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# Heat transfer Unit 1 Concepts and mechanism of heat flow 1.

A 10 cm diameter copper ball is to be heated from 100 0 C to an average temperature of 150 0 c in 30 min. Taking average density and specific heat of copper in this temperature range be = 8950Kg/m3 and Cp= 0.395 KJ/Kg 0C respectively. Determine 1. Total amount of heat transfer to ball 2. The average rate of heat transfer to the ball 3. Average heat flux. (92.55KJ, 51.42 Watt, 1636.75 W/m2) 2. A roof of an electrically heated home is 6m long, 8m wide, 0.25thick and is made up of flat layer of concrete whose thermal conductivity is k= 0.8 W/mk. The temperature of inner & outer surfaces of roof one night is measured to be 150 c and 40 c respectively for a period of 10 hours. Determine 1. Rate of heat loss through the roof at night. 2. Cost of heat loss to home owner if cost of electricity is \$ 0.08/ Kwh. (1689.6 Watt, \$ 1.35) 3. A 2 m long, 0.3cm diameter electrical wire extends across a room at 150 c. Heat is generated in a wire as a result of resistance heating and surface temperature of the wire is measured to be 152 0 c in a steady operation. Also voltage drop and electric current through the wire are measured to be 60V and 1.5A. Disregarding any heat transfer by radiation. Determine 1. Convection heat transfer coefficient for heat transfer between outer surface of wire and the air in the room. (34.85 W/m2 k) 4. A spherical thin walled metallic container is used to store liquid nitrogen at 77k. The container has 0.5 m diameter and it is covered with an evacuated reflective insulation composed of silica powder. The insulation is 25mm thickness and its outer surface is exposed to ambient air at 300k. The convection coefficient is known to be 34.85 W/m2 k. The latent heat of vaporization and density of liquid nitrogen are 2105 J/Kg and 804 Kg/m3 respectively. Determine 1. The average rate of heat transfer to the liquid nitrogen. (13.06 Watt). 5. A furnace wall has the inside surface temperature of 1100 0 c while ambient air temperature is 250 c. The wall consists of 125mm thick refractory bricks (k= 1.6W/mk), 125mm thick firebricks (k= 0.14 W/mk), There is a air gap which offers a thermal resistance of 0.16k/w (thickness of air gap & plaster are 12mm). the heat transfer coefficient on the outside wall to the air is 17 W/m2 k Determine 1. The rate of heat loss per unit area of wall surface.

2. The interface temperature through the wall. 3. The temperature of outside surface of the wall. (1.344 KW, T2= 9950c, T3= 7800c, T4= 2200c, T5= 104.80c) 6. The exterior wall of house may be approximated by 10cm thick layer of common brick (k= 0.7 W/mk) followed by a 3.75cm layer of gypsum plaster (k= 0.48 W/mk). What thickness of loosely packed rock wool insulation (k= 0.065 W/mk) should be added to reduce the heat loss or gain through wall by 80%. (5.75 cm) 7. A steam pipe made up of steel (k= 58 W/mk) has internal diameter of 160mm and outer diameter of 170mm. The saturated steam flowing through it is at 3000c while the ambient air is at 500c. It has two layers of insulation, the inner layer (k= 0.17W/mk) is 30mm thick and outer layer (k= 0.023W/mk) is 50mm thick. The heat transfer coefficient on the inside and outside walls is 30 W/m2 k and 5.8 W/m2 k respectively. Determine the rate of heat loss per unit length of the pipe. (82.93 w/m) 8. Calculate the rate of heat loss for a red brick wall of length 5m, height 4m, and thickness 25cm. temperature of inner surface is 1100c and that of outer surface is 400c. Thermal conductivity of red brick is (k= 0.7W/mk). Also calculate the temperature of an interior point of the wall 20cm away from the inner surface of the wall. (3920W, 540c) 9. A surface having an area of 1.5m2 and maintained at 3000c exchanges heat by radiation with another surface at 400c. The value of factor due to geometric location and emissivity is 0.52. determine 1. Heat lost by radiation. 2. The value of thermal resistance. 3. The value of equivalent convection coefficient. (4343W, 0.059k/W, 11.136 W/m2 k) 10. A surface having an area of 0.5m2, emissivity is 0.8 and temperature 1500c is placed in a large evacuated chamber whose walls are maintained at 250c. Find the rate at which radiation is emitted by the surface? What is the net rate of radiation exchange between surface and chamber walls? (726.11W, 547.25W) 11. A cold storage consists of cubical chamber of dimensions(2m2m 2m) Maintained at -100c inside temperature. Outside wall temperature is 350c. Top and side walls are covered by low conducting insulation with (k= 0.06W/mk). There is no heat loss from bottom. If heat loss through top and side wall is to be restricted to 500W what is maximum thickness of insulation required. (108mm) 12. An electronic package dissipating 1KW has a surface area of 1m2. The package is mounted on a spacecraft such that the heat generated is transferred from the exposed

surface by radiation into space. The surface emissivity of the package is 1. Calculate steady state temperature of the package surface for the following two conditions 1. The surface is not exposed to the sun. 2. The surface is exposed to a solar flux of 750 W/m2 and its absorptivity to solar radiation is 0.25. (364.4k, 380.4k) 13. A square plate heater measuring (15cm15cm) and a rating of 1KW is inserted between two slabs. Slab A is 2cm thick (k= 60W/mk) and slab B is 1cm thick (k= 0.25W/mk). Outside heat transfer coefficient on side A and B are (200 W/m2 k) and (50W/m2 k) respectively. If surrounding air is at 250c determine 1. Maximum temperature in the system. 2. Heat transfer through each slab. 3. Outer surface temperature of two slabs. (242.670c, 918.35W, 81.62W, 229.060c, 97.550c) 14. A steel pipe (k= 50 W/mk) has internal diameter of 100mm and outer diameter of 110mm is to be covered with two layers of insulation each having a thickness of 50mm. The Thermal conductivity of first insulation is (k= 0.06 W/mk) and that of second is (k= 0.12 W/mk). Calculate the loss of heat per meter length of pipe and interface temperature between two layers of insulation, when the temperature of inside tube surface is 2500c and that of outside surface of insulation is 500c. If order of insulation is reversed find the change in heat loss and comment on result from insulation point of view. (89.6w/m, 96.280c, 105.77w/m) 15. The inside and outside surfaces of a hollow sphere a r b at r = a and r = b are maintained at temperatures of T1and T2 respectively. The Thermal conductivity varies with temperature as k (T) = Ko (1+ T + T2). Derive an expression for total heat flow rate Q through the sphere. 16. Two aluminum plates (k= 240 W/mk) of 2cm thickness with 10 microns surface roughness are placed in contact under 105 N/m2 pressure in air. The temperature at outer surfaces is 4060c and 3900c. calculate 1. Heat flux. 2. Temperature drop due to thermal contact resistance. 3. Contact temperature. Thermal contact resistance with air as intermediate fluid for 10 microns surface roughness is 2.7510-4 m2k/w. (36231.88 w/m2, 9.960c, 402.980c, 393.020c) 17. The composite wall of a furnace is made up with 120mm of fire clay k =0.25 (1+ 0.0009t) W/mk and 600mm of red brick (k= 0.8 W/mk). The inside surface temperature is 12500c and outside air temperature is 400c. Determine 1. Temperature at the layer interface. 2. Heat loss for 1m2 of furnace wall.

(955.850c, 1221.13w) 18. Two slabs each of 120mm thick, have Thermal conductivity of (k= 14.5 W/mk) and (k= 14.5 W/mk). These are placed in contact but due to roughness only 30% of area is in contact and gap in the remaining area is 0.025mm thick and filled with air. If temperature of face of the hot surface is at 2200c and outside surface of other slab is at 300c determine 1. Heat flow through the composite system. 2. Contact resistance and temperature drop in contact. Assume (kair= 0.032W/mk) and half of the contact is due to either metal. (21.473kw, 7.418 10-7 0c/w, 0.01590c) 19. Find the heat flow rate through the composite wall as shown in figure. Assume one dimensional flow. (kA= 150 W/mk) , (kB= 30 W/mk), (kC= 65 W/mk), (kD= 50 W/mk)

600c

D B

4000
A C

(1273.4w)