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CHAPTER I GENERAL DESCRIPTION
I.1. General Description of fieldtrip area North East Java basin is classified on back arc basin based on morphotectonic. This area is relatively stable area form influence of tectonic, so thick sediments are filled, quiet environment are created, deep marine environments develop and the most important is occurence of organic material for source rock qualification. Tectonics activity created some structural trap both which are very important in petroleum system due to accumulation of hidrocarbon. Generally, East Java basin is prospect basin based on its petroleum system.
Fig I.1.1 Physiography of North East Java basin (Satyana et al, 2004)
Gambar 2. Profil Cekungan Jawa Timur Utara.
Fig I.1.1.2 Nort East Java basin cross section Group 5 1
CHAPTER II REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF CEPU AREA
II.1. Regional Geomorphology of Cepu Area
II.1.1. Kendeng Zone Kendeng Zone is moutain range located in the north side of Ngawi sub-zone, oriented to west-east direction. This mountain range consist of deep marine sediment which had been faulted and folded intensively forming anticlinorium. North margin is bordered by Randublatung Depresion, then south margin is bordered by volcanic mountain (Solo Zone) . This mountain lies from Ungaran Mountain on the west side to Ngawi and Mojokerto Area. Rest of this mountain is still can be tracked until subsurface on Madura strait.
F ig. II.1 Phisiography of Central and East Java (Bemmelen)
Kendeng Mountain on west part¶s wide is about 40 km, then become narrow to the east with length approximately 250 (de Genevreye & Samuel, 1972). Characteristic of Kendeng Zone is line of hills with low elevation, wavy hill morphology elevated on 50-200 m. This west-east lineament reflects some folding and faulting trending west-east. Folding and thrusting intensity in this mountain have big intensity in west part and become weak in east part. Thrust fault make the unit boundary to be structural boundary. Th e occurrence of fault and fold because of compressive force yield fractures, faults and weak zones trending southeast northwest, southwest-northeast and north-south.
FIELDTRIP REPORT [PET
II.1.2. Randublatung Z ne R ubl tung Depression is physiographi depression due to tectonic
acti ity lies bet een
endeng Zone and Rembang Zone, formed on Pleictocene.
This depression has west east trend. The narrowest part of this area is located on Cepu Area, then become wide to east direction as far as sedimentation distance of Madura strait and until now sedimentation in this one is still occur. Randublatung Depression generally can be classified into synclinal valley morphology unit consist of Cepu Area and Bojonegara. Bengawan Solo river flow in this area, form meandering system. Most of Randublatung Area is filled by fine grain clastic sediment such as clay, silt from Lidah Formation aged Quarternary. II.1.3. Rembang Z ne Rembang zone is high elevated area separated by Randublatung Area and parallel to endeng Zone. This area consist of anticlinorium trending west east
due to tectonuc activity happen on late Tertiary. This foleded mountain has enough high elevation, average is less than 500 m. Some of those anticlines are young anticlines mountain and have not been eroded intensively. Those exogenic activitiy make the mountain look like back of hill. Structurally, Rembang Zone is fault zone located between carbonate Shelf on north of Java (Java Sea) and deep basin located on south of Rembang ( endeng Basin). Litology consists of mix silisiclastic which is mixing of shallow carbonat e and clastic from continent, clay and deep sea marl. Oil field had been found in this area and operated since early 20th century.
II.2. Regi nal Stratigraphy of Cepu Area
II.2.1. Mandala Kendeng Stratigraphy Sedimentary rock which fill endeng Basin consist of turbidite clastic,
carbonate, and deep marine volcaniclastic, especially on lower part of deposits. On vertical sucession, more shallow deposit will develop to the top anf finally nonmarine deposits will be formed on the top. Stratigraphy of endeng Zone can be divided into 9 Formation from oldest
to youngest. The formations are :
Lithology of this formation consists of endeng clayey marl with bioclastic calcarenite lenses which contain many large foraminifera. Lithology on top and bottom of this formation is unknown due tectonic activity which deform the formation so the top and bottom of this formation is difficult to be defined. Lithology of this formation sonsists of interbedded clayey marl.2. II. Pelang Formation Pelang Formation is the oldest formation located in Mandala Area.1 Regional stratigraphy of endeng Zone (Harsono. The outcrop locat ed on up-thrust area and directly verge with erek Formation is youger than Plang one.9 (Middl e Group 5 4 . b. erek Formation. sandy marl. erek Formation This Formation is deposited on the unconformity on Pelang Formation.1. 1983) a. 4. and aged Miocene).FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] Fig.
characterized by turbidity structure. tuffaceous calcareous sandstone. marl. c. Lithology forming this formation are bioclastic limestone with marl int erbedded. These facies are named Atasangin Member with thickness is about s 600 meter. calcareous sandstone with clay and marl. Thick of deposit reach 270 m and this deposit is deposited on 10. Lithology of this formation consist of tufffaceous sandstone. The difference is pointed to the occurence of bed which contain thicker tuffaceous material . Banyak Formation This Formation is intefingering with Kalibeng Formation. and tuffaceous sandstone. e. Total thickness of this deposit is about 500 met er and aged 16 (Early Upper Miocene). f. and tuffaceous sandstone which show flysch charact eristic. d. thick gravelly sandstone. Thickness of this formation reach 150 meterand aged 17 (Middle Late Miocene). The age of this formatin is Pliocene). y Kerek Limestone Member This emmber consists oof interbeded of tufaceous limestone and clay and tuff bedding .21 (Upper Miocene- Group 5 5 . Lower Kalibeng Formation consist of massice marl which develop into depp marine volcanic deposit.15 (Middle Miocene). this formation is formed on marine environment on depth 1000 meter. y Sentul Member This member consists of lithology which has same characteristic wit h Banyuurip Member.This formation can be divided into 3 members from the oldest to the youngest : y Banyuurip Member This member consists of interbedded clayey marl. Kalibeng Formation This Formation is unconformable on Kerek Formation and divided into 2 parts : Lower Kalibeng Formation and Upper Kalibeng Formation. Based on bentonic foraminifera association. Klitik Formation This formation is conformable with Kalibeng Formation.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] calcareous tuff. clay. Sonde Formation 17.
Thickness of this formation reach 100 met er. Group 5 6 . This formation consists of lahar deposit and vlack clay wit h interbedding of diatome. On the top of deposit. This fluvial deposit are charecterized by occurence of crossbedding structure. i. Lithology of this formation consists of interbeddiing tuff and tuffaceous sandstone.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] Secong part of Kalibeng Formation is also called by Sonde Formation or Upper Kalibeng. facies are breccia with fragmen carbonate gravelly limestone and carbonate cements. This pumice characterize deposits of Notopuro Formation. laharic breccia and volcanic conglomerate. aged 21 (Lat e Pliocene). lake deposit. h. Interbedding of volcanic breccia with andesite and pumice fragments as lenses are also founded. on the shelf margi n near shore.21 (Pliocene). Lithology of this formation generally is formed on shallow marine environment and develop into non marine (fresh water environment). and Pithecanthropus skull fossils. This formation can be divided into a member called Klitik Member which consist of well bedded marly calcarenite limestone. sandy marl deposit which develop into clayey marl. Kabuh Formation This formation conformable on Danar one. mollusca fresh water fossils. The thickness is about 61-480 met er. Lithology of this formation are non-volvanic sandstone and conglomerate interbeding. There is facies changing to the east from Danar Formation to Pucangan and Lidah one eastward. Thickness of this formation is 27-589 meter and aged 9. deposited on fluvial syst em environment. Depositional Environment of this formation is non-marine. Danar Formation This formation is unconformable with Sonde Formation. Notopuro Formation This Formation is deposited conformable on Kabuh Formation. aged Late Pleistocene with total thickness more than 240 met er. g. This formation is deposited in shallow marine environment.
2. lacustrine and shallow marine on Eocene until Lower Oligocene.2.2. Ngimbang Formation This formation consists of shale with silt interbedding.2. Depositional environment of this formation is on delta system. Depositional Environment of this formation is deep marine until shallow marine on Late Oligocene until Early Miocene. Mandala Rembang Stratigraphy Rembang stratigraphy are consist of some formation below from the oldest to the youngest : Fig. Group 5 7 . limestone and coal. On some area.2. Kujung Formation This formation consists of shale with clay interbedding.2.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] II. II.2. there are clastic and reef limestone found spotted. fine sandstone. II.2.1 Stratigraphic coloumn of East Java basin (Mudjiono and Pireno.2.1. 2001) II.
Locally. II. consists of orbitoid limestone and shale in lower part.2. but there is shale occurence in the south and east of this field. 2006).5. describe Ngrayong as member of Tawun Formation. This unit is aged on Middl e Miocene. Ngrayong Unit is main reservoir of Cepu Oilfield. in which that member are composed of sandstone mainly with int ercalation of coal and sandy clay. He proposed local type of this sandstone based on quartz sandstone found in Ngrayong Village. This formation is formed on Middl e Miocene (N9-N13) (Rahardjo & Wiyono. on Handbook of Petroleum Geology.2. Jatirogo. 1993. Harsono (1983). On top deposit. average is more than 300 m. On south side of village. This unit also show hiatus on mouth of Java Sea.2. Top of Tawun Formation is also called as Ngrayong Member. sandstone facies with little clay inside dominate. Total thisckness of this unit is varied. Depositional environment of this unti is fluvial or submarine based on outcrop found in northside of Village (Jatirogo.4.3. In the upper part. There is facies change southward in which lithology will grade into shale and claystone facies (Soejono. Marine deposit of this formation on Ngampel Area show shallowing upward pattern from shoreface to beach. Tuban Formation This formation consists of claystone beds with limestone interbedding. N9-N12.2.2. Tawun). this depositional environment of formation change into marine environment. 1981 on Handbook of Petroleum Geology 2006). Depositional Environment of this formation is open marine until shallow marine in the top formation. Group 5 8 .FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] II. ³Ngrayong Sandstone´ name has been introduced by Brouwer (1957). Ngrayong Member This member is also called as ³Upper Orbitoiden-Kalak´ by Trooster (1937). II. there is spotted limestone found. Tawun Formation This formation consists of silty shale with limes tone interbedding. Depositional Environment is deep-middle neritic. Van Bemmelen (1949) named this emmber as ³Upper Rembang beds´. there are sandstone with limestone intercalation and lignit e.2.
This formation had been classified into member of Lidah Formation by Udi n Adinegoro (1972) and Koesoemadinata (1978). 1937. Locally. He classified this member into Mundu Formation. Depositional environment of this formation is open marine on Middle Miocene (N13-N14).FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] II. This research had been done since Harsono (1983) didn¶t continue his observation about the occurence of unconformity between Lidah Formation and Mundu Formation. There are sandstone intercalation especially quartz sandstone contain glauconite and seaa mollusca. II. This formation is deposited due to regresion phase from Wonocolo Formation on Upper Miocene (N17).2. II. Depositional environment of this formation according to Purwati (1987.10.2. on Handbook of Petroleum Geology. 2006) is deep neritic until middle bathyal and formed on Middle Miocene ± Upper Miocene (N14-N16). Wonocolo Formation This formation consist of yellow-brown marl. bedded marl and coquina limestone lenses. remain some glauconites. near C epu. Selorejo Formation This formation formed by Selorejo Beds acording Troost er.2. II. Lidah Formation This formation consists of blue limestone. Lithology character is shown by weaker and harder bed boundary. the unit is called Dander Member.2. This unit depositional environment is deep marine. chalky limestone and marl will be found spott ed. glauconitic type wit h intercalation of calcarenite and claystone.8.2.2. In are where this formation develop int o reef limestone. Group 5 9 .184.108.40.206. Bulu Formation This formation consists of bedded clastic limestone and sandy limestone. There are interbedding of calcarenite and claystone. Local type of this member locat ed on Selorejo Village.7.2. Ledok Formation This formation consist of green and red sandstone. II. Crossbedding structure will be found intensively in sandstone. contain glauconite. Crossbedding limestone is often to found. based on foraminirefa analysis.2.
2005) Group 5 10 . Northen part of Rembang Zone and Madura are characterized by uplifted and eroded anticlinorium structure on Plio -Pleistocene. Regional Geology Structure of Cepu Area East Java Basin generally are formed by main primary structure from south to north. fault and thrust one. There are 2 primary geological structure in East Java Basin: a. also called by Meratus type. b.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] II.3. II. West-east structural pattern. Fig. This structure is associated with strike slip fault system trending northeast-southwest. also called by Java type. Southern part of Rembang Zone and ¢ Randublatung are characterized by di¡ £¤m¥¦i§ fold type.3. Northeast-southwest structural pattern. this zone is characterized by dome structure associated with fault structure as like as anticline in Ngimbang. Kendeng Zone and Madura strait lie in west-east direction.1 Regional structural pattern in Indonesia (Satyana. Beside that. The fault system continue until South Kalimantan Area. especially are characterized by fold.
Fold and thrust intensity will be decreased to the east. These fold pathway verge directly with volcanic arc and only separated by Ngawi Alluvium. On east part of Kendeng area. Those faults cut Neogene sediment and resulted thrust faults. East Java basin was compressed by compressional regime and caused reactivation on normal faults. Group 5 11 . then dissapeared on the south. On Neogene. This basin has occured extensional tectonic regime on Paleogene and result many normal faults in high-low morphology form. Kendeng Zone is included on the part of East Java basin . These thrust faults can be tracked in west part of Kendeng area. The phenomenon explain that there are only anticlines in north part which can be tracked until Surabaya. there are many anticlines with plunged axis to the east.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] Kendeng Zone on Early Miocene is active tectonized area. and yield many thrust faults. In tectonic regional framework.
Mrapen is one region in Randublatung Zone.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] CHAPTER III FIEL S DESCRIPTION III. This gas predicated as biogenic gas. This place have alrady well known as a quite famous tourism object. that produced by biopolymerytation processes. Genetically. to know the genetic processes there should be an isotop analysis so we will know it¶s C atoms. Biogenic gas or biogas b. by its eternal flame. and about 28 km on the west from Purwodadi. Location 1 Eternal Fire The first stop site is located at Mrapen.because : Group 5 12 . The met hane also associated to the nature of HC materials. a. Thermogenic gas or thermogas This kind of gasses can be formed here in consedired as biogenic gas. Purwodadi and it is a part of Randublatung depression. This eternal flame is produced by gas seepage in the subsurface. commonly called Mrapen. anaerobic microorganism and in rocks that are lack of water. Actually. gasses are derived from 2 processes. Organics materials is decomposited by microorganism anaerobic mat erials there 3 elements influenced the processes. methane can be formed when sub surface rocks are decomposited. We would considered that the gas in this location is the same whit the gas in the oil field if we dont know the origin of the gas in this location. This gas can reach to the surface because the gas has path and the path is geological structures like fault. the evidance of existance o this phenomenon can be prooved by putting bumale materials such as paper on the rocks where the gasses exhausted. 1. decompos ition of organis mat erials at law temperature. Biogenic gas dominated by methane (CH4). Biogenic gas is considered useful and this kind of gas could become an alternative fuel to subtitut e the oil and LNG function someday. VICO is one of iol company that make a specific study about this gas (geochemistry aspect). The flare is quite difficult to be seen because mostly it¶s consists of methane or CH4. The source rock of this gas is pedicat ed from theh Tawun Formation that migrated to the reservoir of the Selorejo Formation. Mrapen Stopsite Mrapen is locat ed in Grbongan district.
6 ppm. Geologically. Sendang Dudo It is located about 25 metres from location 1 to the south. If geopolimeration happended (in a deeper part). In a large area. F ig. shulphate 400 ppm.1 Eternal flame of Mrapen area. gas leakage manifestation Location 2. These gasses are biogenic gas whit complex Group 5 13 . the observation of these gasses can be dome by making surface mapping and stratigraphy. the gasses are : Clorida 62 ppm.1. Sendang Dudo is pond that made by spring and have unique phenomenon. On the pond we can see bubble. The spring is indicate that this location is on the zone. thermogenic gas that is associated to HC is formed. that the energy from subsurface get into surface because any some crack as tool for the energy pass way. and this phenomenon caused by gas that has same process with the eternal flame. the 2 gasses can be found as methane (CH4) come out frpm rock fractures. CO2 2000 ppm and H2S 1. easy to predict. can be found in a shallow depth 3. Biopolimeration processed took place yielding biogenic gas that is not associated to hydrocarbon. According to geochemistry research. III. but still in the area of thermal flame tourism object. The gasses formed by transported burried organic material in a basin/ depression and structurally subside as result of continous seccesion on the deposit after all.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] 1. Always found in large ammount. 2.
1. There are some opinions of the gas causes : 1. gas can make a gas seepage through the fracture that cause by that deformation. 3.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] CO2 in high temperature. F ig. In has some depth wiyh deformation of spring. 2. Sendang Dudo yielding gasses. and than the seepage was overlied by spring which is also the result of the deformation processed.2 Bubble gas outgoing form pool in Mrapen area. Structural control or there are fractures where the gasses can come up into the water. means that because of the structural deformation. III. and connected to the seepage of methane. gas leakage manifestation Group 5 14 . Seapage of gasses in the shallow area. This last opinion actually is the combination between the former opinions.
Geomorphology The geomorphology of the observatory site is dominated by low relief land.2. Stopsite 2 Bledug Kuwu Bledug Kuwu observatory site Location Bledug Kuwu is in Purwodadi region. Around the observatory site there was alluvial deposit which lay on lidah formation.This Areas is a phenomenal site because of the gases bursts activities which emerged poking into surface which bring mud material. Structural geology There was probable fault or fracture in subsurface whe re this structural geology being a way for mud. F ig. 2. approximately 30 km eastside of first observatory stations (Mrapen and Swimming Sendang Dudo).1 Mud volcano in Bledug Kuwu Lithology The lithology of the observatory site is consist of ejected mud from mud volcano. Potential Group 5 15 . III.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] III. water formation and gasses ejected to the surface.
increasingl y within layout shale hence bigger depressurised. o Way the accumulation to exit. this area will be like mud volcani in sidoarjo area. Fluid can originated from zone faults represents exit sha le filled by water formation and gas. Existence fluid from water formation excessive causing shale changed become liquid. There are some condition can form mud volcano. o Thick layer of uncompacted shale. There are wo types pressures regarding shale they are: y Hydrostatic pressure that depends at depths layout shale. This fracture make the pressure release and then the mud was ejected to the surface. o Gas / fluids accumulations. The outburst of bledug kuwu contain gasses mixed with mud and formation water. o High pressure of formation water or fluids from subsurface Shale that formed in the mud volcano is usually a undercompacted shale. Group 5 16 . Bledug Kuwu Phenomena could be a manifestation there was probability of hidrocarbon accumulation in subsurface. The outpouring air formation that contain salt material is used by people around there. y Pressure overburden derived from other mat erials stacked on top of shale. The negative potential of this phenomena. Order this shale can exit if threre are enough tremendous pressure. Fractures that formed by regional tectonic through the accumlation diapiric shale can be a way fot it to the surface. there was a diapiric shale with high pressure. it forms fractures. Sedimentation from shale was very quickly so material shale is not compact ed perfectly and consequently formed undercompacted shale (nature plastis). if the volume of mud was ejected to the surface is very huge. and because of plioplistocene tectonic event.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] This area has some potential as geological tourism site and salt factory. Firstly. This causes shale mingled formation ater and gas.
± Main lithology is shale form Lidah Formation.2.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] F ig. Group 5 17 . ± Classified into biogenic gas. shallow depth.1 Eruption of mud and gas from vents periodically in Bledug Kuwu area Characteristics: ± High saline. ± Explosions are periodically. ± Low temperature. III. ± Connate water is bursted from eruption vents.
F igure II.3. Broholo flowing from occidental direction eastwards. This litollogi then at intervals with set of Group 5 18 . 3. Stasiun Pengamatan Ngampel This stop site location in district Ngampel sub-province Blora.1 Anticline limb contained by limestone dominantly Under from limestone there is sandstone lithology. for example limestone.3''. observation about lithology only can be done is patch up is caused by time which unable to be adequate since have already nearing night.700 degrees which more alike like anticline limb. lapped over by clastic material. limestone at the location having colour rather white brass. Morphology as a whole in the form of hill bank with dip of caster 450 . location of Reconnaissance stays at South edge S. and age relatively young because laying in outmost division of the anticline limb. This limestone conceived of Orbituidal Calcarenite. medium fairish until coarse. Anticipated deposition from this limestone is shallow Sea district because its scale is being medium until coarse. interbedded structures. this sandstone has is medium size and coarse dominance. sandstone. what is estimable effect of oxidation. rose colored. Limestone has dip of layer equal to N 80 E / 48.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] III.3. shale. or precisely at S 06 54 ' 12'' and E 111 26' 28. Lithology at this district consisted of assorted.
Both types of this lithology is member from upper Tawun Formation or more knowledgeable with Ngrayong Formation. Interpretation of its deposition area is namely sea area with depth of skin-deep that is then experiences derivation of sea water face so forms lagoon. has layer dip N75E/50. F igure III. lithology like that way indicates both the lithologies as reservoir and seal rock exploration field of oil in district Cepu because seen from the grain size is medium until coarse ( for sandstone reservoir) and then Clay layer is top of it. Both of lithology has dip N78E/48.3.2 Sandstone interval with blackclay member of Ngrayong Formation More and more towards lithology fold axis more and more old in age. oldest lithology met is shale is having colour black. contains mineral gypsum having colour white. The Black Clay lithology actually has a real abundance organic material content. but because level of the maturity which has not fullfilled (immature) causes the unit has not can yield hydrocarbon. fairish of Clay. In lagoon district this is formed Clay containing mineral gypsum while at condition of shallow Sea is formed sandstone. The case happened repeatedly so is formed restating between both the lithologies. very smooth fairish. According to organic material content data at Group 5 19 . has lamination sewer structures.3. has laminated structures.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] black Clay lithology. Set of this lithology is member from Ngimbang formation which age Lower Oligocene.
happened tectonic event of north direction of causing south formed Northern East Java anticlinorium having direction West-East. we did three activities. Pusdiklat migas has the program. Then.5% and level of its(the maturity which have been enough causing makes this lithology as source rock from exploration field of district gas and oil Cepu. history of the forming of this district having beginning of from the forming of Ngimbang (shale) at lacustrine area or delta environment because rich of organic material. Then is formed lithology claystone which is member of Tawun formation. Limestone is member from formation Bulu. pusdiklat migas has some facilities.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] this finite lithology of 0. The deposition also terminating set of Tawun formation. ³tool house´. rig ³well service´. In this laboratory. Topmost division of Tawun formation called Ngrayong formation. Then is precipitated after of limestone orbituidal as result of increase of sea water face returns. 4. III. But in this time. Laboratory of drilling are consist of drilling¶s rig. laboratory of drilling¶s simulation and drilling¶s equipment. which are. To improve the function of oil field training. laboratory of exploitation and laboratory of production. Event of second deposition restating of this lithology clearly codified at outcrop in stop site location. As a whole. we only visited to the laboratory drilling. PPPT MIGAS Cepu 4th Stopsite Pusdiklat Cepu oil is the government agency under the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources. such as observation of the drilling process operation in the Group 5 20 . they are laboratory of drilling. Because happened derivation process of sea water face that is continuously causes condition of its deposition turns into shallow Sea and formed sandstone and lack clay at lagoon area. Initial condition of Tawun formation is a deep sea environment in at the age of Middle Miocene. y y Improved operations of oil field in order to enrichment oil reserve Change and repaired the equipment in oil and gas and also oil manufacture in order to complet e to safety of work. This anticlinorium which becomes trap for hydrocarbon in exploration district of oil in Cepu. These training centers have the task of carrying out oil and gas education and training sector on the basis of Oil and Natural Gas Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources.
power system. the location is in outside. Drilling processes were simulated in the second location. rotaring system. e. hoisting system. In this processess we have to keep the mud pressure is litlle bit higher than formation pressure. d. BOP system This system has a function to avoid the blow out. Rotaring system This system has a function to rota ring the whole drilling syst em. Group 5 21 . we observated the operator that was simulating the operation of technical equipment that control the mechanical equipment in the drilling process. Power system This system has function as a source of power to move all the components for drilling processess. In this room. and BOP system. First location is laboratory of drilling¶s simulation. a. In this location. circulating system. there is a small rig used for the simulation of drilling by the trainees. observation of the installation of pipe in the drilling process in the drilling¶s rig and drilling¶s equipment. c. This location is drilling¶s rig.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] laboratory of drilling¶s simulation. Some trainees seem to do the installation of pipes which in turn is inserted into the boreholes. Each syst em has their own function. especially the drilling process. Circulating system This syst em has a function to inject the drilling mud in order to avoid blowouts. Hoisting system This system has a function to raise and lower the lifting mechanism. b. The technical equipment that was simulated in this room is a important component in the process of exploration. There are 5 systems in the drilling processess.
Elevator : to carried forward the pipe 2.very hard formation 3.4.4. and drill pipe so as not to fall.3. Diamond bit : to penetrate a medium. The third location that we were visited is laboratory of drilling equipments. Cone bit/ Roller bit : to penetrate a weak-hard formation 2. drill collar. Wing bit : to penetrate a weak formation 4. Hoisting system 1. Slip : to prevent the casing. In this location we learn about the function all the equipments of each drlling system component. Bit 1.1 Hoisting systems b.1 Situation in the drillings rig at Pusdiklat migas Cepu. F igure III.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] F igure III. a. Core bit : to take the core sample Group 5 22 .3.
cementing head. [c] wing and core bit . [b] diamond bit. Blind rem : to close borehole without string 3.3 various bit. c. Pump 5. c. Annular : to close the existing borehole string 2.3. b. Indicator sensor F igure III.3. Cementing equipment : include centraliser. BOP system 1. F igure III. drill hole cleaner.4 BOP system Group 5 23 .4.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] a. [a] cone/roller bit.4. 4.
Fishing Tools To take the pipe that fall or break in the drill hole. Upper Tawon formation. Nglobo. But most of them have been leaved. Now. Ngrayong sandstone. Semanggi . Now only 5 oil field (Kawengan. oil production use pump system because the formation pressure decrease. Group 5 24 . Miling Tool To smooth the rough borehole.4. Oil in this area is collected and dispersed by water.5 Fishing tools e. Kawengan oil field is the biggest oil field in North East Java Basin. and bottom Wonocolo formation are layers that produced hydrocarbon.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] d. Cumulative p roduction in this field can achieve 150 million cubic meters at 1990.3. F igure III.5 Kawengan oilfield 5th Stopsite More than 25 oil field have been discovered and development in Cepu area until Surabaya. III. Pertamina doesn¶t use EOR method (Enhanced Oil Recovery). Ledok. Wonocolo) and gas field (Balun) that have been produced by Pertamina (Oil Company of Indonesia Government).
Group 5 25 .3. The technology of this tool newer than the first tool. This type is old tool. This tool also able to display data recording (result of oil intake) digitally. so the depth obtained is high.1 Oil Derrick. This tool capable of reaching depths of 700 meters. In this location. primary recovery by oil pump Ledok field This observation site still under the head of Pertamina operational at Kawengan oil field. so the depth obtained isn¶t high and the result of oil intake isn¶t optimal. oil intake is used by modern method (land shore).FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLEUM GEOLOGY] F igure III.5. The second tool is hydraulic machine type. The first tool is mechanic type. There are 2 type of tool that is used to oil intake within the earth.
except Tuban Formation which formed on Miocene age. Maturity of this source rock is belong to submature. Lithology consists of clastic limestone as intercalation.3 %). they are : Ngimbang Formation.2. and kerogen type). Kujung I consist of shelfal equivalent to deep water Prupuh limestone of the East Java / Madu ra basin. II and II. Kujung II Group 5 26 . prooved by occurence of good TOC (1%-4%) on shale and carbonaceous limestone also 40% for coal). then on the lower part of this formation. Source rock Source rock is rock which have potential to create and expel hidrocarbon in enough quantity. It has the best reservoir charact eristic of North East Java basin. Ngimbang Formation has good source rock. IV. Kujung Formation. Generally.53-2. they have shale which can create kerogene. Kujung Formation has classified into possible source rock due to no identification by geochemical method to some factor (TOC. Ngrayong formation and Mundu Formation. there are 3 formation act as reservoir rock. Tuban Formation has been classified into effective source rock due to high content of TOC (0. due to lack of thermal maturity because of burial time and intensity in Central deep. Kujung formation is divided into 3 part. Organic matter is prdominantly form terestrial. Source rock on this formation is classified into effective source rock because this source has supply economic hydrocarbon (95% oil and gas) in NE Java basin. Beased on maturity. Three formation above had been being mature on Paleogene. all of them had been mature thermally. Ro. Reservoir rock Reservoir rock is rock that can accumulate hidrocarbon . Kujung I. Ngrayong formation and Tuban Formation. Ngrayong formation (lower) has become good source rock with local TOC greater than 1 %. they are Kujung formation. kerogen is belong to type II and II (oil and gas prone). On Nort East Java absin.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] CHAPTER 4 PETROLE M SYSTEM IV.1. There are 4 formation which act as source rock. Kerogen type is classified into type III (gas prone).
Generally. The depth is ranged about 300 m. shale or clay so hidrocarbon accumulated under this seal cannot migrate or leak to the other place. Tuban shale provides primary top seal to the underlying Kujung and Ngrayong reservoir. Primary seal in North East Java basin is thick shale facies of Tuban Formation. sratigraphic and structural trap.3. micritic limestone and lignit e. This formation can be enhanceh by fracturing technique. IV. Limestone of high energy and reefal facies oversteep basement on the flanks but are fine grained in the basin centre.4. Sand are medium to soarse and locally tuffaceous and are interbedded with muds. Trap Trap is geological feature which can accumulate hidrocarbon after they have migrated. Primary reservoir quality is fair. Anticline trap formed on Plio-Pleistocene tectonic phase compression thrust-folding. traps are divided into 2 varian. production drawdown will be limited and reserves will depend largely on abandonement pressure. This sandstone is positioned on 600-700 m below sea level. but the performance can be enhanced by some technique like fracturing to are near reactiveted faults zone. Kujung III consist of mixed shlefal clastics and carbonates. However. Faults trap will give some risk. Mundu formation that has Selorejo limestone act as reservoir of gas. due to proper timing of forming and occurence of seal bed. Anticlines Group 5 27 . The other type are faults and stratigraphic traps. Seal Seal rock is rock which act as seal. This sands are present in the central deep. Average porosity is 18% and almost 70% of total oil production in North East Java basin is produced in this field. Ngrayong formation consists of sandstone and carbonate and reservoir target especially is quartzsandtone.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] consist of limestone form one of main target in central deep and provide reservoir. but the unit is carbonate dominated. usually impermeable and has fine grain like marl. Sand in this area is uncompacted and has excellent reservoir quality. mainly is anticline with simpl e variation. Shale of the formation generally drapes over the Kujung formation (reef) and effectively capped any trapped hydrocarbon below it. Porosity is ranged between 28-42% whil e permeability is ranged 55-903 mD with thickness is about 0-50 m. reservoir is low. IV. Most trap in North East Java basin is structural trap.
lateral migration in this basin will oriented to nort h direction because of some thickening of sediment northward. same wit h sedimentation direction. On that time. there are some stratigraphic trap like patch reef complexes with some structural control which probably initiated reefal growth. there are 2 phase of tectonic period. first migration occured on this period. Them. Based on this fact. Based on tectonic history. Migrasi hidrokarbon atau perpindahan hidrokarbon pada Cekungan Jawa Ti¨ur Utara dapat terjadi secara lateral maupun secara vertikal.5. Generally. second migration occured after first phase Plio-Pleistocene t ectonic. On some other field. Source rock from Ngimbang formation had been mature on late Miocene. IV.1 Petroleum Play of Cepu Area Group 5 28 . Firts is Middle Miocene tectonic phase (after deposition of Ngrayong formation). oil from Kujung formation has been mature. IV. second is Plio-Pleistocene. Fig. Proper Timing of Migration Proper time of migration is time in which hidrocarbon migrate from source rock into reservoir rock so the hidrocarbon will be accumulated into right trap and no leaked occur. Generally.5. Stratigraphy trap on this area is oriented to onlap forming from shale related t o reefal limestone. traps in this basin are cut by thrust fault rending northeast-southwest and this faults act as oil-water boundary.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] which have northwest axis direction have become the most effective hidrocarbon trap.
10. 6. high concentration of CO2. 8. 2. so its potential as source rock is not enough good. due to connate water from Lidah formation Gas product is classsified into biogenic gas. Bledug Kuwu phenomenon is mud volcano manifestation caused by everpressured subsurface shale resulting enough pressure to explode mud and gases.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] CHAPTER V CONCL SION 1. but low therma l maturity. 11. Water and mud explosion occur periodically. have high porosity and permeability. Most oil form Ngrayong formation is refined and extracted in Pusdiklat Migas Refinery. Eternal flame of Mrapen area is manifestation of working petroleum system of Rembang area in gas form. Gas in Mrapen area is classified into biogenic gas and is a product of Lidah formation. 3. shallow overburden. Bulu limestone didn¶t develop well due to its tight charact er so hidrocarbon will tendence to be accumulated on Ngrayong sandstone. Quartz sandstone form Ngrayong formation are loose. Group 5 29 . 7. 9. 5. Ngampel area is lithology contact or boundary between Ngrayong Unit from Tawun formation and Bulu Formation in which contact is conformity. Ngrayong member is main reservoir in Northeast Java basin. Characteristics of Bledug Kuwu are: Mud volcano manivestation Lithology consists of mainly overpressured shale High salinity. Carbonaceous shale of Ngrayong formation has good TOC. especially on quartz sandstone reservoir. Biogenic are characterized by shallow place of occurence. 4. depend on pressure accumulat ed below surface.
13. Main trap in Cepu oilfield is struut\ral trap in anticline form. Ledok Oil field produce mainly oil from Ngrayong reservoir. Mifration timing in cepu area was begun on Middle Miocene and late Pliocene until late Pleistocene. Petroleum system in Cepu is working properly. Main source rocks in Cepu oilfield are Kujung. Main reservoirs in Cepu oilfield are Ngrayong sandstone. Ngimbang and Ngrayong unit (Tawun formation). 21. Group 5 30 . so water flooding or other enhanced oil recoovery will make grains of loose sandstone mix with oil so pipes will be plugged. 23. 18. Tuban. Main seal in Cepu oilfield are Tuban and Kujung formation. 20. At this time. 16. watercut value on Ledok field is about 96%. 14. 22. The other trap in C epu area is fault and stratiraphic trap (reef etc). 15. 19. Bulu limestone and Kujung limestone. Drilling simulation and tool equipment are available in Pusdiklat Migas Training Centre Office. Northeast Java basin has good hidrocarbon prospesct both in oil and gas. Problems in ectracting oil form Ngrayong rerservoi is sandstone character of Ngrayong which is loose. 17.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] 12.
Of Geological Engineering. Erwanto. Styana. & Assistants. RP. 2004. Koesoemadinata. Proceeding Geologi dan Geotektonik Pulau Jawa. Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bu©i. Group 5 31 . 1994.H. A. Dept. 28 th Annual IPA Convention & Exhibition. Setyowiyoto. Blora. Cepu : Will We Ever Know the Truth? (page 34 ± 36). Rembang-Madura-KangeanSakala (RMKS) Fault Zona. Panduan Field Trip Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi daerah Purwodadi.. 2002. Inonesia Metadata Base. Petunjuk Praktikum Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bumi. 1980. Koesoemadinata. Yogyakarta Satyana. Bandung IPA Newsletter.. 1980. J. 2005. 2002. dan Martodjojo. The 30th IAGI and The 30th 14th PERHAPI Annual Conference and Exhibition.. Proceeding Indonesian Association of Geologist. Inamata Series. C. and Cepu Jawa Tengah. The Gateway to Petroleum Invest ment in Indonesia. 2001.H. dan Prasetyadi. Penerbit ITB.. R. Surabaya. Jilid 1 . Yogyakarta. Proceeding Joint Convention Surabaya 2005-HAGI-IAGIPERHAPI.FIELDTRIP REPORT [PETROLE M GEOLOGY] REFERENCES Anonym. The 30 th HAGI. UGM. 2010.. A. A. ³Geologi Minyak dan Gas Bu©i´ . Yogyakarta. 2006. IOG Chronicle magazine ( Indonesian Oil and Gas Information). UGM. Percetakan NAFIRI. Indonesia Basin Summaries (IBS). Of Geological Engineering. Jakarta. Perubahan Tektonik Paleogene ± Neogene Merupakan Peristiwa Tektonik Terpenting di Jawa. 33rd Annual Conference. Assistants of Petroleum Geology. ITB. Structural Indentation of Central Java : Regional Wrench Segmentation. Dept. East Java Basin: The Origin and Nature of Geologic Border. Jakarta. E. S.. P. Bandung Pulunggono.
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