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VOLUME 8, NUMBER 5

MAY 2001

**A survey of dusty plasma physics*
**

P. K. Shukla†

¨ r Theoretische Physik IV, Fakulta ¨ t fu ¨ r Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universita ¨ t Bochum, Institut fu ˚ University, S-90187 Umea ˚ , Sweden D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Department of Plasma Physics, Umea

͑Received 16 October 2000; accepted 7 November 2000͒ Two omnipresent ingredients of the Universe are plasmas and charged dust. The interplay between these two has opened up a new and fascinating research area, that of dusty plasmas, which are ubiquitous in different parts of our solar system, namely planetary rings, circumsolar dust rings, the interplanetary medium, cometary comae and tails, as well as in interstellar molecular clouds, etc. Dusty plasmas also occur in noctilucent clouds in the arctic troposphere and mesosphere, cloud-to-ground lightening in thunderstorms containing smoke-contaminated air over the United States, in the ﬂame of a humble candle, as well as in microelectronic processing devices, in low-temperature laboratory discharges, and in tokamaks. Dusty plasma physics has appeared as one of the most rapidly growing ﬁelds of science, besides the ﬁeld of the Bose–Einstein condensate, as demonstrated by the number of published papers in scientiﬁc journals and conference proceedings. In fact, it is a truly interdisciplinary science because it has many potential applications in astrophysics ͑viz. in understanding the formation of dust clusters and structures, instabilities of interstellar molecular clouds and star formation, decoupling of magnetic ﬁelds from plasmas, etc.͒ as well as in the planetary magnetospheres of our solar system ͓viz. Saturn ͑particularly, the physics of spokes and braids in the B and F rings͒, Jupiter, Uranus, Neptune, and Mars͔ and in strongly coupled laboratory dusty plasmas. Since a dusty plasma system involves the charging and dynamics of massive charged dust grains, it can be characterized as a complex plasma system providing new physics insights. In this paper, the basic physics of dusty plasmas as well as numerous collective processes are discussed. The focus will be on theoretical and experimental observations of charging processes, waves and instabilities, associated forces, the dynamics of rotating and elongated dust grains, and some nonlinear structures ͑such as dust ion-acoustic shocks, Mach cones, dust voids, vortices, etc͒. The latter are typical in astrophysical settings and in several laboratory experiments. It appears that collective processes in a complex dusty plasma would have excellent future perspectives in the twenty-ﬁrst century, because they have not only potential applications in interplanetary space environments, or in understanding the physics of our universe, but also in advancing our scientiﬁc knowledge in multidisciplinary areas of science. © 2001 American Institute of Physics. ͓DOI: 10.1063/1.1343087͔

I. INTRODUCTION

The interplay between plasmas and charged dust grains has opened up a new and fascinating research area, that of a dusty ͑or complex͒ plasma. A dusty ͑or complex͒ plasma is a normal electron-ion plasma with an additional charged component of small micron-sized particulates. This extra component, which increases the complexity of the system even further, is responsible for the name ‘‘complex plasma.’’ Dusty ͑complex͒ plasmas are ubiquitous in different parts of our cosmic environment,1–5 namely, in planetary rings, in circumsolar and the Phobos dust rings, in the interplanetary medium, in cometary comae and tails, and in interstellar molecular clouds. In fact, the dark bands of dust, which block parts of the Orion, Lagoon, Coalsack, Horsehead, and Eagle nebulae, indicate that dust must have been abundant in the nebulae that coalesced to form the Sun, planets, and other

*Paper HI1 1, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 45, 156 ͑2000͒. † Invited speaker.

1070-664X/2001/8(5)/1791/13/$18.00 1791

stars. On the other hand, during the Voyager 1 and 2 ﬂybys of the outer planets and the ICE ﬂyby of comet Giaobini– Zinner, it has been demonstrated that the plasma wave instrument can detect small dust particles striking the spacecraft.6 Complex dusty plasmas also occur in the ﬂame of a humble candle, in the zodiacal light, in cloud-to-ground lightening in thunderstorms containing smoke-contaminated air over the United States, in volcanic eruptions, and in ball lightening. A recent investigation7 suggests that ball lightening is caused by oxidation of nanoparticle networks from normal lightening strikes on soil. Furthermore, meteoritic dust is thought to be present in the Earth’s mesosphere at altitudes of ϳ80–95 km. It has been conjectured that in the cold summer mesopause, ice particles can form around meteoritic dust particles, with the icy dust particles possibly inﬂuencing the charge balance of the region.8,9 On the other hand, the presence of charged dust particles in the polar summer mesopause has been invoked to explain aspects of the very strong polar summer radar echoes referred to as polar mesosphere summer echoes ͑PMSE͒,

© 2001 American Institute of Physics

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Section IV contains dusty plasma waves in an unmagnetized case. The latter is related to the dust number density n d by n d d 3 ϳ 1.12 The formation of an artiﬁcial dusty plasma in the ionosphere was also revealed during the Spacelab 2 mission when the space shuttle orbital maneuver system engines were ﬁred. The dusty plasma Debye radius D is given by44 1 2 D ϭ 1 2 De ϩ 1 2 Di . Finally.30. electrons. or a dust-ion plasma. Both the positive and negative dust grains can coexist in laboratory and space plasmas. and coherent nonlinear structures. while experiments on the International Space Station will determine the dusty plasma behavior under microgravity conditions. instabilities. When T e ϳ T i and n e 0 ϳ n i 0 . collective effects of charged dust grains become im- Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130.10. In laboratory discharges. while Ikezi22 theoretically predicted the Coulomb crystallization of charged dust grains in a strongly coupled dusty plasma system when the ratio between the Coulomb interaction and the dust thermal energies exceeds 170. and both negatively and positively charged dust grains have been reported. A number of laboratory experiments have spectacularly veriﬁed the theoretical predictions of the DAWs. In dusty plasmas. PROPERTIES OF DUSTY PLASMAS The constituents of dusty plasmas are neutral gas molecules.237. These are the dust grain radius R. major boosts to dusty plasma research came after the discovery of the dust acoustic wave ͑DAW͒.17 the dusty plasma crystal ͑DPC͒. In Sec. II. we present the basic physics of dusty plasmas and describe the progress that has been made in the area of collective processes in dusty plasmas during the last decade. Dust grains can be charged both negatively and positively. K. dust dynamics. where T e ( T i ) is the electron ͑ion͒ temperature. the photoelectron emission. which marks a distinction between the latter and the usual multicomponent electron-ion plasma containing two ion species.aip. and thermionic emission. secondary electron emission. and focus on waves.org/about/rights_and_permissions . ͑1͒ where De ϭ ( T e /4 n e 0 e 2 ) 1/2 ͓ Di ϭ ( T i /4 n i 0 e 2 ) 1/2͔ is the electron ͑ion͒ Debye radius.18–20 and the dust lattice wave ͑DLW͒. see http://pop. there are a number of future missions ͑viz. 5. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. and present experimental observations of those nonlinear structures.11 The role of charged dust in mesospheric electric ﬁelds is recognized by Zadorozhny. the Cassini spacecraft mission arriving at Saturn in 2004 for exploring in detail the possible dust size. The particulates look like tiny cauliﬂowers14 pressed together in irregular strings—a growth pattern that offers clues to the rate at which dust particles in interstellar space turned into the clumps of matter. which are large enough to assemble into planets due to gravity. we brieﬂy describe the general properties of a dusty plasma.1792 Phys. Irregular structures of charged dust particulates also appear in tokamaks.32–34 Dusty ͑complex͒ plasmas are fully or partially ionized low-temperature gases comprising neutral gas molecules. The excitation of dusty plasma waves are considered in Sec. as well as other collective processes involving charged dust grains͒ that will provide in detail the properties and global dynamics of charged dust grains. we discuss theories for dust ion-acoustic shocks and holes. The manuscript is organized in the following fashion. we discuss various charging processes. Section VI points out the importance of collective effects with regard to the generation of a wakeﬁeld in dusty plasmas.23–29 the DIAWs. acquire several thousands of electron charges.15 In fact. Vol. Section VIII presents the wave spectra in a magnetized dusty plasma. besides the ﬁeld of Bose–Einstein condensates.21 We note that the idea of the dust acoustic wave ͑DAW͒ was put forward by the present author in the Capri Meeting on Dusty Plasmas in July 1989. The grains act as a source of electrons when they are charged positively due to the irradiation of ultraviolet ͑UV͒ radiation. charged dust grains are also deliberately created in low-temperature radio frequency and glow discharges to understand the basic physical processes associated with the presence of those grains. It has a tremendous impact in astrophysics and low-temperature laboratory discharges including processing plasmas in the semiconductor industry.31 and the DLWs. the physics of dusty ͑complex͒ plasmas has appeared as one of the most rapidly growing ﬁelds of science. 8. In Sec. we typically have R Ӷ D . Lately.53. May 2001 P.16 the dust ion-acoustic wave ͑DIAW͒. and extremely massive charged submicron and micron sized dust grains. we shall discuss the properties of a dusty plasma. Plasmas. n e 0 ( n i 0 ) is the unperturbed electron ͑ion͒ number density. Recently. and in that case we have a plasma containing isolated screened dust grains. One can treat the dust from a particle dynamics point of view when R Ӷ D Ͻ d . Speciﬁcally. V. the European Space AgencyROSETTA mission for detecting dust on comet 46P/ Wirtanen in 2012. Shukla which occur at altitudes of 80–93 km. The latter. we have De ϳ Di . dust charge. II. It is anticipated that future rocket campaigns in northern Scandinavia will provide more information regarding the mesospheric dust. the dusty plasma Debye radius D . ions. The dust grain charging occurs due to a variety of physical processes35–43 including the collection of the background plasma electrons and ions by dust grains. while for T e ӷ T i and n i 0 Ͼ n e 0 we have D ϳ Di ӷ De . In this paper. and an average intergrain distance d. as demonstrated by the number of published papers in scientiﬁc journals and conference proceedings. III. electrons. IX contains a summary of our investigation. In Sec. No. and massive ͑compared to the ions͒ charged dust grains. It appears that the dust grain charging is a new physical process in a dusty plasma. ions. etc.45. one is able to study the growth of dust grains under gas densities and temperatures typical of the nebula from which the solar system was formed.13 Since dust particles are a main element of interest in the solar system and in the interstellar medium. There are three characteristic length scales for such a combined dust and plasma mixture. illustrate various charging processes. On the other hand. VII. which are a billion times heavier than the ions. While in the latter one wants to clean up charged dusts which are anathema to microchips. and e is the magnitude of the electron charge. the presence of charged dust in the mesosphere has been detected by direct rocket probe measurements. Sec.

dusty plasmas support a great variety of nonlinear structures including dust acoustic66 and dust ion-acoustic31.24–29 the DAW frequency is typically 10–20 Hz. and we have the possibility of forming Coulomb lattices in a strongly coupled dusty plasma. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. we may have Z d 0 n d 0 ӷ n e 0 . It turns out that knowledge of basic plasma physics. Here. Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. However. The ion charges in solid state crystals are of order unity. the latter shield the dust grains. There have been arguments that a dusty plasma is similar to a multi-ion plasma. while the restoring force comes from the pressures of the inertialess electrons and ions. For a spherical geometry. Therefore. However. while in dusty plasma crystals charges on dust grains are huge ͑hundreds of thousand of the electron charge͒ and associated interaction energies ͑typically 900 eV͒ are many orders of magnitude larger than in solid state crystals.46͒ is dϭ D ͑ 1 ϩ f d 2 / 1 ͒ 1/2 .Phys. The dusty plasma quasineutrality condition for negatively charged dust grains is n i0ϭ n e0ϩ Z d0n d0 . charged dust particulates. and at equilibrium we have45 n e 0 Ϸ Z d 0 n d 0 .76–78 etc. Furthermore.aip.43͒. May 2001 A survey of dusty plasma physics 1793 portant when R Ӷ d Ͻ D .80 in dusty plasma crystals. it should be noted that the depletion of the electrons cannot be complete ͑e. Plasmas. They are also found in laser implosion experiments as well as in colloidal systems. see http://pop. The term f d 2 / 1 arises due to dust charge ﬂuctuations. and d for the dust grains͒ and Z d 0 is the number of unperturbed charges residing on the dust grain surface. when ⌫ ӷ 1 and р 1. where m e ( m i ) is the electron ͑ion͒ mass. because a dusty plasma is signiﬁcantly different from a multi-ion plasma in that the presence of massive charged dust grains produce new collective phenomena on completely different time and length scales.62–64 whose counterpart exists only in solids.45. Strongly coupled dusty plasmas are created in low-temperature dusty plasma discharges for studying the formation and dynamics of dusty plasma crystals. The shielding of positive grains comes from the electrons. 5. When most of the electrons from the ambient plasma are attached to the dust grain surface. i for singly charged ions. An example is the DAW16 in which the dust mass provides the inertia. the grains emit electrons and they are charged positively. The dust mass and shape distributions58 as well as their rotation59. can be treated as massive point particles similar to multiply charged negative ͑or positive͒ ions in a multispecies plasma.68 shock waves as well as Mach cones69 and vortical structures. and video images of the DAW wavefronts are possible. in thermal or UV irradiated dusty plasmas. However. No.237. since the ion number density is completely depleted. T d is the dust temperature. and ϭ d / d . probe theory. and 2 ϭ ͑ R / ͱ2 ͓͒͑ pi / Di ͒͑ 1 Ϫ e s / T i ͒ ϩ ͑ pe / De ͒ exp͑ e s / T e ͔͒ is a frequency associated with changes in the orbit limited motion ͑OLM͒ currents due to the presence of the oscillating where Q ϭ Z d 0 e . because the minimum value of the ratio between the electron and ion number densities turns out to be ( m e / m i ) 1/2 when the grain surface potential approaches zero. In laboratory dusty plasma discharges. dT d ͑6͒ where n j 0 is the unperturbed number density of the particle species j ( j equals e for the electrons. Here. as well as solid state physics and condensed matter physics is required for understanding numerous collective processes in dusty plasmas. there is a dust lattice wave21.1 nm scale in solid state crystals.60 and the plasma boundary61 also introduce new effects in dusty plasmas. ͑5͒ 2 R . Whipple et al. statistical mechanics. In contrast to solid state crystals. this assertion has to be refuted. Also the lattice spacing in dusty plasma crystals is of the order of a mm. Such a situation is common in the Saturn rings as well as in low-temperature laboratory discharges.͒ as well as phase transition phenomena79.70–73 Finally. we have deﬁned f d ϭ 4 n d 0 D 1 ϭ ͑ R / ͱ2 ͓͒͑ pi / Di ͒ ϩ ͑ pe / De ͒ exp͑ e s / T e ͔͒ is the dust charge relaxation frequency arising from the dust grain surface potential ( s ) changes. On the other hand. r d ͩ ͪ ͑4͒ g ( r 0 ) is the ﬂoating potential of the dust particle at the location r 0 . the dust charge ﬂuctuation dynamics47–53 and dust– dust interactions54–57 give rise to new effects..46–53 The dust grains in a dusty plasma could be either weakly or strongly correlated depending on the strength of the Coulomb coupling parameter ⌫ϭ Q2 exp͑ Ϫ ͒ . ͑2͒ potential.53. Vol.24. Here. A dusty plasma can be considered as weakly coupled as long as ⌫р 1. in contrast to the 0.65 Besides.28 Also. the wakeﬁeld. which are essential ingredients of the total plasma mixture. ͑3͒ ¨ ckel ͑or screened Coulomb͒ or where d is the Debye–Hu Yukawa potential d͑ r ͒ ϭ g͑ r 0 ͒ r0 rϪr0 exp Ϫ . the dusty plasma may be regarded approximately as a two component plasma composed of negatively charged dust grains and ions.g. and pi ( pe ) is the ion ͑electron͒ plasma frequency. the latter have many unusual properties. Z d 0 is the number of unperturbed charges residing on the dust grain surface. charged dust microspheres strongly interact with each other.74. and the effective dusty plasma Debye radius ͑including the dust charge ﬂuctuation effects23.67. 8. dusty plasma crystals have ordered plasma inhomogeneities due to the shielding.org/about/rights_and_permissions . in a strongly coupled dusty plasma we have the possibility of new attractive forces ͑viz. Furthermore. the solution of the linearized Poisson equation ٌ 2 dϪ 1 2 d dϭ 0 .75 the dipolar interaction59.

The charging equation is then given by ͑ ץt ϩ vd • ٌ ͒ q d ϭ I e ϩ I i ϵ I d ͑ q d ͒ . we have the following expressions for the equilibrium electron and ion currents. ͑8͒ n i0 eg .5exp(Ϫu2 2 0 0 0 0 u terms of the error function erf( u 0 ) ϭ (2/ͱ ) ͐ 0 0 exp(Ϫ2)d. ͪ ͑11͒ where n s 0 is the unperturbed number density and v ts ϭ ( T s / m s ) 1/2 is the thermal speed of the particle specie s. here v ϭ ͉ v͉ and q d is the dust charge. On the other hand. on using Eqs. I e 0 ϭϪ R 2 e and I i0ϭ R 2e ͩ ͪ 8Te me 1/2 1/2 n e 0 exp ͩ ͪ ͪ eq d 0 . v ͒ f s ͑ v͒ d 3 v ͑10͒ is the plasma current through the dust particle surface. we have to use a somewhat more complicated expression51 for I i 0 . RT e ͑12͒ ͩ ͪ ͩ 8Ti mi n i0 1 Ϫ eq d 0 . It is easy to show by Taylor expansion around v 0 ϭ 0 that both the functions F 1 and F 2 approach unity as u 0 approaches zero. Here. Thus. K. by the grain capacitance. whereas for v 2 Ͻ v 2 we have * * e ( q d .48–50 either by UVinduced photoemission from the dust.aip. Shukla III. which are determined by the impact parameter of the particle that approaches the grain to distances smaller than the particle size. The electrons are initially collected by a dust grain. respectively. ͑9͒ where I d͑ q d ͒ ϭ sϭe. v ti 1 Ϫ n e0 Ti ͩ ͪ ͑16͒ for v 2 Ͼ 2 e ͉ q d ͉ / Rm e ϵ v 2 . The grain mean charge. q i ϭ e . when the spacing between the grains is comparable to or less than D . g Ͻ 0. then the distribution function f s can be approximated by a Maxwellian distribution ( f s 0 ) with the drift velocity v0 between the plasma and dust. Since the grain is electrically ﬂoating. If the dusty plasma is close to equilibrium. For the equilibrium. dust particles are mainly negatively charged when any plasma electrons hitting the surface of the dust grains are attached to it and simply lost from the background plasma. RT i ͑13͒ which determines the surface potential g of isolated dust grains. the expression v te exp͑ e g / T e ͒ ϭ . in order to repel further electron collection and enhance ion collection. etc. ion sputtering. Clearly. Both of these mechanisms would require dust grains of low work function W. In low-temperature laboratory plasmas. ͑7͒ i͑ q d . Plasmas.i ͚ qs ͵ v s ͑ q d . Here. namely.237. v ) ϭ 0. v ͒ ϭ R 2 1 ϩ and ͩ 2 eq d Rm e v 2 ͪ . the difference ⌽ ϭ g Ϫ 0 between the surface potential g and the plasma potential 0 has a smaller magnitude than in the case with d ӷ D . Barkan et al.51T / e . By varying the ratio d / D . On the other hand. where we have assumed that T e ϭ T i ϭ T and n i 0 Ϸ n e 0 . they experimentally demonstrated the predicted reduction42. the charging cross sections for electrons and ions are given by. We have f s0ϭ n s0 ͩ ͪ ͩ 1 3/2 2 2 v ts exp Ϫ 1 2 2 v ts ͑ vϪ v0 ͒ 2 . 5. No. the dust grains are closely packed. the electrons must have a minimum speed v in order to * arrive at the grain surface. secondary electron production.org/about/rights_and_permissions . This model for the grain charge applies to the case where the grains are sufﬁciently far apart ͑in comparison with the Debye length D of the dusty plasma͒. due to their higher thermal velocity relative to the ions. In an inert gas with dispersed dust grains. 8. Vol. Next. Examples of low work function material include various Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. ͑12͒ and ͑13͒. CHARGING OF DUST GRAINS Dust particles are charged due to a variety of processes including the bombardment of the dust grain surface by background plasma electrons and ions. we replace g in Eq. if the ion streaming velocity v 0 is much larger than the ion thermal velocity. I i0ϭ R 2e ͩ ͪ ͫ 8Ti mi 1/2 n i0 F 1͑ u 0 ͒ Ϫ F 2͑ u 0 ͒ eq d 0 . and thus q d ϭ R g .43 in the grain charge for the case of ‘‘closely packed’’ grains ( d / D Ͻ 1). q e ϭϪ e . magnetized plasma column. which for spherical isolated grains is simply R.53. q d . or by thermionic emission from radiatively heated dust grains. the charging process depends on the charging cross sections. the latter are charged positively36. we discuss conditions under which the dust grains are charged positively. steady state. photoelectron emission by UV radiation.30 have described the results of a laboratory experiment on the charging of dust grains in a fully ionized. C. g Ͻ 0. v ͒ ϭ R 2 1 Ϫ ͩ 2 eq d Rm i v 2 ͪ where F 1 ( u 0 ϭ v 0 / ͱ2 v ti ) ϭ ( ͱ /4u 0 )(1 ϩ 2 u 2 0 )erf( u 0 ) ͱ ) and F ( u ) ϭ ( /2 u )erf( u ) are written in ϩ 0. then the approximate expression for the ion current is51 I i 0 Ϸ R 2 en i 0 v 0 1 Ϫ ͩ 2eg m iv 2 0 ͪ .51 respectively.1 For this case. and consequently the average charge on a dust grain q d ϭ ⌽ R is smaller than for isolated grains. and f s ( v) is the velocity distribution of the particle species s. May 2001 P. we can set I e 0 ϩ I i 0 ϭ 0 and obtain. vd is the dust velocity. ͑16͒ by ⌽ and use n i 0 / n e 0 ϭ (1 Ϫ q d n d 0 / en e 0 ) to obtain the variation of ⌽ against the ambient plasma number density for a ﬁxed dust number density n d 0 . ͑14͒ For an arbitrary value of v 0 . RT i ͬ ͑15͒ e͑ q d . see http://pop.45. it charges to a negatively surface potential. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright.35.1794 Phys. A sphere in a thermalized hydrogen plasma ﬂoats to g ϭϪ 2. Assuming that the streaming velocities of electrons and ions are much smaller than their respective thermal velocities. is related to its surface potential.

1( Ϯ 1.53. borides with W ϳ 2. k͒ ϭ 0 . IV. Tg ͩ ͪ ͑20͒ ⑀ ͑ . We focus on the creation of a dust-electron plasma ͑electrons and positively charged dust͒ when the grains are charged positively due to the photoelectric emission of electrons in the presence of a ﬂux of UV photons with energy W Ͻ ប Ͻ I . 8 n d 0 v te ͑19͒ where b ϭ e 2 / RT e and we have used Q ϭ Z d e ϭ C p ϵ R p and n e 0 ϭ Z d n d 0 ϭ R p n d 0 / e . May 2001 A survey of dusty plasma physics 1795 metals that typically have W Ͻ 5 eV ͑e. d are the electron. the orbit-limited current to a positive dust probe is35. lowfrequency ( ϳ tens of Hz.aip. ͑17͒ attain a positive charge. The exponential factor in Eq. In a dusty plasma. the electron photoemission current for g ϵ p Ͼ 0 is35. etc. the properties of the electrostatic waves are determined from ⑀ ͑ . see http://pop. in multicomponent dusty plasmas there appear new wave modes that are associated with the dust grain dynamics.3( Ϯ 1. where is the wave potential. where is the wavelength of the radiation͒. Here.0) ϫ 104 e for copper grains. we then obtain the equilibrium charge Z d Z d ͑ 1 ϩ bZ d ͒ ϭ ͱ Q absY J exp͑ Ϫ bZ d T e / T pe ͒ . The Richardson–Dushman form for the thermionic emission current is35 I th ϭ 4 R 2 The addition of charged particulates in an electron-ion plasma is found to modify or even dominate wave propagation.237. and they appear on a very long time scale so that their wavefronts can be seen with naked eyes. On the other hand. and 4. the author proposed consideration of the wave phenomena taking into account the dust grain dynamics and Boltzmann electron and ion distributions. v ti . dust ion acoustic. i. J is the UV photon ﬂux.45. Y is the yield of the photoelectrons.6) ϫ 104 e for zinc grains. we discuss the physics of the dust acoustic. The laser intensity required to heat the grains to the temperature T g can be estimated by balancing the heating rate due to a unidirectional photon ﬂux and the blackbody radiative loss rate. Sickafoose et al.g. k͒ ϭ 1 ϩ e ϩ i ϩ d ϩ qe ϩ qi where A 0 ϭ 4 em e / ប 3 and T g is the grain temperature. ͑25͒ which correspond to Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions.54– 2. which is much smaller than the dust plasma frequency in low-temperature dusty plasma discharges͒ DAWs16 in which the restoring force comes from the electron and ion pressures while the dust mass provides the inertia to maintain the DAWs.36 I pe ϭϪ ͑ 8 ͒ 1/2en e 0 v te R 2 1 ϩ ͩ ep . the corresponding electron and ion number density perturbations are n e 0 e / T e and Ϫ n i 0 e / T i . Ag. WAVES IN DUSTY PLASMAS where Q abs is the efﬁciency of absorption for the UV radiation ( Q absϳ 1 for 2 R / Ͼ 1. Recent experiments on the Russian space station MIR have generated a dusty plasma with positively charged grains under solar radiation in the microgravity environment. For a unidirectional photon ﬂux.Phys. By using I th ϩ I pe ϭ 0. 5. supplemented by the dust charging equation. and Cs carbides with W ϳ 2. and oxides of metals with work functions ranging from W ϭ 1 eV to W ϭ 4 eV. and dust lattice waves which have been experimentally observed. we obtain36 y ͑ 1 ϩ y ͒ exp͑ y ͒ ϭ ͱ2 W b A 0T 3 . and qs is the linear susceptibility associated with the dust charge ﬂuctuation dynamics. we can have extremely low phase velocity v p ϭ / k ͑in comparison with the electron and ion thermal velocities͒. ͑17͒ takes into account the fact that the photoelectrons have sufﬁcient energy to overcome the potential barrier of positively charged grains with the surface potential p . i . The modiﬁcations occur owing to the inhomogeneity associated with the random distribution of charged particulates and the departure from the conventional quasineutrality condition in an electron-ion plasma due to the presence of charged dust grains. wave instability.24 The spectra of dusty plasma waves are obtained by Fourier analyzing the Vlasov. Al. and I is the ionization potential of an inert gas. e . Cu. ͑22͒ ͑23͒ A 0T 2 g ͑Wϩep͒ exp Ϫ .e. we have where y ϭ e p / T e and ϭ T e / T g . Vol. respectively.6 cm.18– 3. Plasmas.39 Furthermore. is the frequency.. ͑24͒ iϷ 1 2 k 2 Di . Next we suppose that the dust grains are positively charged due to thermionic emission induced by laser heating ͑i. Poisson. No. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. Te ͪ ͑18͒ By setting I ph ϩ I pe ϭ 0.92 eV.e.0( Ϯ 1. In a dusty plasma the electrons and ions are weakly coupled.. where ប is the Planck constant. and Maxwell equations. infrared or visible͒ or by thermal radiative heating.org/about/rights_and_permissions . ion. Ca.50 eV.0) ϫ 104 e for graphite grains. and T pe is their average energy. wave scattering. 5. and for / k Ӷ v te . In such a situation. g exp Ϫ e v te n d 0 Tg ͩ ͪ ͑21͒ is the dielectric constant. Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. and dust susceptibilities. 8. When the ratio between the electron mean free path ͑in the gas͒ to the dust radius is large. respectively. During the ‘‘Capri Dusty Plasma Physics Meeting’’ in July 1989. The wavelengths (2 / k ) of the latter are ϳ 0. The mean measured charge is positive with a value of 5.36 I ph ϭ e R 2 Q absY J exp͑ Ϫ e p / T pe ͒ .40 have conducted a laboratory experiment to demonstrate that photoelectric emission ͑UV illumination͒ causes an isolated spherical grain in vacuum to eϷ and 1 2 k 2 De .

The decrease of the phase speed as increases may be related to an increase in the compressibility of the dust ﬂuid as the range of the intergrain potential decreases. On these time scales. Next.⌫ ͒ ͪ 1/2 . K. ͑28͒ 2 which for f d 2 / 1 Ӷ 1 and k 2 D Ӷ 1 reduces to16 ϭ kC D . The plasma density is roughly n e 0 ϳ 5 ϫ 109 cmϪ 3 . Eq. ͑35͒ iϷ Ϫ 2 pi ͑ ϩ i i ͒Ϫ 3 k 2v 2 ti . which is to be compared with the v p ϭ f w ϫ w ϭ 12 Hzϫ 0. No. Z d Ϸ 4 ϫ 104 . n d 0 m d ϳ 1 g/cm3 ͑and thus m d Ϸ 4 ϫ 10Ϫ 12 g͒. May 2001 P. k D ӷ 1). As a consequence of the phase velocity increase. and n d 0 / n i 0 Ϸ 10Ϫ 8 . r ͑34͒ with the exponential factor taking into account the screening of the dust charge by the plasma electrons and ions which are weakly correlated. C D ϭ Z d ( n d 0 / n i 0 ) 1/2( T i / m d ) 1/2(1 ϩ n e 0 T i / n i 0 T e ) 1/2 is the dust acoustic velocity. The spatial attenuation rate of the DAWs in a collisional dusty plasma is determined from26 k 2ϭ 1 where C S ϭ ( n i 0 / n e 0 ) 1/2( T e / m i ) 1/2 is the dust-modiﬁed ionacoustic speed. ͑27͒ For d . we consider the dust ion-acoustic waves ͑DIAWs͒ which occur in the frequency domain k v td . Vol. k v td Ӷ ͉ ͉ Ӷ 1 . m d Ϸ 10Ϫ 12 kg. ͑35͒ Ϸ pd (1 2 1/2 ) . Neglecting the dust charge ﬂuctuation effect..aip.23 one has R Ϸ 1 m. which shows that the effective dust plasma ϩ f s 2k 2 D Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. Hence. Here. In the regime kd Ӷ ͑i. T i ϭ 0.. Collective modes in a strongly coupled dusty plasma were theoretically investigated by several authors. Shukla When the dust grains are weakly coupled. ͑30͒ ϭ pd where k ϭ k r ϩ ik i . The observed DIAW frequencies were in the range 3–5 kHz ͑depending on the value of Z d n d 0 / n i 0 ). The latter shows that the effect of strong dust coupling is to reduce the DAW phase velocity.. we obtain the dust acoustic wave frequency ϭ k d pd 1/2 ͑ 1 ϩ k 2 2 d͒ . e is given by Eq. Inclusion of the dust charge ﬂuctuation somewhat modiﬁes the shielding length.45. we have51. and T d ϭ 10Ϫ 2 T e . ͑31͒ where ϭ d / D is a measure of dust charge screening by the plasma. Barkan et al. 8. For dust grains of ϳ 5 m size. Plasmas. ͑29͒ Here. we obtain from Eq. 5. Using the expression ͑29͒. In the regime kd ӷ ͑i. Eq. We note in Eq.6 eV.e.237.30 performed an experiment in a dusty plasma device to investigate the propagation and damping of dust ion-acoustic waves.52 ϭ k De pi 2 1/2 ͒ ͑ 1 ϩ k 2 De . for w Ϸ 0. ϭ Z d ( T i / m d ) 1/2( n d 0 / n i 0 ) 1/2. ͑26͒ where i is the effective ion-͑dust/neutral͒ collision frequency. the frequency of low-phase velocity ͑in comparison with the electron thermal velocity͒ DAWs is45 2 1/2 ϭ k De pd /(1 ϩ k 2 De ) . ͑24͒. Thus. from which n d 0 ϳ 3. / k . T e ϭ 2. the wave phase velocity v p ϭ / k can be estimated81 if one knows the plasma and dust parameters. pd Ӷ ͉ ͉ Ӷ k v te .9 2 ϩ 0.6 cm we obtain the DAW frequency f w ϳ 15 Hz. and the term arising from strong coupling is given approximately by D ( k → 0) Ϸ f s k 2 d 2 with f s Ϸ Ϫ (4/45) ͓ 0. In the experiment of Chu et al. k v ti . in a we have CD plasma with n e0T iӶ n i0T e . ͑33͒. the dust susceptibility dϷ Ϫ 2 pd ͓ ͑ ϩ i d ͒Ϫ 3 k 2v 2 td ͔ . increases with the relative dust concentration. we obtain the frequency of the DIAWs17 for ͉ ͉ Ͼ i where v td ϭ ( T d / m d ) 1/2 is the dust thermal speed. The charge on each dust grain is Z d ϳ 8100. while the ion susceptibility reads31 ͩ k 2d 2 k 2d 2ϩ 2 ϩD͑ k. d 0 d 0 For negatively charged dust grains. The quasilocalized charge ͑QLC͒ approximation was then used to derive the following dispersion relation for DAWs:55 ͑ ϩid͒ 2 2 d ͓ pd Ϫ ͑ ϩ i d ͔͒ . Furthermore.5 cm ϭ 6 cm/s observed in the experiment. ͑32͒ 2 which for k 2 De Ӷ 1 reduces to qe ϩ qi ϭ f d 2 2 k 2 D ͑ 1Ϫ i ͒ ϭ kC S . ͑35͒ gives Ϸ kC D (1 ϩ f s 2 ) 1/2. because in dusty plasmas. the electrons follow the Boltzmann distribution. k r ( k i ) is the real ͑imaginary͒ part of the wave number. and is real.53. ͑33͒ that the DIA wave phase velocity. since f s Ͻ 0. d is the pd effective dust collision frequency. The average intergrain distance is of the order of 300 m. which is in good agreement with the observations24 which report v p ϳ 9 cm/s. and 2 2 1/2 ϭ (4 Z d e n / m ) is the dust plasma frequency. For this set of parameters.org/about/rights_and_permissions .26 eV. ͑29͒ depicts v p ϭ / k Ϸ 7 cm/s. In a plasma with positively charged dust grains and electrons. where pi is the ion plasma frequency.54–57 Rosenberg and Kalman55 investigated the effect of strong dust coupling on the DAWs by supposing that charged dust grains interact with each other via a screened Coulomb ͑Yukawa͒ potential D͑ r ͒ ϭ Q2 exp͑ Ϫ r / D ͒ . we obtain for / k ӷ v td .7ϫ 104 cmϪ 3 . k d Ӷ 1). see http://pop.05 2 ͔ when р 1 and ⌫ d ϭ Z 2 d e / dT d ӷ 1. the shielding of the dust grains comes from the electrons. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright.1796 Phys.e. we have n i 0 Ͼ n e 0 . the ion Landau damping rate is signiﬁcantly reduced. while the ions ͑dust grains͒ are inertial ͑immobile͒. They found that the phase velocity of the latter increases in accordance with Eq. we obtain C D ϳ 8 cm/s. pi . ͑33͒ .

and 2 / k ϳ 0.32–34 In linear particle arrangements as well as in monolayer plasma crystals these waves have been identiﬁed as dust lattice waves under strong coupling conditions.e. Thus. Measurements of the dispersion relation reveal an acoustic. for ͉ ͉ m ӷ 1. nondispersive. Kaw and Sen57 have also shown that their GH description also admits a low-frequency ‘‘shear’’ mode which is Ϫ1 .7. Speciﬁcally. Equation ͑43͒ admits an oscillatory instability of the DAW when u i 0 2 1/2 Ͼ ͉ r ϩ i i ͉ / k . No.6 cm͒ is consistent with observations24.aip. ϭ ͓ (4 s /3) * ϩ b ͔ / m d n d 0 and m ϭ ͓ (4 s /3) ϩ b ͔ / ͓ n d 0 T d (1 Ϫ ␥ d d ) ϩ 4 U ( ⌫ ) ͔ .237. 8.84 and Rosenberg85 discussed the possibility of dusty plasma wave excitation in the presence of equilibrium ion drifts in a uniform dusty plasma. They were excited by applying a chopped laser beam to a 2D dusty plasma. ͑39͒ the dispersion relation for the DLWs as 2 2 ϩ i d ϭ DL . respectively. r / k ϳ 9 cm/s. ץt md ͑39͒ where d is the dust-neutral collision frequency ( Ϸ 2 ͱ2 n g R 2 c g with the Epstein drag law.21 Dust lattice waves in dust plasma crystals have been observed experimentally33. 2 2Ϫ ␥ d dk 2v 2 td ϩ i k * / ͑ 1 Ϫ i m ͒ where ␥ d is the adiabatic index.Phys.. ͑44͒ for the growth rate ( ϳ r ) of the ion streaming driven DAWs ( r /2 ϳ 15 Hz. Next. from 1 ϩ e ϩ i ϩ d ϭ 0. v ti ͑44͒ For n i 0 / n e 0 ӷ 1 and T e ӷ T i . 0. where r ϭ kC D /(1 ϩ k 2 D ) and the growth rate is iϷ ͩͪ 8 1/2 3 r 1 2 k 2 Di 2 pd u i0 .45. and they have been observed in several experiments. k v ti ͑43͒ where u i 0 ϭ eE 0 / m i i is the streaming ion drift velocity in the presence of a constant electric ﬁeld E 0 . or a either a damped wave Ϸ Ϫ i k 2 for ͉ ͉ Ӷ m * 1/2 Ϫ1 . and c g is the thermal velocity of the gas molecule͒ and21 F cϭ 2 Z2 de d3 ͓͑ 2 ϩ 2 ϩ 2 ͒ exp͑ Ϫ ͔͒͑ x n Ϫ 1 Ϫ 2 x n ϩ x n ϩ 1 ͒ . d ϭ 1 ϩ U ( ⌫ ) is the compressibility. May 2001 A survey of dusty plasma physics 1797 frequency is reduced due to a decrease of the effective dust charge with stronger screening. which does not depend explicitly on ⌫ . Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. R Ӷ m ϭ mean free path of the gas molecules. The DAW dispersion relation of Murillo56 in the strong coupling limit is 2 1/2 ϭ kC D /(1 ϩ k 2 D ) (1 ϩ k 2 d 2 /16) 1/2. 5. On the other hand.2Ͻ kd / Ͻ 0. see http://pop. which incorporates the nonlocal viscoelasticity with memory effects arising from the strong correlation among dust particles. ͑38͒ V. Bharuthram et al.53. Recent works83 have further focused on wave dispersion relations in strongly coupled plasmas. U ( ⌫ ) ϭ E c / n d 0 T d is the so-called excess internal energy. one obtains ϭ 2 2 k 2C D 2 1 ϩ k 2 D ͫ 1 ϩ ␥ d d 2 d 2 D 2 ͒ 1ϩ ͑ 1 ϩ k 2 D ͩ 4 U͑ ⌫ ͒ 15 ͪͬ is the squared dust lattice frequency. Vol. k v ti ). . INSTABILITIES IN DUSTY PLASMAS where d ϭ v td / pd is the dust Debye radius. In the latter f DLϭ DL/2 is typically less than 50 Hz. Under these conditions wave type motions of the dust grains relative to each other are possible. b are the coefﬁcients for the shear and bulk viscosity.34 in rf discharges. which is larger than d ϳ 4 Hz. the expression Eq. The propagating wave Ϸ k ( ␥ d E c / n d 0 m d ) for ͉ ͉ ӷ m latter is analogous to elastic wave propagation in solids with the correlation energy E c playing the role of the elastic modulus. The dispersion relation of the DLW is obtained from the equation of motion for a dust particle In the past. On the other hand. Following the standard approach65 for longitudinal waves on an inﬁnite linear chain. The appropriate dispersion relation for the DAWs in the kinetic regime is85. Kaw and Sen57 employed a generalized hydrodynamic ͑GH͒ description. and obtained the dust susceptibility ץ2x n ץt 2 ϩd ץxn Fc ϭ . character over the entire range of measured wave numbers. ͑24͒ and ͑25͒. i. ͑41͒ where 2 DL ϭ 2 pd n d0d 3 2ϭ k 2 ␥ d dv 2 td ϩ ͩ 2 2 pd D 2 1 ϩ k 2 D ͪ ͑ 2 ϩ 2 ϩ 2 ͒ exp͑ Ϫ ͒ sin2 ͑ kd /2͒ .29 which reports u 0 ϭ eE 0 / m i in ϳ 2 ϫ 105 cm/s for E 0 ϳ 1 V/cm. ͑36͒ describes the force acting on n th particle due to its interaction between neighboring particles in the presence of the ¨ ckel ͑or Yukawa͔͒ interaction potential D ( x ) Debye–Hu ϭ ( Q / ͉ x ͉ )exp(Ϫ͉x͉/D). ͑42͒ Ϫi k2 . we obtain for ͉ ͉ Ͻ m Ӷ 1 d ϭϪ 2 pd ͑40͒ .org/about/rights_and_permissions . E c is the correlation energy. For longitudinal low-frequency waves ( Ӷ k v te . Transverse waves have been experimentally observed82 in a two-dimensional screened Coulomb crystal. they theoretically predicted the excitation of the dust acoustic and dust ion-acoustic waves due to the two stream and kinetic instabilities. Plasmas.86 1ϩ 1 2 k 2 D ϩi 1 2 k 2 Di ͩͪ 2 1/2 Ϫ ku i 0 2 pd Ϫ 2 ϭ0 . the linear dielectric responses of weakly coupled electrons and ions ͑which obey the Boltzmann law͒ are given by Eqs. and s . The knowledge of the dust lattice frequency is useful in deducing the screening of the particles in the rf sheath. n g is the neutral gas density. we discuss the properties of DLWs in the strongly coupled plasma crystal in which the particulates interact by means of their mutual ͑shielded͒ Coulomb repulsion. * ͑37͒ which depicts the damping of the modiﬁed DAWs. we obtain from Eq.

the dispersion relation in the ion-dust two-stream regime is87 1Ϫ Ј u 1 x ϭϪ 2 R 1 . where and A are the scalar and vector potentials. ͑52͒ the modiﬁed DAW frequency ϭ D /(1 ϩ f d 2 / 1 ) ϵ⍀ 0 . we have from Eq.16 2 2 Ј/ Q 0 . 5. which are associated with the terms ( 0 perturbed electrostatic forces involving the unperturbed sheath electric ﬁeld and the convection of the equilibrium dust charge gradient. and ⍀ D ϭ 10 sϪ 1 the growth time. we have Q 0 E 0 x ϭ m d g x and I e 0 ϩ I i 0 ϭ 0.1798 Phys. g is the unЈ ϭ ץ0 / ץx ϵ Ϫ E 0 x is the unperperturbed grain potential. However.88 Shukla89 has shown that free energy stored in the latter can be coupled to the DAWs. some useful analytical results. there appears a dust charge gradient Q Ј 0 ϭ I 0 / u 0 . ͑ 2Ϫ D ͑52͒ Several useful results follow from Eq. ͑48͒ and ͑50͒ contain Ј / m d ) Q 1 and Q 0 Ј u 1 x . ͑47͒ to ͑50͒ by supposing that the perturbed quantities are 2 Ӷ 1 we have89 proportional to exp(ikyϪit). On the other hand. u 0 Q 0 ( ϭ g / R ) is the unperturbed dust charge. which can be analyzed numerically. First.88 In order to understand the physics of an unstable dusty plasma sheath.88 Finally. However. 8. where ␥ Ͻ D . which can be ex2 1/2 Ј pressed as Q 0 ϭϪ R e (8/ u 2 0 ) ͓ N e v te exp(eQ0 /RTe) ϪNivti(1ϪeQ0 /RTi)͔. The latter is fulﬁlled of a novel DAW instability for ⍀ D Ј Ͻ 0. ͑45͒ has the approximate solution87 Ϸ pd 1 ϩ i pi ͱ2 i ͩ ͪ 1/2 1 3/4 As 2 Ϫ2 (ϭD ) is the square of the Dewhere d t ϭ ץt ϩ u 0 ץx and k D bye wave number. ͑52͒ gives the growth rate ␥ϭ 2 2 2 ϩ⍀D f d 2 ͒⍀D ͑D 2 4 2͑ 2 1 Dϩ ⍀ D ͒ . For k 2 / k D 2 D . in the presence of a uniform dust ﬂow. In order to study the instability of our equilibrium state. ͑52͒. This is consistent with observations. R ϳ 1 Ϫ 10 m. Shukla On the other hand. while the former dictates that the balance between the sheath electric and gravity forces is responsible for the levitation of the dust grains. deduced from Eq. which exhibit novel instabilities. ͑ d tϩ 1 ͒Q 1ϩ Q 0 ͑50͒ 2 pi A s ͑ Ϫ ku i 0 ͒ 2 ͩ 2 i pd 1Ϫi Ϫ ϭ0 .90 we typically have n e 0 ϳ n i 0 Ϸ 108 cmϪ 3 . Vol. in a nonuniform dusty plasma sheath. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. In the absence of ion-dust collisions. and Q 1 are small perturbations of their equilibrium values. These two forces are responsible for the novel absolute instabilities. as described above. ͑51͒ in several limiting cases. we discuss the instability of the dust acoustic waves in a dusty plasma which contains nonspherical ͑elongated͒ rotating dust grains. 1 . the dusty plasma sheath becomes unstable. ͑45͒ for ku i 0 ӷ gives r ϳ i 1/3 ϳ ( pi 2 pd ) / ͱA s . ˆ͑ Ј d t u1 ϩ ͑ Q 0 / m d ͒ “ 1 ϩ x 0 / m d ͒ Q 1 ϭ 0. ͉ ⍀ D ͉ . Ј ϩ g x ϭ 0. see http://pop. Eq. for f d 2 / 1 ϳ 1. The relevant equations for the perturbed quantities associated with the DAW in a nonuniform dusty plasma are89 d t n 1 ϩ “ ͑ n d 0 u1 ͒ ϭ 0. Furthermore. We notice that Eqs. and e ( n i 0 ϩ ( Q 0 / m d) 0 Ϫ n e 0 ) ϩ Q 0 n d 0 ϭ 0. As an illustration. May 2001 P. ˆ ϩ u1 . The unperturbed OLM currents are I e 0 ϭϪ R 2 en e ( 0 ) 1/2 and I i 0 ϭ R 2 en i ( 0 ) ϫ(8/ ) v te exp(eQ0 /RTe) 1/2 ϫ(8/ ) v ti (1 Ϫ eQ 0 / RT i ). No. for ⍀ D ϭ 0 ͑which ensures that there are no dc electric ﬁeld and the dust charge gradient͒. is a fraction of a second. which is typically the case in low temperature laboratory dusty plasma discharges. The motion of a charged dust grain in the electromagnetic ﬁelds ( EϭϪ ٌ Ϫ c Ϫ 1 ץt A and B ϭ ٌ ϫ A. u 0 Q 0 Ј ϭ I e 0 ϩ I i 0 ϵ I 0 . and the dust charge q d ϭ Q 0 ( x ) ϩ Q 1 . It follows that in the absence of the equilibrium dust ﬂuid velocity. Eq. in a collisional dusty plasma with Ӷ ku i 0 ϳ pi / ͱA s . Eq.aip. the potential the dust ﬂuid velocity ud ϭ u 0 x ϭ 0 ( x ) ϩ 1 . The latter determines the equilibrium charge on the dust grain surface. 1 ϳ 103 sϪ 1 . can be derived from Eq. with a maximum growth rate at ku i 0 ϳ pi / ͱA s . ͑53͒ ͑47͒ ͑48͒ ͑49͒ and 2 Ͼ 0. where n d 0 and u 0 are uniform. T e ϳ 10 T i Ϸ 1 eV. ͑46͒ 1Ϫ which admits a dissipative instability. as discussed below. i . 1Ϫ i͑ ϩ ⍀ ͒ ͑51͒ where D ϭ k pd / k D ϵ kC D is the dust acoustic frequency. Consequently. m d g x is the x component of the gravity force. 0 turbed sheath electric ﬁeld. where N e ϭ n e 0 exp(e0 /Te) and N i ϭ n i 0 exp(Ϫe0 /Ti). Eq. K.org/about/rights_and_permissions . Equation ͑51͒ is a cubic polynomial in .45. k Qϭ Q 0 2 ϭ ⍀ D / . We consider that the wave frequency is much smaller than the dust charge relaxation frequency 1 . we ﬁrst consider its equilibrium properties Ј u 0u 0 which are governed by n d 0 u 0 ϭ constant.237. respectively. Here. Plasmas. there a dust charge gradient appears. u1 . f dϭ 4 n d0R / k D ⍀D ϭ Q 0k Q Ј . D ϳ 60 sϪ 1 . ͑52͒. librium dust ﬂuid velocity along the x axis.60 Here. where u 0 is the component of the equiЈϭ ץu 0 / ץx . Ϫ ku i 0 A s 2 ͪ ͑45͒ where A s ϭ 1 ϩ ( k De ) Ϫ 2 . D ϳ 102 – 103 m. and n 1 . we mention that in laboratory experiments. The local dispersion relation can be obtained from Eqs. respectively. Clearly. ͑51͒ takes the form 2 2 2 / ͒ϩ͑ 2ϩ ⍀ D ͒͑ 1 Ϫ i ⍀ D ͒ f d 2 ϭ 0. the dipole moments of the dust grains are nonzero. and ⍀ 0/ m d . for Ϸ D ϩ i ␥ . the dc electric ﬁeld and the dust if E 0 x Q 0 charge gradient must oppose each other for the dusty plasma to become unstable. Accordingly.53. we let the number density n d ϭ n d 0 ϩ n 1 . “ 2 1ϭ k D 2 ϩ 1ϩ ͩ ͪ 2 ⍀D 2 f d 2 ϭ 0. and c is the speed of light in vacuum͒ is described by the Lagrangian Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. Second. 2 1Ϫ 4 ͑ Q 0n 1ϩ n d0Q 1 ͒. and m d is the dust mass.

aip. However. Negatively charged dust grains feel an attractive force in the negative part of the oscillatory potential. the perturbed dust distribution function is obtained for the case where the wave phase velocity exceeds the thermal velocity of the dust particles. ͑57͒ 2 1/2 ) .60 have derived the kinetic equation for the dust grain distribution in the presence of the Lagrangian Eq. t . VI. WAKEFIELD ¨ ckel and far-ﬁeld potentials. arises due to the resonance interaction of a test dust charge which moves with a velocity close to the modiﬁed ion acoustic or dust acoustic speeds. driving them at nonthermal level. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright.53. Speciﬁcally. For ͉ v t Ϫ V 0 ͉ ϳ 30 cm/s. which is in agreement with observations. ͑56͒ it follows that the dust grain rotation gives a contribution only for waves 2 0. No. t ͒ ϭ ͫ p2 ͑ p Ϫ p 0 ͒2 Ϫ . 5. v t is the test particle velocity. and ⍀ is the angular velocity of the dust grain͒. V 0 is the equilibrium ion streaming velocity. we focus on dust ion-acoustic ͑DIA͒ shocks and DIA holes. We note that Eq. May 2001 A survey of dusty plasma physics 1799 Lϭ m d v2 1 q ϩ I ␣ ⍀ ␣ ⍀  ϩ v• A͑ r. respectively. where ␥ Ӷ ⍀ 0 . q t is the charge of the test particle. c ͬͩ Letting ϭ ⍀ 0 ϩ i ␥ in Eq. t ͑60͒ ͑55͒ where T d is the dust temperature. Plasmas. and ⍀ 0 is the preferred angular frequency of the rotating dust grains. L 2 1/2 ϭ D͓ ( v tϪ V 0) 2Ϫ C D ͔ / C D is the lattice spacing. we obtain the 2 2 2 2 1/2 ⍀ r / k pd ) Ϸ⍀ 0 growth rate for DA (1 ϩ kЌ ͑54͒ ͪ ␥ϭ3 2 1/2 Ϫ 4/3 ͩ ͪ 2 2 kЌ ⍀r 1/3 k2 2 pd ⍀0 . On the other hand. t ͒ Ϫ q ϩ m• B 2 2 c 1 ϩ dϩ 2 ͫ ͚ i v ⌬ q i ͑ ⌬ ri • ٌ ͒ • Eϩ ϫ B .74.67 have presented an experimental investigation of the effect of negatively charged dust grains on the ion acoustic shock formation in a Q machine. For the longitudinal waves ( Ӷ kc ) the modiﬁed dispersion relation for the DAW reads60 1ϩ 1 2 k 2 D Ϫ 2 pd 2 Ϫ 2 kЌ k2 ͑Ϫ⍀0͒ ͫ 2 ⍀r ϩ 2 2 ⍀r ͑ ϩ⍀0͒2 ͬ where t ϭ ͉ z Ϫ v t t ͉ . ͑58͒ In this section. and C D ϳ 6 cm/s. ͑56͒ where ⍀ r ϭ (4 d 2 n d 0 /4I ) 1/2.91 and in dusty plasma experiments. The wake potential of a test charge in the presence of the DAW in an unmagnetized plasma is75 w ͑ ϭ 0. which may be responsible for the attraction of charged dust grains of like polarity. we ﬁnd that L ϳ 1 mm. For ⍀ 0 ϭ 0 that contribution is expressed in the with kЌ change of the dust acoustic frequency ϭ DA 1 ϩ ͩ 2 2 kЌ ⍀r k2 ⍀2 pd ͪ 1/2 . Dust ion-acoustic shocks in an unmagnetized dusty plasma may arise when there is a balance between the nonlinearity ͑associated with the harmonic generation͒ and the kinematic viscosity introduced by the dust-ion drag. and mϭ (1/2c ) ͚ i ⌬ q i ( ⌬ rϫ Ui )( Ui ϭ ⍀ϫ ⌬ ri is the rotational velocity of the grain͒ is the magnetic moment of the grain. in the preswhere DA ϭ k D pd /(1 ϩ k 2 D ence of the dust grain rotation.93 VII. Mahmoodi et al. and z are the radial and axial coordinates in a cylindrical geometry. Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. Vol. the latter are replaced by the DIAWs and DAWs. ͑54͒. energy of the dust rotation is proportional to ⍀ r can ﬂow into dust acoustic oscillations. Furthermore. ⌬ m i and ⌬ q i are the mass and the charge of the ith part of the grain.31 and Luo et al.org/about/rights_and_permissions . satisfying the condition ⍀ 0 Ͻ DA 1 ϩ ͫ ͩ ͪͬ 2 2 kЌ ⍀r 1/3 3/2 k2 2 pd .67 Luo et al. ͑59͒ where m d ϭ ͚ i ⌬ m i and q ϭ ͚ i ⌬ q i are the total mass and the charge of the grain.60 derived the dielectric tensor for the dusty plasma following the standard method.67 observed that ion acoustic compressional pulses steepened as they traveled through a dusty plasma if the percentage of the negative charges in the plasma on the dust grains was у 75%. I ␣ ϭ ͚ i ⌬ m i ͓ ( ⌬ ri ) 2 ␦ ␣ Ϫ ( ⌬ ri ) ␣ ( ⌬ ri )  ͔ is the tensor of the moment of inertia.Phys. d ϭ ͚ i ⌬ q i ⌬ ri is the dipole moment of the elongated grain. as well as by using the relation d t dϭ ⍀ϫ d. we discuss possible nonlinear structures in dusty plasmas. ͑56͒ admits complex solutions for any rotation frequency ⍀ 0 . ri ϭ rϩ ⌬ ri and ui ϭ v ϩ ⍀ϫ ⌬ ri are its coordinate and the velocity ( v and r are the velocity and position of the center of mass. D ϳ 300 m. ⌬ ri is the coordinate of the i th part of the grain relative to the center of mass. The latter are due to the trapped ͑vortex-like͒ ion distribution. The wakeﬁeld. From Eq.92. By choosing the unperturbed distribution function of the form f d 0 ϭ n d 0 ͑ 2 m d T d ͒ Ϫ 3/2͑ 2 IT d ͒ Ϫ 1/2 ϫ exp Ϫ Equation ͑59͒ exhibits that the growth rate of the instability 2/3 ⍀ 0 . Mahmoodi et al. The physics of the charged dust grain attraction is similar to the electron attraction in superconductors in which Cooper pairs are formed due to collective interaction involving phonons.237. NONLINEAR STRUCTURES ϭ 0. 2 m dT d 2 IT d ͬ qt cos͑ t / L ͒ .75 in a dusty plasma. ͑54͒ has been derived by assuming that the scale of inhomogeneity of the electromagnetic ﬁeld is much larger than the grain size R. Eq. Luo et al.45.75 Besides the Debye–Hu there also appears an oscillatory wake potential74. 8.75 where the positive ions are focused. Subsequently. The formation of shock structures in dusty plasmas has been observed by Nakamura et al. see http://pop. Thus. p 0 ϭ I ⍀ 0 .23 The concept of the wakeﬁeld and subsequent attraction of negatively charged dust grains in a linear chain has been veriﬁed both by computer simulations90. In dusty plasmas. ͑56͒.

there have been several attempts to examine the plasma wave spectra.69 has shown the formation of Mach cone shocks. 8. where ⑀ is a smallness parameter. The foregoing investigations have dealt with charging and numerous collective processes in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. which are described in terms of the nonlinear DIA involving the trapped ͑vortex-like͒ ion distribution. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. We note that the growth rate is valid for ( pd / pi ) 2/3Ͼ ci / LH . In the presence of trapped ions. ϭ pi / ͱ1 ϩ ␣ Ϸ k y V d 0 . The above discussions of the formation of DIA shock waves and DIA holes are limited to a weakly coupled dusty plasma. ͑65͒ ϭ ci ͩ 2 2 cs n i 0 kЌ 1ϩ n e0 2 ci ͪ 1/2 . we can have modiﬁed lower-hybrid ͑LH͒ waves ( ci . where z ˆ is the unit ded in an external magnetic ﬁeld z vector along the z direction and B 0 is the strength of the magnetic ﬁeld. admits a monoEq. M is the Mach number ͑the speed of the nonlinear structure/the ion thermal speed v ti ). in two-dimensional Coulomb crystals. 3 ⌽ terms.70͒ as well as vortex formation71–73 in strongly coupled plasma systems. ⌽ ϭ e / T e . restricted by Ϫ р р 0. which is produced by the equilibrium electric ﬁeld E0 ) dust grains. laboratory and space plasmas are embedˆ B 0 . we readily obtain68 2 ץ ⌿ Ϫ F ⌿ ϩ b ⌿ 3/2ϭ 0. 13. the continuity and momentum equations for the ions͒ and Poisson equations. and ␣ Ͻ 0 corresponds to a vortex-like excavated trapped ion distribution.106.1800 Phys. and the electric potential is assumed to be negative. and d is the kinematic viscosity of the dusty plasma. the LH wave frequency is somewhat reduced. ͑62͒ into Poisson’s equation. we ﬁnd that LHϳ 6 Ϫ 7 ϫ 104 sϪ 1 .45. due to the strongly coupled crystalline state. the ion number density perturbation for small amplitudes ͑viz. 1/2 The Mach number and the maximum amplitude are related by 1/2ϭ 4 b /5F . Nakamura et al31 found that an oscillatory ion-acoustic shock wave in a usual argon plasma transforms into a monotonic shock front when it travels through the dusty plasma column. 0 ϳ id / pi . The con- Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130. No. ͑61͒ without the 0 ⌽ and ץ tonic shock proﬁle. On the other hand. viz. and cd ϭ Z d eB 0 / m d c . by employing the standard reductive perturbation method and the stretched variables ϭ ⑀ 1/2( x Ϫ t ) and ϭ ⑀ 3/2t . or V-shaped disturbances created by superdust acoustic objects. COLLECTIVE PROCESSES IN A DUSTY MAGNETOPLASMA ͑61͒ where ϭ ( ␦ ϩ 3 ) . by ignoring the dust charge ﬂuctuation dynamics. ͑64͒ 2 2 2 2 2 where ␦ e ϭ 2 pe kЌ / ce k ϵ ␣ kЌ / k z . Mach cones were double. and the Dawson integral is dey dw exp(w2). The latter might appear as a nonlinear saturated state of the two-stream instability in a dusty plasma. Furthermore. respectively.31 Nakamura et al. For example. ͑66͒ ͑63͒ where ⌿ ϭϪ .31 also observed ion holes. K. when the kinematic viscosity overwhelms the dispersion. see http://pop. ϭ and pi ͑ 1 ϩ ␦ e ͒ 1/2 ͩ 1ϩ 2 m in e0k z 2 m e n i 0 kЌ ͪ 1/2 . Substituting n e Ϸ n e 0 (1 Ϫ ⌽ ϩ ⌽ 2 /2) and Eq. However. pe / ce ϳ 2. 5. as observed by Nakamura et al. Eq. ϭ T i / T e . Ӷ 1) is68 n i Ϸ n i 0 ͓ 1 Ϫ a Ϫ b ͑ Ϫ ͒ 3/2ϩ O ͑ 2 ͔͒ . The LH waves can be excited in the presence of streaming ͑with the velocity V d 0 . ͑62͒ where a ϭ 1 Ϫ ͱ2 M W ( M / ͱ2).31 found that in the linear regime.94–105 wakeﬁelds. The presence of an external magnetic ﬁeld can signiﬁcantly affect the velocities of the plasma species. b ϭ (4/3ͱ )(1 Ϫ ␣ Ϫ M 2 )exp(ϪM 2/2) for ␣ р 0.org/about/rights_and_permissions . A plateau in the resonant region is given by ␣ ϭ 0. We note that Eq. c s ϭ ( T e / m i ) is the ion acoustic speed. a recent laboratory experiment by Samsonov et al.35 G. While the charging of dust grains in an external magnetic ﬁeld is not fully explored at the present stage. May 2001 P. However. ␥ ϭ (3 ␦ Ϫ 1 ϩ 12 )/ ␦ . ͑61͒ assumes the form of a Burgers equation for 0 ϭ 0. pi is the ion plasma frequency.53. The Burgers equation. The dynamics of the shock structure associated with DIA waves is modelled by the Kortweg–de Vries ͑K–dV͒-Burgers equation68 2 ͒⌽ ϩ ␥ 0⌽ ץ⌽ ϩ ץ3 ͑ 2 ץϩ 0Ϫ 0 ץ ⌽ ϭ 0. Since n e 0 Ͻ n i 0 in dusty plasmas. ci ϭ eB 0 / m i c . B 0 ϳ 0. with id being the ion-dust collision frequency. pi / ci ϳ 500. A possible solution of Eq. the phase velocity of the DIA waves increases and the wave suffers heavy damping when the dust number density in an electronion plasma is considerably increased. ﬁrst compressive then rarefactive. There are also indications of probe-induced particle circulation ͑Law et al.5. we see that the phase velocity of the usual EIC waves is increased when a dust component is added in an electron-ion plasma. k z v te ) 97 whose frequencies are.237. ␦ ϭ n i 0 / n e 0 . The formation of the shock structure is due to a balance between the harmonic nonlinearity and a kinematic viscosity that is produced by ion-dust collisions. where plays the role of the normalized ͑by T i / e ) amplitude. and k z and kЌ are the ˆ direction͒ and parallel ͑to the external magnetic ﬁeld B 0 z ˆk z perpendicular components of the wave vector k( ϭ z 1/2 ϩ kЌ ). Vol. Equation ͑61͒ without the 0 term admits an oscillatory shock structure. VIII. ϭ x / Di . ͑61͒ is derived from the hydrodynamic ͑comprising the Boltzmann electron density distribution. namely V d 0 ϳ 4 km/s. Furthermore. 2 0 ϳ d / pi De . when the wave frequency is much smaller than the electron gyrofrequency ce ϭ eB 0 / m e c . and F ϭ a ϩ ␦ T i / T e .aip.107 and nonenvelope solitons108 in a magnetized dusty plasma. On the other hand. Using the parameters of Ref. Plasmas. Shukla Nakamura et al. ͑63͒ is a potential hole ϭϪ 25F 2 16b 2 sech4 ͑ ͱFx /4 Di ͒ . cd Ӷ ͉ ͉ Ӷ ce ) 94 and electrostatic ioncyclotron ͑EIC͒ waves ( ϳ ci Ӷ ce . We note that ␣ is a parameter which determines the number of trapped ions. noted by W ( y ) ϭ exp(Ϫy2)͐0 ϭ e / T i . For ( k z / kЌ ) 2 Ͻ ( m e / m i ) n i 0 / n e 0 the maximum growth rate is102 1/3 ␥ maxϷ(ͱ3/24/3) LH( Z 2 where LH dn d0m i / n i0m d) .

we have the modiﬁed convective cells Ϸ ͩ ͪ n e0m i n i0m e 1/2 kz Ӷ ci . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS ͑69͒ In this paper. and dust lattice waves. 5. We see that the magnetic ﬁeld signiﬁcantly affects the amplitude of the wake potential as well as the attraction length. ͑72͔͒ and ES drift waves. kЌ ci ͑70͒ ˆ. viz. we note that streaming electrons can drive EIC waves. because the dc sheath electric ﬁeld does work on the dust grains to create dust charge ﬂuctuations which cannot keep in phase with the potential of electrostatic disturbances in a nonuniform dusty plasma with a dust charge gradient. Vol. the frequency ( cd Ӷ Ӷ ci . The inclusion of ´ n. we have described the properties of dusty plasmas as well as discussed charging of dust grains and new waves. First. whose growth time is typically 0. The critical electron drift for excitation of the current driven EIC instability is V cr ϭ v ti (6 ϩ 12n e 0 T i / n i 0 T e ). a dusty plasma is subjected to an absolute instability. the mass density of the grain material ϳ 2 ϫ 103 kg/m3 . it may be possible to investigate processes involving magnetized dust ͑e. Equation ͑68͒ shows that for k z / k ӷ pd / pi . we brieﬂy discuss the formation of wakeﬁelds in the presence of EIC waves in a uniform dusty magnetoplasma. The frequency cyclotron. dust ion acoustic. 2 2 2 1/2 ͒ ͑ 1 ϩ kЌ s ϩ k 2 De ͑68͒ On the other hand. Since the radar scatters with wave numbers k s ϭ 2 k 0 .88 near the sheath boundary in a dusty plasma. which have been observed in a dusty plasma laboratory experiment96 that contains an external magnetic ﬁeld ( B 0 р 0.53. which is lower than the case with no dust component. ͑68͒ gives100 Ϸ k De pd . Here. Merlino et al.4 T͒. is relevant for the observations reported in Ref. The low-frequency dust acoustic waves are excited due to the streaming and kinetic instabilities in a uniform plasma. and u is the z component of the test charge velocity.g. On the other hand. while there appears a new class of instability in a nonuniform dusty plasma sheath which contains a dc electric ﬁeld and an equilibrium dust charge gradient. Redistribution subject to AIP license or copyright. The measured perpendicular wavelength turned out to be ϳ 2.25 ms. in which case u is replaced by V i 0 in 0 and L 0 . 13. This instability has been observed by Nunomura et al.. the Eϫ B0 current remains ﬁnite. where i ϭ ץln ni0 /ץx and b s 2 2 2 ϭ kЌ C S / ci . and dust whistler 2 2 1/2 2 ϩ kЌ ) c cd / 2 ( cd Ӷ Ӷ ci ) of the latter is ϭ k z ( k z pd . instabilities arise. as well as by a ﬁnite equilibrium dust ﬂow that is driven by the dc electric ﬁeld. May 2001 A survey of dusty plasma physics 1801 dition for the maximum growth rate then gives k y ϳ 15– 18 mϪ 1 . in the opposite limit. for pe pi k z kЌ ӷ pd ci k . Eq. and some coherent nonlinear structures that are observed in an unmagnetized dusty plasma. we have the dust gyroradius Ϸ 1 cm and the dust gyrofrequency f cd ϭ cd /2 Ϸ 10 Hz. see http://pop.24 have suggested that using relatively small dust grains ( ϳ 0.95 have discussed the properties of vortices associated with modiﬁed convective cells ͓given by Eq. hence video imaging of dust cyclotron waves should be possible as well͒. d ϭ n iϪ 0 ( ץZ d n d 0 )/ ץx . Finally.94 dust the dust grain dynamics will give rise to dust-Alfve 51 104 waves. In a magnetized dusty plasma the Coloumbian and oscillatory wake potentials are signiﬁcantly modiﬁed.Phys. new instabilities. This leads to the appearance of a new low-frequency ͑in comparison with the ion gyrofrequency ci ) electrostatic wave98 ϭ k yd 2 kЌ ci . we have described various collective processes in dusty plasmas.025 eV.01 m͒. ce k z / kЌ .45. 2 0 s ͑72͒ 1/2 . The focus was on the dust acoustic. Physically. which propagate almost perpendicular to z In a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma. this LH instability.111 They found that both the Coulombian and oscillatory wake potentials are signiﬁcantly affected by the presence of a dc magnetic ﬁeld and the density inhomogeneity in a dusty plasma. No. we mention that the theory of wake potentials in a nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma is presented by Salimullah and Shukla. Here. It is found that when the forces associated with the dc electric ﬁeld and the dust charge gradient oppose each other. ͑71͒ 1 which is ﬂute-like. free energy stored in the latter is coupled to unstable electrostatic waves when the dc electric ﬁeld ͑in association with the dust charge ﬂuctuation͒ produces a charge imbalance in Second. 2 2 2 1/2 ͒ ͑ 1 ϩ kЌ s ϩ k 2 De 2 where L 0 ϭ 2 u /3 ci is the effective attraction length. k z / k Ӷ pd / pi . IX. 8. The above discussions of wave motions in a magnetized dusty plasma assume immobile dust grains. s ϭ C s / ci is107 wϷ ϭ k De 2 2 2 1/2 ϩ kЌ s ͒ ͑ 1 ϩ k 2 De ͩ 2 2 pi k z k 2 ϩ2 pd ͪ 2 q t De cos͑ 0 / L 0 ͒ . Shukla and Varma98 and Shukla et al. we have ϭ k sC S . Thus. which is approximately twice the wave number for the Arecibo 430 MHz radar. for B 0 ϭ 0. the frequency of ES drift waves is95 ϭϪ C 2 S k y i / ci (1 ϩ b s ). Furthermore.5 T. One should also comment on the possibility of performing laboratory experiments in dusty plasmas where the effect Downloaded 24 Aug 2011 to 130.237.org/about/rights_and_permissions . Plasmas. T d ϭ 0. There are several ultralow-frequency ( Ӷ ci ) electrostatic waves in a uniform dusty magnetoplasma. Equation ͑68͒ also holds in the presence of magnetic ﬁeld aligned ion streaming ͑with the velocity V i 0 ).aip. The latter is maintained by the equilibrium electron and ion currents that reach the dust grain surface.5 cm. the wake potential for 0 ϭ ͉ z Ϫ ut ͉ ӷ De . Starting from the occurrence of dusty plasmas. k z v te ) of the DAW in a magnetized plasma is100 of the magnetic ﬁeld may be important on the dust motion. ͑67͒ where s ϭ De pi / ci . In the following.

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