You are on page 1of 56

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

N 11 MAO 2004

CY

MB

CY

MB



 
 

 
  

 

www.ziti.gr
CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

E
N 11 - A 2004
EKOTH
EKOEI ZHTH
T 0,01

3
: , , .
I..
8 . . E.
13 , ( 10): . .
19 . K.
N
23 . .
47 , . . M
49 I . M. K
52 E
. .

T :

CY

MB

ENIKH EOTEIA
, K E.M..

E ZHTH
A 27, 546 35
T. 2310.203.720, Fax: 2310.211.305

EIIKOI YNEPATE
K , , A. K A...
, . , K M.E.
, M, K M.E.
, , K M.E.
T K, X, K A...

E B
B ( 5), 105 64 A
T.-Fax: 210.32.11.097

EITHMONIKOI YNEPATE
, -T K, E. K. X
A... I , -X M X, A. K.
M A... M , N K,
, X X,
, E,

CY

MB




,
. , , 2004
H , 24 2004, , :
.
11
.
, , H ,
H.

M
31 A
. .

53
T
1976. .

38 Video-A: M K. E. X
X
41 X:
O. K. T, A. B, K. -T, . , . , .

E ZHTH A A
B 45 E 106 81, A,
T.-fax 210.38.16.650

O ,
E , ( ) 30
.

POPAMMA HMEPIA (24/4/2004)





 


   !"#
 
 

 



 


 


 "


     

$   $

-  ##  .&


 

  

     

 
 
      

     
  

 




 " % &  '

/ 
 0!   0!

# # ! 1 &


2
   *345
6,    7





!" #  $

 
! 

"    !  # 
 

 

")! 89! 
 9:

0!   ,&  

$   $

 

%
 &'

((  $

 



" $ %& '(


 
)$ *+
,
&#  ##
 # ! 
 !

#$ 




"
 (


&   $

,
&#  
##

    ;#


 !

$   $

,
&#  ##
   
 !

   
     
  
    
 
 
 
 

   !" 

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY


:
, ,
To . . ,

H: E: A (24/4/2004)

MB

MB

()
.
, , ,
, ,
. ' .

,

.
, , . minimum
,

650 450.

E O

CY

CY

,
,
: , ,
- ,
( ,
). (
)
, , ,
. ' , .

,
.

CY

MB

MB

,

. . , , :
, ,

(
); Y
;
; ;

; ...

,

. :
, , , , ,
.

..
. ,
(
, , ),
, ,
.

CY

CY

MB

CY

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB


.
, ,
.
, ,
; , () , ()

, ()
.
, ,
,
,
.
,


. , - , . ,
: ,

(, ),
. , , ,
,
, .
, (
) ,
.


.

, , disiecta
membra , .
.
,
() , ,
,

MB

. , , .
, ' , ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, ( ),
,
, , ,
. . , ,
..,
Goethe!

( ).

() E
E
,
. ,

, ,

.
, ,
, .
,
,
.

.

,
.
, , , , :
,
17-
, ,

.
,

. , , , ,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY
MB
CY
MB

.
: ;, : .
- .

, ,

,
,
.

.
,
( I. . ) , , , , . .


:
, , , . , , , , , ,
, ,
,
,
. ' , , , , , (
).
.
,

,

.
,
, , . ..,
,
,

, : ...
....

CY

. , , . , ,

, .
, , ,

( )
. , ,
, , ,


, . , .

, ,
. , , Boolean terms,
: and, but, or;
,
, ,
( , , ). ,
- , (
).
( ,
).


, ,
, ,
( Ramus).

, , , , ,
-.
, (
module)
,
( )
-

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY


, ( , , ) . , ,
, , . ,
. 9 :
(1) (2) (3)
( [3.1])
(1) (3) (
| | | ( )
[3.1]) (2)

MB

(1) (2)
() (3), ( [])
, ()

( ,
(3).

CY

MB

CY

, , , , : (
)" [ ].

:
, , ,
.
,

.

(
8 ),
: , . : , , . . ( , , ) , , ,
, ,

MB

, , . ,
.
,
,
.
. , : )
) ( , .., , ,
, ,
, ...:

, ,
, . , ..,
: . 9. , . 16: , , ... ... ... , , ,
. ...

( ), :
, . ,
,
.
.

,
, . , . 1, 17, 23 Robin Osborn,
Hermann Frnkel .
. , : , ,
,

.
.

- :
-

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

() H E
A
,
, ,
, ,
.
(
),

.
,
, ,
, , .

.

. .

.
.
, .
..
,
. . . .


,
.
:

, .2 ,3
2005 -

CY

H
.
:
.
: ()
, . () :

12 , , ... ..
. . ,
:
- , ,

.
-.


;

, '
.
,
, .
.
,
500 ,
, . !

MB

, .
,
,
.

.
(www.komvos.edu.gr).

. ( ) . H/
.

CY

, , .1

MB

MB

1. , . .

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

2. . , ', 2000.
3. . , . , .., . , : 1999.

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY



T E , . I,
H: E: A (24/4/2004)


.
, ,
, ,
,
.
, -

, .

,

:
, ,
. ,
.
, , .

, , , , , . , ,


....,
, , ;

, ,
.
.
. , ,

, -

CY

MB

CY

MB

,
. ( ),
, , ,

.
.

.
, ,
, , , , . ,
,
.
, :
) ,


.
) ,

.
) , ,
.
) ,
, ,
.
) .
.
,

.
,
. , ,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

) . .. . 1.7: .
. 1.1:
.
) . .. .
, .
.
,
, .
- , ,
.
,
. ,
.
,
,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY
MB
CY

) . .. , . 1.5: ,
. 17, , . 18,
.
,
. , . . : ,
. 133 134, .

MB

: ,
,
;
, , . ,
,
,
. , , ,
,
, .
,
.
:


.

. , , , .
.

.
, ,
. .

() , , , ,
.
( , slides, .) ,
, , ,
.

.
, ,
.
.
power point
. , .

. .

.
. ,
.
,

, .
. , , . ,
. ,
. ,
, -

CY

, , , . , , ,
.

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

I :

CY

, , , .
, ,
,
.
, . .

,
, .
.

.
, , .

, :
,
.
,
. . , :

MB

CY

) . . .. .
1.6: ,
6-9 .

CY

MB

)
, .
.

10

.

, , . , , ,
, , .
, , , ,
, .

, , ,
. , :
-V, ,
. (
, ,
)
.

VI VII.

MB

, , . .

,
, . .. ) , . 27, : [ ] .
(814)
.
30 .

, , .
, . 54, , : .
, .
, .
.

.
, , .
, (
, ), . , . . , ,
.


, . , ,
.
, , ,
.
, , ,
.

, .
, , ( , , .), .

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

) ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , ( ) . , .
, ,
( , , ),
,
.
,
, .
, ; .

.

,
. , ,

.

;

. ,
, ( ), , .
,

MB

CY

) ,
) , ,
) .
, , ,
,
:
) ,


) , ,
.
( , , . , , ,
, .)
***

. , , , , , ,
, , ,
.

E O

CY

MB

) , ,

.

CY

) , ,
, , ,
, ,

.

CY

MB

MB

) , .

, .

,
, .
,
,
.

, , ,
, ,
.

,
.
. . , .
, , . ,
,

,

.
:

CY


,
.

. ,
:

MB

11

CY

MB

CY

MB

I :

CY

MB

CY

, . , , , .

. , , , , . -, ,
. , , ,
, , ,
, .
, .
. ,
, (
), ,
.

.
, . .
..
,
,
. , ,

;
,

. , .
,
, , .

,
.
, ,
,
.
. .
-

CY

MB

M
12

MB



.
, , ,
. ,
.
.

;
.

,
.
, ,
.

.
,
,
,
. , , ,
.
.
,
,
, ,
, ,
.
, , , .
,
,
.

,
. .

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY

( 10):

T , o,
H: E: A (24/4/2004)

5. -
6. -
7.

:
:

: - -
:

:
1. -

2.

:
1.
2.

3. :
.
. /
.
4. ( /)
. ()
. ()

(7 8) , , , . (9)
.
, , ,
.
. , ,
:
, .

5.

2.

6.

: /


() ,
.

1. :
.
.
.


( e , , )
.

2.
. / -
. , (
/ )

,
.

7.
8.

4.

: , 6, 14-16 (10 )

E e b (e a e
, , e e 13
E O

CY

MB

MB

1.

CY

3.
.
.
.

MB

1. -

CY

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

, ( 10):

CY

MB

), e b (e d e b
e b , b e ,
e b e ) d a s b
c d ,
d b a , b .
E c , s
e , d z
i . M b , b c b
d a b a C d ,
c c e d d .

2.

3.
.
. /

1. e b .. .:

CY

MB


( )

(
)

.

2. ... d (
):

.

F (F ):
( > , , , , / < > , , , ...)

5.
6.
E, ( , ,
),
() ( , , ,
)
.
K , .
H ( ) ( )
,
( )
.
K ,


, , .

7.
8. :

: /
1. :

4. ( /)

. ()
e (: ,
, ) = ,

e (. . -) =

e , e (. . ' .
- ) = /
=
() , , =
/ /

CY

MB


.
, / ,
= . .
, (<:
x, , ) # : #
: ( > ..: , , , ...)

14

() .
, , ( ).


.

-.
.
- - .

(c-)

()

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

.

:
(
...) .
( )
.
(, )

- .

.

2.

O , A,
, :

O A
(), ,
(),
,

.
, e-e
: -
-, A.
K A:
. T ,
,
,
.
(
)
. T ,
,
,
.
( ,
).

MB

MB
CY

E .
T
:

e
e e

e ,

,
,
15

E O

CY

MB

d b , b d ( , ),

CY

.
(-
.) '
(- .).

, .

,
:

A, (e e
)
( ), ( ) .
, , . K (e, , ) A
.
A, , , (
e ) (
), ,
, (
).
E, , , , ,
.
A ,
. K (e, , )
e, , . ( )
( ). ,
.
M
A: ,
. O
.

MB

CY

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

, ( 10):

CY

K A ,
,
, , ,
. E
, .
H A, , 10 . E
.
() :
T .
T .
:
.
O

CY

MB

T 10
A
. 8 A ,
, .
A
A .
A , \
:
) H :

CY

MB

A,

..
, , . H

. , , ,
,
. E
,
.

16

, .. ,
,
).
, , , a
d , . E
, ,
. H

.
T , ,
, ,
. H , . A
(.. ),
. A A .
,
A.
, : ) (g), )
() )
( d
).
) H :
O A,
,
e , . M , (8 ), . K
.
, e
, , , , \ e e . H , ,

.

) H :

) H ,
,
:

O A,
, :
, (s , s
), , (..
e d \ ). H ( ), (
, ) (

M ( ),
, A

, , , ,
.
T
, , , ,
, -.
T , A, -

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

O
, . O ,
, ,
. A , .
T ,
, , , .
,
,
, , ,
, ,
. , ,
. E,
, , .

: A ;
A
A ( c, , , )
.
, A

T
A . T
, ,
:
1. H .
2. T , .
3. H
.
4. H .
E
.

MB

CY

MB

O A


B A, , :
. H .
. H .
. H .
. T ( ).
. , .
. H .
. H , , .
. K ,

.
T A
(
)
, . A
, . E,
A , , .

3. -


, , , . -

E O

CY

CY

CY

MB

MB

) H :

, . A, , A
. ,

. E,
,
, .

CY

, , , - - . M ,
A,

(..
, ),
e e s . M
,
,
.
,
,
, , ( ,
, ), .
M g,
. , , , .

MB

17

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

, ( 10):

CY


.
( e a ).
,
( ' d ),
( ),
( ), .
.

4.
,
,
( ).
, , . .

:

MB

F





CY

(z ) 

( ),

.

, .

.
,

...
, , , , , ,
.
I. Dring .
, 1994, . . 253)

. . -

,
, .
, .
. .

.
. ,
. , , .
.
.
. , . 2, . 508



. ,
, ,
.

, , , , , . . ,
,
e d d .
,
, .
, ,
,


,

.

.

' s e

MB

8.

. ,

(1022 10)

CY


. .

5.

6.

18

7.

b f d (. 8 28)
. . ( 4 1106 3) e d
.
( 4 11115) ^ r
F F

A. ,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY



T K/ N, ,
H: E: A (24/4/2004)


 
   .

    
    
    .
  
    .


 
    ,  ,  
  .  % ,  

,            .

MB

)    .

    
 .

%) 
.

'  ( ).

)      .

   
    .

) %    
 .

     (1)  %,   .

CY

1.

2.
) 

.

' 
.
 % 
  %
.

%) 


,
 .


     .

)     
 .

 



%  (    ;)

   , %
, , 
   

.

%)  
  .
  ..

,   ,   
.

     
   .

CY

)    
.

19

E O

CY

MB

MB

3.

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

A K

CY



    ,    ,  . ,
    
,    
,    
 .


     . 3   % 
,  

.    
%     .

CY

MB

        7
% , .16-17.    
(415-413 ..)   414
.., ,   
  
 %,  %   .


  .   
.    
 ,  ,
   
   
.
  
  

,  ,  


.   
  


.

MB
CY


 
     : e

b ( \), b , b d \,
a , d .     ,  
 .

1
    ,




(),       BC.

%  ( - )  
,
,    (  ).
d e b () f d

a a a
(P) c a
(M) (d e) () , d (M) (.A.)
(P) (Y) d (Y)
(P).

d e b f
d a a a
c a
(d e)
, d d
.
^ b
e q , f d 20

d d .
b d d c \
, e d
c .
a , w d a
, d
c ,
, d
c d

.

   
   
( -
- ).

%
 : =
, d =   .
   
  ,
  
  %  
    , 
,   
   

-

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

:    ()   
     
    
    ".

2
^ b ( .
) ( ) () e ()
q (. . G) ,
( ) f
(..) d (..) d (..)
d (..) .

    (, , , , ).
        
  

.      
     ,
     .

-d-d-d :


MB

MB

3
b d d c \
, e d
c .

CY

MB

  
,


.
 ,  I    ,      (). ,   ,      %
.           .
:        . 3 %    ,
  %   .

: , \: ., J K : . , : . . :
., : , : 

, : . , e d : . .
, c : .  .
: &  "              .

4
a , w d a
, d
c ,
, d
c d

.
 : : , : 

(.), 
,  (.),
: ,  .
4     ,




, 

E O

CY

CY

:        ,
  
  
.

CY

MB

MB

:  +   (  ),  (  ,
) ,
(    ).

  , ,  
  . 



(, , )
%

.
 %   , 
,  
   .     .

CY

.  
 
    .



( - ,  -  ).   
   % 
   
, ,
     . 3  
,
  , ,   ,
  .     
 , e b ,  
,   
,   , 
 .   , 
    ,  

.
%  , , ,
(, ,  , ,
  )  

  .
d e b f d (.
.) a (. ) a a (.
.) c (. )
a (. .) (. )
(d e) (. .)
(.
), d
d (. .) .

21

CY

MB

CY

CY

MB


.   L    , 
 

,
         (, 
...)    
    .

: .  ,  ,

 ().
 ,
      ,
: . . : . , : . . (
), :  . , :    , : . .

, : . 
, : . . , : . , c : .  , : .
. , : .  , : . . :   .
MB

    
  

.

CY

: .  w ,
:   w  .
, a :  ., : .
a 
. . 
.
:  ,   "
    ",    " , 
" . &       
 " ()        .

/ ).
e Fe F
a .
5)  :

e , // \d c . // b \ .// d g d f
a c F d d
.
6)  : , a -

.
     .
      . 3
    
,     . 
 
 
           ,    
  
     
    .


   


.

   


. 
 
.

1)  : \ ,

2)  : d e b -

MB

( F/) d
( F/) // ^ b e q (
) // a ( ) d ( ).
3) 

:

CY

( / /

A K

4)  : , t ; // -

MB

e , ,
f e e .
^ a \
a .
e e
c .
d d .
\ c b ,
e .
\g c .
y f q.
d c c .
a a
, d e e d e .
O b \ d , c
.


1. q, , :

.
2. , , , a-, :    

22
E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY



T , ,
H: E: A (24/4/2004)

(25 ).

. :




. (25 ).
. . , (50 ).
, ,
.

1:

, ..

2.


.
, ,

MB

,
. (, , , , ),
.
- , , 50% .
,
3. ,
,
,
.
, .
, ,
,
.
. ,
, ...,
:
, ..4. ,
,
,
.
,
,
, 5,
. , . , , ,
, ,

CY

,
. ,
.
, .
,

/ :

MB

3. , , . 282-284.
4. . , , ,
. 11.

2. . , , . 34, . 300.

5. , . 13-14.

CY

1.
, . 103.

23

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

, , 6. ,
, , ,
7 ,
. , . , , .

,
(, ), , ,
,
.
8.

MB

:
.


. (
2001)

:
: ... .
:
.
.
, ,
.

CY

MB

. ,
, .

. .

.

.

- , , .


-.

, .

.
, .

6. . , , , 2.

CY

MB

7. ,
, . 36.

24

8. . , / , . 41.

.
8-10 ,
, , ,
, ,
(, ).


,

.
, :

: ( )
:
1. .
2.
. :


( ).

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

: .

: .

;

: .

:
, , ,
.
.


.
. , .

: .
:
. , , . ,


. , , . . , , .

:
:
.
, (
) .

.
: , , ,
. ,
,
.
,
.

:
:
, , , . , ,
.


.
:
,
,
,
. ,
, .
, .

E O

CY

MB

CY

:

. ,
.
,

.

MB

CY

: ,
. , ,
, .
,
.

CY

MB

MB

: .

: . ,

,
. ,

. ,

.

CY

: .

MB

25

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

, ,
. :

: , ..

: .

: ..., ..
:
,
.
, :

.

I. K M

CY

MB

, . : . , . , .
, . , . , . , . , . .
,
. .

.
, .

.

: ;
: .
.

.

.

.

:

MB

. : , , , , ,
, , ,
.

CY


,
().

.
:
,
,

9.

.
.
, :
: , , ,
, ..
: .
: .

.

26

. :


: .
: :
.

.
, , , ,

10.

.

.
9. . , , . , / 2002, . 178.
10. . . , . . . 178.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

:
.
.
.
.

.
.

-
- .
( - )

.
.

: .
:

, .
, .
, .
,
.

.
, . , ,
.

: .
:
.
, , .
, .
( , ).

11.

.
.

, .

:
.
:
,
, .
.

N OP   
Q  R
,   R
 Q   S


12.

.
.
.

:
. .

11. . . . . . 169-170.

: .

12. , , 43.

27

E O

CY

MB

CY

. , , .

CY

MB

: .

.

.
' .

CY

MB

, .
:
, .
- , .
, .
.

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

. :
1.
2. :
.
.
.
. (, , , , ).
. , :
.
. , :
.

:
.

.
.
.
.

CY

MB

. :

.


,

.

: .
: :
,
, ,
, .


.

.
1. (,
).
2. (, ,
, ).
1.

MB

CY

28

: .
:
: , , .
: , , .
: , .

2.

MB


.
.
, , .
, .

2. .
.
(, ).
, , , .
, , , ..
2. .
.
.

.
2. .

.

.


.
2. .
.

( , ).
.

: .
:
.
.
.

.
.
.
.

.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

,

.

.
.
.
.

3. , ,

.

CY

.
.
, .

MB

4. :

:
.

:
.

:

.

:
.

5. :



.
6. :

,



13.


(, , )
.

:
.
.
.
.
.

, .
.

: .
: :
1. :
,



.

:

, .


/.

, ' .

13. . , .. 365-366.

CY

2. :

: , , .

29

E O

CY

MB

MB

. .
.

CY

. .
.

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

:
,
, , . .


, , , , ,

, .

MB

.

.



.

.

.

.

: .

: .
: , ,
,
, , , .
, , , , .

MB

CY

,
. : ..., ..., ..
.

: , , , , .
, . , .

1.


, . , . 34.
,
, . 36.
, /
. , . 41.
, . , , . 48.
.. , . , . 76.

2.


, , . 11,13,14.
. , , . 30.
, , .37.
, : , . 45.
.. , ,
. 62.

3.

, ,
.13-14.

4.

, , , 2.

5.

, , , 2.

6.

, , ,
5.

7.

, -
, .

8.

, , /.

9.

Denis Huisman-Beatrice Levy ., ,


.

:
.
: , , , ,

.
,


.


,
, ,
.

CY

MB

: -.

30

: , ,
.
,

10. . . , , . , / 2002.
11. , ,
2003.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY

A


T , K M M.E.
H: E: A (24/4/2004)

: f f 1
, y1, y2f(A) y1 <y2
f 1(y1)f 1(y2). ,
f(f 1(y1)) f(f 1(y2)),
y1 y2, .

A. M, ,

1: f :A ( A)
,
f1 :f(A) .
A
f .
y1, y2f(A), y1<y2,
x1, x2A

f(A)

x1

y1

x2

y2

f(x1) = y1
f(x2) = y2,
x1 =f 1(y1) x2 =f 1(y2).
f(x1)<f(x2) f , x1 x2. x1 <x2,

2: f:
, f 1
f().
A
=[, ], f()
. , f
.
y0
f()
lim f 1(y) = f 1(y0)
yy

>0, >0 , y, |yy0|<,


|f 1(y) f 1(y0)| < .
x0 f(x0) = y0,
x0 =f 1(y0). ,
, -

E O

CY

MB

MB


f ,
. ,

.

CY

CY

MB

MB

2003,
,
( 4)
( 3) .
,
, . , :
, ,
,
,
,
11

.

f 1(y1)<f 1(y2), f 1 .
, f , f1
.

CY

31

CY

MB

CY

MB

A I
x0 x0.

f . =[, ] f()=[, ].
f
x0.
x0(, ), <f(x0)<, f .

f(x0) f(x0),

CY

x0 + x0 + (x0) = ,
x0 x0 + .
f x0 <x0,
f(x0 )<f(x0), f(x0 )=f(x0)1, 1 >0. , f(x0 +)=f(x0)+2, 2 >0.
=min{1, 2}, y(y0 , y0 +) y0 1 <y<y0 +2
[

f1

<

f 1(y)

<

< f(x0) < f(x0) < f(x0) + < .

f 1(y0 +2)

x1, x2(, )

x0 <f 1(y) < x0 +

f 1(y0) < f 1(y) < f 1(y0) +

|f 1(y)f 1(y0) |< .

x0 x0 (x0 ) =

f 1(y0 1)

MB

f(x1)=f(x0) f(x2)=f(x0)+.
x(x1, x2)
f(x1) < f(x) < f(x2) f(x0) < f(x) < f(x0 )+

y0 f(),
, f(+)=y0 +, >0.
y[y0, y0 +)

|f(x)f(x0)| < ,

f x0.
, f x0 = x0 =.

y0 y < y0 +

f 1(y0)

3:
.

f 1(y) < f 1(y0 +)

f 1(y) < +

MB

[f()=y0, f ]
< f1(y) < +

|f1(y)| < |f1(y)f1(y0)| < .

CY

y0
f(), f()=y0.
,
f .

f . , x1, x2,
x3 x1 < x2 < x3,
f(x1)<f(x2)<f(x3) f(x1)>f(x2)>f(x3).
H f, , 11 x1 x3 f(x1)f(x3). f(x1)<f(x3).
,

f(x2) < f(x1) < f(x3)

(1)

f(x1) < f(x3) < f(x2)

(2)

1)  ,
,  < [, ].

2) ( )
f: , :
y1, y2f(), y1 <y2, x1, x2
f(x1)=y1 f(x2)=y2. , [y1, y2] x0
=f(x0)f().
[y1, y2] f(), f()

(1). f [x2, x3] f(x2)f(x3),


, f
f(x2) f(x3). ,
f(x1), x0(x2, x3) f(x0)=f(x1). ,
x0 x1 [ x1(x2, x3)] f(x0)=f(x1),
.

(2) .

, , f .

CY

MB

3) ,
f() .
. ,
f(x)=x
=(, +) f()=[1, 1].

32

4) 3 . ,
: f() , , , f
.

4: f: 
x0 f(x0) 0,
f 1
y0 =f(x0)
1
1
(f1)(y0) =  = 1
f(x0) f(f (y0)
A
1 2, f 1
f().
,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

f 1(y)=x, yy0 f 1(y) f 1(y0),


xx0.
, yy0 xx0. ,
f1(y) f1(y0)
x x0
lim 
= lim 
=
yy
xx0 f(x) f(x )
y

y
0
0
0

, 


, {},

1) x f (x)0 f 1(f(x)) =x

 ,

.

2) f(x0)=0, f1
f(x0), f 1 f(x0),
(f1)(f(x0))f(x0) = 1
(f1)(f(x0))0=1 .
, f(x)=x3  f(x)=3x2 0
x0 f(0)=0.

 
3

f 1(x) =

x ,
3

x0

x , x0

x0 0,
0.

5: f:[, ] ,

f()

 xf(x)dx.

f1(x)dx =

f()

A
f 1(x)=y, x=f(y) dx=f(y)dy.
x=f() y=f 1(f()) =, x=f() y=.

f()

, :

f()

 xf(x)dx = 

 yf(y)dy =  xf(x)dx.

f 1(x)dx =

(f(x))f(x)dx =

(f(x))f(x)dx.

f()

f()

) x0 Df, f x0,
lim f(x) = f(x0)

xx
0

) x0 Df, f x0.
, x0 Df,
(x0) (x0)Df ={x0} f(x)= f(x0)(f(x0)), f
x0 ( Cauchy).
, f: f(x)=x2
, 
f .

. H

f(x)=u, du=f(x)dx

f

f1


,
, ( Cauchy): f x0 , (f(x0)) f(x0)
(x0) x0 , x(x0)Df
f(x)(f(x0)), > 0
=()>0 , xDf |xx0|<
|f(x)f(x0)|<.

( Heine) : f x0Df, (x), xDf
xx0, f(x)f(x0).

f()

f1(u)du =

f 1(x)dx.

f()

,
. ,
, ,

E O

CY

MB

MB

1
(f1)(f(x))f(x) = 1 (f1)(f(x)) =  .
f(x)

CY

xx
0

1
 = 1
f(x ) f ( x0)
f(x0)

x x0

CY

MB

MB

lim

.
. , ,
,
x

f(x)=
x Df ={0}[1, +) 0
Df.

CY

B. H

CY

f 1(y) f 1(y0)
1
lim 
= 
yy
y y0
f(x0)
0

MB

33

CY

MB

CY

MB

A I

CY


.
B

1: f , x1, x2 x1 < x2

f(x 2 ) f ( x1)
f(x) f(x1) + 
 (xx1)
x 2 x1

AB

AB

f, , , x, y [0, 1]

f(x +(1)y) f(x) + (1)f(y).

f(x) = |x|
,
[0, 1] x, y

f(x+(1)y) = |x+(1)y| |x| + |(1)y|


= |x| + (1)|y| ( 0 10)

= f(x) + (1)f(y).

1
:
2: f (.
) ,

B
A

y=f(x)

f(x ) f (x0)
,
g(x) = 
x x0

MB

CY

y=f(x)

H f

H f o

f (. ) ,
x1, x2, x1 <x2,
(x1, f(x1)) (x2, f(x2)) (. ) f [x1, x2]
.
y

y=f(x)

y=f(x)

B
f(x1)+(1)f(x2)

A
x1 x1+(1)x2

x2 x


MB

f(x2) f(x1)
y = f(x1) +  (xx1),
x2 x1
:

, 3 f (. ) .

. f(x)=|x| (. 1), ,
0.

f(x1+(1)x2)

{x0}, (. ).

3:
(. ) , f (. ) .

(x, y)
x yf(x).

.

CY

y=|x|

f , f .
f ,
f .

34

x[x1, x2].

MB

1) 2 , f ,
f : ,
.
f(x) f(x0)

2) g(x) =  
x x0
x0,

x[x1, x2]

lim g(x)=l1 lim g(x)=l2, l1, l2,

xx +
0

xx

, f(x)=f(x0)+(xx0)g(x),
E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

lim f(x) = lim+ [f(x0)+(xx0)g(x)] =


xx

1: f
, f ,
f(x)0.

= f(x0) + 0l1 = f(x0)


lim f(x) = f(x0) + 0l2 = f(x0).

xx
0

, f ,
.

f
x0 ,
M(x0, f(x0)) f, [x0 , x0 +]
, f [x0 , x0]
[x0, x0 +] [x0 , x0] [x0, x0 +].

A
f . x0 , (x0 ,
x0 +), . f , x(x0 , x0) f(x)f(x0),
f(x ) f ( x0)
0.

x x0
, x(x0, x0 +)
f(x) f(x0)

x,

f(x) f(x0)
f(x0) = lim  0.
x x0
xx
0

x 1
1 < x < 1

1
1
 x3 + x2 +  ,
3
3

x0 .

x1

: x
f(x)0. x1, x2 x1 <x2,
, x0(x1, x2)

f(x) =

x2 2x

x 1

1,


f
(, 1]

[1, +).

f(x2) f(x1)
f(x0) =  .
x2 x1

1 < x < 1

x2 + 2x

x1

f(x0)0 x2 x1 >0, f(x2)f(x1)0,


x1 <x2 f(x1)f(x2), f .

y
1
2

2
1

1
y=f(x)

, f

(, 1]
[1, +).

(x0, f(x0)),
x0[1, 1],

f.

f(x) f(x0)

> 0
x x0

5
3
1
1
O 1
1
5
3

y=f(x)

.
:
;
,

1) x f(x)>0,
, , f .
2) f , x0 xx0

f(x) f(x0)
f(x0) = lim 
0.
xx
0 x x0)

2: f

f(x) 0. f ,

x f(x) >0.
A
f
1 , f(x)=0,
f 1
, .

E O

CY

MB

MB

1
1
 x3 x2  ,
3
3

CY

f x0,

CY

MB

MB

f(x) =

f(x) f(x0)
 0
x x0

CY

CY

xx +
0

MB

35

CY

MB

CY

MB

A I

CY

:
x f(x)>0. f
( , f(x)0),
,  < f()=f(). , x[, ],

f() f(x) f()


f(x)=f()=f(), f [, ]. x[, ]
f(x)=0, . , f
.
o
, f(x)0
f (x) , f .

f(x)=x2+1,
, ,

y=x2v+1

>0, x ( ).

2

3

, 
x2 x ,

3

2


2 = |x| 3
x2 = 
|x |


1


3
x2 = (x2) .


2) (x)y = xy x, y,
>0. x, y , .
1
, (x4)
x

4

3

3)


3

x,

x0.
1

3

4

3

x .

, >0
x

1



.
4) lnx2 o x0 2lnx, x>0. ,
,

f(x)=0 x=0.

MB

, ,
, x

f(x)=(2+1)x2 0

lnx2 = ln|x|2 = 2ln|x| x0.

CY

, (x4)


f(x)=xx

,
f(x)=1x0
f(x)=0
x=2, .

MB

y=xx

5) , ..

3x, x 1

f(x) =

 0,

x < 1

 5x 3,
0,

g(x) =

x 1
x < 1

, , f(x)g(x)=0 x,
f(x)=0 g(x)=0.
3

x3, x 0

f(x) =

 0,

x<0

,

x0 f(x)=3x2 0, x<0
f(x)=0.

E.

MB

CY

1)
36

( ) -

6) , .
, , f y=x,
.
7)
,
, ,

.
,
f(x)=|x|P(x), 
P(x) x, x0 =,
P()=0, ,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

 

P() = P() 2P() = 0 P() = 0.


8)
. ,
 f(x)=x3 x+2
x0 = 1
f(1)=0,
:
f x0 =1,
.


x
f(x) = 
x1
x0 =1 (
)

.

f(x) =0 (1, 1).


1
) f(x) = 2 x*,
x
1
f(x) =  + c, x*.
x
f(x )
0
) lim   
xx0 g( x)
0
f(x)
lim  ,
xx g(x)
0
f(x)
lim  .
xx g(x)
0
15) .
, , ,
.

10) f x0
f x0 .
,
|x|
f(x) =  x0 =0 ( f 0),
x
.

) Rolle

11)
:

x
) lim  =1
x0 x
De LHospital.

MB

f x0 =,

9)

. .
1
) f(x) = ex + 
x
1
f(1)f(1) =  1 (e+1) <0,
e

CY

f(x ) f ()
lim   = P(),
x

16)
,
. ,

CY

f(x ) f ()
lim   = P()
x

x+

MB

g(x) f(x) h(x),


lim g(x) lim f(x) lim h(x) lim f(x) .

xx0

xx0

xx0

xx0

17)

lim f(x)=.

, -

xx
0

12) x0 f(x)<g(x) f, g
x0,

, .

lim f(x)<lim g(x),

x(, ) f (x)>0, f

xx0

xx0

[, ].

: -

lim f(x)=lim g(x).

xx0

xx0

f [, ], x0(, )

13) , , .
, ,
=2 ;
x

f( ) f ()
f(x0) =   .

f(x0)>0 >0, f()f()>0, < f()<f(), f [, ].

.
14)
,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

f(x)= x ;

CY

: f [, ]

37

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY

VIDEO-:


T , E. K , ...


. ,
. , , , , , , . , , , (Robert et
al., 1990). ,
, , .
, (-, -) (McDermott et al., 1987). ,
,
Video .

CY

MB

CY

MB

38


(..), ,
.
,
, (Robert et al., 1990).
.. . -


,

(Beichner, 1995). , ,
, .

,
.
( ..), , ,
, ,
,
.. (Zollman et al., 1994). , ,
,

..

O

.. (Brungard et
al., 1995). () () .., (, , )
(Beichner, 1994). , , .. ,

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY


, /.
MBL (Mokros et al., 1987;
Thorton et al., 1990). , ,
,
,

. ,
(Beichner, 1995).
..,
,
.

video

CY

MB

Video Video (VBL: Video Based Laboratory),



video /,

(Gamboa et al., 2001). ,

video -. .
video

, : - (t), video , (-t). video .

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

, ,
(Leinhardt et al., 1990; Thorton
et al., 1990).




(McDermott et al., 1987). Beichner (1995) Mokros &
Tinker (1987),
(graph as
picture). - ,
, . ,

.
,
(Thorton et al., 1990).

()
.
, ,
(Beichner, 1990).

/
(MBL: Microcomputer Based Laboratory),

MB

39

CY

MB

CY

MB

V IDEO -A :

CY

MB

CY

, -,
.
,
-, - -,

,
.
,
VBL
. , , ,


.
VBL ..

(Escalada et al., 1996;
Zollman et al., 1994),
,

(Austen et al., 1999). , ..,

(Martin et al.,
1999). video,

(Beichner, 1990; Zollman, 1996).

M K



. ,
,
.

1. Austen, D., Brouwer, W., Wright P., Martin, B. & Laue H.


(1999), M.A.P. Modular Approach to physics laboratory,
Proceedings CBLIS-4, Pedagogical Faculty University of
Ostrava Press
2. Beichner, R. (1990), The effect of simultaneous motion presentation and graph generation in a kinematics lab, Journal
of Research in Science Teaching 27, 803-815
3. Beichner, R. (1994), Testing student interpretation of kinematics graphs, American Journal of Physics 62, 750-762
4. Beichner, R. (1995), Considering perception and cognition in
the design of an instructional software package, Multimedia
Tools and Applications 1, 173-184
5. Brungard, J. & Zollman, D. (1995), The influence of interactive videodisc instruction using simultaneous-time analysis
on kinematics graphing skills of high school students,
Journal of Research in Science Teaching 32, 855-869
6. Gamboa, F., Prez, J. L., Lara, F., Caviedes, F., Miranta, A.
(2001), A student cantered methodology for the development
of a physics video based laboratory, Interacting with
Computers 13, 527-548
7. Escalada L. T., Grabhorn, R. & Zollman D. (1996), Applications of interactive digital video in a physics classroom,
Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 5, 73-97
8. Leinhardt, G., Zaslavsky, O., & Stein, M. K. (1990), Functions,
graphs, and graphing: Tasks, learning, and teaching, Review
of Educational Research 60, 1-64.
9. Martin, B., Austen, D., Wright, P. & Laue, H. (1999), Designing applets that foster constructivist teaching and
learning, Proceedings CBLIS-4, Pedagogical Faculty
University of Ostrava Press
10. McDermott, L., Rosenquist, M. & vanZee, E. (1987), Student
difficulties in connecting graphs and physics: Examples from
Kinematics, American Journal of Physics 55, 503-513
11. Mokros, J. & Tinker, R. (1987), The impact of microcomputerbased labs on childrens ability to interpret graphs, Journal of
Research in Science Teaching 24, 369-383
12. Robert, R. & Cadmus, J. (1990), A video technique to facilitate the visualization of physical phenomena, American
Journal of Physics 58, 397-399
13. Thorton, R. & Sokoloff, D. (1990), Learning motion concepts
using real-time microcomputer-based laboratory tools, American Journal of Physics 58, 858-867
14. Zollman, D. & Fuller, R. (1994), Teaching and learning physics with interactive video, Physics Today 64, 114-119
15. Zollman, D. (1996), Do the just sit there? Reflections on
helping students learn physics, American Journal of Physics
58, 858-867

CY

MB


video , ,
. , ,
-. , , , . ,

video,
.

.

MB

40
E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY

X
O
T: K T, K T X A...
A B, K T X A...
K -T, E. T X A...
, -
, K M.E.
, E. / T ...


O van Slyke ,
,
1000 ,
, ..
H2CO3 NaHCO3.
T pH = 7,400,05

.

T
,

,
pH=7,4.

, .

MB

M , , ,
. , , , .
, E , , .

.

, ..
.

CY

,
.

H
, ,

.


. , ,
, .
,

.
,
. ,

,
. .

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

, E .
, .. ;
;

,

CY

,
,
.

. ,

41

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

X : O

CY

MB

CY


. ()

.
,
.
, , , .., .
,

. ,

.

, (..
),
( ), ..
. ,

,
.
,

,


. ,

, , , .

. , (
) -
, . ,
,
.
.
, :
,

.

, .
, (),




.

O

,
- -

H
O I Luigi Galvani, 1789, , . O
,
, , Cu , Fe,
. O Galvani ,
. , , , .
O Alessandro Volta, 1794,
.
( ) ,
Cu | | Fe

CY

MB

. , .
T Volta ,
. , .

42

Alessandro Volta
Como I (1745-1827).
A

Volt. Volta

A, 1801.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

.. , ,
. ,

, ,
Bohr, ..

CY

. ,
, . (
, )
() ().

, . . , ,
. , , ( )
( ). ,
. ,
.

MB

H X
E X , ...
.
, X , .
, . , .
,
.. ,
.

- - .

( ) ,
.. . . ,
.
,

( ),

.




, - - .

1.
,
,

. , , , .

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB
CY
MB

CY

O
H



,
. , -
,
.
,
,
. : ( ),
, , ,
, ...

, .
,

:

43

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

X : O

CY

2.

.
,
(
) .
3.
,
() . ,
, .
: .
. , .
4.

.

.

CY

MB

CY

MB

5.
.

,
.

44


. , ,

. . ,
,
(
). ,
( )
,
.
,
.

.
.
.
, ,
...
,
. ,
.

T X
, , .

,
,
.
,
, ( ), ( 2-3 ).
, ,
( ).
:

.
, .
.

.

, .
(),
,

.
(Microscale
Chemistry) ,
, . , , .
. ,
-,
1 , ( 2).
3 : (), ().
, . ,

.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

, , . (

2

.

MB


.


.
,
. .

CY

1 , , .

100 mL), .


,
, .. 1 .
.
,

.


. , . ( , ).

,
, ,
.

CY

,
, .. , .. T
,

. ,
.

MB

,
.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

,
.
()
()
.



.
.

,
.
3 . .
. H , .

MB

45

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

X : O

CY

,

,
() .
.
:
, ,

,
.

CY

MB

, . (1995) , . , .
-, . , . (1994) . , . , .
-, . (2000) , . , .
-, . , . (2000) , . , .
Driver, R., Guesne, E. Tiberghien, A. ( .
) (1993) , . , .
Driver, R., Squires, A., Rushworth, P. Wood-Robinson, V. ( . , .) (1998) , . , .
, . (1987) , . ,
.
, . (1988) , . ,
.
, . (1994) ,
.Gutenberg, .
, .. (1997) , . , .
, . (1996) , . ,
.
, . (1995)
, . , .

, . (1991)
. : , . , .
, . (1984)
, . , .
, . (1984) , . Gutenberg, .
, . (1989) , . , .
, . (1998) , .
, .
, . , . (1992)
, . , .

Driver, R. (1993) The pupil as scientist?, The Open University Press,


Suffolk.
Duschl, R.A. (1990) Restructuring Science Education, Teachers
College Press, New York.
Gabel, D. L., Casavant, D. P. and Giese, P.A. (1995) Powerful ideas
in Physical science A model course: Nature of matter, American
Association of Physics Teachers, U.S.A.
Lewis, M., Waller, Guy. (1994) Thinking Chemistry. Oxford University
Press. Oxford.
Lijnse. P.L., Licht, P., de Vos, W. and Waarlo A.J. (1990) Relating
macroscopic phenomena to microscopic particles, CD- Press,
Utrecht.
Novak, J. D., Gowin, D. B. (1991) Learning how to learn. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge.
Orton, A. (1991) Learning Mathematics: Issues,theory and classroom
practice. Cassell Educ. Limit., London.
Shayer, M., Adey, P. (1981) Towards a Science of Sceince Theaching.
Heinemann Educational Books, London.
Unesco. (1984) Teaching School Chemistry, U.N. Educ. Scien. Cult.
Organ., Paris.

Education in Chemistry European Journal of Science Education


International Journal of Science Education Journal of Chemical
Education Journal of Research in Science eaching School
Science Review Science Activities (The) Teacher of Science
Science Education Reasearch in Science Education Aster

Didaskalia


Internet

CY

MB



A ,
B

46
E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY


,

T . , ,

() :

(, ).

(, , .).

( , , /).


:
) //
)
)

, . ( ) . , ,
( ,
, )
(, ..).

,
.

,
.

.
, /.

.
,
,


, .

,
, 2 - 3 , :


,
.

E O

CY

MB

MB

/ /
/ / (, ) ( ) ( ). ///
( ). /

, .. ..
,

CY

CY

MB

MB

, ,

.
, ,
, . ,

.

CY

47

CY

MB

CY

CY

MB

, 80100 100-120 1/3 , .

. , , . .
2004. ()
, .


.
. ;

CY

MB

.
.

. .
, . .
, ,
. .


.

1993
.
;


,
.
.
.

,
. , .
.
. ,

.
.

CY

MB

48

.
.
;

,
. ,
, ,
, .
-

MB

.
.
, . , , .
, . ,
. , . .
.

.
,
, .

.


, , ;

.
:
.
, .


.
. .
, ,
, , . ,
,
. , , .
, ,

. ,
,

. ,
,
, ,
.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY



T M K,

5. .
7. .
8. .
9.
.
10. .
11.
12. , ,
.
13. .

MB

6. , , , .

14.
.

CY

,
.

,
.
. 20052006 .
.
.


. . , 1.
.
.

.
.

15.
.


1. -
( ):
:
(1789-1909)
, 1999.

1. .
2. , ,
,
.
3.
.
4.
.
1. M. K, I, E Z
2. M. K, I , E Z

()

,
. ,

,
( , , 17 .) , , . , . 96)
MB

2:


(. 47)

()
, 1712,

49

E O

CY

MB

CY

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

, , .


.

,
. , ,
,
.
, (1756),
, ,
, . 132

()

CY

MB

, ,
, ,
.
,
. , , , , .
, ,
,
, , . 137)

(), (), (). ,


.
.
-

(3)
(3) .
:


MB

1. , .
2. 3. M. K, I , E Z

CY


1. , .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5.
.


1. .
2. .
3. , .
4. .
:
1. ,
, .
2.
, , .
3. ,
, , .

, 13
14 3.

50

.
3. ,
.


.
,
,
, .
,
,
,
.

, ,
.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

(. 255)

:



, ;
.
,

. . ,

.
.
,
,
28 1885
,
,


.
,
, ,
,
, , . ,

.

)
;
) , ,
;
-

, 6
, , , 4.
:
1 .
4. M. K, I , E Z


1
().
2 ().
3 ().


1

().
2 ().
3 , ( ).

4
().

:

1. ,
.
2.
3. .
4. , , .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8.
.
9.
10. .

11. .
12. .

13. .
14. .

15. .
16. .

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

, 1999.

CY

:
(1789-1909)

MB

( ):

2
.
3
.

CY

MB

CY

2. A

MB

51

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY




:
.K. , , ,


,



. , ,
.



.
, , -
,
.

CY

MB


1) . ,
. , ,
,
.
,
(. 16 . .).

2) . -

CY

MB



. ,


(. 41-42 . .).

52

3) . , ,
,
. -

. , , , , ,
. ,
,
(. 45-46 . .).

4) . , . ,
. .
,

. (. 60 . .).

5) .

. .
,
.
(. 80-81
. .).
6) .

. ,
,
(. 91 . .).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

.. , , .
K. Jaspers, , . , .
. , , 1988.
.. , ,
1975.
. Popper .., , . imago, 1984.
. , , . , 1989.
-, , .
..., 1942.
. , , 1985.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY



1976
( )
To . , . ..
H: E: A (24/4/2004)

1. ( . ,
1976-1981)
.

1 [ :
, , ]
2 [ : ,
, ]


( )

2 .

50

50

60
60
50
30
250

60
60
60
20
250

50

50

40
80
50
30
250

40
40
70
50
250

MB

MB

1
,
14 . ,
9.000 ( 1980 & 1981)
. , , .

E O

CY

CY

CY

MB

MB



, .

.


( , . 1)
20%.


,
( ,
, )
.
.

CY

1974
,
. 41
. , , , , , .
, ,
,


.

,
. ,

.

53

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

1976


, .
, :
(Abitur, Baccalaureat)
.

25-35%
.

,
.

,
.
.

: ,
, , , ,

' ' , , . , .

: , ,

' ""
( )
.

.

4. (.
2). 9

: , ,
: , ,


: , , , ,
: , , ,
: , , ,


, , , .

: {, ,
-} {, , ..., & }

2. 4

2: . 9


,
.

,

. , (
),
.

CY

MB

MB


. 17 (
).

3.



1980

CY

MB

-
,
, .
:
,
.

54


( )

,

.

.

5.
( , .


.

E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

CY

MB

-
,
( )
1976-1981:

,
,
.
, . .

,
.
, ,
.
, .


.

.
. , .

6,35 (
20).

CY

, ,
. ;
;
. .
,

, .
,
. ( 20 22 ,
, ..)
.
22 . , , , .
, , ,
. ,
.
' , ' ,
' ,
,
, .

MB

6,
( ,
15 ) ,

.

CY

, ,
,
.

.

MB

: .
' ,
.

. . , -:
, .
. '
.

CY

MB

55
E O

CY

MB

CY

MB

MB

CY

www.ziti.gr

BIBIA

CY

MB

HPEI EIPE
EKAIEYTIKN BIBIN

MB

CY

IA TO ENIAIO YKEIO

EITHMONIKA

IA TO YMNAIO

AEI, TEI, IEK

EKAIEYTIKA
, , TEE

IAOPA

2004

, ,

IOOIKA

E. P
ANOOIO APXAKH
YPIKH OIHH
B YKEIOY
K

T E

E. P
ANOOIO APXAKH
YPIKH OIHH
& EHNIKH OOTEXNIA
B YKEIOY

.
IAKTIKH
ITOPIKN HN

.
IAKONTA
IA TO AP(E)ON:

H A

CY

MB

.
KEIMENA
NEOEHNIKH
OOTEXNIA
A

N.
EKPAH - EKEH
YKEIOY

BIOOIA

. M
BIOOIA
YKEIOY

. B
KEIMENA
NEOEHNIKH
OOTEXNIA
A B

A.
ENONTO
EHNIKA
A

. - M
PAMATIMO
O
E

.
ANAYTIKH
EMETPIA

& AEI-TEI

N. K
.
E.
MAHMATIKA &
POPAMMATIMO
TO MATHEMATICA

MAHMATIKA

.
AEBPA
B YKEIOY

N

MB

K. N - E.
APXAIA
EHNIKH A
ANOOIO
A B

.
PAMMIKH
AEBPA

& AEI-TEI

, E

CY

BIBIOEIO - KENTPIKH IAEH: A 27 - 546 35 . 2310-203.720 Fax 2310-211.305 e-mail: sales@ziti.gr


EPOTAIO-PAEIA: 18 - T.. 4171 - T.K. 57019 - . 23920-72.222 Fax 23920-72.229 e-mail: info@ziti.gr
BIBIOEIO AHNN - ENH EKOTN BIBIOY EAONIKH B ( 5) - 105 64 AHNA T.-Fax 210-3211.097
AOHKH AHNN - HH XONPIKH: B 45 - E 106 81, A T.-Fax 210-3816.650 e-mail: athina@ziti.gr

CY

MB

CY

MB