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for petroleum activities
Norwegian Ministry of Environment The Oil for Development Programme, Norad Petrad
This Environmental Manual has been produced primarily to form a common foundation for providing advice and training to governments in developing countries by Norwegian environmental authorities and others, under the auspices of the Oil for Development Programme at Norad, the Norwegian Directorate for Development Cooperation. It summarizes many of the experiences gained through more than 40 years of petroleum activities in Norway, and draws also upon experiences from other developed and developing countries. However, it is the hope that the Manual may be of direct use to partner countries when they shall formulate, regulate or supervise environmental matters related to their petroleum activities. The current version of the Manual is a draft which has been released to be used and thus to gain some experiences from practical implementation. Comments to the Manual are therefore most welcome. The Manual will be revised and a more developed version will be issued within a few months. 1 The Manual has been developed by a group of representatives from the Ministry of the Environment, the Directorate for Nature Management and the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority, with experts from Det Norske Veritas as consultants. The Manual will be available in printed form, and on the home pages of the Ministry of Environment (www.miljo.no), the Oil for Development Programme (www.norad.no/ofd) and Petrad, the main training provider (www.petrad.no).
The Norwegian Ministry of the Environment
Please submit comments to: Terje Lind, Deputy Director General Ministry of the Environment P O Box 8013 Dep, NO-0030 Norway Tel +4722245922 email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Environmental Manual- DRAFT January 21 2009
Table of Contents
1 2 3 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 2 THE OIL AND GAS VALUE CHAIN ............................................................................ 4 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS ................................ 6 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 6 Environmental aspects................................................................................................ 7 Overview of environmental aspects and potential impacts along the oil and gas value chain................................................................................................................ 10
ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND LEGISLATION ................................................ 17 4.1 4.2 4.3 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 17 Developing an Environmental management policy ................................................. 17 Implementing an Environmental management policy ............................................. 18
ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLKIT ................................................................................... 19 5.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 19 5.2 Strategic Environmental Assessment ....................................................................... 21 5.2.1 SEA for opening of new areas to petroleum activity ...................................... 21 5.2.2 Regional SEA/IA for existing and future activities ........................................ 22 5.2.3 Ecosystem based Integrated Management Planning ....................................... 23 5.3 Coastal zone management ........................................................................................ 24 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Sensitivity mapping .................................................................................................. 25 Environmental Resource Database ........................................................................... 26 Environmental Management System ....................................................................... 27 Waste management Plan .......................................................................................... 28 Environmental Risk Assessment .............................................................................. 29 Oil Spill Contingency Planning................................................................................ 30
5.10 Environmental Baseline Study and Environmental Monitoring .............................. 32 5.11 Environmental Impact Assessment .......................................................................... 33 5.12 Social Impact Assessment ........................................................................................ 34 6 A GUIDE TO ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY OF A PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT.............................................................. 35 6.1 6.2 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 35 How can environmental sensitivity be categorised? ................................................ 35
Date : 2009-01-21
........................................................................................................................................5 Introduction ........ 38 Clean Development Mechanism ...............4 7............................. 40 Economic implications of environmental concerns in the case of oil and gas exploration ..................................................... 38 7.........................1 8.................................................................................. 45 8................................................................................................................3. 38 Mitigating measures ............................................DRAFT January 21 2009 7 GUIDANCE ON CLIMATE CONSIDERATIONS WITHIN OFD .2 The need for a holistic approach ..................3 Compensation ...............................................4 Civil Society ........3...............................................Environmental Manual........3.....2 Stakeholder dialogue............ 44 8...............................................3..........................................5 Human Rights (incl Minorities) ................... 48 Global agreements and conventions Appendix 1 Date : 2009-01-21 ii .........................3................................................................................... 39 Adaptation measures ...............3 Elements of successful sustainable development .............1 Transparency .......................3 7........................................................ 41 8.......................................6 Operator CSR initiatives ...... 38 Policy measures .....2 7.................................................................................................................................................................... 46 8........................................................................ 47 9 REFERENCES ............................................ 42 8............................. 40 8................................3................. 42 8....... 44 8............... 39 8 ENSURING SUSTAINABLE LOCAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT .....................1 7......
DRAFT January 21 2009 LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS (not complete) OFD E&P FPSOGHG CSR CDM Oil for Development Exploration and Production (of oil and gas) Floating Production Storage and Offloading (vessel) Green House Gases Corporate Social Responsibility Clean Development Mechanism Date : 2009-01-21 Page 1 .Environmental Manual.
the purpose of this Manual is to provide an overview of the main tools available to manage environmental impacts. from beginning to end of the oil and gas value chain. The target audience is primarily government staff from the Norwegian environmental institutions involved in giving advice to the cooperating countries in the field of environment. An overview of the main potential environmental impacts is given. and is environmentally sustainable. which is the executive body to organize a wide range of training programmes for developing countries in the field of petroleum. The focus is on tools used in Norway however international guidelines are given where relevant. The overall outline of the Manual and the underlying logic is further explained in Table 1-1 Date : 2009-01-21 Page 2 .Environmental Manual. Environmental toolkit (chapter 5). Increased focus on environmental protection and increased demand from cooperating countries for guidance on these issues have created a need for a Manual that will be the information basis for such guidance. consultants and other cooperating partners will find it useful. Further. The Manual may also form the basis of training courses offered by Petrad.The Manual provides an overview of the main environmental aspects related to the development of petroleum resources. resource management. revenue management and environmental management. the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation. It may also be of use to government staff and others in developing countries working with environmental matters related to oil and gas activities. minimize or mitigate environmental impacts.The Manual provides an overview of the main tools that can be used by governments and/or the petroleum industry in order to avoid.DRAFT January 21 2009 1 INTRODUCTION Background The Oil for Development programme was established in 2005 by Norad. The Oil for Development programme is built around three pillars. Oil for Development aims at assisting developing countries with petroleum resources in their efforts to manage these resources in a way that generates economic growth. It is assumed that also the staff of Oil for Development at Norad. Outline of Manual The Manual consists of the following two main parts: Environmental aspects and potential impacts (chapter 3). promotes the welfare of the population as a whole. as well as socioeconomic impacts associated with petroleum activities. Purpose The purpose of this Manual is to give an overview of environmental challenges related to the development of petroleum resources so that these can be taken into consideration when developing countries plan and carry out petroleum related activities.
and what are the potential impacts on the environment? Chapter 3 Environmental aspects and potential impacts What management measures can be used to avoid.DRAFT January 21 2009 Table 1-1 The outline of the Manual. What are the main activities carried out along the Chapter 2 The oil and gas value chain oil and gas value chain? What are the environmental aspects related to these activities.Environmental Manual.how can sustainable local and regional development be ensured? Chapter 7 Guidance on climate considerations within OfD Chapter 8 Ensuring sustainable local and regional development Chapter 6 A guide to assess the environmental sensitivity of a petroleum development project Date : 2009-01-21 Page 3 . The main content of the manual is highlighted. Chapter 4 Environmental policy and minimize and mitigate these impacts? legislation Chapter 5 Environmental toolkit How can the environmental sensitivity be assessed at an early stag of a planned petroleum development project? (before any of the tools in the toolkit are applied) How can climate considerations be made in petroleum activities? Applying a more holistic approach.
Environmental impacts have an origin in the activities that are carried out. gas and formation water that need to be disposed of. Where a hydrocarbon formation is found. For the purpose of this Manual. A self-contained support camp is also constructed. specially designed ships with air guns and cables with receivers. The time to drill a bore hole is commonly in the order of one or two months. which may include helipad for remote sites.DRAFT January 21 2009 2 THE OIL AND GAS VALUE CHAIN This text gives a brief overview of the main activities that are carried out from start to finish of the oil and gas value chain. Opening of new regions/fields The government 1) opens new regions (areas) for exploration drilling. ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING OPENING OF NEW REGIONS/FIELDS EXPLORATION FIELD/ FACILITY DEVELOPMENT OPERATION TRANSPORTATION REFINING DECOMMISSIONING Figure 2-1 The Oil and gas value chain Table 2-1 Overview of main activities along the oil and gas value chain Value chain Geological. Seismic surveys offshore are conducted by sending sound waves into the seabed. Mapping of resources and environment is performed to establish a knowledge base for environmental protection. RESOURCE. identify areas with favourable geological conditions for oil and gas extraction. GEOLOGICAL. environmental mapping Description of main activities Geological mapping. and 3) approve field developments for discoveries in granted licences. are carried out. Field and facility Field and facility development involves drilling of production wells and constructing Date : 2009-01-21 Page 4 .Environmental Manual. typically each 25 metres the vessel moves. followed by the drilling of more wells to determine the size and extent of the field (appraisal wells). Hence. An overview of main activities along the oil and gas value chain is given in Table 2-1. including desk study and seismic surveys. the oil and gas value chain is divided into seven different phases as shown in Figure 2-1. 2) issue production licenses in opened areas. initial well testspossibly lasting another month. Seismic surveys onshore are conducted either by shot-hole method (using dynamite) or vibroseis (using a generator that hydraulically transmits vibrations into the earth). Exploration Exploratory drilling explores the presence or absence of a hydrocarbon reservoir while appraisal drilling may improve quantification of the reserves. Mobile rigs commonly used offshore include jack-ups and semi-submersibles. often generating oil. The air guns fire strong. whilst in shallow protected waters barges may be used. compressed air-based sound pulses (sound waves) at regular intervals. this section serves as background information to chapter 3 Environmental aspects and potential impacts. using large. For land-based operations a pad is constructed at the chosen site to accommodate drilling equipment and support services. resource.
and petroleum coke. production facilities. Produced water is treated and discharged or re-injected. Operation Oil and gas is produced from the reservoir through formation pressure. Sources: OGP. Decommissioning generally involves permanently plugging and abandoning all wells. Clean up is also included as part of decommissioning. until economically feasible reserves are depleted. transfer of buildings and roads to local communities or host government entities. and may include removal of buildings and equipment. Injection wells are drilled in order to inject gas/water/steam to maintain reservoir pressures and increase recovery rates (other methods of recovery can also be used). artificial lift (water or gas). liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). and possibly advanced recovery techniques. kerosene.DRAFT January 21 2009 development platforms/FPSO/subsea systems.Environmental Manual. Production facilities process the hydrocarbon fluids and separate oil. lubricating oils. 1997 Date : 2009-01-21 Page 5 . Refined products are transported from refinery to end-users by pipelines. gas and water. diesel oil. bitumen. Transportation and refining Oil and gas is transported to refinery where crude oil is separated and converted into end products such as high-octane motor fuel (gasoline/petrol). Decommissioning Petroleum installations are either re-used or demolished for recycling or disposal. 2008 and E&P Forum/UNEP. jet aircraft fuel. implementation of measures to encourage site re-vegetation and site monitoring. ship or road. pipelines and infrastructure for transportation of oil and gas. heating fuel oils.
water use and physical footprint 2. using the following definition of environmental aspect: Environmental Aspect. Ex: water contamination due to disposal of hazardous wastes. since different operations. Indirect impacts are caused by the action and are later in time or farther removed in distance. products or services (ISO 14001) Direct impacts are caused by an action and occur at the same time and place as the action. Emissions to air including green house gases 4. but still reasonably foreseeable. whether adverse or beneficial. while aspect 6 relates to the unwanted events.1 Introduction The purpose of this section is to provide an overview of the main environmental aspects related to the development of petroleum resources. from beginning to end of the oil and gas value chain. Ex: degradation of biodiversity due to water contamination Date : 2009-01-21 Page 6 . Land use. Noise/vibration 5. potential impacts can be avoided. Accidental discharge Aspects 1 through 5 are all related to planned activities along the oil and gas value chain. With management and application of best practice. minimized or reduced (relevant management and assessment tools are described in section 4). Waste disposal 6.Any change to the environment. Discharge to water and soil 3.Environmental Manual. The potential for oil and gas operations to cause impact must be assessed on a case-by case basis. Environmental aspects can result in impacts on the environment that can be either direct or indirect. A broad overview of corresponding potential environmental impacts is given. in different environments. products of services which can interact with the environment (ISO 14001) The main environmental aspects are identified as follows: 1.Elements of an organization’s activities.DRAFT January 21 2009 3 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS AND POTENTIAL IMPACTS 3. in different circumstances may produce large variations in the magnitude of a potential impact (E&P Forum/ UNEP 1997). The following definitions are used: Environmental Impact. Significant environmental aspects for oil and gas sector have been identified. wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s activities.
(none) The primary wastes from exploratory drilling operations include drilling muds and cuttings (small rock fragments).Environmental Manual. fuel storage containers. Land use. The relationship between aspects and impacts are shown in Figure 3-1. possibly explosive wastes. resource. facilities. wood. ground water) for production facilities and consumption Physical footprint is defined as physical disturbance to or removal of soil. Water use (surface water. process water. water use and physical footprint Land use/occupation of land needed for shooting seismic. cementing wastes.DRAFT January 21 2009 Environmental impacts can also result in socioeconomic impacts. 3. power unit/transport maintenance wastes. lines. base camps. seabed. well completion. environmental impacts and socioeconomic impacts The following sections are based on E&P Forum/ UNEP report Environmental Management in oil and gas exploration and production. cables and vehicle (including ship) maintenance wastes. vegetation and water cover as a result of construction of facilities and infrastructure Waste The primary types of wastes produced in the oil and gas value chain are listed in Table 3-1. construction materials (pallets. Environmental aspect Environmental impact Socioeconomic impact Figure 3-1 Relationship between environmental aspects. pipelines. Other wastes include excess drilling chemicals and containers. Table 3-1 Wastes produced in the oil and gas life cycle Value chain Geological. etc). scrap metal and domestic and sewage wastes. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 7 . sewage. environmental mapping Opening of new regions/fields Exploration Wastes produced The primary wastes from seismic operations include domestic waste. roads. An overview of issues and management approaches.2 Environmental aspects The environmental aspects relevant to the development of petroleum resources are elaborated below. workover and stimulation fluids and production testing wastes.
production chemicals.. venting and purging gases Fugitive gases from loading operations and tankage and losses from process equipment Airborne particulates from soil disturbance during construction and from vehicle traffic Date : 2009-01-21 Page 8 . Well treatment chemicals. solvents. Typical constituents are inorganic salts.Environmental Manual. The primary wastes from refineries are asbestos.g. Certain drilling fluids and cuttings have high pH and salt content. plant equipment. The primary wastes from decommissioning and reclamation include construction materials. brines. e. heavy metals. paints. acid tars. Sewage. hydrocarbons. and tank or pit bottoms. production chemicals. sludges and impacted soil. Operation Transportation and refining Decommissioning Source: OGP. flare and vent gas. waste biomass from effluent treatment plants.DRAFT January 21 2009 Field and facility development The primary wastes from construction activities include excess construction materials. sewage and domestic wastes. 2008 Discharge to water and soil The main wastes that can be discharged to water (ocean or fresh water) and soil are (E&P/UNEP 1997): Produced water. sludges with a high lead content and many oil contaminated materials (for instance oily waste and sludges from water clean-up operations). wash and drainage water. drain water. workover wastes. In addition to the wastes listed in “Exploration” and “Field and facility development”. Oil-based mud and cuttings contain hydrocarbons. insulating materials. Drilling fluids and cuttings. scrap metal. PAH‟s and naturally occurring radioactive material. Typical constituents of water-based mud and cuttings are clay and bentonite with metals bound in minerals (Barium. (CONCAWE. sanitary and domestic wastes. scrap metal. Lead). spent catalytic cracking catalyst and “domestic” waste. Zink. the main wastes from operations include produced water. Process. 2003). Cadmium. used lubricating oils. Cooling water Emissions to air The primary sources of emissions to air from exploration and production are as follows (E&P/UNEP 1997): Combustion processes such as diesel engines and gas turbines Flaring. benzene. solids.
The primary sources of emissions to air from refineries are (Concawe. for example methane. chemicals and hazardous materials may occur to sea. Main sources representing the largest volumes are: Oil or gas well blow-out Leakages from pipelines. explosions. particularly when used as a power source. storage and process facilities Marine casualty as ship grounding. and air. navigational failure. surface water and ground water. particulates and volatile organic compounds. Methane emissions primarily arise from process vents and to a lesser extent from leaks. loss of well control during drilling. boilers. venting and combustion are the primary sources of carbon dioxide emissions from production operations. methane. efficient and quick response to reduce spill size is important. fuel. Thus. soil. The spill duration is an important factor regarding the size of a discharge. equipment failure. oxides of nitrogen. sulphur dioxide.DRAFT January 21 2009 Particulates from other burning sources. such as well testing The primary emission gases include carbon dioxide. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 9 . natural disasters. fires. Accidental discharge Accidental discharges of oil and gas. 1999): Process furnaces. volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. An accidental discharge can be caused by a complex combination of unwanted events such as human error. Emissions of sulphur dioxides and hydrogen sulphide can occur and depend upon the sulphur content of the hydrocarbon and diesel fuel. sulphur content can lead to odour near the facility. collisions or structural failure Most often there is a complex causality for accidental discharges. Flaring.Environmental Manual. gas turbines Fluidised Catalytic Cracking (FCC) regenerators Flare systems Incinerators Sulphur Recovery Units (SRU) Coke plants Storage and handling facilities Oil/water separation systems flanges and vents The primary emission gases from refineries include carbon dioxide. In some cases. but other GHG should also be considered. war and sabotage. The spill size depends on the volume that potentially can be discharged and the measures taken to reduce the spill size. structural failure. carbon monoxide. flaring and combustion.
Construction of base camps. The table also provides an overview of potential socioeconomic impacts associated with environmental impacts. Impacts are split into direct and indirect impacts. facilities. roads. pipelines and vehicle traffic Operation of process facilities and vehicle traffic Decommissioning activities 3. Numerous relatively small projects may alone have relatively minor impacts. The impacts given in the table are potential impacts and. Shooting seismic onshore involves the use of explosives. through persistent additions or losses of the same materials or resource. and second. small scale alterations.3 Overview of environmental aspects and potential impacts along the oil and gas value chain Table 3-2 provides an overview of the main environmental aspects and potential environmental impacts along the oil and gas value chain. Cumulative impacts occur first. and be incorporated into land use and coastal zone management. Thus. Seismic surveys offshore are conducted by sending sound waves into the seabed.DRAFT January 21 2009 Noise/vibration The primary sources of noise/vibration are: Seismic surveys. cumulative impacts of a development must be identified and managed the same way as direct impacts. with proper care and attention. may be avoided. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 10 . Cumulative impacts are generally described as changes in the environment that result from numerous human-induced. minimized or mitigated.Environmental Manual. Cumulative impacts may be hard to foresee. but the cumulative impacts of such projects can become significant over time. through the compounding effects as a result of the coming together of two or more effects.
and ensure safe handling and disposal of waste.DRAFT January 21 2009 Table 3-2. Short-term. Schedule operations during least sensitive periods. Possible erosion due to vegetation cleared Mainly short-term and transient Date : 2009-01-21 Page 11 . chemicals) Emission to air (power generation) Line cutting Footprint Immigration of labour Degradation of air quality Loss of flora due to vegetation clearing. Minimize waste. Main environmental aspects along the oil and gas value chain. Minimize line width. Schedule operations during least sensitive periods. Changes in surface hydrology and drainage pattern Habitat damage. transient. Hand-cut lines to minimize disturbance. Avoid sensitive areas. explosions) Base camps Noise/vibration Disturbance to wildlife. both direct and indirect are given. Erosion due to soil/ vegetation cleared. emissions to air. Potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Mitigating measures (not complete) Disturbance to local population. Minimize camp size. Short-term. Footprint Loss of flora due to vegetation clearing. Encourage natural rehabilitation by indigenous flora. Contingency plans Changes in drainage patterns and surface hydrology. Selectively use heavy machinery to minimize footprint.Environmental Manual. Noise attenuation on engines. Disturbance to local population. Ensure safe handling and storage of fuels. Influx/settlement through new access routes (potential long term impact) Land use conflict Noise Disturbance to local environment. transient Seismic operations (onshore) Seismic equipment (drilling. Select site to minimize clearing of vegetation and top soil. Use existing infrastructure. Waste disposal Discharge of sewage Accidental discharge (fuel. chemicals. Use “dog-legs” to minimize use as access. Avoid sensitive areas. noise. Soil and water contamination. Influx/settlement through new access routes (potential long term impact) Minimize clearing of vegetation. Short-term Potential Environmental impact Indirect Potential Socioeconomic impact Direct or Indirect Disturbance to local population. Activity Source Environmental aspect Potential Environmental impacts Direct Aerial Survey Aircraft Noise Disturbance to wildlife. Loss of biodiversity.
g. Short-term and transient Behavioural impacts to wildlife Schedule seismic survey during least sensitive periods. surface and ground water from pollution: Seal areas to be used for mud mixing. Ensure proper drainage. Waste disposal on shore Degradation of air quality Contamination of marine environment. Contingency planning for oil spills and loss of equipment. Stay on survey track to avoid unwanted interactions. fishing). any mud and burn pits Emissions to air from earth moving equipment Accidental discharge (fuel.Environmental Manual. Contamination at on-shore waste disposal site. Disturbance to marine organisms. construction of roads and camp Land use and Footprint Loss of flora due to vegetation clearing. sewage) if possible. transient Exploration (onshore) Site preparation. sewage Accidental discharge (fuel. Prevent unauthorised use of access roads. close to existing access roads and using existing infrastructure (water. Low-level. Label and safeguard towed equipment. Plan ahead for optimal site restoration. and in areas where concentrated spawning journeys take place. surface water and ground water contamination. Influx/settlement through new access routes (potential long term impact) Land use conflict Aesthetic visual intrusion Select least sensitive site location in dialogue with stakeholders. Changes in surface hydrology and drainage pattern Habitat damage. Possible erosion due to vegetation cleared. chemicals) Degradation of air quality.g. Soil.DRAFT January 21 2009 Activity Source Environmental aspect Potential Environmental impacts Direct Potential Environmental impact Indirect Potential Socioeconomic impact Direct or Indirect Mitigating measures (not complete) Seismic operations (offshore) Seismic equipment Noise (acoustic sources) Physiological effects. Safe disposal of waste and oily water. chemicals). Vessel operation Emissions to air from engines Discharges to ocean of bilges. transient. Conflict with other resource users (e. e. Consider drilling method that minimizes footprint. Noise Disturbance of wildlife Short-term provided adequate decommissioning and rehabilitation Date : 2009-01-21 Page 12 . Protect soil. Schedule construction during least sensitive periods. Short-term. time restrict seismic activity in spawning areas for important fish species. Minimize cleared area and size of site. fuel and chemical storage. reusing removed vegetation and soil. Loss of biodiversity Disturbance of local population.
pits. sewage and wastes when possible. vibration and extraneous light (drilling. vehicle traffic) Degradation of air quality. Local infrastructure in connection with onshore waste disposal Disturbance of local population from helicopter and vessel movements. safe burial or incineration of wastes. flaring) Noise (helicopter. sewage. Control H2S emissions. Use efficient and maintained well test burners. Discharges to soil and water from camp (sewage. Use low-toxic water-based drilling muds. well test operations and flaring Noise. use of local resources. Camp and operation Use of local water sources Discharges to soil and water from well test operations (muds. Other discharges to marine environment (wash water. mud pits). Control workforce activities in terms of interaction with local population. services) Short-term. Minimize water use and maximize water recycling in areas of water shortage. cuttings. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 13 . produced water. fuel. Emissions to air from plant equipment. Exploration (offshore) Operations Discharges to marine environment from well test operations (muds. Local infrastructure (education. Accidental discharge of oil. transient. Shade light sources and direct onto site area. Select least sensitive location. roads). drainage Accidental discharges of oil. sanitary and kitchen wastes). monitoring of all discharges/emissions. e. grey water. transient. In remote areas without access to infrastructure.Environmental Manual. drainage. transport. camp. Disposal of oily muds and cuttings on onshore waste disposal sites Emissions to air (burning. or pits replaced by tanks. Treatment of all aqueous wastes prior to discharge: Use low toxic water-based drilling muds. ground water and water at onshore waste disposal site Degradation of air quality Disturbance to wildlife Contamination of marine environment (sediment and sea water) Loss of access and disturbance/conflicts with other marine resource users Local infrastructure (ports. produced water). leakages). leakages) Waste disposal of oily muds and cuttings by landfarming. surface water and ground water contamination Habitat damage. roads. soak away/septic tank for sewage. Loss of biodiversity Disturbance and interference to local population Land use conflicts Water conflicts Interaction between workforce and local population. lowering of ground water table Soil. vessel Contamination of soil. cuttings. Schedule exploration during least sensitive periods.g. chemicals (blow-out. Use local infrastructure for water supply. Immigration Employment Hunting Poaching Fishing Disturbance to wildlife Short-term. Safe handling and storage of wastes for onshore disposal. Depletion of local water sources. chemicals (blow-out. case by case solutions must be designed to minimize impacts. helicopter.DRAFT January 21 2009 utilised for well test operations must be lined and bunded. Ensure machinery and equipment are properly cladded for noise.
Water conflicts Visual and aesthetic intrusion. produced Long term chronic effects on benthic and pelagic biota Long term loss of habitat Loss of Biodiversity Demand on local onshore infrastructure (local port. others (drainage. pipelines Land-use and footprint Barriers to wildlife movement Long term loss of habitat Loss of biodiversity Erosion due to vegetation clearance (onshore) Noise Emissions to air (earth works) Disturbance of wildlife Degradation of air quality Long term impacts Changes to surface hydrology All aspects identified for exploration drilling should be applied to permanent sites and access roads. All aspects identified for exploration drilling should be Date : 2009-01-21 Page 14 . interceptors and oily water treatment system.DRAFT January 21 2009 movement) Short-tem and transient. Install treatment facilities for waste gases. chemicals (blow-out. solid waste disposal). Install oil sumps. produced water). Emissions to air from power and process plant (waste gases. Long term impacts Operation (offshore) Discharges from well operations (drill cuttings. Land-use conflicts Disturbance of wild life Long term impacts. leakages) Waste disposal of oily muds and cuttings by landfarming. Operation (onshore) Use of local water sources Discharge from well operations (drill cuttings. surface water and ground water contamination Long term loss of habitat Loss of Biodiversity Global warming Ozone depletion Demand on local infrastructure (water. Discharges. mud. Reinject produced water. sewage. Site selection and preparation planning should include considerations of eventual decommissioning and restoration. sewage. with particular considerations for long term disturbance and effect on environment. site preparations. Labour force Employment Education Medical and other services Local economy Degradation of air quality Effects on indigenous populations. Activity Source Environmental aspect Potential Environmental impacts Direct Potential Environmental impact Indirect Potential Socioeconomic impact Direct or Indirect Disturbance due to traffic Immigration Impact on local infrastructure Mitigating measures (not complete) Field/facility development Roads. muds. Avoid gas venting.Environmental Manual. infrastructure and local population. sanitary and kitchen wastes) Accidental discharge of oil. flaring). Noise/vibration Depletion of local water sources Soil. Install proper waste and waste water treatment facilities. pits.
Emissions to air from power and process plant. Install system for treatment of waste gases. applied to permanent sites. Long term impacts Noise from facilities and flaring Transportation and refining Accidental discharge of oil during transportation (pipe. surface water and ground water Contamination of soil.Environmental Manual. Land-use conflicts Water conflicts Visual and aesthetic intrusion. Degradation of air quality. surface water and ground water contamination Loss of habitat Loss of Biodiversity Global warming Ozone depletion Degradation of air quality. sewage. chemicals Permanent impact on wildlife if site is not restored to original state Contamination of soil. Waste disposal Emission to air from refinery Noise from refinery Install systems for treatment of emissions to air and operational discharges. surface water and ground water at onshore waste Infrastructure and resource conflicts. flaring. solid waste disposal). Waste disposal of hazardous Date : 2009-01-21 Page 15 . chemicals from refineries. Labour force Employment Education Medical and other services Local economy Effects on indigenous populations.DRAFT January 21 2009 water) Discharges. Disposal of oily muds and cuttings on onshore waste disposal sites Contamination of soil. Avoid gas venting. Resource use interactions. Soil. sanitary and kitchen wastes) Degradation of sediment and water quality Global warming Ozone depletion solid waste disposal). Install oily water treatment system for both produced water and contaminated water treatment Install sewerage treatment system. Proper handling and disposal of wastes. other (drainage. ground water and water at onshore waste disposal site Disturbance to wildlife Contamination of marine and terrestrial environment. Community interactions related to supply and support functions. ship. sewage. Disturbance from vessel and helicopter movements. Disturbance to wildlife Demand on local infrastructure (water. Proper handling and disposal of wastes onshore. road) Accidental discharge and operational discharges of oil. Decommissioning (onshore) Land-use and Footprint Accidental discharges of oil.
Infrastructure and resource conflicts. and other wastes disposal sites. and should be dealt with on an case by case basis with local authorities. developing a decommissioning and rehabilitation plan. Disturbance to wild life Noise Decommissioning (offshore) Accidental discharges of oil.g. trawling).DRAFT January 21 2009 materials. Secondary use of installations as artificial reefs: Increased bioproductivity of coastal waters by providing additional habitats for marine life.Environmental Manual. Noise Disturbance to wild life Date : 2009-01-21 Page 16 . Decommissioning of offshore structures is subject to international and national laws. chemicals if systems are not cleaned before removal Land-use and Footprint Permanent impact on wildlife if site is not restored to original state Contamination of marine environment from accidental spills if systems are not cleaned before removal. Abandonment of offshore structures can result in physical interference with fishing activities (e.
risk based Date : 2009-01-21 Page 17 . An overview of main elements to policy and law and regulations is given in the following sections. the regard for traditional peoples and industries etc.Environmental Manual. Tools The goals and aims on how the country‟s petroleum resources is to be developed is established in an environmental policy.2 Developing an Environmental management policy One of the first tasks of a government deciding to prepare for petroleum exploration or exploitation would be to adopt a petroleum policy. The hierarchy of policy. the environmental and social conditions which should be taken into account and how petroleum activities could contribute to achieving wider political goals.g. In this. polluter pays. laws and regulations and tools 4.DRAFT January 21 2009 4 ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND LEGISLATION 4. precautionary. Environmental management goals are achieved through the application of various tools. the goals and aims on how the petroleum resources should be developed. e. with regard to the ownership of natural resources. The fundamental values and principles on which the society is founded. Laws and regulations 3. the environmental principles may also be addressed e. Environmental policy 2. g. while tools are described in chapter 5. The policy is enacted through laws and regulations and control of petroleum activities.1 Introduction Environmental management of a country‟s oil and gas activities consists of the following three elements: 1. Figure 4-1 The hierarchy of policy. The policy may set forward where. will also form the basis of an environmental policy. when and how the search for oil and gas should take place. laws and regulations and tools is illustrated in Figure 4-1. the regional and social distribution of wealth.
Environmental Manual- DRAFT January 21 2009
management, ecosystem based integrated management, equitable distribution, best available techniques and technology, stakeholder and public participation, transparency etc. Similarly, any international obligations related to agreements and conventions to which the state may be a party may form a basis for an environmental policy (ref annex 1). The process, including intergovernmental coordination, stakeholder and public participation etc may be an important part of developing and adopting a policy.
4.3 Implementing an Environmental management policy
When a government has decided on an environmental policy as part of a wider petroleum policy, the next step will be to decide what kind of instruments should be used to implement the policy. Generally speaking, the government would then analyse the situation in the country and decide to use instruments of legislation (acts and regulations), economic (taxes, levies) and/or other instruments (information, voluntary agreements etc.) and/or enforcing strategies (monitoring, control, sanctions etc). To cope with these tasks, governmental institutions must be capacitated or even established, either as part of the environmental, or the oil and gas administration (or through a mixture of shared responsibilities). State oil companies sometimes perform such governmental tasks, posing special challenges. The staff of these institutions must be trained in order to perform their functions in a proper way. The relationship and responsibilities of the various organizations/ministries, such as ministries of energy and ministries of environment, must be clearly defined. Each country has developed its individual set of acts and regulations governing the oil and gas sector. It is important that the environmental legislation also encompasses issues/aspects covering petroleum activities. This may imply drafting of new environmental legislation or revision of existing acts and regulations. In addition, it is important that the environmental legislation and the sector legislation, e.g. petroleum acts, are harmonised and that the sector acts also contains environmental considerations. The legislation should cover all links of the value chain.
Date : 2009-01-21
Environmental Manual- DRAFT January 21 2009
5 ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLKIT 5.1 Introduction
There are a variety of assessment and management tools that are applied in order to avoid, minimize and mitigate environmental and social impacts from oil and gas activities. Different tools are applied in different phases of the oil and gas value chain. At the start of the value chain, the government will typically apply tools that enable a holistic and ecosystem-based management of the activities in a specific area to be opened up for exploration. Operators apply tools specific for dealing with the different environmental issues that arise during exploration, production and finally during decommissioning. Figure 5-1 shows the main tools along the oil and gas value chain that are used in Norway. They are part of Norwegian regulation of oil and gas activities. In the following sections, the tools shown in Figure 5-1 are briefly described. The purpose is to provide an overview of the toolkit available to avoid, minimize and mitigate environmental and social impacts. For each tool, the following is described: purpose of tool the party responsible for its application (government or operator) main content or steps reference to guidelines/ relevant sources how the tool relates to other tools in the toolkit
Some of the tools are described based on Norwegian approaches, motivated by the overall purpose of OfD to transfer Norwegian experiences within management of petroleum activities. For tools without specific Norwegian approaches, descriptions are based on international guidelines.
Date : 2009-01-21
Environmental Manual- DRAFT January 21 2009
GEOLOGICAL, RESOURCE, ENVIRONMENTAL MAPPING OPENING OF NEW REGIONS/FIELDS EXPLORATION FIELD/ FACILITY DEVELOPMENT OPERATION TRANSPORTATION REFINING DECOMMISSIONING
STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT SENSITIVITY MAPPING ENVIRONMENTAL RESOURCE DATABASE LAND USE PLANNING AND COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL BASELINE STUDY SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING OIL SPILL CONTINGENCY PLANNING ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT Exploration license + discharge permit Operation license + discharge permit
Figure 5-1. The tools along the oil and gas value chain. .
Date : 2009-01-21
“Prior to the opening of new areas with a view to granting production licenses. The application of SEA World wide extends from project specific environmental impact assessment (EIA) to policies. The World Bank describes SEA as a participatory approach for upstreaming environmental and social issues to influence processes for development planning. SEA legislation generally falls under environmental impact assessment (EIA) legislation and extends the use of environmental impact assessment to programs and plans and.2 Strategic Environmental Assessment Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) has been defined as “the formalized. for example. decision making. and comprehensive process of evaluating the environmental effects of a policy.” Responsible: The Government by Ministry of Petroleum and Energy Date : 2009-01-21 Page 21 . an assessment shall be made of the impact of the petroleum activities on trade. and plans. systematic.. 1992). programs. Of relevance to the offshore oil and gas activities in Norway there are two processes that may be considered SEA: SEA for opening of new areas to petroleum activity (mandatory process cf. in some cases to policies. For offshore oil and gas activities in Norway a SEA is required for opening of new areas under the Petroleum Activities Act. and using the findings in a publicly accountable decision-making” (Thérivel et al. section 3-1.2. including the preparation of a written report on the findings of that evaluation. applies to programs and plans and equates SEA with a formal EIA-based procedure. industry and the environment. or program and its alternatives. the Petroleum Activities Act) Regional SEA/IA for existing and future activities (voluntary process cf.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. In this evaluation. and implementation at the strategic level. plan.Environmental Manual.1 SEA for opening of new areas to petroleum activity Purpose of tool: Establish a sound decision basis for opening of new offshore areas to petroleum activities. an evaluation shall be undertaken of the various interests involved in the relevant area. The European SEA Directive (Directive 2001/42/EC). as well as the economic and social effects that may be a result of the petroleum activities. and of possible risks of pollution. the Petroleum Activities Act) 5.
e. Identification. Hence the main steps of the Norwegian official SEA process is to perform Screening. the environment.EIA Date : 2009-01-21 Page 22 . regional and national). What are the impacts (issues) to be assessed? Prediction and evaluation of impacts – including possible secondary impacts. Responsible: Oil industry association (Joint Industry Project) Main steps and / or elements: The second SEA process applied for offshore oil and gas activities in Norway is the Regional EIA. or offset the adverse effects of an action. Scoping. Mitigation. EIMP). Such activities are however implemented by other requirements and processes (e. common Steps in SEA: Screening. and to reduce the magnitude of assessment effort for future field specific EIAs. third parties and the national society. This process differs from the authority initiated SEA in different ways.: It considers present and future activities It focuses on particular common areas of concern on a strategic or generic level It establishes a basis for future field specific EIAs. Monitoring) as the SEA is subject to decision making and not followed up by mitigation or monitoring.2. Guidelines/ relevant sources: . 5. Mitigation measures are intended to avoid.Environmental Manual.g. are impacts possible and the SEA process necessary? Scoping.World Bank Relation to other tools: .2 Regional SEA/IA for existing and future activities Purpose of tool: The main purpose of the process is to establish a common basis on strategic/generic issues rather than consider these only on a fragmented field by field scale. e. The SEA for opening of new areas in Norway deviate from common World Bank SEA approach (i.g. reduce. In Norway this is corresponding to that of project specific EIA. Prediction and Evaluation of Impacts.DRAFT January 21 2009 Main steps and / or elements: The Strategic Environmental Assessment is an integrative process and requires the participation of key stakeholders (local. Key issues are related to possible impacts on natural resources. Similar to that of EIA (see below) but with a regional focus also involving more and more political related stakeholders than field specific EIA‟s.
DRAFT January 21 2009 5. the need for further measures will be assessed. Reduction of long-range pollution. and dialogue / stakeholder involvement to obtain a common understanding of status of activities.Environmental Manual. for the sustainable use of natural resources and goods derived from the area and at the same time maintain the structure. Important factors for achieving EIMP include knowledge on baseline data (natural resources and activities etc. following a data collection and assessment process in the period 2002-2005.2. objectives and means of the EIMP.Norwegian Ministry of the Environment Date : 2009-01-21 Page 23 . In 2007 the Government initiated a similar process for the Norwegian Sea (to be presented for the Parliament spring 2009) and in 2008 a pre-process for the North Sea was initiated. where all activities in the area should be managed within a single context. functioning and productivity of the ecosystems of the area. The EIMP is thus a tool which should be used both to facilitate value creation and to maintain the high environmental value of the area. These goals are intended to ensure that the state of the environment is maintained where it is good and is improved where problems have been identified. included oil pollution. The purpose of the EIMP is to provide a framework. Purpose of tool: The aim of an Ecosystem based Integrated Management Plan (EIMP) is to establish a holistic and ecosystem-based management of the activities in a specific area.Can be considered part of a SEA process Guidelines / relevant sources: .3 Ecosystem based Integrated Management Planning The first Ecosystem based Integrated Management Plan was decided by the Norwegian Parliament in 2005 for the Barents Sea/Lofoten area. Securing control with the development of the state of the environment in the area through a more coordinated and systematic environmental monitoring. Should the monitoring detect negative changes in environmental quality.). The management of a sea area should be based on ambitious goals set for the desired environmental quality of the area. Strengthening of the sector/activities management. (Source: Norwegian Ministry of the Environment) Responsible: National authorities Main steps and / or elements: EIMP is used for balancing various interests and activities without threatening the ecosystem(s) and their functions. The achievement of the goals will then be measured through a coordinated and systematic monitoring of the state of the environment in the sea area. Main measures to achieve EIMP include: Area-based management. Relation to other tools: . where activities and measures are adjusted to the environmental quality of the ecosystems. Protection of the most valuable and vulnerable areas against negative pressures. - Strengthening the knowledge base through better surveys and increased research.
legislation. Preserving and protecting the productivity and biological diversity of coastal ecosystems. A key part of the formulation of an ICZM program is the development of the specific policies and goals that are to be the central objectives of the ICZM program in question. ICZM is a dynamic and continuous process involving the following three steps: Step 1 Formulation of the plan Step 2 Program implementation Step 3 Monitoring. estuary) action programs aimed at correcting and/or restoring degraded coastal resources (e. Relation to other tools: Input is needed from Environmental Resource Database. The means adopted to achieve the selected goals and policies include new and strengthened regulatory programs zonation schemes for partitioning the coastal zone into areas for particular uses and activities new management programs tailored for particular resources (e. and overexploitation. The ICZM takes into account all of the sector activities that affect the coastal zone and its resources and dealing with economic and social issues as well as environmental/ecological concerns.DRAFT January 21 2009 5.g.Environmental Manual. Strengthening sector management. and staff 2. Promoting rational development and sustainable utilization of coastal resources. mainly through prevention of habitat destruction. Guidelines for integrated coastal zone management.g. World Bank Responsible: National government Main content and steps: ICZM focuses on three operational objectives: 1.3 Coastal zone management Purpose of tool: Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) is a process of governance and consists of the legal and institutional framework necessary to ensure that development and management plans for coastal zones are integrated with environmental (including social) goals and are with the participation of those affected. coral reefs) or particular sites (e.g. coastal erosion) action programs targeted at stimulating new types of economic development in the coastal zone. on resources and on the environment. for instance through training.g. evaluation and enforcement Guidelines / relevant sources: Guidelines for integrated coastal zone management. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 24 . 3. The goal is to harmonize these activities in such a way that all of them are consistent with and support a broader set of overarching national goals for the coastal zone. The purpose of ICZM is to maximize the benefits provided by the coastal zone and to minimize the conflicts and harmful effects of activities upon each other. pollution. damaged wetlands) and other problems (e. World Bank.
groups of buildings. e. 12. 6.Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment . and/or areas representing unique environments such as the last or most important examples of habitat types. the presence of „charismatic‟ wildlife species. Environmental sensitivity indicators can be (BP 2007) 1. conventions. habitats of threatened species of animals and plants. Data can be collected from already existing databases or new data has to be sampled through e. permafrost. Areas with subsistence cultures dependent on limited resources and where poor environmental performance could affect their livelihoods or traditional way of life. saltwater and freshwater wetlands. true deserts. aesthetic. mangroves. or anthropological value.g. forests. 10. the US Endangered Species Act of 1973 (endangered. Other locally identified indicators Guidelines / relevant sources: Environmental requirements for new projects (BP 2007) Relation to other tools: Provides input to . Evaluate the data to identify the sensitivity of the area.Environmental Manual. scientific. 11.Environmental Impact Assessment Date : 2009-01-21 Page 25 . Areas within or potentially affecting officially designated protected area(s) or potentially affecting areas proposed for protected status. wilderness. shallow and deep-water corals.4 Sensitivity mapping Purpose of tool: The purpose of conducting Sensitivity mapping is to identify the environmental sensitivity of the area of interest. 2. 4.Environmental Risk Assessment . Areas where operations could have significant impact on essential ecosystem services or where resource use could create a conflict with other community users.Oil Spill Contingency Planning . perceptions of project risk) 7. areas with scientific. ecosystems (e. fragile soils). sea grass beds etc.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. and pristine environments 3. This is dependent on the quality and/ or level of data that are available. Responsible: Operator Main steps: Collect environmental data relevant to the project scope.g. Fragile environments (e. conservation. or rare ecosystems. Areas with a legacy of poor environmental performance by external investors (particularly extractive industries). vulnerable). biological. natural sites and properties with historical. Areas where there is likely to be significant public concern or outrage (e. and geological formations. threatened).). The sensitivity of an area should have consequences for the environmental impact management process.g. Areas representing intact. pantano. endangered. archaeological. or aesthetic value. or documents. ethnological. Areas of significant biodiversity value. 8. The presence of protected/endangered species as defined in the World Conservation Union (IUCN) Red List (critically endangered. field surveys. unique. through a categorisation process. Sites of significant cultural property including monuments. or other recognised international/national legislation. 5. treaties. This may include outstanding physical. 9. tundra.g. Significant potential of cumulative or secondary environmental impacts due to planned operations.Environmental resource database .g. and critical watersheds where construction or operational incidents could result in irreparable damage.
no/ MRDB.Environmental Impact Assessment Date : 2009-01-21 Page 26 .mareano. wildlife and coastline. The Norwegian Marine Resource Database (MRDB) is such a database. MRDB is financed and managed by operators and authorities in collaboration.Sensitivity mapping .ec. may justify the development of specific databases. e.eu/index.Oil Spill Contingency Planning . Common and specific needs for environmental resource data shared by operators and authorities in a region. national and sometimes trans national level.g.Environmental Risk Assessment .gmes.cfm http://www.com/MOD Data harmonisation. fauna. for use in environmental impact analysis. in a consistent manner.no/Norge_digitalt/Engelsk/ About_Norway_Digital/ Relation to other tools: Provides input to . oil-spill response planning and emergency response operations. www.dirnat. monitoring data etc. MRDB covers publicly available information on coastal and marine resources vulnerable to oil pollution.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. Responsible: Operator(s) and/or authorities Main steps: Environmental databases are efficient tools to be used in all phases of the oil and gas value chain. Databases with national environmental resource data are most commonly the reasonability of the authorities in each country. Seapop and mareano) or collect data more locally. http://www. information on protected areas. international databases like “World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA)” or trans national initiatives like “Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES)”. dnweb12. http://inspire.g. fisheries. there may be necessary to initiate large scale monitoring programs (e. Activity specific databases should always be considered if national or regional databases are not available or covering the necessary environmental aspects.org/ GMES. protected areas. The database is financed and managed by the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF). projects. Give operators and authorities a uniform knowledge platform on environmental resources.g. Information on distribution of environmental resources is important input into several of the tools in the oil and gas value chain.info/index. e. environmental resource data is needed on a local.mrdb. This type of environmental data may be stored in national or international databases like the Norwegian “Naturbase”.no MOD. When planning for and operating an oil and gas activity. Activity specific databases are the operator‟s responsibility. Another example of a database developed to suit the needs of the oil and gas industry is the Norwegian “Environmental Monitoring Database (MOD)” which contains the results of sediment monitoring studies on the Norwegian shelf.dnv. environmental risk analyses. If environmental resource data is not available.wdpa.php?id=home SEAPOP. www. www. covering all relevant information for specific tools in the oil and gas value chain. and at several levels.Environmental Manual. Secure access to environmental resource data – preferably through easy search and display functions. http://www.jrc. sensitive habitats. Provide access to the database for all relevant parties Guidelines / relevant sources: Naturbase.Environmental Impact Assessment . New data collected by operators should always be transferred to a relevant database. regional.europa.no/nbinnsyn/ WDPA.seapop. The following activities are important in the administration of an environmental database: Collect new data or up-date existing data from all relevant sources Store data in consistent manner in functional software for easy search and display of information. flora.5 Environmental Resource Database Purpose of tool: Store information on environmental data.no/ MAREANO.statkart.
effectiveness and fundamental suitability.E&P Forum‟s Guidelines for the Development and Application of Health.ISO 14001 . for activities. Guidelines / relevant sources: . Safety and Environmental Management Systems Relation to other tools: Incorporates .Environmental monitoring Date : 2009-01-21 Page 27 . including planning for changes and emergency response. resources and documentation for sound HSE performance. Unlike ISO 14001. essential to the success of the system. This model is compatible with the requirements of the ISO 14000 series. The purpose of an EMS is continuous improvement of environmental performance.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. water. E & P Forum has developed guidelines to assist in the development and application of an EMS in E&P. products and services. Main elements are: Leadership and commitment Top-down commitment and company culture. Evaluation and risk management Identification and evaluation of HSE risks.6 Environmental Management System Purpose of tool: An Environmental Management System (EMS) is ”part of an organisation’s management system used to develop and implement its environmental policy and manage its environmental aspects”. it also addresses occupational health and safety. humans. Auditing and reviewing Periodic assessments of system performance. principles of action and aspirations with respect to health. This model is compatible with the requirements of the ISO 14000 series. Organisation. flora. environment is defined as “surroundings (extending from within an organisation to the global system) in which an organisation operates. Policy and strategic objectives Corporate intentions. Unlike ISO 14001. Responsible: Operator Main elements: E & P Forum has developed guidelines to assist in the development and application of an EMS in E&P.Waste management plan . fauna. Implementation and monitoring Performance and monitoring of activities. natural resources and their interrelation.Environmental Manual. land. and development of risk reduction measures. safety and environment. Planning Planning the conduct of work activities. ISO 14001 In ISO 14001. resources and documentation Organisation of people. including air. and how corrective action is to be taken when necessary. it also addresses occupational health and safety.
DRAFT January 21 2009 5.Environmental Manual. Define the geographical area and operational activities to be addressed. engineering limitations. recycling and reclaiming. location. Step 5: Waste categorization. transport and disposal should be considered. recovery. (E&P Forum. Step 7: Waste minimization.E&P Forum Waste Management Guidelines . 1993) Responsible: Operator Main steps: Step 1 Obtain management approval & commitment Step 2: Goal and Area definition. E& P Forum. 1993 Guidelines / relevant sources: . Step 3: Waste identification.7 Waste management Plan Purpose of tool: A waste management plan directly relates to the choice of waste handling and disposal options to the ecological sensitivities. operating feasibility. Step 6: Evaluation of waste management and disposal options. Identify the physical. Identify and compile waste management options for each waste.Recommended Guidelines for Waste Management in the Offshore Industry (OLF guideline No 093. storage. regional and national laws and regulations to determine the types of wastes for which management practises should be highlighted. etc. Establish the goal of the plan with measurable objectives for each goal.OGP Guidelines for waste management with special focus on areas with limited infrastructure . treatment. potential long-term liability. Waste types for which the regulations do not adequately define management requirements should also be identified. economics. 2004) Date : 2009-01-21 Relation to other tools: Part of Environmental Management System Page 28 . Life-cycle analysis including use. Evaluate options to minimize volume of waste. treatment and responsible disposal. Select the best practice for the specific operation and location. The objective of a waste management plan is to minimize the potential of wastes to cause harm to health and the environment. Step 8: Selection of preferred waste management practise(s). Responsible waste management may be accomplished through the hierarchical application of source reduction. Step 10: Plan review and update. Step 4: Regulatory analysis. reuse. Evaluation of options should include: environmental considerations. regulatory restrictions. Wastes can be grouped according to their health and environmental hazards. lab analyses. reduction of toxicity. regulatory requirements and available facilities/infrastructure of the geographical area involved. Review and update the waste management plan whenever new waste management practises or options are identified. etc. chemical and toxicological properties of each waste via Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) or other sources like manufacturer. Review international. Step 9: Implementation of an area waste management plan. The plan should be written from the field perspective and provide guidance for handling each waste stream. Identify and briefly describe all wastes generated. recycling. Compile waste management and disposal options for each waste into one comprehensive waste management plan. or treatment.
olf. Step 3: Modelling of oil dispersion The fate and transport of oil in the environment is modelled. Most often a probabilistic model is applied that gives the probability of oil pollution in specific areas.Environmental Sensitivity Mapping . for oil at sea this shall be the amount of oil evaporated. Step 4: Interaction between oil pollution and sensitive environmental resources The presence of sensitive environmental resources within the area that may be polluted must be identified (see sensitivity mapping).eea.html SINTEF Offshore Blowout Database: http://www. The interaction between the sensitive resources and oil pollution must be analysed to give the probability of polluting the sensitive resources. Step 2: Hazard identification Hazard identification is the process of identifying events (e. The model shall make a mass balance of the oil.Approaches.no/Home/Technology-andSociety-2009/Safety-Research/Projects/SINTEFOffshore-Blowout-Database/ Relation to other tools: . beached and remaining at sea surface. Responsible: Authority / Operator Main steps: Step 1: Scoping Scoping defines what activity the assessment shall cover and what environmental impact that shall be analysed as the risk indicator. The hazard identification shall give the probability/frequency of an event and the severity of the event (amount of oil discharged or spill rate and duration).html (in Norwegian only) European Environment Agency: Environmental Risk Assessment . the sensitivity of the resources to oil pollution and its potential to recover from a pollution.Environmental Manual. http://www. Guidelines / relevant sources: The MIRA method. The impact can for instance be expressed as recovery time for a specific population or habitat. In ERA hazard identification is often carried out in a separate technical risk assessment TRA. Step 6: Assessing the risk The probability / frequency of an environmental impact shall be evaluated against established risk acceptance criteria. degraded.g.no/miljoerapporter/metode-formiljoerettet-risikoanalyse-mira-revisjon-2007article1955-247.europa. could result in environmental damage. dispersed. but it can also be an integrated part of the ERA.Environmental Impact Assessment Date : 2009-01-21 Page 29 . Experiences and Information Sources http://reports.8 Environmental Risk Assessment Purpose of tool: Environmental Risk Assessment (ERA) of accidental oil discharges is a tool to identify the main hazards for accidental oil discharges and its potential environmental impacts in order to manage and mitigate the environmental risk.eu/GH-07-97-595-ENC2/en/sect1in.sintef.Oil spill contingency planning . a Norwegian industry standard for ERA for accidental oil spill. accidental oil discharges) which unless controlled or mitigated. Step 5: Assessing environmental impact The environmental impact is assessed based on the amount of oil polluting sensitive resources.DRAFT January 21 2009 5.Environmental Resource Database .
IUAs have the practical and technical responsibility for cleanup operations within their area. the organisation of oil spill contingency relating to offshore oil & gas activities on the Norwegian Continental shelf is based on the operator holding responsibility for the spill. and the use of common technical resources through the Norwegian Clean Seas Organisation for Operating Companies (NOFO) and their agreements with Regional Pollution Combat Groups (IUAs). Date : 2009-01-21 Page 30 . Savannah 2008) The Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA) has been delegated the responsibility for inspection of private and municipalities‟ actions related to acute pollution (e.Environmental Manual. NCA may draw their own resources. planning and incident follow-up. and shoreline oil spill management and a process involving analysis. In the response operation. on dedicated NCA vessels and Coast Guard vessels. oil spill). Primarily private actors hold the responsibility for the oil spill contingency.org).ipieca. NCA cooperates with the IUAs. municipal and public parties where responsibilities. Group Leaders and the shoreline cleanup work forces ( Paper IOSC. located at a number of depots along the coast.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. As an example. tactical and economical terms and holds the position of the Operation Coordinator and the Shoreline Environmental Task Force. and provide On-scene Commanders. roles and tasks are regulated by law. Oil spills can have a significant impact on ecosystems. near-coast.g. involving harbour authorities and resources from local fire brigades. In the subsequent cleanup operation. NCA may mobilize privately owned resources (including NOFO resources). In situations where the polluter is not capable of handling the spill himself the public and the municipalities can be used. amenities and livelihoods (www. In addition.9 Oil Spill Contingency Planning Purpose of tool: Oil spill contingency planning is necessary in order ensure prompt response to avoid or minimise the impact of an oil spill. Response to oil spills from ships in Norwegian waters are the responsibility of the Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA). To ensure a holistic management of oil spills the oil spill contingency planning should be based on integration of offshore. These groups organize response on a municipality level. Responsible: To ensure a holistic and systematic approach to oil spill contingency the collaboration between public and private contingency is important. The Norwegian approach implies interaction between private. NCA has the overall responsibility for the entire operation in strategic. Private actors and the municipalities have legal duty to contribute in public actions.
Step 3: The OSCA is carried out in order to identify the required extent of the oil spill contingency measures with regards to system capacity.Environmental Manual. The OSCA will give important input to ERA related to consequence reducing measures.IPIECA Guide to Tiered Preparedness and Response Volume 14 .individual responsibilities of key personnel.communications network and .p hp#21 OLF/NOFO has developed a guideline for OSCA: Veileder for miljørettet beredskapsanalyse (in Norwegian only) Relation to other tools: The tool is based on input from: .org/activities/oilspill/oil_publications.Guidelines for Oil Spill Waste Minimisation and Management . among others: .ipieca. The OSCA concludes on a recommended solution which will be an input to further planning of the oil spill contingency.Volume 12 See more on: http://www.equipment needed for combating the oil spill and its availability. . Step 2: Having defined the dimensioning scenarios the fate of the oil spill should be modelled in order to estimate the extent of the spill and provide necessary input to the ERA and OSCA. .Environmental Resource Database . . The plan should clearly identify: .A Guide to Contingency Planning for Oil Spills on Water . The plan should clearly identify the actions necessary in case of a spill such as (E&P Forum/UNEP 1997): . . types of equipment.DRAFT January 21 2009 Main steps: Step 1: The first step in the establishment of an integrated plan for oil spill preparedness is to identify scenarios that would form the basis for dimensioning of the spill response capacity.training and exercise requirements. Capacity requirements are generally provided by a detailed oil spill contingency analysis (OSCA) carried out in conjunction with an environmental risk assessment (ERA) for specific activities and operations. response time.A Guide to Oiled Wildlife Response Planning Volume 13 .Environmental Risk Assessment Date : 2009-01-21 Page 31 .organization structure.response strategies.procedures for reporting to authorities. .Volume 2 .handling and disposal of recovered material (contaminated waste and debris) and . Step 4: Following the OSCA and ERA an oil spill contingency plan should be developed. .provide data directory and supporting information Guidelines / relevant sources: IPIECA has several relevant studies and guidelines.vulnerable and sensitive locations. monitoring and other specific aspects related to the activity of interest.
World Provides input to Step 9: Plan review and update. This forms the basis of comparison to identify any changes/impacts after the activities have commenced. A Baseline Study must be conducted prior to any project activities. Compile waste management and disposal options for each waste into one comprehensive waste management plan. Guidelines / relevant sources: Relation to other tools: Environmental Assessment Sourcebook. Step 4: Assemble and evaluate baseline data and prepare an Environmental Monitoring Plan identifying the objectives of the monitoring activities. community structure. including parks or preserves. recreation. Biological environment: flora. and socioeconomic conditions. climate and meteorology. Review and update the waste management plan whenever new waste Bank / EA Sourcebook Update no. Implement corrective actions and/ or mitigation measures. Step 5: Implementation of Monitoring Plan. Step 3: Conduct Baseline surveys prior to project development and implementation. Step 8: Implementation of an area waste management plan. Environmental Performance Monitoring and . tribal peoples. surface and ground-water hydrology. vectors or dangerous. etc..g. distribution of income. who. fauna. The plan should include how. when. ensure early detection of conditions that necessitate particular mitigation measures). and species with potential to become nuisances. including any changes anticipated before the project commences. existing sources of air emissions. topography. ambient air quality. Responsible: Operator Main steps: Step 1: Assessment of the dimensions of the study area and description of relevant physical. and customs. threshold values that will trigger corrective actions. budget and other necessary inputs (e. public health.10 Environmental Baseline Study and Environmental Monitoring Purpose of tool: Environmental monitoring provides information about key environmental aspects of the project.Social Impact Assessment management practises or options are identified. 14: . coastal and oceanic parameters. reporting procedures (e. goods and services. planned development activities. species of commercial importance. soils. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 32 . sensitive habitats.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. Step 6: Evaluate monitoring data according to Monitoring Plan. training) to monitor the impacts of the project during all project phases (construction/ operation/ decommissioning/ postdecommissioning) as well as implementation of mitigating measures. biological. detection limits. and receiving water quality. employment. Review and update Monitoring Plan regularly through all project phases until postdecommissioning.. rare or endangered species. aspirations and attitudes. land use.g. keywords: Physical environment: geology. The outcome of the monitoring activities are used to evaluate the effectiveness or need of mitigation measures. Step 2: Collection of existing Baseline data. based on potential impacts identified in the Environmental Assessment. significant natural sites. The Environmental Monitoring Plan identifies monitoring objectives and specifies the type of monitoring to be carried out in order to reveal any impacts on the local environment. cultural properties.Environmental Manual. identify need for baseline surveys . Socio-cultural environment (include both present and projected where appropriate): population.Environmental Impact Assessment Supervision. existing water pollution discharges.
This also includes assessment of relevant alternatives (development options. society) Impact significance evaluation (focus on key issues) Mitigation measures/abatement options Alternative options assessment Environmental management planning Environmental monitoring planning Oil spill contingency The EIA report is issued for stakeholder consultation to ensure that the contents of the formally set EIA program are fulfilled.: Project description Legislation review Baseline data evaluation/description Impact identification and prediction (environmental aspects. Responsible: Licensee/Operator Main steps and / or elements: Scoping: 1. natural resources. predicting. possible areas of concern/impacts and present an overview of issues. The EIA report normally include e.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. 2.currently being revised) Relation to other tool: SEA – regional EIA approach Date : 2009-01-21 Page 33 . 3. screening. Main purpose of EIA is to establish a sound basis for decision making based on objective assessment of positive and negative impacts of a specific project (normally field development and operation) and its alternatives.MPE/NPD PDO/PIO guidelines (2000. third parties.). Stakeholder consultation: Proposal for EIA program is circulated to all relevant stakeholders (authorities and NGO‟s) for comments. Guidelines/relevant sources: . EIA process: The EIA is an integral part of the development project ensuring that environmental issues are properly considered and documented.Environmental Manual. evaluating and mitigating the biophysical. EIA reporting: Summarises the process and main findings of the EIA process. Establish a proposal for EIA program (scoping document) describing briefly the project plans. The received comments are evaluated and will together with the proposed program form the formally set EIA program. scope and magnitude of impact assessment to be performed. social and other relevant effects of proposed projects and physical activities prior to major decisions and commitments being made.11 Environmental Impact Assessment Purpose of tool: Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process of identifying.g. energy production solutions etc.
leisure and tourism impacts .development impacts . democratisation etc) . Depending on the context in question. plans.aesthetic impacts (landscape analysis) .community impacts . monitoring and managing the intended and unintended social consequences. programs. Its primary purpose is to bring about a more sustainable and equitable biophysical and human environment.demographic impacts .impacts on social and human capital Guidelines / relevant sources: .gender impacts . May 2003) The objective of SIA is to ensure that development maximises its benefits and minimises its costs. regulatory authorities and developers.health and mental health impacts .cultural impacts .resource issues (access and ownership of resources) .political impacts (human rights.Environmental Manual.DRAFT January 21 2009 5. (IAIA.economic and fiscal impacts . Date : 2009-01-21 Page 34 .psychological impacts .archaeological and cultural heritage impacts (both tangible and non-tangible) . Costs and benefits may not be measurable or quantifiable and are often not adequately taken into account by decision-makers. of planned interventions (policies. governance. For projects with extensive social impacts a separate SIA should be conducted.institutional impacts .infrastructural impacts . SIA International Principles.impacts on indigenous rights .poverty . projects) and any social change processes invoked by those interventions. economic and biophysical surroundings.International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA): SIA International Principles Relation to other tools: SIA is sometimes incorporated into a more comprehensive Environmental Impact Assessment (referred to as ESIAs).12 Social Impact Assessment Purpose of tool: Social Impact Assessment (SIA) includes the process of analysing. both positive and negative. the SIA may include (but not be limited to) the following specialist sub-fields: . especially those costs borne by people (including those in other places and in the future). Benefits of a proactive rather than reactive approach: 1) Better decisions can be made about which interventions should proceed and how they should proceed 2) Mitigation measures can be implemented to minimise the harm and maximise the benefits from a specific planned intervention or related activity Responsible: Operator Main steps and / or elements: SIA is best understood as an umbrella or overarching framework that embodies the evaluation of all impacts on humans and on all the ways in which people and communities interact with their socio-cultural.
the more precaution must be taken by both government and operator. Using this guide. and where the environmental risks are low and manageable. and in most cases.Environmental Manual. The higher the environmental sensitivity. Projects likely to have minimal or no adverse environmental impacts. This guide for assessment of environmental sensitivity is based on BP Group Practice Environmental Requirements for new projects.1 Introduction Geographical areas to be developed for oil and gas extraction may have ecological. using a precautionary principle. The guide does not replace any of the tools in the toolkit (chapter 4). Assess environmental sensitivity based on step 1 and 2 Date : 2009-01-21 Page 35 . 6.high.2 How can environmental sensitivity be categorised? Environmental sensitivity can be categorised as high. Environmental Sensitivity High sensitivity Medium sensitivity Categorisation Projects with the potential. Low sensitivity Source: BP Categorisation of environmental sensitivity is done in three steps: 1.DRAFT January 21 2009 6 A GUIDE TO ASSESS THE ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY OF A PETROLEUM DEVELOPMENT PROJECT 6. reversible. medium and low. Assess project footprint 3. The outcome of the assessment can provide input to Environmental Impact Assessments and other tools that may be applied later in the process. participants in OfD can assess the environmental sensitivity of a proposed petroleum development project in a specific geographical area. where mitigation measures can be designed more readily than for projects of high sensitivity. Presence of protected/endangered species and areas of cultural importance and subsistence indigenous populations are examples of sensitivities that warrant special considerations. to have chronic or irreversible adverse impacts on environments Projects whose potential adverse impacts on the environment are generally localised. rather it can be seen as an early assessment tool that can be applied before other tools are put to use. medium and low using the definitions shown in Table 6-1. Table 6-1 Categorisation of environmental sensitivity. social and cultural sensitivities that warrant special considerations. Assess environmental value 2. increasing the understanding of the level of precaution needed in subsequent decision making processes. For example: where there is significant precedence and prior experience.
4). The precautionary principle is applied where there is incomplete knowledge. environmental sensitivity is a function of environmental value (step 1) and project footprint (step 2). ecosystems or habitats may be impacted) Knowledge (knowledge and understanding of the issues) Timescale of impact (temporal impact of the consequences and time /potential for rehabilitation) Precedence (novel/familiar engineering solutions) Complexity of project Easy-Difficult Precedent. considering issues shown in Table 6-3. considering issues shown in Table 6-2. Table 6-2 Assessing the environmental value Issues Uniqueness (of habitat or ecosystem) Biodiversity value Ecosystem value and use Ecosystem capacity (capacity or fragility to damage) Stakeholders concern Low-High Low-High Low-High Low-High Scale Low-High The assessment is conducted against a set of environmental sensitivity indicators (indicators are given in chapter 5. Step 2 Assess Project Footprint Assess project footprint qualitatively. Table 6-3 Assessing the project footprint Issues Spatial extent (to which biodiversity.DRAFT January 21 2009 Step 1 Assess environmental value Assess environmental value qualitatively. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 36 .No precedent Short-Long Low-High Scale Small-Large Step 3 Assess environmental sensitivity Assess the environmental sensitivity using Figure 6-1. In Figure 6-1.Environmental Manual. The indicators can be used to help identify key issues that might result in an areas being defined as environmentally sensitive.
DRAFT January 21 2009 Figure 6-1 Environmental sensitivity (low. Category B = Medium sensitivity. Category A = High sensitivity..Environmental Manual. Source: BP. 2007 Date : 2009-01-21 Page 37 . Category C = Low sensitivity. medium and high) presented against Environmental Value (y-axis) and Project Footprint (x-axis).
DRAFT January 21 2009 7 GUIDANCE ON CLIMATE CONSIDERATIONS WITHIN OFD 7. assistance in implementing and estimating the costs of such measures. Emphasis should be placed on measures that have a positive impact on the environment and development beyond that of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Clean Development Mechanism 4. Policy instruments 3. The potential revenues which national authorities can earn from environmental taxes or the sale of quotas will be particularly significant in developing countries. Mitigating measures 2. The instruments that are chosen by a country‟s authorities should be established by law. emissions of natural gas from cold venting and diffuse leakages. This section provides an overview of the guidance that OfD will provide. however. National authorities in many OfD countries have poor levels of expertise and therefore little authority in issues linked to the regulation of petroleum activities. including that of Date : 2009-01-21 Page 38 . be adapted in such a way as to achieve the desired objectives and to be administratively possible to follow up.2 Mitigating measures The largest sources of emissions of greenhouse gases from oil and gas production activities are flue gases from energy plants and flares. The purpose of providing guidance on climate consideration is to enable national authorities in the cooperating countries to introduce those policy instruments and measures that will stimulate the most cost-effective solutions for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. 2008): 1. Guidance will be offered on how countries can undertake an overall analysis of measures for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and.Environmental Manual. The chosen instruments should. focusing on four topics (OfD. it is also important to highlight socio-economic profitability and budgetary implications when determining which instruments to adopt. In addition to the desired reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact.1 Introduction OfD will provide guidance to cooperating countries on how to include climate considerations in the development of petroleum resources. where appropriate. and Carbon capture and storage 7. Adaptation measures 7. Technical mitigation measures for the petroleum sector can be roughly divided into three categories: Energy efficiency Reduction of direct emissions from flares and cold venting.3 Policy measures Authorities may choose to adopt different policy instruments for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
OfD will provide basic information on the CDM. The building of expertise and institutions is therefore absolutely decisive. Climate changes may also increase the risk of injury to humans and of environmental and material damage when. not least in respect of assessing the need for a regulatory framework.Environmental Manual. OfD will provide assistance in both developing policy instruments and building the necessary institutions. An example of this is where water deposits in arid areas may be more vulnerable to pollution or water harvesting than indicated by a current assessment. the country should be referred to the relevant specialist communities. so that environmental regulation and good climate measures can be implemented and enforced as an integrated part of petroleum activities. The CDM is therefore within the scope of the OfD initiative. which purchases CO2 emission quotas under the CDM. Where appropriate. the OfD initiative should refer them to the relevant specialist communities for more specialised training. OfD will offer education on the significance and implementation of integrated impact assessments and analyses. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 39 . Should a country‟s authorities request assistance with more detailed analyses and technical support relating to the possible impacts of and adaptations to climate changes. 7. extreme wind conditions destroy petroleum installations or infrastructure.5 Adaptation measures Climate change can result in natural resources becoming more vulnerable to adverse impacts. National authorities in the recipient countries should be encouraged to adopt an international level of climate policy instruments in order to avoid exploitation of weak environmental legislation by operators.4 Clean Development Mechanism The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol. etc. technical or economical support in development of specific CDM projects.DRAFT January 21 2009 regulating environmental and climate measures. for example. OfD will provide general information about the possible impacts of climate change and the necessary adaptations related to petroleum activities. with an emphasis on capacity building and project development. and measures within the petroleum sector represent an area which demands particular expertise and one in which the amount of effort required in the years to come can prove to be considerable. 7. The OfD initiative will contribute to raising national authorities' awareness about these issues. The estimated climate changes in the region in question should therefore be included in impact assessments and risk analyses before petroleum activities are developed. Should a cooperating country request more detailed training. OfD will facilitate contact between project developers and the Ministry of Finance. institutions or Norad support schemes. It is important to highlight the socio-economic and budgetary impacts when determining which instruments should be adopted.
lead to a deterioration of current conditions. There are numerous examples of environmental neglect in petroleum production causing unfortunate spin-off effects on other local industries such as tourism.Environmental Manual. these economic gains are often dispersed in an uneven and unsustainable manner. Changes in the biophysical environment may however also cause significant indirect impacts. fishery or agriculture (see section 8. The most widely quoted definition of sustainable development is that outlined in the United Nations World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) report Our Common Future (1987). If. A distinction should be made between the different forms of socioeconomic impact.1 The need for a holistic approach Sustainable development is a concept that refers to development where emphasis is shifted from short term economic gains to a more long term approach where there is balance between economic. the environment. the environmental aspects of the oil and gas exploration are neglected. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 40 . Failing to include both direct and indirect impacts in the overall resource management plan may both represent a lost opportunity for positive local and regional development but also. Oil and gas exploration brings opportunities for great economic gains.DRAFT January 21 2009 8 ENSURING SUSTAINABLE LOCAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT 8. linking the economy. an integrated approach to decision-making is required. Development of this type requires a process of interaction between public authorities. one notable and often seen example being the need for resettlement of current inhabitants in the relevant extraction areas. Direct impacts typically include local job opportunities and boost in local services. and society. civil society. capturing both immediate local and wider regional concerns. more gravely. the net impact on local communities may in fact be negative. and the private sector. Rather than a piecemeal approach. in addition to this. social and environmental considerations. To exploit the full development potential stemming from oil and gas exploration. providing short term gains to a selected few (and often foreign) benefactors at the sacrifice of local and regional economic growth and improved social conditions. it is therefore essential to apply a holistic approach to resource management. Inherent in this lays the assumption that the national and/or regional policy context must take into account cross-sectoral issues in an integrated resources management approach. However. also known as the Bruntland Report: Def Sustainable Development: "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.2). To ensure full exploitation of the long term socioeconomic scope of oil and gas exploration. multiple examples show that if inadequately administered. as well as the long term intra-generational perspective. the breadth of potential socioeconomic impact areas must be appreciated and included in the wider resource management schemes." The definition encompasses both how considerations must be given to interrelationships and integration of competing needs.
there is also an economic rationale for investing into environmental protection. spills or leakages) Serious negative ripple effects on other local / regional industries World-wide there are numerous examples of how environmental degradation stemming from petroleum production has spurred significant costs and negatively affected other industries. there are abundant examples of failure or a scarcity of success in dealing with these challenges.DRAFT January 21 2009 8. analyse and plan for potential environmental problems stemming from oil and gas exploration activities can have serious implications.g. A classical example is offshore oil-spills damaging local fisheries and / or tourism due to lack of sufficient preparedness schemes. with consequent failure. Accidents of environmental degradation often have widespread geographic consequences. And. Environmental problems are often of a refractory and poorly understood nature. resulting in either failure to deal with them altogether. or to interventions that tend to treat the symptoms rather than the underlying root causes. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 41 . Failing to preventively identify.2 Economic implications of environmental concerns in the case of oil and gas exploration The potential environmental issues accompanying petroleum production are numerous. environmental degradation stemming from petroleum production has two main economic implications: Significant clean-up costs in the case of accidents (e. Many of the commonly experienced problems are most notably seen in natural resource rich developing countries with rapid economic growth. particularly so when including also the many indirect negative effects. Generally speaking. Alongside issues of intrinsic value and preserving local nature and wildlife. The cost of proactively installing preventive measures is likely to be minimal compared to the potential economic implications of dealing with the consequences of various forms of environmental degradation.Environmental Manual. whilst economic growth should in theory enable countries to better deal with their environmental problems.
During the war between Israel and Lebanon in July 2006. and there is a growing notion of zero-tolerance in this respect. 8. Corruption. Good governance at both national and international level is a central sustainable development prerequisite. however the immediate negative impacts on aquatic biodiversity. the misuse of entrusted power for private gain. predictably and understandably. The cost of corruption is said to be four-fold: On the political front. hereunder considering the zero-option alternative. together with democratic institutions responsive to the needs of people. Here. sound environmental. a holistic long-term approach should underpin the development of resource management schemes. In a democratic system. 8. is the main hamper to transparent and efficient processes. private sector managers and civil society trustees to act visibly. particularly so in newly emerging democracies.Environmental Manual.DRAFT January 21 2009 Illustrative examples: When the oil tanker Erika broke in two parts and went down in the Bay of Biscay on 12 December 1999. birdlife and popular tourist sites along the affected coastline were substantial. At the domestic level. in the coastal zone and on the shores. took part in the rescue and clean-up after the accident. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 42 . oil has been discovered in one of the most valuable areas of the country which also constitutes the most attractive area for nature-based tourism. corruption constitutes a major obstacle to democracy and the rule of law. business transactions or charitable work to know not only the basic facts and figures but also the mechanisms and processes. along with other European countries. and has since considered financial support to the clean-up operations and treatment of the hazardous waste generated from the incident. the issue of corruption has been addressed widely both within public and private sectors worldwide.3 Elements of successful sustainable development To ensure successful local and regional development in the wake of new petroleum production. Clean-up operations had to be carried out at sea. the rule of law. the oil spill spread along a 400 kilometre coastline in France and Northern Spain.3. In Uganda. the bombing of the power station of Jiyeh led to a large quantity of fuel oil being spilled into the sea and polluting the Lebanese coast. the potential benefits of petroleum production had to be weighted against the overall economic scope for the tourist industry. offices and institutions lose their legitimacy when they are misused for private advantage. The definition implies a duty on civil servants.1 Transparency Transparency can be defined as a principle that allows those affected by administrative decisions. Norway. social and economic policies. anticorruption measures and an enabling environment for investment are essential underlying factors for a sustainable development. Norway contributed with equipment and expertise immediately after the incident. In later years.
thereby deterring investment. typically stemming from a lack (or non-enforcement) of environmental regulations and legislation. Government of Norway hosting the EITI International Secretariat Since the outset of the initiative in 2007. resulting in a weak civil society. the EITI International Secretariat has been based in Oslo. managing a resource centre on revenue management and transparency. That in turn clears the way for irresponsible management where bribes and personal agendas flourish. in its institutions and its leadership. it hinders the development of fair market structures and distorts competition. In several cases. gas and mining. communicating and sharing lessons learned with stakeholders. Norway actively supports the EITI. by requiring companies to publish what they pay for and governments to disclose what they receive. Although implementation is the responsibility of local EITI stakeholders. investors and international organizations. The Secretariat closely follows in-country implementation and findings of Validation processes to guide and inform the national EITI processes. corruption undermines people's trust in the political system. Environmentally unsound projects are given preference in funding. The EITI is a globally developed standard that promotes revenue transparency at the local level. An important role of the Secretariat is to support implementation. The initiative has a robust yet flexible methodology that ensures a global standard is maintained throughout the different implementing countries. Officially opened in September 2007 and hosted by the Government of Norway. the Secretariat aims at ensuring coordination between supporting countries and assistance providers such as the World Bank. pipelines and refineries) have marked unfortunate examples of uneconomic profile schemes launched at the expense of more necessary local needs.Environmental Manual. and oversight of the Validation process. the Secretariat is an independent body solely accountable to the EITI Board. In many cases careless exploitation of natural resources by both domestic and international agents has led to ravaged natural environments. and encourages all OfD-countries to implement the initiative. Whilst an EITI Board and international Secretariat are the guardians of the EITI methodology. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 43 . and for coordinating worldwide efforts in implementing the EITI. Socially. The Secretariat is responsible for turning policy decisions of the EITI Board into action. corruption leads to the depletion of national wealth when it causes funnelling of scarce public resources into uneconomic profile projects at the expense of more necessary infrastructure projects such as hospitals and roads. The EITI is a coalition of governments. (Source: Transparency International) The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) supports improved governance in resource-rich countries through the verification and full publication of company payments and government revenues from oil. Its role specifically includes: outreach and advocacy. Environmental degradation is another consequence of corrupt systems. Furthermore. implementation itself is the responsibility of individual countries.g. civil society groups.DRAFT January 21 2009 Economically. unsustainable petroleum production projects (e. companies. because they are easy targets for channelling public money into private pockets.
or otherwise substantially affecting the livelihood of local inhabitants. interest groups and businesses through to national and international NGOs. resettlement.) 8. When local communities are likely to be affected directly or indirectly by petroleum production.3 Compensation The introduction of petroleum production activities will often have significant impact on the local exploration area. Where involuntary displacement (resettlement) is necessary.org 8.accountability21. legal and formally binding compensation agreements should be developed.net (“Stakeholder Engagement Standard AA1000” available for download at website. appropriate compensation schemes are vital.eitransparency. this should be undertaken in a timely manner to ensure that the displaced or otherwise affected persons are not disadvantaged.DRAFT January 21 2009 Reference Sources: Transparency International www. operators and civil society (including community) interests are formally represented. and measuring the implementation of a best practice stakeholder engagement approach. In a transparent dialogue process. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 44 .2 Stakeholder dialogue To optimise the sustainable development scope from petroleum production activities.org Offers various tools on anti-corruption work. Where compensation is to be paid in monetary forms.transparency. taking into account potential illiteracy or lack of access to media such as the internet. preparing. In the case of oil spills. the stakeholders‟ roles and rights to access information should be documented in a language relevant to their needs. the same compensation and support standards should apply to all groups whether they have agreed to relocation arrangements or not. the stakeholder engagement process should try to identify the scope for local capacity building and facilitation of understanding and learning.3. a cooperative process between the different sectors involved should be promoted. Reference Sources: AccountAbility www. To the extent possible. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) www.Environmental Manual. AccountAbility outlines in its Stakeholder Engagement Standard (AA1000) a best practice guideline for planning for. where both Government. all affected stakeholders should be given the opportunity to participate in relevant decision-making processes. To enhance transparency and endorsement of overall resource management strategies. Stakeholders in this context could span from individual local inhabitants.3.
This arena is shaped by the external environment in which civil society operates. improve their own circumstances and provide support for the poor and underprivileged so that their voices are heard and their interests are brought into focus. A broadly-based and dynamic civil society is thought essential to the development of a democratic society that serves the interests of all its members.DRAFT January 21 2009 At the overall community level. An arena for participants in civil society and their relationship to other actors such as the state and the private sector. 8. These organisations are neither owned nor governed by the state and primarily operate on an idealistic basis. including legislation. and in some cases directly with national organisations via Norwegian embassies. considerable emphasis is placed on efforts to strengthen local cooperation partners‟ organisations in developing countries in order to ensure the sustainability of projects and promote the development of civil society. the concept encompasses organisations such as community groups. Date : 2009-01-21 Page 45 . charities. business associations. Cooperation with civil society is partly conducted through Norwegian and international organisations. In Norad‟s work. Norwegian governmental cooperation with civil society Norwegian authorities actively cooperate with civil society organisations domestically and abroad through The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad). larger social compensation projects such as new roads.6). coalitions and advocacy groups. schools or health facilities are often introduced.3. In practice. Civil society gives people the right and opportunity to influence societal development. professional associations. networks and movements that are active in the public sphere between state and family.4 Civil Society The role of civil society is increasingly being acknowledged in national and international decision-making processes. The objective of Norad‟s cooperation with NGOs is to strengthen civil society as a driving force and agent of change in order to achieve national development objectives. faith-based organisations. NGOs. Civil society can be defined as: Formal and informal organisations.Environmental Manual. and if possible be anchored with the local authorities rather than with the commercial operators (ref section 8. both during construction periods and not least for the long-term operational phases of petroleum extraction.3. trade unions. The ownership of such projects should be considered.
this issue typically arises in the case of resettlement or otherwise affecting areas that minority / indigenous groups currently inhabit or depend on. In the case of extracting industries such as petroleum production. Reference Sources: UNESCO www. International human rights law now comprises a vast number of standard-setting instruments adopted by universal and regional intergovernmental organizations.Environmental Manual. One aspect of human rights is the issue of minority rights. Indigenous groups‟ livelihood often strongly depends on the environment.DRAFT January 21 2009 8.org (“A guide to Human Rights: Institutions. International media and the global civil society are scrutinizing both private and public sector decision-makers into seriously tackle the issue. In later years.minorityrights. Standards.unesco. many governments from around the world have signed up to a variety of international human rights treaties.org) UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (available for download at www.3. Religious and Linguistic Minorities‟ and the „UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples‟ being two notable examples.5 Human Rights (incl Minorities) The past decades have marked an increasing emphasis on sensitizing the general public on violations of and threats to human rights. addressing different aspects of workers‟ rights.org) Date : 2009-01-21 Page 46 . The international system of promotion and protection of human rights has been substantially developed and strengthened during recent years.minorityrights. Examples include the numerous International Labour Organisation (ILO) Conventions. Numerous bodies entitled to monitor the implementation of these instruments have been established. Procedures” available for download at website) UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons belonging to National or Ethnic. Religious and Linguistic Minorities (available for download at www. the „UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons Belonging to National or Ethnic. and as such they are particularly vulnerable to changes in the local biophysical sphere.
6 Operator CSR initiatives The later years have marked a strong increase in expectations of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) among private sector operators. at least in the post-construction phases. CSR is increasingly prioritised and communicated as a core element of large multinationals‟ key strategies. One way of ensuring that the power over key infrastructure is kept within local authorities could be schemes where funding and / or development costs are carried by the operator. Reference Sources: World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) www. CRS initiatives can span from philanthropic support of projects far from the company‟s own operations.Environmental Manual. in cases where multiple operators compete for licences to operate in a new area. whilst administration and ownership is placed with local municipalities. There might in the end be an issue of power distribution in the local area. Ideally a dialogue between local authorities and relevant operators should be established from the very outset. roads and health infrastructure may also be put forward as a way to gain local governmental support. there is also an element of letting what is normally seen as key government responsibilities too much into the hands of commercial agents.3.DRAFT January 21 2009 8. where exploration projects will typically have significant impact on local communities and may involve substantial resettlement schemes. Company-funded schools. e. through to extensive social schemes developed around highimpact commercial projects. Examples of the latter are often seen in commodity industries such as petroleum. Although company CSR initiatives may often be both thorough and well-managed.org Date : 2009-01-21 Page 47 .g. particularly so for companies in exposed sectors including oil and gas.wbcsd. where the interface between private CSR initiatives and local governmental involvement is clearly defined.
BP Group Practice Environmental Requirements for new projects. Best available techniques to reduce emissions from refineries. Guidelines for waste management with special focus on areas with limited infrastructure. 413. World Bank 1996.Environmental Manual. Safety and Environmental Management Systems. 5 June 2008 Environmental Management in oil and gas exploration and production. 99/01.36/210. 2008 E&P Forum /UNEP. 2007 E&P Forum. 1992 Date : 2009-01-21 Page 48 . Jan C. Editors. OfD. Report by the Working Group on Climate Measures under the OfD Initiative. 6/03. Joint E&P Forum /UNEP Technical Publication. Strategic Environmental Assessment. 1997 World Bank. 1992. and David Pritchard. An overview of issues and management approaches. 1994 Therivel et al. Environmentally sustainable development studies and monographs. Donna Heaney. 2003 CONCAWE. CONCAWE report no. 1997 Guidelines for Integrated Coastal Zone Management. Elizabeth Wilson. OGP A guide for reduction and disposal of waste from oil refineries and marketing installations. Report No. Stewart Thompson. CONCAWE document no. E&P FORUM Guidelines for the Development and Application of Health. Report No. Post and Carl G. 2008 CONCAWE. July 1994 Thérivel. Lundin. 1996 OGP. 6. no. Riki. September 2008. 9. London: Earthscan.DRAFT January 21 2009 9 REFERENCES Climate Change and the Oil for Development Initiative. 1999 BP.
o0o - .APPENDIX 1 GLOBAL AGREEMENTS AND CONVENTIONS .
Overview of agreements.SKAL REVIDERES PÅ BAGRUNN AV INPUT FRA MD/SFT Global agreements and conventions Air United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna convention) International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) Fresh water sources Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (ECE Water Convention) Waste Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention Convention on the ban of the import into Africa and the control of transboundary movements and management of hazardous wastes within Africa (Bamako convention. not yet in force) Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) Regional and bilateral agreements Convention on liability and compensation for damage in connection with the carriage of hazardous and noxious substances by sea (HNS) Hazardous substances/chemicals Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPconvention) Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Rotterdam convention) Sea United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London convention) and the 1996 Protocol thereto Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention) International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) (not in force) International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness. management and development of the marine and coastal environment of the Eastern African Region (Nairobi convention) Kuwait regional convention for co-operation on the protection of the marine environment from pollution (Kuwait convention) Convention for Co-operation in the protection and sustainable development of the marine and coastal environment in the North-East Pacific (Antigua Convention) Convention for the protection and development of the marine environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena convention) Convention for the protection of the marine environment and coastal zone of the South-East Pacific (Lima convention) . and Co-operation (OPRC) Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR convention) Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea (Helsinki convention) Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution (Barcelona convention) Convention on the protection of the Black Sea against Pollution (Bucharest convention) Agreement for cooperation in dealing with pollution of the North Sea by oil and other harmful substances (Bonn Agreement) Convention for Co-operation in the protection and development of the marine and coastal environment of the West and central African Region (Abidjan convention) Convention for the protection. Response.
The Kyoto protocol follows up the work of the convention.org/ozone/montreal. The Montreal protocol follows up the work of the convention.unep. and has taken measures leading to total elimination of global emission of ozone-depleting substances. http://unfccc. and technical fields.Convention for the protection of the marine environment and coastal zone of the South Pacific (Noumea convention) Biodiversity Convention of Biological Diversity Convention on Migratory Species The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands The UN Convention to Combat Desertification Others Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents Convention on the environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context (ESPOO) Convention on Access to Information. Public participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Århus convention) Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) The European Landscape Convention Air United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The objectives of the convention are to stabilize greenhouse-gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.org/Treaties_and_Ratification/2A_vienna_convention.pdf Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (Vienna convention) The objectives of the Convention are: to protect human health and the environment against adverse effects resulting or likely to result from human activities which modify or are likely to modify the ozone layer. and to exchange information in the legal. within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change. For more details about the convention.asp http://www.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng. .shtml International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) The protocol of 1978 relating to the convention also deals with prevention of air pollution from ships. to co-operate in scientific research and systematic observations.unep. and commits the developed countries to stabilize the green house gas emissions. see under sea section. to adopt agreed measures to control human activities found to have adverse effects on the ozone layer. http://ozone. scientific. and to ensure that food production is not threatened to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.
The Convention governing all aspects of ocean space. transfer of technology and the settlement of disputes relating to ocean matters. The 1996 Protocol to the Convention entered into force in 2006 and thus replaced and modernized the Convention as between Protocol parties. http://www. http://www.asp?topic_id=1488 .org/entri/texts/pollution.from. to minimize the amount of oil which could be released accidentally in collisions or strandings by ships.londonconvention.un. to damage amenities.org/ Convention on the Law of the Non-navigational Uses of International Watercourses The convention applies to uses of international watercourses and of their waters for purposes other than navigation and to measures of protection. or to interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea. chemicals.imo. environmental control. the requirement of a specific permit prior to dumping of others.1973.htm International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) The objectives of the convention are to eliminate pollution of the sea by oil.un. including also fixed or floating platforms. Under the Protocol all dumping is prohibited.ciesin. http://www. economic and commercial activities.htm Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London convention) and the 1996 Protocol thereto The objectives of the convention are to prevent indiscriminate disposal at sea of wastes liable to create hazards to human health.html International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships (AFS Convention) The International convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships prohibits the use of harmful organotins in anti-fouling paints used on ships and establishes a mechanism to prevent the potential future use of other harmful substances in anti-fouling systems.org/Depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_convention.ships. to harm living resources and marine life. preservation and management related to the uses of those watercourses and their waters. to improve further the prevention and control of marine pollution from ships.Sea United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) The convention lays down a comprehensive regime of law and order in the world's oceans and seas establishing rules governing all uses of the oceans and their resources.org/law/ilc/texts/nnavfra. http://www. such as delimitation.org/home. particularly oil-tankers. and other harmful substances which might be discharged in the course of operations. The protocol of 1978 relating to the convention also deals with prevention of air pollution from ships. except for acceptable wastes on the so-called "reverse list". and the demand for a general permit for the rest. http://sedac. marine scientific research. The fundamental principle of the Convention is the prohibition of dumping of certain wastes.
unece. and to provide for mutual assistance and co-operation between States for these aims. control. in particular by strict application of the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) and MARPOL 73/78. and related ecosystems. Response. http://www. http://www. and reduce the releases of hazardous. http://www.org/env/water Waste Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel Convention) The goal of the Basel convention is the environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes. acidifying. http://www. To this end. in accordance with the precautionary principle. including the marine environment.org/home. to advance the adoption of adequate response measures in the event that an oil-pollution incident does occur. the convention pursues three key objectives to reduce transboundary movements of hazardous wastes to a minimum. . It has a protocol on water and health. representing 35 per cent of world merchant shipping tonnage. and to minimize their generation.imo. both surface waters and groundwaters. minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms and pathogens through the control and management of ships' ballast water and sediments. to prevent.International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments (BWM Convention) (not in force) The objective of the Convention is to prevent. and Co-operation (OPRC) The objectives of the convention are to prevent marine pollution incidents by oil.int/ Convention on liability and compensation for damage in connection with the carriage of hazardous and noxious substances by sea (HNS) . and to promote public information and public participation in relevant decision-making processes.basel. The Convention was adopted in 2004 and will enter into force 12 months after ratification by 30 States.org Fresh water resources Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (ECE Water Convention) The objectives of the convention are to strengthen national and international actions aimed at the protection and ecologically sound management of transboundary waters.asp?topic_id=1488 International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness. and eutrophying substances into the aquatic environment.imo. to dispose of these wastes as close as possible to where they are generated.
become widely distributed geographically. prompt and effective compensation for loss or damage arising in connection with the carriage of HNS on sea-going ships. In implementing the convention.pops.int/ Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (Rotterdam convention) The objectives of the convention are to promote shared responsibility and cooperative efforts in the international trade of certain hazardous chemicals in order to protect human health and the environment from potential harm.org/ The UN Convention to Combat Desertification http://www.int/ Convention on Migratory Species http://www.cms.cbd. POPs are chemicals that remain intact in the environment for long periods.uio.ramsar.pic. accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms and are toxic to humans and wildlife.int/ Biodiversity Convention of Biological Diversity http://www. Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of 12 of the most dangerous POPs into the environment. http://folk. http://www. and to contribute to their environmentally sound use by facilitating information exchange about their characteristics by providing for a national decision-making process on their import and export.html The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands http://www.no/erikro/WWW/HNS/hns.unccd. http://www.int/index.int/ Others .html#conv Hazardous substances/chemicals Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP-convention) The objective of the convention is to protect human health and the environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs).The main objective of the HNS convention is to provide adequate.
to support the development of anticipatory policies and of measures preventing. in particular those with a transboundary dimension. mitigating. exchange of information and exchange of technology in the area of prevention of. http://www. to promote environmentally sound and sustainable development. and to international cooperation concerning mutual assistance. and monitoring significant adverse environmental impacts.unece.unece.unwcw. public participation in decision making. consultation. to provide for notification and consultation among states concerned on all major projects under consideration that are likely to cause significant adverse environmental impact across boundaries. and to promote public information and public participation in relevant decision-making processes. preparedness for and response to industrial accidents. research and development. Parties develop policies and strategies to combat the discharge of air pollutants through exchanges of information.org/env/eia/eia. http://www.Convention on the Transboundary Effects of Industrial Accidents The convention shall apply to the prevention of preparedness for and response to industrial accidents capable of causing transboundary effects.htm Convention on the environmental impact assessment in a transboundary context (ESPOO) The objectives of the convention are to enhance international co-operation in assessing environmental impacts. including the effects of such accidents caused by natural disasters. The Convention has been extended by eight protocols that identify specific measures to be taken by Parties to cut their emissions of air pollutants. and access to justice in environmental matters in order to contribute to the protection of the right of every person of present and future generations to live in an environment adequate to his or her health and well-being.htm Convention on Access to Information. gradually reduce and prevent air pollution including long-range transboundary air pollution.org/env/teia/text. http://www. Public participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Århus convention) The objectives of this convention is to guarantee the rights of access to information. to promote measures taken at an early planning stage of proposed activities aimed at preventing potentially harmful environmental impacts. Regional and bi-lateral Air Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP) The aim of the Convention is that Parties shall endeavour to limit and.org/env/lrtap/ . and to strive towards convergence of relevant national policies and practices.unece. as far as possible.org/env/pp/ a. http://www. research and monitoring.
and pollution from land-based sources. combat and. http://www.blackseacommission. reduce and control the pollution in the Black Sea in order to protect and preserve the marine environment and to provide legal framework for co-operation and concerted actions. dumping of waste. work together in order to combat pollution from maritime .ospar.org/eng/html/welcome. eliminate pollution in this area.htm Agreement for cooperation in dealing with pollution of the North Sea by oil and other harmful substances (Bonn Agreement) The Bonn Agreement is the mechanism by which the North Sea States.org/OfficialDocuments/Convention_iframe.eu/scadplus/leg/en/lvb/l28084.html Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea (Helsinki convention) The aim of the convention is to protect the Baltic marine environment from all sources of pollution. as far as possible. pollution from ships.Sea Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic (OSPAR convention) The 1992 OSPAR Convention is the current instrument guiding international cooperation on the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic. http://europa.helcom. Particular attention is given to four types of pollution: pollution caused by dumping from ships and aircraft. The convention has three protocols: the control of land-based sources of pollution.fi/press_office/en_GB/pressroom/ Convention for the protection of the Mediterranean Sea against pollution (Barcelona convention) The aim of the convention is to protect and improve the Mediterranean marine environment in order to contribute to sustainable development in the area and to prevent. The convention covers the whole of the Baltic Sea area. http://www. Offshore Oil and Gas Industry. Hazardous Substances. and the European Community. Eutrophication.htm Convention on the protection of the Black Sea against Pollution (Bucharest convention) The aim of the convention is to prevent. abate. including inland waters as well as the water of the sea itself and the sea-bed. pollution resulting from exploration and exploitation of the continental shelf and the seabed and its subsoil. Measures are also taken in the whole catchments area of the Baltic Sea to reduce land-based pollution. Radioactive Substances and Monitoring and Assessment. The work applies the ecosystem approach to the management of human activities and is organised under six strategies: Protection and Conservation of Marine Biodiversity and Ecosystems. It combined and up-dated the 1972 Oslo Convention on dumping waste at sea and the 1974 Paris Convention on land-based sources of marine pollution. http://www. and joint action in the case of accidents.
org/cartagena-convention/cartagenaconvention/plonearticle. reducing and controlling pollution from ships.1978. co-ordination and collaborative actions.bonnagreement. and to carry out surveillance in this regard. The Convention and its protocol concern cooperating in combating pollution in cases of emergency. http://sedac.org/AbidjanConvention/COP_8/index. to establish objectives.unep. chronic pollution from ships and offshore installations.unep.org/eng/html/welcome.ch/regionalseas/main/nep/nepconve. developing an integrated management approach to the use of the use of the marine environment etc.html Convention for the protection and development of the marine environment of the Wider Caribbean Region (Cartagena convention) The convention requires adoption of measures aimed at preventing. The convention provides a mechanism for regional cooperation.ciesin.pollution. abate and combat pollution of the marine environment by co-operation. The Antigua Convention sets forth the legal obligations and establishes the cooperative mechanisms necessary for the long term conservation and sustainable use of the highly migratory fish stocks of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. management and development of the marine and coastal environment of the Eastern African Region (Nairobi convention) The aim of the convention is to prevent pollution of the coastal environment from activities.marine. http://www.2793893381 . http://www.asp Convention for the protection.org/entri/texts/kuwait.html Convention for Co-operation in the protection and development of the marine and coastal environment of the West and central African Region (Abidjan convention) The aim of the convention is protection and development of the marine and coastal environment of the West and Central African Region.unep.html Convention for Co-operation in the protection and sustainable development of the marine and coastal environment in the North-East Pacific (Antigua Convention) The aim of the convention is to protect and preserve the marine and coastal environment of the Northeast Pacific against all kinds and sources of environmental pollution and degradation. pollution caused by dumping. http://www. pollution from seabed activities and airborne pollution.2005-10-04. and to promote sustainable development and management of marine and coastal area. http://www.org/NairobiConvention/ Kuwait regional convention for co-operation on the protection of the marine environment from pollution (Kuwait convention) The aim of the convention is to prevent. The convention is supplemented by three protocols. http://www. policies and legislation for the protection of the marine environment.unep.disasters.cep.
org/entri/texts/acrc/bamako.coe.asp The European Landscape Convention http://www.pacific. The Convention has two protocols: protocol for the prevention of pollution by dumping. http://cc.com/cache.asp .txt. and protocol concerning co-operation in combating pollution emergencies. not yet in force) The aim of the convention is to ban the import into Africa and the control of transboundary movement and management of hazardous wastes within Africa.coastal. http://sedac. http://sedac. html Convention for the protection of the marine environment and coastal zone of the South Pacific (Noumea convention) The aim of the convention is to prevent.ciesin.ciesin.east.1981.msnscache.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/conventions/bern/default_en.coe. reduce and control pollution from any source and to ensure sound environmental management and development of natural resources.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/Conventions/Landscape/default_en.org/entri/texts/marine.Convention for the protection of the marine environment and coastal zone of the South-East Pacific (Lima convention) The objective of the convention is to protect the marine environment and coastal zones of the South-East Pacific against all types and sources of pollution.html Biodiversity Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention) http://www.south.o0o - .environment.aspx?q=72732588134154&andmkt=nbNO&andlang=nb-NO&andw=1e108d79&andFORM=CVRE2 Waste Convention on the ban of the import into Africa and the control of transboundary movements and management of hazardous wastes within Africa (Bamako convention.
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