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N 4

EKEMBPIO 1997

N 4

EKEMBPIO 1997

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A 27, 546 35
T. (031) 203.720, Fax: (031) 211.305
E B
B ( 5), 105 64 A
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Bernoulli

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21

24

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42 min !

25

27

K. T

33

A. B

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35

P.

37

. . X. T " - " , - T

42

E .

45

K. N

. Y

Y
[0, 1] [0, 1];

16

M
;

H


T . , K E.M.

(A )
, . f x0 ( f x0), f A(x0, f(x0)) (. 137)
(*)

y = f(x0) + f(x0)(x x0).


,
, ,
:

1, 2, 3, 4 (. 1)
f(x) =

y
3

4
1
1

 2x, x>1 ;
x,

x1

(*), A f(x0),

g(x) = f(x0) + f(x0)(x x0).

""
x0 f, g

.1

lim (f(x) g(x)) = f(x0) g(x0) = f(x0) f(x0) = 0.

xx0

E, (#) >0,
=103, ()>0
x |xx0|<()
 < 10

xx 
f(x) g(x)

f(x) g(x)

x x0

|f(x) g(x)| < 103 |x x0|,

xx0. E
(#)

f(x) g(x)
lim  = 0.
xx0
x x0

f(x)g(x)
0 , |xx0|.
E "" x0
g(x) = f(x0) + f(x0)(x x0)

f(x) g(x)
lim  = 0;
xx0
x x0
E f(x)g(x) x0

f(x)
(. 2).

E O

y
f

f
f(x)g(x)

|f(x)g(x)|

g
g

x0

O
.3

.2

O: f, g
X x0X. f, g x0,
f(x) g(x)
lim  = 0.
xx0
x x0

(**)

1. A (**) f,
g x0
lim (f(x) g(x)) = f(x0) g(x0) = 0,

: f
x0. T
g(x) = f(x0) + (xx0)
f x0, , , f x0 = f(x0).
A: A

xx0

. f(x0) = g(x0), x0 A(x0, f(x0)).


2. K f(x)g(x)
0 , xx0, xx0.
3. A f, g g, h
x0, f, h
x0. A
:
f(x) h(x)
lim  =
xx0
x x0
f(x) g(x)
g(x) h(x)
= lim  + lim  = 0.
xx0 x x
xx0
x x0
0
E, A(x0, f(x0))

g(x) = f(x0) + (x x0)

(**). M (**).

:

f(x) f(x0) (x x0)


f(x) g(x)
lim  = lim 
=
xx
x x0
x x0
0

xx0

f(x) f(x0)

= lim 
xx0
x x0

:
A f ,
(. #) = f(x0) f, g .
A f, g ,
f(x) f(x0)
lim 
=0
x x0

xx0

f f(x0) = .
: , f , (*) , .
: O
A(1, 1) (. 1) g(x) = 1+(x1),
=0 1, =1 2, =1 3
0<<1 4.
T
1, x1
f(x) g(x)
 =
x x0
1, x>1

.
g(x) = 1+(x1)
(**). A '
, f(x)
x=1.

E O

M
T

:
: f g(x) = f(x0)+f(x0)(xx0) , .

O: f, h
x0. f, h
f, h,
f, h x0, .
f(x) h(x)
lim  = 0
xx0
x x0

f(x) h(x)
lim  = 0.
xx0
x x0

= f(x0),

f(x) h(x)
lim  =
xx0
x x0
f(x) f(x) 2b(xx0)
lim  = f(x0) 2b = 0,
xx0
x x0
f(x0)
.
b = 
2

E,
f(x0)
h(x) = f(x0) + f(x0)(x x0) + 
(xx0)2 .
2
A h

f(x) h(x)
lim 
=0
(x x0)2

h(x) = f(x0) + (x x0) + b(x x0)2


f :
f(x) h(x)
lim  =
x x0

xx0

f(x) f(x0) (xx0) b(xx0)2


lim 
= f(x0) = 0,
xx0
x x0

xx0

( de
LHospital), f(x)h(x) 0 , (xx0)2, . , xx0. E
h(x) f(x)
, g(x).


[0, 1] [0, 1]
T . , K ..


x = x(t), y = y(t)
I = [, ] = {(x(t),
y(t))2, t [, ]}. E , . .
M : T [0, 1] [0, 1];
H
, ,
. , , .
, Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932)
1890
, ""
. M
Peano.
O David Hilbert 1891 Peano,
"", , . M "" P1, P2, , P,
P1, P2 P3,
41=4, 42=16 43=64 ,

21

22 25

20

23

24

27 36

18 29

11

15

13

14

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44

47
12

31

11

12

32

10 53

13
2

6 57

51

52

9 54

15

33 46
48

55

8
14
1

40

39

43

34 45

19
16
17 30

42

38 41

26 37

10

50

49

61

62

56

5 58

59

60

63

[0, 1][0, 1].


: T Peano 1
[0, 1] 0. L.E.J. Brouwer (1911)
(
) [0, 1] [0, 1][0, 1]
.
B:
1. Karl Strubecker,Einfhrung in die Hhere Mathematik II,
Mnchen-Wien 1967.
2. M. Nicolescu, N. Dinculeanu, S. Marcus, Manual de Analiz
Mathematic II, Bucuresti 1964.

E O

ENIKEYMENH
ANIOTHTA
BERNOULLI
T . , K E.M.

(A ) Bernoulli:

>1, *
Bernoulli:
(1 + ) 1 + .

Bernoulli:
) A x>1, 1 :
(*)

(1 +

1 + x.

) A x>1, 0<<1 :
(**)

(1 +

(. (0, x) (0 +))

,
f(x) f(0) = f()(x 0)

(#)

f(x) = f(0) + f()x = 1 + f()x.

) E >1
f(x) = (1 + x)1 =

<, 1<x<0
>,

x>0

(#)
f(x) > 1 + x, . (1 + x)>1 + x.

E, (*) *.

x)

H f I = (1, +).
T x(1, +),
M T [x, 0], x<0 (. [0, x], x>0),
(x, 0) (1, 0)

=1.
H . E , ,
Bernoulli ,
.

x)

f(x) = (1 + x), x>1, >0.

A >1, ,
x=0.
) E 0<<1, . 1<0,

1 + x.
f(x) = (1 + x)1 =

A: H (*) , =1 x=0, (**) x=0, ,


, .

>, 1<x<0
<,

x>0

(#)
f(x) < 1 + x, . (1 + x) < 1 + x.

EKOEI EKTYEI

T
(T, . M, ..)

M X
E

Z
.
E O

YMNAIO

YKEIO-TE
EME

MIA IAOPETIKH POEIH


TH IAKAIA
TH AOYTH TIMH
THN AYKEIOY
T X. , M, 1 H

: O
M
:

-. A ,
,
. O
, ,


M .
O ,
, M.
,
.

: O M , N M ( 1960)

A .
A
(. [4]) , M
. H

: A.

. ,
N
3++56,
. A ,

,

-:
x =

x0

x<0

A , A, (.. ),

. M

,
.

, -
A.
; T
, ,

E O

.
A,
. O ( )
! E,
( ..
)
(.. ),
A.

A , .
E :
; H ,
, . H
.

;
(. [4])
,
- .

. T
x2 = x .


, (
!) . T
,
x2 = x,


10

(. [5]).
T
, , -



( , , ).


.
A (
..
1
6 = +4 
1
6 = 4 
+4 = 4),
: M 
x2 x ;
A ,

x2 = x

,
( , , )

x x0

x2 =
x x<0

A ,
,

, ... E Cauchy
19 ,
.
E

, :


x2 = 

x0

x<0

= x

M
.
. K ,
,

( :

E O

M
= = ).
.
: T
,
. , (. [6]),
A
x y x2 < y2; A

, ,
. O Lagrange 18 x2 < y2 x < y, ,
. H
,
,
. M
x y x2 < y2,
x2 < y2
x < y , ,
:

x2

<

y2

 <  x < y
x2

y2

: T

A, 2
. A
, :
2
; T R , A. M
( ) E .
--

2 ,

x1 x2= (x
1x2)2

2
d(A, B) = (x
x2
)2(
y1y


1
2 )

.
H
. O , ,
,

. T
:


A 1 < x < 4,
= x+1+x4

x
-1 4,
x 1 4, A=5.


N
= x+2+x2
(: N
2 2 6)
A 2
2 4,
x=3
x=3.


N
x2> 3
E
2 3. E

2 3 x 1 < x < 5.

E O

11

, ,
. A
,
. A
,
.
.., 2x3<5
3
5
x   <  
2
2
. ,
,
x< < x < .
O -


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(, ),
. H
A,
.
, ,


. , : (, )
,
,

{x / < x < } = x / x  < 


2
2

12

(. [7])

M -

:
x+y= 2,

x
x 
x

y 2
+ y  = 4,
y

x
y
 +  = 2, y = y
x
y

. [8])

A (
)
, ...

A. A
,

.
,

,
. A , -
.

APAOME
1] National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: Curriculum
and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics. Reston,
Virginia 1989.
[2] National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: Professional
Standards for Teaching Mathematics. Reston, Virginia 1991.
[3] National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: Assessment
Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, Virginia 1995.
[4] , .:
( ).
. T M A.., 1995.
[5] , .: N
M. : T M
E K, . 27-45.
T .E. A, A 1996.
[6] .: E
; H . E
M, . 2, . 3-38.
[7] Anderson, K. & Hall, D.: Elementary Real Analysis. McGrawHill, Tokyo 1972.
[8] Smogorzhevsky, A.S.: Method of Coordinates. Mir
Publishers, Moscow 1980.

E O


T N. , M

f(x)f(x0)< >0.

,
:

O 1: f
x0. f x0,

O. f A x0A. f
x0, >0 >0 ,
xA xx0<,


A .

lim f(x) = f(x0).

f(x)f(x0)<.

xx0

O 2: f
x0. f x0, >0 >0 , x xx0 < ,
f(x)f(x0) < .
O , ,
:
, f
x0
. 50 , f
x0 l=f(x0) (. . 49).
T : T
A ; T

1
2

T x0 1
A

T x0 2
A, 0 :
1
1
A1 = {1,   , ,  ,} {0},
2
n
1
1
A2 = [2, 0] {,  , ,  , 1},
n
2
1
1
1
1
A3 = {1,   , ,  ,} {0} {,  , ,  , 1}.
2
n
n
2
,
.
x0 f ()
[x0, x0], 2 x0,
,
f xx0<

K ,
xA
xx0<.
1

h(x) =

0, x0
1
x, x = 
n


1
1
A = (, 0]{,  , ,  ,1}
n
2
0 ( ) A.
H x0<0.
1
E x0 =  , n, n
h. T,
0
1
, >0  <,

1
1
=  xA x0< = 

h(x)h(0) =

00 = 0, x0

 x0 = x, x>0

1
<  <.

2
H
f(x) =

x2, x

 0, x

0,
. E , .
0, .

3 E .

1. x0A A, I = (x0, x0+) , IA = {x0}.


2. A, (, +) A. T A.

E O

13

EIEI EEIH
YEPBO H
T . , K M M.E.

( A , 5.3) :

1*: A M(x, y)
E(, 0) E(, 0)
2, >>0, :
x2
y2
2 + 2 = 1,

>0

A , .
. M
"" "" :
1: C E(, 0)
E(, 0) 2, >>0.
M(x, y) , ,
,
x2
y2
2 + 2 = 1,

A: M(x, y)
C. T
(ME)+(ME) = 2

42

2
(x
+

+
)2
y2 (x

)+
y2 = 22(x2+y2+2).

(Y .
)
(*)

[(x2+y2+2)+2x] [(x2+y2+2)2x] =

(5.4) :

2: C E(, 0)
E(, 0) 2, >>0.
M(x, y) ,
, ,

>0 2 = 22.
A: M(x, y)
C. T:

((x
+
)2+
y2 (x

)2+
y2)2 = 42

+
y2 (x
)2+
y2
(x
+
)
2




= (x2+y2+y2) 22

(*)

2(x2+y2+2)2x2 = 4
(22)x2+2y2 = 2(22)
2x2+2y2 = 22
x2 y2
2 2 = 1

(*)
x2 y2
H 2 2 = 1

x22,

= 44+(x2+y2+2)242(x2+y2+2)
2(x2+y2+2)2x2 = 4
(22)x2+2y2 = 2(22) 2x2+2y2 = 22

14

(2y2)0.

)2 +
y2 (x
)2 +
y2| = 2
|(x
+






(x+)2 + y2 + (x)2 + y2 +

x22 y22, . (2x2)0

|(ME)(ME)| = 2

2
(x
+

+
)2
y2 + (x

)+
y2 = 2

x2
y2
2 + 2 = 1 (

) -

x2 y2
2 2 = 1,

>0 2 = 22.

2
(x

)+
y2

(*)

H "", " ",


E , 2,
22( x2+y2+2) 0. ,
22(x2+y2+2) = (2x2)+(2y2) 0,

22.

2(x
+

+
)2
y2

x2
y2
2 + 2 = 1.

(x2+y2+y2) 22 = (x22) + y2+(22) 0.

* .

E O

X


T . , ..

N
E(x) = ex :
x2
1. ex > 1 + x +   , x>0,
2!

x2
x3
. 1 + x +  +  < ex.
2!
3!
A 1, 1 2, .
M, F3(x)<0 x>0
:
x2
x3
ex > 1 + x +  +  .
2!
3!

x2
x3
x2
2. 1 +x +   +  < ex < 1+x+  , x<0.
2!
3!
2!

: O
:

A:

I. X

F3(x) < F3(0) = 1,

x2
xn
En(x) = 1+x+  ++  , :
2!
n!

x2
1 + x + 
2! ,
F2(x) = 
x
e

(i) x>0 n :
ex > En(x),

(ii) x<0 n :

1
F2(x) = = x2 x .
2!e

ex > E2n1(x),

x, x0, F2(x)<0,
F2(x)
[0, +) (, 0], .
E
1. x>0 F2(x) < F2(0) = 1,..
x2
1 + x +  < ex.
2!

ex < E2n(x)

, ,
E (x)
,
Fn(x) = n
ex

x2
xn
En(x) = 1+x+  ++  ,
2!
n!

1. x<0 F2(x)>F2(0) = 1, .
x2

1 + x +  > ex.
2!

En1(x)ex En(x)ex
1
= xn x .
Fn(x) = 

2
x
e
n!e
E, ,
.

x2
x3
1 + x +  + 
2!
3!
F3(x) = 
,
x
e
(, )
1
F3 (x) = x3 x .
3!e
2. x<0 F3 (x)>0, F3(x)
(, 0]. E x<0 :

II. X
ln(1+x)
N
L(x) = ln(1+x) :
x2
x2
x3
1. x   < ln(1+x) < x   +   , x>0
2!
2!
3!
x2
x3
2. ln(1+x) < x   +   , 1<x<0.
2!
3!

E O

15


1
1
Gn(x) =  Ln(x) = = (x)n  .
1+x
1+x

K
:

1. 1<x<0 n* Gn(x) > 0,


G n (x)
(1, 0], .
Gn(x)<Gn(0) = 0

A
x2
xn
Ln(x) = x  ++ (1)n1  ,
2!
n!

(i) 1<x<0 n* :

Gn(x) = ln(1+x)Ln(x)<0 ln(1+x) < Ln(x).

ln(1+x) < Ln(x).

2. ) x>0 n , . 2n, (x)>0, G2n(x)


G2n

(ii) x>0 n* :
ln(1+x) < L2n1(x), ln(1+x) > L2n(x)
A: ,
n=1,2 3 1 2.

Gn(x) = ln(1+x) Ln(x),
(1, +)

[0, +). E,
G2n(x) > G2n(0) = 0, . ln(1+x) > L2n(x).
2. ) x>0 n , . 2n1,
G2n1(x) < 0, G2n1(x) [0, +). E
G2n1(x) < G2n1(0) = 0, . ln(1+x) < L2n1(x).

M


;
(E , 2, . 10)

T . , K M.E.

H
f(x) =

1
x 1+2x  ,
x
0,

x0
x=0

, ,
x0
1
1
f(x) = 1 + 4x  2  .
x
x
y
0,2

y2=x(1+2x)

0,1

0,2

0,1

1
y=x(1+2xsin x )

0,1

0,2

f(x)

= 1 2 = 1 1 1.

f
(, ) x0=0,
1
1
1
1 =  > 2 = 
,
> 3 = 
2
2(
+
1)
+ 
2 + 
2
2
(, )

y1=x(12x)

x 0 =0,
1
x =  , 0,
2
1
4
f(x) = f  = 1 +  (2) 2(2) =
2
2

f(2) > f(1) f(3) < f(1).

0,1

,
(0, 0) y=x

1
1 =  , .
2
f. T 1

, ,
2 + 
2

0,2

y = x(1+2x). A,
x0=0

f(x) f(0)
f(x)
1
f(0) = lim  = lim  = lim 1 + 2x  = 1>0.
x0
x0 x
x0
x0
x

16

1

y = x(12x).
2 
2

E O

YNAMIKO TN EIN
YNAMIKH ENEPEIA
TN MATN
T .. K, A K T K,
T , A...


. A ,
( ).
,
,
. H


( )
.
O , . ,
, V = V(x, y, z, t).

, V = V(x, y, z) ,
,
. T
() . T , .
. T ( ) . T, ,
Newton
Coulomb
mm
F = G 122 r^ ,
r

1 qq
F1 = F2 =  122 r^,
40 r



(. 1).
m1
q1

r^

r^ F1

F2

m2
q2

1. O
.

, , . 1.


. T
. E , .

O: H

A B .
E(A) E(B) = W(AB).
A :

) H E
.

1. O , . A , potential ()
dynamic, dynamical (). B .K. A, E , A 1944.

E O

17

) H
.
.
E = E(B) E(A) = W(AB).
E
,

.

) A (
),
EK = EK(B)EK(A) = W(AB),


,
W(AB) = EK = E.
E, (
).

) , ( ) . ,
, . A .. E(A)=0,

1.

H E = .

O . H ,
, ,
, .. .
1
2, m
AB. N
.
B


,
(.. ).

,


. E,

. -
,
2,
V
V
V
E =  x^ +  y^ +  z^
x
y
z

18

E
E
E
F = 
x^ + 
y^ + 
z^ .
x
x
x

H
. M ,
H,
, .
N , B


(F = qu B), .
E . A
.

E(B) = W(AB).

s
h

h^

;;;;;
A

E = 0

h0

2. T

.

: , B . E
. s
W = Bs = Bh,
. B ,
h
s .
W(AB) =
Bh = B
h = B(h h0) = mg(h h0).
T
. ( ) ,

,
E(B) E(A) = W(AB) = mg(hh0).

2. O . T .

E O


A A (h0=0)
E(A) = 0 B
E(B) = mgh.

2
M m
. A
,
+xm ; ;
E.
N .

F
m

xm0,

iv.

xm

s
F

F = kx > 0.

W>0

xm

F = kx > 0.


s > 0,

1 2
,
W = kxm
2

E(0) E(xm) = W

1 2
1 2
= kxm
,
E(0) kxm
2
2

E(0) = 0.

F
F
F

3.

W<0
xm

xm

F F
W>0

iv

W<0
F

iii

0xm,

iii.

2,
E s<0, W = kxm
1 2
1 2
E(xm)E(0) = W = kxm
,
E(xm) = kxm
.
2
2
B
.

W>0
O

F = kx < 0.

M F, E
( ). H
s F ,
1 2
.
W = kxm
2

1 2
1 2
E(0)E(xm) = W E(0)  kxm
=  kxm
, E(0)=0,
2
2
.

F
s

xm0,

ii.

ii

m F E, F = F
F = kx. E s ,
F , F . , , .
1 2
1 2
W =  kxm
, W =  kxm
.
2
2
H E,
1 2
E(xm) E(0) = W = kxm
.
2
E O (F=0),
O , E(0)=0.
1 2
E(xm) = kxm
.
2

F = kx.

H
.
() x . T
, ( Hooke). H

, .

() . 16
374. H E
.

0xm, F > 0, F = kx < 0.

i.

2. (E),

;;
;;
;;

: A 3
:

F
xm

xm

3. A .

Y
s F(r). A
4

W = F(r)s = F(r)r.
E , W(AB) -

E O

19

m
S

rA

3
T 4 kg .
H 3R
R .
;
; A

F(r)

,5

g
u0 = 1
0R
3R;

r^
U0

O
M
3R

4. H

.

1. X .
A
M,
m
Mm
F(r) = G 2
r

1 1
W(AB) = GMm   .
rB rA
E r,

, E()=0. E
r

5. T
R 3R.

: O m ( ), M .
m . A
, ,
.
,
Mm
5,983 1024 4
=
E(3R) = G  = 6,67 1011 
3R
3 6,368106
= 8,356 107 J.
T
,

GMm
GMm
W(R3R) = E(R) E(3R) =   =
R
3R
= 2.507 108 + 8,356 107 = 1,671 108 J.

Mm
E(r) = G  .
r

A

F
M
EB =  = G 2 r^,
m
r
E (r)
W(r)
M
V(r) =  =  = G  .
m
m
r
,
3.

3. A , ,
. . 90 .

20

E(r)E()= W(r),

T , ()

.
, .
EK(3R) EK(R) = {E(3R) E(R)}

EK(3R) + E(3R) = EK(R) + E(R).


H
.
u2 = u20 + (2lm){E(R) E(3R)}

GM
1
u2 = 1,5g0R 2 1  .
R
3
H .
GM
GM
 = g0R.
g0 = 
R2
R
u
A, u = 0 .
3

E O


T . ,

, ,
- . H
() (),
. , .
H

(), . - ..

. A .
H , ,

. H ()
(). A ,
.

,

() ,
, . A
, :
) ,
) .
, , .

A

. H
. . 1 t
, (
) m
. H

APX
J
= m .

(1)

U + U
m m

M
U
m

dt, dm .

. T
:

= = = .

E :
J = dm = dm ( )

(2)

dt, ( )
mdm,
+d. :

E O

21

J = (m dm)( + d)

= dm + (m dm)( + d)

TE
= dm( ) + (m dm)( + d)
J

J APX + = J TE .
(1) (4), :
m mg dt = dm( ) + (m dm)( + d)
mgdt = m
/ + dm
/ dm + m
/+
+ md dm
/ dm d
mgdt = md dm dm d.

F = m F B = m
m
 m g = m
t
m
 
t
=  g
m

(9)

H

(6).
K , g m
. A  
t
,
m
, (9)
,
.

Y

A (6) m :

(5) mgdt = md dm dm
(6)

A
.
d
O 
dt
d
m  = m
dt
.
dm
O  
dt


dm
F =  
dt

(8)

(5)

T dm d
, . :

d
dm
m  =  mg
dt
dt

K 2
N. E, :

(4)

E - O
dt t
t+dt. A ,

. :

m = F B F = m .

(3)

E - t+dt,
(2) (3) :
TE
J

(7)

dm
O 
dt

.
F
. E (6), :

d
dm
dm
 = 
  g d =  gdt. (10)
dt
m
dt
m
, (10),
m .
T, dm dt, dm. (10) dm.
m0 0
( ) ,
t=0. T:

d =

dm

m0
m

gdt
t

m
0 = ln  gt
m0
m
= 0 ln  gt
m0

22
E O

(11)

Y ( ), t
m0 (
m
) t=0  =
t
. T
t,
m = t,

m = m0 m m = m0 t

) N 4
min ,

10 m/sec2.

m
) F =  F = 200 200 F = 4 104N.
t
T t=0 :
B0 = m0 g B0 = 5 104 10 B0 = 5 105 N.

F

(12)

F<B0,

,
. T

A -
B

H
:
m
F = 
t
m
 =
t

=
.

H t, 2
N:
m

t
=  g
m

m = ( ), t.

H t
:
m
= 0 ln  gt .
m0

H (
) t :
m = m0 t

F=B ,

,
, .
:

B = F = 4 104 N mg = 4 104 m = 4 103 Kgr.


,
m = 4 103 Kgr.
,
:
m
m = m0  t 4 103 = 5 104 200 t
t
5 104 4 103
t =  t = 230 sec.
200
) H ,
:
m
= 0 ln  gt
m0

0=0,
m
m = m0  t m = 5 104 200 240 m = 2103 Kgr
t
t = 240230 = 10 sec.
:
2 103
1
= 200 ln 4 10 10 = 200 ln  100
5 10
25
= 200 ln25 100 = 400 ln 5 100.

m0 = t=0
m
=  =
t
.

m0 = 5 104 Kgr
. T 200 m/sec
m sec 200 Kgr.
) N
.

A ln 5 1,61
= 400 1,61 100 = 298,39 m/sec
H ,
:
m

t
200 200
=  g = 
10
m
2 103
4 104
= 3 10 = 10 m/sec2.
2 10

E O

23

PEAN TAIIA
MEA E HPAE E 42 min
ANEAPTHTA TH AOTAH!
T . I,


, (), A
N Y
,
42 min ;

T = 2

5024
T =  (min) T = 83,73  84 (min)
60

H t = T/2, t  42 (min).

A :

24

R=6400 Km

g0 = 10 m/sec2.

K
R

, , .
A
g0
: g = 
,
R
(. A A
. 239-240 . I, E ZHTH).
.. A-
m x IT.
g0
F = m gA = m 
x =
R
g0

g0
x  = m 

= m 
R
x
R

F = D

.000
 gR T = 2 (3,14) 
6.4 0 10 
(sec)
0
T = 5024 (sec)

H !
, ,
42 min, .
, , , . H A
B.
M , ,
.


.
H

B A

(1)
(2)

g
A (1) (2) D = m 0 (3)
R

(3)
m
R
T = 2  T = 2  .
D
g0

H

g0,
.
B .

E O

POEIH TH YIKH
MEA AO OOY KAI
IAOPETIKO Y POMOY
T . ,



: 1,
2,

.
"" , : ""
""

.
T , ,


, "" :
, , , ..
E ""
"" .
"" .
T
(
" ") .
T " " " " , -

.
"TO TIPKO TH YIKH", , , , ,

,
E
.
XIOYMOP.
3
.


,

,
, .
M

( ).
M ,


, .
A ,
, .

E O

KIMATE TO.
25

,
,
.
E .

T,
, "":
,
,
. K - ,
. T
-
.

A
T
B1,

A1 B1.
O
A1


A 2 A 1
(A2=A1=B1).
O A2
B2
(A2 B2),
N 1 :
N1=A2+B2. O N1 , N2,
N1.
N2=B1+B2, B1
!

""
;
A
T "" ,
.

HPEI EIPE YIKH


IPOY ATPEIH

. IOYBANOYH

AKHEI YIKH
TAINOMHH - MEOOOIA - TEXNIKE
. IAKBOY
YIKH A' YKEIOY 1 & 2

ETPOY . IAKBOY

AKHEI YIKH
TAINOMHH - MEOOOIA - TEXNIKE
ETPOY . IAKBOY

EAONIKH

H   
(M - M )
H E

E 

K # #

H #

T

K
IA MAHTE - OITHTE
- KAHHTE
TOMO B'

EAONIKH 1992

EKOEI ZHTH

IA MAHTE - OITHTE - KAHHTE

TOMO '

EKOEI ZHTH

TOMO 1

1 2

TOMO 2

. IOYBANOYH

1 2
EPIEXEI:

ETPO . IAKBOY
ETPO . IAKBOY

A' YKEIOY
A' YKEIOY
TOMO

TOMO

TOMO A' - B' EKOH

HEKTPIMO
KYKMATA YNEXOY PEYMATO
HEKTPOMANHTIKH EAH
ENAAOMENO PEYMA

POBHMATA YIKH
POBHMATA YIKH

'

TAINOMHH - MEOOOIA - TEXNIKE

IA MAHTE - OITHTE - KAHHTE

EPTHEI KPIE
PAIKE APATAEI
YIKH ' YKEIOY

ETPOY . IAKBOY

AKHEI YIKH
TAINOMHH - MEOOOIA
- TEXNIKE
AKHEI
YIKH

IPOY ATPEIH
MHXANIKH
EPO-ENEPEIA
OPMH-KPOYH
EIA YNAMEN
KINHEI E EIA YNAMEN

YIKH ' YKEIOY

ENEPEIA
KINHMATIKHEPMOTHTA
YNAMIKH

E

E




O
O ,
&
,

&

M
M
T
T

T
T
E K
E K

A
A
TET AIOOHH

 1-12


T

M

&

TOIXEIA EPIA
MEOOOIA
EPTHEI EPIA
TYOOIO
YMENA APAEIMATA
YMENA POBHMATA
POBHMATA IA YH

EAONIKH 1996

EPIEXEI:
TOIXEIA EPIA
MEOOOIA
EPTHEI EPIA
TYOOIO
YMENA APAEIMATA
YMENA POBHMATA
POBHMATA IA YH

TOMO 1

EPO - ENEPEIA

OPMH - KPOYH

EIA YNAMEN

KINHEI E
110 &
EIA YNAMEN
33
TAANTEI
600
KYMATA

E

EAONIKH

26
E O

EAONIKH 1996

. ATPEIH
YIKH (1-2 EMH)
T.1: MHXANIKH, T.2: HEKTPIMO
Y :
T.3: EPMOYNAMIKH, NOMOI AEPIN
TAANTEI, KYMATA

XHMIKE
ANTIPAEI
K. A. T, K K X A...

1. EIAH
,
, .
,

. E
, ,

, ; H
, , . E, ,
,

. E,

.



, ,
. A ,
.
.

2. TYOI XHMIKN ANTIPAEN


,
,
. O -

, .
T ,

, :
1. ,
2.


.

. :
AB + XY AY + XB

(1)

,
A+ X+, B Y. AB XY AY XB. A
.

A+ B +

X+

A+ Y + X+ B

E. 1.
. O
,

.

, , ,


; M , ,
:

E O

27


1.
() ,
.. H2O,

CaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq)
CaCl2(aq) + CO2(g)+H2O(l)

(4)

2.
,

3. .

E. 4. A . H
,
CuCO3, ,

CO2.

M
,
1. -,
,
H2O. ..,
HA(aq) + MOH(aq) MA(aq) + H2O(l)

(2)
1
T ( )
KCl NaNO3;

E. 2. H -
-
( ). T


( ).

: T KCl NaNO3
( ):
KCl(s) + H2O(l) K+(aq) + Cl(aq)
NaNO3(s) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + NO3(aq)
A ,
KCl + NaNO3 KNO3 + NaCl
KNO3 NaCl,
,
( ):
KNO3(s) + H2O(l) K+(aq) + NO3(aq)

2. ,
, .
..,
NaCl(aq)+AgNO3(aq) AgCl(s)+NaNO3(aq) (3)

E. 3. A . H , Pb(NO3)2,
, Na 2 S,

PbS, .

NaCl(s) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)


H , ,
,
K+(aq) + Cl(aq) + Na+(aq) + NO3(aq)
K+(aq) + NO3(aq) + Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)
,
. E , .

2
T ( )
HClO4 NaOH;
: T HClO4 . T NaOH :
HClO4(aq) H+(aq) + ClO4(aq)
NaOH(aq) Na+(aq) + OH(aq)

28

3. ,

. ..,

A ,
HClO4(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaClO4(aq) + H2O(l)
NaClO4(aq) H2O(l),

E O


NaClO4(aq) ,
,
NaClO4(aq) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + ClO4(aq)
H2O(l) ( ). E, ( -, ). H ,

H2S(g) ( ). E,
( ). H
,
2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + S2(aq)
2Na+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + H2S(g)
,

H+(aq) + ClO4(aq) + Na+(aq) + OH(aq)

Na+(aq)

ClO4(aq)

2H+(aq) + S2(aq) H2S(g)


+ H2O(l)

(

) ,
H+(aq) + OH(aq) H2O(l)
3
T ( )
Pb(NO3)2 Na2S;
: O , Pb(NO3)2, Na2S
,


.
, . ..,

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + H2O(l) Pb++(aq) + 2NO3(aq)


Na2S(aq) + H2O(l) 2Na+(aq) + S2(aq)
A ,
Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2S(aq) PbS(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)
PbS(s) NaNO3(aq),
NaNO3(aq) ,
,
NaNO3(aq) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + NO3(aq)
o PbS(s) ( ).
E,
( ). H ,
Pb++(aq) + 2NO3(aq) + 2Na+(aq) + S2(aq)
PbS(s) + 2Na+(aq) + 2NO3(aq)
,
Pb++(aq) + S2(aq) PbS(s)

4
T ( )
HCl Na2S;
: To , HCl, ,
HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl(aq)

Fe2+

*Fe3+

*Fe3+ + Fe2+ (5)


,
redox.
2e
Sn2+

2Fe3+

Sn4+ + 2Fe2+ (5)

,

. A

. A,
,
:
1. , ,

. ..,

Na2S ,

Mg(s) + Cl2(g) MgCl2(s)

(7)

Na2S(aq) + H2O(l) 2Na+(aq) + S2(aq)

4Fe(s) + 3O2(g) 2Fe2O3(s)

(8)

A ,
2HCl(aq) + Na2S(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + H2S(g)
NaCl(aq) H2S(g),
NaCl(aq) ,
,

2. , ,
. ..,

NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) Na+(aq) + Cl(aq)

E O

2HgO(s) 2Hg(l) + O2(g)

(9)

2HI(g) H2(g) + I2(g)

(10)

29

E. 5. A . H
,
HgO,
Hg O2.

3. ,
,
, . ..,
Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

(11)

2AgNO3(aq) + Cu(s) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)

(12)


.
T,

,
( ) . , , :
1. ,
,

2. , ,

.

3. KAAPE IONIKE EIEI



(
), .

. ,

;
K
. E,
,
. M

(), . T,


, . T , :
. ,
, H+,

E. 6. A . H



.

4. . E
, ..
. ..,
6KOH(aq) + 3Cl2(g)
KClO3(aq) + 5KCl(aq) + 3H2O(l)

(13)

K2Cr2O7(aq) + 14HCl(aq)
2CrCl3(aq) + 2KCl(aq) + 3Cl2(g) + 7H2O(l)

30

(14)

, . , ,
. Y -

E O


OH ( ).
O
. A , , .

BaCO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) BaCl2(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)


T , BaCO3,
.
To , HCl,
,
HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl(aq)
T BaCl2 ,
,

5
N ,
Na2S(aq)
Cu(NO3)2(aq). T ;
: H Na2S(aq)
Cu(NO3)2(aq) :
Na2S(aq) + Cu(NO3)2(aq) CuS(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)

BaCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)


CO2 , H2O(l) .
E, ,
BaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)
Ba2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)
,

T Na2S ,
,

BaCO3(s) + 2H+(aq) Ba2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(l)

Na2S(aq) + H2O(l) 2Na+(aq) + S2(aq)

H .

O , Cu(NO3)2,
, ,
7

Cu(NO3)2(aq) Cu2+(aq) + 2NO3(aq)


A , CuS,
(, ) NaNO3
, ,
NaNO3(aq) Na+(aq) + NO3(aq)

N ,

Fe(OH)2(s) HCl(aq). T ;
: H Fe(OH)2(s)
HCl(aq) :

E, ,

Fe(OH)2(s) + 2HCl(aq) FeCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

2Na+(aq) + S2(aq) + Cu2+(aq) + 2NO3(aq)


CuS(s) +

2Na+(aq)

2NO3(aq)

,
S2(aq) + Cu2+(aq) CuS(s)

T , Fe(OH)2,
.
To , HCl,
,
HCl(aq) H+(aq) + Cl(aq)

H .

MEOOOA PA TN KAAPN
IONIKN EIEN
A , ,
.
I

.
.
A
,
.

O , FeCl2,
, ,
FeCl2(aq) + H2O(l) Fe2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)
H2O(l) .
E, ,
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) + 2Cl(aq)
Fe2+(aq) + 2Cl(aq) + 2H2O(l)
,
Fe(OH)2(s) + 2H+(aq) Fe2+(aq) + 2H2O(l)
H .

4. APATHPNTA TI XHMIKE
ANTIPAEI

6
N ,

BaCO3(s) HCl(aq). T ;
: H BaCO3(s)
HCl(aq) :


, . M
,

E O

31


. O , ,
,

. ,
, . A, . , ,
:
(). ..,
Ca2+(aq)

+ CO3

2(aq)

CaCO3(s)

Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s)

(15)
(16)

. ..
S2(aq)

+ 2H3

O+(aq)

2H2O(aq) + H2S(g) (17)

CaCO3(s) + 2H3O+(aq)
Ca2+(aq) + 3H2O + CO2(g)

(18)

M . ..,
H2SO4(l) + H2O(aq)
H3O+(aq) + HSO4(aq) + Q (19)
, ,
.
A .
..,
Cr2O72(aq) + 3H2C2O4(aq) + 8H3O+(aq)

2Cr3+(aq) + 6CO2(g) + 15H2O (20)

Cu2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) Cu(NH3)42+(aq)

K . ..,

(21)

X

K. TIH
XHMEIA:
I. ATOMA KAI MOPIA
II. KATATAEI TH YH
Y %:
III. XHMIKE ANTIPAEI

I. ? @ M

K A. T

A B

. 70 , . 19 , 20 . ,
. , ,
, .
,
,
.

32
E O

E X
A
P
T A B, K O X A...

1898:
, , .
, , M -K M
K, . O ,

M K
.
H
,
,
,

Henri
Becquerel, 1896. T
. T
M K
. E
, M,

: . H ,
K, . O K

, .
, M K
,
,
. A
, .
, . O . O
1%.

:
0,000025% ( ) 2.500 ! A,
, ; ,
,
. H -

, ,
B M ,
:


.
O, ,
. H M . . O
.
, . , B,
.
H
, M K
. H
, . H
. K , . A, ,
. A
M K . K

. E ,
,
.
T
.
, ,
.
, ,

.
, .
,

, . T, ,
.
H
,
() .
M K,
E, . M ,

E O

33

E X

. , , K ,
. K ,
I. A, : , N
, , . ,

.
,
O . H
.
M K ,
O ,
. H .
A, .

H . A ,
,
A
.
. T A
: , , . ,
! . O , , , , .
. T

,

. H M K,
. Einstein,
I .
M K
H M K .
, 1903. T
T ,
N

Becquerel. H . O
,
A A, . H M
: O
. O , 1934,
, : O
67 . , , : , . , , .
,
.
K K ,
. H M
. ,
, 1906. A
M .
,
, . . A
, ,
500 .
1910, N X .
E ,
, . ,
,
. A I P, , M K. T
. H M K 47 ,
. H
.
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34

, :
,

E O

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B ;
A:
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.
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.
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.
Photoblepharon
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.
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.

E O

35


; K , .
A:
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Y. T X

Y
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Mendel.

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.

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A =

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: X , Y

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X


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B
A

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P: X

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()

()

: X , Y

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X


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: X , Y

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36
E O

EKEH-KPAH
PATO OO
TYOOIA TN AKHEN
A . X. T

3.


E
: , , , (.
), , , , (.. ,
).
O ,
, , .

E :
/ , /
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,
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4.
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,
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5.

I. IABAZ
1.
E ( ):
,

,
,
,

,
,
(, ,
, ),
, , , .

2. O
E (- ) ,
,

,
(
),
.

X
(, , ,
, ...),
(, , ,
...).

II. PA
A. M
1.
,
, ...,
(, ,
, /
), ..
, . 79, 80, 91 ... . ,
. 16, 18, 34 ... . . 13,
17, 48 ... . A . 6, 8, 18, 30 ...

2. O
X ,
, ,
(, ...).

3.
M :

E O

37

-
, , ,
. ...,
,
.

4.
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,
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, .

5.
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,
,
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).

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:


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()


*

3.
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, /
/ , , , ,
,
.

4.
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,

, , , ...,
.

5.

I. IABAZ
1.
E ( ):
,

38

E (, ,
) ,
,

,
(
),
,
, , , .

X :
(, , , , , ...),
( , , ...).

* I , , ,
. T , , .

E O


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II. PA
A. M


..



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).
O ,
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I. IABAZ
1.
E , ,
(, ...
), ,

.

2. O
E ( -
- ) ,
-

E O

39

-
,

,
(
),
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3.
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.

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...),
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II. PA
A. M
1.
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,
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,

.

2. O
40

X ,

-
,
(, ...).

3.
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,
.

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, .

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41

PAMMATIKH TH APXAIA EHNIKH A


*
T . ,

1)

T  , ,  
 :
.. *, *.

5)

* ,
*
* .
,
 

E#: H        :
* > @, @ > @.

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(.

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2)

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6)

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)
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3)

4)

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:
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:
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($@).
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: , , , ,  (@) . M   
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*&,  *, %*, %*,  *
.
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   (*):
@, @, @, @, @, %@,  @.
: %*, *&,  *.

42

T     :

T   ()    :
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E:   
 , , , (,@ ,@ )@ :
..  , , , 
,  ,  .

7)

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.. * ,  , ,
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E: T  , /, , ,    ( @, @):
.. (,  (, (,  (.).

8)

T  ()

  

(*, *, *, !*, * ..) 


 (, , ,  ..).
. AE M. O    
( @) (285).

9)

T   , ,
*     ,  
  :
.. (, ,  (, (.) (,
!, #, :  ( )* , 0 ()*
().

* . , - , .

E O

* *  *
E#: T  
  ,   :
,  , ,  .
*

#: A . , , ,
,   :
@-i>@->@ (: * > @) 
*-i>*->@ . E:
*->*->@ .

10) $    
     (@):
, , .
E#: T  2, 2, 2, 2
   (*):
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11) T   
     *  
 (  ):
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 *),
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 *),
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 , , ).
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 :
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  .: @, @,
@,
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3 , 4 , (  (6
& - . % * > @).
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 :
.. 8-, 8,  8
8-, 8, 8 (.)
-, ,  , (.)

*
*  .
*
,
-, -,
E#: T  , ,  (=  ), (), 
 ( @, @) :
.. (, (, (, %@ (
.
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   .    (*):
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16) $    
 ,   
(*):
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17) $   ,
   :
.. % (*).
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 (@):
% (. ), %,
: %* ( ), %* (%), %*
( ), %* ( )  (*).
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(*):
..  ,  , (*).

E O

43

20)   , .
 . .  ( )
   (*):
.. !2,  ( ),  ( ),  ( ),  , *& (*).
21) H  (*)
 :

  (*)

, , , : (:%) .
E#  (.   ).
22) O 

*, *

 

( *):
)    #*  #*
(#),
)    : %* ,
)    : !&*
.

23) O  @, @     (@): %@, :9@ ..


: % * (% * ) , & *
(&*)    *, *, %*.
24) O  *, *

*
*
 : % ,  , %*, %*, %*, *.
25) O  #*

 

 (#*):
*, *.
26) T       
 , ,   :
() % * , % * ,  * , ()
%*, %*, *, ( ), %*,
%*,  *.

A. I. IAKOOYOY

YNTAKTIKO

ATINIKH
A

B EKOH
EKOEI
EAONIKH 1995
EAONIKH 1995

44
E O

ATINIKA YKEIOY
OEIMATA AKHEN
T . ,


. H
, ,
. T ATINIKA YKEIOY, K. NTOYPOY, ZHTH, 1997, .
. O
.

Tum adulescens ruit certatum ( )


Tum adulescens ruit ad certandum ( ad+a. )
Tum adulescens ruit certandi causa ( causa +
)

multas imagines nobis reliquerunt non solum ad


intuendum (. 212)
multas imagines nobis reliquerunt non solum ut
intueremur ( )
multas imagines nobis reliquerunt non solum quas
intueremur ( )
multas imagines nobis reliquerunt non solum intuitum
(. )
multas imagines nobis reliquerunt non solum ad
intuendum* (ad + . )
multas imagines nobis reliquerunt non solum intuendi
causa* (causa + . )

1. HH TOY KOOY
- EPOYNIAKH EH

filiola eius ad complexum patris cucurrit (.


172)

filiola eius cucurrit ut complecteretur patrem (


)
filiola eius cucurrit quae complecteretur patrem (- )
filiola eius cucurrit complexum patrem ()
filiola eius cucurrit ad complectendum patrem*
( .)
filiola eius cucurrit complectendi causa (patrem)
(causa+. )
, . ad
complectendi patris

Tum adulescens in certamen ruit (. 209)

Tum adulescens ruit ut certaret ( )


Tum adulescens ruit qui certaret (
)

2. METATPOH POTAH E METOXH

N
(.169, 173, 178, 205)

Hannibal omnes gentes Hispaniae bello superavit et


Saguntum vi expugnavit:
Hannibal omnibus gentibus Hispaniae bello superatis Saguntum vi expugnavit
Postea Alpes, quae Italiam ab Gallia seiungunt, cum
elephantis transiit:
Postea Alpes Italiam ab Gallia seiungentes cum
elephantis transiit
Postquam XIV annos in Italia complevit Carthaginienses eum revocaverunt:
XIV annis in Italia completis a Hannibale Carthaginienses eum revocaverunt

Terror animos militum invaserat et exercitus


fiduciam amiserat: Animis militum invasis terrore

* A multas imagines , .
: ad intuendas multas imagines // intuendarum causa multarum imaginum

E O

45


exercitus fiduciam amiserat
Quia ille metum vicerat, imperator adversarios vincere
potuit: Victo metu ab illo imperator adversarios
vincere potuit

Cum civitas bellum gerit , magistratus creantur:


civitate bellum gerente , magistratus creantur
Germani vinum a mercatoribus ad se importari non
sinunt, quod ea re remollescunt homines
Germani vinum a mercatoribus ad se importari non
sinunt ea re remollescentibus hominibus

quotiescumque avis non respondebat, sutor dicere


solebat: ave/i non respondente sutor dicere
solebat
cum Octavianus Romam rediret, homo quidam ei
occurrit: Octaviano Romam redeunti homo
quidam occurrit

3. ANAYH METOXN

. N

audivisset // Postquam Caesar salutationem


audivit

4. METATPOH ENEPHTIKH YNTAH


E AHTIKH KAI ANTITPOA

A. Regulus scripsit ab eo desertum esse rus (


219): Is (mercenarius meus) rus deseruit

nihil illis pater reliquerat (. 219): nihil illis a


patre relictum erat

Numquam ego hostem iudicabo Marium // Semper


tamen meminero urbem Romam et Italiam a Mario
conservatam esse (. 231)
Numquam Marius hostis a me iudicabitur //
Semper tamen meminero Marium urbem
Romam et Italiam conservavisse

atque id quod a Caesare scriptum est, habe


semper in memoria (. 233): atque id quod
Caesar scripsit, habe semper in memoria

Curat et providet ne nostra consilia ab hostibus


cognoscantur // Haec a quodam milite conspicitur
et ad Ciceronem defertur (.242)
Curat et providet ne nostra consilia hostes
cognoscant
Hanc quidam miles conspicit et ad Ciceronem
defert


(. 191)
Brenno duce: I ( ) Brenno duce

Cum Brennus dux esset ...everterunt
deletis legionibus: I
( )
Cum Galli legiones delevissent ... everterunt...

Caesar ex captivis cognoscit quae apud


Ciceronem gerantur quantoque in periculo res sit:
Quae apud Ciceronem geruntur quantoque in
perculo res est?

Tum cuidam ex equitibus Gallis prsuadet ut ad


Ciceronem epistulam deferat: Ad Ciceronem
epistulam defer

Curat et providet ne, intercepta epistula, nostra


consilia ab hostibus cognoscantur: intercepta
epistula nostra consilia ab hostibus ne
cognoscuntor

In literris scribit se cum legionibus celeriter adfore:


Ego cum legionibus celeriter adero

Gallus constituit ut tragulam mitteret: tragulam


mittam

. Ille milites adhortatur ut salutem sperent: salutem


N
(. 205)

audita salutatione: Cum Caesar salutationem


46

N (. 191)

divisam: qui in exilio fuerat propter praedam..., quae


non aequio iure divisa erat
absens: Tum Camillus, etsi aberat, dictator est factus
interemptis: Cum Camillus eos interemisset ...
recepit Postquam Camillus eos interemit...
appensum: Aurum, quod illic appensum erat , civitati
nomen dedit
rogatus: Post hoc factum rediit in exilium, unde tamen
reversus est, postquam rogatus est
abeuntes: Is Gallos, dum iam abeunt, secutus est (
) Is Gallos, cum iam
abirent, secutus est ( )

5. AIO OO (
)

sperate

Legatum monet ut, si adire non possit, epistulam


ad amentum tragulae adliget et intra castra abiciat:

E O

si adire non poteris epistulam ad amentum


tragulae adliga et intra castra abice (. 242)

7. TPOH YOETIKOY OOY TA AA


EIH

Catilina a Cicerone ex urbe expulsus est. Ab


Antonio, altero consule, Catilina ipse proelio victus
interfectus est: )N ) N
Sallustius tradit (. 188)

) Cicero Catilinam ex urbe expulit. Antonius,


alter consul, Catilinam ipsum proelio victum
interfecit
) Sallustius traxit Catilinam a Cicerone ex
urbe expulsum esse et ab Antonio, altero
consule, eum ipsum proelio victum
interfectum esse

Gaius Sallustius tradit multos etiam milites Romanos in eadem cruentissima pugna occisos esse,
multos autem graviter vulneratos esse: Multi etiam
milites Romani in eadem cruentissima pugna
occisi sunt, multi autem graviter vulnerati sunt

6. METATPOH AHTIKH EPIPATIKH YZYIA E ENEPHTIKH KAI


ANTITPOA

.
.

Vim hostium cavere debetis:


cavenda est vobis (. 163)

Si haberet Asia suspicionem quandam luxuriae,


Murenam laudare deberemus (
)
Si habuisset ... Murenam laudare debuissemus (
)
Si habeat Asia ... Murenam laudare debeamus ( )

Neminem credideritis patriae consulturum esse,


nisi vos ipsi patriae consulueritis: N
(.198)

nemo consulet, nisi vos ipsi patriae consulueritis


( )
nemo consuleret / consuluisset, nisi vos ipsi patriae
consuleretis / consuluissetis ( )
nemo consulat, nisi vos ipsi patriae consulatis (, )

8. AAOPEYH

Vis hostium

N debeo + (. 214)

omnia sunt excitanda tibi uni: Tu unus omnia excitare


debes
comprimendae (erant) libidines tibi: Tu libidines
comprimere debebas
omnia vobis vincienda fuerunt: Vos omnia vincire
debuistis

N debeo +

Ns bella vitare () debemus: Bella vitanda


sunt nobis
Vos pacem expetere debebatis: Pax expetenda erat
vobis
vulneribus mederi debes:Vulneribus medendum est
a te ( )

Noli spectare quanti homo sit: N


&
orabam illum (. 202)

Ne spectaveris quanti homo sit


orabam illum ne spectaret quanti homo esset (
, , ne )

Subveniendum erat reipublicae (a te): Tu rei publicae


subvenire debebas

Si habet Asia suspicionem quandam luxuriae,


Murenam laudare debemus:(. 208)

Opibus urbis nolite confidere // Neminem credideritis patriae consulturum esse: N

Ne opibus urbis confisi sitis // nolite credere


patriae aliquem consulturum esse

9. B OPO YKPIH

ut nihil ei gratius possit esse quam recuperatio


fugitivi: ut nihil ei gratius possit esse recuperatione fugitivi

Ea puella nihil umquam festivius vidi: Nihil umquam


festivius quam eam puellam vidi

47
E O

NEA E

KOH

TAYPOY . IOYIH

AEBPIKE OME
IANYMATIKOI XPOI - INAKE
PAMMIKA YTHMATA - IIOMEEH
TETPANIKE MOPE
HMEIAKOI XPOI - TANYTE

EAONIKH