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Flow Assurance and Multiphase p flow part II
Prof. Rune W. Time Department of Petroleum Engineering University of Stavanger
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger – May 31st, 2011
O li Outline and d time i schedule h d l
8.30 – 9.15
Flow regimes and impact on phase slippage, fluid concentrations and pressure drop in pipelines
9.25 – 10.15 Hydrates, wax and asphaltenes 10.25 -11.00 Multiphase flow – influence from interfaces, compression effects and waves
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
Hydrates, wax and asphaltenes
+ Scale, Emulsions and Erosion
Seminar at Aker Solutions, Stavanger - May31st, 2011
Products: • • • • • • • Subsea multiphase meters and pumps Long-lasting multiphase chokes Mobile multi-test unit and total fluid management procedures N New industry indust standard st nd d multiph multiphase s fl flow simul simulator t Increased c-steel pipeline applicability (NORSOK) Leading edge hydrate mitigation procedures Heated pipeline concepts for hydrate and wax control 1995: A dedicated joint R&D programme between Statoil.May31st. 2011 4 . Saga and Hydro (SSH) launched in 1995 with objective to improve the methodology for characterisation of dispersed multiphase systems and technical ability to transport and effectively separate them. Seminar at Aker Solutions. Summary “Cost savings through Multiphase Solutions”.Flow assurance projects – Norway 1993-1997: 1993 1997: Statoils St t ils Multiphase Multiph s Technology T chn l Development D l pm nt Programme 1993-97. Stavanger .
heterogeneous and some times even difficult to discrimate at first sight. Stavanger . 2011 . sight 5 Seminar at Aker Solutions.Flow assurance and precipitation of solids • • • • Hydrates: Ice substance W : Paraffine P ffi t lli Wax: wax crystallic Asphaltenes: Aromatic solids Scale: Wall deposited heavy soluble mineral deposits In production oil systems very complex.May31st.
htm http://tigger. Stavanger . Mercaptans are the most odoriferous substances known to mankind and are the substances b t f found d in i Skunk Sk k spray and d the th chemicals used to odorize natural gas.edu/~mansoori/HOD_html also called thiols or organic sulfides 6 Seminar at Aker Solutions.com/tragedy.May31st. asphaltenes and more ….uic. 2011 . but in extremely low parts-per-billion concentrations. http://www.Wax.spentcaustic.
Phase transitions 7 .
Relevant phase transitions for flow assurance 8 Seminar at Aker Solutions.May31st. Stavanger . 2011 .
2011 . Stavanger .May31st.The long and transforming travel of oil from reservoir to tank Hydrates Asphaltenes Wax 9 Seminar at Aker Solutions.
isobutane and inorganic molecules such as CO2 and H2S) H2S). propane.May31st. 1934) • Gas hydrates are crystalline materials where water molecules form a framework containing cavities which are occupied by individual gases or gas mixtures (e. ethane. but can it be made environmentally friendly? (Image: USGS) 10 . Stavanger . methane.g.HYDRATES (Hammerschmidt. Ref: SSH Multiphase program: 235 Appearance H d Hydrate gas loading l di Burning ice Seminar at Aker Solutions. 2011 "Ice that burns" could provide enormous amounts of energy.
versus ice: Hydrate (clathrate) structures http://www.cfm ”Cages” fit different molecules.uk/research /hydrate/hydrates_what.Experiments (inhibitors) Seminar at Aker Solutions.pet.ac.May31st.Chemical modelling (molecular dynamics) . How to know? .hw. 2011 11 . Stavanger .
The rig sank and oil leaked out from the well at a flow rate QL = 10 L/s.Hydrate flow assurance issues Hydrates? Gulf of Mexico – ”Horizon” 2010 (Exam problem . 2011 . Several methods have been proposed to prevent the oil from spreading on the sea surface.Multiphase course) Environmental issues Th d The drilling illi rig i “Horizon” “H i ” experienced i d a gas-kick ki k while hil d drilling illi for BP in the Gulf of Mexico on April 21st 2010.May31st. 12 Seminar at Aker Solutions. In one concept a large hood (funnel) as shown in the figure g above will be positioned p over the well head with a vertical pipeline system leading the oil up to the sea surface for collection. Stavanger .
T< 5°C. 13 Seminar at Aker Solutions.Hydrates and inhibitors • Hydrates form when light hydrocarbons meet with water. conc. • “Thermodynamic” inhibitors (methanol or glycols) require concentrations around 30-70 % wt of water. Use of conventional inhibitors requires large storage tanks on the platforms and costly systems for injection and possible regeneration.25°C at elevated pressures. < 0. Conventional methods of hydrate control typically costs NOK 300 million for a field.5 %wt . • New low concentration inhibitors (LCI). typically at T < 15° . 2011 .May31st. Stavanger .
preventing or delaying y g hydrate y formation. 14 Seminar at Aker Solutions. Stavanger .May31st. 2. but as transportable particles. 2011 .Low Concentration Inhibitors (hydrate control) LCIs work in two different manners manners: 1. Hydrate modifiers allow hydrates to form. The kinetic inhibitors impact on the kinetics.
Stavanger .May31st. 2011 .Other hydrate mitigation techniques Direct electrical D l l heating: h Åsgard field 15 Seminar at Aker Solutions.
Cold flow principle .Sintef Stable dry hydrate slurry forms Hydrate recycle loop Flow from wells Hydrate recycle ’crash cools’ the incoming warm well stream 16 Seminar at Aker Solutions.May31st. Stavanger . 2011 .
Stavanger . . Ref: 09.May31st.B.Not crystallised upon deposition from petroleum fluids and as a result. which is soluble in benzene and deposits. .High molecular weight polycyclic organic compounds with nitrogen. 1837) .Presence in petroleum fluids is defined as the fraction of petroleum fluid (or other carbonaceous sources such as coal). 2011 .Not easily separated into individual purified components or fractions. Ultimate analysis not very significant. by addition of a low-boiling paraffin solvent.IJOGCT.MANSOORI 17 Seminar at Aker Solutions.020203. in addition to carbon and hydrogen . oxygen and sulphur in their structure. Boussingault .and not easily quantitatively separated from them. since resins are strongly adsorbed by asphaltenes . its phase-transition from liquid to solid does not follow the same route as paraffin wax wax.Definition? Asphaltenes are: ASPHALTENES (J.
2011 .IJOGCT.May31st.Asphaltenes h l Benzene rings Cyclohexane rings Four different asphaltene structures separated from different natural petroleum fluids.020203.MANSOORI 18 Seminar at Aker Solutions. Ref: 09. Stavanger .
2011 .Asphaltenes .5 wt% asphaltenes (n-pentane insolubles).1-1.May31st.appearance Asphaltenes in North Sea crude oils North Sea crude oils generally contain 0. Asphaltenes may precipitate in pores near the well bore Asphaltenes in Ula separator 19 Seminar at Aker Solutions. Stavanger . There are crude oils which contain more than 10 wt% asphaltenes.
Asphaltene h l risk k in reservoirs Ref: SSH 20 Seminar at Aker Solutions. 2011 .May31st. Stavanger .
whereas the n-C5 material is a mixture of asphaltenes and resins. 2011 21 .pdf Figure 1. polarity and aromaticity — may separate into an asphaltene-rich phase in response to changes in pressure.edu/Petrophysics/group/intro-2-asphaltenes.nmt. Some would argue that the n-C7 asphaltenes are the “real” asphaltenes.May31st. Examples of the appearance (magnified about 15 times) of asphaltenes separated from Mars-P crude oil with an excess of (a) n pentane (n-C5) and (b) n-heptane (n-C7). Stavanger . The “high end materials” in molecular weight.Dried asphaltenes http://baervan. composition. Seminar at Aker Solutions. and/or temperature.
The first step toward predicting and avoiding any of these problems is knowing how to evaluate asphaltene stability. processing • Unstable asphaltenes can form separate phase that might plug the oil-bearing rock formation near a well. Heavier oil also contains intermediate components that are good asphaltene solvents whereas the light oil consist largely of paraffinic materials in which which. by definition. 2011 . transportation transportation. and processing processing. and solvent properties of the oil. stability 22 Seminar at Aker Solutions.May31st. Can also aggregate at oil/water interfaces. definition asphaltenes have very limited solubility. stabilizing water-in-oil emulsions or at oil/solid interfaces • Can alter surface wetting properties or accumulate and plug well bores and flow lines.When can asphaltenes cause problems? • Asphaltenes can cause problems in oil production production. • Light oils with small amounts of asphaltenes more likely to cause problems than heavy oil with larger amounts of material in the asphaltene fraction. Stavanger . • Asphaltenes in heavier oils can also cause problems if they are destabilized by mixing with another crude oil during transportation or by other steps in oil processing. • Stability depends on asphaltene properties. Amount of asphaltene in oil less important than asphaltene stability.
May31st. i. the oil cannot flow unless it is subjected to a certain minimum shearing g force (shaking ( g or pumping). i ht% What is cloud point? Cloud point is the first temperature where wax starts to precipitate when an oil is cooled. Cloud point is typically 30-40°C. It is often referred to as the wax appearance (or precipitation) temperature.e. p p g) Figure g 3 shows a typical yp relationship p between yield y stress and restart pressure. 2011 .WAX Definitions What is wax? Mainly long-chain alkanes with 20-50 carbon atoms. the oil has a yield shear stress. 23 Seminar at Aker Solutions. Below the pour point. but also contain minor quantities of b branched h d and d cyclic li hydrocarbons. but may be as high as 50-55°C. What is pour point and yield stress? Pour p point is the temperature p where sufficient amount of wax (about ( 4 weight g %) ) is precipitated to make the oil take on a solid-like (gel) structure. Stavanger . The pour point of North Sea oils may be as high as 35°C and lower than -50°C. h d b Typical T i l content t t in i North N th Sea S oils il is i 1-15 1 15 weight%. What is wax melting point? The melting point of wax deposits is normally about 20°C higher than the cloud point.
Wax plugs Figure 1 Part of a wax plug retrieved from the pig trap at Statfjord B after pigging the pipeline from Snorre B to Statfjord B (Sept (Sept.May31st. Stavanger . 2011 . 2001) 2006-Aberdeen-1-Tordal 24 Seminar at Aker Solutions.
In oil p production. Stavanger . 2011 . or it may stay as a stable emulsion. Solid particles like wax. Emulsions are stabilised by y components naturally y present in the oil. such as asphaltenes. Helseth 2001 What are emulsions? When water and oil are mixed. water is most often the dispersed p phase. scale and fines may also act as stabilising agents. p Depending p g on the supply of mixing energy.WATER-OIL EMULSIONS control Mixture versus emulsion Pipeline oil-water flow Ref: L. one of the phases is dispersed as droplets into the other. resins and organic acids.May31st. Amundsen: PhD Thesis 2011. 25 Seminar at Aker Solutions. the dispersion may separate readily into pure water and pure oil.
” 26 Seminar at Aker Solutions.W t Water-oil il emulsions l i “ A dedicated d di t d joint j i t R&D programme between b t St Statoil. t il S Saga and d H Hydro d (SSH) was launched in 1995 with the clear objective to improve the methodology for characterisation of dispersed multiphase systems and the technical ability to transport and effectively separate them …. Stavanger .May31st. 2011 .
Hydro – Multiphase Technology Program) Figure 7. 2011 . carbonates and hydrous oxides Ref: (Statoil. Scale may also be salts of iron like sulphides.Saga. Yuan: PhD thesis. 'tree leaves' crystals Ref: M. Heriot Watt. Sr/Ba=1000 What is oilfield scale? Oilfield scale is mainly deposits of inorganic salts such as carbonates and sulphates of barium.58 Crystals grown from 50:50 mixed North sea water and South Brae under static condition.6 SrSO4 crystals precipitated from brine of SrSO4 supersaturatiori=5 Figure 7. Stavanger .SCALE PRECIPITATION Figure 6. 1989 27 Seminar at Aker Solutions.4 Crystals precipitated from static brine BSS3 at 70°C.May31st. (Ba+Sr)/SO4=1. strontium or calcium.
g. The curves illustrate that calcite precipitation occurs by a positive feedback mechanism. This generally gives rise to carbonate scales.DP3 . deposition gives a new pressure drop. Stavanger . Two incompatible T i ibl waters (e. strontium and barium and sea water t rich i hi in sulphate) s lph t ) mix. DP2 . 2011 . ( formation water rich in calcium.This mix This generally gives rise to sulphate scales. formation water) may undergo change in conditions such as temperature or pressure. 28 Seminar at Aker Solutions. which in turn gives increasing deposition.Scale formation mechanisms Oilfield scale can form in one of two ways: Brine (e.g.May31st. pressure drop gives precipitation DP1 .
um. 2011 .net/york/ yk_theo_disc. stront strontium.May31st.htm 29 Seminar at Aker Solutions. precipitation and adherence of mineral deposits. What is chelation or sequestration? Chelation or sequestration q is the formation of soluble metal ion complexes in the presence of substances which normally would give a precipitate. Stavanger . Other techniques ? Electromagnetic Inhibition http://www. calc calcium um and iron. ron. bar um. What is a scale dissolver? Scale dissolvers are chemicals which dissolve scale by complexing with w th ions ons like l ke barium.Scale mitigation What is a scale inhibitor? Scale inhibitors are chemicals which stop or interfere with the nucleation.ed2000.
EROSION Erosion mechanisms and materials 30 Seminar at Aker Solutions. 2011 .May31st. Stavanger .
choke Multiphase M lti h metering device Erosion test Flow regime dependence! Flow direction 31 Seminar at Aker Solutions. Stavanger . 2011 .May31st. Services 1998 Inflow.Erosion test of “IPC” downhole instrumentation system Project with Aker Maritime Well Services.
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