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By Thomas Knierim
Table Of Contents
Table Of Contents...........................................................................................................1 What Is Consciousness?.................................................................................................2 Timeline: Ancient Vie s Of !in"..................................................................................# Timeline: !e"ie$al Vie s of !in".................................................................................% Timeline: 1&th An" 1%th Centuries...............................................................................1' Timeline: 1(th An" 1)th Centuries...............................................................................1* Timeline: !in" In The 2'th Century...........................................................................1& The +uman Brain.........................................................................................................21 The Inner Wor,in-s Of The Brain...............................................................................2& The .uestion Of /ree Will............................................................................................*1 0onlocal Consciousness...............................................................................................*&
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What Is Consciousness?
What is min"? What is consciousness? There seems to be no sin-le ans er that e52lains the 2henomenon of min". The contem2orary $ie s of 2hiloso2hy6 2sycholo-y6 neuroscience6 an" cybernetics all come u2 ith "ifferent inter2retations of min" an" consciousness. It is a bit ironic that somethin- e claim to 2ossess is so har" to e52lain. Ob$iously min" cannot be an ob7ect of itself. Or can it? If e shoul" one "ay un"erstan" the chemical an" electrical 2rocesses in the brain com2letely6 oul" this e52lain min"? Woul" this un"erstan"in- account for all faculties inclu"in- intelli-ence6 consciousness6 emotion6 an" $olition? On the follo in- 2a-es e ill try to -i$e some 2ossible ans ers to this 8uestion. On the to2ic of consciousness6 the British 2sycholo-ist 9tuart 9utherlan" once rote: :Consciousness is a fascinatin- but elusi$e 2henomenon; it is im2ossible to s2ecify hat it is6 hat it "oes6 or hy it e$ol$e". 0othin- orth rea"in- has been ritten on it.< = +o2efully this on>t ,ee2 you from rea"in- on. Epistemology and psychology The in$esti-ation of min" is closely relate" to the fiel" of e2istemolo-y6 the 2art of 2hiloso2hy that "eals ith ,no le"-e an" hose 2rinci2al 8uestion is: :What can e ,no ?< ?2istemolo-y is not so much 2reoccu2ie" ith the 2rocess of accumulatin,no le"-e6 but ith the $ali"ity of ,no le"-e an" ho e can achie$e certainty about it. It inclu"es the branch of 2hiloso2hy that the ancients calle" lo-ic6 hich "eals ith lan-ua-e an" thou-ht. Bertran" @ussell once remar,e" tellin-ly that the theory of ,no le"-e is a 2ro"uct of "oubt. Thin-s seem to s2ea, in fa$our of @ussellAs $ie 1 most 2hiloso2hers fin" it easier to "etermine hat e cannot ,no rather than hat e can ,no . 4erha2s the theory of ,no le"-e shoul" then be calle" :theory of i-norance.< The other 8uestion about ,no le"-e is: :+o "o e ,no ?< This 8uestion 2ertains to the mechanics of sensation6 2erce2tion6 co-nition6 memory6 an" 2hysical brain 2rocesses. It also touches u2on lan-ua-e an" thou-ht6 but it ta,es a more scientific a22roach to these issues. The latter 8uestion is 2rimarily as,e" by 2sycholo-ists an" neuroscientists6 althou-h 2hiloso2hers recently too, a rene e" interest in the or,in-s of the brain. 9ince both a22roaches are beneficial in their o n ay6 e shall not limit oursel$es to a 2articular one. Defining mind On the surface6 the attem2t to "efine min" seems su2erfluous6 since it is so fun"amental to us. +o e$er6 the e52licit $erbalisation of an intuiti$e un"erstan"inof min" is fairly "ifficult6 because it re8uires us to transform the sub7ecti$e first= 2erson e52erience into an ob7ecti$e thir"=2erson "escri2tion. The American +erita-e Bictionary of the ?n-lish Can-ua-e "efines min" as follo s: :The collective conscious and unconscious processes in a sentient organism that direct and influence mental and physical behaviour.< This "efinition attributes min" to sentient or-anisms an" i"entifies it ith 2rocesses that control beha$iour.
!in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .thebi-$ie .com 4a-e 2
Accor"in- to the $ie of contem2orary science6 these are brain an" ner$e 2rocesses6 co-nition6 motor6 an" sensory 2rocesses. The faculties of mind The scientific "efinition is in a-reement ith the 2hysicalist $ie of min" that e8uates mental 2henomena ith neuronal acti$ity. The "efinition is also in a-reement ith the functionalist $ie of 2sycholo-y6 hich fre8uently "i$i"es min" into "istinct faculties Das sho n on the ri-htE an" then in$esti-ates those faculties in"i$i"ually. 9ome of these functions can be ma22e" to 2articular brain areas. Bi$i"in- min" into faculties in$ol$es a -reat "eal of abstraction6 because in reality there are no clear boun"aries bet een them. /or e5am2le6 the sim2le 2rocess of catchin- a ball in$ol$es sensation6 co-nition6 an" reasonin- 2rocesses ithout there bein- a clear se2aration bet een the sin-le actions of seein- the ball6 calculatin- its s2ee" an" an-le6 an" coor"inatin- bo"y mo$ements. Another more serious 2roblem is that the scientific "efinition ma,es no reference to conscious e52erience an" its sub7ecti$e 8ualities. It is not easy to see ho the e52erience of sensations an" feelin-s coul" be 2art of the 2hysical orl". /or e5am2le6 ho can emotions6 such as lo$e Daffection6 attractionE an" hate Da$ersion6 re2ulsionE hich e seem to share ith some animals6 be "escribe" in terms of 2hysical structures an" 2rocesses? Is the scientific definition viable in philosophy? 4erha2s it is necessary to as, hether science is ca2able of e52lainin- min" at all. Fnfortunately the scientific "efinition falls short of one im2ortant 8uality: s2irit. The scientific $ie is "ifficult to a22ly6 for instance6 in the conte5t of sociolo-y here e s2ea, of the mental 8ualities of a -rou2 or 2o2ulation Dthe nationAs min"6 -rou2 min"6 team s2iritE. It is also "ifficult to a22ly in the conte5t of reli-ion6 here min" an" s2irit are associate" ith transcen"ental conce2ts such as the immortal soul6 the orl" min"6 the holy s2irit6 etc. The materialist notion of min" is 2ossibly too limite" for a -eneral 2hiloso2hical "iscourse. It oul" be e5tremely "ifficult to "iscuss to2ics that in$ol$e meta2hysical6 ontolo-ical6 an" 2henomenolo-ical accounts of min". A 2urely materialist un"erstan"in- of min" oul" sim2ly e$a"e these to2ics. !ore e5otic fiel"s of ,no le"-e6 such as theolo-y6 reli-ion6 an" 2ara2sycholo-y "o not harmonise ith the scientific $ie of min" either. +ence6 e shall 2ost2one further attem2ts to "efine min" an" as yet allo the lar-est 2ossible meanin- of the or"6 2erha2s in the sense of the German or" :Geist<6 hich means both min" an" s2irit.
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Philosophy Of Mind The 2hiloso2hy of min" is the branch of 2hiloso2hy that "eals ith min" an" consciousness. It falls outsi"e the four classical branches6 meta2hysics6 e2istemolo-y6 ethics6 an" aesthetics6 but it relates es2ecially to the first t o. The ancients "i" not see it as a se2arate "isci2line6 althou-h the systematic in$esti-ation of certain as2ects of min" be-an ith the stu"y of reason in 4lato an" Aristotle. Burin- the mi""le a-es6 the 2hiloso2hy of min" lin-ere" ithin the confines of Christian e2istemolo-y. Im2ortant theoretical a"$ances be-an to ta,e sha2e only in the 1%th century ith Bescartes an" +obbes. The 2hiloso2hy of min" flourishe" "urin- the late 1(th an" 1)th century D+e-el6 Bar in6 Wun"t6 HamesE 7ust before it s2a ne" 2sycholo-y6 hile the 2hiloso2hical currents of the time flo e" into the schools of 2henomenolo-y an" e5istentialism. 4sycholo-y has rule" the fiel" for some time "urin- the 2'th century6 ho e$er6 the 2hiloso2hy of min" e52erience" a small renaissance lately "ue to the a22earance of com2uter technolo-y an" other ne "isci2lines such as cybernetics an" the neurosciences. These "e$elo2ments brou-ht u2 the 8uestion hether a machine can emulate min" an" hether it can become conscious. The follo in- 2a-es contain a historical abstract in the timeline section. A""itional sections that "iscuss 2hiloso2hy of min"6 2sycholo-y6 an" neuroscience in some more "etail are currently in 2re2aration.
Timeline Ancient !ie"s Of Mind
##$ %C & Pythago'as & the mathematical mind( 4ytha-oras DI(2=I'' BCE su--este" that matter an" min" are mystically connecte". Co-ic6 numbers6 s2irit6 an" soul ere e52ressions of the same reality. +e thou-ht the soul to be immortal an" an"erin- on a 2ath of transmi-ration from one bo"y to another. The 4ytha-oreans ha" a -eometrical conce2tion of the orl". They belie$e" that min" is attune" to the 2rocesses of nature6 in 2articular to the la s of mathematics. !athematics is seen as the true essence of min". )#$ %C & Ana*ago'as & the unive'sal intelligence( Ana5a-oras DI''=#2( BCE intro"uce" the conce2t of J0ousJ Dmin"6 reasonE into Gree, 2hiloso2hy. 0ous6 the eternal min"6 transforms chaos into or"er an" throu-h it the material orl" comes into bein-. The 2rimor"ial One 2ro"uces forms of multi2licity throu-h "ichotomisation. This 2rocess is ori-inate" an" controlle" by the 2o er of min"6 or 0ous. Accor"in- to Ana5a-oras6 min" is infinite an" self= or-aniKin-. It is not intermi5e" ith anythin-6 but 2ure in its bein-. )#$ %C & Alcmaeon & the dissected b'ain( The Gree, 2hysician Alcmaeon Daroun" #I' BCE conclu"e" from his stu"ies of "issection that the brain is the centre of intelli-ence. In "oinso6 he contra"icte" the mainstream theory of his time6 hich hel" that the heart is the centre of intelli-ence an" seat of the soul. Alcmaeon also
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4lato hel" that all forms of the 2hysical orl" are merely instances of 2erfect forms in an i"eal orl". It contains in itself all actual tables of the 2hysical orl".J )$$ %C & Plato & ideal fo'ms and 'eason( 4lato D#2(=*#% BCE 2lays an im2ortant role in the history of e2istemolo-y.soul.bein-s an" are thus inse2arable. bile6 yello bile6 2hle-m6 an" san-uine6 hich he e8uate" ith the four elements.com 4a-e I .. 4lato "i$i"e" the human min" into three 2arts: the rational 2art6 the ill6 an" the a22etites.no le"-e as a hi-her form of a areness6 because it is -aine" from reason rather than from sense e52erience.. If the rational element is not "e$elo2e"6 the in"i$i"ual beha$es immorally6 hence immorality is a conse8uence of i-norance. +i22ocrates thou-ht that "isease arises from an imbalance of these four humours an" that 2eo2le can be heale" by restorin. the $e-etati$e soul 2ossesse" by 2lants in that !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . +i22ocrates correctly i"entifie" e2ile2sy as a brain "isor"er. /urthermore6 4lato "istin-uishe" bet een t o .. .humour as also thou-ht to be res2onsible for the tem2erament Dblac.6 see6 hear6 an" "istin-uish the u-ly from the beautiful6 the ba" from the -oo"6 the 2leasant from the un2leasant..no le"-e. In contrast6 he "escribe" . e. +is theory of i"eas6 hich he 2resente" in the famous ca$e alle-ory6 can be seen as a 2recursor of both me"ie$al realism an" later i"ealism.their 2ro2er 2ro2ortions.no that from the brain6 an" from the brain only6 arise our 2leasures6 7oys6 lau-hter an" 7ests6 as ell as our sorro s6 2ains6 -rie$ances6 an" tears.no le"-e of i"eas6 or su2reme forms6 2ro$i"es intellectual an" ethical -ui"ance for humans. I"eally the ill su22orts the rational element6 hich in turn controls the a22etites. +e in$ente" the notion of the four humours6 blac. bile L melancholy6 yello bile L bitterness an" irascibility6 2hle-m L e8uanimity6 an" slu--ishness6 san-uine L 2assionate an" cheerfulE. Aristotle 2ro2ose" three forms of soul: 1. +e sai" that all assertions about the outsi"e orl" are necessarily base" on sense e52erience6 an" are therefore only o2inions. +e hel" that not only thou-ht an" reason6 but also feelin-s an" moo"s ori-inate in the brain: J!en ou-ht to . 4lato thou-ht that 2erfect forms ha$e an actual meta2hysical e5istence. In contrast to 4lato6 ho belie$e" that bo"y an" soul are t o "ifferent entities6 he hel" that min" an" bo"y are intert ine" in all li$in.in"s of conscious thou-ht: o2inion an" . The . Throu-h it. The i"ea of a table is the su2reme form of table of hich there is only one.thebi-$ie .thin.surmise" that o2tic ner$es con"uct li-ht from the eye to the brain an" that the eye itself contains li-ht. )$$ %C & +ippoc'ates & the fou' humou's( +i22ocrates D#&'=*%% BCE6 the foun"er of Western me"icine6 is famous for the +i22ocratic oath. Gro th6 2ur2ose an" "irection are therefore built into nature.#$ %C & A'istotle & the th'ee souls( Aristotle D*(#=*22 BCE e8uate" min" ith reason an" thou-ht it to be a 2ro2erty of the li$in. The "ominatin.
they -ro an" "ecay an" en7oy nutriment6 but they "o not ha$e motion an" sensation6 2. /or Galen6 the rational soul as "i$i"e" into the faculties of ima-ination6 reason6 an" memory. +e "istin-uishe" the cerebrum an" cerebellum an" name" the brain as the source of thou-ht.#$ AD & /alen & the g'eat /'ee0 docto'( Galen D12)=1)) ABE as the most influential 2hysician of anti8uity6 after +i22ocrates. 4yrrho "e$elo2e" sce2ticism into a more elaborate an" consistent system of thou-ht. +e e52an"e" +ero2hilusAs theory of motor an" sensory ner$es by a""inthe thesis that all ner$es are connecte" to an" controlle" by the brain.to e$ery or-an of the bo"y: an artery6 a $ein6 an" a ner$e.bet een sensory an" motor ner$es an" by 2erformin.es human bein-s the only 2ossessor of all three ty2es. an" he "emonstrate" that the brain controls motion an" $oice. +e influence" me"icine 2rofoun"ly until about the 1%th century. . ?ach hi-her form 2ossesses in full the attributes of the lo er souls6 hich ma. -#$ %C & E'asist'atus & the b'ain and the vital spi'it( ?rasistratus D*''=2&' BCE as an anatomist ho or.the 2neuma Dthe $ital s2iritE6 hich he thou-ht as flo in.s formerly 2resume"E. +ero2hilus also ma"e the first contribution to the fiel" of neuroscience by "istin-uishin. the li$er as the seat of the $e-etati$e soul6 the heart as the seat of the animal soul6 an" the brain as the seat of the rational soul. anatomist +ero2hilus D**I=2(' BCE stu"ie" the human brain an" reco-nise" it as the centre of the ner$ous system. Because the !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . Aristotle also 2ro2ose" a theory of memory surmisin.$$ %C & +e'ophilus & the beginning of neu'oscience( The Gree.from the heart u2 to the brain an" then "o n to the or-ans. The i"ea that no 2ersonAs 7u"-ment is more correct than that of another -oes bac. +e locate" these three faculties in the $entricles of the brain. Therefore6 there is no ob7ecti$e . Galen synthesise" the thou-ht of 4ytha-oras6 4lato an" Aristotle an" built u2on the "isco$eries of +i22ocrates an" ?rasistratus. to the first 9o2hist6 4rota-oras6 ho li$e" aroun" #I' BC. the animal soul hich besto s animals ith motion an" sensation6 an" *. ?rasistratus sa the brain as a mechanism for "istillin.thebi-$ie .that the 2rocesses in$ol$e" in short term memory Dimme"iate recallE "iffer from those in$ol$e" in lon-=term memory. +e foun" three tubular structures -oin.e" one century after Aristotle. .no le"-e6 but only o2inion.com 4a-e & . +e 2ro$e" that the arteries carry bloo" instea" of air Das the Gree. Galen further assi-ne" the three lar-est or-ans of the bo"y to be the seat of the three Aristotelian souls.the most thorou-h stu"y of brain anatomy attem2te" until the @enaissance. school of sce2ticism6 4yrrho D*&'=2%2E6 state" that human min" is inca2able of attainin. the rational soul hich is the conscious an" intellectual soul 2eculiar to man.true .no le"-e of anythin-6 because ultimate reality is incom2rehensible.$$ %C & Py''ho & scepticism as a state of mind( The foun"er of the Gree. The best attitu"e one can "e$elo2 in $ie of this fact6 is to sus2en" any 7u"-ment com2letely6 to free oneself from 2assions6 an" to calm oneAs min". .
Timeline Medieval !ie"s of Mind 2#$ & 3ohn 1cotus & the fla"ed human mind( Hohn 9cotus ?riu-ena D(1'=ca.function of the brain as to "istribute animal s2irit throu-hout the bo"y6 to Galen it seeme" that the flui" fille" $entricles 2erform this function an" thus "isre-ar"e" the hite an" -rey matter surroun"in. The brain then se2arates the animal s2irit out an" stores it in the $entricles6 from here it is "istribute" throu-hout the bo"y $ia the ner$es. -#$ AD & Plotinus & the emanation of mind f'om the Absolute( 4lotinus D2'#=2%' ABE re7ecte" AristotleAs notion of the soul not beinable to e5ist ithout the bo"y. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .no le"-e is ac8uire" on account of "i$ine illumination. In s2ite of the sim2licity of this i"ea6 or 2erha2s "ue to it6 Au-ustine ha" a tremen"ous influence on the 2hiloso2hers an" theolo-ians of the !i""le A-es.(%IE belie$e" that human reason is fla e" on account of the ori-inal sin. +e ar-ue" as follo s: The sha2e of an ob7ect such as a tree can only be seen by the eye6 because the ob7ect is bathe" in li-ht. +uman min"6 animal min"6 $e-etati$e min"6 an" finally matter all emanate from the orl" s2irit.si5 centuries. )$$ AD & 1t( Augustine & the illuminated mind( The church father 9t.no le"-e6 but the con"ition un"er hich min" is able to reco-nise the 8uality of truth. +e thou-ht that it as still ca2able of attainin. I"eas similar to those of Hohn 9cotus ere 2re"ominant in ?uro2e throu-hout the follo in.mainly on 4lato6 he sai" that min" is a 2risoner of the bo"y. Conse8uently6 the soul is the only abi"in.i"ea about min". This mechanism of circulatin. Accor"in. Buil"in.2neuma controls muscles6 or-ans6 an" all of the bo"yAs acti$ities. +e also re7ecte" 4latoAs theory of i"eas.reality of the human con"ition.the $entricles.to Au-ustine6 . It sur$i$es the "eath of the bo"y an" enters a series of transmi-ration from one bo"y to another. 4lotinus hel" that soul is the immortal 2art of min".no le"-e from sense 2erce2tion alone.to Galen6 the brain recei$es $ital s2irit D2neumaE from the heart6 hich is mi5e" into the san-uine humour Dbloo"E. Au-ustine D*I#=? ABE ha" an interestin. +e sai" that the human min" coul"nAt -ain . This li-ht is not so much the source of i"eas an" . Instea"6 accor"in.$isible creatures. The 9cri2tures -i$e "i$ine re$elation to human bein-s an" illuminate their ithere" min"s. They are "ifferent manifestations of one uni$ersal intelli-ence. 9imilarly the min" can only reco-nise truths6 such as the mathematical truth 1M1L26 because it is illuminate" by the li-ht of eternal reason.com 4a-e % . Net6 the only infallible truth6 ?riu-ena belie$e"6 as to be foun" in the 9cri2tures.to hich min" emanates ori-inally from the Absolute Bein-6 or the One6 an" then forms 0ous6 the uni$ersal intelli-ence6 from hich the orl" s2irit is forme" in turn. +o e$er6 as a 2hiloso2her6 he coul" not acce2t that human min" as entirely tarnishe". 4lotinus formulate" a theory of emanation accor"in.smaller truths by contem2latin.thebi-$ie .
e many other me"ie$al thin. The realists hel" that 4lato as ri-ht an" that the 4latonic forms DLi"eas or uni$ersalsE are real in the sense that they ha$e a meta2hysical e5istence in"e2en"ent of the concrete ob7ects that embo"y them. The latter 2osition is calle" nominalism6 because it hol"s that uni$ersals ha$e no ob7ecti$e reference other than their names.es an im2ression onto a56 min" acti$ely JscansJ 2hysical reality usin.on Aristotle6 thereby arri$in.is stri. The 9cholastics maintaine" that because the same Go" as the source of both reason an" Christian faith6 he coul" not contra"ict himself in these t o mo"es of thou-ht.-$$ & A4uinas & the 0no"e' is one "ith the 0no"n( 9t. Althou-h the o$erall -oal of the scholastic "iscussion as harmonisation6 it has to be note" that the o22osite as often the result. The 2roof -oes as follo s: 1. Thomas A8uinas D122I=12%#E o22ose" AnselmAs ontolo-ical 2roof an" 2ut for ar" his o n Jfi$e ays of .DGo"E must e5ist in reality6 not 7ust in the un"erstan"in-. The nominalists 7ust state" the o22osite6 namely that i"eals or uni$ersals "onAt e5ist for themsel$es6 but are only attributes of in"i$i"ual ob7ects.no le"-e6 but ith brin-in.faith an" reason by "ra in.in. +e "i" not contribute much to e2istemolo-y6 instea" he became famous for his ontolo-ical 2roof Dthe 2roof that Go" e5istsE6 hich im2lie" that the truth of meta2hysical statements6 such as the e5istence of Go"6 can be establishe" by reason. Instea" of forms Dob7ectsE ma.com 4a-e ( . 2.Gree.en or" DJflatus $ocisJ = @oscelinE. Anselm D1'**=11')E of Canterbury6 the foun"er of scholasticism6 as a Christian theolo-ian rather than a 2hiloso2her.ers6 9t. *.$#$ & Anselm & faith and 'eason the p'oven /od( Ci. AnselmAs ontolo-ical 2roof le" 2eo2le to belie$e fallaciously that the e5istence of Go" can be establishe" as a fact on account of reason.Go"J6 hich ere later inter2rete" as ontolo-ical 2roofs6 althou-h they ere not ori-inally inten"e" as such by A8uinas. This "is2ute as roote" in the 2hiloso2hy of 4lato. AnselmAs 2roof is thus 2erha2s e5em2lary for the "efects of me"ie$al thou-ht.ne facts6 or arri$in.the !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .at ne conclusions about min" an" 2erce2tion. . Althou-h the reasonin. Therefore6 the -reatest concei$able bein.thebi-$ie . The nominalists sai" that uni$ersals are only or"s an" ha$e no other reality than the soun" of the s2o. . It as refute" by the mon. @eal e5istence De5istence in realityE is -reater than e5istence merely in the un"erstan"in-.. 1cholasticism & philosophy as a handmaiden of theology( 9cholasticism6 the 2re"ominant 2hiloso2hical mo$ement of the !i""le A-es6 as not so much concerne" ith fin"in.im2ressions on the min" li. 4erha2s more im2ortantly6 A8uinas "e$elo2e" ne ays of harmoniKin. The term Go" is "efine" as the -reatest concei$able bein-.at ne . Gaunilo6 a contem2orary of Anselm6 an" later by Immanuel Kant.no in. A8uinas hel" that sense 2erce2tion is an acti$e 2rocess rather than 2assi$e recei$in-.at first6 its fallacy is rather ob$ious.no le"-e6 2articularly Aristotle6 into accor"ance ith Christian "octrines.the e5istin.e a seal ma.in. This became "istincti$ely e$i"ent in the "is2ute bet een conten"ers of nominalism an" realism6 ho hel" o22osite $ie s about the ori-in of forms an" or"s. To 2ut it briefly6 the scholastic -oal as to unify reason an" faith.
Accor"in. Hohn of Buns sai" that min" has the 2o er to form i"eas on its o n6 in"e2en"ently from life e52erience or from hat is ins2ire" by Go".that they are fun"amentally "ifferent as2ects of human min". +e hel" that bein. Instea"6 one 2ercei$es the thin-s "irectly an"6 therefore6 the 2sycholo-ical DinnerE an" 2hysical DouterE realities are i"entical.to A8uinas6 the 2rocess of 2erce2tion has no in"e2en"ent reality.thebi-$ie .or recei$in.. Ci.e 4lotinus an" ?riu-ena6 !eister ?c.hart su--este" to liberate oneself from the ob7ects of the orl" by -i$in.ham maintaine" that the beliefs of Christian 2hiloso2hers coul" not be 2ro$en throu-h 2hiloso2hical reasonin-6 but only throu-h "i$ine re$elation. Oc. Thus6 the intellect is ca2able of seein.no le"-e about an ob7ect by com2arin.a net or.sense or-ans. The -oal of human min" for ?c.to 0icolaus $on Cues D1#'1=1#&#E6 e arri$e at .ham sai" that morality is not base" on reason6 but on ill. A8uinas ma"e no s2ecial "istinction bet een sensation an" co-nition. 1*#)E6 asserte" that uni$ersals ha$e no substance outsi"e of the human min"6 hich he sou-ht to 2ro$e by . ?c. The same i"ea as 2re$iously e52resse" by 4lato an" 4lotinus. +ence6 accor"in. +e sa reason as inferior an" instea" stresse" the faculty of feelin-6 2articularly the feelin. 12(I=ca.-#$ & 3ohn of Duns the 1cot & a mind of its o"n( Hohn Buns 9cotus D12&&=1*'(E further e52an"e" the conce2t of the soul as the immortal 2art of human min".no er becomes one ith the . +e em2hasise" lo-ic an" metho"6 an" se2arate" faith from reason by sho in.)$$ & 5icolaus & the steps of 0no"ing( Accor"in.no le"-e are one.een lo-ical ar-ument.hart as to see.the forms throu-h 2erce2tion6 the .the human s2ecies. of connections bet een ob7ects6 but it is !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .u2 all attachments.no le"-e lies 2erha2s in the ele-ance of his ar-ument6 hich also a$oi"s the scholastic conflict of nominalism an" realism alto-ether.able= that by 2ercei$in-6 the 2ercei$er becomes one ith the 2ercei$e" form. .it ith other ob7ects an" "etermininthose 8ualities that "istin-uish it from other ob7ects. +e further sai" =an" this is remar. . Oc.e A8uinas6 he hel" that sense 2erce2tion is not 2urely 2assi$e.ham Dca.no le"-e of 2hysical forms consists of ac8uirin. mystic union ith Go"..to the inner reality of the 2ercei$er.an" .no n.er.$$ & Oc0ham & sepa'ating faith and 'eason( As a conten"er of late nominalism6 William of Oc.hart D12&'=1*2(E as a mystic thin.com 4a-e ) .$$ & Ec0ha't & the mind see0ing union "ith /od( Ci. +e sai" that 2erce2tion is immaterial an" immanent6 hich means belon-in. Hohn of Buns hel" that the 2o ers of the human min" are 2ur2oseful an" necessary an" that they are not really "istinct from the substance of the soul.of 2iety. The beauty of A8uinasAs theory of . . .to his 2hiloso2hy6 the soul is unite" ith the bo"y for the 2ur2ose of formin. This ar-ument si"este2s the e2istemolo-ical 2roblems that arise out of the su22ose" "uality of inner an" outer realities6 hich has lea" to such abstruse 2ro2ositions as soli2sism an" sce2ticism. 9ince the .
in" of .6th And .not able to un"erstan" their true essence.com 4a-e 1' .no le"-e. De Humanis Corporis Fabrica (On the Workings of the Human ody!6 a la$ishly illustrate" atlas of human anatomy. i"eas: JThe brain itself is "i$i"e" into t o 2arts6 the fore an" hin"er 2art. contains hi-hly "etaile" "ra in-s of the human brain an" the ner$es6 hich ma. Vesalius also 8uestions the 2re$ailin. intellect DintellectusE hich unites the o22osites6 an" #.no n as An"reas $an Wesel6 ma"e an im2ortant contribution to the fiel" of me"icine by 2ublishin.no le"-e6 namely that of nature an" all thin-s natural. In this re-ar"6 BaconAs orientation as truly scientific. +is "issection stu"ies sho that animals ha$e the same $entricles as humans. the i"ol of the tribe = the false assertion that man is the measure of all thin-s6 2. intuition DanimusE throu-h hich a com2lete union of o22osites can be achie$e". This se$en $olume boo."octrine that the hi-her functions of the brain are locate" in the $entricles.6$$ & %acon & the a"a0ening scientific mind( JKno le"-e is 2o erJ as /rancis BaconAs D1I&1=1&2&E motto. the i"ol of the ca$e = the limitations of an untraine" intellect6 *.6$$ & %u'ton & the .6th centu'y vie" of the b'ain( It ha" more or less been establishe" that the brain as the seat of min" by the en" of the 1&th century. With this or.##$ & !esalius 8the illust'ated b'ain( The /lemish anatomist an" author An"reas Vesalius D1I1#=1I&#E6 also . The ?n-lish 2hysician @obert Burton D1I%%=1&#'E "escribes in The Anatomy of !elancholy the then 2hysiolo-ical 2icture6 hich still reflects Gree. . +e sai" that the min" as ori-inally Jli. Bacon hel" that the min" is an a"e8uate instrument for obtainin. the fore 2art is much bi--er than the other6 hich is calle" the little brain in res2ect of !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .7th Centu'ies . +e relies entirely on his obser$ations from the "issection of human bo"ies.thebi-$ie . Timeline .et = the fallacious use of or"s6 an" #.e a mirror ith a true an" e$en surface6 fit to reflect the -enuine ay of thin-s.J +o e$er6 min" is corru2te" by the four i"ols: 1. There are four le$els of un"erstan"in-: 1. The . the i"ol of the theatre = the creation of intellectual mira-es on the basis of un$erifie" a5ioms.no le"-e he meant as not the con$entional .ey to the hi-her functions of the min". +e reasons that animals "on>t ha$e a soul6 an" that the $entricles therefore cannot be the . reason DratioE hich com2ares the o22osites6 *... sense 2erce2tion DsensusE hich reflects the surface of thin-s im2erfectly6 2.no le"-e of the me"ie$al 9cholastics6 but a ne .6 Vesalius initiates a ma7or shift from the "octrines of Galen an" Aristotle6 hich ha" been authoritati$e for one an" a half millennia6 to ar"s a 2urely 2hysical an" em2irical un"erstan"inof the bo"y.his seminal or. At the hei-ht of the ?n-lish @enaissance6 Bacon le" 2hiloso2hy a ay from theolo-y to ar"s scientific "isco$ery. . the i"ol of the mar.es it the first illustrate" neuroscience te5tboo. Ine$itably6 the same 2rinci2le also un"erlies his e2istemolo-y.
!in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .a mechanical scheme.sensation6 hile memory as store" sensation. /or him the bo"y is a machine6 hich is "ri$en by mechanic 2rocesses only6 not the min". Bescartes as con$ince" that . Accor"in.6 an" is the 2lace here they say the memory is seate". +obbes hel" that there are t o ty2es of .2rinci2le. Of these $entricles there are three = ri-ht6 left6 an" mi""le.e many of his contem2oraries6 +obbes belie$e" that chemistry an" biolo-y can ultimately be re"uce" to mechanics. Bescartes as more ra"ical in his mechanistic $ie of the orl" than most others thin. +e sai" that human min" is naturally en"o e" ith the faculties of "e"uction an" intuition6 on account of hich e can arri$e at true . If one in$esti-ates chemical an" biolo-ical 2rocesses in a "rill="o n fashion6 there oul" be mechanics at the root of all thin-s.e a 2um2 e5tracts ater from a " ell by a22lyin.es a 2rominent 2osition in the history of the 2hiloso2hy of min". .6$$ & Desca'tes & the seve'ed mind( @enQ Bescartes D1I)&=1&I'E6 famous for his sayin-6 JCo-ito er-o sum = I thin. behin" the hea" is common to the cerebral or little brain6 an" marro of the bac. All . /or +obbes6 ima-ination as sim2ly "ecayin. +e sees animals as com2letely "e$oi" of min".no le"-e of conse8uences. +e says that min" is not connecte" ith the bo"y any more than a 2earl is connecte" ith the oyster that it lies in.to Bescartes6 from the 2roof of its o n e5istence Dco-ito er-o sumE6 the min" can "e"uce the e5istence of Go" an" the e5istence of the 2hysical orl". These $entricles6 moreo$er6 are hel" to be the seat of the common sense. Wor"s an" si-ns are able to recall store" sensations from memory an" thus allo us to buil" . they are automata ithout consciousness to him.it.6$$ & +obbes & the mechanistic mind( Thomas +obbes D1I((=1&%)E "e$elo2e" a mechanistic 2icture of the human min".com 4a-e 11 . At the be-innin.no le"-e. The latter is hy2othetical or con"itional6 but is still base" on e52erience. . The mi""le $entricle is a common concourse an" ca$ity of them both6 an" hath t o 2assa-es = the one to recei$e 2ituita6 an" the other e5ten"s itself to the fourth cree.of so=calle" rational schemes6 not unli.thebi-$ie .. BurtonP .no le"-e: 1. . The ri-ht an" left ans er to their site an" be-et animal s2irits.no le"-e is thus ac8uire" throu-h the mechanics of thou-ht6 here thou-hts 2ro"uce one another. if they be in any ay hurt6 sense an" motion ceaseth.no le"-e must be base" on the 2o ers of human reason alone.ers of the 1%th century. bone6 the last an" most soli" of all the rest6 hich recei$es the animal s2irits from the other $entricles6 an" con$eys them to the marro in the bac. The ostensible "ifferences in the faculties are only "ue to "ifferent locations in the causal chain.J O@. +e hel" that the ob7ects of thou-ht are bo"ies in motion6 hich a"here to the la of cause an" effect.no le"-e of thin-s by usin. Therefore6 the 2rinci2al characteristic of human min" is motion.no le"-e of em2irical facts DLmemory of 2ast e$entsE6 an" 2. in this they 2lace ima-ination an" co-itation6 an" so the three $entricles of the fore 2art of the brain are use". +obbes thou-ht that "ifferent faculties of min" are base" on the same un"erlyin. This fore 2art hath many conca$ities "istin-uishe" by certain $entricles6 hich are the rece2tacles of the s2irits6 brou-ht hither by the arteries of the heart6 an" are there refine" to a more hea$enly nature6 to 2erform the actions of the soul. Ci. The fourth cree.6 therefore I am6J ta.of the causal chain there are sense im2ressions from hich all other forms of mental 2rocesses follo .
+e as.no 6 the "ualism of Bescartes has sur$i$e".6#$ & 1pino9a & f'ee "ill an illusion? Baruch 92inoKa D1&*2=1&%%E $ie e" min" an" matter as t o attributes of a sin-le6 "i$ine substance6 the oneness of ultimate reality. +ence6 for Coc. Therefore6 min" an" bo"y6 althou-h "ifferent in a22earance6 are not really se2arate entities. Bescartes6 ha$in.a causal chain.to 92inoKa6 a human bein.thebi-$ie .2ercei$e" 8ualities6 an" the reflections of min" u2on its contents6 ha$in. Accor"in. +e illustrate" the function of ner$es by usin.7$$ & %e'0eley & mind c'eates 'eality( Geor-e Ber.is a finite $ersion of Go"6 hence6 human min" is a miniature of the uni$ersal min". 92inoKa sai" that mental 2rocesses are mechanic6 an" thus "eterministic6 follo in.no le"-e ere innate6 hy "oes an infant not arri$e fully . Accor"in.com 4a-e 12 . .e6 the min" is a Jtabula rasaJ at birth6 unforme" an" featureless.e D1&*2=1%'#E6 e5amine" human min" an" came to the conclusion that there are no innate i"eas built into it at birth.in"s of i"eas an" "istin-uishes bet een sim2le an" com2le5 i"eas. .no le"-e6 or contents of min": the sensations ac8uire" throu-h sense e52erience6 ha$in.at the orl"? Why are there the mentally ill6 ho are unable to . 9im2le i"eas are the ra material ac8uire" throu-h sense e52erience6 hile com2le5 i"eas are com2oun"s of sim2le i"eas 2ut to-ether by min".no such thin-s as ri-ht an" ron-? Why is it that all 2eo2le of the orl" "o not ha$e the same i"eas? Coc. +e then ar-ues that6 because min" forms hat e 2ercei$e6 the thin-s of the 2hysical orl" cannot e5ist in"e2en"ently of min".Bescartes hel" that the brain sen"s humours an" flui"s coursin.no 6 are the ob7ects of 2erce2tion Desse est 2erci2iE.eleyAs 2hiloso2hical system eliminate" any 2ossibility of .eley finally conclu"es that only the i"eas of thin-s ha$e a real e5istence6 but not the thin-s themsel$es.to Ber. +e sai" that our $ision ne$er senses any s2atial as2ects of ob7ects "irectly6 such as ma-nitu"e an" "istance6 but that the min" infers such 8ualities from $isual "ata. Therefore6 matter "oes not really e5ist. Conse8uently6 thou-hts an" actions are 2re"etermine" an" thus6 free ill is an illusion. The conce2tual se2aration of min" an" bo"y has influence" 2hiloso2hy an" 2o2ular culture until the 2resent "ay.no in. In s2ite of this6 min" has a meta2hysical reality beyon" hat is self="etermine".inferre" 8ualities.no le"-e of an e5ternal material orl" an" asserts that the only thin. Ber. . Ber. +e !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .throu-h the ner$es an" thus6 controls the bo"y mechanically.e can .6#$ & :oc0e & the const'ucted mind( /oun"er of British em2iricism6 Hohn Coc. Althou-h this $ie is obsolete6 as e all .e "istin-uishe" bet een t o sources of .eley6 these ob7ects are i"eas create" by Go".eley D1&(I=1%I*E intro"uce" a ne 2sycholo-ical i"ea that became the forerunner of soli2sism an" later i"ealism.the analo-y of the hy"raulic systems of automata then in -reat fa$our for entertainment in the 2leasure -ar"ens of the .re"uce" bo"y an" brain to 2ure mechanics6 locate" the min" in the 2ineal -lan"6 a small6 sin-le6 $esti-ial bo"y at the base of the brain.e"6 if .in-s an" 2rinces of ?uro2e. +e then 2rocee"s to en-a-e in the analysis of the .
before D2rior toE e52erience.a 2ro2erty of thou-ht6 in"e2en"ent of e52erience an" e5istin.J In contrast6 synthetic a 2riori 7u"-ments are com2oun" an" are often foun" in mathematics an" science6 as for e5am2le: Ja strai-ht line is the shortest connection bet een t o 2oints6J an"6 Jfor e$ery action there is an e8ual an o22osite reaction. +ume state" that all contents of min" are solely built from sense e52eriences. There are many e5am2les for a 2osteriori 7u"-ments6 such as Jthe a22le is re"J or Jthe music is lou".7#$ & +ume & the caged mind( Ba$i" +ume D1%11=1%%&E synthesise" the i"eas of Coc.to Kant= are o2erations of thou-ht that connect a sub7ect ith a 2re"icate. +ume hel" that the min" associates i"eas ith one another on account of three 8ualities: resemblance6 conti-uity6 an" causation.no le"-e6 the former bein.th Centu'ies . +e formulate" the most forthri-ht $ersion of em2iricism. +e "istin-uishe" bet een Ja 2osterioriJ an" Ja 2rioriJ . While all a 2osteriori Dem2iricalE 7u"-ments are automatically synthetic6 Kant "iscerne" t o ty2es of a 2riori 7u"-ments6 analytic an" synthetic 7u"-ments.no le"-e.J This e5treme em2iricism le" +ume to ar-ue that e cannot achie$e certainty about e5ternal reality6 but only about the inner orl" of our 2erce2tions an" thou-hts.e an" Ber. Kno le"-e is e52resse" in 7u"-ments6 hich =accor"in. +e sai"6 Jnecessity an" strict uni$ersality are sure mar.J The latter statement =the thir" !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .eley.e6 he "istin-uishe" bet een im2ressions an" i"eas. Timeline .ar-ument: 9ince ima-inary i"eas are 2ro"uce" by finite DhumanE min"s6 2ercei$e" i"eas DL the ob7ects of 2erce2tionE must be create" an" cause" to be in us by an infinite min".2th And . In contrast6 a 2riori 7u"-ments cannot be "enie" ithout contra"iction6 because they are base" on lo-ic rather than 2erce2tion.no le"-e6 he hel" that causality is merely inferre" by the min": J@eason can ne$er sho us the conne5ion of one ob7ect ith another6 tho> ai"e" by e52erience6 an" the obser$ation of their con7unction in all 2ast instances. Kant re7ecte" +umeAs e5treme em2iricism an" 2ro2ose" that there is more to . Ci.thebi-$ie .e Coc.after D2ostE 2erce2tion6 an" the latter bein.com 4a-e 1* .7#$ & <ant & the Cope'nican 'evolution in epistemology( The time as ri2e for Immanuel KantAs D1%2#=1('#E famous ritin-6 Criti"ue of #ure $eason6 in hich he in$esti-ate" an" criticise" the e2istemolo-ical 2ro2ositions of +ume an" his 2re"ecessors..su22orts his theory by the follo in. +ence6 there can neither be certitu"e about the e5istence of the self6 the 2hysical orl"6 or e$en Go". .J In an analytic a 2riori statement6 the 2re"icate is alrea"y containe" in the sub7ect6 such as in: Jall trian-les ha$e three an-les6J or6 Jall bo"ies are e5ten"e".J 9ince a 2osteriori 7u"-ments are solely base" on "ata su22lie" by the senses6 they can be "enie" ithout contra"iction. Althou-h he consi"ere" the notion of cause an" effect as the basis of . The 2re"icate 8ualifies the sub7ect in some ay.no le"-e than bare sense e52erience.s of a 2riori . An"6 the only 2ossible source of the infinite min" is Go"."eri$e" from 2erce2tion6 hence6 occurrin. +is 2osition as that reason an" rational 7u"-ments are merely habitual associations of "istinct sensations or e52eriences.
The ne e$i"ence slo ly le" to the $ie that the min" " elt in the hole of the brain6 as o22ose" to 2articular anatomical locations6 an" thus6 consciousness as un"erstoo" as a function of the entirety of the human brain.com 4a-e 1# .that is6 is . What e5ists a2art from them6 Kant calls the Jthin-s in themsel$esJ6 the noumenal reality6 hich is 2urely intelli-ible an" non=sensual6 as o22ose" to the 2henomenal reality6 hich is 2ercei$able. the rational acti$ities of in"i$i"uals are therefore instances of the Absolute.a con"uctor function. .en for an a 2osteriori statement6 but it isnAt6 because e ha$enAt yet e52erience" e$ery mechanical action. In this ay6 the a 2riori 2articulars an" conce2ts form the basis of . Gall "escribe" the clefts bet een the -rey matter as ner$e matrices an" the hite matter as ha$in. 0e$ertheless6 Gall "isco$ere" a -reat "eal about the anatomy of the brain. Kant furthermore "istin-uishe" bet een conce2ts6 hich are "eri$e" from thou-ht6 an" 2articulars hich are "eri$e" from sense e52erience. There are also a 2riori conce2ts6 hich Kant calls cate-ories6 of hich there are t el$e6 namely unity6 2lurality6 totality6 reality6 ne-ation6 limitation6 substance6 causality6 interaction6 2ossibility6 e5istence6 an" necessity.to hich . .the no "iscre"ite" 2ractice of 2hrenolo-y. +e sai" that ultimate reality is absolute min"6 reason6 or s2irit6 hich manifests itself in history an" in the uni$erse. 4articulars are al ays a 2osteriori Dem2iricalE6 ith the e5ce2tion of t o6 namely s2ace an" time6 hich are a 2riori an" thus6 2ro$i"e the basis for other DsyntheticE a 2riori 2ro2ositions.no able.Wilhelm /rie"rich +e-el D1%%'=1(*1E accom2lishe" hat Kant ha" "eclare" im2ossible.no le"-e about thin-s in themsel$es. The orl" min" DWelt-eistE is uni$ersal. Burin. +e "istin-uishe" areas that he thou-ht ere res2onsible for s2eech6 hearin-6 motor control6 an" so forth. Kant maintaine" that these conce2ts are not "eri$e" em2irically6 but that the min" a22lies them to all 2erce2tion an" that they are therefore a 2riori.2$$ & /all & the cha'ted b'ain( /ranK Gall D1%I(=1(2(E be-an the localisation of functions in the brain.to +e-el6 min" is ca2able of arri$in. Gall maintaine"6 Jthat the brain as com2ose" of as many or-ans as the in"i$i"ual ha" faculties6 ten"encies an" feelin-s. Accor"in.2$$ & +egel & the evolving "o'ld mind( Geor. +e formulate" a "ialectical metho"6 accor"in. +e-el set forth the 2ro2osition6 J hat is real is rational an" hat is rational is real6J an" from this he conclu"e" that e$erythin.la of 0e tonian mechanics= may at first be mista.J OAc. +e 2lace" the main faculties in the corte5 an" establishe" the conce2t of ner$e 2ath ays.no le"-e 2ushes for ar"s to -reater certainty6 an" ultimately to ar"s .the 1)th century e$i"ence accumulate" to sho that the brain coul" continue to o2erate6 "es2ite the loss of $arious 2arts of its substance.thebi-$ie . The i"ea of a in-e" horse is an e5am2le of a synthetic conce2t "eri$e" from the 2articulars of in-s an" horses. It as this a22roach from hich s2ran."ifferentiable 2arts of the brain in animals an" throu-h the in$esti-ation of brain in7uries an" brain "iseases in humans.no le"-e.necht6 1)I(6 21I'P.er.to Kant6 human .no le"-e of the noumenal orl".at full .no le"-e must fore$er remain limite".no n "irectly6 accor"in. 9ince the thin-s in themsel$es cannot be . The self="e$elo2ment !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . This as $erifie" by the stu"y of the conse8uences of cuttin.
. By this "ialectical metho"6 the collecti$e min"6 namely that of a -rou26 society6 nation an" ultimately the orl"6 a"$ances to ar"s the 2erfection of its . In this ritin.i"ea systems6 a 2rocess that he calle" the "ialectical 2rocesses of thesis an" antithesis.thebi-$ie .of min". conse8uently6 it also affecte" the contem2orary un"erstan"in. Galton also coine" the term Jnature an" nurtureJ6 hich is still heate"ly "ebate" to"ay. Cayin. The synthesis o$ercomes the conflict bet een thesis an" antithesis by reconcilin. In a hi-her=le$el theory6 a thir" 2oint of $ie 6 the synthesis6 arises that 2ro$i"es the solution. %nalysis of the #henomena of &ind to2ics such as feelin-6 sensation6 consciousness6 associations6 an" thus became a 2recursor of mo"ern 2sycholo-ical stu"ies.com 4a-e 1I .the foun"ations for eu-enics6 he e52laine": JI ha$e no 2atience ith the hy2othesis occasionally e52resse"6 an" often im2lie"6 es2ecially in tales ritten to teach chil"ren to be -oo"6 that babies are born 2retty much ali. It is in the most un8ualifie" manner that I ob7ect to 2retensions of natural e8uality.J . +e re-ar"s consciousness as a collateral effect of certain 2hysical causes6 an" only an effect6 but ne$er a cause. Althou-h Bar in "i" not touch u2on 2sycholo-y or e2istemolo-y6 his influence as so fun"amental that it affecte" almost any branch of science. +e hel" that mental 8ualities6 such as intelli-ence6 memory ca2ability6 etc.the truth containe" in both at a hi-her le$el of insi-ht.2$$ & Mill & psychology ta0es shape( Hames !ill D1%%*=1(*&E6 father of Hohn 9tuart !ill6 in$esti-ate" in his boo.2#$ & /alton & the "ellbo'n mind( The British in$entor /rancis Galton D1(22=1)11E a"$ocate" the i"ea that human traits6 or 2ro2erties of human min" in -eneral6 are inherite" an" can therefore be altere" an" im2ro$e" by selecti$e bree"in-. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .Bar in "e$elo2e" the conce2ts of here"itary $ariation6 s2eciation6 an" natural selection.e6 an" that the sole a-encies in creatin"ifferences bet een boy an" boy6 an" man an" man6 are stea"y a22lication an" moral effort.Bar inism. .6 can be measure" ob7ecti$ely6 but faile" in his efforts to 2ro$i"e metho"s for 8uantitati$e measurement. The synthesis then becomes a ne thesis that is subse8uently confronte" by another antithesis6 an" so forth. .to +e-el6 an i"ea6 a thesis6 al ays contains incom2leteness6 an" thus6 yiel"s a conflictin. 9ince the brain is the or-an of min"6 it follo s that the formin.of min" must ha$e -one han" in han" ith the e$olution of the human brain.2#$ & Da'"in & the evolution of ou' species( Charles @obert Bar in D1(')=1((2E formulate" the mo"ern theory of the e$olution of s2ecies.no le"-e. The "isco$eries he ma"e hile aboar" the +!9 Bea-le on an e52e"ition aroun" the orl"6 im2elle" him to rite his famous boo.2#$ & +u*eley & mind caused= but not causing( Thomas +enry +u5eley D1(2I=1()IE as a Koolo-ist a"$ocatin.6 On the Origin of 'pecies. !in" is therefore a 2ro"uct of e$olution6 7ust as man is.i"ea6 an antithesis. Accor"in.of min" is the result of e$ol$in.
The min" has a function of memory that allo s us to recall e52eriences an" i"eas. !oreo$er6 consciousness is selecti$e of hat it 2ays attention to. +e continue" Wilhelm Wun"tAs scientific a22roach an" ma"e the "isor"ers of human min" the sub7ect of his clinical stu"ies. It consists of D1E 2ersonality "isor"ers6 such as schiKoi"6 schiKoty2al6 2aranoi"6 histrionic6 antisocial6 bor"erline6 a$oi"ant6 "e2en"ent6 com2ulsi$e6 2assi$e=a--ressi$e "isor"er6 D2E 2sychoses6 such as schiKo2hrenia an" manic="e2ressi$e 2sychosis6 D*E an5iety "isor"ers6 such as obsessi$e com2ulsi$e "isor"er an" 2hobia6 D#E 2hysiolo-ical "isor"ers6 such as AlKheimerAs "isease6 e2ile2sy6 etc. Hames also hel" that our states of consciousness are al ays chan-in-.2hiloso2hical inferences about the nature of min" an"6 hence6 ta. +e as a 2hiloso2her as much as a 2sycholo-ist.. +is inno$ati$e or. +e carrie" out e5tensi$e e52erimental research on stimuli6 2erce2tion6 an" feelin-. Krae2elin "i" not only "isco$er schiKo2hrenia6 but he also "e$elo2e" the first i"ely acce2te" classification of mental "isor"ers.to the brain=action as effect to cause. This classification is still in use to"ay6 ith se$eral refinements a""e" in the course of time.com 4a-e 1& . Wun"tAs structural 2sycholo-y stresses obser$ation of the mo"es of conscious min"6 rather than ma.2#$ & Wundt & the fathe' of psychology( Wilhelm !a5 Wun"t D1(*2=1)2'E is often cre"ite" ith establishin2sycholo-y as a fiel" of scientific stu"ies in"e2en"ent from 2hiloso2hy. It as a fun"amental tenet of Krae2elin>s thou-ht that "ia-nostic formulations stan" or fall on the basis of !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . Hames "eclare" most meta2hysical theories as meanin-less6 because they are neither testable6 nor "o they "eal ith e5istential 2roblems.all such facts to-ether6 the sim2le an" ra"ical conce2tion "a ns u2on the min" that mental action may be uniformly an" absolutely a function of brain=action6 $aryin.thebi-$ie .$$ & 3ames & mind as a st'eam of consciousness( William Hames D1(#2=1)1'E establishe" the American 2hiloso2hical school of 2ra-matism. Hames 2ointe" out that e ha$e a sense of a 2ersonal consciousness6 an" that it is ours6 not somethin.in.in.. Cater 2sycholo-ists referre" to it as the JIJ..that e share ith others. We ha$e a sense of tem2oral continuity in consciousness6 hich lea"s to the conce2tion of a stream of consciousness. In his 2ra-matic 2hiloso2hy6 he em2hasise" the a22licability an" 2ractical utility of conce2ts an" theories. .6 an" DIE other "isor"ers6 such as neurotic "e2ression6 neurotic hysteria6 an" somatoform "isor"ers.as the latter $aries6 an" bein.es a holly scientific a22roach.J OHames6 1()26 22I=&P Timeline Mind In The -$th Centu'y .$$ & <'aepelin & psychiat'y ta0es shape( The German "octor ?mil Krae2elin D1(I&11)2&E 2ioneere" 2'th century fiel" of 2sychiatry. Hames formulate" a materialistic $ie of min"6 hich =in some sense= antici2ates the mo"ern $ie of neuroscience an" 2sychobiolo-y.6 The 4rinci2les of 4sycholo-y6 in$esti-ates the functions of the brain6 consciousness6 conce2tion6 memory6 an" association. JTa.
To insist that the realm of s2irit can be e52laine" in a scientific manner im2lies that all 2sycholo-y is 2sycho2hysical an" that 2hysical e5istence en$elo2s e$erythin-6 hich accor"in.com 4a-e 1% . Ber-son "escribes intuition as Jimme"iate consciousnessJ6 a $ision hich is scarcely "istin-uishable from the ob7ect itself. Accor"in.to +usserl6 min" cannot be e52laine" by science.no in.$$ & %e'gson & the intuitive mind( /rench 4hiloso2her +enri Ber-son D1(I)=1)#1E un"erstoo" the human intellect as a 2rolon-ation of the senses6 hich -ui"es 2erce2tion an" bo"ily action.no n as 2henomenolo-y. The min" connects meanin-s ith 2ercei$e" ob7ects an" em2loys $arious metho"s of contem2lation to "etermine the meanin-s of 2henomena. Accor"in.thebi-$ie . Accor"in. +usserl "enie" the $ali"ity of any . +usserl maintaine" that consciousness contains unchan-in. +e hel" that the natural sciences ha$e mis-ui"e" 2eo2le into belie$in. In this manner6 Ber-son arri$es at a "ualistic $ie of matter an" s2irit6 in hich intellect -ro s out of matter6 an" intuition -ro s out of s2irit6 an" in hich he "escribes memory as the intersection of min" an" matter. The former he calls intellect6 an" the latter he calls intuition6 hich he "eems su2erior to the analytic reasonin. One obser$es the ob7ect from the outsi"e6 hile the other enters the ob7ect an" $ie s the ob7ect from the insi"e. .ca2abilities of the intellect. it is the creati$e 2o er of e$olution that "ri$es or-anisms to ar" constantly hi-her forms of or-anisation. +usserl sai" that the un"erstan"in.em2irical $ali"ation. +e hel" that intellect is an inferior ay of un"erstan"in-. /urthermore6 Ber-son hel" that e$olution is not "ri$en by materialistic 2rocesses6 but by a s2iritual force6 hich he calls Qlan $ital. In 2articular he "enie" the e5istence of noumena6 or KantAs thin-s=in= themsel$es6 hose in"e2en"ent e5istence cannot be establishe".no le"-e.to Ber-son6 there are t o fun"amentally "ifferent ays of .$$ & +usse'l & mind= meaning= and phenomena( The German 2hiloso2her ?"mun" +usserl D1(I)=1)*(E "e$elo2e" a school of thou-ht . @eflections an" thou-hts are intentionally a22lie" to enhance the e52erience an" un"erstan"in. Intentionality itself is a facet of consciousness. .of min" as a mere effect of the ner$ous system is a fatal 2re7u"ice of mo"ern Western culture.theories cannot 2ro$i"e accurate .a thin-.them +ei"e--er6 !erleau=4onty6 an" 9artre.no le"-e.that nature is essentially 2hysical an" that the realm of min" an" s2irit is causally base" on cor2oreality.to Ber-son6 the Qlan $ital is the essence of all li$inbein-s..structures calle" meanin-s6 hich "etermine hat ob7ect the min" is "irecte" to ar" at any -i$en time. 4henomenolo-y thus ta.to +usserl6 7ust reflects the cre"ulity of the rational scientific min". /or +usserl the e-o is the matri5 of all e52erience an" thus the source an" simultaneously the limit of all . Krae2elin "i" therefore not belie$e in unconscious mental acti$ity6 such as the 2sychoanalysts 2ostulate".of 2henomena6 but the resultin.no le"-e beyon" the imme"iate 2henomenal realm. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .es a 2urely "escri2ti$e a22roach an" "oes not assume the e5istence of anythin-6 e5ce2t 2henomena.. Cater in the 2'th century6 2henomenolo-y became a ma7or source of ins2iration for the e5istentialists6 amon.
They manifest themsel$es symbolically in reli-ions6 myths6 fantasies6 an" "reams. +is un"erstan"in.no le"-e an" e52erience.e an iceber-6 here only the conscious 2art is $isible6 hile the much lar-er unconscious 2art is hi""en.$$ & 3ung & the collective mind( The 9 iss 2sychiatrist Carl Gusta$ Hun. Hun.sa the min" as an inner uni$erse of unima-inable com2le5ity e8ual to that of the outer uni$erse.e$ents inaccessible to the conscious min"6 an" resistance6 the unconscious "efence a-ainst a areness of re2resse" e52eriences. +e belie$e" that the unconscious layers of min" transcen" the e-o an" contain elements of im2ersonal human . Accor"in.some !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . /reu" belie$e" that min" is li.com 4a-e 1( . +e "istin-uishe" bet een the e-o6 hich is ho one sees oneself6 alonith the conscious an" unconscious feelin-s that accom2any that $ie 6 the 2ersona6 hich re2resentDsE the faceDsE that one consciously sho s to others6 re$ealin. .s out ar" manifestation.in the unconscious see.as con$ince" that the human min" is more than the sum of 2erce2tion6 emotion6 memory6 an" consciousness. +e "e$elo2e" his J2sychoanalyticJ theory as a result of his e52erience ith mentally "isturbe" 2atients6 ho sho e" no a22arent neurolo-ical "isor"er6 in 2articular6 in cases of hysteria. Althou-h /reu"As imme"iate influence on 2sycholo-y is "eclinin-6 he has to be cre"ite" ith the "isco$ery of the unconscious. 4sychoanalysis uses hy2nosis6 "ream inter2retation6 an" free association as instruments to e52lore the unconscious contents of min" of 2atients. +e "e$elo2e" a ne thera2eutic metho"6 hich he calle" 2sychoanalysis.emer-e" from an inner 7ourney of intense self=analysis ith the i"eas in 2lace for his theories on archety2es6 com2le5es6 the collecti$e unconscious6 an" the in"i$i"uation 2rocess. +e says6 Jmy life is a story of the self=realisation of the unconscious..su22orte" his theories by "ra in.e the memory of 2ainful or threatenin. In his clinical obser$ations6 /reu" foun" e$i"ence for the mental mechanisms of re2ression6 a "e$ice o2eratin.to /reu"6 there is also a 2reconscious area from hich e can retrie$e memories at ill into conscious a areness..J Hun. +e hel" that fears6 2assions6 an" "esires are roote" in the unconscious an" e5ert a 2o erful influence on our feelin-s an" actions. +e 2ro2ose" that chil"hoo" se5uality an" unconscious moti$ations influence 2ersonality. +e hel" that min" contains an im2ersonal 2sychic realm6 the collecti$e unconscious6 hich contains ima-es6 e52eriences6 an" i"eas that humanity shares..sub7ects as alchemy6 ?astern reli-ions6 astrolo-y6 mytholo-y6 an" =most im2ortantly= intros2ection. These 2rimor"ial 2sychic 2atterns he calle" archety2es. /reu" su--este" that syn"romes of this ty2e shoul" be treate" ith 2sycholo-ical rather than 2hysiolo-ical metho"s. What he has in common ith /reu" is that he attributes -reat im2ortance to the unconscious.thebi-$ie .of the unconscious has chan-e" 2sycholo-y fore$er.$$ & >'eud & the unconscious mind( 9i-mun" /reu" D1(I&=1)*)E 2rofoun"ly chan-e" the mo"ern $ie of min". Hun.unconsciously to ma.in"i$isibleness of the in"i$i"ual. ?$erythin.on his clinical 2ractice6 as ell as his stu"ies of such i"e=ran-in. Hun.D1(%I=1)&1E6 initially a follo er an" collea-ue of 9i-mun" /reu"6 later "e2arte" from /reu"As 2sychoanalysis an" foun"e" the school of analytical 2sycholo-y. +e belie$e" that min" stri$es for s2iritual an" intellectual holeness in a 2rocess hich he calle" in"i$i"uation6 em2hasiKin.
no an" un"erstan". At the final6 si5th le$el is the nee" for self=actualisation6 i.6 thereof one shoul" be silent6J is one of the most influential 2hiloso2hers of the 2'th century. While he sa the chief tas. the nee" to feel that the en$ironment is safe an" 2re"ictable. Witt-enstein hel" that the 2hiloso2herAs tas.inner D1)'#=1))'E are the best .no le"-e6 but only ith the e52ression of the latter in lan-ua-e./.s an im2ortant turn in 2'th century thou-ht. +e hel" that 2hiloso2hyAs tas. At the fourth le$el are nee"s for self=esteem6 achie$ement6 reco-nition6 an" res2ect from others. Tractatus (ogico)#hilosophicus6 is consummate" by the 2ro2osition that J hate$er can be sai" at all can be sai" clearly. Beha$iourism is base" on 2ositi$ism an" it 2resu22oses that beha$iour is lar-ely con"itione" by learnin.inner attem2te" to sho this throu-h a $ariety of 2ractical e52eriments. This "is2osition mar.2art of the self hile hi"in.e.facts6 he chan-e" his min" later an" -rante" that lan-ua-e may in"ee" assume any function. The abo$e conclusion6 e52resse" in his boo. to clarify the lo-ical use of lan-ua-e6 an" that 2hiloso2hy is therefore not concerne" ith truth6 but ith meanin-. . is to Jbattle a-ainst the be itchment of our intelli-ence by means of lan-ua-e.an" a"a2tation..#$ & %ehaviou'ism & the invisible mind( H. !aslo !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . Beha$iourism e52lains human an" animal beha$iour in terms of 2hysiolo-ical res2onses to e5ternal stimuli6 ithout re-ar"in. At the ne5t le$el6 there is a safety nee"6 i. 4hiloso2hy is no lon-er concerne" ith min" an" human . At the thir" le$el is the nee" for lo$e an" acce2tance that 2ro$i"es the in"i$i"ual ith a feelin.2ur2ose6 meanin-6 cohesion6 an" "irection to the min". 9. At the fifth le$el are nee"s to . In other or"s6 min" is an un"efine" entity in beha$iourism6 an" is therefore treate" as a blac.$$ & Wittgenstein & mind and language( The British=Austrian Cu" i.J .com 4a-e 1) . At the most basic le$el6 there are the 2hysiolo-ical nee"s to satisfy thirst6 hun-er6 an" other nee"s of the bo"y. . To"ay6 the main tenets of beha$iourism are in$ali"ate".inter2rete" neuroses DLnon=2hysiolo-ical mental "isor"ersE as a state of bein..of belon-in-. Watson D1(%(=1)I(E an" B.of si5 le$els.human beha$iour. the nee" to li$e u2 to oneAs fullest an" uni8ue 2otential.co-niti$e 2rocesses6 such as feelin-s or moti$es. bo5.of lan-ua-e6 rather than ith ne "isco$eries6 hich Witt-enstein "eeme" the "omain of science6 an" meta2hysics6 hich he "eeme" lar-ely a fruitless en"ea$our. +e 2ro2ose" a hierarchy of nee"s6 consistin.other 2arts6 an" the self6 the central or-aniKin. of lan-ua-e initially in "escribin.#$ & Maslo" & mind and motivation( American 2sycholo-ist Abraham !aslo D1)'(=1)%'E6 lea"ine52onent of humanistic 2sycholo-y6 "e$elo2e" a theory of moti$ation aime" at e52lainin.at o""s ith oneself6 cause" by the conflict bet een instincti$e "ri$es an" the e-o.B.thebi-$ie .no n fi-ures in the 2'th century mo$ement of beha$iourism6 a school of 2sycholo-y hich restricts itself to the stu"y of obser$able an" 8uantifiable as2ects of beha$iour.J These t o statements sum u2 fairly ell Witt-ensteinAs 2hiloso2hy6 hich is concerne" ith the usa-e an" meanin.e.2rinci2le of the 2syche6 hich is the fun"amental an" essential as2ect of human 2ersonality 2ro$i"in. Watson an" 9.. Hun.Witt-enstein D1(()=1)I1E6 famous for his sayin-6 J hereof one cannot s2ea.
e the stu"y of min" a science. Consi"erable a"$ances ha$e been ma"e in these sciences recently6 hich nurture the materialist as2iration of e52lainin.in. 4sycholo-y "i" not a""ress the "eman" of materialism to re"uce mental 2henomena to 2hysiolo-ical 2henomena.2asse" to the "isci2lines of neuroscience an" -enetics.hel" that lo er ran. @elyin. The to2ic is no bein.thebi-$ie . !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . /irst6 2hiloso2hy han"e" o$er the to2ic to 2sycholo-y6 hich at the be-inninof the century attem2te" to ma.com 4a-e 2' .chiefly on intros2ection an" theory6 2sycholo-y create" e5e-etic mo"els ith 2ractical $alue6 but faile" to 2ro$i"e ob7ecti$e6 falsifiable "escri2tions of the 2ro2erties of min" in scientific terms. In this en"ea$our6 2sycholo-y succee"e" only half ay. P'esent & 5eu'oscience and /enetics & the mate'ial mind( The 2'th century has seen a ma7or shift of thou-ht in e2istemolo-y an" 2hiloso2hy of min".nee"s must be fulfille"6 before the in"i$i"ual can mo$e on to satisfy hi-her=le$el nee"s.mental 2henomena in terms of electrochemical 2rocesses in the brain an" ner$ous system an" in terms of -enetic co"ification.
I .e a ra"iator coolin. Its function is to control an" a"7ust 2osture an" to coor"inate muscular mo$ement. /rom neuro2hysiolo-y an" neurochemistry e . that the brain is res2onsible for all faculties of min". It com2rises t o hal$es6 or hemis2heres6 of hi-hly rin.s thou-ht that it acts li.-. The human brain is the siKe of a lar-e -ra2efruit an" ei-hs 1 1 1.no their 2sycholo-ical an" beha$ioural functions.thebi-$ie .no ho consciousness arises from the brain.e one of the orl">s on"ers6 but rather li.in-s of neurons Dbrain cellsE an" their connections. The -rey matter consists of the cell bo"ies of neurons6 hereas the sub7acent hite matter consists of ner$e fibres Da5onsE that constitute lon. Be$elo2mentally6 the brain can be "i$i"e" into three main "i$isions6 the hin"brain Drhombence2halonE6 mi"brain Dmesence2halonE6 an" forebrain D2rosence2halonE. Nou may fin" that the a22earance of the human brain is 8uite unim2osin-.the 2ast fe "eca"es. of the brainstem6 is li. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . To"ay6 e thin. The outer $isible layer6 the corte56 is 2art of the cerebrum. We ill first loo.no . The cerebellum6 or :little brain<6 hich is attache" to the bac.no the "ifferent 2arts an" structures of the brain.le" -rey matter. At the outer si"es of the hemis2heres there is another "ee2 -ro$e6 the lateral fissure or lateral sulcus6 hich "i$i"es the frontal an" 2arietal lobes from the tem2oral lobes.no the or. /rom classical neuroanatomy e ."istance connections bet een neurons. The e52an"e" human cerebellum also has a role in some co-niti$e functions6 such as attention. It contains circuits hich are similar in all $ertebrates6 inclu"in. 0o here else in the uni$erse "o e fin" anythincom2arable. layer of ner$e fibres.you mi-ht fin" ashe" u2 on a beach. The ancient Gree. li. /rom neuro2sycholo-y e .the bloo". at these 2arts from an e$olutionary 2oint of $ie . 0e$ertheless6 si-nificant a"$ances ere ma"e in brain research "urin. Because it resembles the brain of a re2tile6 it is also calle" the :re2tilian brain<. The t o hemis2heres are se2arate" by a "ee2 -ro$e6 the lon-itu"inal cerebral fissure. They are connecte" at the base by the cor2us callosum6 a thic.com 4a-e 21 . /or e5am2le6 e "on>t .e somethin. The human brain is one of the most intensi$ely researche" items in biolo-y6 yet there are many 8uestions to hich e "on>t ha$e ans ers. It "oesn>t really loo. The brain stem is the ol"est 2art of the brain. It e$ol$e" more than I'' million years a-o. The brainstem controls autonomic functions6 such as breathin-6 heart rate6 an" "i-estion. 4eo2le ha$e trie" to un"erstan" it for thousan"s of years. It contains the mi"brain an" the hin"brain minus the cerebellum. !e"ie$al 2hiloso2hers belie$e" that it is the abo"e of the soul an" that it coul" be in$a"e" by s2irits.fish.e ise e$olutionary ancient.The +uman %'ain The brain is 2robably the most amaKin2hysical structure e . Divisions of the b'ain( The three main 2arts of the brain can be further "i$i"e" into substructures6 as sho n in the illustrations.
At the rear of each hemis2here6 the occi2ital lobe "eals 2rimarily ith $ision6 hence6 it is also calle" the $isual corte5. It e$ol$e" bet een *'' an" 2'' million years a-o an" 1since it is most hi-hly "e$elo2e" in mammals1 it is also calle" the :mammalian brain<.the brain stem an" the limbic system li. The most outstan"in. This is a s2ecial characteristic of :hi-her< mammals.is a mere bum26 it balloons into the lar-e structure of the cerebrum in hi-her animals co$erin.e the hea" of a mushroom. The limbic system interacts ith the bo"y throu-h the en"ocrine system an" the autonomic ner$ous systems.e a alnut6 2ossesses an intricately fol"e" surface.ey 2arts of the limbic system are the hy2othalamus an" the 2ituitary -lan"6 the :master -lan"< of the bo"y.com 4a-e 22 . /inally6 there is the cerebrum6 the lar-est 2art of the forebrain6 hich is e$olutionary the most recent an" also the lar-est 2art of the brain. A 2art of it is res2onsible for hearin-. an"6 li.e cycle6 memory formation6 an" "ecision ma.in-.2arts are calle" archicorte56 2aleocorte56 an" neocorte5. The corte5 of each hemis2here can be "i$i"e" into se$eral "ifferent areas hich are calle" lobes. It 2rocesses $isual information transmitte" from the eye an" analyses it for mo$ement6 orientation6 an" 2osition. The corte5 is in$ol$e" in many hi-h=le$el functions6 such as $isual an" $erbal symbol 2rocessin-6 2erce2tual a areness6 communication6 lan-ua-e6 un"erstan"in-6 an" rational thou-ht.for ma5imum 2ac. The t o .in. The tem2oral lobes6 locate" at the outer si"es of the hemis2heres near the tem2les6 ha$e a number of "ifferent functions. it is es2ecially "e$elo2e" in humans.thebi-$ie . This 2art !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . /urthermore the limbic system controls a host of "ifferent functions6 inclu"in.The limbic system is the -rou2 of structures locate" bet een the brain stem an" the corte5. Generally6 the cerebral corte5 acts as a 2rocessor of sensory in2ut information6 hich it recei$es $ia the thalamus. While the forebrain of a fro.heart rate an" bloo" 2ressure6 hun-er6 thirst6 the slee2 an" a. The most recent one is the neocorte5 hich occu2ies the to2most layer of the corte5.feature of the cerebrum is the corte56 hich is about t o millimetres thic. The many -roo$es DsulciE an" ri"-es D-yriE create a lar-e surface area of 16I s8uare metres allo in. The limbic system is in$ol$e" in emotion an" moti$ation. /or e5am2le6 the amy-"ala is in$ol$e" in a--ression an" fear6 the hy2othalamus is in$ol$e" in se5ual arousal6 an" the nucleus accumbens6 the brain>s 2leasure centre6 is in$ol$e" in re ar"6 2leasure6 an" a""iction. Divisions of the co'te*( The cerebral corte5 e$ol$e" in three sta-es an" the resultin.of neurons. A 2erson can become blin" if the occi2ital lobe is "ama-e"6 e$en hile the eyes an" o2tic ner$es remain intact.
They are conscious of the 2resent moment6 as ell as of another e$ent store" in memory. learnin-.from one si"e of the bo"y6 an" constructional a2ra5ia6 the inability to "ra or construct sim2le confi-urations.a meal. It is in$ol$e" in touch6 2ain6 an" taste sensation6 $isual an" s2atial 2erce2tion6 an" bo"y orientation. The au"itory corte5 sits at the lateral fissure an" has the siKe of a lar-e coin. Bama-e to the ri-ht tem2oral lobe can result in im2aire" 2erformance of s2atial tas. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . Bama-e to the ri-ht 2arietal lobe can result in "ifficulties ith s2atial 2erce2tion6 such as unilateral ne-lect6 the limite" conscious a areness of information comin. of the hemis2here 7ust abo$e the occi2ital lobe.Da2hasiaE an" calculation abilities DacalculiaE6 an" "ifficulty ith reco-nisin.is calle" the au"itory corte5. A""itional tem2oral lobe functions inclu"e beha$ioural e52ression6 the reco-nition of faces an" scenes6 as ell as e2iso"ic an" "eclarati$e memory6 i.no n about this lobe than about the other three lobes.s6 for e5am2le the ability to "ra .com 4a-e 2* .in. The a"7acent areas are in$ol$e" in hi-h=le$el au"itory 2rocessin-6 such as lan-ua-e 2erce2tion. The 2arietal lobe inte-rates $isual information an" constructs ma2s an" coor"inate systems that re2resent ho e see the en$ironment. Bama-e to the left 2arietal lobe can lea" to Gerstmann>s syn"rome hich inclu"es the confusion of left an" ri-ht6 im2airment of ith ritin. Wernic. If the tem2oral lobe is electrically stimulate"6 some 2ersons re2ort bein.en lan-ua-e. It seems that the 2arietal lobe is here e 2ut our orl" to-ether.bo"y 2arts Da-nosiaE.e>s area6 hich is locate" at the 7unction of the tem2oral an" 2arietal lobe6 is mainly res2onsible for the com2rehension of s2o. /or e5am2le6 they mi-ht feel they are at the same time in the . Another function of the 2arietal lobes is to combine letters into or"s6 an" or"s into sentences.thebi-$ie . Bama-e to the tem2oral lobes can cause a2hasia6 the loss of the ability to form an" com2rehen" lan-ua-e.itchen of their home6 coo. !uch less is . The 2arietal lobe is a relati$ely lar-e area locate" at the bac.2resent at t o 2laces at the same time.e. the memory an" retrie$al of e$ents an" facts as in te5tboo.
The 2rimary motor corte5 is locate" in the 2recentral -yrus of the frontal lobe6 runnin.com 4a-e 2# . :ate'alisation and the split b'ain( The t o hemis2heres of the cerebrum loo. ?lectrical stimulation of certain areas of the motor corte5 results in mo$ement of the associate" bo"y 2art. These t o areas o.e" to 2leasure6 moti$ation6 attention6 2roblem sol$in. from the 2rimary somatosensory corte5 to hich it is intricately lin. in con7unction ith the secon"ary motor corte56 locate" before to the 2rimary motor corte56 hich 2re2ares mo$ements an" combines series of mo$ements into coor"inate" se8uences.inca2able of 2lannin. In 2articular6 it is res2onsible for the hi-her functions6 such as reasonin-6 2lannin-6 or-anisin-6 2roblem sol$in-6 selecti$e attention6 an" 2ersonality.from the lon-itu"inal fissure at the to2 of the brain "o n to the lateral fissure. of inhibition6 an" "ifficulty in learnin. Other sym2toms inclu"e im2airment of short=term memory6 lac.e". The 2rimary motor corte5 recei$es fee"bac.6 elbo s6 han"s6 an" face.ne information. Broca>s area6 locate" at the base of the frontal lobe 7ust abo$e the 2arietal lobe6 is thou-ht to be res2onsible for the 2ro"uction of s2eech. /or instance6 the areas for the han" an" its in"i$i"ual fin-ers6 as ell as the area of the face an" its "ifferent 2arts are lar-er than the areas for other bo"y 2arts. The frontal lobe is hi-hly connecte" to the limbic system6 hich su--ests that it is in$ol$e" in emotions. !oreo$er6 it 2lays a . The 2rimary somatosensory corte56 locate" in the 2ostcentral -yrus behin" the 2rimary motor corte56 is the main sensory rece2ti$e area for the sense of touch. Bama-e to the 2rimary motor corte5 "isru2ts the ability to mo$e one bo"y 2art De.ey role in memory6 lan-ua-e 2rocessin-6 s2eech 2ro"uction6 an" mo$ement. This early fin"in.an" lon-=term memory.no n /rench country "octor foun" that all of his brain="ama-e" 2atients ith s2eech 2roblems suffere" in7uries to the left si"e of the brain."istracte" by irrele$ant stimuli. It controls mo$ements of s2ecific bo"y 2arts. almost i"entical6 but at closer ins2ection e fin" si-nificant "ifferences.-. one fin-erE in"e2en"ently of another. /rom to2 to bottom6 these are feet6 le-s6 hi26 trun. It controls much of the rest of the brain>s functions. Brain "ama-e to this area causes e52ressi$e a2hasia6 the inability to form sentences.antici2ate" mo"ern research of brain !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . Co-niti$e maturity in a"ulthoo" is associate" ith the maturation of cerebral fibres in the frontal lobe.The frontal lobe6 7ust behin" the forehea"6 is the lar-est of the four cortical lobes.an" e5ecutin-6 inca2able of com2rehen"in.thebi-$ie . The areas are not re2resente" in 2ro2ortion to the siKe of these bo"y 2arts.situations an" i"eas6 unable to focus attention6 an" bein. The frontal lobe contains a -reat number of "o2amine=sensiti$e neurons6 hich are lin. If the frontal lobes are "ama-e"6 the in"i$i"ual may sho sym2toms of "ementia6 such as becomin. It can also re"uce the s2ee" an" accuracy of mo$ements6 but it "oes not cause 2aralysis. In 1(*&6 a $irtually un.
com 4a-e 2I .e" in"e2en"ently. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .lateralisation.thebi-$ie . of com2artmentalisation. :eft 1ide Dominance Wor"s Cetters Can-ua-e 9oun"s /ene'al >unction Vision ?ight 1ide Dominance Geometric 4atterns /aces ?motional ?52ression 0on=lan-ua-e 9oun"s !usic Tactual 4atterns DBrailleE 92atial !o$ement 4atterns 0on$erbal !emory ?motional Content Au"ition Touch Com2le5 !o$ement Verbal !emory 92eech @ea"inWritinArithmetic !o$ement !emory Can-ua-e 92atial Ability Geometry Birection Bistance !ental @otation of 9ha2es Net6 it oul" be ron.the left an" ri-ht hemis2heres6 hich the brain uses to transfer si-nals bet een the hemis2heres. The cor2us callosum is a stran" of a22ro5. The hemis2heres of the brain or. !ore e5tensi$e research has sho n that the left an" ri-ht hemis2here>s in$ol$ement in certain functions is "is2ro2ortionate. In a famous e52eriment in the 1)I's6 the American neuro2sycholo-ist @o-er 92erry se2arate" the cor2us callosum6 to treat e2ile2tics. In7uries to the left si"e usually im2airs rea"in-6 ritin-6 s2ea. in tan"em as a com2le5 hole. Clinical e$i"ence su--ests that the t o si"es of the cerebrum ser$e "ifferent functions. The 2atients remaine" lar-ely normal6 but each hemis2here or. In7uries to the ri-ht si"e ha$e less "ramatic effects6 but ten" to affect s2atial 2erce2tion an" mo$ement. 0otably6 the left hemis2here of s2lit brain 2atients as ca2able of s2eech6 hereas the ri-ht hemis2here as not.to s2ea. 2'' million ner$e fibres connectin.in-6 calculation6 an" un"erstan"in-. +uman s2lit brain 2atients seeme" to ha$e t o in"e2en"ent brains6 each ith its o n abilities6 memories6 an" emotions.
A layer of fatty cells6 the myelin sheath 2unctuate" by the unsheathe" no"es of @an$ier6 insulates the a5ons of some neurons an" s2ee"s the im2ulses. it can -ro an" chan-e. They come in a -reat $ariety of sha2es an" siKes6 ho e$er6 most of them loo. 0eurons6 or ner$e cells6 are eu. At any rate6 the often cite" brain=com2uter analo-y is ine2t.e the one in the illustration belo .e fibre that transmits ner$e im2ulses from the neuron to other neurons. A5ons are only about one micrometre across6 but they can become e5tremely lon-. The cell bo"y DsomaE has a "iameter of only 1'=2I micrometres6 hich is 7ust a little bit more than its cell nucleus. The neuron is a s2ecial ty2e of cell hich 2rocesses an" transmits information by electrochemical means. 0eurons are foun" in the brain6 the s2inal chor"6 an" in the ner$es of the 2eri2heral ner$ous system.: the neuron.m lon-.thin-. It has an e5citable membrane hich allo s it to -enerate or 2ro2a-ate electrical si-nals6 a tree of "en"rites hich recei$e si-nals6 an" an a5on that transmits si-nals. Their 8uantity6 ho e$er6 is immense.com 4a-e 2& .information.thebi-$ie . It consists of the tar-et area6 hich may be a s2ine6 a "en"rite6 or a cell bo"y6 an" the syna2tic -a2 bet een the a5on terminal an" the recei$er cell. This coul" be com2are" to a I' cm calibre 2i2eline that runs 2''' . Fnli. /or instance6 the a5ons of the sciatic ner$e in the human bo"y may run a metre or lon-er from the s2ine to the toes. an" the 2rocesses of neural con"uction is much more com2le5 than si-nal con"uction in the lo-ical -ates of a com2uter chi2.arbour of cell 2ro7ections that recei$e si-nals from terminal buttons hich they con"uct to the cell bo"y.The Inne' Wo'0ings Of The %'ain Althou-h the structure an" or-anisation of the brain seems hi-hly com2licate"6 all the "ifferent 2arts boil "o n to the same fun"amental buil"in. The a5on is a cable=li. 0o com2uter on earth has that many connections or such a massi$ely 2arallel or-anisation. 0er$ous systems are a far cry from the sim2le fee" for ar" in2ut3out2ut circuits of a contem2orary com2uter. Thus the syna2se 2ro$i"es the functional connection bet een "ifferent cells. ?ach neuron has only one a5on hich usually branches out e5tensi$ely an" 2asses si-nals to multi2le tar-et cells.bloc.total of I''=1''' trillion connections ithin the brain. The human brain has rou-hly 1'' billion neurons6 each of them ha$in. The neuron has se$eral fun"amental characteristics. They are s2ecialise" in con"uctin.e a com2uter6 the brain is a li$in. li.se$eral thousan" connections to other neurons. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . The "en"rites are a branchin. Terminal buttons at the en" of each a5on branch connect the neuron to the recei$er cells $ia syna2ses. 0eurons are tiny. This comes u2 to a ho22in.aryotic cells hich resemble all other cells in the human bo"y ith one e5ce2tion.
It 2ro2a-ates throu-h the bo"y at a s2ee" of 1'=1'' metre 2er secon"6 "e2en"in. When ion channels in the cell membrane o2en6 the e5chan-e of ionise" elements throu-h the o2en channels causes an electric "ischar-e.thebi-$ie . This electrochemical 2rocess can be re2eate" 1'' times 2er secon". The neural im2ulse is either on or off6 hereas syna2tic con"uction 1 base" on the transmission of chemicals1 is -ra"ual. A neuron fires an im2ulse hen it is stimulate" by chemical messa-es from connecte" neurons6 or by 2ressure6 heat6 or li-ht.e fallin.5eu'al conduction( The 2rinci2le of neural con"uction can be "escribe" by neural im2ulses an" syna2tic transmission.2ause6 the neuron 2um2s 2ositi$ely char-e" atoms bac."ominoes. outsi"e the membrane6 after hich the neuron is rea"y to fire a-ain. The im2ulse "oesn>t tra$el li.e an electrical si-nal6 but rather throu-h successi$e "e2olarisation of a"7acent areas of the a5on membrane6 much li. Burin. This can be li.a $ery brief restin. "o n to the a5on an" is then carrie" a ay from the cell. This im2ulse6 calle" action 2otential6 is cause" by the "e2olarisation of the membrane 2otential of an e5citable cell.ene" to "i-ital an" analo-ue si-nal con"uction. This im2ulse tra$els throu-h the cell membrane an" the a5on hilloc. These are t o com2lementary metho"s of con"uction hich neurons are ca2able of. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .com 4a-e 2% . 0ormally an electrical 2otential e5ists bet een the insi"e an" outsi"e of the cell.on the ty2e of a5on.
This relati$ely sim2le beha$iour lies at the root of neural firin.them are -lutamic aci" an" -amma=aminobutyric aci" DGABAE6 hich are the 2rinci2al neurotransmitters in the human brain. +o e$er6 this "oes not ha22en.e. Glutamate is the most 2re$alent e5citatory !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . When a neural im2ulse reaches the . Thus a sin-le neuron beha$es a bit li. What ha22ens to the neurotransmitters after they are left in the syna2tic -a2? Ob$iously6 multi2le neurotransmitter releases from the terminal buttons oul" e$entually accumulate an" clo. These substances are 2ro"uce" by the soma6 the chemical factory insi"e the neuron. There is one thin. Amino aci"s are the most common neurotransmitters. In this case6 neuron B mi-ht not fire6 e$en if it recei$es a e5citatory 2otential from a stron. On the other han"6 neuron B mi-ht recei$e inhibitory messa-es from other syna2ses. There are t o ty2es of chan-es. @ece2tors on the 2ostsyna2tic membrane bin" the neurotransmitter molecules. The com2le5ity of neural firin. hy2er2olarisation causes an inhibitory 2otential.no n substances inclu"e nora"renalin6 "o2amine6 an" serotonin6 hich belon. The neuron>s status is either on or off6 i.a-e" into $esicles an" then recycle".to the -rou2 of monoamines. /or a $ery brief 2erio"6 ion channels on the 2ostsyna2tic membrane o2en to allo ions to rush in or out.no n as reu2ta.e a $ery brief rain sho er of neurotransmitters.the syna2se. Thus multi2le ea.2atterns.no le"-e e can un"erstan" ho neurons or. These $esicles are con$eye" throu-h the a5on to ar"s the terminal buttons throu-h s2ecial channels calle" microtubules6 hich are tiny 2i2elines runnin.a-e" in s2herical $esicles. They can be classifie" into fi$e "ifferent ty2es of substances: amino aci"s6 monoamines6 neuro2e2ti"es6 acetylcholine6 an" soluble -ases.nob=li. to-ether in the brain. With this . The ma7ority of neurotransmitters are almost imme"iately "ra n bac. 0euron A fires an" reaches neuron B $ia the syna2se AB. Other neurotransmitters are bro. ?lectrical syna2ses cou2le neurons electrically $ia -a2 7unctions.e an" enKymatic "e-ra"ation. firin-6 or at rest. 5eu'ot'ansmitte's and b'ain chemist'y( 0eurotransmitters are messen-er substances.e a relay. Be2olarisation causes an e5citatory 2ostsyna2tic 2otential. Amon.no n neurotransmitters hich am2lify6 relay6 or mo"ulate si-nals bet een neurons an" other cells. This causes the transmembrane 2otential of the recei$er cell to chan-e. The neurotransmitter molecules are usually 2ac. There they are re2ac.syna2se. This mechanism is .thebi-$ie . There are t o ty2e of syna2ses6 electrical an" chemical syna2ses.insi"e the a5on. There are t o mechanisms that terminate syna2tic transmission: reu2ta. Other ell= .e.9yna2tic transmission is "ifferent. e5citation can also tri--er a 2ostsyna2tic action 2otential. into the 2resyna2tic buttons after release. If the 2otential "oes not reach the threshol" $alue6 neuron B mi-ht still fire if it simultaneously recei$es e5citatory messa-es from other syna2ses.com 4a-e 2( . Chemical syna2ses or.2atterns arises from the nature of syna2tic connections.e terminals of the a5on it tri--ers a biochemical casca"e hich causes the $esicles to fuse ith the 2resyna2tic membrane an" release their neurotransmitters. It is li. 9yna2tic stren-th is "efine" by the chan-e in the transmembrane 2otential. There are some %I .e for-ot to mention6 ho e$er. throu-h the e5chan-e of s2ecial chemicals calle" neurotransmitters.enou-h to reach the action 2otential threshol"6 then neuron B fires. The neurotransmitter molecules then cross the syna2tic -a2 from the 2resyna2tic membrane to the 2ostsyna2tic membrane ithin 131'6'''th of a secon".en a2art by enKymes after transmission an" are thus "eacti$ate". If the 2ostsyna2tic 2otential is e5citatory an" if it is stron.
2leasure an" en7oyment6 hence6 "o2amine has also been terme" the :re ar" chemical<. Curare6 the 2oison use" by 9outh American In"ians for huntin. A neurotransmitter 2ro"uces either e5citation or inhibition. Bo2amine in the frontal lobe re-ulates the information flo from other areas of the brain hich is $ital to memory6 attention6 an" 2roblem sol$in-.e52eriences such as foo"6 se56 an" other stimulatine52eriences.horse neurotransmitters of the ner$ous system.ith "arts6 bloc. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . The rece2tor is the 2rotein molecule in the 2ostsyna2tic cell that bin"s the neurotransmitter an" initiates a reaction. Dopamine Bo2amine is crucial to 2hysical an" mental health.neurotransmitter in the mammalian central ner$ous system6 an" GABA is the most 2re$alent inhibitory neurotransmitter. Bo2amine is release" in the course of re ar"in. /lutamic acid and /A%A Glutamic aci" D-lutamateE an" Gamma=aminobutyric aci" DGABAE are the e5citatory an" inhibitory or. Acetylcholine Acetylcholine DAChE is the messen-er at 7unctions bet een motor neurons an" muscle cells.inson>s "isease hich is associate" ith "e2ression an" the loss of control of mo$ement. Glutamic aci" is also the 2recursor of GABA hich is synthesise" ith the hel2 of an enKyme hereby the e5citatory neurotransmitter is con$erte" into an inhibitory one.of ACh6 an" thus causes 2ainful contractions6 con$ulsions6 an" 2ossible "eath.s ACh rece2tors an" thus 2aralyses the $ictim.eys to certain rece2tor loc. If ACh release is bloc. To sim2lify thin-s6 e can ima-ine neurotransmitters as . It is belie$e" that -lutamic aci" is in$ol$e" in co-niti$e functions6 such as memorisin.e amyotro2hic lateral sclerosis6 lathyrism6 an" AlKheimerAs "isease.e" rece2tors6 chemically acti$ate" ion channels6 an" G=2rotein lin. It has a role in mo$ement6 co-nition6 2leasure6 an" moti$ation. A shorta-e of "o2amine an" the "eath of "o2amine neurons causes 4ar. i"o s2i"er tri--ers a syna2tic floo"in. By contrast6 the neuroto5in of the blac. Once a-ain6 there are "ifferent ty2es of rece2tors6 such as ion= channel lin. Glutamic aci" o$erstimulation is associate" ith "iseases li. Bo2amin "e2letion in the 2refrontal corte5 is associate" ith attention "eficit "isor"er an" schiKo2hrenia. Bisru2tions of the "o2amine system are also lin. Glutamic aci" e5cess can cause neuronal "ama-e an" e$entual cell "eath. +o e$er6 the most reco-nise" role of "o2amine in the brain is 2ro$i"in.com 4a-e 2) .an" learnin-6 because of its role in syna2tic 2lasticity.s6 hich 1once unloc.e" ith 2sychosis. Curare lea"s to "eath throu-h suffocation6 because the $ictim cannot contract the res2iratory muscles anymore. 0eurons containin. When ACh is release" to muscle cells6 the muscle contracts. Only in rare cases6 here the effect is "e2en"ent u2on the rece2tor subty2e6 a neurotransmitter causes both inhibition an" e5citation.e" rece2tors.thebi-$ie .e"6 the muscle cannot contract.e"1 initiate an e5citatory3inhibitory 2rocess in the 2ostsyna2tic cell.the neurotransmitter "o2amine are clustere" in the mi"brain in an area calle" the substantia ni-ra.
1# or more "ifferent rece2tor subty2es6 each of hich has a "istinct function in re-ulatinim2ulses6 moti$ation6 moo"s6 an" a22etite. 4roKac6 Roloft6 an" 4a5il6 hich act as serotonin reu2ta. The t o substances are structurally $ery similar an" they function both as neurotransmitters an" hormones.it effecti$ely a :master< neurotransmitter.the ma7or effects me"iate" by e2ine2hrine an" nore2ine2hrine are increase" heart rate6 bloo" $essel constriction an" increase" arterial bloo" 2ressure6 "ilation of bronchioles assistin.no n to unloc. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .in. These me"ications are use" to ai" or t ea.in 2ulmonary $entilation6 stimulation of the fat burnin. 9erotonin is .noise6 etc. There are anti"e2ressants on the mar. 9erotonin "iffers from other neurotransmitters in one res2ect.e an" re"uce serotonin le$els.a broa" ran-e of basic functions. an imbalance" serotonin system. Amon.2rocess6 "ilation of 2u2ils6 increase of metabolic rate an" muscle rea"iness6 an" inhibition of non=essential function6 such as "i-estion.or e5citinsituation.et6 e. ?n$ironmental stressors Dsuch as bri-ht li-hts6 2iercin.ey role in the re-ulation of moo"6 slee26 a22etite6 $omitin-6 an" se5uality6 an" because it is associate" ith a host of mental "isor"ers6 such as "e2ression6 bi2olar "isor"er6 an" an5iety.com 4a-e *' .E also cause release. It is able to mo"ulate the effect of other neurotransmitters6 ma. As neurotransmitters they me"iate chemical communication in the sym2athetic ner$ous system6 a branch of the autonomic ner$ous system.thebi-$ie . ?2ine2hrine an" nore2ine2hrine are release" into the bloo"stream from the ar"renal me"ulla. 9erotonin is im2ortant6 because it 2lays a .Epineph'ine and no'epineph'ine ?2ine2hrine Da"renalineE an" nore2ine2hrine Dnora"renalineE are the bo"y>s stress hormones hich are ty2ically in$ol$e" in fi-ht=or=fli-ht situations.e inhibitors an" thus increase the a$ailability of serotonin in the brain. The secretion of these substances is the 2hysiolo-ical res2onse to a threatenin. Other me"ications increase the serotonin reu2ta. 1e'otonin 9erotonin is an im2ortant neurotransmitter synthesise" by so=calle" serotoner-ic neurons in the brainstem. Co moo"s an" lo moti$ation are associate" ith lo serotonin le$els. The serotonin system is the lar-est sin-le system in the brain6 influencin.-.
I. Nour brain is a 2hysical ob7ect an" the 2rocesses insi"e your brain are ultimately 2hysical 2rocesses hich ha$e causal relationshi2s.enou-h to continue rea"in-. Whate$er you "o6 hether you sit "o n on a chair6 scratch your hea"6 or blo your nose6 is fully "etermine" by antece"ent causes an" coul" therefore not ha$e ha22ene" other ise.in. If you 2refer a less abstract account6 you coul" say that "eterminism $ie s the uni$erse as a -iant machine. ?$ery e$ent or 2henomenon has thus infinite causal tentacles attache" to it an" each of these tentacles reach en"lessly into the s2acetime history of the uni$erse. 4ro$i"e" that e ha$e money to 2ay for the chosen item an" that the restaurant has all the re8uire" in-re"ients6 there is no com2ulsion or necessity to or"er one item or another.e such "ecisions all the time.e it. They are "etermine" by the 2resent con"itions. I can also ar-ue from a 2hysicalist 2oint of $ie : All "ecisions ha22en in your brain. Actions are e$ents. Nou are a free a-ent ma. This $ie is anchore" in a mechanistic orl" $ie that un"erstan"s the uni$erse in terms of causal relations.a free choice. If an e$ent or act is cause"6 then it is causally "etermine". At least so it seems. *. &. 2. %.me an" you are sim2ly 2arts of this machine. It has occu2ie" the min"s of 2hiloso2hers for o$er t o millennia6 an" ="es2ite its sim2licity= it is one of the "ee2est6 most 2uKKlin.in. Causal "eterminism ar-ues from the 2remise that the future is "etermine" by the 2ast. +uman bein-s inclu"in.com 4a-e *1 .The @uestion Of >'ee Will The 8uestion of free ill is an im2ortant 8uestion in 2hiloso2hy.this6 for e5am2le6 you "eci"e hether this to2ic is interestin. /ree choice means the 2erson coul" ha$e acte" other ise. If an act that is causally "etermine"6 then actor coul" not ha$e acte" other ise. In fact6 e ma. This $ie is calle" "eterminism. This means that a "ecision can be $ie e" as a $olitional im2ulse6 or a certain brain state TA at a time tA 2rece"e" by another brain state T at a time t6 an" hich is e52laine" by the causal relationshi2 T==S TA. #. Therefore free choice "oesnAt e5ist. itAs all u2 to us. It is illustrate" most clearly in the thou-ht !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . ?$ery e$ent in the uni$erse is cause" by antece"ent e$ents6 hich are themsel$es cause" by other e$ents6 hich are a-ain cause" by other e$ents. It can be 2hrase" as follo s: We all belie$e intuiti$ely that e ha$e free ill. While you are rea"in. +ence6 free ill is an illusion. that is outer con"itions6 such as en$ironmental factors6 e$ents in your orl"6 e5ternal necessities an" inner con"itions such as your -enes6 mental state6 2references6 habits6 an" so on. A 2erson acts u2on his3her o n free choice.8uests in 2hiloso2hy. The P'oblem 1. /or e5am2le6 if e or"er lunch in a restaurant6 e belie$e that e are free to choose an item from the menu.any free choice at all6 but that your choices are alrea"y "etermine" by the time you ma.thebi-$ie . ?$ery e$ent has a cause. Dete'minism I coul" hol" a-ainst it that you are not ma.
There oul" be no nee" for la s. Net6 a cle$er "ebater may 7u5ta2ose the causal chains of "eterminism ith chains of free "ecisions an" construct a history of free ill. The !ar8uis sai" in his *ssai philosophi"ue sur les probabilit+s6 :We may re-ar" the 2resent state of the uni$erse as the effect of its 2ast an" the cause of its future.e the 2ast oul" be 2resent before its eyes.in. Causality cannot be trace" bac.e52eriment of :Ca2laceAs "emon< hich is name" after the 1)th century /rench scientist !ar8uis "e Ca2lace. An intellect hich at a certain moment oul" . Thir"6 the "eterministic $ie "oes !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .a 2ro-ram. to the restaurant e5am2le. What I am "oin. for such an intellect nothin. 9econ"6 the "eterministic $ie in$ali"ates moral 8uality of actions an" ethical choices6 since humans follo a 2lot an" are therefore not more res2onsible for their acts as a machine is res2onsible for 2rocessin. The buc.that "ecisions emanate from me6 rather than me beincause" to act in a certain ay. I am im2lyin.one action amon$arious alternati$es. To illustrate this6 letAs -o bac.e" chain of causes.thebi-$ie . beyon" my inner orl". /or e5am2le6 I oul" not be able to or"er a 2iKKa in a sushi restaurant. Without these ca2abilities6 human bein-s oul" be 2retty much li.hours. Net6 this choice as also 2artly "etermine" by e5ternal factors6 such as the 2ro5imity of the restaurant an" the o2enin."eterminism: +ar" "eterminism6 hich re7ects free ill alto-ether6 results in se$eral absur"ities. /irst6 the absence of free ill contra"icts our "irect e52erience.or 2raisin.u2 an" "o n in a "eterministic ocean.factor can be attribute" to my antece"ent free choice6 namely the choice of the restaurant. Without moral res2onsibility6 there oul" be no 2oint in 2unishin.control o$er future e$ents. D2E that human bein-s are either e5em2te" from causal "eterminism6 or that causal "eterminism is not a22licable to the min".< :ibe'ta'ianism Althou-h Ca2laceAs i"ea of an :iron bloc.here6 is $ie in.e min"less buoys ho belie$e they can s im6 hile they are really 7ust bobbin. sto2s here. I coul" say that my choice of lunch is com2letely free6 e5ce2t for the limitations -i$en by the menu.com 4a-e *2 .oul" be uncertain an" the future 7ust li.choices as e5ercisin. /or e5am2le6 it assi-ns the ca2abilities of "eliberation6 self=control6 self=mo"eration6 self=-ui"ance6 an" e$en self=mastery to human bein-s. A com2assionate human bein.2eo2le for their actions.is then sim2ly a com2assion machine6 hile a mur"erer is a mur"er machine. The limitin. There are a fe thin-s hich s2ea. !ost im2ortantly6 libertarianism assi-ns moral res2onsibility for their actions to human bein-s. In other or"s6 my 2remise is that my "ecisions are self=cause".no all forces that set nature in motion6 an" all 2ositions of all items of hich nature is com2ose"6 if this intellect ere also $ast enou-h to submit these "ata to analysis6 it oul" embrace in a sin-le formula the mo$ements of the -reatest bo"ies of the uni$erse an" those of the tiniest atom. in fa$our of this 2osition. We e52erience the act of ma. uni$erse< is no obsolete6 the "eterminist ar-ument is still com2ellin-. A-ain6 I coul" ar-ue that I ha$e 2re$iously chosen my location as ell as the time to a22ear at the location6 an" so on.the same e$ents from a 2ers2ecti$e that em2hasises $olition rather than the e5ternal circumstances. Thus libertarians often "efen" their 2osition by "econstructin. This $ie is calle" libertarianism6 or rather metaphysical libertarianism in or"er to "istin-uish it from political libertarianism. !eta2hysical libertarianism is foun"e" on t o assum2tions: D1E that human bein-s are rational a-ents ho 2osses the ca2acity of freely choosin. @ationality oul" be im2ossible ithout the ca2acity of choice. It is "ifficult to e$a"e the lo-ic of a lin.
This ar-ument is not terribly coherent6 because e$en if e assume that the nature of min" is in"eterministic at some le$el6 there is nothin.ature he states6 :9ince reason alone can ne$er 2ro"uce any action6 or -i$e rise to $olition6 I infer6 that the same faculty is as inca2able of 2re$entin. P'oblems of libe'ta'ianism and indete'minism As e can see6 har" "eterminism has some fla s. In his Treatise of Human .that the uni$erse itself is not com2letely "eterministic an" that there are in"eterministic 2henomena =such as 8uantum 2henomena= ith un2re"ictable outcomes6 hich affor" human bein-s free"om of choice.a causal beha$iour 2attern6 e can say e are tra22e" in this 2attern until e become a are of it. +o e$er6 he ma. This is achie$e" by 2osin.thebi-$ie . Beterminism "oes not account for this 2henomenon.a free choice6 as a con$entional D"eterministicE com2uter.not accommo"ate recursion ell6 such as self=a areness an" reflection. In both cases6 choices are the result of an anonymous 2rocess6 rather than the result of the "eliberation of a rational a-ent. +e cham2ione" the $ie that there is no fun"amental contra"iction bet een "eterminism an" free ill an" that both conce2ts are com2atible.the 2reference ith any 2assion or emotion. The naturalistic 2osition a$oi"s "ualism by claimin. /or e5am2le6 an Din"eterministicE 8uantum com2uter is 7ust a far from ma. What about its antithesis6 libertarianism? 1 The bi--est challen-e for libertarians is to e52lain uncause" $olition6 that is ho "ecision ma. This 2osition amounts to "ualism an" therefore suffers from the same shortcomin-s as "ualism. Cibertarians usually choose to ar-ue from either a su2ernatural or a naturalistic 2osition.in. A choice that is in no ay "etermine"6 is sim2ly a ran"om e$ent.eu2 of a 2erson. The su2ernatural 2osition is base" on the i"ea that the human min" is e5em2t from or"inary causality. ?5am2les for unfree acts oul" be han"in. It cannot e52lain the 8uantum lea2 in consciousness re8uire" for self=a areness.o$er your money to a robber ho hol"s a !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . Compatibilism A solution for this 2roblem as su--este" by the British 2hiloso2her Ba$i" +ume D1%11=1%%&E. /or e5am2le6 if e act follo in. Once e become a are of the cause an" effect of our o n beha$iour6 ho e$er6 this a areness influences our beha$iour6 an" 2ossibly e$en chan-es it 2ersistently.the notion of reason actin. An in"eterministic "ecision is therefore 7ust as unfree as a "eterministic "ecision.< /or +ume it is rather 2assion6 "esire6 an" emotion hich cause $olition an" he conclu"es =in accor"ance ith the "eterministic $ie = that these are cause" an" "etermine" by the character6 beliefs6 an" the o$erall 2sycholo-ical ma.u2on $olition. This means that in"eterminism raises e5actly the same 2roblems as "eterminism.in.-aine" in terms of free"om.an entity6 such as a soul or min"6 hich e5ists a2art from the causal machinery of the uni$erse.acts brou-ht about throu-h the a22lication of force.es the im2ortant "istinction that human bein-s ha$e free ill on account of the hypothetical ability to chose "ifferently un"er "ifferent circumstances.com 4a-e ** . Accor"in. !ore -enerally6 it cannot account for the 2henomenon of a areness itself.$olition6 or of "is2utin. +e be-ins ith re7ectin. This means: for any -i$en situation6 if one either has a "ifferent 2sycholo-ical "is2osition or if the e5ternal circumstances are "ifferent6 then the outcome of the "ecision ill also be "ifferent.e5 nihilo actually ha22ens.to +ume6 this is hat free ill really means6 as o22ose" to coercion6 meanin.
es choices. But hat about conscious "ecision ma. What "oes this im2ly in $ie of free ill? Intuiti$ely e mi-ht say that subconscious "ecisions are unfree or to a lesser "e-ree free than conscious "ecisions. . A Mode'n !ie" We ha$e "iscusse" the classical $ie s on free ill an" "eterminism. The subconscious is the 2art of the min" that o2erates an" 2rocesses information outsi"e the focus of a areness. Incompatibilism 0ee"less to say that this ar-ument "i" not satisfy e$eryone.been able to "o other ise. O$er the 2ast "eca"es6 2sycholo-ists ha$e collecte" con$incin.in-6 nor on the internal neural or.in-. Accor"into incom2atibilism6 free ill e5ists only if D1E there are alternati$e 2aths of actions a$ailable to the a-ent6 an" if D2E the a-ent is not in any ay 2re"etermine" to choose one of these 2aths.2rocesses6 or hat e call rational thou-ht. This "oes of course lea" bac.in-: hat mental 2rocesses are in$ol$e" in "ecision ma.to the inner reality of the "ecision ma. 9ince rational thin.an" hether they can be e52laine" ith strict causal mo"els.in-s of "ecision ma.in.in-. In this re-ar"6 subconscious "ecisions arenAt much "ifferent from the heartbeat an" from other autonomic functions.2o er an" the conscious min" can be li. An im2ortant mo"ern conce2t is the subconscious. The classical ar-uments of "eterminism an" libertarianism are still $ali"6 but they neither she" much li-ht on the 2sycholo-y of "ecision ma.e 2lace either consciously or subconsciously6 or 2erha2s also semi=consciously. In the meantime6 science has -aine" more insi-ht into the 2sycholo-ical an" 2hysiolo-ical as2ects of "ecision ma.-un to your hea"6 or a mentally insane 2erson ho acts u2on the im2osition of hallucinations. to the 8uestion of the nature of "ecision ma.it is.ene" to a narro ly focuse" hi-h=ener-y beam.e mo$in. What about conscious beha$iour6 li. !ore than a century earlier6 Thomas +obbes D1I((=1&%)E ha" ma"e a similar ar-ument. Thus for the classical com2atibilists6 the causal mental factors that effectuate choice are sim2ly a non= issue. The notion that free ill e8uals uncoerce" choice is also 2resent in +obbes ar-ument. Both 2arts of min" are thorou-hly connecte" an" o2erate to-ether as a hole. that only conscious "ecisions can be calle" free6 because only these in$ol$e reasonin. The incom2atibilist a-rees that absence of coercion is necessary for free ill6 but "enies that it is sufficient.e$i"ence not only for its e5istence6 but also for the fact that the $ast ma7ority of information that our bo"ies recei$e is 2rocesse" subconsciously6 hich means ithout us bein. Becision ma."oes not ta.in.horse ith massi$e 2arallel 2rocessin.er.com 4a-e *# .ene" to a or. +e state" 8uite sim2ly that a 2erson acts freely if that 2erson ille" the act hile ha$in. +obbes a""s that ill itself is not free6 but only the 2erson e5ercisin. another 8uestion6 namely hether "ecisions -enerally ori-inate consciously or subconsciously. +ence6 incom2atibilism is the 2osition that free ill an" "eterminism are mutually e5clusi$e.uite a fe "eterminists an" libertarians see com2atibilism merely as a rhetoric "e$ice that e$a"es the 2roblem of free ill by shiftin.in-? Before e "iscuss this 8uestion6 e must first as. Whether they are "eterministic or in"eterministic in nature "oesnAt matter6 since they are holly o ne" by the 2erson ho e5ercises ill an" ma.in.an arm6 for e5am2le? !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .2ers2ecti$e to a mo"al ar-ument ithout referrin.mental 2ro-rams an" memories. The subconscious min" can thus be li.e 2lace subconsciously6 subconscious "ecisions ha22en mechanically an" are therefore in some ay 2re"etermine" by the e5istin.can ta.a are of it. We ten" to thin.thebi-$ie .
A areness chan-es this. /or e5am2le6 au"io$isual consciousness may alert us about an a22roachin.this lies is in the 2hrase :becomin. There are certainly many mechanical actions e 2erform ith minimal a areness. It isnAt us mo"ifyin.es its be-innin.a are<. 0o hat ha22ene"? Bi" e e5ercise free ill? The .$ehicle an" hel2 us to "etermine hether bo"y mo$ements are re8uire" to a$oi" collision. Only hen there is a sufficient 2otential becomes the $olitional im2ulse conscious.Brain stu"ies ha$e sho n that mo$ement6 hich is controlle" by the motor corte56 is 2rece"e" by the buil"=u2 of an electrical 2otential in the brain calle" :rea"iness 2otential<. The ener-y D illE nee"e" to alter the course of e$ents an" actions comes from a "ifferent source. Breathin-6 blin.as e are una are an" not self=reflectin-6 thin-s ta. They ta.action is e5ecute" by the bo"y6 ho e$er6 e become a are of our an-er as ell as of our intention to ban. In the abo$e e5am2le6 consciousness 2erforms the function of a atchful 2oliceman6 obser$in.ey to un"erstan"in. Before the table ban-in.in-6 scratchin. To use a meta2hor from 8uantum mechanics6 one coul" say that the re$erse of a a$e colla2se occurs. Analo-ously6 consciousness stan"s -uar" at the "oors of 2erce2tion in the other "irection6 from the outer to the inner orl".eyboar" to 2ro"uce a certain or" are ty2ical e5am2les of lo =le$el actions6 hich are often Dthou-h not al aysE 2erforme" unconsciously. These are 2ossible courses of action hich su""enly become a$ailable an" accessible to our min" on account of a areness. As the an-er rises ithin us6 e mi-ht feel the im2ulse to ban. There is only one outcome ith near 1''T 2robability6 hich is actin.our fist on the table. What are the im2lications? Bo all "ecisions ori-inate unconsciously? Are e causality="ri$en robots ith the lu5ury of e5 2ost a areness? Conscious 1elf&?eflection And Alte'native ?ealities The ans er to this 8uestion lies in the nature of consciousness.an itch6 al.our internal state illin-ly. This obser$ation su--ests that $olition Dto mo$e a bo"y 2artE ta.eys on a .in the subconscious min". There is no a-ent.thebi-$ie . These alternati$es 8uic. If there is no a areness of our internal state an" of the conse8uences of our actions6 then e can only act on the im2ulse. In a s2lit secon"6 e "eci"e that this is not an a22ro2riate reaction to the situation6 because it oul" offen" an" irritate 2eo2le.es a "ecision. ?motions6 feelin-s6 an" $olitions all arise subconsciously. At the $ery moment e self=reflect an" become a are of our internal state6 that same state is ine$itably mo"ifie". The role of consciousness is not to inter$ene6 but to create alternati$e 2ossibilities.obser$able.on the im2ulse.e their linear machine=li.mental e$ents as they mo$e out ar" from the inner to the outer 2hysical orl". +ere is an e5am2le: Cet us say e -et an-ry about somethin-. As lon. 0otably6 this rea"iness 2otential buil"s u2 before the 2erson becomes a are of their intention to mo$e. +o e$er6 the outcome of that "ecision may be crucially "ifferent from the outcome ithout self=reflection.com 4a-e *I .our fist on the table. 9trictly !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .ly colla2se a-ain into a sin-le reality as soon as the min" ma.in-6 or e$en hittin. It is 7ust consciousness affectin. Instea" of a sin-le outcome ith 1''T 2robability6 there are su""enly se$eral su2er2ose" 2ossible outcomes6 each ith nT 2robability. Consciousness thus ste2s in6 $etoes the "ecision6 an" or"ers the motor corte5 to loosen the fist.e on a "ifferent 8uality on account of bein.e course. Once these mental e$ents rise to the surface an" enter the li-ht of consciousness6 ho e$er6 thin-s su""enly chan-e. +o e$er6 consciousness "oes not ha$e the ca2ability to chan-e e$ents on its o n.a se8uence of .our internal 2rocessin-.
s2ea.no le"-es the e5istence of internal conscious states an" claims that these can be fully e52laine" by neuroscience. It ten"s to see the min" as a hy2othetical construct6 "isre-ar"ininternal states entirely6 only consi"erin. Althou-h i-norant of the e5istence of ra"io a$es6 he is confi"ent that he un"erstan"s the ori-in of the $oices an" ima-es in the TV.no le"-e about the brain an" the ner$ous system6 it "i" not DyetE 2ro"uce a $iable theory of consciousness. Once the alternati$e 2ossibilities are re$eale"6 $olitional ener-y mi-ht ta.er6 or a "ot of li-ht on the !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . The other -rou2 of scientists ac.no n as materialism6 re"uctionism6 functionalism6 an" biolo-ical naturalism. One must therefore as. It oul" seem that the scientific metho"6 hich relies on re2eatable e52eriments to test a hy2othesis6 reaches its limits hen "ealin. 9cientists ha$e res2on"e" to these 2roblems in t o ays. The in$esti-ation of inner 2henomena in$ol$es sub7ecti$e6 i"iothetic accounts6 hereas the in$esti-ation of outer 2henomena in$ol$es ob7ecti$e6 $erifiable accounts.a $olta-e to certain 2oints 2ro"uces an au"ible noise in the s2ea. hether science is able to e52lain consciousness at all. It 7ust re$eals them to us. One -rou2 claims that consciousness is not a scientific conce2t to be-in ith6 that its is too $a-ue6 an" that claims in$ol$in.consciousness are un$erifiable. Althou-h science has 2ro"uce" a -reat "eal of . The materialist $ie occasionally a22ears li.com 4a-e *& . There is a $ariety of such $ie s6 .e5ternal states Dbeha$iourE.e a "ifferent course in the same ay as a ri$er mi-ht ta.e a "ifferent course hen it hits u2on a ne ly foun" channel or trench. 9cience 2ostulates a materialist un"erstan"in.in-6 consciousness "oes not e$en create these 2ossibilities. This 2osition as ta.s< DBennettE an" that =by an" lar-e= it has alrea"y been e52laine" by neuroscience. To further com2licate thin-s6 consciousness is about inner Dfirst=2ersonE e52erience an" its sub7ecti$e 8ualities6 hereas science relies on i"eas an" e52eriences that can be obser$e" an" $erifie" by thir" 2arties. 9ome 2ro2onents of these $ie s assert that consciousness is a :ba. After he has carefully "isassemble" the TV6 he is able to "emonstrate that a22lyin.ith consciousness.thebi-$ie .e that of the mythical tribesman ho "isco$ere" a TV set. As this results in an alteration of the flo of internal DmentalE an" e5ternal D2hysicalE e$ents6 it affor"s us the im2ression of free ill.en to the e5treme by the 2'th century beha$iourist mo$ement6 hich sim2ly i-nores consciousness. But 2erha2s this is 7um2in. 5onlocal Consciousness !any re-ar" consciousness as the final frontier of science.to conclusions.of consciousness6 but there are si-nificant -a2s in this un"erstan"in-.of tric. Net6 it is neither free ill in the classical sense6 since there is no a-ent in$ol$e"6 nor is it a strictly mechanical 2rocess as su--este" by classical "eterminism. There is the seemin-ly intractable 2roblem that consciousness cannot be measure"6 "etecte"6 or 8uantifie" in any ay.
It 2ostulates that min" is a hi-her=or"er system that can be re"uce" =in 2rinci2le= to the biolo-ical system of the human brain an" bo"y. These 2henomena sho the limits of the current mainstream DmaterialisticE un"erstan"in.screen.ee2 on"erin. u2 ra"io a$es an" translate them into $olta-es to -enerate ima-es an" soun"s.immaterial6 such as conscious e52erience6 arises from somethin. The 2roblem ith this a22roach is that re"uctionism cannot 2oint out the !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 .e" out ho the electron beam can be mo"ulate" to create a matri5 of "ots.in:su2ernatural< ra"io a$es. It is the failure to e52lain ho somethin.to e5ternal si-nals an" stimuli ithout bein. On account of these "isco$eries6 he trium2hantly "eclares that the $oices an" 2ictures are 2ro"uce" insi"e the electronic circuits of the TV set an" that the o2eratin. !aterialism offers t o "ifferent a22roaches to "eal ith the :2roblem< of min": re"uctionism an" emer-entism. It seems too mechanical to them an" they .e the TV set to ra"io si-nals? CetAs call this the nonlocal mo"el of consciousness. 0o scientist has mana-e" to e52lain ho 8ualia arise an" hy they arise. Net6 his fello tribesmen are not 8uite satisfie" ith this e52lanation. at fi$e such 2oints: aE the e2istemic -a2 in materialism6 bE the absence of a neural correlate of consciousness6 cE out=of=bo"y e52eriences DOB?sE6 "E near="eath e52eriences D0B?sE6 an" eE the measurement 2roblem in 8uantum 2hysics.hy the $oices an" ima-es in the TV set a22ear so real.com 4a-e *% . The TV ima-es an" soun"s are neither local to the TV set6 nor "o they ha$e a life of their o n.conscious of them. After all6 e can 2erfectly ell ima-ine an or-anism res2on"in. What if the brain an" ner$ous system relate to consciousness li. The epistemic gap The e2istemic -a26 also .material6 such as the brain. +e has e$en or. an" e"it functions6 an" mental chatter to au"io$isual noise. If e acce2t the nonlocal mo"el of consciousness 2ro$isionally6 e can com2are TV rece2tion to sense 2erce2tion. We all .thebi-$ie .of consciousness an" 2ro$i"e theoretical su22ort for the nonlocal mo"el of consciousness. The biolo-ical system can in turn be re"uce" to chemistry6 hich can a-ain be re"uce" to 2hysics. There are a number of theoretical consi"erations an" 2henomena that 2oint in this "irection.< This situation is 2erha2s analo-ous to 2resent "ay consciousness research.to re"uctionism= min" is ultimately 2hysical.no that a TVs ha$e an antenna an" a recei$er that 2ic. In the remain"er of this section6 e ill loo.function6 thou-hts to the 2laybac. @e"uctionism ar-ues that it is 2rinci2ally 2ossible to re"uce hi-her= or"er systems to lo er=or"er systems. /urthermore6 if the ner$ous system3brain functions as recei$er3mo"ulator of consciousness rather than its 2ro"ucer6 it follo s that consciousness is not base" on the brain6 but that the brain is base" on consciousness. They are 2ro"uce" else here an" transmitte" by ra"io a$es. Therefore =accor"in.hole in materialist ontolo-y. The tribal scientist 7ustifies himself: :We ha$e not or. The e2istemic -a2 can also be 2hrase" as follo s: +o "oes sub7ecti$e e52erience arise from electrochemical 2rocesses in the brain? 9ub7ecti$e e52erience =or 8ualia= seems to be entirely non2hysical.no n as the e52lanatory -a26 is the -a2in. This mi-ht be com2are" to the i"ea that TV ima-es an" soun"s are 2ro"uce" insi"e the TV set. !ainstream scientists an" 2hiloso2hers belie$e that consciousness is base" on an" 2ro"uce" by the brain. Ob$iously6 in case of the TV set6 it is only half the truth. We can com2are 8ualia Dconscious e52erienceE to TV ima-es an" soun"s.e" out all the "etails yet6 but e un"erstan" the 2rinci2le. e can com2are memories to the recor"in.2rinci2le of the TV set can be e52laine" ithout in$o.
There are no neural correlates for thou-ht6 beliefs6 an" i"eas. The non=re"uctionist a22roach =. This effort has only 2artly been successful.of the 21st century6 conscious e52erience remains as eni-matic as e$er.in. In fact6 most neuroscientists ha$e -i$en u2 the search for the neural correlate of conscious e52erience. Absence of a neu'al co''elate of consciousness The /rench 2hiloso2her @enQ Bescartes hel" that the soul as locate" in the 2ineal -lan" an" that consciousness emanates from it.ith res2ect to their B=2ro2erties.causal relationshi2s in$ol$e" in each ste2 of the re"uction.thebi-$ie . to ancient ?-y2t6 mo"ern neuroscience be-an in the latter half of the 2'th century.e a22ealin. 9u2er$enience cannot e52lain hy 2ro2erties are relate" as they a22ear. F2on closer ins2ection6 e fin" that emer-entism suffers from the same 2roblem as re"uctionism. This stron-ly su--ests that the e2istemic -a2 cannot be bri"-e" by materialism. It is not an e52lanation at all. 9ince then6 neuroscientific research has 2ro"uce" a massi$e amount of "ata an" .com 4a-e *( .a22roach. We can correlate motor action to the motor corte56 $ision to the o2tical ner$e an" the $isual corte56 certain feelin-s such as arousal6 2leasure6 an" e5citement to neurotransmitters. This is not to say that it elu"es neuroscience com2letely. Out&of&body e*pe'iences Out=of=bo"y e52eriences DOB?sE are ostensibly base" on the se2aration of consciousness from the bo"y. It fails to account for the causal relationshi2s bet een hi-her an" lo er or"er systems.2ace. !any e2i2henomena of conscious e52erience =from brain a$es an" brain chemistry to neural acti$ity= ha$e been e52lore" an" can be matche" to certain ty2es of e52erience. +ence6 in$o. Net6 it is 2henomenal e52erience itself that 2uKKles scientists. The absence of a neural correlate su--ests that consciousness "oes not ori-inate or resi"e in the brain at all. +o e$er6 the search for the neural correlate of consciousness has come u2 em2ty. At the be-innin.no n as emer-entism= hol"s that the hi-her=or"er system emer-es from the lo er=or"er system on account of su2er$enience.to ma-ic. /or e5am2le6 e can correlate the ca2acity of s2eech to the Wernic. On this account6 re"uctionism fails. This is often cite" as the first attem2t to relate consciousness to a biolo-ical structure. While the stu"y of the brain can be trace" bac.su2er$enience is a bit li.system. The conce2t of su2er$enience is "efine" as follo s: A set of 2ro2erties A is sai" to su2er$ene u2on another set B if no t o thin-s can "iffer ith res2ect to A=2ro2erties ithout also "ifferin.no le"-e about the brain hich is still -ro in. One of the -oals of neuroscience is to correlate mental states ith bio2hysical states6 systems an" 2rocesses in the brain. In other or"s6 any "ifference in the hi-her=or"er system im2lies a "ifference in the lo er or"er=system. They feel that it is the ron. Those ho e52erience an OB? re2ort that they see their o n bo"y from the outsi"e6 that they float throu-h s2ace6 an" that they can 2enetrate !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . There is no causal e52lanation that lea"s from brain states to 8ualia. Beca"es of research "i" not 2ro"uce hat as ori-inally en$isione" by neuroscientists 1 the correlate or substrate of 2henomenal consciousness. It is sai" that min" su2er$enes on the biolo-ical system an" that min" "is2lays ne emer-ent 2ro2erties hich are not intrinsic to the un"erlyin.e an" Broca areas.at a fascinatin.
Althou-h an OB? often occurs s2ontaneously6 or as a conse8uence of bo"y trauma6 it can also be self=in"uce".brain. /or e5am2le6 the sub7ect mi-ht re2ort about 2eo2le in another room6 or thin-s that are outsi"e the fiel" of $ision an" cannot 2ossibly be 2ercei$e" throu-h the sense or-ans.effect that 0B?s are .com 4a-e *) .thebi-$ie . Both theories are 2roblematic6 because the first relies on the 2aranormal conce2t of an :astral bo"y<6 an" the secon" theory cannot account for the com2le5ity of the e52erience an" its $eri"ical as2ects. 9e$eral $eri"ical OB?s ha$e occurre" un"er laboratory con"itions. Br. the other says nothin. /or e5am2le6 they hol" that the e52erience of a tunnel an" bri-ht li-ht is cause" by the loss of cell function in the $isual system "ue to ano5ia Dlac. /urthermore6 if 0B?s ere a "ru-=in"uce"6 one oul" e52ect the e52erience to ha$e 2ersonal ran"om contents6 much li. $. !ainstream science cannot e52lain these fin"in-s. B!T is also release" at ni-ht time "urin. Br. Greyson6 !. 5ea'&death e*pe'iences 0ear="eath e52eriences D0B?sE are re2orte" by 1'T=1IT of all 2eo2le ho fin" themsel$es in a life=threatenin.that lea$es the bo"y. There are many re2orts of so=calle" $eri"ical OB?s.slee26 thou-h in smaller 8uantities6 an" it "oes not ha$e the life=chan-in. 4im $an Commel an" Br.to neuroscience= there shoul" not be any conscious e52erience at all.soli" ob7ects. !oo"y et al in the 1)%'s."eath that ha$e reco-nisable features6 such as a sense of ell=bein-6 lo$e6 an" 2eace6 mo$ement throu-h a tunnel or a 2assa-e6 a bri-ht s2iritual li-ht6 meetin"ecease" relati$es an" frien"s an"3or s2iritual bein-s. The most astoun"inobser$ation is that consciousness continues after clinical "eath.situation "ue to critical sur-ery6 car"iac arrest6 an acci"ent6 or some other cause. Charles Tart has con"ucte" an e52eriment here the sub7ect has correctly i"entifie" a I="i-it number that as 2lace" on to2 of a shelf =in$isible to the sub7ect= after an OB?. +o e$er6 hile e$ery 2atient ith car"iac arrest e52eriences ano5ia6 not e$eryone e52eriences an 0B? an" not e$ery 0B? features a tunnel e52erience6 hich 8uestions the causal connection. 4arnia6 4. @e2orts of con-enitally blin" 2eo2le ho ere su""enly able to e52erience $ision in !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . A-ain6 B!T release "oes not necessarily result in an 0B?. 0B?s are conscious e52eriences at im2en"in. With a 2re$alence of IT=1'T6 OB?s are more common than -enerally belie$e".e a "ream or an C9B tri2. ?52erience" out=of=bo"y tra$ellers can 2rolonthe e52erience an" tra$el at ill. 9ince most of these 2eo2le en" u2 in a hos2ital6 the con"itions for scientific stu"y are fa$ourable. Other sce2tics ar-ue that the e52erience is cause" by the release of "imethyltry2tamine DB!TE or en"or2hines in the brain. @ecent stu"ies ha$e sho n that these e52eriences can occur e$en hen neuronal acti$ity in the brain has cease"6 so that =accor"in. Commel an" others. These in$ol$e correct accounts of remote ob7ects6 e$ents6 or 2eo2le hich are later $erifie" by a thir" 2erson. The first case stu"ies ere 2ublishe" by ?. KUbler=@oss6 @. of o5y-enE.no n for. 9ce2tics ar-ue that 0B?s are cause" by 2hysiolo-ical 2rocesses in the "yin. !ichael 9abom re2orte" *2 cases of car"iac arrest 2atients ho ere able to "escribe their resuscitation in -reat "etail.ha$e 2ublishe" similar stu"ies ith ell o$er 1'' cases of $eri"ical OB?s. Br.lea$es the bo"y an" that OB?s are com2le5 hallucinations cause" by non=or"inary brain states. !orse6 9. There are t o theories about it: one says that there is somethin. Veri"ical OB?s can be e52laine" if e assume that consciousness is nonlocal to the brain. Kenneth @in. 9ince then a lar-e amount of re2orts an" stu"ies ith thousan"s of cases ha$e been collecte"6 more recently by B.
While 4A4 is consi"ere" s2eculati$e6 many scientists feel that the classical 2ara"i-m of a se2arate obser$er can be 8uestione" an" that the role of consciousness nee"s to be ree$aluate" in $ie of 8uantum mechanics.< Measu'ement p'oblem in 4uantum mechanics In short6 the measurement 2roblem in 8uantum mechanics is the 2roblem ho an" hy 9chrW"in-erAs a$e function colla2ses u2on measurement. To"ay6 there are se$eral $ariations of this inter2retation. In abstract terms6 the a$e function colla2se "escribes the re"uction of a system of 2otentialities to a sin-le "efinite state.brain.non=locally ith 2hysical systems coul" therefore be an im2ortant element in un"erstan"in.s at the subatomic le$el.ey 8uestions6 namely ho nature beha$es at the subatomic le$el6 hether nature is "eterministic or non="eterministic6 an" hether the obser$er 2lays a causal role in the a$e function colla2se.fun"amentally chan-es one>s o2inion about "eath6 because of the almost una$oi"able conclusion that at the time of 2hysical "eath consciousness ill continue to be e52erience" in another "imension6 in an in$isible an" immaterial orl"6 the 2hase=s2ace6 in hich all 2ast6 2resent an" future is enclose". 4im Van Commel rites in his 2a2er %bout The Continuity Of Our Consciousness: :Accor"in. Br. WheelerAs Anthro2ic 4rinci2le. The or" :colla2se< "escribes a transition from a su2er2osition of "ifferent states of a 2article6 as "escribe" by 9chrW"in-erAs a$e function6 to a sin-le state u2on interaction. 9o far6 there is no coherent 2hysiolo-ical e52lanation for the 0B? 2henomenon. @esearch on 0B? cannot -i$e us the irrefutable scientific 2roof of this conclusion6 because 2eo2le ith an 0B? "i" not 8uite "ie6 but they all ere $ery6 $ery close to "eath6 ithout a functionin.com 4a-e #' .thebi-$ie .an 0B? ma.an" Bohr in the 1)2's6 an" it became later synonymous ith in"eterminism an" BohrAs corres2on"ence 2rinci2le. It as first formulate" by +eisenber.e biolo-ical e52lanations e$en har"er. The measurement of 2hysical 8uantum system al ays results in a "efinite state6 hereas the a$e function "escribes the e$olution of the same system as a multitu"e of su2er2ose" states6 each ith a certain 2robability.of a$es6 an" that it ori-inates in the 2hase=s2ace.H. The i"ea of consciousness interactin. OVP 9uch un"erstan"in. !in" an" Consciousness 1 htt2:33 . 9ince it asserts colla2se u2on measurement6 one 2articular $ersion of the Co2enha-en inter2retation 2osits that colla2se is cause" by a conscious obser$er6 hich im2lies that consciousness 2lays a 2artici2atory role in the measurement.to our conce2t6 -roun"e" on the re2orte" as2ects of consciousness e52erience" "urin. These inter2retations re$ol$e aroun" se$eral .car"iac arrest6 e can conclu"e that our consciousness coul" be base" on fiel"s of information6 consistin.ho reality or.A. +ence6 it is calle" the #articipatory %nthropic #rinciple D4A4E6 follo in. 9ince it is im2ossible to obser$e the colla2se "irectly6 a number of "ifferent inter2retations e5ist. The Co2enha-en inter2retation is one of the more 2o2ular inter2retations of the measurement 2roblem.
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