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By Prof. C. Radhakrishna

CONTENTS Modelling of HVDC systems Representation for power – flow solution AC/DC interface at the HT bus Power Flow Analysis in AC/DC Systems Solution of DC Load Flow Solution of AC-DC power flow Comparison Between Simultaneous and Sequential Methods Control for enhancement of AC System Performance 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 2 .

Modelling of HVDC systems The representation of the dc systems requires consideration of the following: • Converter model • DC transmission line/network model • Interface between ac and dc systems • DC system controls model Representation of the converters is based on basic assumptions Representation for power – flow solution From the analysis presented earlier the converter equations may be summarized as follows: Vdo = 3√2 BTEac π Vd = Vdo Cos α – 3 Xc Id B π Vd = Vdo Cos γ .3 Xc Id B π Φ = Cos-1 (Vd / Vdo) 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 3 .

we will consider a two – terminal dc link. Id= direct voltage and current per pole For the purpose of illustration. respectively.P = Vd Id = Pac Q = P tan ϕ where Eac = RMS line–to-line voltage on HT bus T = transformer turns ratio B = no. Using the subscripts r and i to denote rectifier and inverter quantities. of bridges in series P = active power Q = reactive power Xc =ωLc =commutating reactance per bridge/phase Vd . the equation for a DC line having resistance RL is given by Vdr = Vdi + R L Id 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 4 .

AC/DC interface at the HT bus Figure. 8 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 5 .

Variables Pr . inverter on CEA control Mode 2: inverter on CC control.Qr. inverter on modified characteristic. 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 6 . The dependent and independent variables in the solution of DC equations depend on rectifier and inverter control modes. In mode1.AC/DC interface at the HT bus cont……… Here Eacr and Eaci are considered to be input quantities for the solution of dc system equations. The three possible modes of operation are: Mode 1: rectifier on CC control. rectifier on CIA control Mode 3: rectifier on CIA control. Pi and Qi are considered to be the outputs from the solution of the dc system equations. alternative inverter control functions are constant voltage control and constant-β control. They are known from the previous step in ac solution. They are used in the next iteration for solving the ac system equations.

10/17/2010 12:06 AM 7 .Power Flow Analysis in AC/DC Systems The computations are further simplified using fast decoupled load flow method in which the corrections to the bus voltage estimates are found from solving the following equations: ∆P/V = [B’] ∆ ϴ ∆Q/V = [B’’] ∆V where ∆Pi. While the modelling of DC systems for power flow is fairly standard. ∆Qi are mismatches of real and reactive powers at bus i. the solution methodology varies. The sequential or alternating method which does not require major changes in the software available for the power flow analysis of AC systems. B’ and B’’ are constant matrices of appropriate sizes and consist of elements that are related to the reactances of the elements of the network. ∆ϴ and ∆V are the correction vectors to bus angles and voltages magnitudes. is widely used.

α(γ) and T. The knowledge of the AC voltages allows the calculation of taps. The power and reactive power at each converter station are then obtained from the use of corresponding equations. Vd .Solution of DC Load Flow • • There are four basic variables per converter. currents at the remaining converters are specified. • • • Solution of AC-DC power flow The solution methodology for AC-DC power flow can be classified as • Simultaneous or unified • Sequential or alternating 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 8 . then it is possible to solve for the remaining variables (voltages at the current controlled converters and currents at the voltage controlled converters ). Id .the power factor is computed from the appropriate equations. Once this is done . If the voltages at all the converters that form tree branches (in addition to the conductances of the network) are specified.

• There are many variations of this approach 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 9 . • The AC system is solved to some degree of convergence using a simple model for the DC system based on its last solution. the AC and DC system equations are solved separately and sequentially. • The DC system is then solved using a simplified representation of the AC system. • In the second approach.Here x is the vector of dependent variables for DC system and ∆R is the vector of mismatches of DC system equations.

then there is no need for iteration between AC and DC solutions. constant angle model at every converter and the DC system as a constant active and reactive power source (or load) during the AC solution. • The initial calculations of P and Q at each converter are final and used for AC solution. • It is to be noted that if the taps are continuous and unlimited. 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 10 a) .Represent the AC system as a constant voltage. c) Represent the DC network as a P-Q load model with a Jacobian term contribution that will adjust the expected injection from DC system for variations in the converter bus AC voltages during AC solution. In this context. Q) is found to be satisfactory. • The voltages calculated from AC power flow are then used to calculate transformer taps. it may be mentioned that constant current type of load representation (rather than constant P. b) Represent the AC system by an uncoupled or coupled Thevenin’s equivalent model during DC solution.

Fig.If the taps are fixed or discrete and limited. The tolerance for the largest mismatch S1 and S2 are different and S2<S1. the power flow solution has to be carried out for the DC system to re-compute P and Q which is then used for the AC solution.9: Flow Chart of AC/DC Load Flow 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 11 .

• Isolation of system disturbance.Comparison between Simultaneous and Sequential Methods Control for enhancement of AC System Performance o The converters in effect appear to the AC systems as frequencyinsensitive load and this may contribute to negative damping of system swings. 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 12 . o Further. • Reactive power regulation and dynamic voltage support. the DC links may contribute to voltage collapse during swings by drawing excessive reactive power. • Frequency control of small isolated systems. • Improvement of transient stability. o Supplementary controls are therefore often required to exploit the controllability of DC links for enhancing the AC system dynamic performance. Following are the major reasons for using supplementary control of DC link: • Improvement of damping of ac system electromechanical oscillations.

Inc. voltage magnitude and angle. The modulating signals can be frequency. Padiyar: “HVDC Power Transmission Systems: Technology and System Interaction”.• • • The supplementary controls use signals derived from the AC systems to modulate the DC quantities. 1994.. REFERENCES [1] Prabha Kundur: “Power System Stability and control”. [2] K. 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 13 . The particular choice depends on the system characteristics and the desired results. The EPRI Power System Engineering Series. New Age International (P) Limited. Publishers. and line flows. 1996. McGraw-Hill. R.

THANK YOU 10/17/2010 12:06 AM 14 .

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