................................................................... 13.3-1
13.4 Wet Cooling Towers ........................................................................ 13.4-1
13.5 Industrial Flares ............................................................................... 13.5-1

14. Greenhouse Gas Biogenic Sources........................................................................ 14.0-1


14.1 Emissions From Soils — Greenhouse Gases .................................. 14.1-1
14.2 Termites — Greenhouse Gases ...................................................... 14.2-1
14.3 Lightning Emissions –- Greenhouse Gases..................................... 14.2-1

Appendix A
Miscellaneous Data And Conversion Factors...............................................................A-1

Appendix B.1
Particle Size Distribution Data And Sized Emission Factors
For Selected Sources ..............................................................................................B.1-1

Sources of Air Permit Information 2002 Page 95


Appendix B.2
Generalized Particle Size Distributions .....................................................................B.2-1

Appendix C.1
Procedures For Sampling Surface/Bulk Dust Loading ..............................................C.1-1

Appendix C.2
Procedures For Laboratory Analysis Of Surface/Bulk Dust Loading Samples ..........C.2-1

Sources of Air Permit Information Fall 2000 Page 96


Appendix E.

Emission Calculation Fact Sheets

Emission Calculations 2002 Page 97