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Etruscan

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ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS

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.FRONTISPIECE.

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F.S. LONDON T. PRESIDENT OF THE CYPSY-LORE SOCIETY. FISHER UNWIN PATERNOSTER SQUARE MDCCCXCII .Etruscan Roman Remains IN POPULAR TRADITION CHARLES GODFREY LELAND HON. &C.R..L.

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. ARTEMISIA LEMURI GANZIO REMLE DUSIO ... 182 . MONTULGA..... .... MASO PALO SILVIANO IV. QUERCIOLA AND WITCHCRAFT . LOSNA LASS1 OF . l'eRBA 65 . . . . BUSCHET LA I 59 AND CLOUD . GODS ANT) GO'BLINS. Introduction PAGE I CHAP.... ... THE GODDESS SIERO . ORCO .... LARES.. SETHANO VI... PANO MANIA DELLA NOTTE FERONIA MORTE IMPUSA DELLA TURANNA APLU TRUFFLES II.. FAFLON LO SPIRITO AND LASA... .. CONTENTEZZA DELLA NORCIA.. TERAM6 TINIA III..CONTENTS PART FIRST... I. MEANA. TAGO MART A 4Q SPULVIERC DIANA AND HERODIAS RED CAP . RA BOVO SPIRITS IL SPIRITO GODDESS ATTILIO DEL SCALDINO OF THE WALNUT MEN— STORIES LA BELLA FOUR WINDS. ....... TESANA . 136 — THE MADONNA DEL FUOCO ZANCHI I07 OFFERINGS OF SORCERY IN ANCIENT ART ROSOLACCIO 80 PICO 122 . TALENA JANO. CARRADORA I . FLORIA TO IX..... OF WITCHES AND GOBLINS WIZARD SAINTS HAIL .... WITCHES WITCHES ALPENA . TITUNO VIII. .... URFIA V.. CARMENTA ESTA . VII. FANIO 8 -54 . CAVALLETTA X. CUPRA VERBIO ALBINA SENTIERO CORREDOIO LARONDA BUGHIN BERGOIA VIRA IL ..

AND 3 2" . INCQ4NTC4TI0NIS.CONTENTS. vi PART SECOND... EVIL INCANTATIONS SPELL OF IL OF SORCERIES OF THE THE SPELL OF THE BLACK HEN THE BOILING CLOTHES LEAD AND ANTIMONY — THE . PAGE CHAP. THE AMETHYST INDEX THE SPELL CANTO DEL GALLO SPELL THE SPELL OF THE CRADLE PYROMANCY AND INCENSE • .. SMALL 349 377 . THE . MEDICINE. I.. .... WISE MEN OF THE EAST AND THE WITCH-MEDALS III. ANT) AMULETS. . DIVINATION... .. LA STALLA DI THE HARE II. THE SPELL OF THE ACORNS THE SPELL OF THE FALLING STAR THE SPELL OF THE SWALLOW THE SPELL OF AMULETS.. 3O3 THE SPELL OF THE SNAIL . RING SORCERY 27° DIVINATION WITH LEAD HOLY STONE AND THE SALAGRANA DIVINATION WITH ASHES 2 S' THE THREE MARCELLUS THE SPELL OF THE LAMP THE SHELL AND THE TONE OF THE STONE V.. BIRDS THE SPELL OF THE IVY AND THE STATUE MAIALE THE SPELL OF THE SPIDER AND TREASURES THE SPELL OF THE GREEN LIZARD MINOR CURES FROM THE EXORCISM OF DEATH DIVINATION BY OIL IV. THE SPELL OF THE BELL OMENS.. .

53 (Headpiece) nymph silvanus and 20 . etruscan ornament. 49 O) (Initial 49 (Gerhard) mars. guardian spirit losna. Leland) Probably an error. (From ... linthun. (Initial T) I (Initial I) APLU (APOLLO).. diana and virbius. headpiece.. AND SEMELE corredoio. 18 AND t£rAM6 (jUPITER AND MERCURY) TINIA.. or mercury. (Full-page. (Initial nortia. 5° (Full-page. a Mirror) 72 80 80 81 lasa or fairy. and faunus tinia and lasa 65 7i (Tailpiece) thesan (tesana). BACCHUS. or B) 66 . pano. it as one of the Damonen der Aphrodite Charles G. who gives turan. memrun (memnon cupids. . (Initial (Tailpiece) . 46 (Headpiece) mars. (Initial 52 (Tailpiece) 54 T) . (Initial I) (Headpiece) lasa. restored) 34 . 39 (From Gori) pan. winged. after a bronze) (Etruscan.— LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. (Initial lasa. or venus. maso.. Frontispiece PAGE turms. T) (From Dennis). TERAMO (TURUS. (From Gerhard.) evil spirit. lalae. APOLLO. 92 . jupiter. . feronia. 76 . 85 88 . (From rude Etruscan vase) fufluns (bacchus). tinia. or etruscan brownie.. 35 APLU (APOLLO) AND ARTEMISIA lasa.. 64 65 FUFLUNS. 54 59 house goblin. mars... MERCURY) 24 T) nortia. .

. 253 . cupids .. old roman magic bell 357 362 373 (Vignette) bronze etruscan amulet against the evil eye.) .. munthucha.. I.) Museum dancing girl and boy. INITIAL IO7 (Headpiece) lemures.. ATTITUDE FOR DREAMING 251 .. or faflon (bacchus). (Tailpiece) 269 270 270 (Initial I) (From Bronze Votive Offerings) headpiece. HEADPIECE (Initial (C..) 159 . W 164 182 O) 182 (C.. deities. (In possession of the . (C.. G..) headpiece. L. G. ON A ROMAN LAMP . L. JtED-CAP Museum) and 99 (C.) 2.. TAGO. !34 136 il spirito initial 133 . T) (C. alpan. tloria. 121 (Tailpiece) headpiece. dusio... bygoe.. 136 159 . 102 SETHLANS (VULCAN) AND THE TROJAN HORSE I0 5 (From faun. L. L. L. 285 of Florence) 303 303 . (Corssen) BELLA Rl A cupra. TAGES etruscan rural PAGE 9 6 >97 (From Gerhard) . faun. headpiece and initial T. (C.. G..) losna. (Corssen) C) (Gori) etruscan vase.) etruscan bronze bell... (Vignette..) 326 (Tailpiece) 348 (C.. "5 120 .. lettered cylinder ROMAN SLING-STONE boy and lantern. 349 worn AS AN AMULET... L. G.. from chiusi. . writer.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. HEADPIECE WOODPECKER AND MONEY. . G.) HEADPIECE. (Initial D) (C G. (From Vase. I06 (Tailpiece) . . 122 . G. 251 . 375 (In possession of the Author) 376 . initial T. (Initial del scaldino. Vlll .) 248 . G.. I. (Initial begoe. L. a Patera) roman mask (in British carradora. L..

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descendants kinds of goblins. of these invocations or prayers in rude metrical form are are at least preserved. and their . or. rural deities. all of that quaint in of familiar spirits which are boldly claimed German at home a vast mass of curious and a guardian or leading the case of silkworms. on themselves to these beliefs "growed" of it shall be satisfied should take where due to a common Aryan or Asian spontaneously and sporadically everywhere. and Teramo (in the most ancient To With these Etruscan Turms). in a few memories. or old religion. Italian. Palus. book this these people. tradition. in mineral. they company being of Northern it in turn with it may birth by Whether be. . Rome was new the as yet young. less whom the principal of left in The refers. little of late years whether the Bolognese are of Etrurian origin. but in Italy while this " lore " or whether. and their culture which to may This Italians. or witchcraft which would even astonish many this there before the Etruscans. invocations and legends.. Pan. suffice to cellars. and something spirits. as that sorcerers that all forests. INTRODUCTION. All of these names. with their attributes. as for archaeologists. Topsy. question seems to have been generally decided that they are it They were probably have nothing whatever to do. very likely that they is to I refer called. ruined madden alternately towers. such as that there is a spirit of instance of every plant and animals or. or them. is of a mythology of I once formed part of the Papal "the old religion") thing more than a sorcery. which it With not. like origin. "la vecchia religione" (or it it not to be confounded with is it Among and Ravenna. red-caps and three-inch mannikins. than a exists to a degree some- remains It consists in faith. are sometimes —one born again in their of spirit good and one all Also evil. still stories current regarding addressed. which investigation indicates to have been thoroughly be Teutonic or as as or I will my itself. or any higher question. minor spirits. or Bacchus. brownies. 2 and observances ditions been and a changed from an incredibly early time. applied to their district because is Roughly speaking. heard and Italy. firesides or delight the maids and kitchens. unbuilt.. haunt rocks. two and witches is every element or thing created. or Mercury. descriptions of spirits or gods. will be found in this work. La -Romagna proper. such as Silvanus. — short. or Jupiter. or say that value to those Connected who I school teaches. and there are many and the Fauns. not pretend to determine collection prove to be of settle the in folletti. preserve the have I stregeria. Closely allied to the belief in these old deities. be described as lying between — — as or. the region Forli all districts those traces of name Romagna has It names and attributes of the old Etruscan gods. all Roman there still exist. stregeria. But the remote or one time held latter at Roman dominion. Faflon. such as Tinia.

to powers that be. or bring certain influences evil good insure to spirits. a in faith large execution of them and people. " that he But name. as unless one was in the confidence of those in vain. And here I may items given in this book are so jealously guarded as secrets." added the gypsy. velin extremis. or causing mutual love and conferring luck. it Romany be either they 'had ever met stand to shillings Bath.— INTRODUCTION. the pupil Red Indian of the pocket always dence —none full and other minor and mutual understanding an elder firstly in red bags) little —a man the less so since he was not ungenerous of pounds of coffee. are vast numbers of magical cures with appropriate incantations. it is And preserved from generation to generation. to evoke in happy these spells were known." mystic liar in So these have treat. that. And I sovereigns. while other details are however still it is generally known. the art of bewitching or injuring enemies. his who was worthy of confi- medaolin. gypsies and tramps deeply distrust everything that all and return. being ancient. he might seek it now in Also that a great portion has become so nearly extinct that articulo mortis. small bottles of rum. moreover. and secondly in the more important processes of annulling or unbinding the spells of others. to win . . is the truth in blood. cigars. spell who had. because in this case part. and the gypsy rye (and one of fetishes in dame has in requisites wisdom. just as all myself once that was the biggest penniless at the gold believe the hands of in is who belong no exaggeration to declare that gypsy encampment I I scores of these are familiar with having been an arrogant and boastful. it effect possibly be found to will few obscure wizards priests. who many observe that I of the was assured. to to twopence had a d in d sixpence on the darkened road of travellers sorcery soon recognised in the holder of the Black Stone of the Voodoo. spells. twenty-four to his " of any me indeed befell man. traveller's remove attract love. had. a art " no confidence or telling a few declared of Romany As lies. missing in earlier authors peasants in the cryptic ways curious whom but the skilled repetition and spells. at I and was —the assertion true. which greatly promote conviviality Among generally in hand these priestesses of the hidden some younger girl whom she instructs. certain families. yet that though bronze. on or lie my home." so that to verbo venia. in — all which the occult under jealous fear of sit Romagna Toscana and witches. possess such lore. cultured honest folk. divination some much Many cases that what is a or many or deviltry in supply things to pass crops allusions in classical writers to that in and ceremonies. Where in must I or road." " travellers " they have caught him until don't believe. as shown by have gathered and given I all gaming. silver. 3 attendant observances and traditions. "on the not is moment eighteen he's all right.

Berlin.INTRODUCTION. in among the rural classes. The collection has been edited by Jacob Grimm in a work entitled Uber Marcellus Burdigalensis. reader. as he informs us in a work entitled De Medicamentis Empiricis. Latin. made a my the fourth century. Professor Milani. I my Gods in Exile would have exceeded reasonable as readers' patience. have included a number of curious I of which are identical with. or Ilasii. and tales. Virgil. who not only placed library at criticism. formulas contain at least the spirit of antique originals. have found about one-half sorceries I still in these one current use. were probably of Tuscan or Etrurian origin. friend. Varro. will doubt that these Italian wanting. " ad agrestibus et plebeis" ("from rustics and common people"). Lasi." my disposal. 4 An remedies. tales. I fessor must here express my great obligations and gratitude to my —now Senator— D. and I think that no critical who will compare all that I have collected. who have fail anecdotes. of one hundred magical cures for dis- collection. Pliny. and worship of is. day of "the manner. will. He gathered them. and his son-in-law. and. —and spirits to deeply interest every student of ethnology. and others comparison of the whole can hardly Romagna Toscana. and Christian rule. Miiller in his great work on the Etruscans could hardly have doubted that the Lases were the same as the Lares. for all. many incantations being Some of these I have been able to supply. a very simple system of sorcery number of magic researches has been the collection of such a poems and extremely curious as kind. have Shamanism or The result of pages and my believe. In addition to this many instances. Comparetti. orders. narrated by to convince us that the peasantry of the preserved. Pro- his admirable cautions. through Etruscan.of Florence. occult and very curious portion of interesting book preserved from remote antiquity still number of consists of a among mountain the Marcellus Burdigalensis. Cato. —the result of it all a rude animism —that lived with little being that a careful change since prehistoric times. 1849. but also aided Also to me materially by "advice. like most in the Of magic. or allied Ovid. had he known that the spirits of ancestors are still called in the Romagna. fail formulas. court physician to the Emperor Honorius peasantry. had I published them be of very great interest to " in a far more than Heine ever dreamed minor questions. a primaeval which can hardly is Thus. What I literal both as to have given students of classical lore of every illustrating the survival to the present And of. all limits. in his time were very ancient even time of Marcellus. much which to. such as were current These " " charms Roman early hundred known. or at least As given by Marcellus they are often imperfect. and on a much more extensive scale I think that it will be found to illustrate many example. the Director of the Archaeo- . Lasii.

or delayed to write to friends in often happened that I was from weeks real pioneer in folk-lore like this. to a degree once which these items were obtained were in every instance far too illiterate to com- prehend times all tales. as regards and should any urge that nihil can only reply that in this work I all this. and as regards with difficulty that a few old people. I took great . I his great forthcoming work. and must struggle with the imperfect language. is. stances permitted. in Italy. but went La Romagna. Mindful of this. must observe that the persons from lists which is supposed to be quite unusual of the names of reflection. in are few and Again. —as —who constituting secrets of their unlawful profession. logical second to none. all. I Now I have been. observances. be a minute's at is regards truthfulness or authenticity. one can only say ye have nae fortune. And it is un- fortunately true that in collecting folk-lore. legends. and who. or witches the in re- sair bairgain in ye. et diligentia perfici exhausted mine. He always a most ungrateful task. younger generation have ceased to take any interest names of certain spirits. has to of which few readers have any conception. or of only half learned them. the feeblest critic can pick out no end of errors as he will. names. money to be made thereby. the lore was originally confined to the strege. as exact as circum- quod cura est. having one recognised. as in translation. and if discredit be as the Scotch " meenister " did to his wife God knows It and I have got but a : " If is one great cause For truly there in this is not our much added thereunto. deities without — and then the accounts of superstitions. can be found Much far from being generally known." attributes of spirits are at present tween it.Introduction. or other lore been deceit in the case. should be observed that all these superstitions. which is As whom a complete account of my known on the I subject. thing. Le Diviniteela religione degliEtrusciQ' On the Deities and religion of the Etruscans"). it I " yes " to there every- at the time. Thus The to years in collecting certain items. the such matters. and intelligences of ignorant old people who have more ignorant younger ones who have half-forgotten traditions. or show how he could have bettered viewing the very best books on the subject —which day why many of the best books are never written. there But in most cases me no answer gave to consult with other witches. haud possit. and Etruscan Museum. Roman would be called on to stop I They were ignorant of everything real object in collecting. memories. name generally at an Etruscan result given. or even one who remember them. and nae grace. it is here and there. of of far be- late. has overcome difficulties many all till at —there would was the same with regard to It —they were very often would have been of course a prompt my informants classical have read not recognised Had or else they would be recalled with very material alterations. as an Etruscan antiquary would here direct attention to I 5 believe.

qualified well the family. or old at this I woman." — — Mania della Nolle the nightmare that. But he declared that he found it very difficult as regarded some of them. He was eminently successful in verifying nearly all the names which I have here given. Del' Vivo. he however not only obtained the verifications. or fogliettini. is He is known at Politeo (i. Thus and in for In I should say. as to following are speci- : Lasii are spirits of our ancestors. however. because such subjects are scongiurati. if they desirous of confirming. or prohibited by the Adhering closely to priests. intelligent col- vecckia. mens of these documents "The certificates. such as those of Tinia." He the spirit of merchants. "AUGUSTO FlERRARI. the pains names and . because only a very few old people knew the names which I was specially asked the old different places.e. as if the latter like testimonials of character of the ancient The were seeking situations or charity. "March. and are known at Santa Sofia. and Teramo. written on strips of writing-paper of different colours. there being a very wise some few cases the power to What I would say were exceptionally woman — in fact two — in orthography of the names. " 1891. that these agents the task. but induced a number of old peasants to write they had affirmed. Portico). "Tito Forconi. aided by his father and friends. looking something deities. what These. all is name of Faflon that I took all verify the truth as to the actual existence of the is Faflo. "V. firstly. " Peppino " declares in a letter that the correct that the Lasii are Ilasie. the letters of his instructions. 6 pain? to verify by every means the names and especially lector did her best to aid in by power the authenticity of what more than one referring to young contadino was intelligent my My attributes of spirits or gods. has been generally known here in Dovadola from ancient times. specially employed market days when the peasantry came down women and men from in most have given. 1891. but now it is a long time since any one at Galeata has Enrico Rossi spoken of her. numbers from the mountains. and knew this or that spirit. thieves and messengers. An He went on work. where the years. " She was remembered once by many. " Ottavio Magrini.— INTRODUCTION." " Tigna.. these people were very averse to communicating what they knew. succeeded in abundantly verifying save three or four. spirit have been related for many is known at San Benedetto. the great Teramo ' ' deeds of this is spirit of lightning." I testifies of have more of these certificates . secondly. my they varied the names. and that. suffice it to say that the youth. Faflon. "March. have a curious effect." Fafflond (Faflon) or Fardel the spirit of wine.

and that a great deal has perished or vanished from the people even since ance. because airs. it. . I simply urge that I have collected sure. came from persons who had learned it long ago. one very popular little song I have heard sung to something like poetic form. and yet are That the motive or am that than I I tradition existed in every case. had often only a dim recollection of a song or great deal of this folk-lore who. doing my can do no more. and seemed much more prosaic than are the in Italian a trace of in writing. 7 attributes of these spirits. There is Many another difficulty or contradiction to be noted. and Further sifting must be done by those better qualified seem strange will to this. and published as well as I many to it it readers I is that so have given and seem to be mere has been to me in prose. who are by no means Rusena finestra. ' Ma A it in guerda me la fazeda a la Romagnolo nor was given to means may mention to sing that there is : ' which has not either illustrate this I in the call special attention called cantare alia contadinesca (" singing country fashion ") which. and that ac- best to select from a terribly and other portions of narrative which What perhaps imperfectly. majority of the incantations. voluntarily or involuntarily. and unconsciously. or well still while others again are tolerably . I have rendered I What a special difficulty. and perishing very rapidly. What original quite devoid of both. that twenty years ago an incredibly vast and curious rites are I first began to have also to request I For it. or of what I have preserved. are in To prose in a peculiar kind of chant. repeated endowed with a great curate in such matters. consciously or incantation. have often spoken of things as living which are rapidly I my becoming obsolete because as almost forgotten superstitions informants did ut est a nobis pauloante commemoratum. sense preserved. just as it and so. they were if in familiar current use. am.'' rhyme or rhythm. after have been told that these stories collection of them could have been made. as is mixed and confused mass of material. so that is its gift for improvising. and observances are recorded known. in this work. would have been done among the contadini. or poems. I the fashion of old people so. what may for it collect strike of this all I among crave due allow- some readers A as a defect. and be impossible to find the names of the old that ten years hence will it probably more than a mere fragment deities. sounded melodiously. many I could. which are in reality familiar to the multitude. as well as of the other subjects of folk-lore given in this work. of the incantations measure or rhyme.— — INTRODUCTION.

while they certainly secure for themselves the gold smelted and certified for them to manufacture or coin. however. arabesque of motion when written rhyme and measure have thought that by giving these songs such form of But that flying flower. half-changed. through I it — it has is lost its in a living One flowers. stage of decay. and When perfectly. natural enough that those it is the next generation comes perhaps antiquaries would be thankful Of which defects as this of mine. great deal. every reader will understand that have given I it with very will not. regards the very bad quality of the Italian. as for instance the Slavonian. and it is " many study folk-lore. many effect that at . 8 am I to it that many readers not less true that in popular incantations is But a special explanation. put a pin through it. even for may it and published collected is and as a fault. —curves within curves. but my readers will I this understand my not a butterfly moving wings. have come somewhat nearer could also have given in every instance the Many. folk-lore in this uncertain. little I correction. do not by saying I or worse. as sung with a living butterfly." And as to the spirit of the originals. be understood as going to the very extreme limits of humility and apology as regards these poems. and preserved men There I down —with a pen to a degree restore this. who see acquired and then they were as if be observed that those we For who have form should give will it such books.INTRODUCTION. as flight among summer melody and expression. for pointing out to the fact that this would strike full of insist that be absolutely and unquestionably faultless as regards every detail. A great many are in themselves . of Florence. Italian. that they really have a perfect speci- it in this spirit that For to such a all. it is the first now owe also I many I have therefore devoted to his extensive knowledge the remark countries. perhaps most. have what I I think a good reason for giving translations of so is incantations and songs in measure and rhyme. but life. the living grace of sunlight many a remark by Heine to the with some chemical. shifting all me indebted to Senator Comparetti. its is there belongs the it. but very few Romagnolo or Bolognese. Romagnolo-Bolognese. as did ancient Greeks the more skilful metallurgists this offer may an apology for by exacting too much we may lose a who threw away as refuse from the mines of Laurium a vast amount of precious metal which modern science has turned to great But profit. and —" from lines of shade to of these contadina songs. but a hint that carelessness. is people think that when they have caught a butterfly. exclude from all commerce ore or alloyed metal from which all extract even greater values. which be altogether shall this again im- it lost. passing rapidly from poetry into mere prose." as the Chinese call exquisite fluttering in sunshine. As limits positively forbid.

priate spirit —as and imbued with a Pah and Faflon in those to 9 and often delicately appro- classic —and the women from whom they were derived could absolutely have no more invented them than they could have invented the flying-machine of the future or settled " the great national Italian problem This " of flaying peasants without hurting them. how could cases. that among the Tuscan peasantry ten times as much heathenism repeated this remark to a reply was : religion "). What will strike many —though the present day readers as strange is it now is that there should have existed to rapidly disappearing — Roman a in Catholic That country. such a survival under such a stratum an incident. have invented into them. but a complete A few years ago Count ANGELO system. which " It my rule. as being the most remarkable piice de manufacture ever presented to the public. there is ten " I employed magic another time when I all as Catholicism. the rule an old existed to a most extraordinary degree. in conversation. the interest and value thereby augmented a hundredfold. in other rites of the very evident that the oldest religions everywhere are founded on such a faith. but they use At woman whom there saints I and her (" the old on great the time for everything. the Of all ? them came ever so they have woven and appropriate of which I can truly say. . priests and the de was actually times more faith in la vecchia religione " For the peasants have recourse to the occasions. me. from earliest Tuscan times. or most enlightened something really not a like has it. or worship of spirits and eked out with coarse sorcery. under all Roman to find that in Tuscany. as is characteristics. original.: INTRODUCTION. is distinct religion religious oppression. as in England or France. from indirectly hardly understand illiterate as to —much more." But was much more astonished I portion of Italy. so what they repeated. and which came to soon light as This religion consisted of placing small rocks after the monuments. how line or letter of could women. there among always existed Gypsy Sorcery — the people a rude Shamanism. Gubernatis informed Mr. Buddhistic and Mahometan stones. For pagan it is faith. is not without parallel. that allusions." expressed my astonishment that a certain had grown up in the country was utterly ignorant of the 3 name girl of a single who spirit. and other ' Druidic ' by itself. my informants of my book is if these incantations. or eating a cake and having simply is true. and And most primitive kind. mere chance sur- vival of superstitions here and there. the question is and as not a simply. which formed a as British government removed fashion of Stonehenge it is thus described in have shown by I has been discovered of late years in India. Gladstone. done most in and colour really manufactured it all most classical it. as this work will abundantly prove. strikingly beautiful. that during thousands of years of Brahminic. an ancient heathen religion of sorcery. " Certainly. to collect folk-lore.

and reserved Romanys is not unknown to me.e. accompaniment of every charm and legend in this book. to the "fairy-tale" Grimm's Tales —they enter into invoked in good But there observed in is. and other familiar vafolletti. exclaiming " And how know anything it " —here should such a stupid Si . wear a medal to prove saint's medal — " but I "). and but these in saints. prophetic I to could and made strange acquaintance. in believe in none of " : rites Some origin. I answered. was stocked in curious relics. real religion. who : many good who was tales. fool. and then recall excited. she became scornful. entertainment is i. and —when fortune-telling was on the cards. even Italians. and saints. which are not Catholic. which. diluted old Much afraid of the priests I believe." There are many people. faded gods and forgotten goblins of the olden time.e. " I too was among the shadows. initiated in these secrets. but the extracting witchcraft from Italian strege far surpasses it. yes — and myself I call ? she. where folk-lore of every kind such excess that. To do publish. and whose memory and exceptional degree with not only magical Such familiarity with folk-lore —the end being that I and sorcery as I succeeded in penetrating this obscure and strange forest inhabited by witches and shadows. and hold meetings was belief culture or worship of many a kind of college of witches and wizards." la vecchia religione" (" the old faith Magic was her is a Catholic — oh. chance to become acquainted in Florence with the to an extraordinary formulas but songs and — as and teach them to one another. possess. io and could nothing relating to witchcraft. magic of this mixed up with Catholic is were very often of heathen their turn I bosom a Etrusco-Roman sorcery which that strange. appear as absolutely sorcerers or goblins. and Elisha. as this book shows. that reasons. The has not sunk as yet popular belief as a part of the religion. for eludes observation. charms and there is spells. but mostly women. who pulled from her excitement. You know what it all. fetishes collect beings only mentioned for of level spirits. have remarked.. that if this I went I in time had more thereof than to strange places and really as the dramatic weird— i. actually in Tuscany a of strange stones and It fortune-teller referred to. who will say. so the reader will kindly imagine something often wild abounded much out of common life. as I is. " It is very remarkable but do it justice. saints such as Antony. and are addressed with ancient heathen ceremonies in cellars with magical incantations. all this cult.— INTR 0D UCTION. a generic term for goblins.. withal. resulted in confidence . by which faith I meant is set forth in this book. Simeon. a great deal of mystery and secrecy It has my professors its men. . he will To collect volumes of folk-lore among very reticent Red Indians. and are There faith.

their old faith is quite in accordance with their said of Karl OTTFRIED MULLER great use to me — " while the them they were " a race in the art of cultivating remarks in tlie their religious feelings with bold- Tuscan divination was con- practical interest. so late century. like in Druids. but the Etruscan augures were fifth The Etruscan books — (Cic. MULLER. system existing still Claudius." says In later times the Chaldaean sorcerers took the upper hand in as the is in and Italy schools. MS. testify that all shared by the common people. Die Etrusker Greeks expressed manner with every domestic Among which excelled them" the Tusker (Tuscans) blended them in the most intimate . sequently the most characteristic remained of late ruled by the strong fears everybody. VIRGIL.. like absolutely ancient. or nation Englishmen and Frenchmen are the mixtures of peoples. silent was I and unseen. a.d. use I from collection . trait of the the wars and convulsions of same race. In Cicero's 33). they protected Narnia time religious " This." all all But as I. since they were consulted at the birth of 408. are who families in Italy observances were drawn from and based on Etruscan authority. if not prehistoric." there and is Gallic still Rome with their astrology. and it — religion which till The extraordinary tenacity and earnestness with which the peasant Tuscans have clung to these fragments of LlVY ancient character. (v. i. the de Div. in which the last relic of these find their ClCERO. those of the Jewish prophets And thoroughly taught. as to the sorcerers. a large In of magic were were many of them. and and the Hauptpunkt. common among the Romans. What did any of us know about even our own black servants in their homes ? And the class which corresponds to the Voodoo acts in Tuscany. it was the by invoking lightning against the Goths (MULLER). many Tuscany have Italy the peasants of result of Hawthorne's Marble There are monuments on family names in Etrurian LlVY. Tacitus. their divination There were modern Faun. . there was promised me have. conjured among the coloured people of that city. And their estates. who. but the Italians. I have been assured that there existence a manuscript collection of charms and spells such as are in fact among authorities.n INTRODUCTION." Just the same might have that — been said of almost every respectable white native of Philadelphia when Voodoo there a few years ago. as a gift. devotion to religious and rites ness in varied forms . 6). however. "was in — a work which has been of beginning of their intellectual action and education. And this spirit still survives. we never heard of any association of witches nor met with any of all this mythology or lore we who know the people so well. more. in opposition unlike the and worked in darkness —to a powerful national American hand." Tuscan " witches. but I have not succeeded of this kind which was written for now in obtaining me in it.

mystic force which takes varied up into light had clearly. some formula of the developed themselves in the most varied phases and kinds. till in Italy. Preller. and when belief in a " Owing air. and different metallic ores are really holy. and fairy. oracles. or stalagmite. in his is perhaps a as follows on belief in a fate in every form conceivable. the reason being very curious. and said. of the sorcerer passes over them. as never had a but especially in life. and coals of the ancient fire. the salagrana. especially in divine omens. this : varieties of divination. was always very "Dii avertite omen Romans ! " it resulted in Rome in —that almost everything which the heart of was from Etrurian Tuscany that those which remain from Roman I all which such a mass of marvels was heard of in such a high stage of civilisation. warnings. collection of plant-lore of late years by many writers. It is true that all I only the last sparks. and gives power. by comparison with times. and classic lore illustrated drawn from reading. such as Fortuna. or dead ashes. which And it which. all bear unmistakable marks of antiquity. Should the reader be astonished this my a long time in understanding this properly chthonic did master geomantic to the inability of took these it all is if salt upset they was Etruria. I was struck by work. showing how the belief that many herbs and flowers have an indwelling are in fact fairies themselves. from which to say. from being when broken they meet down into the earth draw from it magic forms according to their nature when brought subterranean. For there are in the earth are full of them because the foot deep mysteries the earth-worm and mole . a divination man spells. its Romagna there at the this subject " The is. survives. difficulty for I force " it. 12 and memory. and which have very curious connections with There are also a few records of certain superstitions. forebodings superstitions running into every possible shape. '' But the great source of derived the laws of their religion spell for and active in Italy. with a degree of personification still has long since disappeared in most other European countries. the goddess of destiny. speaks For every one of these fancies there was an incantation the in of late years. but have it is is worth something. have freely I have added to it my collection with instances certain tales. — Paracelsian would remind him that among the peasantry I the Tuscan informant to express herself which Chinese recognise as Fengshui. and yet sparkling with hidden occult light the sun and plants which send their roots deep . which I have used in writing this book. There the is same superstition as regards minerals.— INTRODUCTION. I theory. which There has been am but I not aware that any one has observed this faith in the plant itself as a creature with a soul. . : could conceive. and character number of incantations which occur kind uttered for almost every conceivable event in proof of their antiquity. much plants. And this Roman Mythology. or stories. or has been.

I would also observe that though away passing I stitions as While was writing the foregoing. there which had occurred by a certain The into a church. in the original Indian tongue. who had lived had succeeded the Indians towards white I men many in getting During an intelligent artful wiles or chance remarks and that all I him something know had long since perished. which do not suffer in the least When I by his subsequent collection. be " the least superstitious city in Italy. might to have been superior to vulgar prejudice. there is hardly one . published a work on the Algonkin Legends of New Within a few months a contributor to the English Folk-Lore Journal made a remark to the effect that he had always doubted the authenticity of these Legends. while Florence is much abuse in the Secolo Milan. Passamaquoddy tribes. a Passamaquoddy. His contribution consists in a measure of comments on my stories. who told fortunes by she sang the same song. and or Toma- me a vast kinds. of April 3 and bered. —sometimes by the Penobscot or only one story. Leland is throughout inaccurate when reporting what Indians had told him. A year after I succeeded better with Tomah number of remarkable told me that my who not only related to and collected for legends. summer endeavoured constantly —to draw from a legend. began to that a Catholic missionary. This last writer had gone to the same tribe. so reticent were regarding their myths. on the second Milan one of the most serious outbursts of a for years. or Saint and wrote well both French and English. all that I all cards. entire Abenaki. have spoken of these sorceries and super- rapidly. and away day of March. to say. but he constantly declared that he did not relating to old beliefs. Francis. of Florence as regards such matters. and taken down with a phonograph. woman. and folk-lore items of two Abenaki friends were noted of such learning. As for the like one. one of the same tribe. the same tales. that I was going on 1891.INTRODUCTION. myths. Indian. though probably to other Indians. who. they are very far in is from having disappeared. 13 much remem- it in advance as light to darkness com- pared to the Romagna. has Some : years ago I publisher's hands something earlier place in this Preface. It mob being believed that a child had been bewitched the populace in wrath pursued the sorceress with details of this outrage. which occupy a column 1891. as he spoke among years was very intimate and confidential with a very be supposed knew of them was collect those Indian legends. Since the manuscript of this work was put in my has occurred which should properly have found an It is this England. There was also a woman. but who repositories or living chronicles authenticity of the legends. will be given in the following pages. or anything jolly old Indian quah. is " far 4. while another has said in The American Folk-Lore Journal that Mr.

when a about the thing. worse than of improvisation. and question many. cleared. in its way S. or wizard oh. After let out a had made a beginning. and also that the telling thereof was productive of and tobacco and pounds of dollars and the path having been tea. did somewhat abate their ancient reticence. or to some old people or witches afraid of the priests. 14 which has not Mac of Mic close parallel. in it grumbled —among others at the road." much was she might have added that or. finding that one or another had I cat. for instance. in gathering and conjurations not perfectly authentic that do not believe that any other signore people.— INTRODUCTION. has of his eyes and clear least. or among the cognate Chippeway enough to do first makes to keep the twigs out brush. and to detect inaccuracies It in the first reported. collected particulars at away the the who for accuracy. folio Rand. would here declare I Italians who I declared that all had . " Very relics. you this. expected to publish I it and who are very timid. as regards what I have told you. that — among old people. several followers the gentleman with the phonograph. all there was aught in disgrazia. I told I these accounts of it had to encounter which she with some excitement replied Signore. But the difficulties which I had in collecting Red Indian legends were but an inch of pin-wire compared to a crowbar with what these Italian and that if To I recently. my write. every that I received everything in this minds sorceress retains only the idea or general features of an incantation. but proceeds to utter it is " only half-recollected or lively Italian said in reputable fraction of which was honestly named. the people are very superstitious and fearful as to that I And you must remember that. fatal gift could answer many of your questions. As records of Schoolcraft and Kohl. the pioneer into such a jungle. how well For all chief authority that I I in a book. should incur un gran' : has been for you to gather difficult it in Italy the strange things of antiquity which you seek all among the are mostly known who are mortally could collect only in a very few families. and have been often seeking for weeks and months before I To which jumbled up. restored by as. who. without thinking of leaving a macadamised road for his followers. as know very spirits. tales. in MS. every one of which book from gifted with the boldly. believing that mind what has been work on Algonkin Legends. or cane-brake. all. and conceal everything from their And then there is the much greater number of those who really believe when a learned man asks them for such things that he himself is a stregone. the Indians. legends. is walked usual. or told a legend." journals of my And bearing in it given from good authorities. as was easy enough to collect stories then. I have had to go about betters. his some by Rev.

or — it how hard inferred utterly disclaim all I hands clear of the whole concern. verified with great trouble. and the other one and thinking it was the this time. them and one of themselves. that earnest. and slept again.awakened the one sleeping. these There are records of several great works written their authors The manner friends me more tangible form. and " accursed by the priests. searched woman was " Sicurc — all dead. believing nothing.— INTRODUCTION. There has always been a dread sense of the existence of a Prefect and the police hovering like a dark shadow over pursuing my among my Etruscan researches powers that be occasionally assumed a far vile by is ' which recorded in is Feliciter evasit truly quence of fine. And a nice time they will have of walked. grasped it and cast it little going to the bed she found that the old " Did she die I had asked her to keep. the night she died there was another old woman After a while she was awakened by Something on her chest. in conse- all is her . dog. limiting error. had but which she would not return. dog. if forbidden knowledge. and that who had been doing three years for a murder. " in the heat of passion. believe that the I exist. or names of the old Etruscan gods. saving and except and more learned or better errors. as described to me by my book "She was another. and she died in extreme sin because she would hear nothing of priest or prayer . And little it fell all my biancheria (underclothing). —and to Folk-Lore. 15 errors excepted propose I it and seekers. asleep." left prison. in the paths which is have I trod. unfortunately. and would be As for a superior to obtain it this. I her son. others. I if they walk the ways which have just heard that one old book has died woman who a den of infamy. still thinking nothing." And a witch ? " from her. which lost it utterly. and not accuse civil all is it honest. a contadino. myself believe I and may be it was aught else for the incantations. because elicited this information bearing in mind the criticisms which much he. was the old woman's . have received I —unconscious In the main true. by other as a guide to be followed qualified scholars only begging -them to do so in —that correct me its directly or indirectly of recklessness or untruthfulness or carelessness. still was possible hold myself responsible for nothing whatever. and but found which had . life I a very wicked old woman. or lies. the room And certainly." it often not very accurately recorded what was told I because " Peppino had to complain that he —which was as regards possible imposture. only escaping my diary as " Expenses in collecting escape the recovery of three lost Etruscan this having been while to them. soul again." it And it came closely for was her it. my and wash responsibility. me as I have given trouble. cited before the former. —that with " actually. or mistakes. them. and what was more. from the memories of old people." gods a due ! . and so I watching by her. and even the best and most respectable among them was once durance have I in several times cited as authority in this on the day of her decease it prison in — this portion of of her death was characteristic. I everything to this simple fact by it But I verified this as well as I could. who may language. been derived from the case — and that where tradition.

I man I will assert I who was a beggar As nothing. but I queries from one with the —what it . as chief of the English gypsies —or at Gypsy-Lore Society. albeit sense of justice Therefore from no marked sense of modest merit. went about with two little of the tale told incline to believe that she really England had sworn to obtained knew one hung before and the other behind him. and who. I And he being asked carry in front. they were sure. and prepare fortunes tell relating to them. all in for the So is I one whom rest. Some- authorities. if all I names of the they are authentic. or by collecting penny broadsides. as for the in front. for small faults or defects. et cetera . of Rabelais.. That there are a few decent Italians who know something of this witch-lore by the shoemaker to whom I owe the legends of Ra and proved. spells far from being desirous of fame. but do not affirm nothing. am not but as for the one declare that." have given while as for it. as regards critics." and sorceries. Etruscan gods which I gathered as I truly maids. " behind. of the manner in which book. am I girls in panniers. the bishops in and those from may have whom been those of priests. 16 was due to the author's keeping believe the only literary labour described which out of the penitentiary. albeit they If all . I I what you inquire . it would you more? declare distinctly that. I believe the all by Panurge in the Chronicles Paris. no matter how valuable they may just as a friend of mine treated observation in the works of has carried the Solar Myth De all tendency in critics to utterly be. have may be due thing of this made no — — I may be meted my great parade of out unto them. the vast mass of learning and ingenious Gubernatis as worthless trash. INTRODUCTION. replied. For there has sprung up of late years a decided condemn books." rather shrink from celebrity. — may be but so far as I so. which and is more far — must be candidly admitted it — much a is cleverer difficult feat. or "greedy for glory as authority. are chiefly in the all hands of and charms. To all such I can only say that they need . the spell was wrought by other hands than mine manner of Folk-Lore cometh not from going among a poor but virtuous peasantry. it know. of her swear to bring you not the metal. but rather from a vivid —that in this I. to meet authenticity. because the Count too far. who " witches. to the fact that. or walking in the paths of grace according to the handbooks of criticism. is. but rude ore I This worthy. for instance. somebody would have denied it were not even bishops' daughters. But the Bovo. this Now. which amounts to the same least as President of the English thing it have a natural proclivity for ways that are dark and low society.

no falsehood. Ah well. read no further in this work of mine. all confirmed by a thunder-cloud of witnesses. and let them cry There never yet was it an they will petty spy did ! castle built so fair. which and corrected under circumstances where had. " work with very his knowing very well that a crafty Italian honest Injun. to I feel lurid fog of a sorcerers' sdbbat. may well from have be accused in high places before the world when the author has done be understood that as not in the same boat with an critic I text more properly. the hoots of owls —yea." naturally take precautions against all possible imperfections. of folly and honesty." so the captious in the the rocking of the earth itself abundantly witnesseth. So strong." the tittering cheeping of bats on cries. in a bewildering. and in these collected. nor to suit their ideas. seeing how often is is and whose absolute two leading Folk-Lore journals of England and America of sinning kind I " by admitting be others of these noble souls to I. nor by their is simply the setting down of a quantity of strange lore as given by certain old women. perhaps. it as — it is or. what may not be alleged or was compiled." be. in a few very trivial details. that of a nightmzxe of the most evasive light thing to apprehension of the igneous element. strangely scented misled ever and anon by goblins' mocking the wing. s'accuse. or deeply founded. can be openly accused in the respects. ever apprehending that found a mare's-nest ? Now. "Qui s'exaise. living or dead (among which latter class divers deceased antiquaries) The moral of very accurate in truth is which all is —and further than that if this the deponent sayeth not a work like the Algonkin Legends. as ever. cry. thief To which there will Certainly there will . so to speak. my way " witch-awra. said of this. It is it 17 not written for them.INTRODUCTION. —as the I in it go blindly feeling my way the corner of one ruined conjecture to another. for standard. which save. but some Or careful the combusted infant manifests worm his way therein.

I.CHAPTER TlNIA. .

you in to think that I have been over-keen to find antiquity and in these literary girl selling in blessed ignorance as to their classical find in her mind. and beneath A medal of 1544. profit.— TINIA. just Roman one as may who find a lamps. like the —more's the even as an English curate "restores" a have only a —one Catholic-Heathen Renaissance same elements of a jester the remarkable resemblance of it are sadly battered it. and worn. very good bronze of Julius Caesar man but the great 3. Of —and as the price was accepted with had had bought I i —the reverse utterly hammered flat. and Dantes. other lore which I in which have got together Roman old me was struck and the manner find. both bearing legends. down from were interesting and curious. good preservation in —the wicked eye and bull neck to perfection. some. which has again pity! Dionuso so-called here. Aretinus flagellum Ptincipum. have in these pages. For here in old Decretals. but no native Italian scholar . often read but never seen. and a paper of old bronze medals. all women who were from poor peasant origin. representing a Cardinal who. apparently three Lares. to the legends and come These. which honour with the 2. like the Julius. reversed. perfect. you that the bronze of my For if you Julius Caesar will reflect a medal may have . —and. paying for them realised several hundred per smiles. in hard white bronze of Lusoti Basileos. with the word Apol. : A the brazen Pietro Aretino had struck in his own Divus P. with the motto. and medals from deeply rusted and battered remains indeed. Dionysius-Faflon. That all . the was obtained. with cap and bells. and Imperial grandeur. vulgarity. 9 The bronze medal. 4. 5. inscription. lituus. himself fine and bold. there are the society in the one as in the other. two or three pence each knew as I pleased that the blue-eyed dealer examination i. slight a Leo is I. the medley like the medals. Christian and Heathen Lares turned to goblins. is do not propose to Nero. A Greek medal strange old reverse. will occur to Italy. save that there there will be classic many remains was something of sorcery knows the people would say peasant may corresponding to them minute it fragments it all. witch-money. of which I had and would have given twopence any day to behold. found that I these I took twelve. say this because I this. too. some are in short. to restore others. Et Stulti aliquando sapite. catalogue whole do will times . things far older. but What them. have been covered with a rich olive patina. and a wheelbarrow. ^n^-rust . . gold-like bronze. some I —been Gothic church of the away scaled . "Witch-money" Graces. Nero Claudius A Caesar. I On cent. And they were picked up.

and I also admit that with few books at my command. so it like a Colossus. it may be True it is . befall that these The T1NIA. ruder a rough legends touch the that there are rude things also of later date. APLU. 20 come from melting some ere ever medal or object which was primaevally other coin or he who bestrode the world.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. often occur and are intermingled in this collection. the older night of time. and discovery very I far. and such T£RAM6. bronze. . I have not been able to push the process of analysis But there have conjectured wrongly. old. may was born. I will will be no lack of others to correct now proceed to one of my first me where discoveries.

and calls " ' Folletto Tinia. as in a god but : least since the times of the — Lightning was. ma whom one has " but an cattivo. Lo ho fatto soltanto In atto di collera. was honoured in Let us begin with Jupiter gods their so. Tinia ti Che Si ti Non mi raccomando tu mi voglia perdonare. Se tu mi farei Tornare una buona raccolta. the Etruscans. " . comes he appears in the lightning. but the more recondite terms preserved among the strege. or goblin) hail. then when a temporale. Tinia. and bruccia tutta la raccolta." called. 21 HEINE has shown in his Gods in Exile. then bethinking as one waits a " ? St. how the old classic deities came down in the world after being dethroned. she the spirit of the thunder and lightning and powerful). Tinia. with art. after a pause. who who was compared to was known the in Tuskish as Roman Tina or the central point of the whole world of deities. Tinia is moment a great folletto It is much harm. ever in his hands Do you know the name of Tinia?" I asked of my witch authority. for a child " (a spirit. who knows not only the popular names of the current Tuscan mythology. Juno and Minerva in the temple of the citadel. e grande. Folletto Tigna Sempre ti ! benedico Spirit Tinia. he is the god who speaks in it and descends in it to earth. Yes. TINIA. spoils all the crop. ho maladetto.— — — . " ! ' Tinia ! commend me Unto thee I That thou wilt pardon me. "adored and who was often called leading deity. " Tignia or Tinia «vil one. "The Jupiter. memory awaiting the expected herself. or sorceresses. Rome —at every Tuscan city." writes Ottfried Muller.. lo ho fatto Per cattiva intenzione. Tina was therefore the highest of Tinia. resumed He is : very great " Should any peasant ever curse him.e. Had he been aware of the humble condition to which they have been reduced in Tuscany he could have added much curious confirmation of his view. ! . And He does (i. or great storm. "Should the peasant understand why fields field he knows it was or vineyard. . ' midnight to the middle of the at : A (" happened and who ruined the this Then he goes Tinia." in the Tuscan He Etruscan kings.

that away . It is. and many ' Saint Barbara. commend myself believe on the whole. is is still Jove When the modern Tinea with the ancient name occurs only once as Tina. will ever bless thee I This. establishes the identity of the of thunder. still me away the shafts from from thunder in the Saint Eustace and Romagna. It is true that it or ancient gods. another invocation to the thunder and lightning. Strangely allied to Tinia is of faithful still they are only known to a who keeps ' ! "one good that invocations. very interesting to learn that an invoca- It is exists as a real thing. after a humble worshipped. he ") ' think. ill only it In act of anger : thou wilt give If me a good harvest. the if the other spirits. 22 have cursed thee If I did not do I With did I it will. they of the most important of these you to relied on. " Muller According to tion to the Etruscan fashion. or the knowledge as a secret. is departing very know the chief names and exist. the blest. the most to be rapidly. which superior magic qualities.— ——— ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. god I is There often found on mirrors." in La : you see thunder and lightning you should say : " Santa Barbara. and that now only a few of the ! skies. Ten years hence some still names of the gods will few among have utterly passed the oldest peasants. I pray. but connected with this deity. San Simone e San Eustachio. Spirit Tinia. likewise distinct religions. ' Liberateci dalla saetta. . as it to a strega. E dal gran tuono Santa Barbara e San Simone. after slender fashion. still and that. His form ! It is as follows it is not fails. Keep For there are two " ! is the herb or plant of the popularly regarded with great respect from its same name. yet. is. Sempre Or io English freely rendered in ' ' mi raccomando And : Simon I —Barbara Simon too is. benedetta.

Del has been long in Dovadola. may (as is let By means English as follows in : depart in peace. because when one {Tinia) this herb should be put in a " When Tigna begins to vex a family morning the sign of the and say cross " ' bag and always worn. That witness Son. was great folletto of lightning. as the reader Vivo as " The conoscie tutt'ora. And no longer have power To do me harm " ! "And never forget to bless yourself with this herb. . and little (red) terrible. may recall from the Preface. in fact. of this herb. which was either imperfectly remembered. Quello spirito maligno. E forza di farmi del Piu non avrai ! male " ' This incantation." who His existence are rapidly passing. Until by means of this herb Thou shalt no longer enter my house. and the Tinia is on the whole far more was altogether a deity who was. and in a for somewhat broken form many years). is it in Rocca Casciano for : Then with is afflicted specially this plant by the spirit Tigna on children's necks. certainly the case with others which had not been recalled be rendered " Father. is well confirmed. Spirito in carna ed ossa. is (bears) Tigna ! depart in peace let That malignant Spirit. Figlio in pace sene vada." Tigna. was obtained it received the following I it specimen of 23 " The plant Tigna should be held of great account. Quella testa in Tigna. In pace te ne possa. in flesh spirit I and bones In peace thou shalt not go. is one of the deities still who known. unlike Jupiter. That he — is manifest. Te ne possa andare Amenne per mezzo di questa erba In casa mia piu tu non possa entrare. we should make every : Padre in pace se ne vada Per mezzo di questa erba. and with A itself. one of horror and Etruscans of the Nearly all the deities of the Etruscans were as compared to the Grsecodread.— — . but he is still and who are now known to very feared than loved e si few. testified to by V. a spirit me. — TINIA.

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. . and a number of them wielded thunder and dealt largely in storms and TERAM6 hail. 24 Roman —of a horrible or malevolent nature. reader will find to be the case with the spirits which exist in popular belief at the present day in La Toscana Romagna. (turus. All of which in due proportion the mercury).

and he had paid he got the goods. 1 ' 5 cattle. be observed that the name of Tinia. this and and you I will {se non always there. peep of day lyre at noon. who in richest in all the Golpe in the Novelle Popolare Toscane of the Marquis of Carabas in the Italian Puss and Boots del Tigna. but do show you myself what to do . say a to Te'ramo. and cause their arrest. 1 Teramo was always pretty wife or daughter he so delude her that the affair ended by two would go in a bed. get to work. Fallen from his high estate. its un milionario question down is Pitr<§. Forli. like the Sor di Tigna. And busy. or one come world " Fallen. always concerned with " The babe was born at the first He began playing on the And the same evening he Apollo's herds. is city have his aid one must be one of his kind (bastara pero & farsi prendere da lui o sinpatia). and do not be e cost is help I will will not you—presto all' be discovered. shall to the house disguised as a very is no violence of that kind be meant. woman but especially from an old cellar by night . T&RAMO. also a spirito messagiero. meet in ' Giovanelti Do afraid. or hidden Marquis. unless they intend murder are in such great need. fallen. true : news thief. is exploited for the benefit of the poor hero. called " II Sor Pasquale a deus ex machina. in peace spilling be found out.— — . but —and so you will enjoy nothing. Or says. to another or from one who carries notices or news from one But one part of the world to another very quickly. The following account of this reasons very interesting " Teram6 is a But ragionano di spargere sangtte). or higher power. is for several always present to aid. did steal away such as are his friends. or dealers. to " When and pray any one. such as a statesman or 1 authorities. wishes to send and say Teram6. a band of ladri. and the man be under no necessity of paying money. fallen. is Tuscan In both the English and Italian stories the mysterious and unseen. 25 in the tale of La equivalent. thief or lover. fallen. opera e io not forget to help the poor if " But if they intend " With merchants. he Then he —work who you forget charity then you if When and merchants. or to a friend. and sell. Teram6. he must go into a — to his first impulses. - a merchant agreed to deliver goods to a customer at a certain time. or Hermes. or It is to legends as that of a great and wealthy lord Thus country. if one had sometimes he played roguish cattle or tricks. or robbers." found is —the when we in the we have conjecture that do not think I him a god in forcing the it is in exile. as anything of the kind to when one had a very handsome young man. Te'ramo if would make the goods disappear. not see him but only a shadow. ' ' TMramo is Or if to whom they were promised would find them in his house. a spirit of messengers. to arrange a theft. and broke his appointment. though they do —boys. Te'ramo sono in vostro aiuto from living not very far : spirit favourable to thieves some secluded place which was obtained from several spirit.' non godrete niente blood he will probably put their victims on guard.

one among those who are rapidly becoming unknown or forgotten. Teramo Che tu E credo fra questi esserci Io pure e non mi vorrai abbandonare Questa notizia nella Di farmi " E cosi si presentera un columbo. Teramo. who although those thieves. merchants. end its ! wing. save by a few 1 " Teramo. very much changed. PRELLER {Rom. lontan lontano Che lo spirito di Ti accompagnia Teramo !' " ! si dice : . or neck. since then. Preface. and says Go fly afar for me And Teram6 keep you company : ! forget the spirit Te'ramd ! ! ' " (Sempre pero rammentarsi dello stirito di TiramS). as many however. arrivare. which Italianised to the name the fact that what of I Teram6 was of importance. others have testified to " have been related for He knowing him. a Vai vola.) " the Greek Hermes was called Turms. would naturally pass to Turamo. have given is spirit of years. Myth. message which this Quickly and safely reach its " Then the one praying takes a pigeon. is." Turms or Turmus would be Romagnolo. It is a strange reflection that there are religious sentiments for the son of Jupiter As Turmo. with The its That is to say. told the tale formed from the Greek name. "the guardian deity of the mercatores who was the swift-footed messenger knew nothing of such a name as Mercurio. special pains As the authentic. let me twist it as I would. 26 " ' Teram6. Te'ramo. people who cherish were taken to verify reader will have seen by the San Benedetto the deeds of Teram6. lui al un collo foglio scritto. p." And. " si ' ! ai le sinpatie lega a tal citta. Tito Forconi testified that at guardian still and Maia. thieves and messengers. it friend I pray to you. as That you are And may my is true.— ' ' — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. reader must not neglect to observe the pious adjuration at the end of the communication." writes the old Etruscan name for Mercury. which is and collegii of the gods mercatorum" as well as of . 597. the harshly accented in prolonged R. exhortation means that one should never forget to make the proper invocation or address to him at proper times. But it may be that we have here in Te>am6 " In Etruria. and fastens his note to " " But one should never This last ' I send. We have here evidently enough Mercury. just as Turan came from Urania.

— — — BUSCHET. . It is And upon. I connection with Teramd —once Teramus whom Lucan was an old Scythian god." said will person of who was was by a remarkable chance that all others who had an because in a few years' time says and had been taught the old names of in vain for the best part of perhaps worth mentioning in what But spirits for this " find " I and might have here given. the name of this god Thurms. herself a fortune-teller. camorrists. in 'Florence. and kept connection Buschet was always a companion with Teramo in all there little it For she had had a secretly Then he thought he would lover. (1. Selden an inscription connecting Tharamis deabus matribus. naturally obnoxious to the " love no rivals in granting pardons to thieves. : "Et Tharamis He gives Scythicae non mitior am Diana. is called He was plate 182). Turms is Aitas. generally Turms or Mercury (Gerhard. &c. fraudum suarum ? " famem quid ad Fur ac memoriam sui reliquit.. it it have sought you care have been forgotten by everybody. there On sincerely I innate love of sorcery. Spiegel. she had And his dealings. This narrative was given as a conclusion to that of Teramo with which. that there such things. BUSCHET. but Mercury. ad ^En.. the one I hit innumerable incantations by a witch foster-mother. in one case he Etrus." says Lactantius. upon and put her. sing a song which would alarm her so great was the love which she had for the dead man. a chest. worshipped by the Britons. says Dennis. not with Jove. under her bed." believe that ten years hence not a tenth part of And " is really Etruscan mirrors. ii. Faflon. which would identify him. pretty was mischief. nebulo Mercurius. of Pharsal. 1 ' appears to have been a Celtic god. Tliaramis. . and Teramo. nisi " worth remarking that It is I 27 had most trouble to I collect evidence of the existence of the few special names such as Tignia. for will survive. but she was not to be frightened at anything. it in Buschet could not enter a house in which there was a corpse. god. of the most importance. his body turned to stone. but Buschet could not prevail and when he died. you came when you that most of these names an informant. old people. suppose. "The it spirit daughters then " Now has very went well (with him). however. and old songs.) 1. however. and any possible connection with Teiamo. all If a man had beautiful daughter. if : there were none there was a merchant who had a very nor enter the house. did. or the infernal associated But of this Celtic no proof whatever. which " It is well. ii. gods (Serv. with the maternal deities. by Tarquin with the three great 296). since were. strange tales. as Peppino declared priests who —being.

as was her wont. ti mi sembri. and if there. Altrimenti te ne vorrai pentire. . deadly danger nor was she at this. ! — :. Otherwise I ween my ditty that you'll repent it 2 ! Well thou knowest that thy daughter For a year has kept her chamber Thou didst think she was Or perhaps a real angel. over the of her father window a small. that. " Rosa. ah. " ! alia tua finestra. poor girl warn thee now. with patience. And did'st so saint-like. 'Tis not a fitting Knew it was tomb. good merchant. so beware. una piccola Stornello vengo a cantare Spero che mi vorrei ascoltare. slomello. 28 " And he began to sing : " Oh. Thou art in Now thou art warned " But she paid no heed to body of her lover. ' — . ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. . o bella Rosa cosi Perche Un siei vero tanto bella fior di rosa. And fain And yet for so I call thee. ! the window 'neath thy went to pray. Know that she betrays you—truly I am grieved that I must tell you All her And 1 life is given to evil. I will sing And I Now will listen to hope that you. but all Then Buschet went and sang under "'Oh. i Iabbri miei. 1 seems to it ! art so fair that me an evil thing That thou hast a dead lover 'neath thy bed. she covers you with great dishonour. and I thee what to do tell Take that dead lover from beneath thy bed Take him away. would press thee I would to my lips. oh. The devil else will come. thou dost seem and since thou'rt fair. frightened.' : . .— ! . lovely rose Because thou To be a rose indeed Oh. buon' mercanta. then thy father what would he say Tell me. rose. kiss thee sweet. always speak so well of her But instead of good merchant. e quanto siei Bella vorrei posarti sopra E ' ti vorrei bacciar " Sotto ' O chiamo. beauty.

the door and found her praying. So of course Buschet was happy. so entirely different that sympathy it original recalls the Pot of Basil. the wild." after such exquisite devotion to the for Buschet. spirit of witch- and the extraordinary poor simple Isabel. Praying o'er her stone-cold lover. for I would have him Here to pray for. Time passed on. rising. Sought the chamber of Oped his daughter. thus she answered who 'This was he Ah. and that full quickly. though wants the delicate grace of the original The reader cannot craft." a very close translation both as regards words and metre. Justice you'd come to trouble As you know. and 29 you'll not find her Sleeping in her bed. once they bore the lover Off and placed him in the campo santo. Her feeling or to her like the Indian deity and the . . And This is the end was that the spirit triumphed.' Hearing the merchant.' But the father would not To Little cared So listen her wailing nor entreaty at he for her sorrow. Go Go chamber. ever loving. From my chamber he should never More be borne. she forgot her lover. forgets him is human feeling. too dearly 1 Every night we me loved —here slept dearly together morning. And I did as God inspired me. in time she listened For a pastime to his singing Listening. however. this. And he asked And all how her the dead man came there ? wailing. into thy daughter's at ten.. but kneeling O'er a chest which holds a dead Turned to stone Bear away Hide it Knew once that at quickly. All occasioned by your shameless daughter. he is it.— . Now he is dead is it no sin to kiss him. to observe in it. for of it man shame and sorrow oh. uncanny the utter want of a proper moral or manner dead fail —which it is But to the witch all of this suggests something almost impossible to explain with the goblin or god . till But one night he died in my embraces. if for you ! coffin. : ktJSCHET. in which this " lover.

London : . the of it. as the ally cannot establish any Romagnola termination. but I Buschet. girl is supposed some impresario would have given There fit ballad to pass her for the spirit woman who gave the it to me. : " Even fain. Desdemona. and which she would love. —but a vivid midnight prayer over the dead Mephistophelean song to the and father. tasena which Heine declared was so immoral that in in the so here she endures a penance to the is it here all True. e mostruoso oggetto. by John Fraser. Apollo. bears a great resemblance to a tale in the Arabian Nights' Entertainments. I was became it Of Arabian * only remains to be remarked that " Hermes and Apollo in the myths fast friends" {The Etruscans. brought out. or the plot of the Indian play Vasanoff any stage it was soon over Europe and America. demon's serenade. Women : Empusa is a of the Greeks." Satire di Salvator Rosa. not so very improper. dal suo furor la mente.).A. della Morte much is Heine's Shakespeare's Maidens and W. and which interested Apropos of the Dieu et la Bayadere. Aplus. and had an immense success I German the triumph of his unscrupulous sorcerer's cunning which pleases It is Romagnolo poet. over whom she nightly mourns. Leland. Impusa della Morte. and Paris. Heinemann. would therefore be Aplu. in who with the kisses of despair. " where a beautiful princess. nor Hermes life. as is it may make wonders French imagination lover. short She is a saying. Perhaps it would be hissed This suggested to some French manager an idea. keeps the is a kind of apparent .! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. in Goethe's poem. " Vidi un Fantasma. had a great antipathy for corpses and pestilence. Che richiamo in disusato aspetto. The Impusa terrible ' sorceress. greater magic of by the half-death to the boy as a also a sorceress. is it . Mirabil mostro. or Apollo is and covers truth of full with this picture of passionate and incomprehensible love. like to try Buschet. body of her negro by her magic lover. in reading the of TeYamo. quite possible. through fire Buschet. the to rise to heaven . Donna giovin di viso. antica d' anni. Translated by Charles G." It life. the What an finally the great love scene. like Buschet. 1891. wake from the twilight-dimmering which Heine remarks tale. identity between the names. opportunity for a dramatic poet This incident of the girl who has kept in a coffin her dead lover. or invocation. probably the There dreaded. and Apluschet more remote from the original than T£ram6 from Schet but guess-work like this is is a hardly philological. B. art." struck. 30 The bayadere.

as a wandering beggar. e tu sarai Ricco. was her all rattling of chains as little furniture. and there was a if window was the devils from hell were around. scarcely dead before all the palace shook as by an earthquake. Little By me from And I Suffer Where I the pain I suffer till it am thou hast discovered was I hid La Infrusa with To treasure . and then the hand a crow (cornacchia). for fear lest they a should carry something away. Sono morti per ' nephew. but would not suffer even one of her own relations to enter it. so wicked that she did all the harm she could. was all She died at last and before she departed she concealed . Free For fair la paura. mi svegliavo /). palace remained. her I learned : " Impusa (also called Infrusa and Infusd) was a witch. addressed to her : " Impusa Morte me destavo della ! 31 (or. to be confused with Feronia of the Markets. And to him she appeared one midnight. this old witch owned a fine castle. perche Tutti quelli che son' morti. but and there flew from her They buried her hell." She Of appears. io saro Felice.' all the treasure I buried. bel nipotino. Cosi cosi mi chianio Essendo sempre la Infrusa. Tu se avrai tanto coraggio Di scoprire Che ho tesoro. the good I ever wished thee. Perchio no ho bene. her riches in that corner of the kept for the unbaptised. Fino che non tu Scoperto mio il Io sono la tua La avrai tesoro. Per bene che il Levami ti ho voluto di queste pene. being always my money thou hast only courage discover Which my thy aunt Infrusa I call if ! must endure the torment. though And some of those who entered it died of fright. ma Col mio danaro. tua zia Infrusa. nd was so avaricious that she would not give a soldo even to any one who had earned it. churchyard which " The buried in is and this was attached. IMP USA DELL A MORTE. zia. Che E ma ti raccomando. unoccupied. tu abbia coraggio non sparventarvi. with it. then I truly that great treasure witch had a nephew to whom was she . me. So But young nephew. .— — . However. and said was known it Yet this : " ' Nipotino. which went to soul. flung wide open. il nascosto.

. from tale. I have eaten and drunk.'") a variation of a well-known Italian " fairy tale. and bore him far down into a vault. ' Butto V (' sat by the Shall I throw and fire And he ? ') But ate. and am willing. — . and chimney. that this may be a very ancient version of the There is a point to be observed that in the kind. and it was very great. And he replied. Come with us But he replied. has some value It is possible. le notte a Tanto . other Tuscan tales of freed from her sufferings as soon as she the responsibility of her treasure. to the treasure. an arm. 32 Shall be happy. and so thrown they reunited and made twelve men. Throw away ' a man's leg. is at is relieved from peace as soon as . That need thy utmost courage thou'lt but this In that search And I tell many full thee perished. che verra folletto. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and bade him choose one and dig. And at last thy aunt Infrusa Rests in peace. its rude poetry. and took spades. and head. as in all it In other narratives she she can put off the witch-power on another. sar'a il tu padrone. Sarei sempre ' vedere essendo I suoi danari. a hand. " And they answered. all fire midnight he heard a voice howl just at all were But he. E E di questo bel palazzo. Sempre un Tutte Go ma egoista.' Then they all dug together when at last they came.' now thou art master Of the palace and the treasure By thy courage thou hast won them. di tutte queste richezze. all stood looking at him. I have eaten and drunk.') " Then the nephew of the Infrusa went to sleep in the palace. Then one said to him ! ' ' ' ' — : " Va ' a letto. Per E tuo gran coraggio il Infrusa la tua zia ma Stara in pace. and he made a good good wine and food. and do not wish to go.' Then they took him on their shoulders. who them if ! ' When there and provided down the was thrown down first And when the parts of twelve men. they died from naught but terror. the witch is this. — " : . and thou also Wilt be rich . then a foot. replied. indeed. yet ever will be Through all Every night This is time she'll Her old treasure But thou'lt ever i — wandering come 'tis spirit to look at her nature be the master. . (" to bed. cool and calm. tu che sei II padrone del tesoro. asked they would like to eat or drink." but in this connection as indicating the character of the Impusa.

since during the Middle Ages the word was Lamia. but should you forget it. by Tommaso Tomai of Ravenna (second edition).'" With aspirated sorcerer. I cannot revenge myself for all the the peasant has girls neither pretty nor plain. has been suggested to It me the Greek account of Empusa. Lemur. Italian. in the modern Tuscan mythology. and says.— SIERO. and had mocked me less. or empedusi. turns to green water. There evil spirit. then Siero calls.. who had one name only the leg of an ass is in All of which should be carefully considered by the investigator. he has a plain would have made ill you Upon things you have will remember to be wretched while you live. you ' will If if ' Yes. that in 33 all this. ii. implores Siero to be favourable. and other lemuri. when but . for which reason sleep one night with your daughter. matters right again in his house. he draws what it is so-called — whey. entitled. and. that the popular in Italy at a later date as that of a bug-bear with brass. name became which was one of the spirit minor faun-like gods. a folletto cattivo birbone— a very : which the goblin comes and knocks at the house-door. no note. I will Of or Siera. Siero.' same name. to to be used it is . for Empusa same with Lemures and as being the often used as a synonym If Italian writers could describe the Incubi. but you must you prosperous. "Then angry with a peasant's family. or witch of any kind. Idea del Giardino del Mondo. Venice 1690. vol. there is mention of " demons called incubi. and the head of is (Latin.) if the contadino has a pretty daughter. mischievous him I " ~Whea{Siero from the goblin. 6 in a passage . I Tuscan ck'). I so plain. buttermilk. cries. Thus in a very curious and rare work. Siero laughs. succubi.' you had a But since your daughter And said of me. SlERO. what more is to be considered. of now become an do not pretend deities. make you happy." What is indeed remarkable in these Tuscan names is that there has been on the whole so little change in them. since the Tusci had from the earliest times intercourse with Greece. siero make daughter. serum the peasant. and I will is also a feminine of the is have the following account appears to be very fine milk . (with the strongly could learn that he was on earth a great He is a kind of bugbear. in Siero was associated Chuculvia. who are enamoured of men or women. every day. to suggest that these are descendants or forms of Etruscan would point out a very singular coincidence of names Etrusker. make you happy . But girl less ugly. bless me ' If let if me it is it goes to milk the cattle. mere peasants should have applied the name quite it not remarkable that is as loosely. of It is little matter that the Impusa does not appear in the modern account with one foot of brass or like that of an ass (alterum vero habeat aeneum aut asininum —Suidas). name able that the is common and the other of not remark- It is much Greek. p. or Ck'uch'ulvia but I Muller'S whom all I evil spirit.

Anthol.. him you demi-puppets. One Tuscan a is sprite of may to truffles. a very great Etruscan goddess to —a Fortuna. nium Lat. HERE whom I posed be to dis- is troublesome. s. 34 " fury." But I find no truffles in all .ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Hamilton Gray. make and you whose pastime make midnight mushrooms. according MULLER.- cl. brooks. cp. Norcia. Her temple Roman anti- by the calendar nails was known to quaries driven in in it. lashes dell' who flourishes A an axe over the head of Amphiarus. i. with snakes Theseus.. that the green-sour ringlets Whereof the ewe not Is to and groves. but it is worth noting. xix. of her specialities and distract disturb when hunting It rural could learn save that she little. Norcia." probably nothing whatever in this similarity of names . Tu^uxla (Tuchulcha). I. Thos. the Goddess of Truffles. Astra. Act v. condemned to the lower world. in Oreo. standing lakes And Do chase When he the ebbing Neptune. in Corneto. An inscription hexameters from Volsci- (Burmann. 57) begins with " Nortia te veneror lare cretus Volsiniensi.. is or Nortia was of yore Nortia. " Ye elves of hills. be that she has more work dignified Her for is dogs name at other times. ye that on the sands with printless foot bites . On a vase there is a goddess of death. and do fly comes back By moonshine do . " Nortia was the goddess of destiny." The Tempest. p."—History of Etruria. with a a picture on a wall in the tomb There is bird's beak.

From Museum of Gori (in which the head Another is given by Gerhard.NORCIA. the Etruscan is wanting). NORTIA. THE GODDESS OF TRUFFLES. 35 .

to serve as a kind of register (Preller). cosi io lo potro tanto ringraziare. the goddess Nortia. truffle-hunter has he addresses his dog thus cane. implore. as peasants certified. She'll grant us truffles in such store. and they never perish. Of which I the town of scholiast to. It may seem ridiculous to connect this with the slang such similes are common among name for mushrooms and truffles . 36 this patf. Dunque cane. i. cane chi da me siei no fortune : tanto amato. as a goddess of the may be supposed to know better where they are to be found for she was It by peasants of a earth. Che (" i Oh la fortuna dog. the birthplace of Sejanus. something.— ". " O when a learn that I in discovering the precious tartufi. Fortune will smile By an are round P- for evermore. Myth. o mio bel cane. mentioned by the ancient 74) as a town. Since writing the foregoing. p. And after all. may be remarked here that Saint Antony is invoked when seeking truffles Roman Catholic turn of mind. but takes her town of Norcia. as their 231). this name goddess identified with nails. my mi voglia truffles So then For if to ! me dog. and that is we have two goddesses of the same name down in the great gods same country. but the people. or Norchia. . so dear to We're out of luck No ridare I plainly see ! hast thou found to-day. its truffles. Nortia is still very generally known in La Romagna. may Norcia of the So a very learned Etruscan gods gave names to towns. —or even probable—that the Truffles has nothing whatever to do with Nortia. A folletta di Che E tartufi Norcia va ti a raccomodare ti faccia ritrovare. because in her drove a nail temple at Vulsinii every year the priest into the door. to small uses. for its pigs Dennis's Etruria and this name from (vol. "And. friend suggests. Norcia go and pray her favour we . only the reflection that the peasantry everywhere bring True.." 204) that " Orioli suggests that be identical with Nyrtia. La fortuna tu mi ai levato. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Non trovandomi piu i tartufi. . find in ' Norchia on Juvenal or deriving was it all the principal ' (x.") extraordinary coincidence truffles are also called and small. unquestionably of the under-world. But Norcia. or Fortuna. famous However. and a form of Persephone. it is altggether possible nails. giving from." As its I said. heads Norcia was identified with nails (Preller.

by Aplu. HEINE. that window I I had come to collect —very article of furniture. regarding it.. or good musician. A single window badly which there was absolutely not a single and two From chairs. " The name of the Greek God Apollon frequently occurs on Etruscan bronze mirrors Uber die Sprache der Etrusker. vast and dismal rooms were within mobiglia.— — — — — U APLU. asked the Strega if she knew the name of Aplu. vol. installed in inferior as Aplun. or either I what had been. awoke some shadowy reminiscences but she said that she must consult a " It would come with vecchia. It was known to her. save a small table sketched the fourteenth-century statue of Everything was a rain-worn saint on an opposite wall. over which rose a boldly arched and curved remainder of a fine Renaissance focolare. p. some three or four chief authority in ancient lore." When my I W. game seems lost." Aplu. : He is also a spirit of music. and the most beautiful of all I was told the male spirits." vaguely the words: "E lo spirito if Aplu sempre nella mente" ("And with Aplu ever in their minds"). then in the night he comes and pulls the bed-clothes from them. But if they. —her Of one thing there can be no doubt specialty is make to •' midnight mushrooms. which lighted a great. being in the cold open Then " Aplu is there was a pause. Corssen. invoke him) they will return that evening with much game." " Aplu evilly of is a spirit this who was the result of the consultation greatly loves hunters. and degraded from its high estate. " Sadly is gazing Phoebus Apollo. or a learned man repeat this : un uomo and when any one dotto e di talento —he should .e. returned to Florence in November. 1891.'' The Gods of Greece. 846. would become a good hunter. And talking.. It is true that its palace. speak him. Apulu. after some research hundred years ago. of the gods. and the air. found splendour had sadly departed. call. and if they express a wish To which was added somewhat to him (i. The youthful his lyre sounds no more Which once rang with joy at the feasts . utterly unfurnished. in keeping with the lore rubbed-down. a The by H. an old woman of her acquaintance. grim apartment in old. there was a walled-up fireplace. And they wake inspired with a desire to seek the woods. I and it . i. : when they have bad luck in the chase. and gives them dreams of Then he sits on them in nightmare. and having a prosperous hunt. placed at such distances from one another -which had been sketched by no mean hand Tasso) —and though the bare stone as supplied with to be hardly But there were frescoes on the walls unless they called very loudly. — (they set forth charming scenes from suggested a dreary floors cellar.

or Venus. Aplu to the imperfect mon (mondo) sente dire Aplu. Aplu. My " recorded in detail by Apollo. owing state. alteram jam partem accedamus. Aplu Tu che E siei ! buono. Aplu. in . and it is time lost it to occurs so frequently with the most unmistakable seek its Etruscan origin. as Gladstone says. that English as follows It is in rammentato addatarci di fortuna e di talento Io form." I her a franc me ! writers all on Etruscan mythology. was one of the commonest figures on vases and mirrors. siei deve essere generosa Aplu. da tutte le parti del da tutti si Anche lo spirito ! ! prego darmi ti Fortuna e talento me This was given to memory ! so irregularly and in of the narrator. art so talented. so to invest it in middle and Southern Italians. Aplu. as Miiller has done. had trouble to bring I it to this : " Aplu. Aplu E ! dotto e di talento. Neither did she remember to have heard of Venere. whose familiar to name learned from close questioning. Ad all name is very about Turana.— " . Aplu I Thou who art so good And through all the world renowned And spoken of by Aplu. I gave a practical lesson in mythology. Aplu Even a spirit all. 38 " Aplu. Aplu. Aplu I (therefore) pray thee give " Fortune and talent Aplu. tanto di sapienza siei Aplu. : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. ! should be generous. Aplu. Aplu Tu E E che siei ! buono tanto. Aplu. informant had. TURANNA. Granting us fortune and Aplu. 1 many if I ? and recommended her all But though years in Florence she had never been in a gallery. Aplu. " Turan is the Etruscan name representations of the goddess that of Venus. Aplu. as asked her she had lived talent. as is His is Apollo. Aplu. Aplu - such a confused Thou who So learned and ! good and wise. never heard the she had never seen his statue in Uffizi though she knew her Etruscan original. as appears in another chapter.

It was a long time before but one day it came the following details I could find out this forth as if : by chance now almost forgotten name or inspiration. with Hera" (Ober Ed. die Gottheiten der APLU (APOLLO) AND ARTEMISIA. TURANNA. Gerhard. p. and then I was told . according to Schwenck. 324).— . or to identify it. the Latin Etrusker. Erster Band. 39 Venus Fruti. Akademische Abkandlungen.

* That spirit am can ever become a king.' " So it came to pass. '"At that time that thou wert " Then ' by magic I will make it appear that the princess is with child. 'Lady. Tre diavoli benigne vengo a scongiurare Uno Uno Uno per il re che lo faccio convertire. which was the " Her incantation (i. ballavana. youth. E La spirito di Sempre Turanna io saro. marvelling. to avert scandal. there were no herbs to nourish " who on it fairy with her magic wand be transported to a distant place. these things.' " Go." " Colla corona sopra qttali cantavano. which was the king. 40 " Turanna who was when who were like her. and thy fortune will be is Tree which thou ' will make thee king. "And with a crown. io saro Turanna che verro scongiurata. was that he had come so far into a country where him? was a it who had borne him of kindly disposition spirit thither to make his fortune. la fate. la fata quando morta : me ricevera Turanna. caused this youth "The fairy — and torn all tattered was The youth replied that and being very beautiful and good.' it below that impossible that one so miserable as is tree. When the king was in a rage Turanna was in a dark forest. Perhaps "around which fairies sang and danced. on which they sang and danced. princess. youth looked at her. nuts. and the queen of hearts. with the card of the king of hearts. la faccia presentare incinta. earth) a fairy. and said.e." . 1 " Carry ' He wife. and she will say its sire.. ' " and I. what she sung to enchant the king) '" Io sono Turanna Fino che vivro. all brilliant diamonds and precious pearls. will give her to thee. (tutto stracciato) to and she asked him how there. tell him that thou desirest his daughter for will drive thee forth with ill-will. which was the poor youth. ' and to the king. bene e fortuna Per quel giovane io voglio fare. per il povero che fortuna per la Al padre Che figlia che le faccia avere. sworn. e chi lo meritera Molte grazie da Io.' and found a basket of like a lord.— ! — : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. And the instant thou art married all that appearance of being with child will vanish. seest there below. e dire e incinta del giovane che a chiesto la sua mano. and the king of spades. a spirit is she did good to all in life (or " There was in a land mother and son. to that tree which thou ' " There thou Thy ' " " fortune He Go seest.' said the fairy. This lived in great misery. " The fairy "The I answered. Questi tre diavoli scongiuro che piglino II re 1 Here there is per i capelli c lo trasinino manifestly [something omitted. wilt find nuts to carry to the king. saw (found) himself dressed Carry its when thou art under the tree nuts to the king. the king.

married. he could not withdraw his fair his me daughter was not with child. enceinte that he may succeed. and in time had a won a it.' so the poor youth. I live that fairy I shall be. di felicita e di buon cuore ! When a youth is . 41 Forte.' am Turanna While the fairy. I conjure three beneficent demons. spirit Ever to be invoked." This whole narrative is he be able to stand and when he saw have been deluded by the were dragged by the hair of live Nor is properly a song. repeated And " She it well remembered by the old woman who it. And when I shall be dead I shall become the of Turanna. so they were kingdom and a wife.') so the king consented. la figlia a quel giovane a consento dare. I will present and say by the youth who sought her hand. These three demons I conjure that they may The king and drag him by the hair take Strongly. of Turanna is I was further told that : the spirit of lovers. wish to bestow Prosperity and fortune on that youth . and evidently given in an abbreviated or almost mutilated form. many Turanna. that I was as if dying. and head. Cause him deathly pain that he may not "And he said.— — ! TURANNA. of peace and of love. ' I "But And shall Till he consents to give his daughter to the youth. It appears to be very old. One for One for One for As with will change. and those who merit Shall receive I. for which the reader Nor was must make allowance. That she is it favours from me. Turanna ' Che Del E ! di belta sei la regina ! cielo e della terra. strongly they shall do so. the king whom the poor young I man whom the daughter child to her sire. by the protection of Turanna. in love he should go into a wood and say : " Turanna. stare. and took care of his son. and the goddess of beauty. forte gli faccino Le pene E della morte che non possa Fino che Non (" 'I non possa vivere. and happy. mother. and it seemed to word having been given. my fairy in an instant that Turanna.

Conjure that maid to love me ! Turanna. Turanna Do this. Cards are the successors significant that known I well might as well among the Romans as the Venus-throw. was again and generous. and it is cards. Turanna. ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 42 Turanna Turanna ! ! In questo folto bosco Mi vengo a inginnochiare Per che tanto infelice E sfortunato sono Amo una donna e Turanna A te Le ! non sono Turanna corrisposto. by the Emperor Claudian. But I learn from Pauly's . am unhappy and unfortunate a girl and am not loved again. I art the star I I ' ") by means of the three winning modernised mythology. And " ! di belta siei la Stella of beauty of happiness and fortune ! Turanna. De Alea Lusu (Of the Game of Dice). Thou Thou By the good which thou hast done hast ever been so good are good as thou For of beauty thou Ere I forget confers fortune of dice in this it. Enchant thy three cards at will. Turanna I ! commend me unto thee. Turanna ! Fallo per Turanna il ! bene che sempre ai fatta. regret not having Elzevir which But ! would remark that Turanna performs her miracles and the highest cast of dice. Sei stata sempre tanta buona generosa. art fair.!! ! ! . Sei buona quanto Che ( " ' e bella. Turanna In this dark forest I come For I I love to kneel to thee. of which Suetonius tells. sigh for the lost work. Turanna. Here — by me my copy of Pascasius Justus de Alea a little remember buying in my sixteenth year with my only shilling. or three sixes. Turanna ' ! Thou who art the queen Of heaven and of earth. ! mi vengo a raccommandare tue tre carte a volere Scongiurare che quella Giovane mi possa amare.

by mood the great. and Pano. — ever went heart and soul into raking up Etruscan antiquities and eloquentissimus juxta et sapientissimus scriptor. She evidently the Etruscan is duplicate of the Greek Aphrodite. 1554). or " Venus-throw. director of the Archaeological and Etruscan Museum in Florence." the following I : Now give. of Florence. Hence Venus as Queen of Hearts. Apropos of Turanna and her cards remarked of But the gambled with them Nature for the not be utterly disappointed. or in Greek female apparel. the Senator from Professor Milani. 6 when with four dice. looking rather light than with later Christians for to-day. 3. her hair flowing in ringlets. a sudden shipwreck of fortune Parthians. wearing much rich jewellery.) folk-lore abominated them garments moved by the Spirit of Chance. (I extol him because he was her gentlest in —because the Roman and Bartolomeo Taegis. who fickleness. says element or minister unto the marvellous. "Remains to be said." that the ancients regarded dice sacred things. have been greatly indebted for this and Lanzi " Turan is the name of a : goddess often represented on Etruscan mirrors as a beautiful woman. and that " a fog of fame. shown by the king of the dice. or naked to the hips. or i. and also Professor. Aplu.— — TURANNA. 43 Real Encyclopedia that the jactus Veneris. and also with three cards. or devil. 4. 14). I am again reminded of it by the aid which I have received from him. all to remind him of his I have something to may say. now who made the Introduction. true. have already. good. when thrown with three dice (Martial. as well as to Gerhard. It has been does not deal sufficiently in the romantic at the night side of the lovers of the incomprehensible honour as absolutely for Christ's Essays (Novara. and glorious Emperor a book in praise of dicing. fully naked. Inghirami. on the cards." very characteristic of the gambling Italian and fortune-teller that the It is dealing out the fate of mankind with cards should be characteristic of Turanna. Of which Corssen says in Sprache der Etrusker. owing to whose friendly advice and suggestions my attention was first directed to these researches. in the chapters on Turanna. . when favourable. as mysteriously inspired and Lady Venus Claudian having written the first who . as I of her managing their destiny with dice was it to Rabelais." was three sixes. 14. on that my . or. the Etruscan Venus. to obligations Domenico Comparetti. or as strictly " sun by noon- in the dark. that they were invented by the soldiers in his Risposte. expressed in is probably known to the old judge decide cases my great by it. Turanna is therefore probably Turan. to which I subject." sent unto another That will do my this game — as was monarch golden Gypsy Sorcery that Dame Crowe it is a tempest of the soul. The conception the reader. or artistically bound up.

" " Tis all so proved. between you signore. give very accurately (or with) suggestion this By which diligently attending to " gave no heed to I later the failure hundred and sixty francs from was a distinguished. whom lose a small sum. had been on the point of depositing with I credit to his serious inconvenience. as the cards ita clara. it. ita exactly the prediction as fell. that was to Emanuel —who did would have caused this instance saved there would be. explorata sunt. The their friends. whether find out would I own for her or something else in the specially referred to in these pages as a books of Livy. little I me me more money Then it. 1892. but there will be tears and great trouble for him. well tried. of transcendental cartomancy. but narrowly escape a great loss. "And name than I —a very much my larger sum which culpable neglect of business in should have made all the winter my was reminded of the prediction by On remember of it. consulting the cards to find the lost way Emanuele . or the Annals of Claudian. when some weeks I happens when person but bring with in great trouble and rumour. noise or report. the more fortune-teller. the banker. 44 Several weeks before the failure and evasion of woman in Florence. and a moving between two days unto Corfu. — le carte they announced that you ought to have money would be greatly troubled. The two accounts mine and — —are — the witch's recalled correct. you will come well out of it. and wrote me out these words When the cards were a great ' made sigtiore. is. themselves forward." I and through this great loss (veniva a essere non tanto grande) and the other I made I by Turanna. man. was. ut frustra sit fidem vocaverit. by Sybil." plain. all when she found main inquiry kept forcing certain incidents or predictions not connected with the the twenty-five Fenzi. January. by the banker. like unbidden guests. qui testium nubem in . " Be interesting as setting forth it Hsec observed that. with that are always invoked at the beginning of such divina- friendly. into the play demons who more than usually tion are them grari disturbo. but the trouble would come to no and in this disturbance was involved a journey. disturbo in fair Florence. un Through him of Fenzi the banker fraudulent bankruptcy but but as ." Truly there was a voyage— a shooting of the moon. That he who doubts it does so all in we both the interpretation was perfectly and vain. or about I had not forgotten. as it is said. pleasure than mine. asking the divineress : quando sifecero ' a tremendous did indeed lose four if she and how the cards had " come. explored.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. but I as often : chief intruder on this occasion whom great or rich. remembered what she had what said.'' she replied "Yes. and and not only come was to have.

such as the " Othea " of Christina de Pisa. VON W. it was on a Friday that married . and her connection with lucky cards. Eve Solomon. whereupon there was heard such a wailing of nymphs. after the thought better of in the end. have discussed.. . Every reader of these pages will remember to have learned. to my great joy. ! Pan —we sing to thee Hail. . CORSSEN. thou king of Arcady ! ! Wilson. long ago.e. For according to authentic records given by the Persian and because. while others have contended that he is not dead at occupy all." but lives for ever on in therefore it Nature. ' Eca suthi nesl Hanc Pan . " great who proclaimed to the midnight it by command. subsequently own way " it appears. Joseph. Venus as dealing out hearts.. saw. as women always do. What I was told of him was in these words —he being called Pano — . Mrs. and all the sprites who live in woods or streams. satyrs. Potiphar) Moses. the love. 1874. ere his face Toscana there is this difference of opinion. an Egyptian. Zuleika (i. Turkish poets. was always a lucky day. as it seems. as they believe. my thought. for a minute only." and how the fact was revealed to Thamnus. ." Uber die Sprache der Etrusker. " Pan oh. that Pan is dead. succeeded in obtaining. of fell into ashes —that I discovered that in the a perfect solution of the question and a reconcilement some For there the great Pan did indeed once die beautiful nymph —but now lives as a spirit — for who is exceeding kind and gracious to all who approach him with the proper incantation or hymn in her name. Chadidscha and Ayesha.— " : PANO." All of which Eusebius. all was with a strange " This thing did often feeling. that it would seem as if all the fair humanities of olden time mortem obversari ante oculos—di& see grim death itself before their eyes. dryads oreads. Alors— vive incident recorded in the Bible. the priests spoiled till The Turks it. the dies Veneris. on insist still Adam this great truth. . like that which was felt by him who. especially for marriage. the which scongiurazione I. " since 'twas in Pan that they all held their life. had her ! Pano. . Balkis Joseph. It is worth noting in this establish connection that Friday. (cellam) mortale posuit Pan. and in later times an exceeding sweet English poet. P it. 45 Manuscripts of the Middle Ages. opening an Etruscan tomb.." Vendredi le . little and Mrs. . Sisera and Mahomed. She became the Queen of Hearts at a very early period. an ancient warrior — perfect as in Romagna of life.

— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Pano. Pano ! Inginnochio in un' campo. chiede del bene. and say : 1'ano. e per chi le —one of whom benefits are sought. Sono a lume In nome della luna. and kneel ' ' of the moon. della tua bella to him in a field by the light . " Whoever would beg a favour of him must go in the evening. (E uno spirito benigtio. 46 " Pano per is a spirit of the country.) Pano when in this life had a love whom he indeed did very greatly love. and benign la campagiia.

I learn by " he is regarded by old men in Premilcuore as a spirito maligno. many of them. it may still observe that even in the end of the And lives. grazia kneeling in a In the Was ti pene di quella Di farmi questa (" 47 much so love." Pan tail and sympathise with. because yet as one he it very significant that peasant tradition has preserved this very peculiar feature of . name wanting this circumstance would be a really " rapt after awoke But as a from in the loser of alone the clue. To grant me this favour ! ') one asks of him some favour. ' PA NO. letter that made earth. and who has the power to destroy the harvest. which. I adjure thee. Pano I I am am prego ti ! ! field. is a prayer for good crops). Che tanto amavi. Pano. " or according to that which one requires.") there are not obscurest and least-known for who cannot be said with Salvator Rosa " Non e con He mourned of those became the church organ. him in a Pandean for. so he made of field at eventide. of his memory an and crops. I do not know. a benevolent spirit. Che da un campo Ti fu portata e Per il ' Pano. But though as god of the is also dreaded. : her pan-pipes on which he wailed her evanishment. among the deities. I take it. but is his history. (" Though indeed There It is significant is loro wail loves una voce Etrusca. fields. the great god of earth. Pan. who may be offended. of ancient Pan that he was noted for his loss of lady-loves. one evening rapt from thee and slain By her sufferings. in latter days is of this great Echo. Whether Pan was ever evoked in Latin times by memories of Syrinx or Echo.— . not with them one Etruscan voice. and it She was was her voice which he ever pipes. From another authority in the Romagna Toscana. for Pan Were is now one of the spirits. and Syrinx turned to a reed to escape him." From all which we serpent-century Pan and invoke him. Pan is endless tomb. here by the light of the name moon of thy beautiful one Whom thou didst Who from a field "Then di sera via fu uccisa. as that the country may become beautiful" (this.

1891. or to That agreed with her verses. said there were incantations referring to this or that spirit which they could not recall. an ass was often sacrificed to him (Ovid. Placidi. Dec. a verse to Emerson : "lam Of It J. but that others are used as here given folletti. now spirit spirit. must remark of But I that any true scholar that it is critic. But in all cases they existed. who playing on his korper. old schoolmaster... she did not actually understand what she repeated. Pan and his seven reeds sets forth the music of the spheres. Eclogues ii. have given a great deal of cautious and I it cannot be sold. as regards possible errors or improvisations in tradition and especially incantations. And they were . Hence Pan is invoked in an Orphic " Inspired among the hymn (xi. was." when he wrote his this Orphic Sayings that my in the Dial. which effectively disposes of the question as to whether she altogether invented it." A certificate signed " — fearful apology in this my book. is. According to Friedrich. I also true. attests that Pano. as a windy the panic terror {Gazaus. to Virgil. the ruler of the sphere : the Seven Stars and the solar year. 31). Fasti.— : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. i. pipe inspires the Seven Spheres. in calling certain have already clearly declared. when this god is the chorus leader of the heavenly dances. cannot all fail how it made all of them). published very intimate in those days. before me. may be it by C. and above it may be said of nearly true poet. That some and perhaps many of these incantations only a shadowy or shifting form of what is may be said. Thus cases several in those who were is consulted. Playing the harmonies of creation Upon Which idea of the All-god of Nature and the seven planets suggested. 12. was the jesting flutes. 425).. 174). or set forth said. 48 when the corn is not rise again. 1864). as I think. 6) as : stars. much remembered of the is observed. As down. and the divine harmony (Serv. it does And p. who has devoted a chapter to the subject {Die Welt- &c. it high he comes in roaring winds which beat Here in Premilcuore Pan." Hence also feared of yore. and for this the peasants curse him. to at once perceive woman who a composition far above the intellectual capacity of a could not be see one to Pan (and this actually to take an interested comprehension of the fable of Pan." just at the time Bronson Alcott.

" folletto. 1. what became of the old god of war Mars since the victory of the Christians inclined to believe that during the Middle of the executioner of Miinster once met him can I tell you but Ages he exercised the law of the strong hand. 4. to bless the fields." honoured Here Martea life. over the crops. I to am The nephew sese in rniracula rerum." re- old root marks Preller. protects or presides it rather freely than otherwise. MASO." Virgil. could learn nothing more. and strength virile of Mars. who make meant are a special is " girls or love. the generating of a inspiring who deity. but originally whom " Mas. "The Mar or and seems to be indicates.— — CHAPTER II. Heine. Die in Bologna. 8 the is song of the protect and In old times he as allied to a protecting Mars as the . Gcorg. I suspect. save was a very great that he who or spirit. " Omnia transformat "As little. was a god of nature. by which name he reduplication is invoked in Arval Brothers." aso I Goiter in Exil. Marmar came by and Manner. was deity of marriage and of married goddess of love and of desire. and patron of make those women who by which. later reduced ages to From mar simply a god of war.

promptly suggested by one of the learned.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. former. beyond mere resemblance a spirit of nature should be called Thomas after a saint. it is probable that we have him here known only by his My informant positively denied that Maso was first name and earliest attributes. After Gerhard and Gori. in this case only the diminutive of Tommaso. while that . So Maso be Mars. Maso. why is And I am inclined to believe the no apparent reason whatever. or Thomas— as was (of course) If WINGED MARS. because there of name.

the fructifying (" Mars is learning to none other than the Sun "). or supposition theory is 51 ist ganz the offerings brought to him indicate that he This view of Mars. has nothing to do with the Latin word mania. .MANIA DELLA NOTTE. . be particularly observed that It is to single coinci- attribute. and as a mysterious nocturnal spirit inspiring wanton dreams. be it of name . and Succuba. as when both of . . or attribute. or deity of darkness. doubt. must be made by Maso appears whose authenticity there can be little : more than 141). p. as of are borne out constitute authentic history. This was a truly whom the Tuscan belong Mantus and Mania. or Tusker." indulges in much speculation as to this chthonic goddess. according to Panzer. gives basis for nothing an hypothesis. but great allowance company with a number of is. And and vivifying principle of nature. ." writes Ottfried MtJLLER. but regarded simply as the Nightmare. " als Arntegott dargestellt" was a god of harvests. name and two. 525) observes. who the Lares. .. three. much Elias Schedius {De Dis Germanis) has gathered together Mars autem prove that that is nullus alius nisi Sol to say. meaning insanity mania" which to a degree weakens . Mas between the modern Maso and the ancient dence. . It has been suggested to me that " the Greek or madness. . invoked solely as a god of crops. confirmed by is passages in the Eugubcean tablets. To the strange and terrible gods libri fatales give human sacrifices the old Italians seemed Mania .. Mania della Notte. and is called Mania della Notte (Mania of the Night). also the mother of the Muller Lares. cap A very great. as Panzer {Bayerische Sagen. this deity is form a and testimony. This — child's Mania was the mother or grandmother of the Manes. With him " — was worshipped a goddess of the lower realms the Mania. so far as they have been deciphered. who was therefore compared with Dispater. boys were offered. The real god of the world below among the Tuscans. is Terrible to inseparable from the Tuscan faith of She was an awful divinity to whom. . Etruscan divinity. Her fearful image afterwards a toy was in early times hung on doors to avert contamination. it is as such that he appears in old Etruscan mythology. or incident. entitles us to established tradition In this case the latter for the fact that {de re rustica. under — TARQUINIUS SUPERBUS. to . and that all others prayer to Mars given by Cato in the of very great antiquity. which in is wanting. " was called Mantus. In Etruscan histories the name of Mantua was derived from him. being allied to the Manes. And she still lives in Tuscany.

.MARS.

like a scarecrow. no longer burn. to others to discuss . It may in La Romagna is This I leave there was that an called by the same Toscana. From which and but for it my . were said to be the mothers of the Lares. or her prototype Mater Matuta. " was a most fearful spirit to the old Her frightful image used to be hung over the doors. it is enough for me to have shown Etruscan Mania of the Night of old." writes Mrs. but it is now a Italians." rapidly. I have mentioned in the Preface that Enrico Rossi testified of Mania della Notte that she was " remembered once by many. of Etruria). This indicates the existence of a primal goddess of both night and day.MANIA DELLA NOTTE S3 the connection between the nightmare and the spirit of the night." of her." This is quite identical with the old Assyrian observance recorded by Lenormant of placing the images of evil or dreaded deities in places to scare away the demons themselves. " Mania. be observed that both Mania of the Night and Martha of the Day. to frighten away evil. Hamilton Gray {Hist. and that the nightmare name now. long time since any one at Galeata has may inquiries spoken name is passing away would soon have been among those be inferred that the " Of the gods And whose who had fires their turn.

ALneid. Sat. in wliole. modern spirit." Virgil. also the goddess of trade. beg the reader to bear mind as regards chapters. Feronia. unproved an one's own. taken with others as a may have no — all I a basis of truth must go at a guess. there can be very little question. FERONIA. No heed taken of the fact is that this incident. the of historians among vogue in pick- in ing a small flaw in a legend or even or incident. HERE v. or narrative. 800. and then boldly assuming from it that all whatever is false. lowing is a broader and this several the fol- requiring more liberal method of judgment. i. was- .. viii.— — — CHAPTER III. " The Etruscan Feronia —the Dawn— " Vividi gaudens Feronia is luco. There is a goddess of whose identity with a or folletto. as offering of conjecture Mommsen does.. " Ora manusque tua lavimus. lympha. 24. is a kind of argument much very Mommsen consists It class." The Etruscans. by John Fraser. Feronia. of which a type." —HORACE. according to MtJLLER.

children. but which. who exacts the ancient Feronia was Persephonic or chthonic. " which for he deems in Etruria. since Sabine. 55 the ancient goddess of the market-place and This would. her alms were very fortunate. if and : "Feronia was an old woman who went about begging And still lives. —a witch-spirit When disguise. she cattle. But as she had temples common deities The to both races. identify her with. make her the patron of. was the country. All in of their poverty. however. in all offerings." my Varro it she appears. and frequent such places. Since writing the an if of children and : ." which was attributed to Imptisa. have learned that Feronia haunts market-places. yet if gifts any who were —enough rich gave her nothing. and the beasts che tengono all are kept in stables. and who. There can be no question but that wandering witch. oxen. Siate maledetti Da me che vi Di vero cuore E cosi i maladisco ! vostr 'affari Possono andare A rotto di collo Fame e malattie ! ! Cosi non avrete. del mercato. Perche e last line I spirito lo I pulitica —that is. feared in Tuscany. regarding she was intelligent or shrewd or very cunning in manners have believed. to be a goddess of the earth. as a matter of [fairs. makes purpose Feronia how intelligible it was it in her is is that she was was among the " the present day at liberal to her all nella stalla goes well with them She bewitches suffer for it —which power to give to the Praenestic But what most important of is and that people brought her feared. as a form of Mania. and who is rather evil than good. people could give her nothing because went well with them them thus I am . Non avrete piu bene ' 1 as one would affairs prospered.— — FERONIA. member of the Etruscan Heiligthum. is a very legitimate descendant from a goddess of the markets. or a queen of the realm below therefore a witch now. who goes the peasants are but should they give her nothing then they . she was a witch. . inflicts specially " following. all strolling characters who MtJLLER expresses a doubt whether she was really a course. most dread is much — loss not propitiated. or mythology. error of the copyist gran on the peasants what they Sabine or Etruscan. a strega-folletta wandering about the country begging alms A claims her as possible that she ancients were at a loss where to place her Herilus three souls from the lower world. is prone to mischief and revenge." offerings. they returned and had —so home after the that henceforth evil hearts. she cursed to support all the family : '* ' when always had a she —and. also the quite sure. who. and allied to Mania. and their who gave sun rose (dopo chiard) they found abundant all have. horses. but her.

soul ever her. which (Livy. and knew it. Myth. Again. carried all Pun. the And she was feared as a witch. often a counterpart of the charitable Ceres. xxvi. alone which is believed still in a Mahrchen. she was the special a friend of the poor offerings to her (Livy. . and the elegant style and distinguished air to her has a great strength. yet another reason as a witch or wonder-worker. miracle. by folk-lorists chiefly sought who have no conception of the extent to which the. and many offerings. the soldiers of Hannibal Preller. 56 (" ' Be ye accursed all By me who curse you With my heart and May your lives for Go to utter ruin Illness Be " By this they knew and starvation The ! ') But when she was dead she became she was a witch.e. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. xxii. it it is very she had that fact a main incident." Her market and temple were also a great resort for merchants and traders. " All who dwelt near brought her the first fruits. living myth exists. so that in time an immense quantity of gold and silver formed was treasure in her temple. incident of the begging.). or were given. The Roman-Etrufccan Feronia was very famous for the extent of the offerings made to her. 1 1 . Silius Italicus. xiii. tribute. or child's tale. on the stress modern Tuscan account makes offerings brought to her. Feronia appears to come and feared And it is lays to be in the her.. went to her terrible. they were always sure to obtain ! ever in your dwelling However. If." " . and Juno and Ceres combined. which seems to cast some light on the —very otherwise uncalled-for statement that she was of gran pulitica The modern Feronia But there is is also a great friend to the poor. This the Libertini in curiously identical with the Feronia was a duplicate of Persephone. agrees with the modern story of her exacting protectress of the freed slaves Rome made legend. The curse attributed may be of extreme antiquity. —and 1. be exactly what such a goddess would minds of the people at a stage while they and before she had sunk to a mere reminiscence the Mdhrchen. The connection of Feronia with Mania explains why remarkable indeed that while MOller indicate a character like that of Taking her naturally in altogether. Rom.. as away by a- who was would explain the very singular gifts from her " after the sun rose.. and did much- tomb and begged pardon- it. of which so shrewd- why Feronia may have She was of old much was made during retained a reputation especially identified with the great: the Middle Ages. is they came. —that is Muller asserts. of walking on red- . when those who had wronged harm.. during the night. this statement that the poor always received their i. as yet. This 377).

Ulm. ed era II This is suo nome Feronia. According to Fraser ( The Etruscans). 1695. candendes incedendi. but she had a sanctuary also at the Etruscan is town of Losna (Latin. in the ancient and friend of the poor. the queen of the violets. ingens mortalium quam Nam mirificum sacrigenus habens. " Feronia in Etruria held an honour- able position. approaches the same character as set forth in goddess Feronia of classic tradition. Lescher. 5 afflantur. For she sylvan Etruscan deity. Losna. that the modern Feronia corresponds to the ancient character of the fact that same name beyond the name in many itself (for And ways. 1676. owing to some ordeal of hot coals was very One tradition. as now interesting subject the reader may consult quo apud plerosque Europceos populos per ferrum candens ardentes prunas rogumque probatur." " Ella per fiere Baize e foreste erro gran tempo Una ninfa gia fu delle propinque Selve leggiadra abitatrice. 1791." The commonly applied to witches. one of slaves and refugees. for it comes from the the goddess of the los or las. quae quotannis celebratur. in which the heroine. another proof that Feronia Greek is The name of this town. templum in loco ipsius E6 nudis pedibus prunas calcant. that of the elder goddess with the ordeal indicates identification On which protection and benevolence. Eckard. light. De more and modern Feronia. therefore. Lib. As 57 Eodem quo nomine est Feronia. and Nork. forests. I. and not the great goddess of the olden time. Strabo. Sitten It will be seen. De probatione rerum dubiarum per ignem facto. The apparent both is Roth. hot ploughshares or glowing coals. Dawn. she is." Monti has written a very beautiful. De ritu antiquissimo per ignes et carbones und Gebrauche der Deutschen. though rather feeble poem called the much more closely to modern popular legend than to the stately Feroniade. gratia. for not only was she goddess of Falerii. as a goddess.— : FERONIA." altogether our Feronia. Lund). which I I would call attention to the indeed inquired) nothing was by me suggested or demanded. et celebritatis ipsius. finitimi miro qui ejus numine multitudo convenit. 9 . or " is with him at first only a small who wanders through ravines and a nymph. et Dea quaedam nuncupatur. appears by the following passage from : " Sub monte Soracte urbs dignantur honore. thing or was. est. paritur et spectaculi. Leipzig. and it is not improbable that the accused appealed to Feronia to protect them. a protector of paupers.

est.. Che In (" ' vi ma dell'erba daro vi fara tornare la sua buona grazia. 229. two men. or parish priest. his is absolutely the only offered of this manifest blunder. vol. is and the men hegin And while all this is —to their great amazement when they return to work. silvis ac sua numina tanquam et ccelo attributa credimus. 1614. he is altrettanto vendiccativa tolerably revengeful. : laughing at him. and the contadini begin to quarrel deed." xii. charcoal (che fanno And when ignite them). 'Tis the spirit Silviano. whether in : " ' E il Che E folletto Silviano. will restore good you graces. Other men found their work all done to hand for them. " Silvanus " (the god of George Dennis. and told them they were fools for their pains. "Fama fuisset. And she said — day. fields and " has cattle) still " Quin et Silvanos Faunosque et deorum genera —Pliny. explanation which can be SlLVIANO. then comes themselves. Nat. fuit.') . accusing one another of the Silviano roars with laughter. every one thinking that the other going on Silviano piles up the wood again " This happened once Then again. l'avete contradito. i. and knew what to do. while theirs was spoiled. work over to all le cataste di carbone — the sticks are piled. and. persuaded that nothing wonderful saint. changed the character of into classic lore for material. Unto him ye were Therefore he has For you —but 'Tis an herb Once again I'll ungracious. Cyparissum puerum ab ipso amatum. 2. ora li vi fa tutti I dispetti. dominion in the land. as " forests or woods " Silviano literally. by p. So they have to swear to begin their and perhaps to fight." Caspari Bauhini. who is ").— — — — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. And from that wood or grove nella macchia sia nel boscho nothing went well with them. and up the heaps and then set forth as follows who burn very fond of annoying the peasants pile spirito dei boschi " (" the spirit of the were his peculiarities among Silviano and upsets them. — " But good-natured as Silviano is. Lo Silviano was described to me. So there and examined. quare ubi fuisse Cupressum manibus semper gestasse Sylvanus dictus in arborem nominis mutatus sui De Hermaphroditorum. &c. entirely by going back as he wrote. This heroine. and so returned with (procession). and told it of must be a miracle worked by some So he went it. And this time they went to an old witch who understood the business.. but found all his precissione had happened." The Cities of Etruria. Monstrosorum. made which to his these troubles give you something. nothing remarkable. 58 which she subsequently represented as being is —the reason for which very evidently was that Monti began with an inspiration derived from the popular Tuscan legend. and they thought him they went to the parocco. Hist..

and their backs : SILVANUS (SILVIANO) AND NYMPH. . or broom.— SILVIANO. putting it on 59 the herb called silvestra and also ginestra. " Then she took and said. " ' Questo e Di " ' This O lo spirito Silviano che is mi protegge! in truth the spirit Silviano who protects me ! ') made of it a small square.

or where a in the Roman enough the old plainly is had been a there Roman all its show that she considered incantations and ceremonies.in related of is far utter heathenism of this story the time of Tarquin. "So when learned from this a lesson not to go and call on priests Silvianus remarks who and " : He was like Faunus. had been taken back this reality as if I two thousand years. This chapter. or Silviae now and then murmuring brook like attracted the shepherd So he became this love give. for all kinds of crops. old strege this religion of ancient times was often as strangely moved by is not folk-lore but a living faith. charcoal-burning and burners. and Slavic not Rubezahl himself be of Italian Silvanus was the son of a river-god and a she-goat. there was a spot always sacred to Silvanus. races.— — ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. I And would here say that the ancient fully explains his connection as a spirit with who specially haunts such men PRELLER declares that the with Rubezahl of Germany. and planting maize. and everything The reader. all rural folk For reasons. wherever there was in Sylvanus with the cypress-tree identical they tale. therefore suggest the possibility that the Northern mythology of goblins may have been originally of Italian origin. a cool shelter. belong rather But why May ? to the German. wood-nymphs. a good He frightened people. they must never forget to say " ' Lo spirito Palo Sara quello Che mi fara La buona fortuna ! : when men work." very dear to And present. 60 they returned again into his good graces. a shady grotto. was Planted pleasant rural. and never missed an opportunity to the worship of the spirits of the olden time." Silvanus. and traces of have not space to than to the Latin. vines. Tuscan are to be felt in this openings fields. Catholic. birth? and whom the forest. and far superior to the With the I Preller a spuk Geist one of themselves. but spirit. Palo. or in the vineyards. or from a common source. be it i' . of mid-day heat. romantic. I he was Silviano is Silvanae. him more suggestive of pastoral Italy than of wild Germany. This deity was described to " Palo is me in the following words : a spirit of the fields. and its " moral " cannot have escaped the The narrator was as absolutely a heathen herself as any who ever lived. which identification of . and others. spirit identified with everything beautiful. for which latter she had' a special aversion. meadows. Celtic. and never did anything more to offend him.

I It is mention this —that the modern called after the town. it As was the case with most it may deities. but it. it —that in the four lines There least of the early invocation. since would be strange there is —and an echo at yet it not impossible is was so often repeated. When a apparently of it is commonly who pays light its is own flammam.1 ESTA. of the whole must leave the impression of antiquity. also — —offerings morning the shepherd uttered four times an invocation writes that in the to Pales. and leaped over flames. half because so it in details. 6. Hestia was an ancient derived from 'Earia. —as was be thought Tuscan deity was so Pales had a town way between Rome and the modern Palo. render is find anything modern in them. but a It here given much which is almost impossible Critics may very but a comparison single negro would not number of them would extremely probable. Esta. then mixture of milk and new wine." Esta beyond or goes out lovers are sitting together. unquestionably ancient in these Tuscan traditions that sometimes to believe that there many reasonably indicate errors is I A absolutely prove the existence of a black race. mysteriously extinguished accord. and then jumped over blazing straw." suddenly and Fast. name for Vesta. (" ' The He Palo spirit shall 6 be The one who brings Good luck to me ') ! And ' ' thus the peasant will be sure to ever have good fortune. is supposed to be a this I could learn spirit nothing of her. flamrhis corpora nulla vides." not It is difficult to deity of agriculture of recognise in Pal6 the Pales of the Romans. " Nee tu aliud Nataque de Vestam quam vivam intellige Ovid. and inconsistencies drank a Therefore named Civita Vecchia. been recognised both as male and female who or to her Pales appears to have for were made by the peasants Preller drank much. the invocation must have been very short. indeed urged as to Norcia after him. and ClCERO thought that Vesta was In any case the sudden extinguishment of a light or fire. or the ancient all To him kinds. . especially when two said in jest that " Esta did particular attention to lights.

. goddess of chastity and her light are here alluded it worth the while. o hella Mi vengo a raccomandare Che un E la figlio tu mi possa figli far fare. he loves no more . Listen unto me. mio marito non mi ama piu Che tanto m'amava perche Non so. Now crear Carmenta. Knelt before thy shrine. which was extinguished over^Evelyn's bower.! !! ! — " ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. ma date. pace con mio marito possa ritomare (" Carmenta. When I asked as that of a spirit and who is if who the name Carmenta was known gives. ! : who aids in birth. Carmenta Thou who Thou who art so fair. So have many others. as good as fair. Ascoltati ti prego pure I miei di volere ascoltare Perche sono molto II infelice. 62 and the satirical covert allusion to love in the dark. and loves it was promptly recognised children. Carmenta. suoi voti tu ai. Then dear to mothers. Seeking to be mothers! Thou Thou didst grant their wishes. presides over. the following was repeated " Carmenta. Carmenta Che E tanta bella sei inamorata Tanto dei sei fanciulli ! Tante spose sono venute A E a raccomandare te Che dei figli tu gli facesse fare. buona quanto tu Bella i e. truly lovest Children. which those who are best able to determine must think seems to indicate that the fact that this is a matter themselves settle for if Esta put out the they light. to. and then put out the do but record the I light However. everywhere As I come to thee. Grant my humble prayer Once my husband loved me.

specifies Terminus as one because he was rough and rude. " (Adversus Gentes. xx. Lactantius. as That the memory comment which my informant made them applied of these has survived —// spirito lo is to these " land- evident from the only guasta (" The spirit ruins "). Of her Preller The Goddess of Birth. he consulted them by augury whether they would yield Capitol and found these shrines of who was suffered to remain. which was named from her. devoted to distinguished festivals of the These were among the most her worship. as before ! ") every detail to the Latin Carmenta or who was another form of the Fauna or Bona Dea. to Jupiter. Because bear no children I All his love Make me He This corresponds in 63 is o'er. a pity that Lactantius could not have lived to the end of the nineteenth when he might have seen among Christians an array of saints of small . called the Carmentalia. almost equal ! to a Roman grabbers. may he die the last of his race "). the eleventh and the fifteenth of January. Carmenta. She was peculiarly the goddess of pregnancy. extant. The Spiriti dei sentieri. that there was a Flamen Carmentis. was so zealously worshipped near the Porta Carmentalis. says : " Carmentalis. inscription of a terminus reads : Quisquis hoc sustulerit aut Iceserit. " spirits them the limits of fields are believed in spirits called distinctly asserted that they lived in the stones. calls him the stones (lapides chap. any one removes them a sentiero. " He was the stone which Saturn swallowed thinking it was Jupiter." or lines of demarcation.. or the divinity of the spirit is Fearful penalties were attached to the removal of such landmarks. boundaries. £t stipites) save that they are stocks and stones themselves ? It is •century. ultimus suorum moriatur ("Should any one remove or injure this stone. When Tarquin wished to build the many ancient gods. heaping ridicule on the heathen for worshipping many deities of small duties." Catholic excommunication." The single spirit " is And if It was. however. Roman matrons. exactly the Terminus of the Romans. Il Sentiero. and two calendar days. the spirit will quite ruin This him. however. book i.IL SENTIERO. which of the paths.). once - will love me name and in mother. The boundary-stones which determine to have in or attached to Tuscany means. immovable rock of the Capitol. There is indeed quite a litany of old Latin curses. Hence the poet And what can I say of people who worship such stocks and All agree to go save Terminus.

is whom But the yet in those days ! condemnations of the saints —and Madonna even lotteries. more herself ridiculous than —the the Virgin —had incarnation not " come through. 64 things. the most crushing and Taking them all later Catholic Church and its Hagiology are to be found in the arguments of the Fathers against the Gentiles." in the . or even the of nursing motherhood up or . compared to whom all the heathen gods are grave and respectable deities. the Latin Cunina. think of Antony Santa and Anna who whom " as terrible Terminus. or we the presided over children at. he mentions as laughable a sound and sensible image. who Lactantius calls on us to laugh does the same. and especially vigorous satire of " the Christian Cicero. as the emblem of stability why is and truffles ? Simeon of . but what shall as the saint of pigs Roco-co saint of dogs in the cradle.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. a rock. (for he was truly nothing more).

Fufluns "But gods.— — CHAPTER IV. roaring where am I by much flood. make no easy people the population of the place to drink they shrine. The Gods in Exile. it spring a to have seen I summer when in was it limpid and clear. it up —as assuredly have Macpherson. 1 ' Oh. to been have a sun-lit Now estimate of its all the water. or a pilgrim from ing It shrine would then for to carry or for hundred it all all done away it men in Tuscany. HE Arno. Scheffel." it ! Fufluns ! awful deity " ! Pumpus went better with Bacchus than it W. with all their buckets. FAFLON. very which rushes the window before writing. but then was only a from rivulet pool shining one it which went to another." had been wine. muddy and somewhat unmanageable. swelled rain is now a great river. of Perusia in the Gaudeamus of did with Mars or Apollo after the grand retreat of the Heine. like a silken thread with strung scantily wander- pearls. 6s . could 10 would like " in barrels.

collection of fairy tales. or parables. 66 APLU. or If it were only to proverbs. collate. . AND SEMELE.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. This reminds gather. me of the task on which and correct a I am engaged. FUFLUNS.

still dwells in whose mysterious recesses "the dragon's ancient brood. or those better once there was narrated to when women all or men have on the ground then Faflon knocks them right and for it. 87. CORSSEN from poculum. vol. or measure. and so I will proceed to who is generally supposed to have utterly died out nearly two thousand years ago. As compared suppress ? I in folk-lore this else. But this mass of old. 67 or games. it would be an easy. obscure. or count. gathered grapes and but woe to the contadini and tramples (on the grapes). to beget.. or at least a defined work. or of wine. . obscure deities of doubtful in all give I ghosts than aught many rocks to anything has been more like counting Ossian's a time have almost despaired over I and it. or Flavo. "was sounded {lautet) Fuflunus. 83. 90. Gerhard the vines. such a being known as Fardel. or Exempla. other fruit failed. greatly loved the spirits. . and replaces them in the panniers. a time been awed. p. Gerhardt. then comes this Faflon and scatters them should they be angered at He was promptly informed that there was I informed in such mysteries. . very doubtful. " Faflon fit. We find 430). i. Spl. and poculum according to name of the P. derives me : the panniers. unrecorded mythology. Fuflunu. Bacchi. I mean Faflon. " Now there was a peasant who everything went wrong with him loved Faflon and blessed him. discuss my eternal in the discovery of last a divinity ii. i." fall known—we little rhymes. n. and they take it La Romagna Toscana the witches. And Well. Corssen (i. his crop of grapes and all and frequently blessed them. Such pools are not hard to fathom. But hope springs human breast. p. 31 3-5).— — — FAFLON. 84. yet for all One this he year still . ab. comes pouring and foaming down like the Arno from the mountains of La Romagna. should I over roaring in the flood. legends What ? have as yet met — should Many and diamonds dirt for that— name tutti confusi e misti.. he gathers them again. the god from the from Populonia On a spirit " —which is my inquiring from Indogennanic root best authority of the vineyards. Fufluns generally Fufluns. 453) left. on goblets Fufunl (Fahr. or exhaust. and yet who lives as a real folletto among a few old witches in La Romagna. &c. a legend which was then written out is a spirit who lives if there was in in And among so that they get no profit. "His name. it and fame. have Goethe's word a spring freshet.. as Fafion. but filled and Fuflunsl (CORSSEN. and a strange country is it has sent me. What which sorceries. good-naturedly." writes Muller {Die Etrusker. 79). Fuflunus was the Etruscan Bacchus.. at But if p.

that Bacchus flashes " There was a contadino that he was written it Bacchus of old carried off mortal beauties word he went to ebbe piri biogna di fare il the Fufluns. fire : girl of thine. As a beggar thou and from had the barrels were devils all henceforth thou shalt have wine If the shalt die. but with a Go so well I will reward thee." But perhaps it of frisking Bacchanals and Fauns made them was only "devils with fire is good. sometimes in the perfectly in accordance with that of Bacchus. but non a peasant. Have you to pass? for who had he had a daughter sitting his cellar. contadino— MS. and said was gone. frolicking . or Fufunal.' gave his daughter to Faflon.' tu troverai gran vino tu lo farai. una once at all da fare bellezza thou hast loved fine brain. modern Ariadne story of a went so several vineyards. : maiden you deny. but beautiful with a beauty like enchantment incantare —and said : ' my little ma tanto bello di Oh. that time his vintages were abundant. " ' Give Faflon that And "Then the' man to and as they danced they sang Then go to bed. he replied: "If cannot have her neither shall you have any vintage. All that remains The poor peasant began to weep.) picture of the cellar full suspect that a Catholic influence their mouths. was very angry. sight he saw his daughter. his said forgotten that strange was so much in love? And da fare incantare~ot enchanting beauty. for I what lost little crop I had in Faflon appeared. do you not and beautiful youth who once came And when you one evening know how to all you and denied him what he asked. now I give word : with them for several years una di belleza despair. very beautiful being for to the peasant. coming out of . yet all ill It is exactly in classic tales. e manner is this Faflon — as related by a witch a had not wine enough " Now as he was this came begged I almost in me up beauty from disguise in —he and for mistresses. me and there a great quantity " D'uva mastatata E When vineyard. (" Pressed grapes thou shalt see. peasant with great coarse shoes. for ' : me now have is to die.— —— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 68 " One morning he rose to gather what little there was on the vines. to thy cellar." live as one can doubt that — in this seemed said wine which he had that year made him he was no longer obliged to Flafion great thy store of wine will be. but found that even that little Non mi res/a che morire. And " and Now what Flqflon had truly the No is dream to be like a rich. of the Etruscans. and lo ! all the barrels were filled with the best. daughter : ' Father."' " Then the peasant he went into the cellar." The I His appearance as a to drink for his family. dear. and beat but what o. so that she On ! flashed from their eyes and flamed from their mouths.

! prayer the wine in do ! cellar rare. Faflon ! (" Faflon. Bacchic libraries of but that was art hymn was — this possibly. Faflon. When not found a here vintage he in church. Faflon A fine l'uva nella ! mia vigna multa scarsa. Che mi fate avere Buona vendemmia ! Faflon. My vines this year are bare Oh. " II vino divino Che fiammeggia (" I 69 nel Sansovino. since thou canst listen to all my ! my Prove to be strong and And good so.— . " Faflon. fondante.") after all this if. Faflon. I listen to my ! prayer. Faflon. Faflon. Faflon A Che il ! mi raccomando vuoi Me lo fate venire E molto buono. Faflon. And A ! vino nella mia cantina listen to my prayer better vintage there Faflon. And may possibly pray for it in Sansovine. which such lyrics is will —Delia religion. last not much is stranger unlike it. . A vuoi mi raccomando. as any grown.'' The wine divine Which flames so red should have been really sorry hymn to him. in which was ever composed. Faflon Oh. is truly Bacchanalian song There have been whole Cruscan Redi wrote a Bacco in Toscana And what and sincere hymn to Bacchus which that this also the first . Faflon Oh. was ever sung in the very last real is Italy —probably the ever be heard on earth. have a scanty vintage. May ! put. it lore. Faflon. reader. but to the following to the jovial god " is. I had a peasant wants a good make sure of it he repeats ! vuoi mi raccomando Che E Bacchic : Faflon. Faflon!") There. some form. Faflon. FAFLON.

and of prosperous Emperor AUGUSTUS. not only as regards this book.') his friends reply :- " Che ' lo spirito della contentezza Ti possa guidare sempre (" ' May ! the spirit of content Guide thy steps wherever bent "Then the traveller never forget that it is may go due to the his way joyous and " the goddess of the long absence of the ordained. but be in overtaxed country the idea of a And della Contentezza. is returns.). "Allied to him. - 70 — ' wrote the name legitimo di questo spirito e Faflo Faflo "). and sacrifices were October 12th. was Voltumna.' (" ' I am To " Then going on my way find a fortune if I may.c. to the Fortuna whom. whose shrine the confederate princes of Etruria held of Etruria. while Peppino declares. ! this Spirit of Content happy journeys. Fufluns was also anciently Dennis. and reader. La Romagna. : about to travel to seek fortune he says to his friends " 'Vado * : in viaggio Per fare fortuna. it setting out on a journey to seek fortune. sure that he will succeed. after temples. " probably more than known name. my certainly a very is certain that they 1 ' it When one is I wish with all my heart all his very creditable to the Italians that in such a terribly It is spirit of do invoke her when uttered as follows is good one. altars. was one of the gods who It the market-place and elsewhere with satisfactory result. " 77 (" The name legitimate of this were specially inquired friends." says as Vertumnus." ') at ease.. however. content can be entertained. p. from a long absence . lvii. their councils " (Cities. parts of all variation this —that Faflond. Spirito of Content that is &c. the great goddess at in vol. 19) returned. i. When Augustus (b. at confirmed the existence fully Magrini Ottavio name spirit is or cried for two contadino on market days to pick up the testimony special business of going of old peasants from of my should add that after the above was written I who made a " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS." There can be no question but that Redux. Lo The spirit may dwell with it life in everything. but he must Spirit of Content.— this with spirit.

to say. C. in Asia. " Schedius gives monument in Still in our ashes glow the wonted fires. and an which was consecrated on the 15th of the following December. altar raised It day was appointed 7i should not escape the notice of the reader that the Italian account of this goddess concludes with an exhortation never to forget that one's good fortune be due to the spirit which has been invoked deity under another name grateful to Fortuna Redux. it is to an old and that the traveller will Roman is to be truth a most naff unconscious survival of heathenism. PROC." from a ." relation to this divinity the following inscription : " FORTUNE REDUCI. that you This will is in owe . LARI ROM^E AETERN^E VIALI. NUS. that is success. VE. AELIA. this for an annual celebration of the event.— LO SPIRITO DELLA CONTENTEZZA. AXIS. AUG. Q.

unaffected simplicity. existence in a at proof of least of antiquity. from which Catholic the Trinity itself a "mystery. gilt hammers and nails. jewelled shepherd's and the whole mass of crooks. . are of a perfectly fresh. they would all have been tortured So we may observe. Tuscan these all of the forests and spirits fields. moping melancholy. its wretched ideal of life horribly. T may lar be observed as a very singuthat fact. 72 CORREDOIO. from its immensely artificial. Very revolting to many would have been its miserably affected. This natural but not of all. hearts on fire. stagey character. I had remarked lived in 1484 in my Gypsy Sorcery that and dared of the Spaniards)." is and every personifica- Cupid-cherubim. mystical properties theatrical which indeed take hold of vulgar nature in part. Herein they differ radically entirely from of the tion Roman Church. and folk-lore certain is its always elements. befitting the out-of-door naturefrom which they are derived. was of simplicity yore heathen. now to express if the Pope and Cardinals of 1891 what they all (with the exception perhaps think of witchcraft. that the whole modern machinery of the Church would have been utterly damned by the Fathers. Madonnas in silks with gold surroundings.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. down to the lightnings. the fireplace and vineyard. and then burned alive as heretics.

13. Che tu non ai fatto mai male Quando viene del male in casa mia O bel Corredoio vai c la discacci Con una bella risata. The processions. Corredoio is a spirit who much frequents dances way diverts himself. worshipped. following to have taken their from the the goddess of the pompa and the festivals and of joyousness. in the is 73 frolic we may is and us would make Curitoio at once. of Juno. or even commonly changed who is of a and loves dances music — the to vowels in Italian. He is delighted to come in like a veniata a gust of wind e cost si aha le sattane a quelle Signore and so raise the devil or the skirts among the ladies. iii. Etruscans surpassed any race of antiquity festivals. She festivals. and what most nearly Of Corredoio corresponds to the grand displays of the olden time. 12. and everybody which he utters another roar of laughter e se ne va is amazed —and flies to hear music an incantation or invocation to Corredoio which : " Corredoio. fairy or goddess She festive nature. is have with I offer ball. Corredoio. II and see away. and and who e in every — — — then he makes no performers There curious all — at is — the instruments sound of themselves. she was indeed above it is all And others not impossible modern deity of the dance. but their keen in relish for splendid pleasure for Juno. without laughter.—— —— CORREDOIO. and if name that the survives in the Ttiski. she all is — wild after come to the of Latin are very — and sure to attend wherever there modesty. bore as cannephoroe. which though a is distrust. is presence. then he (or she) bursts into loud laughter. (There are conflicting accounts as to the sex of Corredoio or Corredoia). the suggestion that her the beau reste or possible fragment of Curitis or Quritis in I (male or female). charming spirit There gay and and who is purely heathen. style where she was zealously sacrificed. " Curitis. the holy utensils on their heads. the streets laid maidens wrapped. and makes all the musicians whirl round. from Greece." says MtJLLER. in Falerii. for I have the : " Corredoio uno spirito che va molto nellefeste da hallo.. garments." is extremely . called Curedoia or Corredoio. Corredoio Che siei tanto buono e gentile. and innocence without smiles. Then Corredoio flies up into the orchestra. Romagna a spirit. so that the ladies blush." and gaiety were held with carpets (Ovid. in white was the name " White cows were in her honour. a vera fanatica per la musica you may not suspect her or a Apropos of which Corredoio. Magnificent festivals with every circumstance of splendour and the if Curitis was the popular name passion their The Romans seem intensity of their frolics. according to Greek custom. 24).

whirls wends him laughing. accomplished only in Italy that one could find a god who can " do the whole . fair Corredoio. Che cosi chiedero." it is and . art a fair Truly but thou also art a Of all spirit. send it flying With a ringing peal of merry laughter. ho. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Should any sorrow come into my house Oh. non avere mai guai e Se qualche grazia Da ti te bel Corredoio. plays on waltz. then in all he will make allowance translated " as It is utterly for the fact she went along. Thou who never dids't do harm to any. may admit that religion. Romagnola. Corredoio. fair Corredoio. since thou art so kind. viene qualche volta In camera mia. Dell' allegria A . And so. And help me to maintain a merry mind. deity who is " Romagna as any in the Prayer look in on a fellow and cheer him up very beautiful. this is sure. 74 Tu E o bel Corredoio ma vero. spirit merriment. Corredoio ! Thou who art so pleasant and benign. e cosi Mi E aiuterai a stare allegro. ho ! all the and yet makes it Christian — one who goes women in a wild his constant occu- pation to go into families and promote peace and harmony. And never know a sorrow — and if thou Can'st grant me some small grace which I may Of thee. is trace of such a glorious the balls. quella grazia di te io 1'avro. orchestra. sei anche sei un spirito lo spirito tu vai nelle case mettere la tuona armonia Dunque Tanto bel Corredoio tu che sei bello. (" Corredoio. and depart. if no be. or please and play with the children." from out of the pale of the Church whole Catholic in the — I may say Robin Goodfellow as Corredoio the instruments. Thou.") it very remarkable and beautiful invocation this is a with a ring as of Shakespeare to ask that grace thou'lt grant only that of a poor peasant woman. fair spirit. and in it is as earnest a prayer in the begs the deity to sometimes a friendly way "-<-& jolly. graceful. Corredoio. I ask ho. There it. sono certo. Come now and then I pray thee to my room. thou enterest houses To promote all loving peace and union. That when The that it is reader who understands and as heathen as can all Italian. me. leaving everybody This invocation Book.— .

every remarkable spirit was once a We may say that or of the horrible. always a magician. 14). " Cast up the account of Orcus. Instil. only to show to an astonished world that Piety and The Truly is nothing so still real. right. wails. if can go hand-in-hand. all gods from men. chap. so far at least as rude races are concerned. and who are feared. fasting. and while a contadino seen on the hills is may say Aurora sleeping " lo spirito della when the morning she comes to him in dreams and says " Svegliando — : Ii Pian piano. and every Italian child. have been teaching the people that religion and salvation and priests in Italy everything saintly cannot I such a fragment of light-hearted Paganism has survived. Among savage tribes in the early stages of Red Indians of America. she said.! — — : TESANA. red is . Che 1 " Pluton Latine est Diespiter : alii l'alba spunta Orcura dicunt " (Tertullian Div. TESANA. who makes but the business of his it feel grateful that life to 75 make people happy." It who would hardly be worth while to mention Orco." chief authority. who like the man. who derived which he appears to have been. it " Orco. " is a terrible spirit world over the is known earliest who was once conception of to my a great spirits. Lib. and death —yet while under these ashes of misery. blood. survived.. hell. In all and so the all of spirit the religions current in beautiful as this spirit of Sancte Corredoio ride pro nobis Orco. O buon uomo ! Sveglia te. the Italian has passed into innumerable fairy tales as the Ogre. etymology to a fact that rude races apply such names as hell and lightning to According to Euhemerus of Messina. just as Jupiter the contrary. Tesana alba. 1 but. form of Orcus. torture. were wizard. Jollity is of tears." For men. not for the peculiar description of him given by this is all the especially of those Shamanism. i.first She is " is the Spirit of the Dawn. so touching. the account thereof cast up." one good. in to a certain degree." .. of Codex Nazarceus. the old heathen Roman-Etruscan human nature and genial tenderness the world there all Corredoio. it is the Latin Orcus was a personification was of lightning.

. THESAN.76 ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. LALAE. LINTHUN. MEMRUN.

it come will Ever from labour Thus thou shalt Always good And good The To rich have health. TESANA. Ed alia Ma pero sempre buona fortuna. Che vengo per aiutarti Al buon coraggio. give to thee courage. . Ed sempre io saro tuo angelo II Consolatore ! " Waking. brings comfort to thy aid. : . born rich give aid to the poor man. Col tuo lavoro. awaking. is . good man. Sono un 77 spirito Consolatore. Softly and Thou truly gently. Rise from thy sleep The day I am a spirit One who I come To To But ! dawning. will to is work.— . Col suo lavoro Perche Non signore il sarebbe copare Alle fatiche Lavora o buon contadino Che ! momente al Spunta sole. il Quando sei Chiamami stanco In tuo soccorso. povero il aiutar il ricco. E con cosi buona la Buona volenta Di lavorare Avrai sempre Buona E salute volenta di lavorar. give thee fortune. nato ricco II ricco e Per aiutar E Per il povero.

Before I in this This is and Etrus.. or worship. SPULVIERO. good peasant . plate This Themis. identity between certainly extraordinary. When thou Call me to weary. relations. And human Gerhard {Gottheiten d. Etrusker. is very heathenish indeed. p. indeed. but This simply cheering him. that Thesan. contented and allegro has seen in a dream and conversed with a saint santo. —witch-heathen—and a protest of "the old religion spirit instead an old Romano-Etruscan or pure Etruscan tiful incarnations of the plaster rococo saints here in Italy. and Etrusker. A learned friend who has according to Corssen. to please her vanity. 259). one for every season— . even This graceful Aurora — this spirito della alba She comes out of and better race of beings. For the rich is unequal To such heavy labour Work then. 76) remarks that there was an accidental if is laws." This is absolutely heathen For " a against the new. " of a saint " —belongs to a purer true love to the peasant. The sun ! is rising. 78 The poor man to aid The rich by his labour. Roman means here simply nothing but There are no such very beau- Catholic mythology with its wooden- of the stage stagey. Spiegeln. It i. and quite in keeping with her simple old-time conservatism —that rich and poor must exist and observe mutual obligations one to the other. art aid thee. And I will be ever An angel consoling. remarks of Tesana. and of the shop shoppy.) " And — gay at heart—believing that he —when instead of that he has been talking so the peasant awakes and goes to his work. asking neither tithes. Thesan and had met with had been deeply impressed with the remarkable character of to social rights which are so prominent in the song. It is number remarkable that as the ancient Tusci surpassed of their gods of thunder and storm all other nations in the —having. Dawn who are the in all deity. o una santa with a spirit. prayers. and which this observation I the reflections as were above the range of thought of the far woman who sung it. decidedly marked. an Etruscan goddess of the dawn {Die Sprache der p. cannot have escaped the reader that Tesana appears strangely legend as reflecting on stages of society. fasting nor vigils. is revised this work. 39.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

all spirits forms and asked his spirit departed in the wind. it and servants. it is myth —that the now become an changed since the beginning. for they and said : " So he died over." since but for this he could not die. and " Leave at once. to an spirito chattivo evil spirit many good —who in his lifetime was a bonquore— who families. his turn came and he died. spirit if to these. witchcraft his bed. save that a lady who I heard it remarked. one of those wizards so evil that he ruined did good to His name Wind. but risen to polytheism. any one would take the inheritance of his But a servant took two brooms. me legend as recited to : is wizard. antique do not always reflect that a pebble to The Etruscan they were only developed magicians. but before dying he was in a evil as mended himself is this self- Those who love the be older than anything man ever made. because he flew swift as the wind. this is the " rain.") I believe . Of this spirit I si presente nella she is know nothing casa" (" a benevolent It is spirit. great and them always believed in as old as anything recorded. one thing evident it Shamanic retaining that they have here really led back a is the faith that an earlier stage." The power he was. —even those who had done good at an is literally is to the eddies or whirls of dust Chippeways. or Jupiter. patients but none replied. spirit may not probable that the peasants of And whether legend be modern. in his or her till an old Latin charm against very ancient and purely Shamanic in this legend The Etruscans had out. the dreaded of the wind and tempest." referring caused by the wind—the Pau-pu-ke-wiss of the however. of spirit among account which might have originated Spulviero." and then written there the Algonkin Indians. believing that every great be a relapse since really is train of facts is intricate. 79 so their descendants have also great fear not only of Tinia. but also of Spulviero. be followed So was once a man. nor could any one revenge himself on him. terrible wind so that the hospital was nearly blown is legacy refers to the belief that a wizard or witch cannot die transferred to another. knew him but suddenly there arose a great. a derivation from pluvio— But " " The Spirit of the all him good. the Spirit of the is whom once did them harm . he Wind. So Chuchulvia doubt if this really Romagna have ever men developed wise Euhemerism is —that The still declared to be a wizard. or older than the earliest Tuscan records. gods. people of good hearts For he was so wicked that when any one had done him. beginning. The broom What or deities were once sorcerers. also Spolviero. " But. but the people while accepting of it is may its evil spirit. . and put them under well.— — — URFIA. called Spulviero. Urfia. It may conceal. probably derived from polvere— dust. " E una donna che manifests herself in houses. sorcery. But is —but the people have remained I And he com- hospital. to all there.

LASSI. . on which subject gives Muller much Etrusker) (die information He writes conjecture. LASA. nos Lases iuvate. E " V. was a very comprehensive name. they must have originated Ehrennahme (some name among Tuscans and Romans shown is for as of honour). sta alternei advocavit conctos Lares we generally understand domestic family spirits. ." Song of Y sali. iuvato. Triumpe. Neve Marmar Iuerve incurrere sins in pleoris. Arval Brothers. " : and That the Lares belong to the Tuscan mythology name. . the Lar and Latin words the berber.CHAPTER AND LARES. in an common But both There were . were it by the Larth and Laris common surnames. Satur furere Mars limen Semunis E Marmo nos Triumpe.

AND LAS ST. the course of time has become obscure. are those which Arval brothers are called on as in the very ancient E nos Lases iuvate. in vicorum." 12 The song of the . finally the domestici LASA. grunduks. owing to confusion with the others. 81 civitatum. compitales. and permarini. rurales. and familiarest the comprehension of which OR GUARDIAN SPIRIT. Lares coelopotenies.LARES LASA. viales. rural Lares* on the other hand.

become gods. race is these Lasa if spirits on and " In the not the geniuses gifted with perfectly German had not a gleam of intelligence as regarded or the immense value of minor matters. or " winged spirits band or cap and earrings. Fufluns. these. and was p. or domestic familiar Lassi. Feronia. and referred is : Lassi are Lasa ? And what " folk-lore. or Lare ? " Tuscan minute. I No. though the Genius always comes to light. revived in youth and beauty. 93). with their prize works ." " Did but. Martian. is shall have seen the last of these Mr." first style. and in the very oldest Latin in existence ghosts of ancestors. Lares." it is as follows were generally nothing declares that the Lasa were generally female spirits occupied in Conversing one day with dies. "so far as doubtful whether Lasa and the Lares are connected." and holding a great variety of objects in their hands. with a frontal spirits. Rome when we course this is their ancient characteristics." which are heard or seen spirits are the ghosts of- exist with No . many of the ancients (Apuleius. asked if she it. This was conclusive. she had never heard anything with a similar name haunt churchyards They Etruscan that." " : " The Lares familiares must souls of ancestors the oldest form of the word very remarkable at is deities there are proofs. admirable and clear a to wait himself says elsewhere. and so are the no proof whatever that the Lasa. to in absolutely proved. and Varro) having declared lar. referring especially to concerned. with a mass of else Our author " MULLER confirmed by is adorning men and women. it must be admitted that we The Lasa were have here an extremely strong probability. " there are the Lassi or Lassie. naked or in a short chiton with armlets. as they were one and the same. half boots or shoes. were not Lares deified. To write in an deficient in sagacity. but all " " the ancestors of the family.'' knew such a word my best authority on as Lar. It seems to me most natural that the to be of the ancestors. {Note sight that under these extremely varied first This souls. but it critique." reflecting a are they in a ? " The answer house when one of the family who come most of at such a time. en grand certainly very fine. as depicted on vases. What are MULLER. to be over the great events or subjects of hoped that a time Dombeys is coming when we of History. the folk-lore of a race. ? and not Unfortunately. Lar of the departed industry. not Mania consider that Tinia." have no doubt that these Lassi or Lasie are the I Of the song of the Arval brothers. 82 " Lases was certainly in " Now it He human then adds genius and among than that necessarily be included domestic lares.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. should be the Muller aid the descendant risen to paradise. on the And Muller gives vases.

In compagnia Di E tanti Lasii. but I occupied supplied. and flames of fire. LARES. non avrete mai Bene. with all care. Smetti giuoco. I The tale is as fear for all to you an end. a story of the Lasi or Lasii. and as There is little real in which there not a gleam of intuition. and : " ' Sono Di il Lasio tutti Lasii. LASA. and he had a son ' My son. as regards the songs or metrical passages in been my them able. also an invocation to them. to give such accounts. can take care of you. because at midnight there was heard a great clanking of chains the bells ringing. ('"I No good shall my This place to "So there to him a voice which said you to son ! ') But he too was greatly they gave back the palace to the heir. Nothing remained but the palace. time the father died. While And I live I in a few But those who could not dwell there in peace. and waste days the son brought all who was His father said to him. would I I have not In most cases informant translated them from the original Romagnola dialect into Italian. Son' tuo padre.— — — — AND LAS SI. nor a nuance of is knowledge of life. a great lord Do it very rich. . crowned by Academies. And there are with me Many more Lasii. and they were often manifestly imperfect or partly follows " There was once behave well. all in the original or best form. colour. Non che fino prenderete Questo palazzo A mio * figlio. which he sold. il Altrimenti non avro — Mai pace In all cases where the text is e tu in metre the original was chanted or intoned.' who was a great prodigal che cannot live long. after my After a death. heard a voice saying And they saw black figures like smoke passing about. And they : '" Sono il Las to. say that. Che vengo adesso In tuo soccorso Purche tu m'ubbedisca. came come you restore Till terrified with the apparitions. and 83 little all your patrimony. ' am the Lasio. therefore I beg you to always not go on gambling. : sciupeva tutto il danaro. as you are wont to do.

Amen ! ' Break down the beams Which are in the palace They are full of money. 84 Ti troverai ancora In miseria estrema Ma se tu m'ubbedisca. I shall And in misery thou obey'st me. Living in pleasure Only Never "Then this promise me. Cease gaming for ever. have peace again. " . . play again. if thou shalt be wealthy Far beyond measure. . 10 vivro in pace. j . .! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. E sarai tanto ricco Da non finire patrimonio 11 tuo Anche divertendo te E faccendo molto Ma promette mi bene. Cosi starei benme.') :— " ' Rompi quante trave Che' son' nel palazzo E piene di danaro.' the Lasio Of all the Lasii. As you will find. I am thy father Come to thy succour If thou'lt obey me. Or thou Know shalt never peace . Le trovarei. Ed io staro in pace.') the son answered: " Padre perdonatemj Non giuochero piu. Nelle require E (" ' mettermi.' ' (" ' Father. forgive I will ne'er " Then the father replied me .— . to play again. and thou Wilt again find thyself Sunk deep But . Di non piu am (" 'I giuocare.

FAUN AND FEMALE LASA OR FAIRY. LASA. S5 .LARES. AND LASSI.

mi la grazia L'asso di fiori farete. It is grim. segno che Non me la grazia volete fare Se mi farete trovare Quello di quadri Segno e che La grazia mi fate." which . Candele accese. Percy's in is Relics. that it is that the story an Icelandic narrative than anything — is ! by the beams meant breaking away the that Heir of Lynne and very simple There me in this strange like that of the altogether is me things strike Amen I go. is very Secondly.— . There It Two was explained much strong. le butto In vostra presenza Nell punto della mezza notte. also an invocation of witchcraft to these spirits of ancestors not less curious : " Lasii. 86 Then I shall be quiet In the rest of the dead. ! !! . In mezzo a uno cantina. Se scoperto l'asso di pique. Tre carte. Trovare mi farete. Lasii Che tante buoni siete D'una grazia io ! ne ho Gran bisogno E da vuoi spirit! ^ Spiriti e Lasi. Italian. Mi E fate trovare. Mi vengo A vuoi inginnochiare altri Mi vengo a raccomandare Che questa Mi grazia. Con tre candele. quello di quadri. Che vuoi certo mi vedete Per cio . Le buttero per l'aria. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. say almost archaic. one may ceiling. scoperto. Quello di E fiori. to more like ' ") One semi-poem. Lasii. vorrete fare Lasii. Lasii. Queste carte Per Se l'aria buttero. l'asso di picche. Lasii A vuoi vi presento.

a favour. LARES. LASA. Bearing three candles. I of ye spirits. in the had by spirits. the treasure. Three candles lighted. that of diamonds. Here In If just at air I you grant Cause The If midnight throw them me me . I fling them in the air That you may see them Plainly before you. in a prosaic voice. and Spirits Here Lasii. that of clubs.") But. 87 Lasii." Games of chance and lotteries are such a serious element in Italian no one need be astonished at an invocation Perhaps the Romans did the same like this life for luck at alea. Now in a cellar I And am kneeling. 'tis the ace of spades 'Tis a sign that Grant me you will not the favour if you make me find The ace of diamonds.! ! AND LAS SI. . PRELLER :— I Since recording this Tuscan story of the Lasio have met with the following that being addressed to the Lares. —the Three cards And And ace of spades. or dice. Lasii. (' ' !! . Lasii Ye who There Which And are gracious is a favour need greatly. to find ace of clubs plainly." added the fortune-teller. Lasii. " it will not be until after a long time. commend myself I Unto your That ye graces. Then 'tis a sign But That " my wish will be granted. I would that I me my copy of PASCHASIUS Justus' De Alea. Lasii Here I present myself. I might find it in that J It may be remarked that in this account the Lasii appear as benevolent devoted to a family. will grant me This special favour Lasii. who gave Romische Mythologie of L.

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. . TINIA AND LASA.

au foyer de la famille. winged. sur . and he gives the this to given him daily offerings such as incense or wine or garlands. and took funny or queer (mi trovai a un caso buffo light. places. a habit of talking aloud to myself." This is briefly the same story as that which I have related. found that at spirits had written the foregoing I I name people. to collect evidence of addition of the plural article time after the following. phial. once there stood before (non ti : —and I still it me which I was was really a lasia.' ' down found myself in a very lonely place by a stream. qui campagne. and lasia. The Lar or Lasio has a treasure in reserve which he gives to the heir. if thou And when fortune. On which subject the following is : Lares. sgomentare). They are. but I have since regarded cost io lo about picking leaves and wood-flowers. i (the) to Lasii. LASA. to heard accurately await the good fortune which has not as yet come to me. and wandered said : ' Dear ' —the I wouldst like child. regarded the becoming a Lar as the of interest " Les peuplent le first step to becoming a god. and at hot is the narrator repeat. dans la 13 ville. The young man belief lasted long Peppino. but be not afraid and so she disappeared. for in thy old age thou wilt have saw her again " last a care and kindness and sweetness which myself she said relative to the Lasii. without fear.' me had bathed and dressed I and many more are before good had weather was very There was something about her which pleased cannot describe. It was comfortable to think that there was in the house an attached family spirit who might do one a x good and therefore the turn." best in this story I cannot relate. . bathe there : thought at the time was dark in a thee. .. undress evidently only an chiamai). old I I would like to woman. there are many lares familiares. these Etruscan mountaineers men dream dreams. which " When made Once went with some I — —when all at greatly. Next to the Lar familiaris. I Oh. ou Lases. but gives the Some among and the manner faith in was the earnestness which the narrator repeated the with which she expressed the conviction that this Truly they are a strange race. a la 1'Italie. who it in a very different forest. and the deep details. is AND LASSI. a spirit of I never some ancestor long dead. qui jouent un role monde si important dans les anciennes religions de romain. This as Ilasii. that the grandfather confided a treasure to him which he secretly hid only daughter of the house. who wishes me well. was indeed a I believe this with which — ' me an Bimba. It happens. young. was about twelve years of age something happened I home and in the marketby me recorded. and to bathe. I One day relations into the country.. and more frequently feminine than male. 89 " The lar familiaris is the Schutzgeist—guardian spirit of the family. and young their folk see visions and their old old Etruscan religion. or large The bear bottle generally a I believe almost always. beautiful spirits. all rural who went about much. a good who has always girl . which was distinctly Euhemeristic. perhaps. They are represented as Pictures of Lases abound on Etruscan vases. who simply called the lar or lar pater (the father lasio). qu'on trouve partont. and that told. troubles.— — LARES. . I will protect thee. knowledge of the the Lasii were known. thou hast had many What was was I said.

LOSNA. pouvait retourner que nous l'avons vu. ou les dieux.. " E un grande piacere a fare V amore col proprio fratello. which I : " Losna is a spirit of the sun and moon She loves — of both. exactly paralleled by the old Etruscan is by Tages. not of the moon When alone. a goddess of the moon. to (die Etrusker. viales. participer a l'essence des dieux. vie parmi puis jcwialis. v. for thou didst once say. 90 es routes —Lares familiares. because she has caused discord in the family.). " It CORSSEN (i.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. les Penates et les Lares" (Servius ad Aen. of Borneo and the old Irish believed that the there for the same deed. and laugh and say Thou art a stupid fellow. parmi donnait entree dans la comme penate lui-meme " (L'Etrurie elle et remontait au rang ou le Genius jovialis. to deride people gaily. 346-7) " has erro- p. It will i. Les Etrusques. lui matiere ce souffle divin. In .. When a brother debauches made her mischief she will appear at the table where a contadino is with his family.. be seen by this extract that the still existing doctrine taught very singular belief that sometimes reborn as mightier sorcerers than before. en vertu de certaines expiations. de la d'honneur dans les Livres Ach&ontiens qui faisaient partie de la doctrine de Tages. 168 dii animates. cf. Larth ou Laris est un On sur les inscriptions funeraires de l'Etrurie. eprouv^e par les sacrifices. l'ame.. these tales are truly from the olden time they ought to be replete with sensuality —as they are." is knew of such a being wrote down as uttered she as Losna. LOSNA. and is Latin Lund)" But on asking not for us to settle the question. les Lares ont sans acun doute nom prouver. et etait place certain sorcerers' souls are and from comme une emanation de la spirits." And when she has done this mischief she goes away his sister it is always her doing. its character. she has : ' ' singing. in consequence of which they also can never rest. The gypsies in the East of Europe have a legend that they are descended from Sun and Moon the Sun having debauched his Moon sister was condemned to wander for ever. 81) says that single mirror from Prseneste (GERHARD. coincidences are fortuitous. 302). " Ainsi s'accomplissaient dans les croyances de l'Etrurie les mysterieuses destinees de l'ame humaine. fait partie un et titre d'ailleurs.. These As for handed down remarkable. vol. urbani. cosmogonie Etrusque. que nom Leur frequemment l'on rencontre seul semble le . que les ames humaines pouvaient. She only Etruria. I Finally. 301. et sous le divines.). . thou knowest not that thy daughter is incinta (with child) by her brother. s. par A. I my authority if received the following reply. nom de iii. proceed to be this la divinite. clxxi. Ital. apres l'avoir recueille quand mort venait separer de la l'expiation. lisait. 1862. pp. i. rurales. The natives the . ainsi Paris. the Man in the Esquimaux have a but in any case have already remarked that if they are Moon is imprisoned similar story. prendre place Le Genius . p. ou ames Fabretti.Noel des Vergers. Gloss. MtJLLER neously attributed occurs on a (Lticna." This startling myth has that in it which seems to prove great antiquity. &c.

returning the chief motive hell. and revolt such portion of first infernal its stand agency. idea of what life. and Reproduction. much established first which was not not say for young will I fit. terrify has an allusion to the sun and moon as an incestuous brother and is LOSNA. to. 91 people. "appears on an Etruscan mirror with associated in write.LOSNA. or this of the time first Light and Wine and gaiety as causes of is it Major-General the tertiary formation (or polytheism as call investigate the witchcraft of the of what but even for But the old myths However. Benndorff. less sought for. that story which if we wish to when men had we must only retaining. who refers lies 165. i.. and vol. in London one and had made with great . influenced by fear of quietly pass over this element which was. who do For primitive all if cannot. pretty. Losna. AeaTToiva. out of which these grew were nothing of the kind." there present. been frequently engraved According to Corssen (Spracke der Etrusker. and that Losna is it is it that some is remarkable that in sister. with the half-moon i. 346). also that Lusna was the a dialectical form peculiar to Praeneste. this fear comprehend the present nor In any case probably a mere fragment. now dropped the Preller. nothing was preserved. iii. book simply because Lala. and amusing Mdhrchen. the passing into pantheism). and such reviving influences as Fertility fearfully " shocking " to all man has come to not the great guiding influence in period. picture representing possession. the nursery. the spirit of collection. was at least almost the begun to regard ladies. Cavendoni. as discussing it. works on Etruscan Helbig. Ritschl. living believer has shall not Lara. suggest nothing as yet. on my paper p. even to well-informed fact. but innocent. avoid And chief. state.. attention of duty and in and have a clear —we must under- monument another possible just It is may have I art. In by Grimm. This is now for a century in my it to Gerhard's Etruscan Mirrors. sweet.e. as understand fully tradition of such association with the sun it turn over a vast amount not seek " abditis rerum causis " for the future. Schoene. This mirror had greatly interested me. on early power exists. and —which no we do we Till at that all I call is the It is Louna. myths of what we may if into the hidden causes of things. or really believe the past. pass that most collectors. from Praeneste. with the sun-god Aplu. it much secondary Shamanism we would know Man's early history we must not.. and Reader. was sorcery and Religious study. original name.'' says is Pollux. or that were formed. as given rise to the Tuscan of the reader specially to the from a mirror which has as &c. or devils we clear " man in the way To it — was out of what could most magic. incentive to worship. fairy tales I had purchased contained an engraving of it.

) . (From the original Etruscan bronze mirror.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 92 LOSNA. now in possession of the Author.

or more commonly an inscription. or out of place. which perfectly explains the phenomenon. having is rubbing from the mirror which itself. par endardement reciproque. care three or four drawings of dissatisfied. own " Si on_. the reason being this The Chinese mirror. Fisher given here purchased I once. I reflected in sun- inferred that the pressure on the face hardened the metal throughout. I believe peculiarly associated with the mirror as a magic object. trations with me unwillingly. yet that when light it Hence could be distinctly seen in the reflection. at it should I absolutely correct. the picture on the It is the : other side is distinctly visible in the reflection. The same may be made and polish the surface." we take and when cold grind But the Baptista Porta of a pattern in hard glass. repulsive to witches. ces rayons retournent sur l'autheur d'iceux. when here in Florence. and very in ancient Etruscan mirror threw most desired to I my mind. or " curiosities. " mirrors. If we let the sun shine on the mirror and reflect it on a smooth white surface. Mr. cast a off reflection against the J. that was it my and when it 93 from different works. invention there in his for glass by annealing the bed of will soft glass about seem uniform. for illus- remember I I went odds and ends. not even by making marvellous That picture. is polished on one side and has a picture. I mention that the made on —the a tracing or Losna out shop — very the mirrors ever all and see. These mirrors were believed among the Etruscans magic power. on the other.— LOSNA. into a was much on it I " say that of I of which I was all Unwin. is. which did not satisfy me. found an very one which had been engraved. Fascinators if they saw presente un miroir. the storm will cease. 1892. I made. it. stratus declares that if a mirror be held before a sleeping thunder-storm. like the ancient. All mirrors are. is in I been a state of perfect preservation. according to ancient and modern superstition.luy Losna was eye and its like. with March 5. suppose that the Etruscan mirrors when new had the same I Of which many recipes quality. to possess same with the Chinese of the present day who make similar ones. On the afternoon by my Socratic demon. state simply the truth one this in particular which by chance. went over publisher." that evil terrible glance turned against them As a lunar-solar goddess. or evil spirits. I have heard explanations of About the year 1856 a daguerro typist in the this United States having cut two lines in a cross on the face of a copper plate found that though the cross was not perceptible on the back. man Philo- during a hail or . which sun will show the light from the than that from the hard. like basilisks —had and good against the their themselves reflected. soft glass as duller is no mention. and which need not say that engraving my " of the following day much a glass case." led and there so longed to see.

it Rosa Quis." spirits as good.. or spirit of " In them all and rooms. and that and with tenere risum queat Which is all this the ? the soldiers\vere devoted to her. 94 Laronda. actors. as Larunda is now." ' she was a donna it come named Rosa who. in times the secretly sweetheart v. gladiators. or Tuscany who caserme dei delle a very kind. is to discuss business and hold festivals. Xhefolletto of the casernes. Laronda in peculiar to. or soldiers' barracks in. her beauty than for her gaiety and goodness " is and was long confined that she could these soldiers was one the witch discovered that less for Once After a while the officers noticed missed her sadly. She seems to be Lactantius remarks mentioned? : This 1 (i. she was so little real : Italy. or Larunda" 20. and that gypsy was ill-pleased and said to Rosa Hanc esse dicunt." the people round about Therefore the Lares compitalium literally then. at seeing a which are ten . or Lara. speaks of her as the Dea muta.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and so arranged Now Such a legend relating to Laronda connection. we may well infer that soldiers also occupied them. read that these ancient buildings were the resort of boxers. sillier life. or even some of her similitudes here. militari. during her and forbade her frequenting the barracks. quum who had audiat deam Mutam ipsam Laram nominant. or silent Preller'S Mythology. was at which to her bed. certainly very remarkable is mother of the Lares literally was infer that she I reference to a prayer to her he remarks But from a passage goddess. et what an ancient heathen might have said Spanish Virgin Mary in an old French bonnet. : sint nati Lares. where great bodies of only building in Italy which illustrates with much and of learning. spirit. so for a time all went well. devoted to soldiers. this all I modern Tuscan is now the All of which quite like the ancient compitum. Geist —ein seliger —a good or happy " But what compitales. benevolent is dwells E who. visited the caserme. the chief what corresponds most accurately to the modern caserme which Preller men of such large public buildings. caserme. who was a zingara. 35). as well as witch. Larunda was a point where several roads meet. vel Larundam. At such Romans met " : a place the " specially Here we lived. and of political clubs. Then the soldiers themselves among them . knew nothing when I And when we spirit. were the guardian known in spirit. — " Sarebbe un is spirito molta buona. since in plainly understand ein guter that is Compitum corresponding to modern barracks. ex qua and more laughter-moving than the rudest works of Roman times. or gypsy. is ascertained what I have written of the first especially the erected large buildings with passages And Larunda was met. ." identified with the old Etruscan Larunda. strangely enough. of whom "Who can keep from laughter when he hears the silent goddess Ovid is she whom they call Lara. In the course of time stories grow up or are attached to names with which they have very following " Laronda is much " Among grieved that she 1 fell ill.

will come of the patrol. fin Tu non " And would curse ! I give thee. adapted I have since heard it large building frequented it to the word asserted that by many for patrol or " round. for I lover loves thee.' soldiers grieved for her death. said jealousy." This . the spirit of any This seems to be the have no guarantee whatever that the story is not a mere modern fabrication founded on a jest. this adaptation of a modern pun connection with the classic Larunda. old and generally entertained idea. thou shalt have ' upon thy head." Laronda may be. " said : Io sono la bella Rosa. then of course any myth may be punned or conjectured out of existence. Rosa. such as a hotel. hearing of Laronda. meaning. and all petrified scallop shells dropped —but now shells any tradition whatever. But while they were sorrowing they were suddenly amazed to see at a window the apparition of a lady of great beauty clad in who white. that she which the other. just to a word will way we Voltaire In this as found on mountain-tops had probably been by pilgrims from the Holy Land. grief. oh. ! ' ' Per cio ' voglio pregare ti Nelle caserme di non piu andare " Then Rosa replied frankly but resolutely. nor like lead year thou'lt live in pain and Ere death ronda (the yield nothing whatever to please her foolish fall anno che tu camperai. Lemuri. in a rage. I Ronda of the soldiers. and you hear me call. while this story turns upon a mere resemblance of the word to a technical term with a very different I think it most probable that some ingenious but ignorant person. thou art esteemed by any more fair Rosa am true that I it is ! my own and all the soldiers 95 not so beautiful as thou And am a gypsy. so I beg thee not to frequent the barracks no rest after death. On asking i spiriti dei if such a word as Lemures was known. whom to quite suffice to destroy all declared that the Rosa night flees from the world of the eternals I will spirit But Laronda was from of the public building. to bring relief. If Larunda be modern because there is a modern story fitted to the name. and " As she threatened so came it all and the to pass. since thou lovest soldiers so well. at —but one year do long : ' May my E ' " ' A spirit wilt thou live avrai che pene e guai. " delta art. or night-guard).— " ' LEMURI. oh. Rosa. La Ronda but shalt become il folhtto thou shalt be. while I is. or people. campo-santi— " Lemuri are the I spirits of was told that Lemuri sono the churchyards. very ancient times the guardian and when La Ronda. There am when the beautiful then open the windows to will be many might utterly invalidate I am dead I have become the Folletto della come to seek you.

as a peasant was ploughing child. with an invocation their health. etiam post manentes appellantur Lemures" (Martian. it lives in his may in was indeed from would be indeed deeply Etrurian not be of the if home fittest for as Tago or the spirit of only to show the extraordinary popular tradition to be tempore tribuuntur quo iis it fit now and then prima conceptio. but what we should now books and teachings that And drawn. when we see which causes them to recover is it. II . atque cum Mess.c. an infant in form but effigie sapientia senili —and proceeded forthwith to astonish everybody by his prophesies and instructions in what was then religious his wisdom. —leapt from arante in agro Tarquiniensi with an old man's head and in his wisdom—puerili Italian- Hetrusco the furrow. or spirit like a boy. them with the Latin Lemures. out these suppose them to be the being. are the only spirits in such form I As tells fortunes. et ides still be recorded. 96 clearly enough as the Larvae. but by no one so succinctly or elegantly as by Petrarch Latin. which they are frozen up And magic. ap. as all Roman that he if Terieg'h. 1 Tago. a wizard.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.. which were the same or the unhappy and terrifying ghosts of those who have died evil identifies deaths. This one day. do not is. me Favi invoked. or under a ban. Truly such survivals as these manner ' in " Verum it is befitting that they illi manes. so that I could recall that there of the ground. ix. quoniam corporibus illo vitam iisdem corporibus delectantur." Another authority informed is little who a spirit children suffering. Muller). ap. we could prove interesting the age. to a few old people. 9. He comes up Teriegh (harsh and guttural and uncertain). . Preller). Etruscan lore began with him. " Lemures umbras vagantes hominum ante diem mortis mortuorum (Augustin. and predicts the future or same is a spirito bam- His name however. Cap de "Lemures lame nocturne et terrificationes imaginum et bestiarum" 40. to which there are innumerable allusions in all Latin writers.." whose given in detail by Preller and many more. or appearing as a Gustavo declared " : Tago is write But prayer this I who bino. Tago He is a spirit whose is name appears known only to be described as a spirito bambino. Dei. . ap. Preller). The name Tago " the wise Tages. quodam Of him boy. but call divination and sacred observances were metuendus " (Porph. history is will naturally suggest to the scholar that of Etruscan child plowed from the earth. p. ii.

) 14 97 . (From the Etruscan Museum of Gori. TAGES.TAGO.

. They had. and burned people priests they were not a few who thus clung to the ancient over Europe. councils thundered sacrifices. and was All of these were like themselves. which had their beginning in Tages. the peasants persisted in their devotion to the poor old forbidden gods. and. deep song in silent shade. it may pass. To tenerse. colleges condemned. mischievous. did they find any attractions in making its a duty of obedience to cruel feudal tyrants. so late as the fifteenth century. a person of humanity and tender feelings there or indescribably pitiful in the manner old gods and resisted Christianity. 584. when fire. as Johannes Praetorius says in Qsdipus. Satyros. and what the stone said when the well or silent pool " under the stars." who teased it burned. "Hsec loca capripedes. hath deluded wonder. as is abstract. was thrown why the laurel all spirits. and within their natural compre- . " so sociable. of asceticism. and every few years. all and they long resisted it Despite cruel perse- cution (as Horst and Michelet observe). something very touching is which the people For represented. forgotten land of early days —homes of visions portals through which elves or their own elfin in the old thoughts Voice of the Waterfall. familiar goblin the the at twilight into and they had learned the There was an indescribably the long- grey rocks with possible who lived in the girls and bothered the boys. after many be Tages I leave superstitions may be Tages "all this story of a mere fable and betrayed man with a his fashion. that he might use the really For. and dread of the devil. This old religion of nature was congenial to the people because they understood and deeply there is felt it. there are some still left heathen for faith. in the They Toscana Romagna. and priestly and feudal oppression Nor which they did not understand. life in crackled They know delightful. It was forced on them. that wherewith the devil. iv." and and what words guage from it said —these were their fathers. his fortune-telling and sorcery. 98 thawed out to some his But whether Tago or Terieg'h seeker. Anthropodemus Plutonicus. their generally mis- Hebrew-Persian Catholic religion of professed love. were all And at. esse loquntur. or haunted the fireplace. Davus sum non for others to settle. an impression that a spirit in the pathless woods. fasting.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS." Fanio." Lucretius. that they gladly took Roman in it is not true at to the mystical. as I have shown. spirit-lan- companionable sense in believing that there was a jolly. in Europe clung to all. Finitimi fingunt et Quorum Faunos nymphasque noctivago strepitu. as I hope the reader has.

FAN/0. and they would believe in them because. A haggard. nor did healthy humanity ever accept them in loving did the old heathen gods. as they must adopt some kind of supernaturalism. and the agony of tortured are not congenial to earnest. bleeding. everlasting goody-goodiness of ETRUSCAN RURAL DEITIES. Madonnas. as it us. they took that which was most natural. The whole history of the Middle Ages —or . and congenial to them. 99 tension. pallid spectre. saints with no end of fasting and prayer. sensible.

And verily such a doing thereof as I about. outworn was not unlike the — be as happy as a heathen suckled will —which was well off who yearned desire of Francois Villon. who better off folk-lore. he feels and remote from or is when we walk in forced into these. is draw comes it nature as a " is deeply my heart could It was all summed up for the ancients Faunus and the Fauni were the incarnation of forests. tourists in Italy to see what it "the thing" to see is everything. still lives in the Romagnola. from a tears who goes by precept may think that he can feel You cannot serve God and Mammon together. in the single deity. feel the true spirit of old heathen religion the forest and skirt the line of" thus far —and —the then no more sounding sea to the sands upon the shore.e. twenty-five francs for a party of four. into goblins. expressed thought in act or speech by the sitting language of the —and then. fire in silent own thoughts and memories become to for we feel or see how we can give them life or Make this literal not a mere figure of words. tourist but he does This old impressed in not. and for the ladies of the olden time.. and pass by without note a hundred spots even more beautiful.). and I would that (i." and duly admiring them. spirit all this utter the thoughts a peasant Tuscan-Etruscan which it streams and fields. according to Ruskin. as is set forth in the following passages. very plain. and flowers. ioo you may continue they believed simply this lives in And in misery. It is a great pity." We do it by going to see all the places prescribed by the hotel directions." to admire or " feel beautiful " over. Therefore I was glad to find that this often inspires. there people are most truly properly the only object which interests is it is " superstitions " any whenever Christianity has Humanity and Nature. till somebody has among behold here told us how.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. or false influences of mediaeval religion not really know what we ought and chiefly to the affected- its we do resultant " art. but pity 'tis 'tis owing true. " there and back. or enthuse Then we go and " do it. a creed in Wordsworth wished that all for. ' " Fanio is a wizard who comes the Euhemeristic conception of all in the the form of a spirits in spirit. You and I. and never what truly cares for man is " . and is or with the old heathenism. reader. Baedeker. A child or naturally. but our it us quite the same as spirits. and Co. an you later it it. only another form of Pan. The child. fairy-life is — it or he takes Nature as of unaffected feeling of nature without " culture word Faunus. quite as you friend.'' this This appears to be very primitive Tuscan . —yea. might millstone. that sentimental. common Man " will — is one of mankind making believe that the proof of —that wherever and elements quite in religious. reader." or are We do not make night.

rustling waterfalls. and says he blows and feels invisible ' Vuoi sapere Sono Che Mi Mi which put him in a rage. still haunt the scenes of his former Fanio does was narrated as follows " Fanio when there is remembered is life. and then supposed to is man of power on earth. What is Finio. or nightmares. . the were called Faunificarii. mythology. as a spirit of the forest. And a wedding he often anticipates the bridegroom in his kisses. scattering He appears as a fire. whence the popular name of Incubus for them. fauns as a class were where he predicts fortunes or catches much given in their sleep. and cause wild dreams. ! — ' FANIO. and spirits act as were known . for these lecherous wood-goblins " From their lechery they readily slipped into their beds. These fauns and silvani of chievous household goblins. vel Satyros. Tuscan They all belief are very make naughty incubi. guard against the fauns and Silvani.'' above all.— — ). at the fear which he has caused. . of old in Assyria. so that they sometimes appear altogether as annoying imps which attacks people used all and tormenting mortals kinds of roots and quackeries. vel sylvestres quosdam homines quos nonulli Faunas " (Hieron. difficult to All of the characteristics attributed to him in the account agree accurately with what PRELLER relates :— " In some phases of popular who belief Faunus appears lurks in deep shadows. and chases the nymphs. me gave much as bliss. or birds. First a wizard. . especially the root of the forest-peony paonie). v. m'e piacuto in piace al altro I'm the the husband chi sono? lo spirito cio che Che if cuffs. in /sat. which had to be dug by women had to teasing —like the nightmare to us —against men by night. or looks ioi for helping and if you his wife is ! ' angry and curses the goblin. after What like a devil. in this think that thanks are due Unto me this. picarios vocant ' to be ' on their Vel Incubones. thrown forward. WaldBut. 13. : " " Then who : frightens peasants in the woods. when Fanio bursts out (" ' ho risparmiato tanta ti Who am ? I And — spirit if I me ! you would know." not It is recognise in this Finio the Faunus of the Latins. . in hidden caverns. and when the husband comes and would embrace his wife laughing. he only torments her the more and returns as a nightmare to disturb her sleep. fatica Fanio in life once Pleases vexed at vita. much love to Quite the same Lenormant says (Magie Chaldaienne) : allied to the mis- women. else the great wood-pecker would peck out ( their eyes. 21). or a death. The by as nearly allied to Silvanus. mondo dovresti ringraziare. and then laughs man leaping up with his hands wide open.

" . spirits by the peasants in whose existence has.) their malicious tricks believed in . vV (On a make the stables admitted by so patera. It is .. Florence. that it was one of those Assyrian. and which are still Museum. .ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Ardat.been many parts of Europe. judging from its name.. 102 " To Nightmare in the Accadian Kiel-udda-karra. in the the Incubus and Succubus was joined the familiar spirits which probable. (Etruscan) and the houses the scene of many people.

" " The peony De wine. and those contadino has retained old minor of the sylvan and rural deities. &c. Bacchus is commonly enough sworn information regarding him. The wood which taken with due observance and incantation to the fauns or other spirits of the forest. on account of against the fauns as nightmares." a holy log of that the ceppo sacro. growing. It may be remarked that nearly mythology are of the nature of the 103 the spirits which occur in this peasant all Also that while the Romagnola fauns. red colour. of in much and bed- alike as therefore girls. Von Alpmannrigen. yule-log of the North — is many is . one has quarrelled with a lover. but I the god of there- met on the that strange work in by C. is by many properly. by the herb and Querciuola sings :— So when one is distant. In a work on Faunus. Incubi. and mischievous conduct. regarded as great protection its PRjETORIUS (Antkropodemus Plutonicus . as in been transferred from one plant to another in of it (given to "When wherever it is separated. but not worth specifying. the author declares that whatever deity have been. Fano. Etruscan names of gods. because the fairy of that it in the case of rue. one should go and name as to the heart or place. be me with specimens of the plant). Silvani. a great friend to lovers. firesides creatures. (Eduard Gerhard. therefore Odoard Gerhard 1825). Naples. form chapters Bauhinus. di truth is that all all and mischievous nightmares consequently wanton and gay. mixed and mingled as he was with others. for reasons not too far to find. &c. were naturally familiar schoolboys. Satyrs. . corals. despite his immoral general favourite. Hermaphroditis. as teasers They were difficult to he romping seducers.a is burned For. fields. 1666) mentions that people. a small oak-tree. It is worth observing on Christmas Eve —the "flints. e de suoi segnaci. is as follows sit I it is has learned : beside the plant called Querciola. Fanio or peony roots. wear round their necks. What Romagnolo. or . to keep away the Incubus. in Italian. save that he was must be the same as fore The Faflon. as was Faunus of old. he has not the great Latin gods. 1667. but. and best treatises which I have Fauns. Del Dio Fauno. and others. QUERCIOLA. and Pal6. as rosalaccio. names than by is not these minor spirits of forests and rooms. mysterious association also a fairy. This word refers to an herb or small plant which. such as Sylvanio. entitled could gather no by.— QUERCIOLA. the other sits is other instances. and more distinguished by reality natures. or hanging from them. was. may determine.

) But. 104 : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. He'll seek my roof once more. not in vain. Fata Querciola ! pene Sofrirei tante Se da me non tornasse Ma da me conviene le me Perche la fata Di (" ' il si l'ha promesso. hast blest so many.' ") . And what thou sayst will surely be. not forgotten be Fairy Querciola ! ! Fair as thou art good . Send a Let tetto. farlo ritornare sotto al Fairy Querciola Thou Let art good ! Fairy Querciola ! May . Che 41 mio bene A mi tu faccia ritornare. blessing unto me hope me. Which I hope thou'lt not deny Make him who was my lover Return to me once more. thou hast promised me. ritornare. that I. Fata Querciola 1 Sei tanto bella e altra tanto buona Ti chiedo una grazia sola E E me spero non Mi la vorra negare. though humble. Fata Querciola ! bene Ai fatto tanto A tante persone Anch' Che io voglio sperare di me non ti di me Vorrai dimenticare. Fairy Querciola ! I shall suffer sore Unless my love as lover Comes back as once before. " Fata Querciola ' ! Sei tanto bella quanto buona A ti mi vengo raccomandare.. fairy. wilt send happiness Unto me again Thou mio ! as fair me hope and That thou mio bene. One favour I implore. mio amore lo farai ritornare.

like Querciola.QUERCIOLA. qua . or Querciuola. AND THE TROJAN HORSE. second edition) : " presidentes querqueto virescenti. an old a wood-nymph.. 89. ab eo dicta sit Querquetularia. though Roman is clearly or Italian the term. SETHLANS. refers especially to a dryad." an oak. So Festus observes (Preller. VULCAN. M. that of Querquetulana. p. Querquetulance Vira putantur significari nymphce quod genus silvce Querciola 15 is indicant fuisse intra portam therefore clearly a dryad. or spirit of R. as the enough closely connected with simile for Vira (which see). name of a 105 nymph or sylvan spirit. Querciola.

passing spirits called Querkeln in Bavaria..— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. : here. Sethano. these spirits there are invocations and tales. fire all is Sethano or Sethlrano or Settrano. io6 These Querquetulanae have an apparent. 1848). (Bayerische Sagen von Fried. invocation. I have I " am not sure whether this name is been able to learn more than what Settrano proverb wish the Of the spirit of fire. nor to burn they invoke (se voca) is all repeated." Sethlans was the Etruscan Vulcan. but instances been able to collect them. Wiesen over the river Main by the village of Panzer. survival in the They emigrated from that country. that spirit.e. or barely possible. or spell) which (i. Munich. They know When a they do not Sette TlCO. He is is contained in these lines remembered by a saying. I have not in all .

CHAPTER VI. I infer from this that the story is widely spread. . CARRADORA.

Che servono per le strege Discacciar." keep in the air. and But she could not escape the double sight of Janus reward the jus cardinis. and then took the entrails of a very small pig " ' (an maialino).' " Then the witch took corbeizole. atta le come Alle strege bisogna fare. e gl'interiori Di bella si bambina Sono giovani quanto Ed ad e proprio Per amare. and said ' to the door-posts : Questi sono gl'interiori D'un piccolo maiale. It was a pretty child. io8 who had a small baby. Then When came and saw the marks of the So they went with arbutus (Italian.' " There was once in the country a lady — nor did the mother ' : : come by night to suck the blood of thy child. and especially to exclude the witches who won and the white thorn [spina who come by speedy in the night to all flight her love and alba) in order to suck the blood of children. who said Go to thy home and put the babe to bed. The pale as a faded leaf. " Then the lady went to the witch." : " There was by the Tiber an ancient grove of Helernus. Hence who. Che " Then Carradora took the and so child and made a piii entrare. qui dentro non possino all hinges.— — — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. the child was only five days old the witches began to she said to Carna witches' claws — or Cardea—who first on the baby's cheeks : —the child was touched the door-posts and threshold thrice and sprinkled the entrance with water. became Carna. because was mentioned it that thorns in the form of a cross were either laid in the put in connection with window Carna or Cardcea was a very ancient Roman minor goddess. or sway over from the heart and entrails. gave her Some her he relates the following. chaste as Diana. Others call or should. but avoided the glance of every man. which has certainly an extra- ordinary resemblance to what the " her Cardea. who could explain it all. Then she was advised to go to began to weaken diminuire Carradora. and class her with Forculus and Limentius. " Proca was suck its blood. who said So the in the window. pig in her hand. the daughter of a Latin prince. by means of Janus. and thorns. " says Preller. for writers. or goddess of really called Cranse.' skein of thread (nefeci un gomitolo) and threw story was imperfectly told. and returned to Carradora. doors. all which the to As a nymph she was Pontifices brought offerings. and took the corbezzole). and put them in red bags and bound them and windows. a goddess of the door-hinges. E lei cara. be describe her as a goddess who strengthened Of I have related nymph who was hinges of doors (doors evil ?) and entrances or exits. a window to keep witches from entering. nurse entrails of a sucking- . in came it was cured." it The it. and then return to me. but day by day it know what to do. because she was a witch who did good as well as harm (il male). and put a knife Witches lady did. and it must be prevented.

VlRA. is existence quite way find its * humane. — do not know. the Jews and Pythagoreans contrived to spoil between them) was sacred to her will a become the Latin Cardea should have Carnea-Cardea seems to have been interested the dish of pork and beans (which. I am means sure. i." This same story with the one previously narrated. so poor. yet wept while so doing because he could bring nothing to him and said : * Macrobius. 33. But was informed long before that the white thorn laid essentially the is independently of it. and no one dared ! bowels Soul for soul that they too. '"Ye night-birds (witches) spare the bowels of the babe The tender Heart creature for heart Bowels for " Then is for dainty boys. He began to Then Vira appeared . I ! she laid the entrails in the open went away without looking back " at them. genial. 12." (This. from a fairy (fate) in her And when life. home to his mother.. is spirit I have the following account and story a fairy who. That Carradora in pigs. Of this "Vira the forests. or making charcoal. Thomas Browne It is her honour on the 1st of June. and the child soon recovered. if a Hub. cut pulte fabacia et larido sacrificatur work should ever . in the form of a very beautiful girl da fame a bagliare if he — such as to dazzle him —and then he finds his work all done to his hand. and —and to the I am aesthetic spirit in not sure that. After that no witch could enter. the modern Athenians not erect a church or temple to her. for there are few things which they tried in the way pork and beans of religion. or else she shows him a treasure. it was eaten in This fact alone would convince any native of Boston that she must have been the most this remarkable that remarks. she sees any handsome young pleases her she appears to him became a man spirit : who by day and night always in is busy in cutting wood. and nothing which they have not In any case probably baked it —was is a remarkable historical fact that an Athenian dish.— — — — ' VIRA. and potent means of exorcising them. unless indeed they have one already. associated with the deepest mythological mysteries.) to look at them. air. as Sir copy of in that the entrails of a pig were a most natural enough. I window kept witches from entering. " One day she found a handsome youth who was in great sorrow because he was cut wood.

which had never been out of his " 'Well. 'And can show I " But the Signore Slaniani maintained all the seven. And asked for the beautiful princess As a reward for his valour. Boldly he went to the king. Then I their tongues princess shall be your wife.' that these were not the tongues of the ogre. Che vada a mangiarla A sedere al balcone Che uno vada Che sia stato l'aspetta. ma pero basta dal re con le teste del mago. may not be said the king 'He who slew the monster Has brought with him its heads. and thou shalt carry these tongues to the king and say that thou didst slay the ogre and that thou dost wish for his daughter. Vi e un piccolo paiese vicina a Benevento E la vi e la figlia del re Che aspetta mago il delle sette teste. better proof can better proof is be found. may ere long slay him. ' It No ' A ' . because have taken them from the heads. Boldly he claimed to have slain. Single-handed.') And he who will do this may wed the now carry the heads to the king and will not for him. but her father there will Hopes who who waits for the seven-headed ogre Now princess. claim the hand of his daughter. the ogre. the king said : no one could . being that he has the heads.— . then bring here the heads If they all The And have sight. no " ' Buon giovane non A far fortuna ti disperare. ti voglio mandare. this youth must be cast into prison. this ogre has been slain by the Signore Slaniani. but that away the was another who gained the it Who it would be most unlikely that he would have cut out and thrown tongues. heads or the tongues ? " And Then To which it will the king will say that thou wilt reply. " should be the conqueror victory. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. has a daughter devour her.' "And thus did Vira The youth was He clad in splendid attire.' the tongues. capace d'ammazarlo. bring the ogre's heads unto him.' Answered the youth. but that For when the heads were put on a waggon is reserved for thee and to be carried to the king I took from them their seven tongues. the proof — the one who has thl be admitted that the victor would have secured the tongues although he might have neglected the heads.' ("'Good youth be not in despair! There's a small place near Benevento Where Who Who dwells a king And ' ' ' some one that fair. undaunted. too was very beautiful.

the Wild Boar of Ardennes. And "But to find as he the youth shall have the maiden. in this story. the gloire. When some one more favoured by fortune Steps in and secures the prize.'' This indicates an extremely archaic form of the the crafty man who is deceive. taking these tales and myths as a whole. became . very peculiar that in this version the whole principle of the story In the others it is the true slayer of the dragon and the impostor who has the heads but "The page slew the boar. the most distinguishing attribute of civilised is gets the tongues. often goes in this world He who does the hard work Often misses his pay.' had no witnesses Signore Slaniani depended on the heads. have the last echo of it in and tongues. You'll be a prisoner then." This very is. But. if the tongues are gone. The king had is who rude races call their great G. But it is reversed. Higher beings than man Play with us all like toys." as Dr. idea that human Their morality beings or which Praetorius and many fairies is who antique and they are are a kind of human all based on the beings (a belief more defended only two hundred years ago). that the tongues it came to pass That the poor youth who was favoured By the help of the fairy Carried So it away the reward. It it mean trick cannot have escaped the reader that. in this as regards the incident of the dragon's or maga's heads common We fairy tale. god Glooskap or Glusgabe. and what was when they were brought "Therefore his amazement were gone. Highly as that which it Among tale. a Quentin Durward. The Algonkin Indians most admired. where the hero appears with the head of William de la Mark. The youth was as nothing All that he won he owed To the loving spirit Vira. which means because they thought " the Liar. Brinton declares. J.— . wisdom to be able to people are ashamed to boldly admire such a was played by the protigt of Vira. in VIRA. they indicate a really primaeval antiquity. Gone with them are your chances.

great and wealthy family a young by little. U2 This spirits or deities. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. hoary popular in a witch than a tradition. is it is described distinctly as a is admiration of deceit. to bed early. or witches) : " . Yet when young she was a very mischievous witch. were also called also occurs. And when And one it. Bergoia. became " girl. with other characteristics. she did so." In ancient Preller whom we call scias (wise in early times Vires or Vires. And also loved her very dearly. Myth. Che da Non Bada questa finestra. in a there was But little was. Vir<z. for this form known chiefly that of the heroine thus mentioned by But the women of ancient times word virere the is who fairy " Baumnymphen (^r^-nymphs) the name. name VlRA. posso i salire. Bergoia began to change her nature and it so great that the young lady was certain that some strange cause lay behind she resolved to watch Bergoia closely. a daughter of the family. singing " ' O but kept awake to watch. The race of wood women. while and Italian antiquity. or animism. given. Vira acts more like fairy. it is there- here perhaps the most ancient form of the legend. affare Abbiamo da combinare Se questa La affare combineramo. And accordance with in But what who the very oldest form of supernaturalism. Bergoia is a spirit sempre perfido. no one knew how or why the change being a very shrewd was girl man and she was like a daughter. women 89) p. always is and spirit." says Preller. and they were indeed and in the forests. as evil as she Now by whom she was loved who was really good. . this naif most interesting is in this tale times the Vira was strictly a sylvan {Rom. and evening midnight came. and find out what when Bergoia bade her go heard the voice of a who in her lifetime had before been amiable. tuoi padroni Perche con te una non sveglia. is .— .. tua signorina stregheremo. without. she . In the story which Virgines and Viragines" they are called we have " is generally in the very earliest Vires. Taking the name Vira we have fore possible that into consideration. it meant. by the Greek names of Nymphs and Dryads. always treacherous." But the name as viridis being clearly connected with this being very old Italian. : Bergoia ! o bella Bergoia ! Vieni mi aprire. seems to be peculiarly appropriate to a very old story of the Toscana indicated " Romagna.

had in their mythology an extra- ordinary number of spirits of thunder and lightning.." observes. black dog. but never sees her. and suddenly departs in a flash of lightning which kills her paramour. if she obtained became a human fire form. 1 " Any voodoo The way animals spit salted it is supposed to change himself into a black dog. Owen. lest the For we have work There Witch-work We to do ."—Mary A. I Beware. For the flash is a ray of fire. And the bolt like a splint of iron. never done her wrong. food and shelter and if .— ! BERGOIA. and but you must not fear. often took it in a rage who was come come a hail to devastate their crops. must bewitch the maiden And win her from her home. flash (saielta) But woe to those who utterly which would destroy or burn the house. As he may by the deadly odour Which Such " Sometimes it comes is lightning spreads around. and would go to a house and ask for she would content herself with making thunder and lightning roar and flash. Se 113 la tua signorina Non mi farai stregare. her hosts showed fear then there would refused her shelter." and disappeared in a terrible flash of lightning with Bergoia. Una Strega di te faro diventare. He is she comes and goes in darkness. black wolf. Bergoia converte molte volte in saielta. the to pass that Bergoia fancies a youth. 16 human or the animal skin cat. And he who is struck by it dies. black to stop the metamorphosis fire at you if is you have to find either the their human skin . ran screaming to her parents. These black fast until you have . work of Bergoia. or set the trees. witch-work which is for me Bergoia calls us. and who stood without. and was seen darting in the spirit She. but hold owl or bat salt it it. " After her si death. and you ! . at night. and told Then he who had called. " And so she is Evil to those The Tusci. bewitched and makes love. as ever doing evil to who have Ottfried Muller all. for and passes the night with him. well. " So men lose thousands on thousands Of money by crops destroyed. for then there would fire to changed himself into a never seen on earth as a true of thunder and lightning. Unless the spell pass on her. however. ! ') what she had so nearly escaped. A " Then the young witch thou must become lady. terrified at them what she heard. master wakes. furies and infernal witches. woman again.' (" O ' Eergoia Bergoia fair ! Come open ! me unto For thou knowest through the window cannot come to thee.

Hist. as The it I have observed. one of blood and of the grotesque horrors which always appeal to primitive man. 3rd ed. MOixer. writings. And it treat her unkindly. with their original myths. ii. iii. p. recognised three investigating thunder to that and lightning which confirmed events and indicated . and manifest little what we admixture from other sources.. as a whole. no one can know deal. Natures Quest. or of the legends. p. especially in a certain stage. p. Natttr. p. 160 . Many evidently and closely. .. For further details he may consult: Seneca. \nx*. Symbolik. Die Etrusker .. not indirectly. v. In such religions thunder and storms. . 1 Mexican so far as we know in the — and the which was. Pliny. like the Turanian everywhere —seems to have been a religion or cult Romagnolo mythology. bloody sacrifices and precedence of more refined conceptions. vol. 32. corrected or set aside Bergoia in this 'The Tuscans {Tusker) who devoted much attention kinds— that which gave counsel or advice. appears fail more cannot be denied that by considering them comparing one incident with another." The Hungarian may It gypsies say that it has a smell like Italian deities are preserved in Roman . U4 and. Tuscan myth kills animals and men at a flash or in an instant. ii.. no part of the in empire was the worship of Ceres so zealously maintained as in the Tuscan hence the idea of a wandering goddess. . death. Nork. 53... and cruelly punishing those who than once in these traditions. was an Etruscan minor goddess is est which was preserved with other the temple of the fulmine ictum —that which Palatine Apollo. Romagnolo one can fail to recognise very distinct traces of this in these traditions. i.Defulminumsignificationobusin Grcevii Thesaur.. soliciting shelter and food. going about in disguise. Creuzeii. and the spoiling — But here— as in all such cases I only make a mere suggestion. vol.. 650 FRIEDRICH. Nat. how something which had happened would turn out. to circumstances. to be by those who are better qualified to decide. be observed that these Tuscan legends all the special characteristics to see that all agree marvellously with of Etrurian or Old Latin origins. &c. it named Begoe who appears curious that there to have communicated to mortals the whole theory and system of thunder. Dolunger Heidenthum. 461 . Real Worterbuch. is thunderstruck. The god is evil always a human spirits take sorcerer who continues to haunt mankind and exercise the same functions which he practised No while living. This account speaks of " the deadly odour which lightning spreads around. but very of the names of Etrusco- Now them almost unchanged. and the third which came unexpectedly and predicted according It would weary the reader should I relate more of this greatly spun-out lightning-lore.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. in Fulguritus really means id quod Begoe was at least of harvests. there are a great many Etruscan. land garlic. storms. Symbolik der . or an ars fulguritorum. 600. after the time of Augustus.iKK. This being true.. one who was concerned with thunder.

BEGOE. "5 MUS.B&RGOIA. (THE FIGURES FROM GORI.) . ETRUS.

name the divine and mysterious Hades. BUGHIN." with which Hea alone " the and stop (evil spirits). or mildew. her (Ninkigal) with the names of the great gods their ravages. May it. appears black and scorched. That this harm may May this com now pass away be a sign all is well for me and mine. on the hearth say : very hot. affected it who presided over the rust in wheat.— — ' — ." as we by Mrs. Jump to the middle of the room That ! " Should grain. manifests itself.no). burnt or scorched (Baretti's Italian Dictionary). Che aquesta male voglia riparare. and throw the refuse out-of-doors. " (Fox Talbot. the heated grains burst and jump well. But the peasant must be on the look-out it is ') a sign that the rust or mildew will not attack the to secure two grains of wheat of the very first which ripen before the smut. having such a vile smell a sad loss for the poor peasants e cost ifoveri contadini and se avessero la say for three or four years. cited in Thus nomen est numen. These the peasant must husk or three ears of wheat or of the grain (spighe digra. Magie Chaldaienne). Questo grano in mezzo della stanza Mi deve (" ' As fare saltare ! these rusted grains I see. and shell (sfarlo). Se questa grazia mi vuol fare. clean. Hamilton Gray) " slew an name of the Highest. ox simply by whispering in its ear the fearful " The highest and most irresistible of refers to lightning. it spirit a I spirit it have the following account who does both good and About harvest time he causes the carbonchiato evil. become black. or taste that disgrazia. a disease in grain by which chioso. Of this " Bughin is makes grain. when putting the grain : " Metto questo grano carbonchiato ' Perche A E lo spirito di Bughin mi ha mi voglio raccomandare. The smut with the smut. to — lightning. which And when is they have suffered and put them on the hearth where it is it is much from ' in the also dark. lui rovinato. and " Awe name Before this acquainted. lo voglio tanto pregare. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. according to Varro. Carbon- . if I escape a doom. or carbonchiato. — the powers dwells in is everything bows in heaven and in earth and in alone can conquer the Maskin it all supreme name. which we may here appropriately add et numen est lumen the divinity being Lenormant. whence the bread made from cannot be eaten." This I think are told {History of Etruria. ti6 " Begoe. I fear Bughin hath ruined me ! Therefore unto him I pray. then they take two or this." The Romans had * a god or rural deity Carbonchio.

or sprung from the same in " Segetia. all With when it Seia. Ganzio. and therefore probably more experienced . Ma voglio voi pregare. the root. of prototypes of whom " Corn gods The Latins had indeed source. also called Fructiseia The Deus Nodotus aided sprouting. She was . In a is common — big. to have been the quite a minor mythology of Segesta attended to of the Latin Germany. may choice One good begin with a prayer to Saint : And when protects all animals. or these. the ear {vide Patelana). Make the creature safe and sound ") ' ! But should Saint Antony turn a deaf ear to this humble petition. Che Da il Sano (" * mio cavallo mi volete et svelte me le farete stare Most benign Saint Antony Though unworthy Yet liberare tutte le malattie. to keep the crop free from thorns Robigo would easily and naturally be changed to Bughin bug or bugh by many analogies. on any subject has always difficulty between appealing to a Christian saint or an ancient heathen god if the other Antony " He of is So fails. to thee I pray." whom a saint who I if his horse be was told that he ill. 7 of the joints ap. Patelena opened these were twelve male gods who presided over the separate processes of sowing and harvesting. and there harvest gods. "Festa para Conso Ipso festa die Consus : dum tibi csetera dicet. ad dicitur deus qui Preller). especially horses. Fastorum Lib. the development in the lore would say incidentally that they seem I same the is ii? nodos perducit res satas Volutina formed the husk. I may ! I be. the suppliant appeals to a much older. of course. iv. In Bolognese. His name was Robigo. besides the Deus Spinensis who was invoked and weeds. The contadino when in iii. guarded the seed while in the ground. becoming termination for proper names.'' Ovid. (Arnobius. And beg that thou wilt free my horse From all evils in him found. he goes to Saint Antonio and says : his " one has a horse in bad condition : " ' Saint Antonio mio benigno I Di pregarvi non son digno . sua sacra canes. much about him and Semonia.—— — ' GANZlO.

implore. deity. ! I will treat the servants better. Consus was a very old " declared that ' on account of the chariot-races at the earth that he was the same as their his festival. — ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Roman minor But who was this Ganzio who was closely connected " The Greeks. But if the master is be possible. heed Thou I art right and my song am wrong. Son Bene ragione trattero bene cattivo. Ganzio. Ganzio non me piu spaventare Giacche tu Che mi Ma ai fatto una gran paura e vero la valuta." says Preller. be thought that Ganzio is playing these tricks the rider should say " 'Ganzio. or without hurting his rider. in ") up. little unreasonably angry. and very impatient. or get into a dangerous place. and throws impediments into the stables Ganzio himself with making the horse rear and curvet a " and always willing to give his aid as an vice. Now if it still often happens or treat the if it in the __^ coachman badly." It is to be remarked that he was regarded as being very kind and considerate to animals. horsey. but it makes the horses misbehave. benedelto : tu siei Buono quante bello." so to speak. Vieni a tenermi compagnia Ma non farmi spaventare. who is "of the horse. Poseidon and his altar buried Hippios. though not devoid of trick or " vet." as he dwells who." experienced account when Of him I have the following : " Ganzio the spirit is when a coachman goes way. begins to scold. Ganzio. and especially with horses and races.— . if the master do not become too angry. as well as she could. especially if " However. I That thou frighten me no more ! Also that thou'lt ever be In my house. me ai data Una lezione. And will mind thee For the present to the letter . politely in stables. it is not with evil intent but for fun that the master be waiting without. u8 deity. that is Ganzio. Ganzio viene in casa mia. Nei burroni non mi gettare. ai i servitori. as And may I ne'er company again be seen So near the edge of a ravine I and must remark that " pieced originally ? it my ! informant did not very well recall this incantation. is requested. then the horse will take the wrong road leap or bolt. . ma ti vengo a pregare. with animals.' " Ganzio. who is Now over horses. Ganzio contents (fa fare gualche capriciola).

2141) as holding leaves or flowers.. per orbent" Ovid. for (wood-pecker or magpie). From Alpan the Etruscans developed another goddess. or goddesses of probable. and in addition to her name is entitled La Bellaria. and Gerhard. agrees curiously with what {Uber die Sprache der Etrusker. p. who appears to inferior form of Venus (vide CORSSEN." he ornamental part of the world of plants. the ch in Romagnola and piga pei qu. it as the Consus would almost become Consio and Ganzio. Etrus. and were treated. may be invoked forgot to mention that Ganzio for any matter relative to a horse. and brings in the train the goddess of spring. Alpan is. "creates the sweeping through the The name air.. old Umbrian " hold water. Memnon (Memrun) often occurs on vases {vide Die Weltkdrper in ihrer . or for pica may occurs to me. Alpena. Alpanu. Every by Corssen says. f. i. one of the Lichtgottinin. vol. but It is light and remarkable that in air called Bellaria. may This etymology only one which inevitably I in Italian." lichen Gottheiten bei den Indern Spiegelbildes durch die Luft dahin schwebend den Schmuck der Pflanzenwelt. Consus would naturally become Conso or Consio is rest.— ALPENA. said of Alpan. who appears on a mirror from Vulci now in the Vatican {vide Mus. Uber die Sprache der Etrusker. Vaticana.. son xiii. and her and the nymphs of the dawn. or Alpnu. full of curious materials). Uber die Spraclie der Etrusker have been an —a work of no value as to philology. me cccxxxi. "Der Name der Gottin Alpan erklart sich durch Vergleichung stammverwandter Namen von ahn" Diese schafft und bringt nach der. not as the result of inquiry. Etrusc. modern Tuscan tradition there are several spirits of corresponding to the Etrusco-Roman group of Eos Though Eos had few temples (" rarissima templa 588). for lombrici (earthworms). were given to me. or rather peri. xxiii. with the description of her attributes. which Tuscan in instance. is a beautiful female spirit — i.. She the goddess of flowers.. it. 255). lonbrigoli as. like Albina. not But. often changing to a. Darstellung des und Germanen. the Etruscans made great account of her. it is or by a peasant woman. v. therefore on his festival all 119 mules were allowed to horses and crowned with flowers and otherwise well Chonsio. Alpena. volunteered As Alpena light. Spiegel. Met." according to only suggest I it. is a la dea dei fiori who was also an aerial goddess. She is very charming. but as information. The name recalls the Etruscan Alpan. as I was told.g. that they are the same.." of Adonis. vol.. from the similarity of name. who always flies in the air. t. Alpena. given to detail as 28 f. is "Alpan." Corssen.

and light. winged were spirits in J. carry bottles probably of . who air. Friedrich. (From Corssen. All of the Etruscan (Alpena or Albina.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.) The ornament from a vase. von Alpan. 1864). and connected with rainbows.) bearing flowers. 120 mythisch symbolischen Bedeutung. B. fact Bellarie. clouds. and a part of the Lasce.

which was refused by Hachette because of its worldly-minded gaiety and freedom from blue-nosed straight-lacedness. As is perfume forth in my own 121 —wherewith to beautifully set French romance of Le Lutin du Chateau. 17 . — though it may have been something more substantial welcome the soul of the life-weary mortal entering heaven.ALPENA.

This was written by a youth Here the latter is who had deus ex machina. but he says there was a time cannot have failed to strike the reader. "Tituno is So Romagnie. he can." have indeed observed it more of thunder and lightning. which also the case with the Etruscans of olden time." adding that he regrets that he cannot communicate much on the have passed he lore — and Another authority (Peppino) gives the Papetti. saying ti : : scongiuro e del santo Isodorio. the invocation being a protection. And I have found a coniadino It who repeats it. Then the thunder departed and did not return to repeat the mischief. hence the association with Giove or . TlTUNO. received some education. when every one many spirits I in the Romagna did so. " ' Then Spirito infernale In nome di Dio Jupiter ' was wont to let loose his thunder- the people invoked this spirit.— — CHAPTER VII. destroying everything. and gather up what unearthly Meanwhile he has noted down as to Tit'uno the following did marvellous things in the ancient time when bolts over great plains.' "Then they took salt and holy water and sprinkled the house or the place where they were. " This spirit will subject." name the spirit of thunder—-forgore asserts Naudo he is known in the all as Tit'uno "lo spirito del folgore. but that go forth among the when the season of the silk-worms shall conladini. as than once in this book. that there are was 1 Jove.

sorceress. or wildernesses. " Obstinet dicebant antiqui quod nune ostendit. was dead grey-white. even unto the time when there will be no more wild woods. beg the reader to endeavour to re-colour or revive these is that the was not by that master. but she was in the power of an aunt who was a She Leave this lover of thine. when in life. had outlined. or drawing. as of a dayspring obscured by clouds. when although there who will understand this book perhaps better than I do there will not be a soul living who can feel it. loved and was beloved. or stamped every so that the original conception of form So know few days ago a dealer in bric-a-brac here in Florence showed picture which he said uniform. and then written down as roughly as it had been repeated. was very correctly and beautifully drawn was utterly faded. of my colours will inevitably fade. For a copy may be kept in some library. But the all artist and school to which I that . sed iam se cselo cedens : p. either rural or human when every tree and rock will be recorded. yet in which there is a certain mysterious beauty. and who opposed her love. : happiness. 123 Albina. and every man and woman be well educated and all the better for them probably into It will to pass. It is of a spirit of the dawn who is supposed very appropriately to herald a bright day. — something spirit in far more which the past was lived will the outlines. 197." come Festus. it It what was remarkable me belonged still — could in it as I me a for it was that it ground being quite figures as well as detail with tracer or wheel. but I outlines. ALBINA. or evil shall befall thee. — sensible than sentimentalism or superstition. as man or often does that. These thoughts occurred while disentangling the meaning of a rude fragment which was half-recited and half-sung to me.' ' . and yet now A write. pictures will perish. and a very badly executed sketch at least half of its effect should consist in giving us original must have been. and said to her Firstly. thou shalt be a fairy. and conjecture what it I —knowing the time must once have been. of the artist some vivid idea of what the woman. a poor portrait which only conveys an idea of the great skill After all. be no lack of people will . better than a very artistic work. remained. and when I die thou wilt take my witchcraft and never more have peace nor "Albina is a fairy herself once. but the ancient be irrecoverably humble it is the colour which most impresses was by Beato Angelico. — who appears when morning dawns quando sfunta Palba to lovers who love in vain. have no fear that I lost. ut in veteribus carminibus Aurora obstinet suum patrem. — and that at no very distant day.— — — . or promise hope to unfortunate lovers. as cheap popular caricatures of public characters abundantly prove.

Verbio The strange manner in which dim recollections of ancient myths are handed down in names. Dalla mia amante sono disccaciato. by name. she will exert All of this is it in behalf of not clearly and artistically developed was apparent enough in the glances if unearthly power be Which unfortunate lovers. and how they are worked over and varied by the people. poem. ing is. alba. as good as he was beautiful. spirit. the incantation. utterly beyond the creative power of a mere Albina dreads the becoming a in all this lore there is fairy. To is realised. she will not yield forced worth remark- some ancient and the fragment of gentle natures. and. in and expression of the a rough diamond which she could not polish.' So love. and if I must become witch all loves If a youth in love prays Albina kept her word. or witch. be observed that " Alba the dawn. I will my power to benefit lovers. connected with the transfiguring of mortality into fears enough Aurora plainly But what the learned. and even though she one whit. be sure to gain her favour. is illustrated by the following story from the Romagnola : " seemed Verbio was a beautiful youth. Preferisce piu tosto la morte. si preferisce. and declares that lose him.' women who betray their lovers. che tu spunti Fa spuntar per me Che 1' Una A grazia lei l'aurora Albina venga fuori mi deve mi vengo ! ! fare a raccomandare. kneeling in an open rise before : " 'Alba. 124 " Albina replied : or fairy. something mysterious and It may terrible. say ' Though all wed my the world should perish.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. now Tuscan. but strega. Sa anche 1' Albina per amore. Quante mia passate sa che E tanto forte che 1' amore. and he loved with all his heart a maid who .' is it. There was an old Roman. it who simply had better understand this let the reader suppose a Hampshire peasant singing such a song. Albina but rather than relinquish her faith to her lover. allied Further questioning to possibly far more perfect illiterate contadina. or I leave to that in this wild. imperfect sketch is abandonati. to folletti. then I will use " I will ' do to her at early evil to dawn he " When a youth field. Che da un amante Albina herself. will and meets with no return he must daybreak. we have is upon her. to return his love. town called Albinia.

you will sign With your blood a To be mine. and horrible to get his love again. . years fires and so but years must end. For thou'st truly promised To be mine As thou But if for ever." says Preller.' Then her lover gazed at her and she saw he was not a man but a devil. and in grief new lover I have done wrong. signed the contract. worshipped with Diana. Yet he was a stranger.— — — . holdest Verbio. : Women. and the girl learning this repented. Verbio was slighted. as she did also. And he had no For story. I'll contract grant ye Many. Tempted by another Youth of greater beauty." "genius or indiges of the forests of Diana. the heavens grew dark by day. And the time of the contract expired both died at once. and seemed to be dying. 125 " But she soon was tempted.' " Now Verbio did not believe in the power of devils. — ! VERBIO. a male demon.' two have gone about Virbius was the attendant oldest king and priest I my as spirits knowing no rest. And he said said to her : ' : " See what thou hast done. Which was like enchantment. Leaving one who loved thee With Yet all soul sincerely me you for ! him. for me. founded her worship. and so all at once there was an flashed out of the darkness. Now you both are lost. and I now see that Verbio loved me truly as thou dost not and no one can. or the rex Nemorensis —who He was. it came to pass that awful storm over all when And and was only too glad they lived happily indeed for many and amid the storm was heard a voice which sang " ' . left Yes. handsome this stranger. learn to love One true love. and truly When you're truly loved Be warned by my example Now For " And since that time the pay the fee fatal falsehood. ' See how thou art wicked. many years Of happiness together. He was compared with. " Then Verbio fell ill in despair. the land. a devil.

" the Greek Hippolytus who. e vanno cercando- which Jingo and the Dickens are prominent is one power known as the Deuce. chiamati da Franzesi . found in this almost all Deus means God. but philologists deduce is Silvani ed hanno be called the Irregular Minor Mythology of Anglo-Saxony. holds forth in much the same manner. though Horst finds traces a thousand years ago. ask. according to Du Cange. of I " " sciousness And nasty horse-business — a very late Christian invention. in a dark and Virbius it is evident as the And terrible sense. possibly to who hated Thus. {quid equorum tarn pertinax abominatio) ? amorem minime virginalem? et —a con- Exactly. knowing no rest." Tertullian {De falsa Religione. have always inclined to think that it from a French goblin. cap. Celtic. attacking the moral character of Diana." Diana known popularly to-day is as Hecate." In what or may La in del continuo i Fauni desiderate. in the no be a conscientia it —and What. I fifth is and Teutonic tongues of Europe. Dusi le described as early as the while Dus. And as did Hippolytus and Virbio. declares that "she was very liberal stimulate those with that virginity which she feigned to adore. word is only the Latin Deus.. c che finalmente son giacuti con loro. ever since then Diana. tal disonesta. lib. qui erat inspired. who naturally wanted to destroy the good fame and name of every lady in every mythology not Christian." I suspect that there Verbio. Saxonyankeedom. DusiO. and that what is much more have given I is to assigning the soul it is be found out about this Romagnolo — many other accounts only a mere The idea of signing a compact and like fragment of some much completer story. there Dus. mean stupri. how he has become a Queen of the Witches.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. after he had been trampled to death by the wild horses of Poseidon. as the moon. was revived and carried away by Diana." cries the holy man. always deities. the Slavonic. a seducer of virgins . di molte volte sono stati maligni verso le donne. and Virbio —the man of— ahem moon ! a love of anything but a virginal sort —have gone wandering over the face of the heavens ? " as spirits finding rest. spirit suspect that in an older version of this story Verbio dies and is I revived. Endymion lay with luxury. as the ever-wandering moon. "Augustine (testimonio famoso) dice al quindicesimo libro della Citta di Dio. as a kind of devilkin. Pico de Mirandola. asking why she should take such pains to save Virbius from being killed by the horses " turbatis distractus equis "—unless " does all this —unless so. che (volgarmente detti Incubi). 126 and in fact was. e che alcuni demonj. 17). i. one century as Dusius. e mettonla ad effetto. her. but rather Verbio be the modern form of if of the night. and who i Strega di Pico della Mirandola.

DU2>1V.
and a being of

familiar, easy,

God

:

127

make-yourself-at-home habits.

however,

It is true,

made to do diabolical service. In
English gypsy it is Diivel, from the same Aryan root as Deus. Some years ago
an English lady teaching religion to some gypsy children, asked them how the
Creator was called ? Whereupon a small traveller, thinking the name was wanted
in Romany, cried out " Diivel"
Soon after there appeared in the newspapers an
word

that the

for

has been elsewhere

Appalling instance of Ignorance and Depravity, showing that the lower orders
all things were made by the devil
a la
MALLOCH. For they do indeed sound very much alike {i.e., Duvel
and when we consider the extraordinary preponderance of power

actually believed that the world and

MOLOCH
and

or

Devil),

awarded to the

devil in Catholic Christianity,

it is

a marvel that these names were

not interchanged long ago.

Another ancient

Isidore of Seville (in Gloss) speaks of Dusii as demones.

women

authority declares that there are actually

worldly-minded as to

solicit

so devoid of decency or so

the embraces of those demons, quos Galli Dusios

nuncupant, qua assidue hanc peragunt immunditiain

whom

"

the

Dusios nominant quas Romani faunos ficarias vocant

whom
them

the

Romans

call

Faunos

ficarios

as forest or sylvan gods in Prussia,

Du

CANGE, speaks of

witches, dusiolas

exist in

Middle High German

Etruscan or Sabine

with a

None
word.

I

face

who

rustics

And VlLLEMARQUE,

Dus

—the parent

believe in

as

—always

and snubbed nose

of the authors

whom

was therefore pleased

I

ZEUSS

Daus.

Dus
I

gives as British

appears also in Old Friesic

conjecture that there was an

as

fox-tailed, phallic, laughing

at finding

which appears

all

This

the rest of Europe

perhaps be put down as one of the gods gone to
.told

me

:

for the

on inquiry that not only was the name

in all the earlier writers.

because Dus, at present, in

god

wanton and indecent.

have cited mention any Italian equivalent

at once recognised, but that the description of the goblin corresponded
detail to that

gives

or origin of the domestic goblin, also of the

There occurs very often on vases the
flat

dare not

(Origines) finds a Prussian Dussia

or Breton, Dus, Duz, plural, Duzed, an incubus.

fauns.

some

most Northern languages.

DlEFENBACH

or Dussas, " perhaps dwcese, geist, a spirit."

in

speaks of

" gentiles " there

and acquaticas or genisons."

diabolus, for Dusius.

as Dus, and

those Dusii

call

a Codex of the eighth century, cited

aliqui rustici homines, "

But the word seems to

Dusmus,

They

CANTERBURY

of

and that the

And

cut the woods consecrated to them.

by

THOMAS

").

" ("

call

Papias writes

Dusii because they so constantly persevere in such impurity."
"

French

is

is

little

sleep.

in

every

the more interesting

heard

This

of,

and may

is

what was

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

128
" Dusio

a mischievous

is

little folletto,

He

or goblin.

teases girls, sometimes

very often he inspires lascivious dreams and has connection with

more than
and

three inches high he perches

on

He

their pillows.

is

" Dusio
was a

—goblin

And

away.

" At

or spirit

little

imp not

He haunts houses

two brothers, a young

first

was

the girl

down

stairs,

sits

son,

and a

was no peace

on

girls'

One

—and

.

.

.

Then

Now Virginia

Virginia

And

—such

La Romagna there
The family

the father also passed

Steps were heard

—beheld

was her name

then came the Dusio,

did not like

this, for

night Dusio entered, and began his pranks.

First

all

the

at times a

who played her all kinds
who wrote frequently

she had a lover

carefully hidden these letters for fear lest i padroni or her masters

and she had

to her,

After the aunt died,

girl.

form as of a lady dressed in black enter and sweep by.

find them.

:

in the house for strange noises.

doors banging.

of wanton tricks, efaceva Vamore.

In a district of

shoulders.

soon became accustomed to the sounds.

afraid, but she

me

In this palace the aunt of the proprietor had died.

a gentleman's family.

after these deaths there

time going up and

and mistresses should

he teased her in every yiay—faceva tutli

all, from Virginia.
Then he went and brought out
bumed them all up in the scaldino, or brasier.
" The next day she went to walk with an old woman who was to her as a mother, to whom she told
the tricks which Dusio played, and how he was teasing the very life out of her. Then the old woman

i dispetti

some of her

said

:

'

pulled

Should he

all

the bed-covering, sheets and

and lighting them

letters,

try to

at the candle

do that again say

to

" 'Dusio

him

:

diosio

—vattene

via

Vattene in pace che Dio

" And then he

will

'

" But Virginia was

" That

s,

'

!

benedica

ti

go away and trouble you no more.'

so forgetful, or so

much

excited, that instead of repeating these

"'Dusio, Dusio, cosa
Dusio, Dusio, what are you doing
"
letters.'

?
'

And

words she said

:

fai?'

he, bursting into a loud laugh, said

:

'

Taking care

your master and mistress find your

I

have omitted from

place where

occurred.

it

took place as

this story
I

have given

I

some family

and their name and the
was assured with great earnestness that it all really

What

it.

is

Dusio corresponds exactly to the wanton

word
I

not bad, but mischievous.

narrated and then written out for

first

—who

a folletto

is

girl at service in

consisted only of

lest

he acts as a nightmare,

Sometimes as a

women.

fireplaces."

Afterwards the following was

all


!

the incantation.

diosio in

have met with

that

it is

it

before, but cannot

equivalent to "

Prsetorius

My

has,

in

sprite

in

it,

beyond the

fact that

Dusius of the old writers,

remember where.
be, or art, a

I

god

I

is

the

think

conjecture, haphazardly,
"

i.e.,

dio sia

.'

Blockes Berges Berichtung (1669), something to say

about Dusius, and of course

"It hath been observed,"

remarkable

informant could not explain it

Thou who mayest
his

details

he

in his fashion it is

states,

something quaint and strange.

"yea, and experienced and

by many

credible men, that the Sylvani or Little Forest

otherwise

commonly known

as Incubos

men and

made known

which are
and Squatters (Aufirocker) are madly lewd
Inni,

"

REMLE.

129

women. And there are others of the same kind whom the French call Dusii
who are fully their equals in such impurity, so that it is verily a sin and a shame,

for

and

Giraldus, Livy, and Isidore

on the word Dusius.

For

Latins in the same sense

it

1.

testify to

1,

So

call Silvanus.

our ancestors of old time called these

word agrees

But they have

it.

mean

should be Drusius, and

all

been wrecked

forest-devil,

that which Saint Augustine

and devils Druten

spirits

who

is

whom

the

saith, that

most probable,

wood and forests."
Which may or may not be. Dus is distinctly marked in all its early
forms, although the intercalation of r is extremely common, even to children.
Pliny tells us that hand-mills were invented at Volsinii, and that some of
them turned of their own accord (Pliny, xxxvi. 29), " from which," says Dennis,

since the

" it

well with that of Druids

would appear probable that

Goodfellow

'

was of Etruscan

Celtic theorists."

The

that shrewd

'

origin

—a

lived in

and knavish

worthy the attention of

fact

Robin

sprite called

reader will find in several chapters of this

my

all

Etrusco-

book much

to confirm this conjecture.

Remle.

The
'
'

following account as to this spirit

Remle

is

the spirit of the mills, and

came from a family

when a peasant who has

corn to be ground, then the miller finds that something

is

offended

living near Forli

him

in

any manner takes

:

his

out of order and that the wheel will not turn,

because Remle has meddled with the works (va in mezzo alia macina), and hinders the grinding of the grain.

" Then

the miller must say

:

" Remle, Remle, a ti mi raccomando,
Che siei tanto buono e grande,
'

Ti prego

macina lasciami andare,

la

Perche a da

A
("

far

I

can find no

name
In

art so

pray thee

contadino

to do,

to thee

great,

mill-wheel go,

and the peasant

he doth

truly

retards or hinders the working of the mill,

Italian

the origin of the word.

Remle

is

the same

to

know

")

Remle connected with any early Tuscan or
Remolare means to retard, or to hinder, and as

divinity.

all

!

like that of

Remle

ground, seem

shall

'

owe

Latin

is

mandero,

ti

'

good and

let the

work

there's

How much
I

il
!

Remle, Remle, on thee I wait,

'

For thou
For

fare, e

ringraziare

ti

it

most probable that

is

Mola, a mill-stone, permolare, to grind, moldto

be closely associated with

as the Italian crusca, or bran.
18

it.

In

Yet

I

this

(Ital.)

Romagnolo the word
doubt whether

this

be

"

!

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

130
the original

name

or indicative of

meaning.

its real

seems very natural to suppose that there

It is

worth noting that

a goblin dwelling in

is

it

the mys-

terious chiaro-oscuro of a mill

" Made misty by

the floating meal."

AND TALENA.

JANO, MEANA, MONTULGA,
" Now, by two-headed Janus

1

Nature hath formed strange fellows in her time."

" Quod quidem apud Thuscos
poeticum fabulam."

populos accidisse, historia traditur, neque ego haec loquor quasi,

Italiae

Psellus de Daemonibus.

As my limits forbid much
spirits who came flying in late
is

thus described

further printing, I include

the

after

The

rest.

first

in

one section four

of these

is

Jane,

who

:

" Jano is a spirit with two heads, one of a Christian (i.e., human), and one of an animal, and yet
he hath a good heart, especially that of the animal, 1 and whoever desires a favour from them should
invoke (deve fregarle) both, and to do

this

he must take two cards of a tarocco pack, generally the

wheel of fortune and the diavolo indiavolato, and put them on the iron (frame) of the bed, and say

"

'

Diavolo che

Di

tutti

La

testa

i

sei

("

'

capo

diavoli

ti

voglio stiacciare

Fino che o

Jano

spirito di

me non

Per

:

vai a pregare

Thou devil who art
Of all the fiends

'

!

chief

!

I will

crush thy head

Until the spirit of Jano

Thou

Jano
fortune,

is

callest for

here plainly enough Janus,

and who has descended

me

Lombard

statue of this

and the other human

{vide

god

in

'

")

who was

legitimately

past and future, to association with cards.
or

!

I

of yore a god of chance and

and

naturally, as surveying the

have seen an early Romanesque

which one of the heads was of an animal

Gypsy Sorcery,

p.

208, in which, however, both heads

are erroneously given as animal).
I

believe that there were few gods with

whom

there were so

strange, and forbidden mysteries connected, as with Janus,

'

There

is

manifest confusion here.

many

occult,

and there are marked"

MEANA, MONTULGA, AND

JANO,
traces of this in

which

modern

the

There

of the Knights Templars.
here,

131

heads, or being

Prudentia of Gothic sculpture,
figure

with a serpent,

girt

secrecy and

signified

"

illumination "

god of

the door,

the chief devil

incantation to Jano

conquered, and fortune or

is

therefore of great interest

is

down from

a very curious tradition handed
i.e.,

prophetic

Meana.
" Meana

is

a favour of her

or,

By him
The

the entrance or admission to the mysteries.

i.e.,

evil)

(or

Janus was

properly, freethought, nature-worship, or agnosticism to the adepti.
the

all-

one of these on the door of the Baptistery

is

The Baphomet

Florence.

in

—the

Baphomet, or two-headed

also the mystic

is

TALENA.

As having two

tradition.

became the symbol of Prudence

seeing, he

mastered.

fate

and value as possibly indicating

the old initiation.

He

is

the weird,

spirit.

— Of

this spirit I

a spirit who
we should say

"

'

is

have the following written

:

amiably inclined to people, and especially to lovers.

When we

desire

:

Per 1'imagine di Meana

E

i

per la sua bella persona

Uno
Che

che la guardi bisogna

tomba

l'adori sulla sua

Preghero

fin

Se vederlo

che

il

suo spirito non vedro,

io protro

il

suo spirito

Sempre preghero che nessun

Mi

E

maligno

Satanas le converra

Sempre

Lo

E

spirito

possa molestare

lasciarmi stare

spirito di

Meana sempre preghero

saro certo che mai

non periro

"

!
'

to me intranslatable nonsense, I have not attempted to give
MEANA, according to Eduard Gerhard {Gesammelte Alcademische
He
Abhandlungen, 1866), the Etruscan name of a winged goddess of fate.

As

a

this

version of

connects

it

is

it.

with mens, Menerva (Minerva) and Mnemosyne.

given indicate an

popular tradition

aerial,

lasa-like

spirit,

resembling

in life," a

Henry Kornmann,
that

I

as

in

my

possession, " for

the

copy of the Miracles of the Living and of the Dead, by
I have not now space wherein to print all

have learned regarding Meana;

in

pictures as

or such

Frankfort, 1614.

specially devoted to

mann

Her

connected with benevolence and love.

is

Since writing the foregoing there has fallen into

second time

Bellaria,

suffice

brides, she is identical

language which

I

really

it

to say that as a love-goddess,

with Mena, thus described by Korn-

must be excused from translating

:

— —

!

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

132
" Quastiuncula.

"Latet

Cur

magnum

indicat

batur

gradibus

Lucanus inquiens.

appareat?

serpentis

nova nupta super ingentem fascinum,

quem

Mena

novis nuptis

mysterium

ibi

id

Torvus

Romanis ignotum non

Id quod et

antiqui.

membrum

est

Priapi sedere jubebatur, qui

pendulum,

stratum,

stat, id est,

erat

fuit.

Quia

loco

altiori,

In quod ascende-

erectum.

et

in

ebore ornatis, hoc autem fiebat propterea, ut illarum pudicitiam prior Deus delibasse

videretur, docet ex Varrone Aurel. Augustinus lib. 6, Civit Dei,

c.

9, et Lactantius, lib.

I.

According to that strange book, the Delineatio Impotentice Conjugalis of

John G. Simon, 1682, the serpent,
Caspar Bauhinus,

The

1614, containing

Last of

all

who appears

and happy

;

woman,

as a

twisted up,

if

it

follows in such a case

full

length

Romagna Toscana

many

presages

it

(i.e.,

sorrows, &c.

The

&c.

in

Mena

or

the form

Should the

means a long

Phallic), this

forbodes unhappiness and discord.

of

this series.

a very long paper stating that

to brides in the

serpent appear perpendicularly, at

comes

satyrs, fauns,

But only to those who know the proper invocation.

of a serpent.

life,

chapters on

interesting

me

there was sent to

a spirit

is

De Natura Hermaphroditorum,

and her serpent-love belongs to

tale of the ^Eolian virgin

Merna

and buried under the

not conciliated

if

Vide also

threshold, prevented conception.

;

but

if

Mena

incantation

is

as

:

" Ti

scongiuro, o Serpente

Merna

Merna

!

!

Merna

!

!

Del malaugurio, e che

Tu mi

faccia tornare

In pace col mio marito

Se no come mi indichera

La

fata

Merna,

io

confinero

ti

Nel piu profondo abisso

Che

possa esistere

Sopra

Then
sit for

if

Mena

la terra.

appears as a serpent

all

into the brook,

make

and repeat

a

fire

ti

'nvoco

anima mia,

the spirit will appear in the form

of the stream, mingle

it

shaped

like

fish,

make
carry

but

if

not, the bride

(beto),

must

cast into

it

throw the ashes

it
it

I

e per quello
"

Di mio caro marito

mud

;

la tranquillita

Dell'

of the

well

is

"
!

:

Per

the husband's body,

Merna

of three twigs of birch

" Fata Merna,

Then

!

by a running stream, and

three nights under a juniper- tree

three juniper berries,

Merna

it

into a

!

of a

with salt and

box

fish,

oil,

warm

(or take a box)

into the church

and bid the bride take
it,

if

possible, against

and put the

mud

into

where the wedding took place.

——

/A NO,

MEANA, MONTULGA, AND

Then Mena appears and
church, and to burn the

MONTULGA.— Of
" Montulga
all

box and

is

a very beautiful

'

be

all will

am

called

spirit,

He who
"

133

with cypress wood, and cause the husband

fish

Then

this spirit I

his affairs will prosper.

TALENA.

the bride in long detail to be three nights in the

tells

to swallow the ashes in soup.

her

well.

:—

told

Montulga

Qui

Unto him who

della Bellaria.

would invoke her should go

into a pine-tree grove

believes in

and say

:

resposa,

si

Al odore dei

pini

L'odore piu bello,
Piu bello che

E
.

.

ci sia,

qui inginnochio
.

A

un pino

di

La

pregare

la

mi metto

io

regina

regina delle stelle

O

sia

E

del sole la prottetrice

regina della luna

Prottetrice dell'

amore

Lo regina dell' aria pura
Che di par bene
Agli

infelici

Sempre

I

believe that

A

Munthuch.
is

an

si

chura

(cura).'

"

Montulga may be the Etruscan

modern Tuscan

Bellaria in

aerial spirit of grace,

and

tradition

flowers, of

which

family are Albina, or Alpena, and these are the com-

Of Munthuch I
name had also the older

panions or counterparts of Venus.
learn from Corssen that the

form, Munthu-cha.
plants in spring.

a satyr,"
forests, "

all

"She belongs

to

the world of

In one mirror she dances

of which associates her with fields and

piny grove and shady fountain."

tucha be the name, the

Muntulga

given, but I

1

/

and

g

come

If

Mun-

naturally into

MUNTHUCHA, OR MONTULGA.

in Bolognese.

TALENA.

" Talena

with

is

—This

am

is

written Salena, I think, in the letter in which this spirit

altogether uncertain as to the

a female

spirit

which causes

The manuscript being here

initial.

terror in the night.

illegible

it

was

She
She

is

is

thus described

clad in white. "

mislaid, hence a portion

is

*

wanting.

:

is

134

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

BEIXARIA.

Still letters. of Thalna. Julio. An indescribably revolting ceremony with incantation. later. Strega Zumia. These would fill about one hundred . the spirit which. of. e la "un know nothing. if not all. I Pico. name be Talena If this it " there 135 nothing in the description which connects is with that of Talena. and Thalne. La A story and a long poem. &c). tale. or the serpent-witch.. fifty pages." of whom whom has been believed to be a form of Venus. A tale. fata Julda. To these I may add many poems or ballads all referring to witchcraft. and perhaps also Talena . if which there for fully is. no space. and spirits. of : of disease. while this work was being printed. with whom she corresponds. The Witch-spirits Gerda and Meta. pecker spirit. as yet unpublished. derived from could not verify. The woman who sent me none of adds in a postscript people." colla I These were briefly Pietra di Salute (cf. or Thalna. and with one exception. but to what degree me these four spirits. La Penna Maligna. and Burillo. now lost. and Diana. piccolo spirito Red Caps or almost certainly. Nurbia as I a goblin with a cap. or a pebble used to cure rheumatism. have been able to learn from several I was believe that the information I no deity known to is the information relative to all is be Salena there it chiefly. on the Etruscan mirrors is a goddess. his 'Daughter Fiorlinda. The wizard-priest Arrimini II prete Stregone Arrimini {" La A Including an account of the three spirits Trillo. and regarding him He is. am him entered among notes taken and neglected beretta. Juno. the ancient Picus." : " This say (to condense the mass of authorities briefly If which Volterra. The Baker Tozzi and With a tale. "). who is invoked while preparing the stone of health. he cites) may I whom is a nightmare. of the Etruscans. whom Gerhard says. very uncertain. I fear. and all. collected. La Corda. Lamia. probably a form of the accounts translated.— PICO.. Of I find this spirit House Goblins. From Volterra. course. or received in I number of would have made perhaps sixty more pages. in part as follows Nurbia. or the Incantation of the Vintage (Roman Catholic). or red-headed wood- or tales relating a to.

and they trusted in and told to And thing.— CHAPTER VIII. that that she loved her hid know Floria did not from her. all it and true. HIS very curious my one of coveries latest dis- : "This spirit. 'Dictes moy. and put on her garments. one another every- her friend was a witch. en quel pays. ing alone in the country the witch slew Floria. own the lover But it was witch or and was very And jealous and envious and so one day when they were walk- evil. Floria. Essendo una strega. Se presente al giovane Col nome di Floria. who But Floria had loved her as well.' Then in the to the lover. Est Flora la belle Romaine. 'la sera. came ' Alia sera. a female friend. evening she . who a fair girl was tale loved was once youth a. Floria." Francois Villon.

so that she died. came there the power. E l'amica che m'uccise Per sposarti. With name the (form) of Floria. As a witch she had " So the youth married her.' Floria times was forget Gerhard —Flora —was one with now whether that she is Secchi follows Mtiller (Etrusker. and said to the husband it Guarda che quella non e Floria it :— ! Floria son'io. She came unto the youth. and she had a beautiful boy. it is came —Fortuna—who is 3.') the spirit Floria.— — . 37 1 the evening. time he always loved the In this now has been enchanted. to visit him. spirit of Floria. who drove the nails of Inghirami or that of holding a hammer. in the work depicted 7) 19 in as of it evident after certainly equivalent with Nortia twice iii. Eduard I And from husband) gave her a blow with a hammer and slew her. and by the till three said to her husband " Look Look hair and bound her o'clock. io sempre. I ever whom She there thou hast married Is the evil friend who Lest she For she "And further come every night "Then that if but watch midnight. There thou wilt find Crosses and garlands. and the real mother of the child. in Etruscan Fate. ("'In the evening. and that the witch in the wife's form. is properly that Floria the marriage Horta. and the youth seized the witch as other at . who took " ' the child and put But one night as the mother held under the bed. a sorceress truly." which was collected and sent to gives the blow with the me by hammer. to the bed. Perche non e che una Strega. she would ever protect him and the babe. and Then her witch-power left she howled and her. Padre declaring that Horta. Quella che tu hai sposato. ma Che a mezza notte guarda ti scappa.') is he would slay the witch. ('"Seest thou that I am not Floria is Floria. FLORIA. an Etruscan . and she be- : at the baby. a year It is He " Then this (the Floria is who tale. ' in his bed. blasphemed horribly (from midnight) came away slip me slew That she might marry you women. it Peppino.

When Thou "Then the child will awake free thou shalt awaken shalt be happy again. at once narrated the following li incanta. for the first native of the town. i. as in The very one curiously Confused as But specially symbol of death. b . my little one! Sleep the sleep of angels. subterranean pits or cavities) of San Giosto in Volterra. of indicated is and that she Orte. therefore a a the witch not is Peppino of was in by hammer was regarded the legend 140 p. It fact. vases the agrees " these as "A Volsinii. the the inva the demons. "This child spirit Ra was known in Volterra in the which had been enchanted to him. questioned on the subject. sleep. equivalent from her of Etruria. 138 goddess. and garlands alluded the "guirlanda delle to. to Fortuna. felicita riaquisterai. which fell year 1001. a far to " Ra is a spirit who When protects children. Ra.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. go wh : they are in danger the parents apply to hii — " Dormi. between it — ' . to goddess great the Fortuna vol. elsewhere described. I am indebted to Mrs.. ("'Sleep. for just in that year he protected from a height of several yards in the baize. especially fr of falling into the baize (precipices. charm him with these words : for a is know young shoemaker. su synonyme with this the hands in cl aj seems. but Vertumnus ancient or classic. I had not as to this folletto. by a strange also a form to her as an old But note). I believe this this all who occurs as the implement of death in gives a beautiful female spirit holding crosses with distil Dennis. and {vide takes a female form. who is much talked of in Volterra. 1 very significant indeed that on Eti is it of the equivalent of Nemesis. refer to stre± Witches' Ladder. of Tacitus goddess of gardens.') from pain or trouble. or Nortia. Nortia that and name gave Salus. it. Hayllar for the information that there named Ra. hammer with is objections Horta by Dennis it. sveglierai. dormi bambino mio ' Dormi Quando La sonno degli il tu ti ! angioli. is. in of Charun and all tale. d is of Flora. secured from all danger. and in her legend. And this that Horta Pomona was to be who woman.

a curious coincidence that Deus exaltat is it (God exalteth the lowly) was always humiles Stoll). could not by from her maid. The Etruscans made all their deities male and female. the spirit Sa. Ra appears. he him. Rhea was also a nursing The change of sex is of no consequence. as from branch to branch of a tree. ' : . on the contrary. In the story Ra raises a poor for. or protector of children. Ra ' there I and when they had 1 came a strange am let Then came running the peasants him down a 139 to save would not climb ladder. "Come Mi Buovo? an extraordinary It is humble conosci tu folk Tuscany in sapresti dare notizia alcuna di for may one fact that esso?" ask a hundred peasants or other mythical folk-lore and not find a trace thereof. by means of which. the wife and sister of Cronos. the second Voltona. Bovo. the least indication of any knowledge of such things as sorcery or spirits. much Bovo I. the following ville relative to the spirit : "Volterra was not the third Volterra.— ! BOVO. goddess. as only are such records preserved. Rhea Cybele. I7S6). Cupra and Siera have changed commoner of yore." I am indebted to Professor Senator Comparetti for the suggestion that Ra may be Rhea Sylvia. we have seen. a pile of broom-plant (ginestrd). the And as is it home at and rocks {Die Gbtter und Heroen. von cliffs. Thus.. Signora la the most masterly and adroit cross-questioning Marchesa elicit di T. is was explained to me fact that in my while such certain families very intelligent —/ Reali di Francia. and mother of Jupiter. in version. when there rose a great mass of broom-plants signore. and by the it This curiosities. Florence. who was of Volterra. first In the time when name it of our city. for was called that Antona there was Antona. as means of the broom-plant. and accompanying the 1234 (Helyot. both being of knightly and monkish Description theirs. and child from an abyss by this was even in the Middle Ages the motto worn by Louis the Pious of France ginestra. got from the young shoemaker of that ancient that was marvellous. now ye shall see how I will effect it. friend. and " Saying this. And ' Ra while they stood above who said Ye cannot save him I only can do it by supernatural power. the just in chronicler. they descended and brought up the child. but he kept crying.' he stamped thrice on the ground. who . growing. and then meet with one who would seem to be the museum of Indians. was specially patroness of ravines. thereamong. and the lived a prince called Bovo di Antona. in ravines that German orders. and. or keeper of a same among American Red it had been in America. it.

by magic. after long suffering. and There are showing that case a local the fame of the mediaeval hero. he appeared. of the late king's which he adorned with palace. romance of Buovo di he was one our old friend Bevis of South- particular Antona. And at midnight all the tapestries began to wave and move. in ampton. of Bovo. or 142 is I in if this fact. sequel indicates that this was only done temporarily. it do him good. " After burial this the spirit of possible magnificence. "replied: palace shall be inhabited by subjects not succeed in finding beginning of the of popular romance known. they also said he was immensely to and there died it. which pages. which being done. horses of gold. which they did. and Bovo returned festival could not imagine what certain bold it all the his knocked curiosity. among them. is people believe that the chariot and the body of the king and his bearing his body. and with four chariot For there have been many exca- exist. in recompense I will appear to him invoke the spirit This as a hero is of Bovo and a great white cloak. the gate opened of Bovo. knew they and concluded was dark. then I shall be confined in this palace. by magic illusion or glamour. 140 was held by the people had made a golden adagiare) in be a stregone. and the people entering found gate. and. (Catini). he reclined last illness his spirit appeared (si fece and ordered that going forth from Volterra unto » This was done. and then they knocked again. spirit (i. Buovo of Antona poems on him. of the champions of Christendom. and that. multitude seeing this illumination and meant. a But At midnight he may to pass. Librantona.e. . knowing that the prince Bovo was alone. and they should set in motion the grand carriage mountain called Chatini when in And when dead. from having lived unloved. which still vations in which they have found recording i they found. wrapped and when asked what he required" a beautiful no there was So it was decided that the boldest them should remain there the following night. whom to I will my in all restless life. the epoch of this Bovo di Antona. it reply. palace). Antona recognised ampton 1 in The in the chronicle is The only very evidently the seaport of South- England. the at but in an instant "Then all all But one evening not what had become of must be done by the decided to invoke the spirit all that things as they had been in the time splendour which they had seen from the outside. having forms I with the find fourth that there single point of resemblance to the hero of this story. 1890). what made him '"Never having been loved by woman girl. there bury him. or wizard. it all life. it who died of grief for him forty days after his death. disturbing the peace of the citizens. moved by spirits at night to And illuminated brilliantly. but they have not found as yet the great chariot. and all the furniture changed into objects of great value. his records with medesimi tempi). pictures representing his age (raffiguranti sue carte. Should this my in among four carpets should be done. but when After midnight they heard merry laughter. well is Reiner has written a monograph on the But a similar read the far not in suspect that name has borrowed popular part. times in recent le relics of ancient days because he rich.— " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. I and haunt the wish that appear as a beautiful youth. and the in sight of the city. of the Reali di Francia (Florence.. subject. 1 folletto For. a legend.' I will ever aid to evidently only who brought and Then they such a bella donna. founded by Bovetto and named after his queen. the champion wooed and wedded the beautiful Drusiana.

fairyland. supernatural beings. it — happened that every day table. the believers in own art. like Dusio. and one of these of reproducing or forming from taste.. and carry Dusios. that is Memory any which we have latent in us of sensations. 1st of 1 891. and in grateful return doing no end of And presents. especially girls. found on returning that bitterly. is — an awful however. I all absolutely cannot explain these marvels. more sorrowful when she looked over So she went the wreck. she scolded ? still : into the kitchen. is men and women ourselves are dreaming with our eyes wide open. who honestly believe that they see. was narrated by a Maddalena from Rocca Casciano it to me : " Attilio is a good goblin. or whether For my own part. with all I met with their tricks. but he does everything he can think of to worry servant-girls. and people who And fetishes. know what all when the poor girl had cooked the dinner. 141 Attilio. honesty. cannot be denied. be they of touch or which we have once experienced. and gone to spread the the food to do. The on the following is the history and mystery of Attilio. Unless among in their this be true. — indeed she was. The strege. especially of servant-girls. very devil. and that she must do the best she could a rifare to dress up the remains. are a prey to firmly believe that in very credulous communities there are and touch. to in whom. the master and mistress were Then they said that they were tired of going out to the trattoria to dinner. believe who have that there are girls Attilios and catch glances of Faflon in the vineyards at sunset and in So the wine cellar at midnight. and felt When once she heard the sweetest voice close by her sing these words all at scattered about. the dinner was ruined on the third day in the same manner. she for three days.— — ATTILIO. Atiglio. and saw enough. character Attilio for I much all cannot quite determine his same the as Dusio. in all vol. he makes love and with whom couch. as January. that of creating sensations. p. "Well. but she had harsh and exacting padroni " (superiors master or mistress). sharing their the housework for them. Was had been overturned and till The maid wept she was almost mad. and making them must be reluctantly admitted that despite it name his immoral very popular with them. or a witch many things which all and devil dream. sorrowfully how little could be made of it. 163). There was once a very pretty one.. or a jolly he behaves quite — a is Brownie tease. and sometimes hear There are powers no comprehension whatever. according to life is for them a their disposition or fine-land freedom from dyspepsia. Ottilio or Tilio buon folletto —a merry But he English folk-lore. who certainly cannot be accused of credulity remarks {Bib. but she did not " But when tutti arrabiati. xviii. . Attilio. that if we listen to what people of the lower class relate. we must remain uncertain whether these we continual visions. I people. is GuiSEPPE PlTRE.

. . pranzo sara gia pronto. mi ami Attilio. steady.. ) and when the girl served every day Attilio did most of the it the padroni said work and was always with her. — — ' — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. This and German or French mediaeval wins the love of a is spirit. is will love me soon be ready. ' Si — —yes. " young fellow and velvet in old style with long stockings." It tales it is remarkable that while is in all the Oriental a knight or favoured man who rather give the fairy lovers to girls. indeed si ! Then ' Attilio sang : Attilio son io. could only answer. long curling golden locks and a down and worship him.' shall quite enraptured. heart for love doth call And thou art the beauty Who " You may suppose that the girl inspired And was pleased. felt sang was in English as if tunic. Perche se mi ami. 142 " ' me Dimmi a Se ami Attilio. For The "When lo ! at a touch the dinner was they had never enjoyed such a nice meal. and she could see him though he was invisible to every one else. And 1 all.' II "And as she stood she had ever seen in all amazed and her life. I am Attilio. merriest sprite of all right again. And what he stylish. Chi mi ai ispirato Tanto amore. sono un spirto folletto come ! me thou wilt love I'll : at thy call All because I love thee. ' Ed E bisogna d'amare io' tu sei quella. " Si ' E Sono (" If ' he sang on amo amo ti ti Siei tu E all. he was speechless. the Italian a very curious point in folk-lore.') it tanto . lo there stood before her the most beautiful He little was dressed and so elegant " Say you love ' his love And you if Dinner To which the girl." For " and the maid velvet cap with a white feather. Attilio.' ('"I am My Attilio. with she could fall : Attilio.

or Mother oj " Nam Romulus post mortem Quirinus et se precipitavit in . et Circe Lactantius. families. deity which led in the Volscican land However.." called her Eileithyia. de falsa Religione. as it of the light of day could readily be regarded as the would appear. very a transformation of the ancient little Mater Matuta. that of del giorno. and of mankind. lib." Leda Nemesis." dess " There was. nor the one of Tarascon in the Day. et Mare. for in Rome as of the sea. guided not so much by the resemblance of name as by the fact that she has as Beinahme. "in the haven Pyrgoi. Strabo ing to this the goddess of Pyrgoi was one of the dawn. LA BELLA 143 The Dusio and Faun. always mis- leading girls. " of the day.) is I have. and is altogether of the fireplace have but a single authority or witness. these wanton sprites soon into very moral beings. not going still beyond boyish But mischief. for her and this name also in Etruria. with old heathen at first misled Roman in common Martha this beautiful I am with the Martha of Catholic hagiology whose image conquering the copied in the cloister at Aries in 1846. and the House-Brownie are represented as frolicking sprites.. also called Madre del Giorno. By far the most prominent character or of that which is not Catholic. Marta.— ! MARTA. The Greek and Mater Matuta was regarded much clearly means the Mother of the Day. But I which by the name into believing that it Antony and Simeon. worshipped since the time of Servius in Roman more antiquaries classed the as a goddess of the morning than and when the Greeks translated Rome two as one. as are Saints deities. Leukothea. and lemures prowled near tombs and witches took out men's hearts and people — were happy so all Attilio who even as he seduced Ocris. they may have thought more of early morn- ing light than on the white foam of the sea. or white goddess. Lucothea. the great and richly endowed temple of a godwho was generally called by the Greeks Leukothea.. He corresponds alto- in the kitchen is Of certainly here a lar familiaris. It was doubtless the honoured Mater Matuta. Marica. . indeed. sobered down in Italy nothing has changed. I was Saint Martha confused. Div. et Ino. a spirit of the fireplace. under chaster influences. 21. and so they In the North. is La in the bella or the Mother of the Day. LA BELLA MARTA. it to man to daylight . postquam Institut. (La Madre del Giorno. I doubt that was popular mythology of Tuscany. " she who waited on the table " of yore and he cooks the dinner. and every one of the prototypes of Robin Goodfellow and Puck. Mater que Matuta. remain the same rogues among the girls which they were even while satyrs hopped about in the woods. a sprite ever since the days of Tarquin and Tanquil has seduced the servant-maid in Tuscan He is his existence I gether to the French Lutin. factus est. The mother which reason." writes Muller. cap. or attribute. Accord- . soon found that she had nothing the Bible.

most ti E da te stella. porto un fazzoletto ti In una punta troverai. lingrazio : Beautiful Martha ! Beautiful Martha ! Beautiful Thou art beautiful as a star. purche il mio bene faccia tribolare. thou. mi vengo ad inginnochiare Per poter da te meglio pregare. mio marito tu lo faccia diventare. Martha and obscurity. connected with the old are conducted in secrecy and conjugal indicates literally or girl its rites in forests or fields. is to be explained now religion. Questa grazia certo tu mi Bella Marta In English ti ai fatto. can as clearly worshipped who This. I come to behold you once more. though a Martha beautiful garden . . which tells jealous of her lover goes to which she has access. I am kneeling before you Kneeling in a Where fair garden. be the fact still A wife by night to the like goblins. che altra donna non possa mai amare Se questa grazia mi Tutte Accesa tu farai. lovers story. In mezzo ad un bel giardino. Tu handkerchief.— . Midnight has struck. ti La mezza E Bella Marta ! come una vengo a rimirare. Che Io tu Marta Bella ne sei regina. una candela le sere 1'avrai. is worshipped by night. like saints. art queen. I bring thee a favourable own and are not merely evoked Bella Marta ! sei bella is its The Prayer to La bella Marta. and. Once more to kneel before you. by the that the sylvan gods are and kneeling pronounces " Bella Marta spirit called witchcraft. That I may adore you better. following incantation. beautiful Martha. 144 The Tuscany dwells Bella Marta of of the day. Io notte e ora suonata. sono inginnochiata. ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. however. fact that all " spirits " are and that to — . I capelli del E tu bella Che Tu E E mio amor Marta fannecio vuoi. is The love.

cause What thou wilt that my trouble may pass to my good. : lui io batto al muro. . midnight and look at a Buona notte o Donna Marta. oh Martha. Beautiful Martha. Prima mi era tanto amico. thou shalt have Every evening a lighted candle. evil. Cinque anime dannate. Prenditi dei panni belli Alia presenza de . Stella stella Da lui da levante portante Cinque dita per oscie. this grace. alia vita Del tal. la strascinerete Se questo mi farete. frati. And thou. Fuor che A io la sua stella rilucente. Cinque anime io scongiuro. . . I do but that this is strictly as the priests have always taught the people by the Church are that all spirits not sanctioned from matter which from the saints distinctly distinguish her among 1 devils. Per la barba e capelli lo Col pensiero da me piglierete. 145 In a corner thou wilt find The hairs of my beloved. In pensiero la porterete. Ora mi Amici e tanto nemico. Cause him to marry me. hell. 20 . Tutti gli sembrino brutta gente. . The Invocation to La bella Marta ' ' For this you should go into a wood or " ' forest at by Night. Tre segni mi darete. All anima. . May And women he never love other Grant me . chiamo quella di casa dell' inferno. star. This thou wilt surely grant me.— " THE INVOCATION TO LA BELLA MARTA BY NIGHT. In vita ne anderete. I thank thee In the next incantation not think that she was done to observed is at La all Marta bella is distinctly invoked popularly regarded as infernal or —a And the sorcerers. e nemici. Cinque cinque preti. it indicates great con- stancy to the customs of their ancestors that the peasants continue to adore them even as infernal. and say : . Non chiamo Ma Marta la di casa del Paradiso.

much my foe Once he was so so enemies and friends him All seem the same to Save me. both as regards a category of numbers and calling on the spirits to enter into the and soul and body of some one. me door. Five priests. Five damned souls.— . Into the soul. much my friend. Drag him by remembrances of me If you will do this for Three signs you will give A knocking at the A dog barking. These three signs This is imprecation. for There is a portion of this the invoking several fives of priests of the one banned. ! me. Unno fistiare Se questo mi farai. . and powerful incantation or The looking steadily at a star connects Martha apparently with Mater Matuta or Leucothea. Should'st thou favourable be. these fine cloths In the presence of Now May . Venus or the Morning Star. This. the goddess of light. . A man whistling. suppose this star I is incantation which occurs in others. 146 Porta picchiare. Cane abbiare. corresponds precisely to what Chaldaean spells. terrible. Five souls do I conjure. May they pass into the Bear this into his thoughts. thou'lt grant to me considered as a very serious. life ! Drag him by beard and hair. do not Lady Martha upon the Martha named of I call Take he is . thee Martha called of heaven. his shining I hell. is life found in . Tre segni mi darai Or English in " ! ' : " Good I O evening. beat five fingers for him on the wall. five friars. into the Of . This and and devils ! to enter into the soul is life and Marta of the Day. — : " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. (here the . name is given). call star. life .

and : ' the lady. l'avrai. Bella Marta and the Young Contadino. And thou and play. and when thou wilt have anything. and lo.— MARTA AND THE YOUNG BELLA A — CONTADINO. it strange relics of ancient beliefs it regarded as very powerful by the witches. a grace to me.' then went after her till she came to the great oak and entered it as if it were a door. and Marta. and I will follow But there was one young man who. non si of marvellous beauty. Marta! I am this spell : the Bella : . is it And feeling. I I pray. ' ' I will come here early. " And so the peasant stood amazed. " And then he also stepped in after. in which there was beautiful woman. I do not doubt that there are is certain. When entering the oak-tree there. he saw Welcome Be not afraid. saint art thou. itself 147 any writer of the sixteenth century. would or almost Paracelsian. and quietly waited till she appeared. sarai. La mia padrona tu Qualunque casa mi Bella Marta tu '"Lovely Martha. he found himself in a great and splendid palace have walked three days sarebbe mai finito in it from room to room without entering a new one di girare—sxA all camminando ! One might tre giorni. for thou art a good youth. To forward go or back retreat ' ' ' ' When all at once a small white hand was laid on his shoulder. Fairer than any Here Grant.' this I vow. who disappeared they knew not where. — : when in is it how remarkable who recite one thing with deep passionately this witch spirit manifests seriously relating spells or even while writing one narrative Bella Marta appears in . As on the wondrous scene he gazed. recognised in this regarding the star an invocation of the astral as is it have spirit. " Once there was a cavity. He found a palace wondrous fair He knew not where to turn his feet. as them down. and she said thee happy. The in Benevento a great tree peasants passing by it often sia saw a very — una guercia probably an oak. and find out where she dwells. and a And turning. and always win. pronounce " ' Bella Sei Marta piii ! bella Marta ! bella bella d'una santa Al albero tuo vengo a pregare. I welcome thee. stand before thy tree. moved hf curiosity. Se una grazia mi vuoi fare. especially mysteriously connected with ordering spirits to possess a certain person. said So he went to the wood. and also as a dryad. chiederai. one of the benevolent witches of Benevento. ! Go the beautiful lady of the forest ' make will soft whom sweet voice was heard saying. Se questa grazia mi farai. he had followed.

p. in Florence. Saint The Mater Matuta. del connect the Martha of the Bible or the Provencal conqueror of the Tarascon with any such aiding and abetting of amours (to say . and the mystic oak. This of play and spirit was the Italian all first thought invoked when salt is 144)— di lu lumi. prayers which to' PiTRE. always stark-naked. and such are the prayers Helena. Rhcecus and in told the of olive-trees and crumbling towers of the credible. consult the This is. Saint Martha is " those who utter disapproved of by the Holy Church. iv. 148) bring about lascivious and dishonest love. vol.." Marta is invoked when three girls. and unquestionably a is beneath the sun shall do well. and chance and of inspiration connected with life. are in Bib. it of the beautiful nymph. bella tardco. will I who had worth noting that (PiTRE. one of those who are sometimes consulted Archbishop Torres (Ricordi di Confessori. and these not astonished that Therefore I gravely and seriously as to what numbers of which he had chosen would win several gambling. &c.. or indeed. falsely attributed to Saint Daniel. there's aught thee. thou ever lovely one. Donna is. writing in sight than they would in the North. or even or Mother of the Marta. It is spilt it a stories of passed most lottery. but RHCECUS." — This it Maria tu Vavrai. vol. in Sicily the Mother of Light Bib. my thou was because he was absorbed it on the the contadino life spirit of the olden time-is more connected and in Italy. firing. guess-work and pot-shot hunting or point-blank In the year 1846. dryad. cards. seem.' chiederai—bella this incantation. 48 i And And if Which For " Qalunque cosa and repeat to it mi you Here Marta I can do.. an English gentleman of his game of boy who cut a nymph who blinded the youth who had such a passion for the fair Martha. will Rhcecus was a great player down patron ever shalt be.. excommunicates Venus but not say more enters deeply here into is "Matri La am in She knew her man. but it According to PiTRE. and the —may Giorno. as did of yore. Saint Dawn —that very well have been the patroness of lovers and the is Thus sorcery. p. intelligible me consulted still alive. is like. to know whether a lover is true or who shall be married.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. cugghitivillu vui. it I am Middle Ages. see a great oak in the forest. difficult to iv. not approved. draughts that he beat the bee who the tree which may be all here in Tuscany the fell be done So." . whenever you. connected with the two incantations already given.

called But Marta. As regards the three girls meeting to divine who shall be married. vol Marta is called the most beautiful of the spirits. was at a very early time put aside.— — " BELLA MARTA AND THE YOUNG CONTADINO. semble venir du mort mater abr£ On " this Max name Fraser {The Etruscans) has the following: Muller also speculates (Science of Languages. Cities of Et. attribue" aussi bien aux nymj donne" a une fee celebre d'Eauze. : Les epithetes donn^es sans cesse aux dames. nothing of card-playing or divination) as we find in this Queen of Beauty . had writes " the same idea as to F. du titre Le nom de Matte fata. just as " patterii come from pater to have v\ in the pa Alfred Maury. et de puella qu'aux fees. though there no reason why or it may not have been derived from the talking slang has been conjectured But noster. vol. " Vel c i aliquem tres personas cogitare jubet. in Les Ffas a perfectly analogous conception. 152) on the derivation of mant From this it would appear that in Latin the root man.. which were widely spread in Italy. p.' worth observing that Tertullian obse Venus was called Murtia {vide Dennis.. bor Ces qualifications ne sont £videmment de bonce donn^ aux parques. unless there was another totally distinct root peculiar to Latin expression of that Was this root possibly that the Etruscan p. matuta. inire optet." addres is stregeria. bonnes la traduction et franches pucelles. The of the Mater Matuta. quibuscum matrimonii ducunt sulcos in cinere " (" they draw three The rite. I Moyen Age. And mat ? It is 0] idea. to absolu is latter. which in the known in the sense of thinking. plutdt sans doute par phrase que par reconnaissance. Fortune-telling. repeat I may here that give I at some clue to attached first modern name the no significance resemblance of the word Martha or Marta to Mater. I think DlON CASSIUS who remarks as regards divination by means of ashes. He languages is best ii. is a as Bella . 58). to express the revived consciousness of the whole of Nature at the approach of the light morning. When This confirms lines in the ashes"). have since found that M. pour laqu on avait reproduit la fable du Minotaure. may It be observed that as being " fairer than which any utterly heathen is in the last incantation Bella Marta Here the Romagnola saint. or witchci and always jealous of Roman Catholic influence. like says : ' other A the Sar budh. festivals Matralia or Martralia. L. turn whom three meet to find out in the 1 they are to ma: main the antiquity of reader will find more as regards this in the chapter on Divination Ashes. sh itself. sont celles de bonnes.

Diana Proserpina. ( The Queens of the Witches in Italy. black. Ipsa est enim Luna. by the merits of Saint Taurinus he was withheld from doing harm. all It is evident that in this capacity latter times presiding at the dances of the witches. Nam timuit. The Zabulon que coram populo visibilem adstare coegit. di Herodiade. forms. . . and she The is whom. she became the mother of had been as Hecate the prolixam et scintillas igneas I shall show. In this country the witch Her is ruler is is only a sorceress. a counterpart of in later never lost in Italy a classic character. Eccl. who. Hanc vulgus Gobelinum appellat. is and morning with the identified is star. yet injured no one." est. among the minor devils or goblins. ISO dated with cards. people. as was naturally connected with the Herodias of the was an older Herodias. That it existed to unite with the Graecois proved by the testimony of several old writers. with HERODIAS. it not the devil. while Lilith-Herodias in Odericus Vitalis (born in this. that she a form of Aphrodite or Venus. There is a passage England in 1075 Hist.) " Horsii dimmi. Daemon adhuc in eadem urbe neminem laedit. the first wife of It is as follows " Deinde Taurinus fanum Dianas viso ethnica plebs valde often a beneficent fairy. che vuoi dire che non andavi a questi balli e giuochi di Diana o come le chiamate. v. latter. was greatly dreaded by the heathen folk. that Diana was parent : manifeste apparuit eis sethiops niger et fuligo. a writer who was far beyond his . as Lilith. ovvero si " Hecate trium potestatum numen It is remarkable that while witchcraft was regarded Northern races as a creation of Satan." ("Then Taurinus entered the temple of Diana and compelled Zabulon barbam habens degit et in variis frequenter formis apparens.— — — — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. grimy Ethiopian. quo intravit. ex ore mittens. but there Adam. New was the same among the Jews. . Roman is it was that the Shemitic myth came a matter for investigation. just as the Jews declared that goblins were the children of Lilith- How Herodias. but Diana. o buona Strega. the witch-mother. 556) which illustrates or protectress of goblins. appearing Goblin. associated Servius. and declare that in many to appear visibly before the For he plainly showed himself as a fire The demon went The common people called from his mouth. I find the following : HORST (1818). having a full beard and emitting sparks of forth often in the him same town. seems probable it Diana and Herodias. being seen. a quelli de la Donna ? " La Strega di Pico delta Mirandola. by whom Herodias was confused with Diana. In the Dcemonomagie of time.") Here we have the Goblin as the familiar spirit of the temple of Diana. of ruler all the witches. there Testament.

as or leading the spirit {Execratur She was compared. in Christian diabolism. evocation by a sorcerer of his time (Quoties veneficus diabolical that The Catholic was foreign remarkable. which be transferred. and Freya. dictanle. And how? She was ill in was una vecchia ammalata gravamente. the belief must be much older. of the North." certain imagined that they flew by night through the PAULUS GRILLANDUS. witchcraft is not at a result of a compact with the devil. is rem non ille primum adorandam. &c). I. cat-goddess of Egypt . my book on Gypsy Sorcery: in — who became a witch against her will. speaks several times to the air effect. of the moon. as in Florence. purpose. much as the goddess Herein she was like Bast of drawn by yore. Bubastis. And the old woman groaned and cried continually. they precibus. the find the declarations of It as in later witch-trials. all points in this popular belief which Thus are much more in Venice. to an innocent person. in his et Herodiam esse veras deas— same with Witches (1547). even by a with a story which I trick.— DIANA AND HERODIAS. " so deeply are they involved in the error of the pagans. is generally stated that public Church council— that of Ancyra in the middle of the was asserted that women . whose car What cats. esset) Diana. I will here in the city in a bed — . or nocturnal sorcery." And the evil of their ways from this false and heathenish beginning cum errores et illusiones successive dependent esse veras deas. "In the indictments of witches "Diana and (worshipped) it Herodias. that while witches in Italy are supposed to do is a Norse Diana. e non poteva morire an old woman yet who could not die. which are unknown to me. think that Diana and Herodias are true goddesses. * Oimll muoio! "There was a seriously may illustrate this heard told in good faith in 1886 as having happened Florence. Dianam that witches—putant credant he deduces ex qua omnes Mas Dianam all alii Herodiadem et In which he very inconsistently ignores the fact that he has elsewhere declared Satan to be sole master of the entire sisterhood. the is leader and ruler of Italian witches. But as this was spoken of at the Council of Ancyra as a well-known thing. And there are many ancient than Christianity. girl and by her ill. illis . divinam sed diabolicam facturus represents Hecate Hecate. dark. most remarkable that even to-day Diana. That Diana-Hecate was Queen of the is known from many authors also that she was invoked in all ckthonic. a great authority Treatise on in its time. clearly simply as it popular belief in witchcraft it is sorceresses. and not Satan. to a cat which chases the star-mice. but a peculiar endowment. Jerome Cardanus (De Subtilitate. the altogether says no word of the devil whatever. we very remarkable that It is fifth 151 this century—just among with" acted party accused. Diana and Herodias. but witches in classic times and yet an describing in 19). and which has already appeared in a hospital. and I do not doubt that there exist much earlier historical records of this. and is to do harm like is my to Canidia of Church imposed on the it.

) Luna meaning here. mamma. Diana. of course. buona donna. one of the her power all It is true detected. Hebrew and others. she me — I am so poor 'eredita delta streghoneria (the "Now the girl went shall I leave meant property. Another singular remark is to the effect that there were as communities of . when ecco ! there came running a great number of cats (e cominciarono a miolare. is curious as it It is to the effect that to their death. She began to scream terribly. poor home """ To whom said died. has with great industry brought together from sources. whence the Empusse. when the cats (just at — But from that time she had no witchcraft in her and became a vanished. is spills enough that the monks imported and forced into popular Italian superstition strong infusions of the Yet with devil. 1648). till it struck one. I die! girl. 1647). for her hair was fast. the real Italian witch has nothing to do with Satan or a Christian hell. all this." nothing of a compact with Satan in this to the spell of the or even —as moon.— chi lasciS? Then {' ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 35. But Elias Schedius (see Germanis. In the Venetian wounded and a drop of blood. thinking. in the main. Amsterdam. by P. but in vain. were the the witches same with Lamia who of yore seduced youths a Lilith hebraeo. and screamed.' " So he watchedj and one night he saw his sister go out of the door sullo punto della mezza-notte midnight).' he replied. cats of the night. or a good There bound is girl come era prima stories a witch loses if she had been before. witch. and remains — that in papal Italy itself There are in There as of yore a daughter of Diana. Then he caught her by the hair and twisted it round his arm. if she — it Js a witch of Diana. At once the old woman '). e fare un gran chiasso) they began to mew and make a great row. Walnut Tree of Benevento. Queen of the seems in a manner to identify Lamia with the treatise on the Magic Pipernus (Naples. appearing on one foot in various figures dedicated to Diana — in variis figuris Dianse dedicatis. Marmoliciae or Lares and Lemures. one of which Lilith and Diana. girl to —son povera giovana la ' . said Some day you However. ') Lasciate & ' : and me And where she lived with her mother and brother. reviving or refreshing in the thought that there is is one place something almost in the world —and where the poison of diabolism did not utterly prevail.. But she did not say what. will find your out where I will find it to her ' : with child'). and the sorella was insensible. 152 A — — — the poor Leave to it Non diceva che' ('Alas. (' which the mother observing." (Catullus Epigr. : volentibus Juno dicta puerperis Dicta lumine Luna. strong proof that the two being identified in the Roman Lucina " Tu Lucina Diana was Dis many identical with Lilith. and for an hour the sister struggled to escape. while the cats screeched. she began to go out often by night tu troverai tua sorella colla pancia grassa such a thing. ' tanto povera se I i trovato in found she had inherited witchcraft). several passages in reference to Diana as Witches. sister is having become a son Qual'che volta ' Don't think she goes.

Herodias long before the lady of the found I New in the evil spirits. ludisque and ex venereis convictum trahebat. all. Medeae Herodiades Thessalae. In regard to which transaction by any is All things duly considered. and a divorced wife. DIANA AND HERODIAS. effuse fruente. who the people. may new views. at in this story " havings. a prophet of the wildest description. And —perhaps death sect. Hecateiae. In the Slavonian spells and charms. a charming daughter just coming out other. governor-general of the appointment. after of commonplace revenge to account for her being taken up and occupy the position of joint-queen with Diana of an immensely widely- spread confederacy of sorcerers and witches. into categories of sevens.. if you had the power to do it —just as Calvin did with Servetus when the latter got in his way. And anybody to death — so Herodias did what or Low Church circumstances What blood. —"communion vocabulo in Cyclopas Sicilia Idumaea Herodiade prope Jordani flumen habitante. from Eriphia. 153 witches in ancient times the Eriphiae. This arrangement of diseases. twelves. ! On one hand. and of same Oriental origin. or as some millions of heretics were disposed of— some for their money by Mother Church. who had a good thing of it as wife of the The governor dies and his brother succeeds to widow (a thing actually commanded in the Old lady. common custom among has tremendous influence marriage divorce on the is in the later time). — say Cathay. such a remarkably natural. Lilith appears the who are the twelve kinds of fever. Circeae. the Michaleiae. who was belongings this There ? Herodias is —what was her nothing whatever. which are generally very ancient." or is. an intelligent. and marries the Testament. from Michala. Dianae In another passage Pipernus conjectures that there was a Herodias earlier than the one who was the cause of the death of Saint John. and informs the governor that his then fancy the feelings of Herodias or poverty — with trifling. how came who had been it that her respectably . be the fraternal with eccentric And it and commonplace thing was considered to be in those days to put who was in your way. head and the head She has twelve daughters as Herodias. accomplished widow. I — Christian if to High matrons and mammas would do to-day under the same they could most wonder what were her in this story made I believe a very great majority of worldly-minded —and put Saint John out of the way. multos quae ludorum memorans. or it new Uprises a clergyman of a illegal. daughter. or &c. Chaldaean magic as given by agree with Pipernus that there was a Testament who danced Herod off his off Saint John. writer from a modern I marvel that I have never yet seen it treated Suppose a society-Christian practical point of view. presumably a Roman or Jewish 21 Above young lady. all." multas ad suum et nuncupantur regionibus aliquibus in Lestrygonas choreis. Lenormant.

I them 'others had maddened the multitude ratio till we come to the witch-times.! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. vi. 'tis devil-blood in these Herodiades — how the whole sisterhood of fortune-tellers and sorceresses made the most of it— how one of their kind had bewitched Lola Montez queen The dance was in my I cousin-^a strain of can well understand took up the story. threw flip-flaps. so it went back in compound Now.e. divers pitchforks. and Carlotta Grisi. One of these ballerine might have wedded Herod's brother. But admitting that there was Syrian-gipsy —witch and — a mere conjecture. danced a gypsy can-can pas seul before Herod and his court? The mediaeval writers have it that she " tombelede. —and moonlight. however. as no dancer has ever done since. the sight of which had. Or was she the wheel —as Virginia I " (as perhaps really one of those Syrian-Hindoo-with-a-touch-of-Persian dancers —who actually gypsies empire in — Roman those days strayed about to every corner of the ? There were mixed marriages in those days. and played a kind of Hamlet drama. Dance ! sorcerers bodies. —whatever that practised sorcery or not still more. certain goats. who was once a dancing Hungarian gypsy. armed with sundry brooms. PR/ETORIUS says : " But the dances of the make people mad and raging. that bands of male and female sinners believing themselves to be inspired by the devil doubt not being very much inclined to raise him in a general way. so that the women lose Now it may be natural for certain females everywhere the fruit of their in every country . but a very different kind of a gag indeed. in ancient ing and maddening. i. et and did drink. whether witches and wizards ever was —one thing is certain. but then they knew nothing about it." or tumbled. night. that we days something so wild and passionate.). and Cerito turned the heads of the world. such And yet even the holy Chagag was Princess MiCHAL called it shameless from effect on the king's daughter Michal. Assuredly the dance which Miss Herodias executed was not the holy Chagag which lives at present in David danced before the Lord an (2 Sam. it was not the Chagag which Rabbi David Kimichi says was danced to the which we infer singing of the forty-seventh Psalm. Before nature. dissipate. and a tetrarch." I and dance should think so ! all I —went forth by ccetera. considered a vulgar performance may — — what kind of a wasp or busy-bee performance the aftersupper tipsy-chorean bayadere posing of Mademoiselle Erodiade must have been No. and Ellsler. and " made Pocahontas used to do for the common soldiers in have read).. and in faster time. 154 brought up. even as there are now. so bewilder- of the present day can form no conception of its real can remember when Taglioni. and there England a lady with a very great title.

had been attached in earlier times to a form of Lilith. causes an incrusta- That name was enough was a deep work of dark magic. or into a flask. full fifty of supernatural diabolical description. trick. all times formed a close corporation. perhaps Albero di Diana la the superscription — : in What long time. lines one occasion I was given some poetry which from Ariosto. And the witches as her share in the decapitation of Saint John. not doubting that had treasured my in simply a composition of nitrate of silver and mercury in aqua-fortis. and that they And turned out to be irreclaimable vagabonds. Truly was not exactly what very much 1 I as a great find in the way of sorcery and witch- soon found consisted of about one hundred and it was wanted. observed that witches did the same as Persian girls at sacrifices in this Now respect. the magic mistress of the Witches).DIANA AND HERODIAS. while coinciding with that of Herod. had as earlier celebrity among much name do with to no reason at There are many people nothing about Diana as a One day I in Italy. have met such. tion like foliage. became common the last century. to this stock and origin. are quite familiar with her as disciple of Paracelsus or Scheele. impossible that the chance coincidence of this witch-queen. which. and that their name. but At which my astonished. to why she should have been name would account for it all. if not probable. declaring that as it was friend all who had written it it out was about supernatural things she . writing us that tells of the ancient Persians danced naked. to dance naked and mad — even among declare that the traditions of antiquity Moses Maimond origin for all this. Mga and gave it to me with (magia) delle Streghe (The Tree of Diana. On craft. that it Herodias. was only It taking everything into consideration. and was familiar to Book. I all professionals think of these dancers in who not honourable if of witches and gypsies. justly considered. innocent witches who. while her bearing such a the Witches. Tree of Diana. singing to music. Queen of secret of witch-lore for a was an old chemical it For. Roman and I my magic Own This is for my me whence it is when put called the it up accordingly. mother and daughter. which. belonged to the very ancient company So danced. day the dancing women of India and Persia are of common Tradition says that a certain king of India once sent ten thousand dancers and musicians as a present to the king of Persia. those in the 155 court circles first —but must I point to a certain Syrian-Indo-Persian all when the sun rose the daughters Delancre. possible. had brought to me as an invaluable astonishment to find that " in Idumean damsel all something which had been treasured up by the sisterhood was not it is of Herodias with that of the raising the preferred to such position. discovered books of " natural tenth year in the silver Boys and mercury. of witches. all it for generations. who. while knowing goddess. this latter gives us by some that.

he . For instance. that the victims had. at least a goddess to whom they could pray. ground money or pins to please them. fountain. As in the same made to them rock and spirits of and invoked as as of yore. 56 thought must be it coglionerie ? " I out this trash all asked " ? " Ma regards Diana. That I may gratify Spirits or witches That they may never Such things be wanting Or go against me. may it — words of Cardinal d'Este in the a long time as streghoneria" As And right. minions of the moon. Cambierrano Colla buona fortuna ! (" 'These things I bury. and forest. Offerings to Spirits. also be the patroness of those As goddess of secrecy and of sorcery she would who shunned the day and intercourse with mankind. broken men.e. promptly received several explanations or stood by votive cavern. got I Dove " diavolo avete pigliato tutto questo it from an old — " Where didst thou rake woman who had kept for it magic. and all the pleasant to think that in it is ages when there was such enormous oppression of the unfortunate. " perhaps because they hid themselves in the forests. And when and in gifts. river. and Children of the Night were under her protection. i. outlaws. Signore. are believed Tuscan time.. Changing my fortune From good unto evil 1 ') ! fairies or spirits live." Thus it a certain predilection may be that the witches and wizards as outcasts inherited for her. so the same in the earliest cosi » me Pure mi contra. runaway slaves. be observed that Roman in the times she was specially worshipped by fugitive slaves. if illustrations of is differ entirely in spirit a contadino passes by a grove or a rock where folletti or ' Questo Per : lo sotterro far piacere Agli spiriti (o alle strege) Che ne potrebbero Avere bisogna. E I given to saints. and say " be what the auditors under- must be understood that these form from anything which will there put into the offerings continue to asking for information on the subject. Witches. if not a God. It " Yes.! 1 — ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

What he likes best is three sunflowers. they leave their homes they who come in also leave their and so must assume the appearance of or become animals. Then window-sill.') . the spirit will ! ') cease from troubling non potra piti dark noia —and rest. when he "Offerings to spirits annoyance as a nightmare. human forms they If they appear in pass freely as they will. or other animals. and say while so doing :— " Questa erba ' fresca per terra Voglio spandere perche le strege Vengono a (" ' I riposare coll'amante. throw his will gift into it and repeat it. adapted to But by a fountain or a stream. laid outside on the will tear all the covering " To prevent this. or the owners of the gardens or groves. sole a girare. lay this grass So that if upon the ground. if to know who or forms assembling under the trees. these witches do much harm by pulling up plants and breaking boughs to make beds for their love-making. say : " ' Metto questi Alia tre girasoli perche lo spirito finestra. sun goes round my ne'er in house be found that I may sleep in peace said.'' illustration is very curious him watch from a window capo. sunflowers three and may the Here no longer And " And when this is The next done and with one are. when. and depart with a roar of laughter. spread hay or leaves or herbs as an offering. Non mi venga Dove Se trova si in casa tormentare." was further informed on the subject I 157 oxfolletli? When Si. il mia vuol venire.— — — — ' ' OFFERINGS TO SPIRITS. witches here are found They may comfortably rest. with that I will content me. " Sometimes goblins and witches meet what they be He may So the weary will be at spirit to torment If so long as the Let ! are spirits they are witches and wizards. make him an offering. will see But the shapes of goats. human forms . let who is me. " Now. La notte in pace mi faccia dormire (" 'In the put I window . Almeno non mi faccia ingrullire. words in these comes by night into a house them. even to their shirts. at least his troubling cease. who : in groves or gardens. moles. and so the contadini. Each with him whom she likes best. or their head. " Or may be it that he passes the same words. pull them out of bed. gives orders. and should any one care And he at midnight. on people's sitting a spirit and breasts. and therefore remain as they are. the folletto from them. stifling : if and causes much they show fear. because when they asleep in their beds. kids.

" The object of laying sunflowers symbolism. that they assume the form of goats. I confess that this puzzled me much. 158 " And this is the power which they have. in accordance with any man has been robbed. their bodies And wide of the mark. take the goat form and carry away partners and so they fly many miles in a few minutes. where they feast. There is a story in several books of a man who said he was wicked enough to have done so several times in his youth. believed —remain asleep while According to only dreamed. be they find it. they indeed their diversion was more real than they suppose. I and were willing to have such dreams again. while or narcotics. among the wizards and witches are even princes and princesses. yet who had never been wizards or witches. for thus they will be freed (revenged on potrebbe essere vendetta) from witchcraft. dance. . frightens thief. for is is image of extremely coins and pins are thrown For this new light on many works explained why in all the do not remember to have seen the soul goes forth. as happened to the shoemaker described by Shakespeare. but opiates What incline to think that persons. is found out or known. my want of a better shape. be they gentle or simple. I have read on witchcraft I why According to —as Baptista Porta and many more authority. they carry these partners home again. And yet further. But when dawn approaches . according to ancient to detect or find out the offender is that . Now. the was frolic. in their sleep. drink. they can take people if who are not witches. home. they ought to cast them a running river or current. " But if they look about they will always find in their room some money. and make love. enters into some animal.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. for this any pins or needles. third illustration. bearing them on their backs to distant cities or other places. while it apparently he — And it is ALBERTUS MAGNUS with sunflowers under an emblem of the sun which it is valuable in really explaining one reason at least into fountains. they had enjoyed the basis for it all under the influence of taken to wild-dances. Those who took the goat-ride were not wizards. it The if will —that shines on the day he on the window-sill. and so they choose the most beautiful youths and girls to make love with. but who had discontinued the practice. do not know. all things. to conceal their debauchery and dishonour. but the mere dupes or victims of the stregoni. which he this. who sees and searches out away spirits of darkness. him to signify to is it probably ancient theory. the cause of the transformation of witches into animals. and when And when witch-money must always be paid. flies that will sleep Thus. away to their witch-meetings. were Still. In the works of Pr^etorius and others I have met with mention of people who had often gone on goats to the Sabbat and returned. or it copper or silver. all into But awake they think they have had pleasant dreams. then dosed again and taken. the witch-soul. if dream who was the For is. informs us that his pillow. and go with them for the dance. and often till I heard this explanation of it. who. or else the witch-ride Romagnola as an of very great importance as casting quite a witches assume the shapes of animals.

or hand-stove. hand-stoves made of wood may still be seen among market women and tin.CHAPTER Il Spirito IX. - in Philadelphia. that is. strange little The result of such pregnancy was a small creature of flesh and blood. URING the reign of Charles Second often the was it said in England that women of the Holland became pregnant simply from their habit of carrying and under keeping their petticoats a small receptacle. del Scaldino. elf or goblin. a . in which burning were charcoals These placed.

the rule of whose is life is " light but a short time in the womb. but with a come. like When incinta. Spenser has told us "Faerie Queene" in the was exposed to the rays of the was known It how in earliest times. Che farti ma vedere io desidero di vederti Sono una persona Che tanto Sono ti amo la tua vera . and It is filled is of them in Italy as there are inhabitants so —at as they are very often put under the garments next to not remarkable that the idea that the very agreeable warmth would be impregnating should have occurred. caused her to bear a child. The Tuscan. I am. or or in what life it may they live be in reality who —who Who knows ? believe in these things ? knows Something . light go. Piu lesto che del vento. And from all but now Come unto my spell. and a beautiful lady. to me ") ' 1 So he cometh anything of it all. entering her person. keepest from my sight. common least. Thy mother. poetical or makes the donna believes that the hand-stove folhtto or pretty airy fairy. Truly I am one Of all who loves thee well. falling asleep. mother. a receptacle exactly in the form of a basket. girl or woman suspects that she has thus been made a madre.— ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. or unnoted. 160 women In Italy carry a scaldino. vanishing air. Per cio mi raccomando Che Al tu me (" Spirit ti ! Spirit Airy fairy ' faccia vedere " per una volta ! ! Spirit light. and escapes. in a dream. Thou . which. Come. the body. is it with ashes and charcoal." since it born unnoted at night. And that I may see What my child is like. madre. I pray. a. sun. should she desire to see her offspring she repeats the following lines " Folletto Che Folletto ! vole per Folletto ! or : ! l'aria. is or enceinte. more more classically-minded than the Dutchman. Tu Da non per fai 'alcuno. but made of glazed earthenware. too. Fleeter than the wind. in many that there are as And the north.

DEL SCALDINO.

IL SPIRITO
must be seen

And

how

or imagined, else

age to age, from father to

how they

yet

it

" society," and

when he

Or

life

home

at

is

of

" in

cities,

in trees,

a

?

When

woodlands wild where the sweet birdes

makes him

feel as if there

dwelling in the hearth, under the threshold, even in the

spirit

The

scaldino of glowing coals.

polypantheistic stage,

when man was passing from

the phase of making gods of every object, to that of feeling one spirit in

have been coeval with a somewhat greater development of social
of-doors, rural or wild

we

or nature

life

still

life,

exerted a deep influence.

yet

all,

must

when

out-

In such a

life

gladly surround ourselves with strange companions, and believe that nature,

which

so wonderful and apparently inspired with

is

Men do

also exists in separate beings.

Red

Indians or Tuscan peasants

While
tion,

and

What

feel it

and
is

and

most curious

The

Etruscan.

" Tarquinius and

Lar familiaris

tale is told

there

came out of

who

is

As

Tuscan

were seated

And
It

is

lived in

it

it.

by

fire in

such

and

was

sit

on the hearth.

said that

:

at their meal, while Ocris, the captive daughter

she went to the

fire to

the flames a fascinttm (phallus).

effectively in another

The

who

by DlONYS, Ovid, and PLUTARCH, and runs thus

when he once

throw into

Alarmed

She did

so,

it

the usual offering to the

at this she told

it

to Tanaquil,

and conceived from the

slept his hair

heat,

and

appeared to be like flames."

form the story of the child begotten by the

reader will observe that Dusio, Cupra, Attilio or the lar familiaris

the spirit of the fireplace, in these Tuscan

servant.

mind.

And

really did

that the very oldest story of the kind in existence

is

dress herself in bridal array

is

what they

his wife, the wise Tanaquil,

bore a son, Servius Tullius.

Scaldino.

in its spirit.

as regards this having a child begotten

of the king of Corniculum, waited on them.

This

not reason this out in these words, but

and act

SHAKESPEARE wrote under its inspiracame from it. And since it died out, what we

all art

art are imitations of

a familiar domestic manner

who bade her

and thought as a whole,

life

this spirit of nature still existed,

artists painted,

call poetry

is

man

a

in factories, counting-houses, or

singe," then nature, or his instinct for companionship,

were souls

a dream

is all life

appears intelligible on reflection.

not entirely absorbed by the

is

can these people maintain these fancies from

child, ever on.

can do

161

always seduces a maid-

tales,

this suggests a remark which the reader would do well to bear in

that,

taking them

tales, spells,

all

together, one with another

comparing them with what

is

given by Latin writers,

tinually confirming the extreme antiquity of the modern.

observance there,

—modern

incantations, and observances or descriptions of

now an

popular

spirits

—and

we find the ancient conBe it a tract here, a small

herb in an incantation, and anon a couplet in a charm,

they continually interlace, cross, touch, and coincide.

I

find these

unobserved

small identities continually manifesting themselves, and they form a chain of

22

1

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

62

intrinsic evidence

which

is

as valuable to a truly critical scholar as

That

or directly traditional confirmation.

all

ages, as

That

it

creature, or a living existence

by Schedius and Friedrich with a

illustrated

is

historical

religions of

all

vast array of authorities.

should as a spirit be capable of begetting spiritual children was a natural

sequence.
in the

was a

fire

recognised by the Church of England) was believed in by

(as is still

any

I

think therefore that,

things duly considered,

all

we have

in the belief

Scaldino a probably well-established continuation of the old Etruscan tale

of the goblin of the
It is

fire

and the

worth remarking that

fair

queen's daughter, fallen to a servant-maid.

in the

Tomba

Golini at Orvieto, as in Pompeii, a

fascinum, or phallus, was depicted over the oven or fireplace, probably to signify the
spirit

of the

fireside.

Artemisia.
I

strega

was astonished to

find that the

—here a vampire—who

indicates

identifies

I

is

known only

as a witch of the evil kind.

could learn nothing more regarding

Diana Artemis with Hecate.

As

a

as that of

This

sucks the blood of the dead in their graves.

some connection with Diana

promptly recognised, but

name Artemisia

The name was
her.
PRELLER

to which as with all others,

I

leave

it

to

the more learned to investigate, examine, prove or disprove to their heart's content,
I

only professing to record, as in every case, what was told me.

Red

Cap.

" Lord Foulis sat within his tower,

And
'

Now

him

beside
tell

me

The death

old

Red Cap sly;
who art mickle

of might,

thou sprite

that I shall die.

"
'

Minstrelsy of the Border.

" Here

is

an ancient description of the dress of the

green cloth inlaid with wild flowers

;

carry quivers of arrow-slough, and

bows made of the

made of bog-reed

tipped with white

their arrows are

steeds

fairies

:

'

They wear a red

green pantaloons, buttoned with bobs of
ribs of a
flints

man

buried where

and dipped

in the

whose hoofs would not " dash the dew from the cup of a harebell."

There are

in the

silk,

'

"

"

conical cap

and

;

a mantle of

They

silver shoon.

three lairds " lands

dew of hemlock

;

;.

they ride on

Anonymous.

Romagna Tuscana a class of goblins or fairies who are almost
who possesses treasures which are yielded only
I could not learn that the Italian elf has any other name than

identical with the Irish Leprachaun

under compulsion.

meet

77 Folletto colla Beretta

—the imp with the cap.

He was

described as follows

:

RED
"

When

are sure
it

it is

;

'

CAP.

163

mysterious noises and knocks or a rummaging sound are heard in your rooms by night, and you

made by

unearthly visitors, prepare for them by putting a lighted lamp in the room, and covering

over with an earthen pot, but very carefully so that not a gleam can be seen.
"

Then when you hear a

there catch the cap from one

if

noise in the room, uncover the light as quickly as possible, and

you can and say

" 'La beretta

Ma
Ma

non
la

if

goblins are

:

ti

ti

ho portato

ho portato

via

!

via,

pace che piu non

ti

daro

Se non mi dice prima
Dov'e nascosto

Which

is

in

Romagnola
"

'

il

tesoro.'

:

A

t'o

Ma

A

porte via la bretta,

an to porte via

la bretta

to porte via la pes,

Che piu an te daro in fe
Che tun ma vre det en dove
Le piate e tesor
!

("

'

I

have taken thy cap away,

And

yet

not a cap I say,

'tis

But thy peace which

I'll

Unto thee while thou
Till thou tellst

Where
" Then the

This

spirit,

is

Mythologie,

to

classic

tell

now

lies hid.')

where a treasure

is

concealed."

They knew in Italy," says Preller {Romische
spirits who knew where treasures were hidden, and
"

a class of

They were

hidden secret natures).

their

me, as thou'rt bid,

a treasure

his cap, will tell

enough.

p. 488), "

-who guarded them.

to

redeem

not give

dost live,

If

called Incubones,

any one can

where these treasures are hidden

"

and wore caps

steal these caps

(Petronius,

s.

38

;

(the

symbols of

he can compel them
see

Grimm, Deutsche

Mythologie, 479).

This

elf

with the red cap and a scanty shirt

paintings and on Etruscan vases.

He

spread

all

is

common

in

Roman mural

over the world, unto

Germany

and the Scandinavian countries, even the Algonkin Indians of America got him
from the Norsemen. But it is very probable that the Etruscans or their neighbours
had him
It

is,

first

of

all.

Which, however,

however, certain that the

people at the present day
It is

who

Red

I

more learned men to determine.
Romagnolo peasants are the only
him as existing.

leave for

Indians and

really believe in

not improbable that the goblin with the red cap

headed wood-pecker

Picus,

who was

is

derived from the red-

in the earliest times believed in Italy to

be a

1

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

64

sprite

who guarded

were hidden, as
else in this

work

treasures,

shown

is

I

and sometimes, under compulsion, showed where they
another chapter.

in

All of which

—as with everything

submit as material only, the real value of which others must

determine.

the red-caps and other

Preller assumes, quite as a matter of course, that

minor

or house-gob-

deities,

lins of a frolicsome brownie

belong rather

character,

Teutonic and
ologies than

Celtic

to-

myth-

the Italian.

to

Herein he quite forgets that

though the world has through

Grimm's

fables or early per-

learned

sonal influences
associate

to-

these sprites with

the North, yet that in reality
written and authentic history

shows them as familiar

Latins centuries long

early

before

German

beliefs

were,

ever
to

heard

David

origin

of

so

and more vigorous people

larger

the world.

—a

dwarf

or

Celtic

to

speak,,

According

of.

MacRitchie,

the

" wee folk "

all

driven out

races,

is

antecedent

to be sought in
red-cap on a roman lamp.

to

process which probably went on

all

by

over

This would not interfere with the creation of other personifications

of manikins, such as the very obvious one which occurs to most children of
treating the

said,

thumb and

fingers as a kind of fairies, or believing that frogs and-

assumed dwarf human forms.

birds

As

testimony seems to indicate that he

fication

of the

red-headed

wood-pecker

is
;

regards Red-cap, as

I

have already

of Etruscan origin, and
that

is,

a

small

is

a personi-

form of Picus or

Picumnus. 1
1

"

The negroes and

half-breeds in Missouri consider the red-headed wood-pecker a great sorcerer,

can appear either as a bird or as a red
very grateful and very vengeful.

man

He made

with a mantle or cloak on his arm.

He

is

the bat by putting a rat and a bird together.

who

supposed to be

He

sometimes

bores holes in the heads of his enemies while they sleep and puts in maggots which keep them for ever
restless or crazy.''

—Note

by

Mary

A. Owen.

OF SORCERY IN ANCIENT ART.
The

those of the North, are given to imitating

Italian house-goblins, like

One

sounds.

165

of the sixteenth-century writers

us that the day before a

tells

party of merchants arrive at a country house the people dwelling therein often

hear the Elves imitating the sound of scales rattling as
ring of money, and

all

if

making weight, the

And

the circumstance of buying and selling.

may

very remarkable that, as one

by the Etruscan Museum of

see

it

is

Gori, the

red-cap goblins of ancient Italy are sometimes represented with weights and

and behaving

scales

holding

fairs,

But

merchants.

like

in

as Christina Rossetti's " Goblin

finds himself in

such

may buy diamonds and

fairs

penny, but he must escape ere they close, or he
a visitor arrives his voice

the
all

people

little
is

countries they are given to

all

Market

may

pearls

come

will

He who

by the pound
to woes.

for

And

a

ere

be heard, and the night before a rain or a storm

make sounds

of a shower or the blowing of winds

as

when

still.

" What
Is

it

and rapples so

ripples

and near

fast

it

is

not hail,

But the Elves and Witches who dance
First in a patter

That

A

is

way

the

ouphes,

folk

are

ell-maids,

necks,

brownies,

and then

the Elfin dance."

These are

known.

ell-women,

stromkarls,

"fairies,

dwarfs,

fates,

in a gale.

in a prance,

News sums up

writer in the Philadelphia

wee

?

the rain on the roof I hear?

It is not rain,

the

bears witness.

"

norns,

trolls,

wights,

little

names by which

the different
elves,

fays,

urchins,

kobolds,

duende,

elfe-folks,

nisses,

undines,

nixes,

salamanders,

goblins, hobgoblins, poukes, banshees, kelpies, pixies, moss people, good people,

good neighbours, men of peace, wild women, white

ladies, peris, djinns, genii,

and gnomes."

Making allowance
Italian lore,

found

all

and they

for
still

mere synonyme,

the world over, be

in

it

The

Interlace, or

Twining

of these are to be found in early

Eastern lands or

Of Sorcery
(

all

exist in the mountains.

in

in

in reality

they

may be

America.

Ancient Art.

Serpents, Vines,
" Twist

But

and Knots, as believed in

in Tuscany?)

ye, twine ye, even so,

Mingle threads of joy and woe."

Guy Mannering.
" Pingue duos angues

There

is

:

pueri, locus est

sacer."— Persius

a passage in Heine's preface to his

(sat.

i.

113).

Germany which must appeal to

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

166

every collector of

he says

rural folk

In speaking of the traditions and tales of the humbler

folk-lore.
:

" I have here given
in huts, narrated

strange,

uncanny

reflection

which the flickering

fire

of twigs cast on the face of the

and the beating of the hearts of the hearers who listened

narrator,
I

more than one of these which I myself heard by hearths
some
vagabond beggar or old and blind grandmother, but the
by
in

happy

silence

when deprived of

could not render, and these rustic, well-nigh barbaric stories

that lose their wondrous and secret charm."

Heine had been, as we may gather from
such scenes, and heard,

it

may

about as

be,

his

life,

many

wonder what he would have written had he been
gypsies and witches, especially the

latter,

vival of the strange wild classic strega,

whose

had ever

far

soul

Many

a time have

I

kind.

felt

I

among

to perfection the sur-

inspired with early Latin

is still

was ever and anon flashing out

life

more uncanny and unearthly than

seen.

Grimm

almost constantly

for years

and seen and

or Etruscan sorcery, and from whose inner

something

perhaps half a dozen times in
tales of the

the flames of twigs which he

all

been awed at these living dreams, these

for-

who spoke of an old, old faith,
long in its grave, once held by a race whose very language is now as unknown, as
their origin.
And I avow that this has ever moved me as a sincere lover of
gotten visions of yore, incarnate in strange women,

antiquity as a real romance, without equal in this our age of prose.

She was seated by the table on which was one of those simple,

beautiful long

come down unchanged since the Roman
time in her hands she held a scaldino, which was all the fire for warmth known to
her in the window grew herbs of deeply mystical meaning, not for show but for
-sorcery, when I by chance asked her if people found many objects of antiquity
brass lamps with three lights, such as have
;

;

And

where she dwelt.

reflecting

an instant as usual

—which always inspired
— she said

marvellously antique-wild expression which suggested classic art
" Molti.
There

at

Strangers

come

Cesena, for example.

for a building, find

"And

to us

and dig up vases, black and yellow, which our ancestors made long ago.
is in the Romagna.
Sometimes the contadini, excavating the ground

Cesena,

medals as well as antique vases, thousands of years old.

these were

all

made

for witches

witchcraft, for in those times all the land

places and old ruins and the like
in the

her

camfo

before dying she taught

'

As

according to their

was

full

When

of witches.

belief,

And

and

all

all

these things are of magic

why

the reason

and

they are found in secret

came in, they would not let the witches be buried
and wizards were scomunicati excommunicated.
bury one another, and when one witch died the others interred her secretly in
is this

:

the priests

santi, because they said the witches

" So they arranged it to
own cellar or house " with

Tiaturally

a

:

her vases and witch-medals, and

her secrets to the others.

And

the Etruscan tombs were often exact copies of the

formed by the peasantry.

all

the things which she used in her art.

this is

homes

why

it

is

we never

find

of the departed, this idea

And

them buried

in

would be very

OF SORCERY IN ANCIENT ART.
Christian burying grounds, and

own

are all of their

why we do

find vases

and very ancient medals

" For in the old times witchcraft had a religion, and

was called

it

—and what you see on the old vases are the names

the olden time.

And on them

Pagan

survivals,

Pagan

marvellous to

me

"

and though the

awful

yea,

This was

of a heathen faith outworn, and that

!

familiar things

all,

as

I

would

fain

a few

Though degraded

convey

earnest thought, and the

is

were

smoul-

it

still it

was

who speak

adore,

to the

of the

and whose

pic-

humblest condition
folk-lore or

till

they were to

me

as

flicker

of the

fire

nor the beating of hearts

;

the classically stern, almost terrible beauty which

same beauty

seems to be so much

there

live

still

and not mere fragments of

appears in the face of an old Italian witch when

why

friends

have elsewhere shown, were of the same hoar antiquity.

Heine could not give the
I

women now

have so often seen practised or prepared,

I

my

Yes, the ceremonies and incantations, charms and amu-

of ancient superstitions.

which

a novel, but

sent out a jet of flame,

whom

fast fleeting, Stregoneria is still a belief,

what

who

—that through the ages such a glimmering had come

tures are to be seen on ancient vases

let's

in

had burned low, so that

spirit fire

now and then

Etruscan Jupiter and Bacchus as of deities

and

— the

and wizards of

foregone to be a Christian reality, and per-

idealist."

dered in the ashes, and only

down

la religione della stregoneria

portraits of witches

are the pictures of Tigna and Fafion and all other witches or magicians

man who had

have read of a

verted himself into a
real

and

*

spirits."

I

in their graves, for these things

ancient belief, or for witchcraft, and so they could not be placed in the campo santi.

religion of sorcery

became

167

it

is

illuminated

by an

The

reason

in the thoughts themselves.

light in an Italian smile, such intensity in

the passion, even of peasants, allied to a certain indescribable picturesqueness,

is

thought and traditions have been derived for thou-

because all their habits of

sands of years from stages of society in which Art and Faith in their most comAnd though the Art no longer
prehensive sense influenced every act of life.
exists, the

impulses which

mitted by heredity
long after

it

created

still live

— even as the water of a

has passed some mighty

it

mystical cognate sorcery.

out faith
Zola, to

is

an empty

make

;

and

blood and brains, and are trans-

stream continues to leap and sparkle

cataract.

Etruscan vases, and jewellery, and mirrors
created deities, goblins, spiriti folletti,

in

That was Art which

inspired

not less artistic was the feeling which
elves,

Faith without art

is

with their lays and legends, and

an egg not yet hatched

;

art with-

nothing—unless it be for some wizard, like
the devil withal. These descendants of the old

egg-shell worth

a boat of to ride to

and wild revelry depicted on the Etrusco-Greek vases, with their satyrs,
and mysterious emblems or hieroglyphs, would all very naturally suggest to the
Does not all this Greek beauty and joyousness seem even to us like a dream of
contadini magic and sorcery.
'

The nakedness,

the dancing

goblins,

and winged

loses

fairyland

—a Paradise

?

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

168

who have kept

Italians

simple faith their old superstitions, have also kept with

in

them, unconsciously, the art which giveth

the peasants in

Romagne had any

le

life

—and

made me

This speaking of old Etruscan art

life is

and

light

fire

But the head must be down and interlaced, and the

luck.

" And do

interlaced serpents

" Ah, that

and

mean good

fortune?

uppermost."

tail

all

—braided work—

they should undertake some kind of lavori intrecciati
is

evils,

and

to bring

*

kinds of interweaving and braiding

When

interlacing cords, or whatever can attract the eyes of the witches.

there

if

"

a well-known thing, and not as to serpents alone, but

is

feeling.

regarding them.

beliefs

" Yes. They sometimes paint a serpent on the wall to keep away the evil eye or witch

good

and

think of serpents, and I asked

of witchery

» family is afraid

for witches

cannot enter a house where

anything of the kind hung up, as for instance, patterns of two or three serpents twining together, o

altri ricami, or other kinds

drawers or any garments

for

So

of embroidery, but always of intertwining patterns.

men

— one

women

or

cross the cotton (thread) as shoemakers

camice; muntande u vestiti

do when they

are most susceptible to witchcraft (perche

le

stitch shoes,

and make a

scarpe sono quelle pih facile

making

in

shirts or

should always in sewing try to

a prendere

cross-stitch,

because shoes

And when

le stregonerie).

the witches see such interfacings they can do nothing, because they cannot count either the threads nor the
stitches (ne ilfilo ne i punti).

And

if

we have on

or about us anything of the kind they cannot enter because

bewilders or dazzles their sight (lefa a bagliare la vista), and they are incapable of mischief.
well (tenere il sistema) you should take cotton, or
eight columns, as

many

protect you from witches.

and they keep them
I

for

you

as

will

You can

—the

more the

silk,

or linen thread, and

better

— and

always carry

get such braids very beautifully

charms against the

made

make
it

And

it

to do this

a braid of six, seven, or

in your pocket,

of silk of all colours in

and

this will

some shops

;

evil eye.''

took great pains to have this carefully recorded, for

is

it

intimately con-

nected with an interesting subject which possibly enters into the raison d'etre or
real inspiration of all the

most characteristic decorative

during the Middle Ages.
occurs (page 98)
" There

own

their

is

In

my work

a very curious belief or principle attached to the use of songs in conjuring witches or in averting

sorcery.

Nearly

terns, she

Europe, especially

:

It is that

the witch

is

obliged, willy-nilly, to listen to the end

founded on the attraction of melody, which
adults.

art of all

on Gypsy Sorcery the following passage

is

much

stronger

among

what

in metre

is

out,

and by means of

this her

idea

and confused pat-

allied to this is the belief that if the witch sees interlaced, or bewildering

must follow them

— an

savages and children than with civilised

thoughts are diverted or scattered.

Hence the

serpentine inscriptions of the Celts and Norsemen, and their intertwining bands which were firmly believed to

bring good luck, or avert evil influence.

country are

made

Italian as in all other witchcraft, so

Spell of the

Holy

" The basis

A

traveller in Persia states that the patterns of the carpets of that

as bewildering as possible

many

'

to avert the evil eye.'

spells

And

it is

with this purpose that, in

and charms depend on interwoven braided cords

(vide the

Stone).

for this belief is the fascination or interest

which many persons, especially children,

trace out patterns, to thread the mazes of labyrinths, or to analyse

space permit, nor inclination

fail, I

could point out

some

and distangle knots and

'

curious proofs that the old belief in the

long and curling hair to fascinate, was derived not only from

its

feel to

cats' cradles.'

Did

power of

beauty, but also because of the magic of

its

curves and entanglements.''
*

heads.

Probably the caduceus of Mercury, which often appears on vases as simply two serpents with interlaced

yet strikingly. down to the latest works on design. and copied convinced from the beginning that lizards. art. the curve of the waters as they wind in the brook or bound upwards ocean-wave. is first some of this and to copy have since drawn That some long my art. perused it thrice in as many versions before I was sixteen years of age. soul. And was deeply I in all these Celtic intertwinings of infinite Irish and eternal Scandinavian serpents. with intense interest in the England. a grand Paracelsian idea that the stars letters. for such reading at such an occult writing. every letter. down to Gothic ribbon and Florentine cord and vine braidings. I had. all wild woods. which I mention to show what an impression it made on me. of Gaffarelius guided I for a in and serious sense of meaning must have Northern jewellery. attached and Shelley. Abdut the same time may And which have apparently no connection with some extremely deeply-seated itself to this for article of feeling cherished I by the in spirit from it. the forms. expressing as it were in an What gave me the suggestion is worth mentioning. or instinct. if Art were as I think. inspired lines by which the evil eye must perforce trace that which compels the witch to count. beginning with Westwood's Palceographia Picta in which the claims of the Irish to be the originators I of such art are upheld. tried to trace illuminations. Divine caligraphy. Identical with this law. and seated a thousand years. stands to reason. sets forth naively. by GAFFAREL. every In an age when symbolism and would have been a miracle indeed the Interlace meant everywhere has been. it aid of poetry And what by the it tradition me here to many more and association. get the key by inspiration and Wordsworth and by grey rocks and dured sea- of Nature. as or . and. Norway. or the Archceus. the and the marks on all trees. and Scotland. I have studied them museums of Ireland. Sweden. form eternally varied hieroglyphics of a vast writing. where I much in my soul. and that the and courses form the points of Hebrew or on the bark of flight by the of the bird and the flickering bend of a flame spirit study. age sinks deep into the in in which he heaven in their relative aspects geomantic shells in the and This was The Unheard-of Ctiriosities. and was found in every work of clearly set forth It began to study Gothic I be supposed. all the . there ran a mystic meaning. The poetry more so we may of this idea entered into as I read year at college. and Denmark. out patterns it was immensity. to which time. Italian strega in the preceding pages. There is a book of which Trollope declared that he believed he was the only person in Europe who had ever read it. this universality of a system of design which en- magic permeated everything meaningless. con gre" 23 mal gre". deep and strange secrets of sorcery. fishes. however. took daily long and lonely walks silent waters. 169 have made serious and extensive study of interlaced patterns.OF SORCERY IN ANCIENT ART. literally thousands of them. the many deep and strange conclusions.

—has is quite ou on the best authority. as think I have often done myself to make designs.g. that everything been put into has is of the Irish claim to have developed or invented find fact. in the East. I begged her to define it for me.o grains of rice or sesame or corn which she Amina must Nights the ghoul South Carolina. Great Britain and Gaul. of agnosticism. because the witches cannot count and so they get bewildered Four Winds. A month's work of intelligent designing is worth all the theory in the world. rice-like its leaves. i. and the learned dame. may So in the Arabian by grain with a bodkin. declared languidly that she had gone through was a vanished quantity. that the theory of the basket-pattern " as also that it. and that it agnostic was " a kind of infidel-sceptic. ribbons.. through e. But I was not to be caught thus. regarding corrugated and rugged surfaces of any kind as protecting from Hence the stalagmite. which —that not as yet a matter of proof it is earliest times. as of esteemed as a protective. in have elsewhere I the the Celtic peoples during the migration of races. or salagrana means all inimical sorcery. the firm and gentle Sayce and the fiery Oppert still maintain. or cords. This suggests interlaces. for she must remove she can reach him. forget And I am also told by other men that Fetishism is exploded. And of the Goddess Rice or grain and grain. with an ill grace. or . conjecture I from the Hungary. explained that an with it all. In encounter." somebody— I So I —but have been all that sort of thing told. have been I now " exploded the interlace . you know. had the interlace and constantly in The Britons. shown the erba Rosolaccio. I before the powder speaking to have read. ropes. of fashion now. who could see no beauty in anything save baroqiie patterns. or I in me nowadays is " exploded " almost Thus a certain blue-stocking lady. and used — for stone. The baskets Irish —which bascauda monks and artisans developed these basket-patterns. I do not necessary to adopt the rather unpleasant idea set forth in a great book it on needlework that the entrails of animals were thus used for models. is This belief was carried to the extent of them. eat her rice grain strewed in the form of a cross about a bed prevents a rice witch from getting at her victim. ere it. that who exploded the Altaic-Tartar Accadian theory— theory which. very popular against malocchio. it. however. told. as was indeed once suggested to me by a certain wood-carver. made gaily-painted to Rome. " Let me hear your definition first ? " asked the blastfe-bleue. and I no more believe that " insides " were employed to suggest motives than I do that earth-worms were taken for the same purpose. generally. manifestly using. as a more pliable suggestive. were sent is evil. nor must she shirk the task.— a ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

morning-glory. be. as undeniable I 171 have before me. therefore attentive that if are fine silkworms it and curious from any witch. 'Belli quel they have taken that twineth as a vine or " bine." " Those who in the may which they pass through before spinning great dread of unpremeditated praise. he must trim them so that the restino intrecciati "But magic power of intertwining knots. however fine "Be mulberry-tree. because the person. as old Assyrian. in his Magie Chaldaienne. among them " When boughs is the following any malocchio. This plant flowers by tendrils bewilder the sight (fa affogliare la vista) of afar. of course. and gives in illustration the following against a disease or pain in the head : . be is convolvulus. will be removed. being of : because calling them 'fine' during the three their silk The peculiar superstitions. if and its it And they cannot enter serpents intertwined (come little keeps them out. But to return to the for there more is of it interlace. for which reason night.— — — OF SORCERY IN ANCIENT ART. though utterly use. and the evil charm. there The case the silkworms will be protected against their death. and also a protection against witches. its a peasant prunes the mulberry-trees which are for silkworms." who fascinate or bewitch always use the honeysuckle and is it. its beautiful flowers in a bouquet and keeps them All of which." as I heard it tersely expressed at the termination of the Folk-lore Congress of 1891. say. fear enchantment or the window. or fish-nets. or —may evil influence would cause remain interlaced — in which throw the leaves '). will In Italy. trials to at the silkworms. being vexed. care must also be taken that. has. it is of because it all eye should have the convolvolo in their gardens or in a pot evil others the flower which witches cannot endure. and sorceresses. which includes all the silkworms any one entering the house should of animals or children. or serpentine ornaments. speaks of the very ancient weaving of magic knots —that is. or the in the lore of the strege. as in the East. bears tendrils (nerbolini) like a mass of tante piccole serpia rotolate) and all entangled." the reader be thing to think over when " a thinking character." may give him some- he sees a Gothic interlace. of the efficacy was so firmly believed in. building up every man his little cardboard system and blowing down those of others " and one live nigger would walk over the whole of them. plaiting interlaces. or love-knots. because a house where it is. great importance in Italy. or Hegel's sentences ! Lenormant. blown up. owing if no one shall say so. So they go on. bacchV ('Those it. because those indeed (belli) (malattie) throw at that person a handful of leaves. to its twisted tendrils. which he says that even up to the Middle Ages. specially manufactured specimens of fetishes of many for my own kinds as could emanate from the brains of Italian witches and American Voodoos.

or whispering to them awful dreams. — " . in these cases we probably have tradition in jest. having examined their books when to the Arabs. counting as she does so. O breath. nearly connected with the interlace ride or torment him. in is effect. and must pick up every mustard seed. which visited in sleep chimney a coarse linen cloth or a sieve fem leaves. nearly allied to the idea of holes and corrugations in stones grana was a charm . magic. is vide the Sala- magic rhymes and bewildering music. up it hair interlaces in application of interlacing cords to quite identical with This subject of the interlace as a guard against evil modern —to am indebted to Miss All produce one from a black sorceress). just as among the Red Indians of America. and that attracts and confuses the mind.. and speaks of a all sorcerers. and mingled colours. In all the Romagna. i. Rosolaccio. I think. this the temple or other parts of the body is like a violent wind ! see that plaiting the Taking for a headache. known know. or sorcerers of Africa. The Goddess of the Four Winds— L'erba " Come from the four winds. as I this is man who. the seeds of the fern or the teeth of the cords. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. I usage. 2 " Knot on divide the right and arrange twice in seven it flat in regular bands gird the head of the invalid with gird his hands him on seat and his with life the woman's diadem a left . it gird the forehead of the invalid with gird the seat of —on bands little it it his feet bed pour on him enchanted waters. : you should fasten in the the head of the bed a pair of wool cords or a branch of tie at which the seeds are almost ripe all of Missouri. riding on their breasts. ere she is free to torment the sleepers by knotting their feathers. ." The black Takroori. Let the disease of his head be carried away into the heavens may the earth swallow From which we can like passing waters it altogether. . " When a man is Mary Owen. The witch must count the interstices of the cloth or sieve. It is very curious that Praetorius used curry-combs or wool-cords to defend himself Here. Among primitive or superstitious people. this faith is carried so far . the medicinal or other virtues of herbs are attributed to some deeply mysterious cause of a supernatural nature. that they may live " (Ezekiel xxxvii. or transmission. from a nightmare witch.. and breathe upon these slain. for the following (learned by witches who . sprinkle a cup of mustard seed on the door-sill. or an amulet.. draw their magic and lore largely from Arabic-cabalistic in Egypt. 9). — .

and remained And she prepared a fine cradle all made of and aided her. look like grains of It is also called hung up behind the window. in a red bag. perhaps < princess however she loved a poor young man. A sprig of may be it must always be in the window. she said :— fairy. drawn up like a many-fingered called the rice (or the smile) of the of good luck because it brings great good fortune. " But who was ' "Well. . or spirits in in allusion to their reverence for onions or garlic. but also the Rosolaccio which has also the curious is rice (riso). or. . or eyes. That the bewitchment may pass from let grains (or grain-like For they are so closed : Un' erba miracolosa Then many take this plant. early in the morning. bears one of these about him Etrusco-Roman times he will be like the ancient in their gardens One —carries — and is he plants or. the latter should be this bewitched. either growing or else in the bag. a miraculous plant to grow. of the Goddess had the following account given to me with a specimen of I a plant the leaves of which. and ing. way that certain plants are regarded as being in some strange He who themselves. also laughter. e altra bella al par di te 1'hai fatta nascere. and when the time came of laurel. then the plant kept growing in a small pot. be impossible. as in old a small guardian angel. room. leaves). fire it. kept her mother made a . the crackling the cries of the babe should not be heard. it little Goddess of the Four Winds. la stregoneria passi O 'Goddess. who knows ? but the young man dwelt near her. if in cannot count them and therefore cannot pass by. and this must be done for three mornings. and say if this a bag. I the Goddess of the Four Winds? have heard that her mother was a beautiful who was girl of great rank. that the witches together that counting hand. for she was of fairy kind but it came to a trap-door — — in her room. and while the mother burned the laurel. of the Four Winds. the end was that she was with child. and under her bed. lest the world should who was a for the princess to give birth to the child. " How it came to pass. made the sign of the cross be made ! to thee in beauty. o dea ' Non ci Perche ('* any family a child or grown person Thou who must be is fast- dei quattri venti. If the former. and her parents would not hear of such a match. There is . goddess of the four winds no one equal hast ! . many months And in her her mother. whence is it is in a literal. we is done.') . happened. three times with the herb. and they found a subterranean passage which led to her room some say she had it dug. double-meaning name of the the herb whom fairies always in a red bag. no witches can enter. so that in " And when this its roses. and go to the sufferer even from water. "And know secret. it had gods growing : " Rosolaccio rice. in a pot. Egyptians of of these plants which in a religious — 173 . or the smile. for there are so And impossible. if Juvenal said they an object of culture not only aesthetic sense.— — ' . ' THE GODDESS OF THE FOUR WINDS. should happen that it in " Dea.

the in the wohl poppy or corn-flower. as Ceres attempted to She But the we burned out quietly this story is to mere mortal Or. is "the Greek zephyr." or wind-flower sprung from the blood of Adonis. is sons and six daughters six much to suggest fail wind First of all the infant goddess of the Adonis.' morn. but the die altesle name rose however. amata. E di rose conbugigata. The anemone rocked by the wind in the cradle of a rose. spirit of spring. but symbol of a new a loud noise into a fairy or goddess. in the flower he lives again the same with Favonius. the is. in roses Daughter. Una fata di te pure ("'Darling daughter To in the ho fatta." by a branch of a good sign. A batta di lauro tu sei nata. amata. has Andeutung The his in Windrose— einer d. questa fu la fata detta la dea dei quattro venti. the corpse in a . as an evergreen. as laurel. of laurel boughs. Figlia mia. amata. and which if it made a loud sound was laurel. amata. Wind. ^Eolos. show how " it was that the babe was made also employed a laurel. dear to me. that as a spirit of the wind. good sign (A. and it was regarded (TlBULLUS. daughter. 174 " ' Figlia mia. as a 6. Greek myth. Clamosior lauro are told by the author of the quoque ramis divinatio sumebatur. The burning of laurel twigs so that they shall make a noise is of ripe antiquity. Friedrich {Symbolik roses." This marvellous and mysterious story can hardly folk-lorist." It can hardly be denied that all this seems to be indicated in this strange Tuscan tale." real rosalaccio (rose-lace) is the red and of the dew-drop. " Among do with do not know that I it was was not only consecrated to prophecy or magic. 1611). Et lauri if it made proverb. " But the chief aim of the infant Triptolemus. than burning there was also divination they crackled and if the it was peculiarly Romans a. to immortality. and the contrary to pass from a Hence came a common 81). " There was a special divination or foretelling the future by burning laurel leaves.') E was the Goddess of the Four Winds. Eleg. the sound of laurel thou wert born Wrapped . thou shalt be. to every rocked in a cradle of indication of the wind-rose or anemone. and. as fire.— — " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. We have " in it. home " the Natur) observes that first refers to the colour. life neues Leben im Tode.D. Friedrich but declares. the sweet and fructifying south wind who comes with the swallow and the spring. ardente — " Noisier Trinum Magicum ii. a connection of roses with the wind. A And ' ' this child have made of fairy I thee.

' and. divined ' in any way). or relate. far " Then she went away so to a wise old that It is as (Here there is woman. WlNCKEL- laurel " also i. was ever true me I me. And live. Yet 'twas the journey of a year. the dew-drop. was sprinkled with water from funeral laurel boughs and . the wife of the Emperor Lucius woman represented as holding a branch of laurel. and she sang " Love." had just dawned when they came . times of on a rare medal. or the new life in died in CHRIST.' after. . and the rose. is a magician (mago) and Corina (Romagnolo. and there stands by her a half-naked child awaiting baptism. die Relig.'' ' the morning false to ' I his sister. home. part p. the baptism. with this difference by water. have come. our sufferings are o'er. who "And a manifest hiatus. The wild wind bore me And Curena like a cloud. 175 in the early who Christianity the dead were laid on laurel leaves to signify that those Christ had not ceased to also symbolised by die Kunst. This has a special application to the Tuscan case there is a baptism by and fire. Lucilla. and the old "So who : " The Wind "A spirit in the all in a plant. were mystically combined in ancient fable. was (WlNCKELMANN. she would ever find her lover again.) to a city. Curend) youth had a sweetheart and believed she had been in his sorrow fled far. usually retain. only fairy stories. They have put me on thy Thou from me Now Thou track. In another Romagnolo legend the follows Again. but say. lived happily ever me nevermore. but it may be remarked that the zephyr. der Rbmer. didst leave thy unto thee is I travelled here.. peasants not a tale at is to sister know if Curena. tale. In two hours' time v : to thee. MANN iii. and that they reappear in the birth of the Goddess of the Four Winds. wilt ne'er turn back. whereas this real sense of the word. near her kneels a is drawing water. her go to the Wind. Versuch einer Allegorie. in the other —that in In both the babe one is to be prepared for a new There is life by means of the mystic laurel. 46). shalt leave they were united. and to his of her love. we may appears as male and female. c. whistled loud. worshipped an explanation of the origin of a youth Wind is.— — THE GODDESS OF THE FOUR WINDS. also mentions that Verus. they put her down before the Now for . besonders fur Hartung. thou hast been While is him while she was innocent. consulted the cards (that woman bade they departed with her window Thou false to But the he might see her no more. some obscurity in this myth.

is now discontinued. profusely two hundred years ago.. And flower. or Skiron. certain her words being. allocutus. credo. and so the priests : took her and called . 176 is who blows ever hunting. heathen) who has been On unjustly filched from which subject one of the sister- amount of righteous or pious the Lady of the Fire was a great spirit before the ever heard of her la donna miracolosa del fuoco. anemone or wind- the true rosalaccio. is the real There are some also who assert that the red can. and Curena seem to be certainly Wind's wind : raven typical of the north-west wind. 1648." was formerly a custom It new growth. quod in Elias Schedius. Madonna entirely is . Of which confusion there is a great deal in old tradition has long since run into decay and to pardon me if I cannot clear it Madonna del " Sic in igne praeter specie ignis alia I beg the reader Fuoco. quod Deus Mosen primum is. the occasion of which was the showing an image of the Virgin This extremely heathen ceremony seated on a dragon surrounded by flames. in part. which flower. is Corinna. De Dis Germanis. as follows who indeed worked many miracles. to the effect that It is deities hood expressed herself not without a other illustrated. at Forli in the Romagna Toscana to give annually a grand procession. is who have and has a who maintain that the so-called wild wind- work than better material wherewith to Out of all which may make what they is the true shamrock shamrock. and the red is I. from which I gather that once upon a time the must have been very magnificent. either guided by a»sagacious as one of their them. in the Christian indignation. devoted of Fire and Dragons. regard this pantheon. triple leaf. sorrel it. and " Curena we have the Teutonic It is possible that in this a horn which bride. and placed own heathen to published describing this Madonna was " She was a spirit («'. which those evident that the names and associations of the it is there are those in Ireland white. As regards the rosalaccio herb which have described are confused and intermingled with those of the poppy I or red corn-flower. and up.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. the who Corinth." allied to Coronis. remarkable that the witches and intuition or ancient tradition. which about Madonna festival wizards. proximus ccelo sit. even as the blood of Adonis all legends of a people in which because the blood of the Saviour dropped upon dropped on the anemone. sacra omnia insistebant.«. so far as Forli concerned. elementa. but is it is kept up in the still neighbouring small town of Civitellaj I have looked over a rather large Latin work. indicated in cor or curen.

said Lady. between a cicada and that we call a grasshopper the 24 . the neighbourhood began to talk of her and said "In Fuoco did many del (The sense here as Christian. but wings being quite louder.' " This he did. and that all their principal gods and goddesses were believed to wield. that she did all this before she that she appeared as a beautiful lady in a certain garden. or any illness or appeared before them great this there was the Lady of So they sent Fire. 1 " That animal which the French call sauterelle. fire.— — LA CAVALLETTA. "Thou La is Cavalletta neither. and that by doing and so him. and Its cry is like that of appears to play an important part among the Romanga. the terrible power. but g ran flashes of fire was treated fiaccole del and as soon as the lady had and placed it there —and she ascended it misero nome. Madonna Lady of Fire and the Miraculous Madonna. fuoco it —and to a church called the it And should be continually kept up. Madonna I del Le Romagne. la e le they it peasants when they have any knew it festival del Fuoco. but if Rome for a certain large stone they neglect their troubles will it never cease. So they bore and remained there as an image. indicates a pre-Christian be. trouble. " And this family left it by will that the all Yet while they did as a lunatic. that she is Vesta. the locust.' " And she replied Go to the great family and tell them they must go and and revived those who miracles. It I understand. Latines locusta. Tell in their fields there to ' me.) that first that this had ever done anything. it as the Katydid. as find in several places in this work. the The miraculous and Christianised. it And rich family. we a grasshopper."— Archilochus. defined as " a locust or grasshopper. attend this ceremony. " But ad knew in truth the priests fallen dead. a cicada which indeed is somewhat like leaves. indeed. stone fire is struck. but what is holdest the Cicada by the wings. such as the tale of the Spirito think that Fuoco goddess of taken in connection with the witch belief that this this. 177 this their race will never end. by the Again. or the Madonna. the lady came to : and send it to all was a very small boy who who was mute began to speak Thou art a miraculous virgin. Traces of the reader may del Giuoco. and by ourselves a locust." but as is known in resembles the Oriental locust in is of a clear green colour. is named Aspic by the Greeks. La Cavalletta. refers possibly to the flint converted from which own their It may spirits." Ottfried Muller and Preller observe from good authority that the Etruscans paid very great attention to thunder and lightning. one of really is Madonna origin for the Roman reappear in the legends of this continually del Fuoco. dumb I was from my birth. before they known claimed or " The Madonna was known of her was is Civitella there was an ancient and One morning kept sheep and was dumb. larger. during certain months. Madonna Miraculosa fire for the stone. me what I must do to express my thanks. la with miraculous bad crops. I could never speak before. but much superstitions of the 1 its America its general shape. and this child ' : was was Our Lady.

yet call a grasshopper" (Pseudoxia Epidemka [Vulgar . by Sir good and Thomas Brown. not take the least away me and every unto my son you were a lady. la lasci. Cavallctta When it is it : an insect of a green colour with long comes there should happen to be sleeping children in bed.— ! ! . which our ancestors. " It is legs.. so * venire far' miei di gran talento. as this You'll give my one. I figli Who bringst ma buona fine and una bestia tu non sei fortuna. and then received the induced to notice first it. used for that insect which Errors). Percio sei venuto in casa mia Per portarmi E La E buona fortuna. a sign of good luck a room one should at once close the windows to prevent into much Then one should the better. pure in vita una donzella eri tu Bella e buona e piena di talento. in following account in Italian " The augurio. and if a thread to the : Cavalletta che tanto bello sei ' E E da per buona fortuna tutto la quando va via tu porti. E cosi E E prego se tu vuoi ti se cosi farai ne sarai sempre benedetta ben vero che ora tu hai La forma uno Sei (" di una bestia.. ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. May you in turn be truly blest Since though an insect form you wear. alia contaRomagnola.' fair. buon' fortuna lascia in casa mia specialmente Che ai figli miei. London. Katydid. about by hearing a woman sing a song. 178 I was dinesca. and say or sing its tie e tanto di buon escaping. Our word beheld the cicada. la neppure non riportarmela via. Bring it And do Bring it Most of unto to all In life Of talent. Let me me I pray. as may be observed in themselves. — . which I wrote down. full good and pray. so leg of the Cavallctta and the other end to the bed. or their descriptions in Matthiolus Aldrovandus is borrowed from the Saxon Graest-hopp. is true. who never . . children talents too. You differences are very and Muffetus. And where you fly from East to West. spirito della Oh. beautiful. good fortune everywhere Leave good luck in this my home Since into the house you've come. we 1672). — . are a spirit fair 1 ') many.

" It is altogether impossible to separate the ancient folk-lore of the locust.. Thus Anacreon " sings: We praise thee auspicious Cicada. they associated it strangely with a higher genius and stronger powers of magic and prophecy. and cricket. io saro. a voice . Living on dew-drops. The Greeks and old Italians loved this insect more than the nightingale. and the suffered to leave at its own free will. "Then when a Katydid the child shall be of an age to understand this. grass- hopper. is the song which /jluvtk." fields. State. cavalletta is properly in legend the same as the cicada which was regarded as the emblem.') to the cradle of the child. So does Apollo the golden who gave thee thy song. gran talento il e venuto a porta mia. It was to them the herald of spring. while ear of corn. 179 he should be taught to sing. the Katydid. ' Ma Un Ma un gran lo tengo gran uomo la cavalletta posso ringraziare. a calling to green of the flowers. seems to me to set forth the spirit of cited. of song and poetry. Per che nella culla Mi talento.' (" I am but little. And yet I may a genius be. And if when grown I should be And make a name in Church or ' I'll As great. or the highest forms of intellect. and it should be allowed to depart mother bid. enthroned like a king On the tree's summit. when he sees : " Io son giovane e vero. —not driven away —but it must be freed. as you see. not forget that one fine day. and As the sweet prophet of all men bestow on —the summer Muses thee honour all love thee. and almost as the genius. or cicada. Friedrich remarks that in the magical practices of the ancients the grasshopper was supposed to possess such powers of divination that it was called amulet against a grasshopper But the I or the soothsayer. One which evil. as brought me by " But when the Cavalletta has been tied one hour window opened.— — LA CA VALLETTA. close by on an have It often occurs on monuments as an represents a Cupid holding a butterfly. thou cheer'st us with exquisite song. a song of rivulets and fountains sparkling in the shade. Portato la buona fortuna per la cavalletta. How Was all my wit. I in cradle sleeping lay.

and sing to to give it is It is absolutely the bambino. return to the Muses. or grasshopper. Sla ven in ca' vostra Piutost lighela a una gamba it was being . that induces the Italian mother to a cavalletta by the leg to her baby's cradle. idea or inspiration. also to indicate their patriotic attachment to their small country or i. spirit. and so starved to death in pure which. as well as believed to her hair. The original monotonous air. here given which it it others into consideration. So the Muses turned them into the beautiful cicadae. but in a far sweeter and nobler form. of Latin. including eating and drinking.t is The whole prophetic ballad. the refined old classic feeling that the cicada is little in it talents or genius.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. doubt that this to us from the early spring-time —why there say. which maiden wear a golden cicada beautiful to see it is the spirit of genius and poetry has survived among these humble peasants. it said that the insect never quits the place is where born. in reality a is rough but very perfectly reflected in this fine For diamond. Le un E sla Nola spirit et ven fe bona fortona. I have very all ceremony. in ca' vostra mai scape. Romagnolo which was sung like all contadino songs to a which. these insects so enchanted or enraptured that they could think of nothing else all signifies the by genius or song. Greek. as well as original may have come song. they forgot earthly things. stone-old. took or certainly bronze times. 180 Ulysses holding a cicada to Cerberus. how because city. as the La Romagna Toscana. were captivated evil or horror. spirit which is of the ancient belief in the cicada. or Etruscan song. as a and the genius of song. —yes. or There is make of something very antique so that. when they have sung themselves out in summer shades. and how as a mantis be capable of bestowing genius on the Romagnolo it in neolithic This of the cavalletta can at least be proved to be almost prehistoric. having heard the Muses sing. taking its is tie the incantation or prayer ! little and beautiful. same the Greek a poet. gave the impression that improvised. Ancient Germans not. Therefore the Athenian ladies wore golden cicadae in their hair as a sign aesthetic of culture and refinement. The old story was that were once men and women. like the words. as power of it occurs in gems. who. is nothing of the kind among the mountains of Every idea there which has a form. absence of mind. was as follows " E : spirit la cavaletta. made in all this.

declares that the cicadse were once very turned to insects by the Muses." be observed that this was described to the Spirit Cavalletta.— LA CAVALLETTA. pur dal regiment. it put upon . just as That it is is i vostre to say the insect set forth in the fiol. Arcorder ed Per che se Da It may once human. that the back of Chance more than it would bear. myth feri la Cavalletta. as did the old orthodox Christian of the doctrine of atoms. le much The ancient who were refined maidens. fen caiari pze an pense mai." one can only say. Per cio pensei sempre per temp. E E po 181 lighela a e let de vostra bordel quella lav portera fortona Ai vostre fial. quant chi andara a Ma quan chi e grend fer i solde e chi belle aloe Per vo o sara un gran dalor." of these identities in tradition to chance coincidences like causes. incantation says that the katydid in life " a lady full Of Of those who and " attribute development under all talent good and beautiful. and fortuitous combinations. is me as Lo Spirito la Cavalletta The modern — recognised as a spirit which was Latin or Greek legend. Lav portara fortona Ai vostre La E e la vi librara En A fial lai portra fortona pur et gran talent. was a pregari solde ai librari a punti ste sicur.

Then she strewed leaves all about. he takes a liking to a woman. . cum lib. and inspires her with follows her about all the time even it. cum fceminis Solent. And he came and made a great noise with the and laughed Then the mother. is afolletto. being angry. 7- know spirit all that I is given in the following strange story " Cupra se : or spirit. and not to go to bed till morning. . thinking that when this mysterious lover passed over them there would be a rustling. CUPRA. 2. " Her mother bade her carefully close the door. by thy is any us.— — CHAPTER X. ilium sic concubisse secum. by day. but not a leaf stirred. but the mother. ut viri simul in lecto essent. till at last she told her mother of it. and I will lie but I do not believe that there one here save sang leaves loudly. who was moreover strangely fortunate in all things quello che desiderava e quello die Now appariva. in the night she it came to pass that U waking found that she had by her a very beautiful youth. and this happened often. : ' Go " Then : to bed. capit. saw no one. who when prende a sinpatia una donna. said to her daughter side . who was secretly watching.' Cupra laughed aloud and . nee percipiente viro."— Bodinus. " Ex eo tempore . And he came all the same . " There was once in a town in La Romagna a girl of extraordinary beauty.

beautiful boy. the doubt. your fair Long loved Now — many will bear More " too. she had for she desired. And all this of whom. A I am Who She And a spirit loves her after this you'll see children to me. and of Pan Jove himself down to the Satyrs. elves. brownies. figli figli io 1'avro. the In fact the spirit of Dyonisia. voglio creiar. terrible. folletti are all. and a girl mere fragment. it doubtless grew out of some rude and simple old story of a I have no doubt that the Red Indians. that while Europe there they Dryads and Oreads. As among a very loose moral tone These Fauns and Sylvans. we cannot myth were. free-loving. " ' Si —sono a Con E tua 183 letto. It and find loose pieces of stories. multitude of hard-drinking. rakish fitted into spirit lover. tale as here given is a festive sensuousness evident in these tales. fail sometimes to strike the reader that there much very beyond all like the is worship of Bacchus and Venus. in the folk-lore and fairy- account of fairies. which beautiful it is in the A ringing Romagna melody of more surely from the Waldhorn of a hunter at the forest glee when sounded by . -woman who came in their set the this thing well tales of the rest of —of by their old names. all is who still — inter alia lore. from great is but little this Tuscan worth dwelling on. ! ') happy and contented. nobody would marry her daughter shall be yet she was . are. a CUPRA. present day their chief mission or amusement. could hardly be wanting among people actually invoke these deities I one another. does not come whom example of embracing every pretty strong confirmation of the heathen antiquity of deem from —a gay when not way. legitimately descended. and a divinities. tua figlia Sempre amero." There in this is a as little. of Cupid and Psyche. spirits of yore. figlia.: — .' (" ' Yes — am I lying Here by thy daughter She has by me. all being long and well loved by her amante. unborn. incinta D'un bel bambino Son' un spirito folletto Che E la tua figlia voglio molti Molti E amar. and sylvan goblins seducing maidens and abusing wives.

" says George Dennis {The Cities Etruria. 184 some woodcraftsman than a skilful sinners. made a very acquaintance indeed distinguished —had Chancellor published in a book I all — almost the only kind of abilities whom minor or sylvan gods. as twilight leering. the of twelve his bonne fortune. or could have. and her and Perusia. the dii minores. " But the name is probably to be explained by the Sabine word Cyprus (good). that much is and a girl like one in Bodinus. whence the Vicus Cyprius in Rome origin.— " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. greatly desired And now steel to the traditions Lord of the the Merrie Tales of the kind which have. however. will rise from the Ma—che irresistible Elf. hence possibly the another. of from here — informs us City of God. she appears to have been worshipped under other forms. "was to have been at Veii. the Etruscan Hera or Juno. called I I seem of their ancestors. still live in the by the French from a common not far off book of the in may to falls. the Pico della Mirandola seeking such carnal iniquity. " modern confusion as to certain names." the Silvani and All of these. and I dare say there I be correctors enough in due time to verify or disprove it all. there. as —which that " Saint Augustin declares in the fifteenth who. but nice. of Etruscan Her temple was renewed by Hadrian. will aught I I do not that of the my feel authorised to suggest any con- Cupra in the story. is went about continually Dusii. mistakes or misunderstandings as regards any or all have simply written down what I gathered. volete ? ! This Cupra tale self is the lover.' it fears and half meet with a handsome. and — manifested by these "geniuses. or Cupra. . for these names. where. I insist There may know. heard of such "shoking" culpabilities they are true as could have I namely. there was on the coast of Picenum a goddess named Cupra. effect. All of the old Etrusco. mettendola have shown Romagnola. In Fauni have many times sinned with women. among reedy rocks. 1878). Silvani. They also " crossed Thalna." to youthful comes when conversation turns on these mysterious beings. be. roguish. laughing lover. According to Preller {Romische Mythologie). that certain demons.Roman deities were in pairs. and " one Cemeteries of principal shrines seem Like her counterpart among the Greeks and Romans. however. Nor do discoveries with ancient ones. that ' it. and Dusii hopes in the forest shades. and a Mars Cyprius in nection between these names and Umbria. male and female. Falerii. who is supposed to be a Juno. to be the end thereof being that they lay with them. devil him- They may both have come source. tale which is " naughty." on any positive identity of any of have been. ad effetto whitening water of the headlong stream some Girls will be girls —whose tomb There the contadina maiden half it which all —putting into chapters on them — Fauns.

cattle. Ettithya-Lucothea. and if it little were stolen some mysterious disease soon came to be firmly believed in extended to trees bearing valuable in Pacific islands at the present to a chief. as Feronia. " In Eenevento a nut-tree stands. and boars. 185 according to her various attributes. Uni. On goats. p. into every relation of was or even touched an article belonging at the time that taboo in Fiji intricate that if written out they difficult to fruit. or Taboo. In the civilised. and bears. Etrusques. or keep.. avait comme Jupifer ira temple dans l'arx ou la citadelle des villes Etrusques. that : " Junon. it Wherever the power 25 Little of the priest by little it came —and entered it went . were pronounced over judicious poisoning here and there of suspected offenders. Come witches flying of every kind. a spells caused the person trespassing to had a valuable weapon or ornament. nuce 'e Veneviento. will soon die and many other places were so numerous would make a work quite as extensive master as Blackstone's Commentary. and dreaded. it it was prohibited. he by magic power or chief it. 40) thinks Thalna p." Neapolitan Saying. descriptive of We light. and it By after attacked the thief.— WALNUT WITCHES. wives day where the natives have not been man who has though he did not know of mere fear. to protect fruit. learn the Vergers says in is name of Cupra from L'Etrurie et les Gerard {Gottheit classic lore. Come cats." ques ou Walnut Witches. or shaman. hurrying. v. or conjuror if wished to guard. often happens that a and If a sorcerer or a suffer." Dom " Sott'acqua e Sott' 'e Piccini. and Some upon Howling. some like bats. Ottava delta Notte. And by night from many thither lands. sotta viento. broomsticks. all to the tree at the master's call. or protect a certain property from depredators. Paris. 862. It is probable that one of the earliest supernatural conceptions formed by was that of the Tabu. Over the waters and on the wind. fields and Naturally enough their crops. and time everything belonging to priests and chiefs was tabooed. 1 The der : as a goddess of births and Of which Noel des 241." incident of the leaves connects Cupra with Btrusker. bien que nous ne trouvious pas ce nom sur les monuments ceramiles miroirs. the taboo of course soon Then spells The laws of eaten life. Cupra Strabo. que Strabo appelle Cupra. hurtling. It was that man the witch.

At enlightened people. his country. a vast mass of virgin copper. 86 everywhere —there was the man when he awoke by every It sat terrible taboo. coloured by super- . therefore language was continually changing. which enlarged the area of poverty instead of relieving it . There were words which must never be spoken. and so pined away. even as the arrows of the missed the mark when shot at a leaf taken from the Holy Decretals. something which belonged to a An chief. must not be assumed. " that that " I to Dr." exclaimed a lady book belongs was productive of some good but mission being worked out miserable. scoffer But taboo laity. is the portrait of fifty years since.1 ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. for reproving me. or will of the priest. but the shafts of his wit fell the doctrine of these extrava- back blunted. yet strong everywhere. it made idleness. Making every allowance tion. about accursed and die. names of the dead which must never be uttered and as people were named from things. in a remote place. broke the ban and led a white trader to the mysterious manitou. came He the reaction. is freely. nugget would surely be great and had decreed that any an hour of temporary in thought. thoughts which must not be entertained. if I a pamphlet or book L ? " And I was the injured property had for the natural limitations among the influences of the Church and enforced celibacy . unwittingly — this was I can remember that once when who was aghast. and learned that it was taboo. so recklessly. to this gifts. in the night fireside — it was with there were kinds of food which must not be . would be the history of uses. and so unscru- made needlessly compelled injudicious charity. the taboo. Then believed himself to be accursed. Over all and under all and through all was eaten. traveller in Fiji has recorded that a native days from free- its old predominant. it necessities of Evolu- also of great evil. certain positions which . regards church conversion of sacred things to secular Ages show us RABELAIS ridiculed of the preachers of the Middle taboo carried to the extremes of absurdity. or prohibition. I felt New England in a which had been lent by the local clergyman. gances. pulously applied that millions of lives were crushed by It was a very small boy — injured is Don't you know. the bad it was so it or present. taboo village that the crime was far greater than belonged to one of the Under A having once by mere accident touched terror. sorcerers of the tribe who should guide a white man One man. tempted by Indian There was. which was regarded The with superstitious reverence. in In Catlin'S great work on the North American Indians there a Chippeway emaciated to a living skeleton. died in a few accurate and impartial history of the development of taboo. property it and of the human religion became known The exempla as sacrilege —the As race.

and to make the and sentimental wrongs in social relations. it (Rom. the by typified darkness or evil. and indeed from erotic is would be interesting to know how many objects which were regarded as accursed that — p. prohibition or punishment. Realworter- principle of light the bridal night the married pair for planting the nut-tree in the is in earlier times. mythologies the nut was an among nuces to scatter nuts on such occasions. it still the worthless idle shaman. Secondly. it exalted in every the productive citizen on no offences. from unavoidable current causes. stition. It is as regards these conventional and in really artificial matters. " it God was But as sensual a demoniac symbol. the Friedrich). those which are conventional and spring out of our These are mostly of the ditions. or causing suffering in any form whatever. 210). lay in wait at the very entrance of the thine though thou seest It him hut of humanity first and bedevilled regarded as being dear to meeting. 387.. p. be tyranny most keenly Not felt. those For the when it is is wrong ? which the law person and property. because the latter symbol. into this. for a favourite resting-place. And privileges. it is plain that the walnut-tree is also The Rabbis (NORK. wander too widely from the its subject. On a custom spargere earliest Garden of Eden . During the Middle Ages. I can only social injustice does not spring. or sorcerer. way laid great it . the walnut-tree specially chosen was sacred to Jove. will look carefully. and above all how powerful still is the old shaman The demon of the Threshold he who boldly. in law or equity. iii. or supposed. passion still not. honestly. strictest artificial social —regarding con- which it discipline over ourselves. vol. utmost allowance for others. In the buch. and on every leaf dwells a devil" (FRIEDRICH. but from mere custom and He who use derived from tradition. And what defines to as not in itself wrong. iii. above curses and eternal damnation on and on the exercise of natural human offences.WALNUT WITCHES. Firstly. directly or indirectly. and advised because every twig thereof has nine leaves. say that a vast amount of to it religious or secular. will be astonished to learn — of the very earliest stage of barbarism. all makes as is generally assumed. Symbolik. the god of lightning. holy . declared that the devil chose people never to sleep under it. applied to anything which trifling becomes us to exercise the or sentimental feelings. that taboo. is are injuries ? But what taboo. 1S7 contrives to do so to an extent which few is That which injures others. 315). 3. and rights realise. tells us that there once stood in the Piazza della .. owed their repute evil if it Among the demons and lurking Romans it by beginning to taboo. BUNSEN the Jews praise and among the Romans allied to sin. was witches as a place of hence it was believed stood near an oak they mutually injured one another.

oh walnut-tree. found a pamphlet PlPERNUS. I met with such condensing principle. invalidates the human by hundreds of many INGERSOLL argue nature. being asked why God forbade Adam and Eve to eat the apples. or. abound contains a great truth disobedience are a great source of : it resist Satan. informed his neighbours that the tree and that on devils sat to it torment those who should rob I it. but the beginning of it all was that some early was sorcerer. and I know a perfectly authentic case of theology in the nursery.— ROMAN REMAINS. root and branch. ETRUSCAN. applied it. it Male- an act quite becoming a shaman or voodoo in every respect. But to return to our trysting-tree is —the walnut. composed on Germany had their mentioned by many writers on witchcraft. and MOSES. "No that He wanted to keep them for his winter — apples " —that kind was the on record created of a heedless curious . " ! All of this rubbish of eroticism. was going too far to make it all in all. with no allowance for them It was well It had held Egypt together who was for as they were. but in it good condition a great student of laws. doubtlessly gathered many about the tree from sources. had it by devils that cut down. the work followed by . have heard of a German preacher of the mob who explained the origin of evil by the fact that. for But thousands of years. have been damned cheerful myth in the Bible. evil. replied that He wanted them for pies. who told her. Adam and because simple the incarnate spirit of genius and eternally to hell However. and a church built where " Be thou d dicta sis o nuce ! und you to hell vit d. or semi-republic. but was corrected by another. and allusions in Italian literature. to-day. or America. it Which millions. but not in lucid it pours. 188 Chiesa del Populo a great walnut-tree whose leaves were so infested Pope Paschal the Second cursed had stood — it. diablerie and darkness. in Italian. tabooed. aS in any case in and Eve had been and not wise enough to their descendants evil. it is not applicable to England. now and has its rights. to save his walnuts. great truths which —nay. As all the witches of were accustomed to assemble on the Blocksberg. so those of rendezvous or sabbat. conditional obedience. taboo first that idle curiosity no respect PAINE and and childish The Jews regarded unflinching. in which a small girl. but I never met with anything in — De Nuce Maga Beneventana which is by PETER supplement to his work De Effectibus Magicis. unhuman weakness. the I it never rains but had some trouble picturesque. at a great walnut-tree in Benevento. or indeed to any republic. of which I In which. as the law of laws. " Eve did rop a Baumgart" (or orchard). being usually prohibited to children. it. and forms a Freethought a law like others. This terrible tree to it detail are very till I is common have elsewhere written. as an excess of information that being Italy all treguenda. nuts and bark.

"qua tragularibus sold for These nuts lineis emittebat. and the part which walnuts would play in all. retentis intra matricem And nucleis. but even from those of the ancient Samnites. also a variety of them found in China buffalo. an associa- gives us a long array of and loved by witches. and of which such numbers are sold in carried singly as magical amulets. Night. foreseen the sauces of to-day. however. there had ever been at Benevento an immense walnut-tree which was in leaf all the German oaks). it in the highest degree supernatural — Could the men of old have of catsup or pickles. with the was the mere resemblance of name which drew to tion with the powers of the underworld. and from information gathered by holy Inquisitors. gleam of coming day assurance that. on slips of paper. not a like a Nox than a Nux" little light on the tenebrific nature of suggestion that it this tree. against witchcraft. of writing down anything whatever about everything which comes into one's head. or comicas fabulas de stupris virginunt. and cured epilepsy. earthquakes. — Next we have the topography of the region where the tree grew for PiPERNUS approaches the enemy very gradually—and finally of the field in which this King of Darkness stands. people believing that they protected against accidents. including a short essay on the sins [of keeping bad company and of telling indecent stories. as our author puts it very neatly. There which exactly resembles the head of a is made These are into rosaries. sacred to . and set up by the printer as they occur. So. causes and the nut-tree was dreaded sensible one of which is that it by was of PiPERNUS Christians. though used by witches off- they were also valuable amulets much in deviltry.WALNUT WITCHES. that it was believed in the fraternity of sorcerers that many not only from the times of the Lombards. why its noxious nature. the nuts of year (the same tale was told of old Druidical and which were of a pyramidal form. and the Infernal Gods. I have specimens of both kinds. see a a chapter on Nuts in general. as a bad qualities albeit not a is endowed by Nature with both good and number of medical and other no wonder that word is it was supposed to be said in it the walnut really does possess if virtues ascribed to by PiPERNUS. after eight pages of skimble-skamble. horns and all. I we think that have here a hint of the curious triangular nuts which come from the East. Florence. 189 Pr^etorius. it its dense shade. " more Which pun of darkness casts. the only yore. also that they were sure to produce male spring." a high price. which are then thrown into a basket without numbers. we them Heaven only knows what witchcraft they would have ascribed to them Finally we come to the fact that from the testimony and traditions recorded ! in the manuscripts of an old witch-trial. with the comforting the walnut —of which chapter we may note that the extraordinary it is in tree. because of Proserpine.

and what with baptizing. but BARBATUS In vain did —round coruscans — Competition was not. and in the telling turf. threw the gaffs into the river (" they used slasher-gaffs in all pits in those days. —but of utriusque sexus. and the rest of the circus. and improved I dare say. all it. as tree is it happened that the good people of Benevento had a great walnut- where they worshipped serpents. they would would save the town. to his that cut the tale short. burying. army. 190 Well. Whereupon Romualdus said all would raise —and. a button. them that if was finally found that it. and . poultry " of the cock-fights. and wicked walnuts." Alectromackia. but as Saint CHRYSOSTOM said. collecta. with two of a trade did never yet agree. who was ruler of that region tried to convert him. for one. cock won't For fight. i. in his opportunity which he attributed their heathenish horse-races. "There is no use in a goat's trying to buck with a vast against a bull. had decreed that on a certain day he. Beneventum non penelrabit his if — " did not take Beneventum. to — There was fairs. and up to heaven. goings-on of the heathen in Benevento a great with their great moral show of snakes and races. He was like a true reduced to extremes. army to wipe out Benevento. Rom flourish must have been a gypsy. And Barbatus a heathen. or " divinity in the likeness of a beast. confiscated all down the " the walnut-tree. country saint.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. bad Latin mournful evidence it all." and what was also horrible. held horse-races in which the riders caught at bunches of sumach suspended in the tree game of of the profane and ungodly whom these after the fashion and hand-organ which we have flying horses seen at irreligious. too.). to death. as now. confessing. was coming tnnumera multitudine suorum. the soul of business. that they And this the history says nothing. he ended they would raise their eyes above vipers and walnuts. had wine with their walnuts by it and gentle Christian. Barbatus. there were rumours of war Constantinople in the land." And killed then Barbatus had a beautiful time. vol. He cut the snakes. then. which vulgarly called a viper. He held a these troubles to that nasty Viper. CAESAR CONSTANTINE and be saved. stopped the horse-races. Romualdus v/as a hard fighting man. and he would take the city and put every human being Arrepta occasione —BARBATUS saw grand public meeting. worldly-minded. — I mean — CONSTANTIUS the emperor." of the truth of By and by — — and that there it in is could almost fancy that effect that " that that he kept also recorded is et miraculis his miracles I His only reply was to the must mention that I race-horses and game-cocks he did not convert worth and coruscate of this impenitent mule the head for was ROMUALDUS. were a terrible annoyance The him." CONSTANTINE. got to be as rich as a Jew.

I inquired in Florence account current of magical properties following Hebrew Diana." alio stomaco. could nicely compromise on a miracle. but she this ' This is the lover whom hearing this mystical tale ? " " Sicuro And phenomenon. It or mother of regarding which was written out There this tree. till and her parents knew not what to whether she —that she this had ever had a felt ill after " Then the to think of this lover. however. tall —and near are sometimes found banquets—probably chosen to take this bits of flesh. had never been the and she who touched incinta. may be It who was Lilith. It not is how to see difficult A chief penetrate to your Beneventum.WALNUT WITCHES. whatever. like Romualdus. was any there in choice Italian. but the king never PlPERNUS. and there appeared an old witch. and there were so many felt herself ill. a chronicle of heathenism is extinguished by brute force. Norway. made him and thought she was having eaten the walnut. tale. It true. or by this same old trick of BARBATUS. and was promptly told the in had made no suggestions and given no hints I me. as a write. that there in the hollow of bones and is now in the which three men might hide dies." ate another nut the lamb. and to bed. this correspondence with your CONSTANTINE. or One evening a gentleman went to walk with his daughter whom he adored. end of nine months she gave birth to a at the to marry. I by my sorcery be compelled to wed him. And when she the no mention of male assistance witch meeting- place. the had a good time. "The country of Benevento is in the Romagna. little lamb . the witch said. and that is the real posto delle streghe. you would not permit your daughter enter and leave her (sortire dalle sue viscere).' " the lover became father to I might tell the story of the . 191 . and size. ' ' Nor was and began beautiful. The nut-tree was cut down. On himself swore father took his daughter to the tree. or marriages. appears in Rabbinical writings as and held high witches. and went at And once home. who same place another being interrogated the testimony of one —probably with a rack and red-hot pincers —said that she had been devil — he was only adored in manner of 15 19 (that being the date) There they worshipped Diana (not the VlOLANTA. is adds and great walnut-tree. of Christianity in Sweden. shall she " Then Here when . and Denmark. are in easy to arrange that he should not it is who. the signs of witches' As appeared by the place of the ancient one. might be obliged when it was only a question of The entire history of the progress force of public opinion war. was the reply. because they loved her tenderly. revel " and observed that PlPERNUS declared that simply by means of the nuts from Very in this matter. — certainly. as before said. fine nuts. or with child. all at once the tree became a handsome young man. vanished. when it I and so remarked. in Germany) or Herodias.. who. the Christian at such a tree. eaten one all women became pregnant recently. she desired to eat of all her family were in despair. the goddess of dancing. not by any means for under a walnut-tree. is if walnuts. as they passed But hardly had she them. by to fight to the death When you miracle was worked. it was very they questioned her closely as and knew nothing beyond case. it long before they saw her body increasing in to treat her harshly.

honest dummklu little " There was a man named Lambertus One to their credit.' as a certain momentaneo intenso sed Maria dawn. some as she having taken her salad without to the purpose Benevento producing such The and widely spread. or enchantment. who was Alutarius. he passed near the great " 'Ben venga il in fine array. jolly as sand-boys < comediettas in which good-natured. returning their ' is i . home by a hunch-back. there is it in of Benevento. The witches of Benevento do not seem to have been by any means a bad lo In this story they appear as succouring unfortunate lovers. (" tr. Virgo ! when and he found himself a magnificently ' tall. the much very the story of the or three hundred jolly — certainly the ideal of is ! ') —by way of helping them esse messores Lamber on. in the early Lambert looking out bade him begone. and —anyhow.' — Sunday too. Ireland. men and women. pulled drawing a tooth. plate. Jesu. which credit of a tale lang syne. suggested rare. popul Walnut-Tn the light of the moon. And in Spain. enceinte. e la ("'And Saturday Domenica.') " Which was so well done that the dancers all burst out laughing. This is is STENTORELLO Florence. have taken from them fairies and which was attributed to Hunchback who lost his —but PlPERNUS. the hero. an by meditations on immaculate conception not beir is to show that the idea of the walnuts of tl so on. dolore the whole spuk. thei Among the hump. vanished- splendour and glory of the festival had gone. which are played at present There he saw a great assembly of people. and I find nulladimino in and elsewhere. I will tell night. made him dance and feast with them. unfortunate nobleman " He went home and knocked straight figure ' was —took away his humj Still Lambert had not exactly — the hump had gone too with —when witches do do a thing. they for all ' th the witchei does it hanc in the habit of saying. all the feeling of out. in leaf. and it — temerarius ? ' Who is that cheeky vagabond ? la signoi ' was he .founded on th a rusty- little with interpolations. one who treads alone some banquet hall deserted some. gay and cheerful. by swallowing a first diavoleti praying. such tales.' Welcome Thursday and Friday " Thinking they were a party of reapers—putans catching the tune. with everybody. dancing for it was merely and singin: : Giovedi e Venerdi. : "'E lo Sabato. which ladies. but he must have been a jolly one) "jumped up behind. sang in rhythm tw the time all memory may be Perhaps your song was strange and somewhat monotonous. results is ancient stoi seems to be a witch parody of the birth of Christ. which was lil poet. it. while est iste was three-quarters dark. 192 nun who became possessed. dishes.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Quis . — way to be sure a pair human benevolence to most youn a strange one called The Witches of Benevento. or or — a lettuce little devil. But what tree of is say. and feeling respect for such an admirab him out. and with one tremendous jerk. which is legend. And then a merry devil " (Pipernus calls him diabolus. causing great but momentary pain At which Lambert screamed lights.

she does a specialty of getting people to :lieved that 1 — merely a sorceress or enchantress. One could do that abundantly well for themselves. were on came a is whose queen en he beheld a Walnut-tree " Truly he is fie. . survive. impudent manner. take this [nut till little basket. and from every once grew to life-size. and when the dancing was over they gave him some of the And they said 'When you shall be at home open two of these.! WALNUT iignant ciy. only for itions of living 1 ' which really a fata. passed mmon ' then alta voce proclamans en very great. of the diabolical sort. in this witch- the loathsome abomi- Italians seem to have due almost entirely to the Diana is all its the efforts of Saint still believed to be a beautiful. gay —with very little of Hecate-Hexe by the same authority in her. and of. rtures ?m Such cases are very I but though she lames donkeys and blasts vines. the old genial classic associations Benevento a poor family whose members gained little lady who evano occhi di sole—ibsy seemed a it is very curious that despite supplied with another legend which they sold. ' with he replied. whom " There was I am at t the ladies. one so beautiful che era una cosa di non credere —'twas hardly credible it thought he had a good thing of beautiful dance who after him. very distinct and contradictory currents of Witch-lore. "But he did not for : :s. at nuts It and the witches of Benevento are this the true old the kind which caused the witch-mania. obtained the tale of the lamb. 1 omit for want of There are good witches and bad. and that the family at home wanted who were fairies (fate). in which the witch )t all should like to have seen some of those " numerous cases. ill the neighbours and the streets of Altavilla even his —very remarkable atin-Etruscan legend. with is and an army of theologians proof of is French There all The hell. They were gay and merry.' at lations. And tell the queen's daughter not to open her she shall have gone to bed. And him on as I * The voice indeed and many us. Lambertus tuus—" Thy Lambert you re not the man. loving children and helping poor men." It is aft Lambert's. like the always a lady. keep a third for the king's daughter. id festive society. the old Canidia evil.(papierina) full to the king. knew this. but as he gathered the nuts they opened. and Sweet music sounded from the so fair— leaves. 'twas a fine festa at it. :nerally benevolent omittimus brevitate She is nothing to speak is Horace make The [lurch exists. trying to see what he could find. like eyes of the sun.' she answered.' the next day writers record when he walked adds in an them quos airy. 193 duly examining him and listening with awe and delight to his tale of the adventure after the great Walnut-Tree.' "And when he had returned and opened his nut there poured from it such a stream of gold that he . as that —but One day their living by going about the country the youngest son was roaming. —as have before remarked I and kind. ' To which he creditors did not recognise him. of selling souls to the devil. all that forget why he had come there. ro is —raising a row—she called in But the change in his personal appearance must have all right. for our author states that st ! WITCHES. they made ! bread. other current and burnings. who. and is irbato. without help. I i getting fruit. still men that in Italy there are and the This priests.

" So he went to the king and was well received. coupled with the to believe that in substance these two tales are . quel giovane delle noce dressed like a poor peasant. lover. who were there.' the humblest And her.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. But the Ladies of the Walnut Tree helped Never a sword or lance touched him their friend." is that keen and voluptuous as their inclinations are corrupt and here meaning what It will I once heard another Scotchman define as be observed that the walnut which produces a child effectively given in another guise in this tale. full But when he asked he had promised sorry. poem in it was. which he did. wonder the nut. in the fray. yet this was a great trial. nor was the king himself well pleased. whom I feasts. sheep before a wolf. they would support her choice. the For to betrothed her. and that there should be a grand assembly of youths. 194 And stones. whom "Among at Now ! and declared that at last a great assembly of And he was princess. Then the she found some fault in every choose. life. and the opposing knights went down before him "Fu il vicitore.' She went to her father and said that she would never marry the prince So these appeared her one. was arranged. —a beautiful babe who was have done scant justice to sung with of nor victor. as I heard it it neither metre to speak It 'tis does not seem to be known to all that all Italian fairy —as were poems. induces me and that this. but be helped. opening the second nut there came from monarch replied that he was very the princess had no love at " So she accepted man who had asked " And this whom he had and what should come out of it but the young had no special and suffered him not only to remain. assertion of fairies. Pipernus. it. her in marriage many a zealously. it built himself a castle of extraordinary splendour. or beggar. like all one The all the American witches of the Walnut-Tree appear in this tale as —they are the same charming souls as those Lamberto's hump. she made the best desire to such a magnificent suit of clothes that it on he was the handsomest man in the world. all. or with child. and said who wished ' : That is among marry to the one — 'that young man of the walnuts. but to return.' and threw her handkerchief —which was the sign that she would marry him. in gratitude to the fairy ladies. The Nut of happy and contented. and. I all so they were feeling rhyme who can Red And he wedded the daughter of the king . only such as the beautiful Italian language supplies to tales are really fairies. and often sung by the contadine Indian traditions. she came to her own lover to the other of those own was done. princess him this other with the natural result that in the course of events the princess found herself . He was the she gave birth to a bel bambino And Benevento. balls. I who remove cannot deny that they certainly do manifest a decided disposition to play the most eccentric erotic tricks. moreover. and there were it young men. for the when he put but she was enamoured a prima vista with the youth. and few months after a called." this poem — for a and expression. At last it was arranged be a combat. so that all fell before him. and they should agree that. and make the young man his own father. all of precious So he found himself richer than the king. but oh time incinta. her choose let hand of the his daughter to another prince. ' something must be done. and that that there should if the young man could hold his own in it he might marry the princess. and yet there was sing. and sat at the table went from one till of ! as she could not help herself. " Then all who were present were enraged that she should have selected such a pezzente. and confirm what William Grant Stewart says of the Scotch " their appetites are as wicked " —wicked " vara leecherous. she would. but he bore a charmed to mention. and went to bed. " Now he was strong and brave.

Of with an axe and broke the dragon and idols to pieces. They are also valuable in proof of the fact that. He chalice for his church. helped by the Duchess Theodorada. GESUALDA Head-Collectress. had an to Duke he himself. and the had promised Land of Manfred Bishop Barbatus that he would embrace Christianity. the fragments of the winged monster he — from the rococoanut of nobis tantce componere some which seems to have come later writer. "Ma is my there me there was a thief in the police I should can't be a real wizard." remarked are. his Isis. " Oc era ther hiner mestu flaugd konur. so ecki standist noytt vid them. and various idols from the temple of This angered the bishop. who marvelled that one agur could look another in the place." there were exceptions in of the ancient time survived the worth noting that the is Psalm in last half of this tale corresponds exactly with an incident narrated in an Icelandic saga. in spite of the incessant efforts of the xcvi. Witches and Witchcraft. with two sphinxes in jasper on either side.") no men seem to practise witchcraft!" " Oh. if who you want I si." ("And there are many Ulf Uggason's Saga. idols has a bric-a-brac shop-look come Non right. But it may — if be a all lites. but there though." you had told But he not have been astonished. in the first be introduced as a stregone Inglese. For I knew that. 5. But to return to our Walnut-tree. Not that I had any fear of mutual smiling or winking—the confessional . there is a streghone. but this account of gold vipers. I should my face. that Monsignor by Nicastro Janet Ross history of Benevento : " In the time of Romuald the Longobards worshipped golden vipers. " Why. dragons. may It be all and Egyptian look can went made a the tree. It made to carry out the declaration spirits devils." incantations and magic. though on which altar in his palace stood a winged two-headed golden dragon. And you can see him yourself if to." as true as the other tale. that " all the 195 monks gods of the Gentiles are which the beautiful and benevolent Hebrew-Catholic calumnies. down then cut disciple." thought on the whole I did not want to. extremely ancient. who. and then something came into head about one Cato. " It seems to me women who know evil strange. so that no one can remarked one day. ther kanna Galldra oc nolkyngi. I " that harm them.— — WITCHES AND WITCHCRAFT. a priest here in Florence " Santo ! Now." knows him. tells us in her SCHINOSI gave her the following from a MS.

but. or is is no such great anomaly a business. a cold. ! before he could and he found himself a wizard. you can give it like love. have held their own. it the witch touches any person. as I became religion of witchcraft in after all in a priest's Or it bear I found that there being a wizard. deeply seated belief in a Tuscany. who admiration of a priest But was seized with great I could be honest enough to call himself by his right name. hood of So he did I As my in Faust. So she got her confession. and died. " cried time after leave you I my And ! ' Si. sicuro. Ages have lapped over and Christian cults ages. informant was herself in the sister- have no doubt that she made out as strong a case as was prove that all power the and sanctity of the Church and not avail to remove the awful might of stregoneria." off. humble and unnoted. or a profession. in his possible to harm little Anthropodemus Plutonicus. had written the foregoing sentence I Oh. he or she will be bewitched. ' say a word she was dead and Some to He was called in to confess a witch who was dying. and whatever he touched dried up. 196 command gives a of countenance beyond words. of whose real existence I have not the least doubt : " This priest was called in to convert an old woman. if whom shall I leave it? to the priest said Leave it When to me ! shall I leave it? Then ' the old woman the priest opened the casket he found in came on Mm.' —to whom : ' small key to a certain box or casket. for witchcraft may come upon you it till familiar with the real. was I cannot leave this at once gave she believed what she narrated to me. Christianity could as he could not help being a wizard. who. He had the witch. with ' Then. and asked how he came to practise our noble profession. continually repeated world ' : till I that have no relations Then is left. but for or Praetorius. touched trees.' she cried. . " he couldn't help himself. with a smile. What is pleasant . the Etruscan have succeeded one to the and Sabine. in fact. marvellous story of a witch whose soul came out of her which idea Goethe uses sorcery. going into this priest." all this This story was the away being a good man. as extremely interesting from the mention of the mouse. and it is interesting to know of But that in the month of January.Latin and other.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and did not whom he had to deal. And so the spirit of witchcraft " And when But die. and waste the country. is soul of the witch. would not touch or embrace people at such times. saying that she had something. or grain. mouth This tells a as a red mouse. and you must or your practice to somebody else. 1891. wouldn't he it ? witchcraft I received from another source the following additional authentic information regarding this goblin priest. it comes. like any other. possible him a a mouse. and then said Would he have she had something to leave him. Ah " become know ! one. there were people who believe Shamanism which is stronger and mightier than that of the city of Florence in the in a prehistoric Church. But. but through it Roman all the witch and wizard. or maize.

and jefore this Hell carnival. but the latter stregke. Chaldseum ne quern consulisse velit. they even taught spells. is The conservatism For such a capacity like. 197 Etruscan-Roman indicates. the rubbish written landus. or original sin unheeding learned men and lived. and ignorant. —the still dying and yet fast. and the Church 'he witch-mania died. Peter Pipernus. . lette you not considered by any It is it. i not so very absurd. et cetera. pious possession.Etrusco. for ignorant peasants to believe in a limited . Rem sense. deep under it. and with /thing Hebrew-Persian-Christian do with —and it hell or devils. —haruspicem. was It We met never I raged in Italy —witness all whom I ever were good. seems to and me despite the Church. Roman was of the old what the for survival his peculiar trait. CATO there was a spirit of independence. strongly manifested in the is says (De Agricultura. but in some strange 3 of Theology. and scores more.WITCHES AND WITCHCRAFT. c. not a blind adherence like that of the Egyptian to an established order of > for :. nam :lix est. but it kind of vitality and of independence which indicates great power. supposed to be based on a compact with the y the 3 once become at and enemies who were their rivals Vhat seems incredible and utterly contradictory to ill way True. their piety. in Tuscany. oldest times with a indeed everything in this inspires a very strange reflection as to Northern Italian can be tes character. much They nisi Conpititalibus in strictly observed all the old But like the incantations of the witches. Crescentius. 3. hariolum. but )elonged entirely to the buone. there are witches good and bad. ven in this peasant witchcraft which held nd of conservatism which as in the days of is to a form of humble. tchcraft without a devil or a later the Strega works Middle Ages witchcraft. that too powerful. The knowledge lature of the god colouring.Roman sorcery. all the fact that all this is by PICUS DE MlRANDOLA. nay. at a united Italy a few enlightened minds. in the face of hypnotism and the known influences of agination (whatever that may be). conpito aut in foco ne facit am. divinam." taly has never wanted those of the Borgias — in her darkest hours — CAESAR BORGIA aimed for :iavelli was a true patriot — laturalism which is will its own So it It is blind. there was the people the old ante. segetem ne defrudet. there not yield to the Church. Shamanism of survives- — as here. on lect is that there no devil is and you cannot die you If in it you get till rid of lose it a Christianly. it. the time among after ther witchcraft which had nothing to and And it absolutely true is and deep. of it was based on common Cato and of Varro on it all This agriculture.

for they are simply beings solely intent on destroying souls. and so as regards Tuscan or other witches and wizards. truly damning mankind. It has nothing to do with the devil. in most cases succeeding with great ease. religion should as to its real become nature. or morals. while they profession several curious The and very original points. or in which were doubtless at one time taught are as follows represented to be in Northern Europe. may indifferent Christian his general course of life be. who. thought little hell. faith. Venerium veneno vincitur. it. a Christian sense. 198 Cato amount of spells and magic. is or heaven. public health. cannot be thus easily acquiesced demands easily A active intelligence. us say in London. in nothing at would be that the proper answer For the mere all. are mentioned they are under false colours. held It its may own that this limited it is amount of as superstition has against the stupendous. doctrines there are incredible swarms of devils (far outnumbering the good spirits). case is But this the soul to be may be done damned for it either in a in good or evil spirit. When have been asked by people of average ordinary minds " In what do I gypsies believe just wonderful in is man did as much. What ever lived. priest settles a disputed point in theology very his ipse dixit. navigation. does not constitute and there are very few persons. and spells reader will have observed from several passages or anecdotes in this work that witchcraft as priests. for it cannot clear his client by merely expressing He must work But however lukewarm an in. there is which shows the faith in always that which he was born. one can deduce from their traditions and or believed in with great zeal. When it was or is was taught by vile real stregoneria of Italy. It may be voluntarily assumed by keeping company with witches. political economy. subtle influence of a far greater superstition. and taking part in their enchantments. latter as it as and as a thing entirely The in se absolutely heathen. The Italian stregoneria is like an endowment. let fashionable. or devils. who are all the time occupied in tempting and may Catholic. be as Marcellus says. or the existence of a God." " In unthinking indifferent. by to be drawn from hard to prove his point. would not But a question in science. admission of the truths of a religion. and especially of Tuscany. They it now exists in Italy with its But diabolical.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. The and in neither witches evidently are not so far advanced in humanity and the religion of illimitable Divine mercy . make no of any doctrines. fall in be it to it a if with very new kind of of chemistry. but a lawyer his conviction of his innocence. and he was as sensible a ? what you do " it me often occurred to —that is. but not and I add early Protestant. : principle of selling the soul to the devil. perhaps Roman According to evil. pacts with Satan. same spirits. studying their lore. appears. is utterly unlike the Sometimes the this is all Christian.

by the witch's spilling even one drop exercising her supernatural power. or expression.WITCHES AND WITCHCRAFT. and a thousand other writers. among whom one hears continually witches die of Glooskaps. a priest in Florence after getting absolution who was him an it have thus taken in by a dying into a wizard. into spirits. In the shamanistic stage. in Venice. who is her ingenuity to work off the commodity. or wander on earth disguised as mortals. except at treaties with the Government and interviews with missionaries. Many long for it. and makes It is also believed in faith die. Manobozhos. but never a word of any Great Spirit. So Shamanism of the Grand Lama of Thibet is maintained that strange and mys- the world-old — terious centre of the world's earliest " religion. fact very few attain it till in its it some other person upper or higher grades. either to go to heaven or otherwise occupy herself. violently detained from going to the sabbat. This is precisely the doctrine of North American Red Indians. This is a rather obscure esoteric A child is born. by pretending to leave her a legacy the precious legacy being her stregeria. she can cunningly induce an unsuspicious person to take the power. and Hiawathas. families but not much talked about. ungratefully swindled him by offering a legacy which he accepted and which turned suppose "in either form. For as she cannot die while she is a witch. or even In a Florentine story. But what is most remarkable of when they all is the belief that very great wizards and become great spirits. absolved and washed clean of all her sins. will take But one who gets it—in which case the witch is. Nay. Romagna that those who are specially of the Strega human forms. some very old and wise strega detects in it a long-departed grandfather by his smile. such a being having been quite unknown to them of him from the whites. alternately confessing and conjuring like I from him." . features. but reappear again in known after in the witch due family consultation. just as they prefer. and love i 99 as to conceive that a soul can be sent to hell eternally for a forgotten Ave Maria. there now witch. but in tales. his departed friends or great the men man is till they heard always Euhemeristic. Italian witchcraft of blood while she at is may be lost. as it it must keep were. doctrine. different kind of witch from the is by being caught ?^-witched by being All of this indicates a radically one described by Sprenger Bodinus. sometimes requires all mentioned. told in another place. who sweep over the country in clouds or vapours or storms. Wierus. when. runs about town. and very — often desires to do so. as is beautifully illustrated by a number of well-authenticated Catholic The gift of witchcraft is not indeed for every one. once human sorcerers. a girl it." As eclectic doctor —giving who And now he the sacraments I treats his patients either allopathically or homeopathically.

and heavy black after. Romagna mind. together and intermarry. if doctrine be true. a father who In the witch families. even unthink- —they hear and observe senza neppure pensami aistregoni it. its in the statesmen are certainly no conjurors. So it will come to pass that he may be born again even from the children of the children of his children. And very thick hair." who has made the Truly my informant but she was far inferior to a Passamaquoddy has been trained in tradition in the art of understanding one's " Spmetimes to live again make to disentangle or after the pioneer in in his But ! ' ingly to witches life it is a man may my say. O. " ' nephew gave And in a This thy child Is not thy child. for " inaccuracy. and it might be adopted to advantage if this At rate the idea is some other countries where any salvation. HOLMES Dr. and so be his own great -great grandson. or grandson. And who grew up with a wicked had none for her own children. 'After not necessary even to declare death I this. in the matter. for she loved nobody. not to sneer at him was not wanting Indian who in faith or zeal. Hence the now and then startling phenomenon of a count or marquis with an un^ amount of intelligence. however. and a hard heart. Since writing the above obtained the following information regarding the I transmigration of souls. " And so it came to pass many years bad eyes. some person old enough to have triangulated the descent. so that as a This was a woman she girl she said one day that she would be born again as a witch to be revenged on those meant everybody. or rather no heart at is known as wizard or witch. is spirit cling discoveries of In one of the strange stories in this book relating palingenesis than in others. the country owes original. to which. or a season in London or Paris. " And when such a one is born he or she eyes (con occhi burberi). And a precious time a hint to those I had who come path straight for them. 200 W. which birth to a daughter with lowering dream the mother heard : . all. or great-grandson. and according to the doctrines of stregeria we owe them all to the very ancient and usual learned not quite respectable college of wizards. for such an one will have fierce all. would like he has said such a thing. has shrewdly observed that when a child is born. these triangulations lead to born again as his own and then marries his second child. sense of it —which may serve as such a wilderness. the very picture of a witch. the wife of her hair. more frequent But the mother. for which nobody can account. may be born because if again a wizard. There are always some wise men in Italy who are true and honest patriots. and such are the most malignant of called Castrocaro.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. of the departed wizard has at times certainly and he occasionally some choice be born again as a nobleman or elects to prince. very lowering or such a one was bom in a part of the evil. But an Who evil will be witch full wild ! whom she hated. can recognise very often the grandparent or great-uncle in the descendant. (for) I self. not even on the ground of a clever and handsome German tutor. and the reappearance of ancestors in their descendants. to Benevento.

because it This gives a clearer understanding of the method by which the man or woman who is feared is developed to a god. rites through which the souls of men . in cielo tu tu Ne Tu : they bound her with ropes and sang male che tu il and acted thus there on one side in forma di gatto e di nessuno animale possa tornare Requia semi Amen ! tinpace. daughter to cure. She. is we may trace the process by which the witch to the higher stage of a spirit. Neither shalt thou vex or slay men. As a cat no more thou'lt glide.— ' ' WITCHES AND WITCHCRAFT. and ! and the children bewitched. and do all The poor mother was . is very old Etruscan. to all ill form. ' Tutto Tu E And At eleven holy water. all " her victims." writes Mrs. and an aristocracy far above the kind. 27 gods. and obey her dared confess " The festivity it to what may befal do much will befal. making a terrible Amen ! sound as of ') rattling chains. It is quite the same in Brahminism. for obliged to the wicked deeds which she commanded. or Buddhism. " And then the witch-spirit. father of this terrible being at last understood the whole. And She " And so turned out that she was re-bom a it before long everybody in Castrocaro was become a witch. and passes extremely interesting. "The belief that men could become " of Etruria). Unto heaven thou canst not go. in fact. This story is the more remarkable because the narrator was perfectly convinced of In connection with this tale. non possa andare. priests who had been all held them o'clock they fast. or unbewitch. its truth. victims of the witch. (" 'Every sin beneath the sun Due to thee must be undone ! Happiness thou ne'er shalt know. by being and spreading and was never seen again. lo possa riparare. becomes more powerful. and He arranged a grand no one. impressed it on me that there are the same common distinctions in the world of sorcery as in this of ours. the had and obliged the : ai fatta." In this re-born. there were certain {Hist. while on the other But the supper. and at twelve the witches wished to escape. New incarnations in human form give greater power. Hamilton Gray In the Acherontic Books of Tages. fire. Or in such form on earth abide. but really a spirit of evil and revenge girl in terrible daughter. translated by Labeo. disappeared or sorcerer. the narrator observed that there are witches vulgar or very good as well as very bad. Requiescat in pace. ill 201 ball in And he assembled were many priests with a great open public place. or Tibetan Shamanism.

And the saints. There is no indication that he is punished he simply is transferred — entirely into another region. " Zanchi was a man who was had first one wife. Then he married on having a daughter. became a spirit. was eight months and not old. that these devotees believe in two distinct sets or is systems of supernatural beings celestial " —one of the saints. loving the sons of her husband as before an image for her son and husband his desire though the saints heeded he loved dearly left this and had two again. envy. As power of a promise or vow once made which is the more curious because the woman the belief in the give a curious story. and appealed not only to he could only have also to the ancient spirits of the land. declaring that if —that is. The foe. so he and continued sleeping came night daughter. proper place would illustrate the manner has a closer relation to it discussed in this chapter. who did not His heart was. it its truth. And every night she prayed passed away." made additions as have been both to the spirits. the widow was a tender-hearted and daughter. and as after night. but to visit his children. which would have been such a great one to him." on general principles. which he was who was devoted live long. and and then another. with illustrating souls. before they could become superior divinities. night she saw a form bending over the spirit all he could his children child. whom from obtained perhaps have been in which what is and it spirits. such Shamanic examined. at set died save two. absolutely believed in the Spirits." Here we see that a man. and by each of these he had a son. but he would gladly die when as her the Now own it little girl his not the spirits did. or personal . however. especially the daughter. acts from jealousy. Zanchi. from his vow. becomes one of them. it among or when by the deaths of distinguished wizards. I I this to latter. for " And one that it was the who had . Zanchi. And he Now. 202 human could become gods. to think that not have so small a favour granted. and see the did not pass unnoticed whom and the father . as came folletti. that even the worst of the mischief-making by Italian witches In German is based on individual ill-feeling. not sparing friend or please the devil. world for another. it looked up she saw In time the widow died . or English witchcraft the sorceress acts from " pure cussedness.Animates. of continued to pray for a daughter. and the " hierarchy of the Scriptures. entitled " Dii. who died.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS." first modern agrees accurately with the What very peculiar is belief as here set forth. and doing anything which would Stregone or the strega. provided he could Now " this vow revisit earth long after he had a daughter. by a prayer to the heathen spirits of old. It may be observed from all the incantations in this book. and the other of " the which spirits. devout woman. generally loved and esteemed. turns out to be the old Etruscan mythology. but much of her husband. Its was given me to into existence but ." because they had been These were Which Penates and Lares. angels. tutto disperato. vow was called for. or almost desperate. all He to his family. passionately more sons by this third wife.

changed To dogs. according to the pictures of his class as drawn by the old ecclesiastical witchdoctors. turning round. grasping the cat in a great rage. cats. But nowhere could When find it. when alive as a wizard. in the fireplace She heard a strange wailing And On in the fireplace. still. but spirits. as giving in was partly It it recited. As in a glory. The following almost as deeply cherished as find a great deal of sketch of witchcraft the counter-charm against sorcery. after having attended to it. Now And it happened two years ago (1889) that a poor woman had a very one morning. Of goats there are many. she saw a strange cat leap out of her door. it to please a because the peasants is It is said quite he was so evilly-disposed This would have only been his duty. In Italy revenge lands of America is —hence we human nature.— — — . small. under. coals hot-glowing. Harmed in nothing. to consider What On On week they meet they must be doing Friday and Tuesday. worse do mischief. she tore from " Entering Sought On And it in the chamber for her infant the bed. and twice a " Witches great and Meet in council. or mules. the frontier is mere fullest form but this very curious. she went forth to work out that fur. was a witch who had . 'Mid the wood flaming. when. 203 do or she injures a person because of being paid to The never bless them. Friday and Tuesday Then they hold meeting In other forms. it speak disrespectfully of them. She saw the baby. Quietly seated. or. exceptionally of Spulviero that. that he injured every one indifferently. Or he hatred. mured " In is it in is in witchcraft . She sought beautiful baby. third person. or folletti. ZANCHI. it of the two months house. feeling a handful of the house. And go forth to follow The tasks which are set them. injured her child. " old. partly sung or mur- : the Tuscan Romagna are always many witches.

There is seems altogether misplaced and mysterious. baptised or consecrated for the witch. Ordained "Then clubs. it its it to make a witch of it. nor drink eat. and —one may say as (gomitolo. That she may not live or stand Until she gives health Again to my child ! " Then the witch will come again to the door every day in the form of a cat. With a witch-medal. put the cat's hair In a red scarlet bag. and then the woman took a skein Then the child recovered if. and three yellow. crumbs of bread. That she may not Nor And live. she made a charm. peace) (in put not this bag I Under the weight. who unless this be the cause of 1 2 In the original I am classical — " Che child in the and ." 2 a reminscence of Ceres. Many iron filings^ Horse-scrapings in powder. health and the mother burned the cat's hair to the bewitchment. this story is as strange —as any of Roman times. a bottom) of thread. it be as heavy as possible— and then say:— All of this I do For the accursed witch. did the same with the infant Triptolemus. si it. Perhaps the witch did no explanation of the reason. battezza per la strega " : that obliged to omit the original text for want of space. threw so this one and so there was an end It there to came three times in the air. The seven of Which makes And all this is ' . we take it altogether.' put under " heavy weight— let " and sorrow tears the queen of spades. by the putting the immortal. Which causes confusion . But the body and soul Of that witch accursed. for the witches. Three cards from a pack From a pack which is Roman The seven of spades. 204 " So she took her child up. Frankincense and cummin. Three black-headed Three pins. wailing and imploring And peace. With the juniper berries.— — ! ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. where it sat unharmed. If it fire. is. it seems as is make . and being sure that " For she was this witchcraft. . red. Salt.

Tell your story. si! si. friend. And look out for Dal farci dormir i Se non veli fare stregar. si! si. You must keep them away from And now it is finished. si.goblins or fairies —one makes the sign of " ' O sian folletti. you make children's beds with And it " si. And you'll find within them. si. my For mine has come feathers." or " yes. si!" In this wild song. si. and sometimes with a strange laugh " Witches make boats with And " In a minute they With a minute they in if by writing. bambi to sleep. si! si. allusion to the . si in the right places). Strega maladetta siano le —or fate it may be : ! Che da me tu possa stare " distante ! ' Sempre (" Oh ' witch accursed ! Mayst thou ever be me Far away from ! ' ") me Information on this subject was often given to manner with wild sounds that it is following was half-sung. in Thus I have been told that " When one passes by a cavern where witches dwell . and a part of some longer narrative (my informant was very particular as to my putting classical. not have them bewitched. "are a symbol of flight and inspiration.— —— — — ZANCHL Witches of a certain have class their 205 homes wild and strange places. How such a mad. If volete that. The was always fly . Over land and in convey really difficult to one has children. to an end. half-recited but the . which was not improvised but repeated as if it were well linown. eccentric : the feathers of birds. sung. feathers. si! Crowns made with feathers in the form of a capon. si. the allusion to boats So the Muses were flight and •capons is made of feathers is "Feathers. rapture. yes. si. si! the feathers of beds they will do them great harm." says FRIED RICH. and repeats la castagna." fly rivers But you must beware." represented as having feathers on their heads to express poetic " They had won them from the Sirens." The explained in the chapter on the Spell of the Black Hen. you want the children And si! si.

witches or lunatics. (ginestrd). or bedevilled. he of their tricks is to let fall an enchanted ring. it must make a great and say One crafty. it recommendation to keep children from final from poetry and inspiration is. hardly a trace of is Book of of Wlislocki.— — ! ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. can see thee jump. ere she woman gypsy incantations he knows it. If not be eaten. and on it the :— Se ' the una Strega sei 1 Strega. feathers witch-song a something mocking. and then take green broom-plant till Then make " broom into a cross. And if any person Then he. tu possa saltare Come queste nuoce (O qualunque altra cosa sia) Brucciata tu possa restare (" ' If thou art a witch ! ! Witch. and say gifts of Tuesday or Friday.. or nuts. witch Cursed shalt thou be And I if. Incompagnia della granata Che io ho appogiato. And burn away from me ') ! " But the witches are picks this up. and. finding of broom (ginestra). per sia il camin Maladetta. a witch. or a accepted from some old suspects differs entirely good and bad. many of the incantations which have given there I is There those of other countries. Strega Tu E 1 sia maladetta. Appogiato al focolare ' ! fire . or in those of the English As good or . on a fire finger. will begin to waste away like a burning candle. and put it on the fire. witch. so they give presents which may bring there are witches evil fortune to observe that in fail an inexplicably wild mysterious which seems derived from unknown sources. and barracocolo di ginestra and put the ring close by the : " ' Se questo anello e stregato Su per il cammino possa saltare.or almonds. let him wait exactly at noon or midnight. Jump up through the chimney. " In such a case. 206 But there was in —that mad this all Perhaps the were. and puts this. they should is in the it from Fate. explains may ' may and then find himself bewitched. find himself indiavolato. or he man one has unwittingly dried chestnuts. as —unless we would have them become But the reader cannot it all. like these nuts. and which spirit. unexplained. the suspected witch. Strega. but these must be accepted with great suspicion.

to let thee see One on the chimney. Strega ! Vile e nera. the things I throw. else There is it fly peace I for against the mantlepiece 1 ') up the chimney. There are For in this Italy . quella sempre arda e la tempesta. e' Nel tempo stesso che la butto. il della porta in casa mia entrare Piu non possa ! Strega.— " : —— — : ZANCHI. Italian sorcery than in any and that other. That thou mayst never enter more ! Witch. but be prompt will fly it man be back and the will fall be bewitched. suspected food into the flame and say " ' Se robba la Che : tu o vecchia indegnata Mi ha data. accursed witch." when one has received any gift of eatables Take a broom and put it by the fire. cap. Lei stregata. Uno sopra Che tu possa accetare. straight at thee. And ! see. and throw some of the yet another incantation from an old woman. up the chimney it 207 at that instant to make the as bewitched as ever. much more prominent feature Thus they make people into animals or this forms a compel them to believe themselves changed into persons of another they were famed of old as Fulgosus (lib. 8. (" If this ring should ' May With broom which the Have leaned "Then the ring be bewitched if castagna with both hands. brutta Strega (" ' If these things By In the fire ' which here I thee. Nel fuoco o vecchia indegnata Tre colpi possa fare. Vile and dark and black as pitch It spells in may ! ' ") be here observed that witches of the wicked kind work their worst by means of giving food. One on the window at thy form And may it stir thee like a storm And one at last upon the door. as sign to let thee Three blows know I strike. witch. Ed uno Che cammino. bewitched be. Uno Che dalla finestra. Strega. vile witch. 2) relates : " sex.

dirt. which is across the door to prevent as regards witches is I as a thing pestle.— ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. " But she must reply with a witch. and that these are delusions. Accidente not so is And castagna). witch of very old Latin origin. who by certain kinds of food. and a broom.. to free child keep away who love spirits. you must follow her. II soglio Non (" anciently a was born. woman whether an old at her. to dreaded was the broom. 208 certain women. touched with a broom. suggestion or hypnotism. That ye may no further come. the threshold was on the threshold of the door. in meaning the sign of the sure she are as cruel in Italy as in other countries. is purification Thus VARRO !) sign of the she turns round and answers if " a witch. Since writing the foregoing is : Silvanus (regarded as a mischief-making spirit) chiefly of culture. Northern Europe. the hatchet. witch much —hence when a fact. and cry out many times aloud castagna. What in But she is broom rite as born. and ' Tutto questo l'ho incrociato Perche voialtre strege maladette. they utterly dread. all so that they These ideas were probably produced not. act on what they are believe themselves to be firstly by human minds and secondly by administering certain poisons." agree with him. Zident The ! " is ( Romagnola. from witches one should take a hatchet. which proves that I described by VARRO is still observed. In which the reader will no doubt believed herself to be a cakes baked from the same meal. Romagnola custom of laying a broom In you to ! a magic protection against evil spirits that relates the entrance of witches. suggests such as stramonium which causes strange delusions. and the the whole of the ancient " every one of the instances which broom collected the only allusion to the Fico ! word. and the one who does " as a steed. which symbol of in Italian. To trouble me in this my home ! ' ") this must say : all . The and street-boys have a very easy method Should you see one (a fig. as in kept away or exor'cised fertility. indeed. ' With della mia (casa) " ! potete traversare ' these things a cross I make. the Egyptian girl were who mare and was cured by Hilarion. witch. or the three principal have which symbols it have learned the following. Cursed witches. and these are to be put in a cross ! you may be The broom was pestle. a pestle. " who canaille. for your sake. and a quite like the Witch. cleanliness. and that probably the turning men into pigs by Circe. " When a babe Bad luck this rides a goat. is making the identified in Italy with the She generally with a broom. and not with any other. Fulgosus. for ascertaining the street. a hatchet.

The pestle. When they're bending in the That breeze. if out. happier.— — HAIL AND CLOUD MEN. fertile. and when these move much in but little wind you may be sure that they or the fairies are in there. recognising a hand spirit-artist's dew. sense. golden-starred canopies. worth considering that though It is " Now Yet that the instant the Chaucer wrote can no curse. seeing eyes of light in rain-drops. that in his time mo. devils. 209 regarded as being very effective in magic. many-wreathing. Up and down to and they prance ! a piper's tune. decking with liquid pearl the bladed in the grass. Fairy-land revived and flourished in the works of Shakespeare. Witches some for reason. is How they caper. not thousands of other writers. like tendrils to another. although ment in that its real one becomes place. " On the tops of waving trees. where the witches dance. ! WASHINGTON Irving who it is describes a man who wished were superstitious because he fancied that such a person must fairy-land. " Hast thou entered into the treasures of the Snow? or hast thou seen the treasures of the Hail?"— Job." ban. and men might certainly in fairies days of belief have been the old and much elves. to believe rejected. dying and from being barren at first. xxxviii. " Fleeting clouds think I — " sailors of the air Schiller. and hearing love-whispers man or see non elves in the breeze. bearing abundant ivory blossoms and coral Which indeed holds well. in a golden-spotted its in those of first causes hundreds were dying power was greater than sends out its few removes fruit. was always wanting too. Scotch Walter common Scott. is Danubian provinces love in Italy as in the to dance and rock and fly wild mazes. and indeed In truth. received such a great develop- a strawberry-vine. because the strawberry eminence the fairy-fruit—Jerome Bosch in a picture gives 28 it is par the power of changing . of the Church was removed from poetry by the Reformation. it ever. And if live in what that he a kind of his strong the faith of the Middle Ages had not taught men that every supernatural conception whatever not included in the teachings of the Church was hellish. chasing one another on the summits of waving branches. which. 22. Frisking in the light of the moon " ! Hail and Cloud Men. fortified by education. and surrounded themselves with ever-varying.

or almost commonplace being to the peasant. have been touched by fairy hands. or sees by many a sign where they have passed. he worth seriously con- influences. arrow-heads. to worship the devil. Every relic of the olden time. true that a indwelling worth envying. is in sober truth. who had been and yet very limited. and dream— it . Herrick. or an instinct for the The peasantry in Germany Their chief is not the dirty Herein we have the result of a which even the monks could never quite extinguish. for spell to us with infinite field for this feeling. considered. rocks. — he sits in is also woodland wild 'neath green or knows the presence of the Elves. 210 men a This has been into strange beings. little This view of the old profession. and is very familiar with such " By a We I mind an lore. pottery. but what When never alone. damned under devils all the Church.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and hollow flints. and forests. there is to be found in the works of no such exquisite Shakespeare." do not think that Shakespeare or Herrick existence of we really "believed " in the very sure that no peasant of the tenth century ever peopled the forests and fields with more beautiful fairies and associations than they did. but I am too can live in Fairy- unknown. can never be alone. fairies "Were They were or Catholic. who knows how much really lies and laws underlying laws not hidden as yet in known life and mystery and nature—what elements and senses to us? Sleep on. vulgar Devil but beautiful lady-like Diana. much more those older relics of an older time. literal became apotheosised worship of Elfland as Drayton. certain refinement of art it is identify witches with the horrible hags of and England. little The Elf. fairydom and spirithood after all. and only may be new to many of my readers. innumerable ballads and legends which this fairy Renais- Bishop Corbet was quite wrong when he said that the life. and in sance called to and cultivated minds of the golden age of to the refined And English literature into an Ariel. russet tree. rivers. it fairies. but very valuable a highly cultivated sense of preserves men from evil day do not quite Italy to this and revolting and stone has it its is art. is believes like a Red Indian —that every tree always in a kind of fairy-land. And. delightful sidering how beautiful. who meet simply Not only is became deities to the Protestants." man who spirit. he There is to the truly refined or cultivated if its possessor land.

von It is to Dobeneck. for his age. is. master. F. and dirtied everything. L. belittled. or to peer through a and perhaps see Elves. You have read will on the reflect For while the how much fact that of them still how few it be true or false. and determinedly opposed to that kind of Christianity which believes that there are a million of devils tempting man where one angel comes to his aid. added to this fancy that these ships were loaded and manned by witches and devils in order to destroy crops. air " —and think of the And this recalls the olden time where the life . having been " shipwrecked 1 Des Deutschen Mittelalters by Jean Paul Richter. whom the populace wished to stone to death because they believed that they were people from Magonia. I if it man has not errors of the of us realise however. oh reader.— ! HAIL AND CLOUD MEN. " treasures with a hole in Or watch the clouds like " stored in them of hail to help it ships — " sailors of the ! one of the strangest and most daintily beautiful conceptions of —that there hail is flint is afar in Cloudland a mysterious manufactured." The same bishop relates that he himself once saved the lives of four human men and a woman. and died in misery (vide Horst. and forcing themselves again to my sight. is man not yet time for 211 to be quite aroused from his rest —you may a lie little longer It of Read. and that for return cargo they were freighted with the injured or destroyed. who had fallen from beings. a distinct charm in knowledge of what whether teaches are of it this book to little purpose by studying the stupendous remain. city called carried in ships which look to us like " clouds sailing along in golden sunset green. has really be- love to look at the knurls or knots in trees. will do you no harm though your mind were as full of fairy fancies as ever that Don poetry Quixote's was of the dreams of chivalry. since he gains more souls than are saved. quite free from Volksglauben Berlin. and whence it is Magonia. von F. and by them. a miracle vulgar superstition. of On which subject the tenth-century Archbishop Lyons delivered himself as follows z by hail and storms. be Preface This Bishop Agobard was a noble-minded man. very great value. . all this folk-lore of the olden time. und Heroensagen. 1815. and remember that they are caused by the heads of witches buried near them. from which come ships fruit which receive on board all is a land called the fruit which is destroyed cause the storms are in connection with the ship-people. and charm or childlike the historical value and the lessons which it. For such views the bishop was greatly persecuted by the Orthodox believers. three a cloud-vessel. " during a thunder-storm. are paid And sailing through the air." The monks who bedevilled. is none the less. and inwardly digest. Dcemonomagid). that the sorcerers who thus AGOBARD : " Most people are so stupid and unintelligent that they believe and declare that there Magonia. induced you to past we learn There lieved. and that the devil is far superior to God in power.

Soft Sorrow's silent vales." Thou hast been there many a time ! many time. them faces. c. both male and female. But I in glory on the heavenly plane hail-diamonds seeking earth again. his that these Graupenmenschen. We mark them not. golden sunset beautiful. now and then they fashion their ware in strange forms. The female bore long hair and veils. glittering in mingling and changing and oft in far off and out : gleaming very truth. and ever on blending in darkness. its mirth. which were Cranzius declares in Wandal. Their bidding sweet and voiceless prayer Float without echo through the air Yet often in unworldly places. unwedded all From the shapes and lives they wore. or else by magic might cause small and that and even enter into fairies to appear in it. sounds Over There its may reach us of pales of gold spirits live. nor hear the sound They make in threading all around. thou Child of the Mist. 3. like a rain of The former had beards like by a very credible man. or in like all things for ever or ever Eternity shall end at sea. 212 deeply regretted that the bishop did not give us some account of this quartette how they looked. the sun upon their sails. and what language they spoke. Reader. and citadels of vapoury emerald ' it there not a is be at the trysting-tree—and see the cloudlets steering in the fiery sea. ! learn from Pr^etorius. Like ships With Floating away. lib. who also had in the year of Christ 1395. are rare elfin-artists. I fancy myself that they would have proved to be gypsies " Like ships conception . work themselves. away. wonderful hailstones on which were those of men. rain. and out far off and will ! — it may forgotten city recall ' when you sit charm at evening in this and look — you two could take passage therein for the whose walls are of aerial Magonia. —— . "Very memorable is that which happened pebbles. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. in Anthropodemus Plutonicus. as when there fell. human seen . " you not sometimes at the rosy. Though oft their printless footsteps fall By the hearths they loved before. . ! at sea ? All over doth this outer earth An And inner earth enfold. 9. in his hands. and there thou wilt be Sic vita. We mark them with uncovered faces Outside their golden pales Yet dim as they must ever be. or Hail-men of Magonia. and wish that far-away. their in order to mystically forebode strange things. for amethyst..

1608. and others. and Yet when you see the cloud-ships mysterious city of Magonia. "And in Cremona. 28).. hunger. just as in America the battles of Bunker Hill. announced from Presburg. it wetting the eyes of a blind and from him Majolus. the form of a Jesus Nazarenus. stones were of very varied forms. 138. lib. torn. So France. revelations and revolutions. one of the drops of water from appears by the Writer also 213 Vinsich. you may perchance hailstone regard it as is it did a fine term. declares that in 1650. but truly We never occurred to us that there was a volume of political presage therein. as foreboded I. and his rule will be hard as iron and pestilence. adulterers harlots struck dead. on the 18th of June. or very often of which there cloud-land gorgeous a very strange story told is Firstly be Meteranus {Niederland Histor. What appears from several " fleeting clouds spirits. in December. and some of them were like Turk's heads. first " —sailors of the authorities air. there was a terrible hailstorm. looking . in the cloister of Saint Gabriel. might serve for the title of far sailing in the sky. even as late as that of Gettysburg. in the year 1240. Concord. 41.." in Breviar. Gener. as if most carefully engraved. who to pass that in the land of small clouds came fight by night Angoul^me in drifting o'er the sky. so the mysterious dwellers in the land of air return to earth on the anniversary of some great battle of the olden time. 473." From which and soon came wars. u. 30. and fight and be killed. oh reader. d. there fell a hailstone cross. b. land when peace. Saratoga. recall the done in sport by the fairy artisans of famed town. not even think of the Child of Midnight which. be seen. are celebrated the conflict o'er again. p.— HAIL AND CLOUD MEN. Norse heroes of Valhalla meet every day to rehearse " it by remembered that as the their ancient duels. and - will take place in the year 1666. as The such as no one had ever beheld. and when that hit by a a novel or poem. have seen a great and a small hailstone much resemble a Turk's head with a turban . by the hailstones. Moscow with much by followed may be you stuck together. so as to and wild prophesying as to what forty pages of grim also. Histor. 15. to us to be are in reality mysterious barks. and the letters man caused him to see." Which well-authenticated Magonia were good Christians " M. Histor. by the way. " A Child and from this it was deduced that of Midnight will ere long reign. Yet and it he govern will full of grief. As And Nauclerus. p. and war become a mighty monarch. famines. Heinrich Gobald show fact should of itself — " that the inhabitants of and wider. it came many by spectral armies. the ships and sailors of bent on errands far away . on which could with the face of the Lord Christ.' Which is will take the upper hand." is that what seem hastening across the sky. and then revived. .

one by one and rising tide." I had written the foregoing in the city of Florence in May. mountains. of falling water day and night . walls. . . and build up. they began to by one and two by two. else cerulean into two they all But armies. through a labyrinth of spires turrets. who those and no wonder.— " * ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 214 like the pebbles on the strand moved by the two by two. jewelled fronts . tempore Sometimes they pause. beyond the far Then.900. Until at last through miles of shadowy air The blue and violet mountains shut the sky. ." mystic errands bent citadels. yet with own " All. cloud-capt towers and rows on rows of battlements. its shadows glorious city of all colours And gleams and far fair beyond shapes. lovelier in Than sky on a time. To are corpore aerea. when was conversing one day with a woman who came into the house just as a storm was raging without. rosy and golden built One vanished. and I : as I went some one said to me.' 1 The Disciples. . For Magonia truly "A all made seem to like clouds high humanly to delude is its lights the golden greenness of the hills. . mankind. and gently as snowflakes. And in The purple dropping skirts of thunder-cloud. by Harriet E. repeated lost in the air. either of their for in the setting sun. A domes. flags. King. The city rises and the azure of the and steep alabaster — all its Shining to seaward . very tall. they to a mighty squadron grew ground they suddenly became warriors. Truly thou up from beneath thy ' art a witch. And she said " I was going to the post-office. " were — and gorgeous palaces. in hidden places silent desert or in lonely plain. . pearly like giant stairs until are " gifted. up with Lit rain of coloured stars by night And out beyond and sleeping in the light The islands And And upwards. H. 1891. And they divided and fought from five o'clock in the afternoon till nine. it is mostly in the we who who go see these beings eternal soul). to earth softly fall. — and " handsome men. when or sky-blue eterna (airy of form. sea. a sorcerer's spell. however. having blue weapons. Lit up with rainbow fountains in the day." these appear to be actually great strange city. that free-will or at . and everything and of them all were 12. pillared they are only for fleeting over the at a thought. for the hailstones leap feet. as they touched as Meteranus declares." " — straight.

and in " I throw these grains of ! " ' it means : hail. those clouds are boats it falls to full more in them when they died. Then we all answer. that made hail :— witches if 215 il tempo si guasta). perche tiro devono si Convertire tutte in grandine E voglio sperare Che tutta la campagna A male voglia andare E cosi tutti di fame In terra dovranno andare This spell was sung also Romagnola. and that the dark clouds are water. and so they at all pelt one another and sing : Tiro queste granate. rain. word for word. Then their leader takes a hailstone and throws " ' it a witch. But not merely these grains. but which. small clouds which pass along in sunlight in fine weather are small boats in which are girls whom the witches have taken and keep as prisoners. HAIL AND CLOUD MEN. For up in the sky there are cities made by it is the witches and wizards made who were once for themselves another driven out of paradise or who left this world. I the country (lake) in of hail." But sometimes when it is pleasant they . which in air say it is air (vapour) in the from hunger not less interesting were not admitted to heaven. spirit which has a sea before the storm. for themselves. but there is wizards and witches who. and clouds who throw " The light. this was the wrote down. this dark. from their graves sky another world the weather is wizards and witches. I throw them that they may convert All (the rain) to hail And I wish. the people therein I received I think. is " People when they see clouds than they suppose. And them are earth and does great harm.— — — " . and so they choose the worst weather. so that they may do much mischief to men. and so they made a world when it. in Italian " People say that when the weather becomes bad (quando begin. and so happens one should invoke the and children fly ! another history. and they have world in heaven. But really it is a very different thing. and the wind bears along those clouds which shed water. but boats. That all May suffer And all May go Of this Hail-land in a few details. and asked I and . and all the clouds which we see are not clouds of air. different in is : and a sign of made by the hail at one another. " But even in heaven they keep those evil feelings (tengono sempre i suoi rancori) which they ever had. And then they enter a vessel (bared) and load it with hail . which I laughed. and in it. When of thunder (Tituno or Tignia). and thunder and lightning a storm caused by wind. heaven For there is hope. send them out sailing in the air. Ma Le non tiro le granate.

"they averted from her the death by fire. sublimely egoistical (or subjective) magnificently —men illogical. it up as something to the is to these captives. 216 I MS. a Whereupon one of the monks threw a garment over her. or who is splendidly rhapsodical. with hail. lo a beautiful woman. or anybody else — I think a Swinburne. some —shrank from Law and —there was that in own dreaming Once in a dwelling-place midway between heaven and clear. and that very markedly indeed " The real world-existence as which we see around us The solid earth tolerate. devoted have. first half Forchheim Upper Franconia. whose thoughts . but they run a risk of being caught or killed in the storms of their Thus Friedrich Panzer own us in his Bavarian Tales. or Ruskin. It is only- have effect that the witches mirrors with which they flash out signals to the boats to return. or Carlyle." a while one of these dwellers in the violet Nifelheim. him which he would not which he peopled with ideal shapes and abstractions wonderful or weird.— . that the people feared lest the whole town should be Then the Franciscan brothers met in their cloister garden. beautiful or of his the dull." says the account (somewhat obscurely). the wife of the town miller. and she was brought into the cloister " By means of which. greatly near. or Victor Hugo. or Magonia. utterly novel who had indeed dropped in on them woman long suspected of witchcraft. or with which they make lightning." Which means. equally remote from both of what Professor Shairp remarks : from the unseen world of Righteous less —some ' —a moral heaven mind made citadels with all the for itself interstellar region. gross earth Will which down A. stark-naked. that during the tells of the last century there was such a tremendous tempest. building for themselves starry palaces glory Dream to genius yields. me reminds of Shelley. just as the first blessing was pronounced. amazed when they recognised in their midst at this. roasted. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. in destroyed. in her so suddenly. we apprehend. doubtless to them. a third account in six readings have been obliged to give I There additional testimony. unfit for heaven and averse to and rose-red earth. but after unintelligible. indeed. Hutton has said. cold place Pinnacled dim in the intense inane. I suppose. is really and is born as a Shelley or a Keats one of them —or Heine. all woven out phantasy. as Mr. —nor it he did not care is to other minds he recoiled from Heaven for. Witches on earth sometimes pay visits to this Magonia. escapes and comes that Mr. Symonds to earth. or Cloud City land. when. in raising. So. drew brothers.' J. ! was thrown headlong from a passing thunderstorm on the grass and the holy sight. his earth. that she made so favourable an impression on the Franciscans that they protected their — Moyen de Parvenir) from being proie inattendue (vide Le The conduct of these sorcerers and witches. fantastic.

is so long frozen up. a tale of Thebes. to the world So all my heart I it some till trenched in if like ice. discoverer reveals them. when they do teach us something " Shoot out a 217 which seems as some explorer shone if them. hills. as the priest of Montalto in that country is still done by the sexton one day much ahead how caused by devils and witches appears from the in later times turned to such has too good reason to know. . who be Marca's mother. meanwhile and has not yet been caught. in Revealing mysteries of caverns deep Which had been hidden from So from mammoths in Siberia. curious is bells as devil-drivers good account by the a storm comes on there supposed to have good or he would scarce have 1891. of his flock." old days these hardened stories live as and then there utterly the birth of that after lives. ' Give it him ! ' : Marca then fled.— — HAIL AND CLOUD MEN. cloud that did not change nor melt nor move. said to As soon as the bell named Marca bitterly priest. to find a sorceress in whose thus disinterred. are faith unknown marvelling here and there that such things could have been. are streamed and dashed with startling hues. the the belfry this summer. to me. and the ancient medals. All purple. and thought it was a tale dead on earth and embalmed in a chronicle. a involving the ancient which was may belief that hail A little more spent by the on ironclads might possibly prevent such unpleasant contingencies. was It and told me as mummy. And it went deeply to had read the story of Magonia. priest has the misfortune to be far too come into church. terribly) is impressed the Italian peasantry When last left It priests effect week. of old Rome was great in him —he would not yield 29 to feeble The modern spirit faith. and stopped the ringing. lucky for him that he does not hold However. power of belief in the sacred but very moderately abroad in Italy. and indeed it is it is of the weather. the more beautiful for their rust. he attacked the parried one blow. into time old time returns again." How deeply by the are one (or following from " Roman The schoolmaster which bells. but presently received a fearful gash. little This was duly office in Producing a billhook.'' Truly Marca was much more of a heathen than a Christian. in the midst.. and The scarlet light torch of who think showers of stars. church say is London newspaper of September. there were faint shadows in the cloud still mystery of towers and walls and And the shadow of a great dome . or declared that Cloud-Cuckoo land was known when he beheld a reality which he had " Against an orange sky a purple A And A cloud. telling the people to upbraided him for causing the hail by stopping the bell. Government on spelling-books and a woman. less our climate. an Egyptian if had suddenly spoken revived. new— and who. Time. and no sooner had the priest reached the altar than a peasant calling out. a Italian as the practice to ring frantically one of the on the temper of the clerk ceased the hail began.

and that was the brother of the youth was he who had warned that it his brother. " But there man they were witches they could not remain longer at home. who had a lover. and who lived they were soon to be married. Boat. now known all over Italy. had been untied and used by . have penetrated to the Romagna But they have. is may be twenty or with due solemnity a rosario. main taken from the Pentamerone of Gian Battista Basile. he knew. and often bewildering future will doubtless duly consider The following are a few of many more several do indeed been too much occupied with — and . is very much varied to suit new surroundings. or derived from very ancient sources. mother and daughter. same the Neapolitan of very commented is suggested. The Witches and the " There were two witches. and he had a boat. and some one told the young So he resolved such a wife. and then begin to raccontare. And this gave them the power was another man on the look-out for them they carried with them. and when they blood from his veins. Let me sit a little longer. by the But sea-side. I could have given occur in other portions of this work —but have I other subjects. and so again. sift all and which characteristics of which the folk-lorists of the even to powder. many of which no traces are to be found in the usual range of Italian legends.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. eliciting from the hearers their and so the folk-lore is kept is. around a fire. Hence the same stories. and very often even the latter have here either taken of later years." relate tales of fairies. ful girl. nor indeed would space or the publisher permit further addition. and of first all recite paternosters with the aves and other prayers. till they were out of patience. and as he observed for deep sleep. the tales which I have heard. for he to be invisible that night. when. " Then seeing that he would not go. there thirty. and •whom they had put Now of it. bade him go home he replied. were given to sorcery and had wild ways. some old man gives a First of all own on. Tuscan Romagna Story-telling in the The an institution with observances. or generally observed. " perhaps ten. and with a small into a blood pudding or sausage (migliaccino). or Bolognese which these This very ancient custom and folletti. witches dialect as that fairy which tales. but intending to remain till midnight. translation is still is reminiscences. And he went and made love. with which story. then another In the year alive. —which peasants speak— a Bulgnese. women and that he should not take to their house. had long suspected them. or five peasants in winter meet together. 1808 there was published in trifling difference. elements are quite peculiar. they cast him by -tube and the younger was a beauti- began to be reported that the it it some time every morning till which they should return. in appears to be in the but which the Bolognese region. and sat till it if to see for himself by going sucked was all his after eleven.' ' made it their witchcraft into a to sleep. 218 Storied of Witched and Qoblij^.

and. " There was a man named Pippo. all his blood arose. has written make such a trip to obtain rosemary. But the daughter denied " Still it Boat. which obtaining the mystic HAWTHORNE of witches. believing mischievous hints of everybody. Then I tre. the boatman was well satisfied he found nearly dead and almost out they gave the youth the migliaccino. also a witch-herb.— '' — ' LA VENDETTA LI PIPPO. so that his wife. boat. so the mother cried again " ! the mother said to the daughter. boat. ! Per quattro. and he house-tops. women were of his mind. a story in which a boat full I think that this In the Venetian story the boat goes and the 'boatman while there obtains he exhibits on returning as a proof of others. returned. the earliest version of the to Alexandria Venetian witches." Then ' it. and over the and they soon came Then their flowers. some one in the night. sucking the which reason The and leaves. would make three. " " carefully. for tale. since this story in his narratives of In the classical tales of blood was the chief occupation of the may be less he makes no mention of a lover or of the witches sucking and restoring his blood. it to a young and beautiful wife when so chanced that this journey was by accident prolonged. like thought. nor did his letters And reach home. well. fresh dates his adventure. BERNONI tells perfectly. it — — as before. La Vendetta di Pippo. go for two ' gilly : used in magic). that 219 So he hid himself on board was done by these witches. who was young and very simple. away for child : : Vai per due. vai per ' " Perhaps you are with the mother cried again Boat. eaten home to the witches it. but APULEIUS and striga. whom and threatened them. over the to tell his brother. per cuanto tu vuoi (" ' Go For " Then the boat shot where they gathered that the flew away flying as he an arrow. flowers. and went So he went And when he had like two or three or many four. clove flowers gives a far better reason for the voyage. and he had not been long married he was obliged to go on a long journey. re-entering the boat. and life to Jerusalem. witches. soon thought that her husband had run away. till was well returned. Now all the gossip and there was a priest in . But the witches and unless they have stopped they are hill. go for two did not move. in the form of cats. much " But the boat did not move. or the clove plant. he concluded and waited and watched "At They wished to go to Jerusalem to get garofani (clove And when they got into the boat the mother said midnight the two witches came. as as still you ! will ') like lightning. still.

a marked . else all would fail. whose wife thou didst wrong with thy lies. leaving her incinta. which had passed. thou false priest all the time many spirits if ogled him. per fare when they were alone together Pippo assumed his natural Pippo. and their And when he begged for know how all Then returning. —and to remedy it. does on the It is in this most remarkable as showing that such antagonism between Shamanism and the Church should still exist. even to the lowest depth of hell. which he did." I should have omitted this very Bocaccian tale had illustrates it not been that it very strikingly the antipathy of the believers in witchcraft and the spirits of old for the priests. learned all this fine affair house. because she would give birth to a child which had only been begun. manifesting. him first him and worst of all to thee. " Now no one knew was going on at it. he would try power as a priest. was a way for the child's sake. priest's. be freed from so she could and asked him what could be done which he should most unwillingly employ. but Pippo was a streghone. and casting his mind forth to home. tell a So she assented. he plainly asked Famore. and the priest had his will. or with child. sin for it was very wicked in her husband to act as he had which both she and PlPPO would be damned.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. which was a terrible one. or wizard. 220 the village who was bastanza furbo husband had abandoned —not a little of a knave " At this the priest looked very grave. licentious story makes no such deep moral or immoral impression on the Southern European mind as it Northern. and. and said that done . he put on the form of a beautiful nun. heathen or anti-Christian that like this narrative. being only a simple contadina. infant word which the Then he in this case ? sin. or old a very singular incident. as it has that the point lies for it is undoubtedly existed through the ages. A merely loose. but the distinctly placing wizard against sorcery against Christianity. the two young girls as well as by the bade him sleep with them. night with him. was very devout. and by this his prayers. And it. terribly frightened. or bear such monsters would be certainly condemned to the worst. becomes a wizard. a night's lodging. that all women who if only a hand and foot. being alone with the priest. and as the other caught eagerly they should not go into the cellar. Evil now thou art accursed And the prele could do nothing and say nothing. believing every yet still and when by all this to was said. is. was that she should pass the he would so effect it that the But he made her swear an oath not to any human being. " The next morning. At which the priest was enraptured form. yes. and he had to leave holy orders. And there came before who mocked him. at the chance of sinning with a nun. among the tales one entitled The priest Arrimini. a strega. for Pippo was very kindly received by them extraordinary beauty. but I have done worse to thy sisters. I but am he before God. that was a mortal it —and him she to bitterly complained that her her. And this was the revenge hast thou done to me. and said : ' . received after this in which a priest work had gone to press I is may add spirit. and went frequently to confession. and went to the famous brother. " Now the wife. and not finished. and she would be very lucky And the eyes were wanting. his miraculous would be perfected word of priest replied that there to save her soul. and especially not to Pippo. instead of going to his The priest had two young sisters. if the reader will reflect. for that it would probably be born without a head or limbs. and priest. for ! ' of Pippo. of course seducing them thoroughly.

his bed. philological connection between the tion of associations between these thief's has this doors. 221 Pispi. I am tempted to think that almost one half does not at all understand how the others what is the moral atmosphere which they breathe. offerings or a kind of worship. the famous robber. thief who demon rational but the conneccould never be detected. many names. and because he was believed to be a devil. gallows. it But his had no peace. is very It may be remarked in this connection that the Vocabulario delle curious indeed. and meet gentlemen to a cafi whom Pispi. he had plundered immensely. And he groaned.THE WITCH CAT. and when they met him they did not recognise him any time. He who such as mandrake. or open this vulgar is names of There Pispi and names and the is of course no Pisdifje. for until at last it at was generally believed that he was devil. or there is no truth in anything supernatural. And when had peace. . " But he really was a wizard. and flat little brain-thief. alraun. died. am Signori. but could not implored those present to take his power. Germany. spirit for Then he sought about for some poor and deserving man. and the root-demon who enables a thief to avoid detection. — or believe Witness the . and was regarded as a and received tale. feel. and rob freely. without being detected." It had it would not have been worth while to give not been for the the mandrake. name is of its hero. who was a great robber there He and yet was never detected. and finally found one in who was condemned to the galleys for life. and on departing he would would go say. but these others who appear to be so ignorant and indifferent live in a different they see and hear — ghosts and marvels and life. and while collecting these instances of strange know how the other superstitions. Istia. and the poor prisoner became rich thou and happy. This root was called by all and rather a typical thief. vast treasures was a man named Pispi. on the gallows. a prisoner thee from ' Then go thy sufferings and set thee free. buried art rich and one yard's depth you free do not into the will find forget the poor 1 woods a treasure. Lingue FurbescJie in —or Vocabulary of Thieves' Tongues—indicates much intercourse common between the thieves of Northern Italy and those of The Witch It half Cat. is pisdifje can enter all houses. And at last he lay dying. I will by my conjuring deliver deal to the poor. all and see and hear strange things.' but nobody could catch him or lay hands on him. mandragora. and he said to him. Pispi there supposed to &c. but none would accept At left some one put two brooms under last Now a treasure. and there stands an oak-tree called in a boot and in an earthen pot. Holland in grow from the droppings of a called Pisdifje. mannikin and earth-mannikin in Germany. Pispi was really a good and so he spirit. which brain. We know that think. he changed his face and form continually. And ' he had because he robbed very rich people and gave a great in such it is so Pispi a place. I ' one who yes. " In a district away carried of La Romagna. has been well said that one half the world does not lives. die.

Sie sin in Holn Bergen. but only of power held on a very precarious condition. and so she practised witchcraft no more. And so she knew what she was. A this subject. one of your doors and out at another." so for safety not whip her strange black cat that runs in at own cat. —a baby girl playing with the cat. she took her might. horrible roar became nothing more nor . and the mother instead of letting the cat And blessing. all she and bound ! and clanking of chains as the mother clipped the hair from the cat. it woman was only too said to the mother of For true. saying. ran howling to her mother.'' This is interesting because shows plainly the belief derived from pre- it Christian times. nor could any doctor explain the malady. this other one a So she cuff. Apropos of Owen The negroes you never can soundly. . into her house. if your child many demons he might give his church-bell rang the revenge. and at that instant there said. or stripped Here her disguise. puts " a trick " on The Dwarfs. it is — —of in this case literally not a question of a soul sold to the devil. "There lived near us another woman who had my day while we three were playing together and making a tumult. was heard a were about. in words : La Romagna \. a bambino. and when ! bed and beat to the child's shall woman who had her mother began to think that the was sure of it when she observed with a human voice. somebody in the house. after this child friend gave One was very impertinent. all threatened vengeance was a witch. instead of lying down midnight the cat came again. so. indeed learned only too soon how true was. but woe to us whenever we did for the child's it ' ' mother said that cats are all wizards As I also a little girl . or once informed that there were. I have the following in a letter by Miss Mary A. A grown-up black cat which comes and cannot be driven away voodoos the whole house in spite of blows. I will be revenged for this my little friend fell ill and no one knew . per troppo fa vero. 222 woman who following. non divento less and went and called the Let altro —than the it me go and priest that when the woman who had vowed the neighbours seeing her naked. and without a hair left.' that a cat came by night So she watched. can no longer be a witch. that the witch once detected. and witches. my friend. and the and. : in tell Missouri say some cats are real cats and some are devils " which The voodoo does is which. little in these dwarfs. " Von wilden Getwergen Han ich gehoeret sagen. any Elves." Das One day and I was at I inquired if there were Nibehtngenlied. and in the morning could no longer be a witch And and that Mt.—— — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. which the witnessed When ' ' told me to it she had believed certainly : I was a small child went frequently I to the house of a woman who had —and we often made a noise when playing together. cat at ' ' I Cure my free child or I will kill you can endure no more. it is well to whip them all but she excepts none other. ' a few days what was the matter. "Then always remained standing it " Then the be it cat spoke with But well.

I will tell you an . deep among old ruins. ' ' ' when from a hill Stop and talk with I can truly Where tell came out another dwarf. Over the rolling rivers. really. And if thou would'st find him Come to me at midnight. I shall him And still. Sometimes a contadino sees one or more he may behold away. in a the high blue mountain. a very old. and so she. there were people or none. Through the wet grass. " Over for another. and rocks. And little kill for his falsehood. crowds like bees on her bed till wall. in churches. For I Whom Yet I wish to I hope Because I love " Then she entered and supped and went to bed. not find him. room swarms of frolicking into the seeing her. old. in them. in caves or them far homes. who me thee to find thy lover. "Deinanil 223 Dwarfs! There are many.— — — . but they did not dawn came. a little lodging. seeking my lover. on the journey There came out a little rest. and tweaked her ears and nose. ' THE DWARFS. far away in the mountians. Si mise in cammino D'andare in cerca di She set herself To go " And when she had among the And travelled many in search of him.' at dwarfs or goblins midnight there came leaping and laughing and tutti uomini piccioli —who pushed and beat them and gathered them up and threw them as she could against the mind it when she " in the least. — . and she. in a rage. going home very early between night and day. my feet are weak and weary am seeking. hurrying before the sun rises to get into their They live like other people. : " Good ' friend. when they disappeared. They dwell in lonely places. they are good and bad like other people. story about them : " Once there was a girl who had been betrayed by her lover and abandoned wild fit. beg I it in charity. Into noisy Where cities. And I'll truly tell thee Where to find thy lover ! said : . little who asked her what she wanted. And waking she rose and went her way. she came to a small house far away dwarf. asleep. determined to go in search of him. Along the hard highway. but climbed in fell shouted for joy at they pulled her hair and danced on her. but they are folletti. she answered lui. days and longed for a rocks and knocked at the door.

! that three days over. thou didst well please them Still Then a spirits Who my given by mortals. follow. grotto By the incantation To call on Enchant. and he said went spirit. la tua Pegno de ' parola la ! Give me.' thee after three days. then. And thou'lt find thy And when thou hast Then thou Two lover found him have travelled wilt months' distance. He may " And when the lover. 'tis And " ') didst show spirit. other.' and he gave her a to the dwarf. grotto. he may never that So ! my Love another woman by come every day : be three days had passed she touched my husband him with ! the feather. altre Non donne potiede piu amare own form. but during the time thou must " ' Grotto. Follow.— — — — ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. thy hand ' . and she was turned into a : " Fly upon the wind ' the wind directs thee As . and . So all good I pray. Pledge that truth thou speakest. Then he'll love thee Nor think upon the " Then he grotto and say will wed only. feather. at noon to my spirits. but By my I incantation Truly shall have made thee Fly it When in a minute. For thou at midnight the girl hand. follow. 224 " Then the girl replied :— " ' Dam mi (" mono. and resumed her his side "E A E si incominciaro baciare. thou seest thy lover Touch him with this feather. " But the dwarf answered : " ' I cannot give As For am I swallow. were the goblins this night did tease thee.

but as his wife bore time in prayer and any country save the Romagna Tuscana. that novelty in their legends and customs is to have an heir. and I pleased. the narrator requested. These Romagnolo then the subject of interest. And in this region the which I have somewhat abridged married a wealthy and handsome lord. her hands cut off."- lines I could are often run into one and the voice suit the variation. form as near to the original as in a two or even three is cannot primitive people in the magic epoch. fairy tales for children alone. And she spent all her Then her husband hated her altogether. and she replied . have given have given them in the original. have learned so very. "One day there came to the castle a friar. But married her Now The swallow as the bird of spring brings luck]. he had the lowest servants in great distress. and in make it. but in -vain. as possibly modern. who begged 30 for something in charity of her. such cases it is This was probably the case in ancient times thing of the kind. the story . threatening her with the worst ill-usage all But peasantry new. one in in the country without the this become as stories narrative alone when that state is This truth.— THE APPLE-TREE. and took the poor. in And is : the great desire of no children he became almost mad with disappointment and and torture unless she became a mother. women Arid to other He made love no more. Had I I found the following story might have passed it by This " Once his heart was a there was is the beautiful lady tale. The Apple-Tree. but in stories are all in will tell or sing any story at in them just as rude metre as well as metre are unmistakable. I naturally disappears. and the it have often tested I Sometimes the rhymes and attempt modulated to be observed that there incantation. And she lived among some poor person. —as In fact among the case is had I all enters into every- — Germany. But This story Grimm's Kinder und Haus Mahrchen. rage. La sua prima amante Le tocco sposare. but Tuscan tale more of chiaro-oscuro and imagine one of prose. Tutto e Non 225 finito voglio piu narrare. little that very exceptional. hence in feathers tied with a red string form an amulet. who her money on a maid-servant in her place. finding her one day giving a piece of bread to so that she could no more give alms. might with I may Tuscany swallows' only a variation from The magic song latter." " Then the pair began Kissing as before. is fairly o'er.

And who had been a servant and his mistress persuaded him that his wife were not his. take from the tree two apples and eat them. te Ti voglio abbraciare. say it. And she entered and found food on the tables. Che mio marito letto possa portare. and he put but the girl and that they a babe into each and sat her in the middle. " So she rode on or to drive. And so he have not bore a child I husband is with anger wild. : . and that learned how she had aught she could not give if she had been treated. hands both cut away Heaven help me. for she felt that And indeed all went well. the truth He it. and help the poor I can give them nothing more ! For " Then the said looked a long time friar her in silence. And lo ! to manage the children as soon as she did this her hands Then her heart grew light.— — — . fair apple-tree With my I love I come would be to-night ! to thee. . she bore the two children had been . hardly able with her stumps of arms to a well and stooped to drink. embrace that as you embrace tree. and bade her ride away. These words as closely as you may " " Pano o mio bel porno ' A 1 con grande amore. and you " And this favour unfaithful. Where an apple-tree doth grow. fortune had not left her. for she came to a castle where no one was to be seen. in the garden go. In Mi il mio marito possa amare ! " ' Apple-tree. 226 that she had nothing to give. considering her extreme misery and goodness. Then he took a donkey. this you and take you to his bed. E E cosi possa ingravidare che Mi ("'" con se questa notte. on it were two panniers. and wine and all she required everywhere. ': ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and another earnestly implore May he love me as before done. for she said " Because ' My being without hands. for it was the fountain which renews youth and life. : my had I say. But in utter grief at last she came and sorrow. For giving alms. Fairer one did never see Lady And fair. Grant Still I . in bed With my husband as when wed May I so become a mother. and at : " ' Lady. and when she and grew again. " And ' so it came to pass. will in time bear two ! " ') And go to your husband and he will love beautiful babes. .' and the husband bitterly regretted his cruelty and the loss of her hands.

There is countries connecting the apple-tree with generation and in this story. And the olives figs. a devil handsome and with. have said of thy And all things. Yes.— — DEL GIUOCO. fields. for The it I early story Juno. And : he had as many olive-trees as his. —blast ago. And husband. Vines. the widely spread one of patient is But times. be not true which they hear fairies (spirits). of a who mass of myths So birth. way. flower also And wife. before any tree which and he was mad : Yes. Fasti. wife had been true to him. pitied her and cared for her in this manner. and of The fountain the Hesperides. of youth and this story especially those in Iduna. which kept the gods young." Brabant. there are through- out sketches and touches which are possibly copied from more ancient pictures. he had but some barren This. of Now to lived together happily ever after. its fertilising IL This in this story the incantation them ! is I ever Now and blaspheming. be turned to stone if this husband and the wife he found it. and to the devil. and so he gambled. IL SPIRITO the children had eaten. for money to play . cursing. If. a vines than all their I of left " jolly all young lord : I would yes. who. apples guarded by the Scandinavian a as they"came near the words were May ' I remembered by the But the the Griselda and many a suffering suggests apple-tree Genevieve wife in story the Mars without the help of Jupiter from the touch golden the recalls And the statue was the figure of the girl turned to stone. give him When my life sell. and more some men spend And at last. conception the conceived (OVID. —but he was once long rich ever drank glasses of wine patrimony in a when nothing was say. probably modernised but he wanted more. mulberries.' him by night and the wicked servant had said. sent a Dream to her And he how sought far for the castle till the gate they saw before a statue which had never been there. . " And considering her case they told him all how his the truth. he looked at the wretched farm must be spoken to power. that even the tree before it exerts " He is is SPIRITO DEL GlUOCO. a roaring crash of thunder Bursting up from the earth. It is worth observing. I could burn All the crops of grain. 227 belonged to this castle fairies. —as now one may to sprout. as in all which come from this country. but he wasted which remained and said ' tale. quarrelling. in all truth in v. seeing her there. and was perhaps de Dream came the he had done. too. of that from 253). at the next meal there was food Now again. Then he rode forth and evilly took her and the children home. an a curious and evidently very ancient evil spirit now growing had begun ate olives. he might And my soul to boot comes kill to me an end: with lightning. when I went.

agree to your terms. But some poor if Would When pray to he has devil me — like me for aid lost at play. That little And I You estate of yours. am buy willing to are a bold. And — burn up the crops of his enemies.—— * . at he Years . Homes and all. Then I would gladly give him The devil's own luck at cards. And it was observed that when he played high card there always was heard a clap of thunder. best of servants. and a great storm raged somewhere. I think. the time shall my come service. Shining like gold in the sun had—gold Gold I Gold is What Power And To our only if life the devil could give win to me at playl when then . I lostl won I hear the thunder roar. and for shair have your riches again richezze torneranno. I All your Luck men. and when dead E — quando saro morto I would haunt the gambling room. 228 Which X see all around and afar Once they were mine see the grain ! . the card turned ! Burning the crops. very politely :— " ' You wish to sell. I And if some fellow won Make him hear thunder And see lightning to fright him (Of course burning his crops). Of those who once stripped me. demand you at cards for shall have life Thunder and lightning included You Le " last So it came to pass. near or far. With a As flash of lightning. To whom he had sold his lands ! " And When the young man home he found un returned —a bel signore fine gentleman —waiting to see him. —— ': : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. the stranger said. I like to please such For I know when For them to enter They make the Well. brave fellow— Galante di print ordine. Aye.' a long time he won.

there ! much money. or sorcery. ' nature Gambling —every and —that tickets every year a spirit placed in a popular pantheon." to meteoulin. for Was E cosi sprafondo netta terra—and so he sank into the ground. it population buys. as child in is long to an Algonkin Indian story without lust. woman.— . And on him. ' Romagnolo these tales turn on the and are therefore myths. when passed. so mation of a before us wilt not had been subjected to changed. in the old Latin. coming this tale As no one can to a spirit. It naturally be one so deeply ten lottery of the first Giovanni di Tenorio. This is thy last This is thy final : hour hast had hast it Now live in its fire didst ask for the lightning it now— ! in trouble and needed And they remembered what he had said. there has been a legend of main vice of play would Therefore is it play. that in a great proportion of Italian tales gambling. indeed. and granted to fulness. Thou Thou Thou when they were fire foot. us. whose remarked. indicating the process ! come wilt something of a modern listen all of composition. hope that thou And if it is ! as are we. but one day. is supposed . aid us in our play Make as which lighted the room and a voice exclaimed day. spirit But though the form may have been liberties. under the mosses and flowers reason to believe that is man abandon us play in our company. is probable that from an early time or Don may be some Don Juan was not women but transfor- man. his help they called they : " ' and lightning Spirit of thunder Spirit of help 1 Help us ! ! For of thee we have great need As thou wert Aid us win Else ruin Thou We There is apparent in ancient rock. on an average. at least the entire an interesting as seated in the Italian. lo his time the gambler appeared ! once like a glowing coal from head to " " said ' That which was asked regretted him. IL SPIRITO and — . and not drinking or to be the chief cause of moral destruction. and extremely by which myths were was first made. there was a tremendous burst of all at — — DEL GIUOCO. and many 229 had come..

she's ducking.— : .'" Friedrich. That to eat for he hand some pebbles. being The the young prince. will catch the children all.' rest nor happiness by day or night. and malicious too. ai ti And have no joy shalt Patana " Then the prince had no more "The was old : me. she's looking. day into the : till I shall 'That I " can ' have found the beautiful Patana. and said. ! — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. his crederesti di esser piu potente di Ed " old every whom old del re figlio il Now on the ground. cried to the youth And at last he went out into one day he met a poor old man who begged something The prince gave him something. Till fair And am. whence the saying to children " Leave the flowers standing ' Go ! not into the corn There the Roggenmutter Stands from night to morn Now adown Now all up v She . angry. " Patakna protected the growing or shooting In Germany such a deity was called corn. and I know not where she tell Go Till thee along the road thou seest a tower Rising in a forest is. man is that will never the world to seek for Patana. till ' rest replied. have the lass. still in life thy wife. 230 Patana. woman. threw a pebble and broke a pitcher. out of can show thee. Who look for flowers. travelling far.' Though I which he cared. the Roggenmutter. Symbolik. Thou art not so wretched as starving. into which no one was allowed to go. " for window. who was a but she had a stepmother witch. shalt never come to pass. great or small. putting her pitchers of milk ' Tu sei E io Che ' faro vedere. he loved so much that there was nothing " The young prince was came and sat down else in the world opposite. Thou I And think thou hast more power than me. can have no woman ! have more power I For thou for I old the king's son thou mayst be. so that One day city to sell milk. saro piu potente assai. she passed by the king's palace. The heedless mischief.' . — . and I will. The following story " Patana was a beautiful very curious in several respects is girl. and held in at the palace woman went the king had a son The she kept Patina shut up in a tower.

231 There Patana dwells With her stepmother. as all was the chief spy. But be sure to go When the witch And be Food is absent. them. sure to give to everything Which is in the tower. all except he thought. And girl. and they flying after Then And a comb. not recognising her. You'll have need of horses I have two to Fine ones at sell you. came up she put " ' If But before long they saw her and they proceeded. Pray come in and see them " Then a comb and the witch in a rage went that the gardener flying after them. looking behind. " Then Patana took tower opened. utensils. Then When rage. a bargain. Even the smallest pot By a magic spell Will the old witch tell Unless Take all. asked her sacristan replied Let us be * This ' To and the door of the all. and she But this out again. and said. ! So she set the knife. became a church and she was it the sacristan. saw her mother-in-law fled. bell has rung For mass. down Let thy tresses And me up then draw " ! " So he did. cry aloud " Beautiful Patana. and was drawn up into the tower. And one earthenware pot. and this Then joy. and the prince a fish and the pot told her that the garden was only beautiful Patana. fed. come in and hear " Then the witch went away in again. or reservoir). and the witch. and they soon saw her became a vasca (basin of a fountain time ere she made the change she said : . ' she had seen the king's son go by with a if Twice the them ! :— " after free But before long beautiful Patina. which he forgot. where Patana received him with made a great pot full pappa (bread crumbs of and he boiled). they the furniture and betrayed it him. ' — — '' patAna. the gardener. the is not a time answer idle questions. for the pot which had not been fed had told her beautiful Patana stuck the fork in the earth. Then home was the to the tower. and the way which they had gone. : . *.. flying became a garden and she and Patana answered : you wish to chase them. and a fork. a knife. the beautiful Patana threw the witch ! it down the comb and same question the it as before. beautiful Patana threw swimming in down it. Fairer than a sun ray. power It will give thee To speak And then with the witch's voice. has been fed it this pebble too.

But the wood did not obey her. Patana there for a while remember anything about the marry another be two itself. 232 " ' Here take this knife I And plant it in the ground. as Dost thou remember How the king's son Entered the tower?' " a ' i I he With beautiful Patana. Mayst thou leave Patina. and he was about for the the palace and said to the cook. she. The fish and the fountain. Patana heard the oven made make And when this fire and came they were carried to the them. go and see And when his marriage. may become That I Now a sparkling fountain. herself something of a witch. "Oh. tried to do out. and the cook being called. but he could not to ! they came to the castle the young prince his parents. Then lady. I can dp blazed up and she was burned to death. he. fine fish as ' left however. fell asleep. made for When he awoke he saw the lady of the castle. said. and wood go into it. who was castle as a gift. and bade burn. ' kiss thee Thou'lt forget Patana " So she departed.' From ' fled away Dost thou remember How " remember Well How Well she preserved him the wild sorceress I ? remember The church and the garden.' When Then she had it beautiful bride. wedding dinner. never catch him " And cried the witch coming up tried and tried to catch the fish. being overjoyed to see him. that his mother should not kiss him. when asked where they were caught. at last in a rage she returning Once thy mother the So in the castle.' to and then was amazed at I am it. " And as this she a present ready. and then went into the no one had ever beheld. and but he avoided so. and when she entered the oven it that is nothing. his had not been caught but made by the lady of the the bride.' follows': . And my love a fish May he swim so well That the witch now coming May never. being weary. Leave her all ! :— " to — ' was done the two fishes " ' on the table began to converse one with the other. and it that table everybody replied they "Then it shall went in of and there were two such that. being determined. ' ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and I wish to and then bade And every preparation was mother kissed him. things got ready for » wedding. fishes.. " So time passed. home If to thy went but in vain.

there in here because the sometimes as a derivation from Ceres or a Cerean Ceres herself. Ro. Patdna. Varro Panda. I So he married the beautiful Patana. who opened the husk of grain. as the goddess of crops seems to have been chiefly in ancient Italy. " ' Dost thou remember His mother's " ' 233 kiss. and." I the of the incidents who induced to light Bughin. a church. all Roman have given it Thus and Patella. came some of the some form name of goddess who appears with greatly varied names. was Patelena. As Patdna suing it. even as the spirits of the the In the one. 592). and is given the refugees. "she was the goddess of the harvest." This perhaps the commonest of is known it is over Europe. crops. mother-in-law— pursues the Patdna Italian pap or boiled bread. At least the Inguvinic tablets my had asked authority made a are of some pop. who heard now the Queen of the Fairies. \De vita " whom AELIUS thought was Ceres. occurs in fire. she who all. or Pandana. or presided over it when it She was the goddess of the sprouting grain or of growth ( Vide p. "Thus. all heroine. or make him immortal (which herself enters we have Proserpina. the blonde Ceres known under of the Greeks." of furniture and utensils to eat. who in a spirit These garden.. value taken in connection with the name. in fact. remembered this. who made into her minor. to tale if knew She the at name of any once suggested little Preller] mentions that cited in this tablet a that this who caused Patdna. and sometimes as deity. in this story Rome 3i Ceres was regarded as a foe to . as in the other. or possible that the heroine of the story has changed place with In this case Persephone. or the like. by food . name this mention a goddess Padella.— PATANA. tale bread here the furniture boiled in water may mean has been confused with Ceres. interesting as connected with is Patdna was a story. and the Oscan votive Patana. a very curious parallel to Ceres pur- In Ceres puts Triptolemus on the fire to a Romagnola witch-tale). But now he remembers. had a sanctuary where bread was given to those who took is to all the dead are receive refuge in articles pacified In the daughter. trees. Myth. p. and Italian fairy tales. Patellana the grain to come forth.' is "Then the prince. How he forgot Patana Well I ' ? remember All the strange story. a mother fugitives. which are most probably identical with Patella. and a fountain spring out of the earth. as is the deity Panda.'' says Preixer (R. she grow. so it the stepmother. 160). It even seems name was the common one for such a goddess instead of the Roman-Latin Ceres.

S234 marriage. COLPTHUS. none as but there can be character of of them to carefully study as a whole.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.. and his cat But there. pro- it Till within a very few years the apparent coincidence system as a proof of origin was extravagantly overdone. is myth and Latin legend. is it no apparent reason. 60). which has turn been carried to as absurd these Romagnolo The extremes. It is perfectly true that with some ingenuity parallels like these may be established between almost any fairy tale and some ancient myth. may be There error however strong the identity may appear to regards the aesthetic or historic spirit and be. A. evident that in our legend she opposes the match Ceres in the Latin legend is mocked by a boy. fol. class —a of the which critics forgetting that to have removing the rough outside the fact leaves. the witch son mother of Patana is angered by the young prince and inflicts a penalty. This incident reappears Middle Ages in the fairy in the who was not invited to be present at the birth of Oberon. it who any may much is have away peel its the result or profit There is a value. that revenges herself for the slight in Discord. the by changing him to a lizard. "Alii dicunt Cererem propter raptum filire nuptias execratam (Serv. but may incidents aside by a nothing in folk-lore large left. v. and punishes him we have a leading name common in with corresponding incidents. as indeed all too frequently and rudely set spirit onion till there one must stop is after in tradition as well as letter. V. not necessarily derived from tradition.. or even Vidindono if bably would be —we might very well assume transmission. Marin. traditions. This is HYGNI. And 139)." an enumeration of minor Roman deities includes "Patellana . v. Dialog. But where of Metanira. and compare them as a whole with what in value best test for the a great number of incidents taken together. as remains of antiquity. almost assume an identity of origin. It may be added in reference to the tell-tale the forgotten or neglected fairy We 'ancient origin. Schedius in seu Patula. and therefore condemned him to remain a dwarf. find her who first pot which was not fed. who was enraged at is of very not being invited to the marriage of Tethys and Pelius (LUCIAN. among South American we may we found the story of Whittington we might suppose it had originated If Indians —as the hero was called Whittington. 92. cf. . in we know any one of Etrusco- minor detail. De raptu Helen. for iii. and has since been succeeded by an opposite one.

yes. And thee. lady. and the poor lady was very happy to regain the love of her husband. when her child was Then the husband lady reproved the the Moor. incident of a babe's speaking remarkable that the Etruscan infant Tages. Moor to when on ' good let go whither it any church. the What is effected for wrought in a church. because she loved her husband and met with quite disconsolate at the —a Moor when. who was a wizard. and mysterious story of the French Nights. Papa. So the poor signora went every day to the church to pray to God children. He that would be so gracious as her a child to give . of who often changed her lovers. when thy this night be incinta. the miracle. what was her utter amazement to see to its father. beautiful is earliest is found in the folk-lore of every land instance of who was ploughed out it in Europe —possibly in is . " There was in the Romagne a rich lady who was unkindly treated by her husband because she had no And he often said to her that unless she gave birth to a son or daughter. ferdona God miracle of little and go that I £ innocente have come to the father. child. very self-willed she would keep one for a time. The Witch " This witch was a wealthy lady. room So in and into a . window. or magician (uno streghone. and thus thou uno sia o go well with all will or Negro. asked him what he would have " The Moor. mamma. 235 IL MORO. ' husband Look me shall and then steadily in the eyes. and Aaron. from a window opposite. o maliardo). such as Othello. saying that he had betrayed her. and they returned home together and lived happily. him she would lead him the floor. and say." This will suggest much which Tamora. through which he would fall into a deep into a pit.' " This came to pass. for charity sermon will be preached. Babbo. and so did hers. The but it is all remarkable in chiefly religion.' it to be a I and when the babe on the ground. seest a is it from that time the babe never uttered a word till he talk. in distinct words its little mamma. " One day she stood no return. her husband never And he was present. To-morrow a she innocent is and thou . raising her head. pardon had come to the age when children usually " Then can So will. hearing that there was the lady put the its little feet. and that soon. famous preacher and embrace him with — ' this day. and at the same time become a mother. sorceress and is it her negro in the in Arabian queen and the black that sorcery by the Moor. replied. that of the the place whence I derived this tale. embrace thee think steadily of me. he would leave her and take another. licentious. a dark signore (Signore Moro and called to her. is. "But the thy husband. is familiar to the reader. put the child on the ground and went O 'Grieve not.' moved by thee and thee benediction.: ' THE WITCH LEA. though is made superior to the end the miracle is so to speak. And thee. but. being make peace between still friar shall give Now the lady did. for Moor the Moor. and chiefly the page. as in magliatore. she. or with wilt German) ? child. but it was not granted therefore after a time to her. and which there was a trap-door in when she was and tired Lea. she went no more to church and ceased to give alms. And saying that the infant was none of his. was reconciled with his wife. it rise and run hands. bom it was dark But joy flies like the clouds. given to God. replied. and looked altogether like the as abandoned both wife and himself.

the lust itself. 47. thus intimately connected in one myth. p. "Ab i. and beyond that A and coquette.) She was also the generally recognised PRELLER quotes several instances to illustrate the fact that death and luxuriant life — schwellendes single Leben —were person. 387. I call thee. insatiable in lust who knew lovers. of vilest Thinkest because thou art rich and powerful That all must bow before thee? Rich and powerful. goddess of corpses and of the dead. harlot To Vile thou art. and have proof of "'Three times Lea. brother. lubidinosus. O Lea 1 Thou art cursed from the very By my mother and by me. 1. for I too than thou And art. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. revive him. for she and murder. Henceforth all men shall As an accursed witch " And so it came was always a serpent It ac thee dead brother was revived. but the beautiful Lea to pass that after three days the witch. and the more she sorceress. vi. Thou Makest thy lovers " But ' so thou wilt not do with me. shalt put life into him. And when her nature. women. she asked him : '"Thou. lubendo libido. and Proserpine. as well as of death. Venus Libentina et Libitina" (Varro. Breathe into him. kill come to my heart. 236 And subterranean dungeon. Every night as a serpent Thou shalt suck the blood of corpses The corpses of thy dead lovers But first of all Unto the body Thou thou shalt go of my brother. "But went not thus with one of her it to pass the secret gate.— — ' — . and that the Persephone. many sendest God to die.'' would seem as goddess of know ! if there were an echo in this tale of the Libitina. in Sabine Feronia was There are also paralleled the affinities with between a the Greek Venus and . For thou didst For that A I more powerful it. condemn thee . Lea. at once thou shalt hide thy dishonour. had many so she was a wicked sacrificed the better pleased she was. a son of a witch. serpent thou shalt become. where he miserably perished. am of the wizards. he replied victims. Flora. apud Preller.

. De Buridan Was thrown That at midnight in the Seine. but as the children sorcery. How perceive this. compromises. and as a goddess of as Lubia. "cut cases that the tale Lea certain that the characteristics of the is it iv. 581). is Wizard It fail is familiar with classic serpent-lore. the children up as Catholics. never neglected to bless the deities. and points of affinity between the Stregeria or " the old religion. the same source as the heathen. be inferred from the story told in Fqflon. them passing to be and bring some old grand- into the ancient faith. to-day. or Li via. initiates all this is priest. given the form of a serpent in order to revive the dead cannot who every one but Libitina was (Preller. away rapidly. or a older. because the connection so strongly and strangely marked in is I was the most natural thing Saints. Roman mythology and —and blendings. Catholic rites both were based on magic. if any aptitude mother or aunt takes them That is occasionally. lust and the name may have step from Libia. of the peasant who. would be in We peasant dialect almost inevitable. amulets. old to say. world that there should be certain in the —witchcraft. they is folletti stregheria." founded on the Etruscan or Roman incantations. been still known among also the Romans to strike The more abbreviated. In some fetishes. The 237 story has a great resemblance to one of Odin. may The sorcerers among the Tuscan peasantry were not slow to deeply rooted the old religion really whatever happened. 8). is in for do not among themselves pretend observed in them for hand. to Lia. which has been set German poem by forth in a "The Herz. cases these Christian spirits or saints corresponded with. both used : and had recourse to spirits. believe and possibly archaic. nomen ab libidine" (August. and were actually derived from. But That Lea it. and " keep in " with the grow is. and now the rural knowledge of charms. even to say it was —meaning so. recalls— It also proud and stately queen By whose command. is derived from two are the same. the well-known legend of the is that this a very old Italian is between and death lust tale. to say. As traditions for the families in and songs even Christian." Tour de Nesle. they maintain outward observances. is too bold a conjecture that the word Lia or It is far Libitina. must always remember the fact in such from the same country as the ancient characters. is That which preserved.WIZARD SAINTS.

Quite as heathen does this saint appear in the following ceremony. iv." streghone very conclusive this is in a to repeat every sentence twice. 1 The chief of the goblin-saints is Antonio. So is of witchcraft. " we always perform because This of course what is conjuror and and "in the business. 238 Certain saints are regarded as being almost any kind of for are all by called word. if According to PlTRt (Usie Custome. — folletti but the sorcerers .— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. —the pater-noster a and doppio — —that will call peculiarly addressed is it "double" is. or is all. &c. me. a trifling airy : anybody wants anything This Robin Goodfellow. thus si perde qualche cosa —you say : — Pater noster! —Qui es in "Pater noster Qui " Ma dire Cattolica " (" es in coelis coelis ! " &c. and bears his cellar and never to spirits. goblins. this There name. wishes to win or he —or Southern Italy generally is only one a Imtm diavoletto. and not the real one who had received a said liberal education in the art. or all their and Bella Marta of the Morning They ideas on the subject. Antony."devils" when they came as beings of enchanting beauty. . by night. nymphs. undines. 69) the folletto in ne pub ammettere pih oTuno." But saints. paternoster cosi e della stregheria.. every detail of which is reclaim a lover. — were The spirits of all kinds. devils and of it very prominent all kinds priests made that Antony commanded —ergo he was a folletti themselves. which includes at Asti (1864). Thus when one has anything lost quando a double paternoster to San Antonio. their by these did not object to being tempted own . and comets under this devils. a Manuale di Spiriti Folletti published is vampires." said a Strega to . spirit A folletti. any to Saint name. to fill their wine-cellars and Even the give them no end of good luck in gambling and naughty love. decidedly a matter of witchcraft. Catholic religion"). not Christian. e non della vera religione il But to say the paternoster thus. kind of spirit— non se When a girl at vol. taken from ancient sorcery indeed. Saint This character was remarkably familiar with strange he was beset and tempted by devils priests represented that knew that dear and beautiful gods. to say the Lord's prayer either backwards. part of Dusio. folletto is a generic term Fairies. p. or Puck. &c. and most It is : them incantations to always done to heathen is un-Christian. or Anthony. 1 or. or heathen like "Saints Antonio and Simeone cannot be saints. their Faflon-Bacchus and so had called devils. and the exact counter- fairy of the Shakespeare and Drayton type. spectres. spirit in This double quick time Antony.

or a dog barking. or refused. and : "Sant' Antonio. Che mi da questo dolore. cane abbiare : (" My I benign Saint Antony am This grace I modestly require me And of these the On my head may Pray ! not worthy to pray to thee. the bark of a dog— I ask no more.) prayer shall have been uttered. or a man whistling. my heart. the favour will be conceded ma con molto tempo — after some time have passed. Tre fiammi per Una di fuoco me facete. then the prayer " But shall if it is known. and door be heard. then the request alone of these sounds will suffice to make a hearse. a white horse goes by. Che per me arde Una e tempesta. say three knots. one pass. bearing a corpse." It may always be borne in mind that though this be addressed to a mediaeval . and in with pins. ! : . bound with a red-scarlet made ribbon. One That I pray within all pain from If this grace be granted me. as a tassel {fatto con tre nodi puntati con tre e either side of These must be pierced or dotted spilli per Jiocckio). before. Di non son digno. But should a dark grazia —will if a knock at a be granted (nero) horse or mule . mio benigno. three flames of light for first fire. And the third beside my door. wait attentively at the window. canto al mio cuore. That it may never leave me more. pregarvi Se questa grazia mi farete.— — ! — . — WIZARD SAINTS. levi Una vicino alia Che di questa grazia mia porta non se Se questa grazia mi avete ne sorta fatto. whistle. Fate mi sentir tre voci Porta bussare Uomo E English fistiare. turning to the window. sopra la mia testa. containing IVrba an open window at midnight. Let three sounds be heard by me A A Or "When this knock at a door. she — puts two 239 San Antonio. in turn storm and burn. me depart. one on flower-pots. with a pot of rue in the centre.

that San Antonio For disguise. Santo mio. 240 saint.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. but " witches minds bewilderin' I at least will never not in either form ! is it written in choice Italian. many protects his friends from troubles. Sant' Antogne Sopre came. liberez dai sase Liberez dai asase E ! ! dai streghi chliiivengu. vination some Roman is or Etruscan spirit in Christian the details of the ceremony are old heathen." is ! ") as The good as the reader may original. and. el el streghi in Ai buttar dre Chi vega via In Italian camia la graneda. mind 'em not very beautiful poetry. as all is the di- by sounds. there is every probability. In camia a stregem I mi burdel chi 'e tent bel ! Sant' Antogne e santa pia. a certainty. Buttatele dietro la granata Che vadino (" Saint via " ! Antony on the chimney-piece Let our fears of murderers cease Free us from all evil which —specially from Round us Who come To enchant in our my Saint Antonio Keep such If you'll — This is pretty children : I pray creatures far away 1 throw the broom behind 'em. which is judge from them . Santo pio Tenetemi lontano Di casa mio Se viene 1 le strege. judging by every analogy and association. ! le strege in casa mia. Tui lontan So ven Streghi da camia. " ! :- " Santo Anto super (sopra) il Liberate ci dagli assassini ! Liberate ci dagli assassini ! E dalle Strege che cammino non vengano In casa mia a stregare I miei bambini che sono tanti belli. Antony Saint witchcraft. but specially from Therefore they say to him in Romagnola: " Sant' Antogne.

. and was informed that Which makes him — which him gives I is quite the —a worth noting distinct place as a Lar or spiritus domesticus. goes into a cellar at blasphemes. what trouble 241 have sometimes had to disentangle an incantation from the I bristling dialect in which was surrounded. takes Tuscan has a bald head. first . she. Non Non E fanno ritornare le con Non In English When some of the hair of her lover. Dentro alia cantina. Che non abbia Ne pace.—— WIZARD SAINTS. lar familiaris. it In allusion to Saint Antony on the chimney-piece he specially the folletto. lion . dianb pace. is same as the Russian Domovoy. and a distinct trace of Jupiter in him. for there sight Elisha. after the fashion followed in is : " Santo EIisko dalla testa pelata. or spirit. Vi verro ^ portare I peli del amor mio Perche una paruccha Ve ne E potrete fare. even Jovial. Una I grazia mi vorrete fare. style a going astray. altre donne la facciano parlare " ! : " Saint Elisseo. piii a bere ne a mangiare. da un leone ragazzi Li avete fatti Spero di me mangiare. Santo Eliseo is unquestionably at appears as the destroyer of bad boys. and conjures after the following good old the blackest witchcraft. Fino che l'amor mio Alle porte di casa mia. non vorrete dimenticare vi Stanotte a mezza notte. possa stare. of the fireplace. bald-headed one For a special favour I pray 'Tis said that boys once Were by a eaten for you one day 32 ! . nel posto dei peli Del amor mio Tutti diavoli e strege Li farete diventare. Che non Non possa vivere. is finds that her lover But interesting this heathen. —when Tartar we look into young lady —scratch He a Russian and you find a Christian he appears to be sadly midnight and curses.

not unconnected with lions. and a large handful of a so that new earthenware pot. and keep making la castagna fingers) into the pot and say hour.' (" 'I take these three leaves by Saint Elias." this (the sign of the : " During 1 ! salt. three leaves of trefoil : " Stacco queste trefoglie per Santo Elia. land a Christian saint for the eyes. or Elisaeus ? but leave I of miracles. Santo Elia Che " And this must be done il male degli occhi mi mandi via for three days. ' Che il mal d'occhio mi mandi via.e " ! Truly a curious invocation. Nor with other women Make love any mor. appears in the following prescription and :— " To cure an and then say may have this is to others. known well in this same Tuscan Elisha of the Bible was a wonderful worker him as a magician among the Tuscans. just as many About him ever May you for he not devils play. and a nice occupation who was .') take three peppercorns and a bit of cinnamon. : hairs have taken away. and let it boil for a quarter of an the eyes may be steamed. Or stand or think.— — ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Santo Elia. ' Per — (Then che maladetto spit thrice sia ! behind you) Per Santo Elia. Here in this cellar at midnight Ever devoted and I true. true love returning As once before. take three roots affliction of bound with a red ribbon. and put time put your face thumb between the . Or know any peace. have brought some hair from To make a wig And for all the Which May I my lover. three cloves. all this But ! There was of yore a certain Jupiter Elicceus or Aelisaeus. this Elisseo. and Saint Elia invocation who was established He Saint Elias. live. That he may banish the pain from " Then all to boil in over it my eyes. 242 Therefore I trust from your memory I shall not pass away. Or eat or drink Until he shall Again to With my come door.

want. little : saint who I regarded as Bible.) You " simply substitute the name of a folletto you want. or get the love of a certain : —what- fortune you desire. the least fact. The in witchcraft are called saints. a copy of which was purchased and rosary shop. such on the principle that you can always it. a is om me r " (This But " — it. IL Another sorcerer-saint iago. And There are many of these this is not For all. so you may ovena." far education. as you —repeating other spirits faccendo la Novena the Catholic incantation. I average the e of unavoidable occurrence. will come in with a long Then he will where a What do you want.— — VECCHIO SIMEONE SANTO. " But be very id to repeat it careful in repeating the with a fearless mind om him what you " But if jur face mente molto ferma). following was taken a heathen i. dressed like a priest in white. " II r priests. and so you and sometimes they never disappear. in a cross Simeon from mistakes conclude this chapter I Vecchio Simeone Santo. there cannot imon the Magician uch above be in . is 243 ? ' (' Then answer promptly whatever ') in the lottery. he will give you a so that the five fingers will remain marked on [fearless] sound slap or cuff). himself. iree ik. to err in a single syllable. rer is —any any forms or du opposing shall nights in succession at midnight. for afraid however he may change Novena his me -three numbers ? thus his form.e. that you it may be that you require hidden treasure is concealed. But you must be when you go to bed you must repeat ' fearless {bisogna essere di coraggio). or like a friar But do not be :ard.. —yes. rival in competition." The Novena will get and prompt to answer. or how woman qualunque fortuna si desidera Cosa volete che mi avete scommodato ouble may he figures. doubt sometimes called Simeone is ascertained as of or low that there As he Simeon. you are not iaffo forte (a {colla Novena not itself is as follows : . a spirit Simon for Roman call in sell a sorcery way and actually more goods where down word by word spirit. a folletto is voke Simeon. " This people a complete confusion in Italy between old is and that the a witch >irits But before with confused quite is much from a witch who was are not encouraged to study the icourage and aid lere he that common the when people hristianity.

like those of the Pythoness. prescribed the allopathic spell ! But you She looked a fact worth noting that in all religions of all ages the inspiring spirit of oracles. and his form good and benevolent that there is no danger of awaking trembling and terrified. for the saint generally appears in a dream while you sleep. makes no " And much beloved to decipher Many people miss their meaning. or one of the while many have figurations. appear in some form. and a kind of high mitred cap Roman ricevere e di annunziaste e profetiziaste e le vostre Profezie Catholic manager of the Grand Opera of Saint Peter. like Martin Van Buren. believe that no theologian has ever accounted for this divine inability to speak directly or to the point. or Merlin. " Procure an image or statuette in plaster of this great saint." rose-water should have seen the sorceress experienced. or True Thomas. Roman It is very curious to Catholic method of working the oracle. according to the instructions in if is man will it we if we repeat the marvellous recite the customary prayer. reader. a quite such as was worn by priests of yore whence it came in the second mass of other Oriental properties and wardrobes to the magi and sorcerers and Egyptian or third century with a portare Amen. and give to the one lucky numbers in the lottery. Mother Bunch. or Thomas Nixon.. or the magician Simon. both being the very the Lord ' It ' God difference if the image of the Oration (Novena) dedicated to him. half-pious work. or Nostradamus. saint Novena. " Il buon Vecchio Simeone. 244 O " Simeone che meritaste ed aveste gloriossissimo S. and it is certain that after the praying his request " There is so is . are all frightfully muddled.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. the good old but what he principally bestows no occasion to be of plaster or a picture. who presided at the circumcision of our Jesus Christ. In it we believer in this have. as given in the Libretto di Stregonerie. a scarlet Simon — — is to the knee. a halfpenny popular. " The whole difficulty is to know how to decipher the exact meaning of the words and signs which the saint will give. This is the account of the spell as given heathen Tuscan magic. plainly and clearly. the American President. an old heathen spirit who changed contrast this with the following by one who was a his forms like Proteus. it Lord progenitors of the Redeemer. so difficult One your choice." the inscription under a coloured print in which Saint is yellow sash and girdle.Testament. with the old Saint Joseph and the Virgin Mary. fear. I . or The prophecies of the Old . gown represented as clad in a grey skirt to the ground. seems to suffer from a decided inability to give a plain straightforward answer to a plain question."" who sucri — and light pink ribbons. according to what and unravel the problems or ' There. Norse hero to face him. you have the two grim old heathen classic —take " Ransacked the tombs And the other is all falchions ' It is is is the downright the courage of an old of heroes old. who requires kind who Proteus Simon. Vecchio nella vostre fortunate braccie furono sante veriti This il Divin Pargoletto Gesu — Oh Santo concedetomi —E che la grazia le vi bella la sorte addomando. wrenched from corpses' hold.

Then I realised what the Pythia of yore must have looked like when inspired or the old Etruscan sor- She hell. Tradizioni Palermo. IL her part. and pray to San it she eagerly cried. to-day in full may we others. but What we have and the other the first was Magus. Pitre has Palermo. if invoked danger of being robbed and And this is carried decollati (a " slain." I met her some time after she declared that the mouse (which she was wearing in a red bag little hung from her neck. " Si—si. I here are two forms of sorcery Roman modification under its in the hidden). as Byron says of Gulleyaz. with the hydrophobia. —one the old Roman-Etruscan. Catholic influence. " know I When the Novena. I my oracle. as the learn in detail popolari Siciliane. that." I " Simeone.— VECCHIO SIMEONE SANTO. One day I said to her that woman professor of the art. 1889. had promptly brought her a and much other unexpected good prize in the lottery. it would be like the likeness of a devil ceress described in my A friend." not remarkable that there should be saints half heathen in a country It is souls of suspect that I are told that from a chapter in by GIUSEPPE PlTRE. they do but confess and receive absolution before death. . xvii. when murderers and other the Biblioteca dette vol." gave a young woman an amulet question was. luck. And " cried she put on for an instant the witch-look— and. and which agree with common origin. One day " For I Her for luck." it —a stone in the form of a mouse enable me to win in the lottery?" under your pillow. actually a chiesa delle anime de corpi church of the souls of beheaded bodies pictures of the holy miracles wrought is by the ") in many M. actually — — The Last Days of Pompeii who was possibly an ancestress of photograph of that ! Why. " Oh. will I now proceed it so which are unquestion- much as where the established Christian religion itself men who had slain many In witchcraft. with sainted murderers. they are believed to become a specially favoured kind of saints.. "Will first you must put replied. beginning purely Etruscan. victims were invoked above old times those all belief being that they carried into the other world the audacious they had won by blood. the power which This foul and atrocious worship of dead criminals is action in Sicily with the cordial sanction of the priesthood. In it atrocious criminals have been beheaded. edited if prove a makes extraordinary and frequent compromises with common sorcery and black reader to to "further instances. it was like a short glimpse of seemed to be another person. but modified to agree with Simon have other forms of diabolical or heathen spells ably ante or anti-Christian. but old you want her THIS to look like ! 245 wanted a photograph of a certain other she must look animated like a witch. when any one come down from heaven and so far that there is in aid the victim. who.

proud of their unfortunate victims. 142). thing exquisitely tender and beautiful in giving "to these pilgrims of eternity when about penitence to rise to heaven. altar. and the degree to is a work entitled Saint Francis of commended and is wretched that succeeded in make sculptor attempts to rendering spasmodically in Jesuit churches of the last holy-sentimental but has only There silly. having mostly died "in sin." This turning or going round for luck is a remnant of the old worship of . p. showing the extent of of superstition and witchcraft. which the FORTUNATO MONDELLO. Etruscan Lucina. sham-second-hand in fervour.246 ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. grilled on a gridiron. some- is. and their relations are word as to because these latter went straight to hell.vilest its according to him. is and sanctifies their death &c. another old heathen in disguise. quite a different thing! and Anna birth. saints have been the very scum of Sicilian brigandance. Saint Lawrence. . robbery.. similar ceremonies woman flour. that a he will on the take some altar near the tion " {Ibid. delivered Palermo. they are adored like God. or goddess of was it man a paper. He identical with Losna. because they went through a mere form of words and were sprinkled and oiled. incantations. No . reciting orazioni. sorcery! up thrice for good His day is is the 10th of August. when religion ennobles cross of the Redeemer. as usual. There priests. exalted with much by the Rev. the zeal of which encouraged by the it is Sacred Discourses. and prayers. outrage. in Florence if a may San 'Na who was la And this all Thana was is not in fact the be derived from this. which style fervid reminds one of third-rate plaster statues of saints century. — — fly fly to when they take the ! glory " " So the stream of such holy commonplaces What this really is. in which such worship form this. and Oh dear no—that is repeats a prayer or spell. and so forth." without confession. Assissi. and now. the refreshment of that sublime word. are prayed them. children visit his church it be safe not to go will it potent with the words of the consecra- practised with the aid of priests. Thus which she repairs to Saint Anna. " It to hell it if is believed about Naples or in Sicily. or San Lorenzo. or go round " E ciascuna volta far mostra d'uscise di Chiesa. In all this there does not appear a to. devoted twenty-five pages to this subject. 1874. and wickedness —incarnate fiends . of writing. worshippers. These devil-worship." is "Sons of once turned on. she goes to a priest and gets from him an enchanted apple. Roman times. when innumerable and turn three times round before the luck. roll it cup and renders still after to a priest who lays many but there are in 1638. carry This practice was condemned Lucina of She was in wishes to be with child.

darker. many I is made up The prince." . IL VECCHIO To Fortune. This is mere conjecture. I however. cardinals. but by a guess hypothesis begins. Peppino. or the cruel stepmother. not ? Matter of breviary. since he performed the deed and Christ submitted to it). which would be of no interest to any one save to adult " professionals. example set the of. the the ugly envious daughter of the stepmother. of the usual nursery-tale elements. have a fairy. but the description of the magic means and materials obtained. by Tuscan Romagna. and of the turning of her wheel. and acquired magic power by means of a cat-witch's blood. far story of may by here lay Italian fairy traces of the former. and more occult tone than the Arrimini written is have a marked character of tale of // Fornaio. or of the baker Tozzi and his daughter the benevolent to grief are from the and more uncanny than the usual because in marked contrast to them which comes latter. press." SIMEONE SANTO. in this. fact that these witch or sorcery legends own. may have been called Somnone and so coalesced with Simeone. who was on Santo Simeone and a legend of first is named Arrimini. and since the circumcision every church. who in Both of these endeavouring to bewitch the king's son. and the real witch tales are told among it is young witches and grown people. one can hardly fail him to inquire of Pitre. I a spirit or sorcerer. knife or spinning a chair To is this day 247 in Sicily the turning a an invocation of Fortune according to recur to Simon. cruder. as in this Novena)." that Simeone as the Saint of Dreams has taken the place of Somnus. as the Christian Saint of the Circumcision. and grimmer. and priesthood should con- and glorify. and in thousands of pictures. I mention have received with the others the fair Fiorlinda. latter there are. Catholics submit to it ? form to that which they " glorified in is why do not all Surely the Pope. all harsher. I received several curious The regret that I cannot give in detail. on the stress their which that of Arrimini which the latter tales comes from Premilcuore. not the narrative by any means which forms Thus its in the strength. who earth a priest hid in the magic walnut-tree (probably of Benevento). " Or why if so. Santo Somnone not tremendous is difference between —and Simeone is While these sheets were going through the documents which the Saint of Dreams. and has been several times referred to in this book. rivalry of The second is a strange and interesting tale of the two witches named Meta and Goda. and The then in time a place as theory wins. who became Somno. quoth Friar John. being tales. giving us thereby a divine example. It may be Somnus.

.

PART SECOND. .

AND CURES. INCANTATION. AMULETS. CHARMS MEDICINE. DIVINATION. .PART SECOND.

was with wife of she dreamed marvellous dreams. E are told in the Heimskringla. an early history of Norway.CHAPTER I. the King Halfdan the Swarthy. that when Ragnhild. One end of it it took root in the earth. child Once she seemed to be standing in a garden trying to take a thorn out of her chemise. LA STALLA DI MAIALE —DREAMING PIGSTY IN A AND SWINE LORE. while the other shot . but the thorn grew in her hand until was like a long spindle.

but not on his '"Mi it. that is on his side. or.—— ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. This was interpreted to mean that a mighty race beautiful than the others. It fell in but they were of unequal length and colour more and one lock was longer. who became famous whence he was his long locks Snorro Sturleson. so high that her eye could scarcely reach the top of lower part of the trunk was red as blood. 252 up into a great tree. may have I desire a good dream. it was green and The it. ! ') he will surely see in a dream that which will set forth or explain what he wishes to . And before going to sleep he must say occupied face. Harold. of very unequal size. Therefore was she at once replied that was the most approved method it should be done. I from the Tuscan Romagna and above all : be sure that the pen is And he must sleep alia boccone. though they would be unequal in fame. fair. il mio sleep that I Have a de. The of kings should spring from him. and dreamed that his hair grew and to be very long beautiful. and it while seemed kingdom of Norway. and probably all the belief that prophetic widely spread. to further explain the mystery. to her that they spread out over the whole King Halfdan hearing this wished to dream also. me Grant That I Such as " And know.'' doing this the grace. or else flat it dream one must sleep —a sow with young. largest lock was The for the queen she bore a son.sidirio ! may propitious dream. on his back. He consulted a magician. and : addormento Per fare un buon sogno. la grazia Che possa Un Secondo (" ' I fare buon sogno. who told him that the sure way to have truly prophetic dreams was to sleep in a pigsty. brighter. Saint Antonio who art Placed over the pigs. The king did so. are familiar with my not astonished when on asking whether people ever slept per avere un vero sogno fortune-teller in a stalls di maiale. —to have a true dream— known. further up They were the branches were white as snow. Slavonian and gypsy inhabitants of Hungary. dreams can be secured by sleeping in a pig-pen is The Roumanians and so-called Saxons. called Harold Harfagr. or pig-pen. and . supposed to indicate in after days. and proceeded to explain how " To learn the future in a by a maiala incinta o gravida crouched up. Sant' Antonio che siete Sopra i Fate mi maiale. in these words in a pigsty. according to As Olof the Saint. for Harold the Fair-haired. bright locks about his head and shoulders.

antiqui pig. many Germans Claudius Hervor Saga. enormously it is was sacred to Venus. ii. and all nam Greece choiron. qua foeminae sunt. et sleeping in a pigsty gives true dreams." says Christmas Day in It is " common the pigsty. itself. {Livius. vol.. p. a charm against the " Nuptiarum maritus nostrse and is evil eye.— LA STALLA DI MAIALE. ii. Paradinus Symbola heroica (Antwerp. birth. yet because "and one of the most libidinous of animals. King pig was so generally . and coupling of the sexes.. symbol of death and darkness. though pig. fruitfulness. p. lustful (De Gubernatis.. The also called a pig. and men reason. Mome.24 . Scandinavians. hoping to dream there The new sun of good luck. in the The i. charm was was known as a for luck. 4) we read reges ac sublimes viri in Hetruria in conjunctione nuptiali nova nupta. significantes esse As dignum : videntur. in virginibus appellant porcum. Gubernatis. such as life. the symbol sacred to Frey. i. In fact the p. for Romans. 8." lands to have been closely allied to truth. Geschichte des Heidenthums." worth observing that as everything which was connected with generation or begetting. et novus primum porcum immolant prisci quoque Latini et etiam Graeci in Italia fecisse mulieres. according to the Pythagoreans. so the pig seems of old in swore by it et insigni nuptiarum. and reviving springtime. Also Heidreck swears by a boar. . fruitfulness. revival. cowrie and has shell. " De In Germany. from for this reason its always been worn as a resemblance to the same organ extensively used at the present day in the East as In Varro {De re Rustica. 259 . initio. 1583). 253 people often go to sleep on and this dream is the presage in the sty of the winter hog. as a symbol of THE ATTITUDE FOR DREAMING. born is . 6). was associated with light as a wild boar a love. maxime nutrices naturam. therefore the it was prolific for this " are transformed into hogs pudendum fern.

refers to the accounting for " When it " all living things Jews refraining from "the unclean beast. in ancient mythology and legend the reader may consult Die Symbolik und Myth- used in sacrifices. But Olaf verified the murdered man's prophecy." So they laughed Him Him to scorn. of the And from his subjects.' " That must mean that thou rulest over thy own life as well as mine. for he beheaded him." of their number under a barrel. the barrel. and that I stood at the helm. Friedrich. that we were both on board a ship. in a loud voice that he would give a great reward to any one who would find the earl and slay him. forth and mingled with the other swine. Kark slept. Soon he came to Olaf with Haakon's head. Haakon was Earl calling his men together he race of Harold the Fair-haired. B. 1859. 995). to this And he ran day they have eaten no pork for fear of devouring him or his descendants.' said Kark.' "But when the earl fell asleep Kark slew his master with his knife. " I dreamed.' said the earl. and saw that the thrall Kark was listening eagerly. not a ring of gold. and to test He answered.' thou goest to- Therefore beware of him.' said the earl. " His wisdom they hid one A pig." and a story tell : Christ once went to Flanders the Jews ridiculed His teaching.' " Once more the thrall fell asleep. 254 and was so closely connected with mysteries and holy rites. ' ' ' dream. 'and our deaths will not be far apart. that. there was their friend changed into a hog. named Kark. and asked But known not generally that who remained the Netherlands the peasants have a proverb of which is when they ! lifted what was there . " Then came Olaf Tryggvesson. Bremen. boyhood. who had been And his playmate from she hid the two in a deep ditch This was covered over with boards and earth. He put.' asked the earl.D. thrusting it into his throat. It is that the reason which the Turks give for not eating pork were converted to Mahometanism except the in pig. and asked him his. " The earl heard this. to his mistress Thora of Rimul. over When another old and curious Norse story of dreaming in a pig-pen. von ologie der Wurzburg. earl and asked what he had dreamed. Be faithful to me and I will reward thee when better times come. J. waked him. that a German. and the pigs were under her pigsty. and claimed the reward promised. " ' I thought I " ' The meaning of seek him. 1769. The earl woke him again." There is fleeing (A. Casselius. after .' answered Kark. but one of blood round Kark's neck. " 'Why wilt betray " " ' ' art me ? thou now so pale. was at Hlode. ' ' is and Olaf Tryggvesson put a golden ring about that Olaf will put a red ring about thy neck my if neck. and because the Jews could not pick him lo And a heathen. published a work on the subject—De Sacrificiis porcinis in For much erudition on the subject of swine cultu deorum veterum. The but he tossed and talked in his sleep. the pig under the barrel. Natur. We were both born in " They sat in silence.' replied Kark. who had risen in rebellion. and had a nightmare. to Rimul to seek and slay mounted a great stone close to the pigsty and declared Haakon. and out.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 'and now again as black as earth? Is it that thou. ' No. it. and be true to me. he went with a single his a slave thrall. the At same last night.

all also —a 2 genial worn custom . by Fr. and partly Annaus Cornutus 1 was to pass that pigs gold and silver pigs were offered to her. lib. " For though Haakon Jarlo Earl Haco had been long. is was by It a prediction referring to such a sow that Odin caused himself to be suspected by King Heidreck But not long passage 1847). would he betray me As we his bitterest foe. 1844. " Oc it that so great a as the saga ends Enn and done him great whom evil all his life he had ever treated • : fyri sin Hakonar han threlnum." in the cellars of the honour of these goddesses the Bootians put Ceres was pre-eminently a goddess of by Roman hence little ladies. or Ceres pregnant sows were specially offered in sacrifice. 8. however. if he deceived Earl Haakon so treason to a master be rewarded. 135). de natura deorum. or even a tomb. and said. c." says Pico de Mirandola in his Witch. oc Jarlo. be distinctly Northern.' by surroundings. it is natural that certain places should have been chosen to dream in. the Stoic. removed from a temple. ix. " in the in the light I came across a certain knew in Heidelberg in this connection of the pig-pen with the 1 Unto Demeter Cornutus. 1. 21 Gracice." English : " And. little meadows and Clemens Alexandrinus speaks of the same thing . ef sua skal leida drottins svikun. " We have read. good luck and insure pregnancy." A pig-pen is. and partly to it temple of Ceres and Proserpine. —and so shall all For and ordered him at the thrall. adversus Gentes. as does Arnobius {Disput. and others in that of Esculapius. svikia mann hann mik. may have come it is The into the only in the Italian traditions that the minutiae of the presence of the sow with pig significant. fertility. oc bad han uppfesta. should be treacherously slain by a slave er Olafr kiendi thetta var hofut sagdi hann hofa skild maklig Iaun. after I Hervor Saga. Elmenhorst.. which the next year were seen in the influences p. Osann. tha reddist Drottin svik. : pigs into subterranean of Dodona. . because of the great were kept " In on I fertility edit.— — " LA STALLA DI MAIALE. 2 Pausanii De. as who lived sixty-eight years after Christ." therefore of L. had written the foregoing remarks. Symbolik of Creuzer (whom. which seems to cast much temple. "that the physicians of Calabria and Taurus were wont to sleep in the sepulchre of Podalirius. it adding that came Pausanias as observed in other places. as Creuzer relates chapels. are influenced several degrees It may be As the former seems to Romagna from the Lombards. Therefore of this animal. for luck pub. Hakon Sveik hann Jarl.when Olaf knew to be hanged. man 255 if ' that was the head of Earl Haakon he was enraged it He shall have he could evil boot for betraying his master. he liked little And kindly. it observed that ceremony are given. han ma. informs us. by the way.

quoque. Nysiades Nymphse puerum qurerente novera Hanc frondem cunis apposuere novis. this much seems means of dreams. and that to be certain. The follows first ol iii. sublata capitique circumligata (" If grass growing on the head of any statue be plucked in the waning of the The sixth is it much the same : stature cujus libet nasci solet. removes pain. the sacrifice in of the sow must be made when any one was initiated into the mysteries. it gold and silver pig-norance According to Aristophanes. ea decrescente luna.") inquired for a long time in Florence before I found the following cure for a headache. Mythologie. curita sit. When It was not only repeated to me. moon and taken away. 1848. Marcellus of Bordeaux in capite stature cujus libet nasci solet. Of which a French novel. Ivy cincta est? hedera est gratissima Baccho. be a marvellous remedy for it be gathered and tied in a red cloth to the head headache or neuralgia. For information on this subject consult also Bayerische Sagen und Brauche. in Paris. but also written : you take grass from the head of a statue to cure a headache you must say : . von Friedrich Panzer." (" If grass or ivy grows on the head of any statue and or temples. Beitrag zur Deutscken MUncken. I is : "Herba dolorem the medical magical cures of Fasti. dicere nulla mora est. ea si in mirum remedium hemicranise it will panno rufo ligata capiti vel temporibus vel heterocranire prestabit. and that these temples were used partially as And pig-pens. " as tollit. 256 which was revived as a fashion a few years ago was when adopted by unmarried some note has been taken virgins. entitled in and a very funny one Le Cochon dOr. remarkable that the Italian superstition requires that there must be It is the pig-pen a sow with young.") " Herba vel hedera in capite alligetur. From what is here cited it appears that of old people slept in certain temples of the gods to have true dreams. The Spell of the " Cur hedera Hoc and the Statue." Ovid.— — —— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. that Ceres was greatly consulted by dreaming was specially in her temples this in which pigs were kept." be bound about the head.

' mi ha dato la Roman in the old via. they are always imperfect. And may the devil carry The one who gave Now may it it to away me " ! be observed that whenever any of these magical prescriptions are wanting. In : " I do not take the grass or But ivy. It also signified on any head poetry. as a matter of course. borrowed much from the Dionysiacs I it symbol of new life in it in this cure. nantur ad significandum." le cortte (the sign it l'erba. This is the very oldest form of sorcery. a : " Hedera quoque vel laurus et hujusmodi : quae semper servant vivorem in sarcophago corpori subster- secundum corpus. Ration. probably did not obtain his prescriptions very accurately from the people. . vii„ In early and that Christ. et reviviscunt in 35. as the imperial court physician. I take the That the headache may leave me. have no doubt that Ivy was the original plant used I religious symbolism. is far older but what is most conclusive. tamen secundum animam vivunt c. 1 — from Ovid lib. MARCELLUS. magic power. prendo Che 257 fashion over your right shoulder. Therefore." . 34 Deo. quite sure that this Italian the It is in same form many as assumes. life itself. that even a headache must be the result of evil magic. inspiration. incantation others . vivere non desinant. as regards an incantation. fillet. cast is English this is la magia mal di capo mi vada il E chi II diavolo la porta via. or active genius. They laid it —as a garland. the Roman symbolism.— — — THE SPELL OF THE IVY AND THE STATUE. " ' Non Ma prendo " And then you must That make to say. appears from the following nam licet mundo moriantur Durandus. as wreathing the very deeply and significantly. Div. have said that ivy on the head of a statue was especially typical of health life in or wreath 1 when was of course supposed to be very it in coffins as a and head of Bacchus. quod qui moriantur in Christo. meant was found growing of itself on a The effective. malia of the horns oxjettatura) behind you. statue. it am I than the third century. —among other things. As early Christians Ivy. Offic..

2 — believed to the mountain-ash — 445) or Donnerkraut ed. mysteries. and as regards in the aerial nature. any plant which grows have magic or healing all lib. Deme meis hederas Bacchica serta comis. wrongly. to Mrs. ivy and grass There in the light Of a moonshine night You can see the fairies pass. away from. on old walls or ruins grey. ivy or roses. Ista decent lsetos felicia signa poetas.— — . : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS." Tristium. . Of which crowning with we know very little said that which attached to them It remarkable is tradition. ivy or flowers. 258 " Siquis habes nostris similes in imagine vultus. pilos ejus de sub ventre tolles atque ipsum vivum dimittes. Wall-flowers." The Spell of the Hare. and moss has many The house-leek — in German Hauswurz guard a house from lightning (Grimm. 6. M. s. sentiment. Grimm) dolor—inflammation of the colon. other customs. cl." Attributed. B. Glasse. from its became almost the centre of Druid observance. or to or above the earth. Temporibus non est apta corona meis. virtues. it can be truly the feeling. . or pass the time. many i. possibly here the colic—which to relieve the coli is very curious " Lepori vivo talum abstrahes. there the owls wone. and associations days of yore. vel lana filum validum facies. is being also dedicated to Thor. " Flevit lepus parvulus Clamans Quid feci altis vocibus. But remember that whenever you see grass or herbage. according to the very ancient and widely-spread that. i. or thunder. D. believed to is mistletoe. " High on the towers Grow beautiful flowers. " First catch your hare .. off.. hominibus Ut me sequuntur canibus?" German Latin Song. et ex eo talum leporis conligabis corpusque laborantis prsecinges : De : illis pilis miro remedio . as has been so well approved by much observation that to deny it were enough So rest ye firm in the faith that wherever deny to all testimony of tradition. The be spirit-haunted. Twelfth Century. There is among the spells of Marcellus one (84. and elves and fairies delight to dwell or dance.

ferred from one to another patient as often as avail. Efficacius stercore lupi inveneris. That you may bring me A good fortune Bear away the illness of [Here the name of the patient " And when the hare is carried home you must . it made let Jhe " Take following prescription is that it But sufferer. hold the hare towards the invalid with a third person. or fur. let him go and you will —yea. Fa ("'Hare. making the il e la malora male tu possa portarlo con te. eum quos de ventre leporis proderit. plurimum ! Et tecum aufer dolorem " ! ' {" Take from a live hare the ankle-bone (or heel-bone). or shave. tulis. bear you to I male my home. But the remedy may be wash the thread. si ita custodire debes. take you. et quotiens volueris proderit. sed nee filum leporem vivum dimittas Hoc autem remedium cum ulla contingere. . nor should any And when you woman shall touch the thread have shorn you away. tamen quod erit tum cum ne aut terram tangat aut a muliere contingatur. ! THE SPELL OF THE HARE. And on the neck of the one who sign of the chestnut (or la fica). every time. Ti porto a casa mia. will. casu os ipsum. solus purus et nitidus facies. Che tu mi porti La buona fortuna. lasciarci noi Tutti in liberta.— — —— — . carefully the hare run away alive and say "'Run. is cut. subvenies. si ita dum uni profuerit ad alios transla- Filum quoque. and with But the remedy will be more dung of a a woman. saying "'Vail E E its fur in it : this suffers.' . that bone in the make a thread. Colla buona salute the form of a cross. quod ex lana vel volueris. quod et dicas ei.] away done. ut sublata lana : fuge lepuscule ' pilis. and put Then let the hare run away. incredible—should you by chance find shall not it touch the earth nor be touched by of the hare's wool. id est talum leporis in ita ut incredibile sit. and From alive that hair. 259 ventri laborantis subligaveris dimittis " Fuge. . porti via la I di . remove the hair from his belly. de lana leporis debet mulier lllud remedium. see a wonderful cure. . . run little And carry the Florence efficacious In which case so guard wolf. bind the bone to the body of the it trans- for more : hare colic with you ") ! ' given word for word as it was told me in : or catch a hare without doing it the least " Lepre ' vi harm and say : prendo.") mentioned.

Missouri. is in the form of a cross 1 and the sign of the castagna are old Roman." I have no doubt that the incantation on catching the hare but was unknown to Marcellus. with is. " Fers Also Virgil (Eclogue cineris 8) writes : Amarylli foras. how a young man His guardian angel promised him that to God. bear evidences of copying. as well as Roman. and extracting the should have been who have is is Roman suspect that Marcellus really abridged most of his accounts." some very curious and very In Tuscany if one gathers ashes or other objects for magic. It will be seen that all of the at first hurriedly noted Grimm. All mediaeval magic. not in the nature of things that such a troublesome task as catching and shaving a hare. that they indeed. with thee ill ! leave us free health. p. not heard that the fore-foot of a rabbit (the hare being there unknown). until he The injunction not to look behind one involves ancient lore. of Saint Joseph. and go not out from the house for three-quarters of an hour." Hildebrand (Theurgia. 260 (" ' Go ! and mayst thou bear All the trouble and And With good " Then spit behind you mid thrice. of if and not once look behind him. rivoque fluenti Transque caput jace ne respexeris. points out. and I it. the hind-foot prevents evil This world-old. It down. traveller him be followed by an " evil spirit or fiend. I its from origin to a possess specimens of these amulets. much sagacity. &c." talus. so abruptly as Marcellus describes not a negro in North America. abounds in allusions to the effect that while engaged in incantation the operator must not look behind him. or ankle-bone. in departing And if a the latter will have no power over turns around his head. or fetishes. So in Theocritus (Idyl 91).') look not behind vou. The evidently modern. not drink with the devils. on gathering ashes such retrospection is forbidden. They may have been There is given in the Italian version. such ceremonies. he or she must not look round. widely-spread belief owes faith in the talus. fore-foot brings fortune. 297) tells noble birth was tormented by demons. The a charm for luck. and transcribed a long time in fact. and formed a part of prescription cutting the fur spitting thrice all away as old as the rest. . after The worked " off. which were obtained from Voodoo sorcerers by Miss Mary Owen. he would pray a marvellous tale. overtaking the bearer. suppose very few white men. from the notes. or dismissed. the concluding incantations being is almost identical.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

have made it in one place at "there thrift is web. or -adorned and wealth money coming. 1793). So he caused them passed by a party of dancers to dance on who did not salute and more madly than ever (Naturgeschickte zur Dampfung des Aberglaubens (Hamburg. and prophecy. web. 102). cleverness. off" fall and could hold out 261 is that Satan got the idea from Lot's wifk This probably connected with the unbroken attention or uninterraitted thought which enters largely into all execution of spells. he would riding on their brooms must not look behind them lest a condition of broom and goat-riding {Blocksberg. Thus all ill For this cure there is a humours A in the blood. which. or songs. The Spell of the Spider. has pointed many its foresight as regards the a generally recognised symbol for -domestic steady habits. bad and good. " hatred. type of home. can only be cured it is It is is till a well-known dance. p. may be averted by hard labour." in its If Therefore it its its industry. —on his life. " L'araignee est un signe de bonheur et annonce particulierement de l'argent pour la personne sur laquelle est trouve. or ingenuity displayed by the insect in making habit of always being weather." Violent exercise often works off physical explanation. by a rattlesnake must drink he drops with fatigue. an emblem of enmity and a species of madness. and brings good luck. —which seems —very shrewdly conjectures 414) till Pr^etorius. natural. according its bite to popular superstition. and run or walk the Tarantella superstition assigns to witches. on the other hand the extraordinary instinct. grains. When the witch's attention the time is is is distracted by by intricate patterns. Why witches when it not turning round cock-crow. and it a is no harm wonderful perseverance in re-spinning getting to a predetermined place. a spider creeps over you and you do Again. who gives several pages to the so happened. In Western America a man bitten the whiskey he can swallow. the spider appears in Folk-lore as both From lucky and unlucky. The Tarantula its ugliness causes by and poison typhoid fever by dancing. which popular the awakening dance at their Treguenda." As is very. and its many a moral and own times. There a legend which states that this Tarantella dance originated as follows is A priest bearing the sacrament it.: THE SPELL OF THE SPIDER. a tale from the days of the Bruce to these our . But while there are many legends of evil spirits appearing as spiders. her evil power for suspended. bey Verlust seines Lebens be subject " they p. or Sabbat. Which all right.

Spider-webs are . mi hai tu fatto. number of your certain kinds of spiders in the dumpling "is a name —Note by Mary A. ! fai. 104) : nomen quae sursum versus subit et taxit prendes." Which is to the effect that when you your invalid. thrice it spit on the ground. friends. in (cap. you bag in a it of virgin linen. turn dum erit. io l'avro. questo sacchetino Come un E E vi uniro. and put see a spider weaving upwards. E E E dentro un marengo d'oro cosi oracolo la terro. Vattene dalla Che Mi E tela. ! to your house (so says the negro). and take the spider. 14. dentro al seno. E E con malissima fortuna. ! : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. hai fatto con buona fortuna prendero io la In un sacchetto di lana rosso la mettero. O my pretty spider. sempre piu buona fortuna "A spider found on the bodies of feeble babies. Lascia la in casa mia. 262 Of course it found a place gives the following " Araneam MARCELLUS magical medicine. fatta. o mio bel ragno Benedetto che tu La che tu tela Tuscany. La tela che tu fai. Owen. indicate the a spider you will certainly lose a friend. quomodo aranea haec sursum medendum repit et texit. Falla con buona fortuna. sed nomino. alligas ter in terram spues. p. At the same time. et ejus dices cui Sic cito subeal uva ejus —quem chartam virginem lino ligabis et collo laborantis suspendes die Jovis. but with it there must be pro- : sia . If you cooked in the food are for secret poisoning. 1 All of which same nearly the is nounced the following incantation in " Ragno. but while taking and bagging your spider. et adjicies ipsam araneam in prendes araneam vel phylacte- rium. name and hang round the neck of the patient. che la fortuna resti in casa Quando Thai la tela mia. " lo lasciero ! la terro mai piu (" Spider. supposed to cause death. Blessed be thou ! The web which thou Leave 1 kill The spiders that come it in my house weavest. Vattene o ragno mio Ma non di casa mia.— — .

in it is say that it a common formula at the end of and the sign of the fica. her by the winds. braiding differently coloured threads in a charm —sings Meg —which custom Merrilies while still exists in Italy : " Twist ye. proof. it. falling off. future As researches into the earliest languages of Italy regards the the Virgin summer web of Mary ascended torn to pieces go of them. Mingle threads of joy and woe And that this is ! almost exactly the same with a passage incantation to the spider : in the Tuscan . is may a pretty If verify the assertion. the worst fortune. And may the luck abide When thy web is spun Leap out. the spider. 263 The web which thou makest Make it Or with lucky (with good fortune). Go from thy web. ouse. Thus And woven hast take I will I will And hast it within my will never leave I bosom. O my spider But not from my house. or that which is spun. there to heaven. twine ye even so. in my for me. so. it I ") This incantation speaks of putting the web and not the spider But MARCELLUS woollen. German fancy that when was carried about and spider-webs which are seen in veil.— — " THE SPELL OF THE SPIDER. while it is these all modern almost certain that the Latin were in turn taken from the Etruscan. It is worth noting that in Scott's novel of Waverley. that be translations from the Latin. or some early tongue. bag I will always keep as an oracle. ! Which thou Which thou And put made with good in a it bag of red woollen I shall this ! ever have good luck. I will keep And luck. but there is always a possibility. there with a golden spangle. also of the jettatura. or Oscan. incantations. or Mary's yarn. I ad libitum with There is incantations no may may all bag of red in a As for the many Tuscan other cases orders the red woollen bag. Therefore the silvery floating in the air are called Mariengarn. spitting thrice on the ground.

I may remark we find any such superstitious custom followed without an incantawe may be sure that it is imperfect. and. in a little box. so the web hardens to a semi-transparent a spider spins her Here ball. at once converts go well with —naming the object— is little bit it —you porta nuoce. Nostradamus. glue it Non ' Ma salt. without hurting bottom of which are many small pieces of paper. numbered from one to ninety. after several years. 264 " La tela Fa che tu fai con buona fortuna la " con malissima fortuna E ! The spider is. enabling one to secure a wish out of every chance occurrence. you can get if put with the spider. and the ancient Sybils or Haruspices. it is it : ! an incantation of universal application. up. the it. and in the works of the famous cabalists Rutilic- Industrioso. or form. not to stop at a certain point. magic.— — — " — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. In Tuscany this spider spell exists in its ancient that wherever tion. Casamia. if kept becomes almost for several years. find I find : methods of divining the II Palmaverde. Benicosa. secret of getting experiments made. and I here give Do " you want a charm you believe in it literally in nuce it to bring good fortune or much money ? the better your luck will be a walnut-shell. according to several learned authorities. and say and a This does is is una nuoce a —the put more into it tre canti —and of a red (woollen) garment. as the yolk of a very hard-boiled egg. The book spider is also used in divination. comigno a bit of iron magnet." made sure. —cummin—frankincense. let Take a : close the shell. veil. —in a nut-shell it. the most singular "Take one of these insects—let is it that numbers by the lottery. it turns to a gem. But That to do not bear the nut. leave me ! ' ") an extremely curious and ancient formula of declaring that whatever one Thus insures that to find all will By means of it almost any action and pick up anything. The explanation of this is that. and Then : " I it if turned into into a fetish. and ! ' it I carry the never may good luck. many we often extraordinary by means of the spider. often carried in Germany in a walnut-shell as an amulet. mass of substance from which like a stone. make porto la fortuna. "// Ragno the following in a popular chap- In the Book of Dreams. 1'Indovino. —and put be very large it. without its charm. I ' way : Che non mi abbandone mai (" the is be a walnut-shell of three pieces this " This Si mette in una nuoce great spider. Among and give the spider time to weave a web. Cover it on the with a transparent . or "I do not pick up " which may never abandon me " It we say when taking pick up good luck. and then. for in early times nothing was " locked.

and the liaison accomplished. or " or " No. said. in all objects certain phases we have as yet how we know not. dessert. All [pushes ever onward- and human beings gods. is revolting. crafty. " Naturally the insect in going here and there this three times. and that there is why sounds something strangely of innumerable phenomena. in tribute to i. Therefore the spider Sometimes the Arachne her irresistible sorcery of charms. and then let will turn up certain numbers. animals become human beings. and.e. in associations.— — THE SPELL OF THE GREEN LIZARD. become plants. ' ' Among his prescriptions for disorders of the eyes."— Heine's Pictures of Travel. 'Nothing in this world ever goes backwards. it necessary to the success of this sortilege that is in several of the such spells must be dismissed in safety The spider. or agree with the forms from which they came. or pick out lucky days. and always horribly significance in the fact.. There are spirits in all things The Spell of the Green " An stones —but Lizard. old lizard said to me. a —morally—ugly. certain signs. indeed. no proportion as regards creature. or a kind of thought. or our and discordant things show poisonous. he There The male see are females. of which no real conception. as for lucky up turn may be it numbers you an for charms of Marcellus. She cannibal of her kind. can also be used for other divination as well Thus. for suitors before yielding a class of repulsive.' " ' And what becomes of the old gods ? " 'Twill all be arranged. impulse to couple with her.' quoth the lizard. of sensation. 265 These must be noted. a higher law than mere chance. you write if affirmative or negative for " Yes any question. There is a very deep speak of in anothei chapter. in the lottery. in this their nature by human in the expression of not only flowers." may be It we in let observed that So the spider go. But there is an appalling and revolting side to the character of the spider. emotion. Many have won the spider go. he were a midget. Do lucky numbers in the lottery by means of this experiment. plants become animals. whom we All the spinners very often devours him as irresistible number of one sept is little insignificant who. but From which it may justly be inferred that there are is some making poisonous. own mangle the spider. if eaten whole is may hear it hommes " women in Paris is But he is impelled by an . remorseless. which web so that every really a is Tour de Of whom is " Elle the type is Nesle. the animal used Ecce dimitto vivam ! te observed. feeling. that there I is eats a — not unknown elsewhere—of any one of whom ruined seven spendthrifts. a size or strength to his mate." she will names of select the friends or enemies. when she consents. 35 MARCELLUS gives one to the .

blind with a copper needle. What and the froth that runs from renders its eyes is . secondly. then let epar non doleat from pain in the All things considered. the Cingalese kill a lizard over a slow —Note by Mary A. iron. si dice : Lucertola. which some animal caught and made to bear a disorder. however imperfect. and you will find the lizard sanis luminibus him go away. non rivoltare. —then etiam cupreis plaster up—deinde it Then you again. and hang vide ut ego whenever I it on the part quemcunque hinc touch this. Owen. I send thee away alive . It is certain that ' a cure Mr. may be afflicted tetigero free ." : the lizard runs. " enough to form almost an identity with the Italian charm. but keep the rings it aut amber. are other incantations in ' " is in old Roman-Etruscan." woman an old adding that This she supplied " Quando it in Florence was asked " words ' vaso e si When manda via.') quite ei tolle—vnA put him in a red woollen or naturally the lizard go . Marcellus gives another medical charm for liver complaint is But. ti mal d'occhi non mi debba il ritornare. run away ! Carry the poison (disease) away. te vivam. and touch but especially you must look sometimes through the hole or . there Marcellus. this is ! (' ' liver. or even copper fifth or his eyes well and wear them. 266 effect that we should take a green lizard. and put it into a glass vase. circle of the ring. with rings of gold or silver. me by rings Marcellus here means also beads.— — — — ! — — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. because the incantation was wanting. till the trouble of my eyes never return I very good reason to believe that this spell Firstly. and then dismissed with an injunction. fire. : E il veleno Ma indietro " knew she was. : " Take a green lizard— et de acuta parte camuz jecur black bag. Neville told for sore eyes. And May There is thou comest again. let the eyes with them Open vas gypsabis. in these la lucertola si leva del In English if portate lo via. but say to him : ' Ecce dimitto Behold. say " ' : Lizard. it on the —with seventh day. 1 When " Yes. va via Che ' she said this spell. see that I.

quo another charm with a green lizard cubiculum ejus suspenditur." Lizards are sometimes found with two Pasha with many Tuscan Folk-lore I lizard with It is sure that if win. Tales.e. and always carry will he plays he can never lose .—— — —— THE SPELL OF THE GREEN LIZARD. ac turn filum licio quam prxcantabis : " ' Trebio. come from the tears of the Heliades. it. who so regretted their Moore refers to this in his poem. suffering myth makes carried very remarkable is by people weak for least one hundred and fifty years old. two tails. one by one. as before. MARCELLUS semper manu is. ter dicens filum munditer recondes. daughter. and the modern Tuscan charm identical with " Lacerta is that the on the whole. over the world. and eyes. have a string of fifty-two amber beads. it altro will be very fortunate -porta —quite the contrary. tails. at The Now some may be of amber. it came from the eyes of the Eye of the Universe. I it is all essential that they should There were twice as many. 166) gives viridis viva in ostio splenitei ante sinistra et capite contingat. amber beads are that he says that to this day. prsecinges eum totum super umbilicum et ter dicas carmen supra scriptum." In this the eyes of the lizard are blinded. Grceci aavpov vocant. facto mire ad sanitatem ita ut proficiet. he una always will things. and be lucky in all Marcellus :— as find the following in is mentioned my Maryatt's in manuscript collection of : " If one can have a immensa fortuna. as follows (cap. What colic." gives another prescription relating to the lizard. The thread the three words spell is is mean is dismissed and the thread is enchanted with three magic then bound about the patient suffering from I do not know.' " Hoc. But the manifest conclusion of old Etruscan origin. save in Tuscany it be looked through. to strengthen the sight. mai it." procedens : et rediens earn . . with a copper needle and thread. Araby's it brother Phaeton. telapho. 29) " Lacertum viridem. p. this certain is. is was supposed to It A i. to people The old Etruscan spell of the lizard but the belief in the amber bead survives.. but the in Pennsylvania. 23. capies per ejus oculos acum cupream longo volueris dicens trajicies. has been forgotten. quem. cumque dolor colici alicujus urgebit. perforatisque oculis eum ibidem cum loci ubi ceperas dimittes. 267 very ancient. potnia. (cap. " Farewell to thee. were given away. connection of amber with the eyes be wept by the sun later rest from their eyes. then the lizard words.

in to a festival. the Sicilian light. is in must be a the lizard in ancient symbolism. Leland. endowed with an elf which a waking dream as garden at Via Reggio : rode by the night o'er the brown heath bare. with notes.." The same condition The thing done at present is here wanting. was I tails. is why reason For is Madonna Malerei. lizard (Kugler. Hence the connection with use as a cure for the eyes. It told that the chief And its sight." amber. and wild a green gold-spotted ray of light over grey rocks. its Geschichte der i." the celebrated two connected with the sight and light went into the sunlight and recovered it It Tuscany. blind It This fire. " Therefore man. 248). blinded by is delta lucertola p. who whence xii. as I lively. In the bright moonlight stood a castle fair. also . but a very different and spiritual kind of creature. odd. and lizard to be found common book on as an old should turn to Christ sin. but lizard with was believed that when the it animals deduces.. uncanny. by Heinrich Heine. For which reason Raphael painted a the true Sun. who tells us that on the occasion his father gave him very solemnly a good whipping make him remember I Of it. is became old and was also a type of divination as well as of was begotten by Apollo " the tears of the sun. as my have remarked in to translation of Heine's Germany? the same flagellation to prevent him from lying would not have been misapplied. such as Heine. translated. (jElian. salamander. Heinemann. 1872. was anciently a symbol of heat and light that the a yellowish brown lizard. so that he sufferer may alive in the touch it door before the bed of the while going out or " in. was supposed to live in is a De Cicero.. Which being done. Galeotes (lizard). once burned. follows. 20). light. which was not. of the same form. . the lizard must be hung up from the spleen. and such as was seen once by Benevenuto Cellini. 268 That is. 1 Vide Germany. 1837. however. Grass in the wind a-waving. London : W. Lords and ladies. vol. strange intelligence. the god of it soothsayer. Handbuch der was a symbol of Apollo. i. great Were crowding and small.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. it is not remarkable that sometimes takes human form. wonderfully conduces to health. As the lizard flitting like is such a bright. on Themisto divinat. by Charles G. who lizard with the Virgin in Prophecy or (Oe{ii<rreia). 46 was because the salamander. as watched them to-day " As I many have Which came unto me in the seen in in little if it creature. when a boy. which. which dwelt habitually in the flame.

hill. I woke in the early morning In an old grey ruin on a still. my in I went. THE SPELL OF THE GREEN LIZARD. Over the rock and in the sun. fair. Grass in the wind a-waving.. I such cheer. I drank good wine to I laughed and danced with ladies Ne'er in my had life heart's content. fell While the lady dancing by my side a lizard away to glide Grass in the wind a-waving. I saw a golden And lizard grass in the run ! wind a-waving " ! 269 . When all at Haro by yaro once ! I heard a cry: Asleep Seemed like I. They bade me and enter.

" In Rocca t relation to Casciano. many countries things. Seneca to heaven. it. as well as a they knew where treasure was concealed. by night. Thus Aristophanes —"When that precious metals The Birds says. till and carry he come under a many it tree." Etrusco- old Greek conviction. making a 'great noise. that Latin. are where indicate the richest mines. I following. divinities. The Birds.' . and. forth into the fields from have. Birds and Treasures. will by inspired they expresses the was especially an is.— — CHAPTER II. No one knows better than a bird of the Where air treasures are concealed. —and voce diranno dove e nascosto tell Then the birds in fear will where a treasure is buried. "Then he must . this the appears to be very old " When one would find a treasure. birds fly over him. in man a asks birds they always hidden. fepfeffi speak with a human voice colla una wait till which : he must take the door of the house in which he dwells." Aristophanes. was an ancient knew the birds that Ovid all announce the says. and when they come he must throw down the door. or as " Birds of the gods. as belief in because they are near them fly And are it that .

faking he could not find them. This finding a treasure by means of birds agrees wonderfully with the very Atta Navius. he went to the chapel of the Lares. and prayed the guardian spirits that he might find his pigs. popular vthology. by throwing it down and thereby away a band of thieves. and folk-lore of Southern Italy. praising e them if he did so. of these traditions and sorceries are neither Lombardic nor Celtic. kept swine. and by means of iking a terrible noise —that is to say. traces. lere id is no parallel case in belonging to the same race. after all. as given in the collections of PlTRE. bunch of grapes ? to find the largest Then his father. or There vian r is —but with but. allied to Sabine. like them and may owe something to the Lombard. who have Sicilians. :lt. and do not seem to have borrowed from other sources. in the xt vineyard. speaking almost the same language it were. So the birds are concerned this treasure-hunting far as le mysterious connection of the Thus untries. 271 GRIMM'S in s house.BIRDS AND TREASURES. — not exactly German or Scandisome strange primeval race. to offer found the pigs. ther's anger. but them the how was he itched for a flock of birds. so little La Romagna. to have been original. to find I living were of the authorities traditions. slept. knowing He this. in the folk-lore of is mething which t Europe of people. a tradition. The reader will find by careful study and comparison of the whole which have given in this book. indeed. formed one of the most important elements of the Etruscan soothsaying cond of the The bird —the augurium ex avium volatu vel garritu being the five principal classes. where it is told with very arse incidents of a stupid youth. and on bitterly. treasure. Stupid Catherine carries away the door from Stories. and possibly to the and Northern harsh. cient Latin legend of the seer Once. in the place. and put him to school to the masters of divination and other irning. i Tuscan bunch of grapes. If we substitute for the largest re the spirit or essence of the ght. hat they seem to be by every analogy is Etruscan. who specially indicates treasures by night in old Latin lore is the . as not the same. my iw extremely ignorant all have been very much astonished. and largest bunch of grapes they led him to it. that these Romagnola traditions have a very archaic imp. is door with finding treasures appears in other story common is in Italy. being afraid of his plucking up heart. d Neapolitans. it Etruscan and Greek. we have Divination not only by the but by the voices of birds. simple. At some first who. when a child of his herd he wept in his Sabine wandered away. in perhaps ses. who leave behind them —frightens The same eir treasure. ok him to town. tradition in common as Tuscans It as in the language of the people. but. while he >me. but.

i. 20) mention that if the hole or door of the woodpecker's nest in a tree be closed." says in forests. in very early times. Nat. or a god.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. the bird will bring an herb. cum stellam cadere vel transcurre enim annis. the And If this herb only as a mere conjecture. of An. Picus was the origin of the red-cap goblin Europe. Symbolik der Natur. 272 " Picus Martins. fire hence the In the Medicine of MAR- applied to working a celestial cure : " Ut omnino non lippias. if be secured it will open In any case the mere worth noting. where he (Hist. which at once removes the impediment. or else has common and treasures were hidden. named sometimes revealed them. All over the world people say in joke or earnest that or " a falling star.. or falling stars. any door. I prefer the former theory. either that all the over Mikum- Teutonic or from an early Latin But as the Latins and Etruscans had attained great culture while the Northern races were in a very barbarous state. 45) and Pliny (Hist. that wish will be granted.. therefore. Friedrich Homer that one signified to the other that there (" Meteore"). elves with red caps. " as a wood-bird hews and knows ^Elian : He always appears.. as follows is disappears. lives Preller {Myth. 100. which men of yore could not explain. headlong afar." se condat." dart across the sky. and even who is found all the Eastern Algonkin Indians of America (as wess). CELLUS the body sight of such a heavenly for lippitude. in the Among and can the old if. and according to should be war or peace. far from being autochthonic. probable that from this origin with is it.. or intimations of the desires of the gods. The Spell of the Falling " Such meteors.. hidden secrets and treasures. were held to be divine omens. quot numerabis. I also conjecture that research will yet show Northern polytheism or fairy mythology either derived source. et celeriter numera. offer this I Picus. tot see a meteor. or blear eyes. numera. x. it videris. p." Star. alone and digs and His Umbrian name was peiqu. donee ." Romagnola at present in this all and digger His connection with the door appears to be it is piga. non lippies. It is who had the red-headed woodpecker was regarded as who knew where same among myth were derived the attributes. But coincidence is As a goblin. It is indeed beginning to be admitted that the Scandinavian mythology. or great woodpecker. 298). when we utter a wish before Norsemen such a line of heaven was believed to be caused by a dragon flashing along frequent mention of the appearance of such beings. exhibits throughout traces of Latin influence. p.

falls. when you see a star disappears. do naught save curse. while an Arab sees in it a daring djinn who has attempted paradise and been repulsed by the angels. and count you be clear-sighted. curse.) The conception that as a star falls from the sky. one should say many numbers see a star quando fall will si vede the sky. Che non possa Non Non (" alia porta di casa not the star which It is my lover may he : falls fall he come by day or night 'Till Or at midnight. is brilliant. A battere alle porte di casa al punto di mezza notte.") una stella chi cadde — : " Non Ma casca la stella casca 1'amante mio Che venga o di giorno. O di notte. vindictive. count. It is suggestive of Lucifer. and so when you In Tuscany. Finche Or fall or fly across you count. To beat at my Nor may he door." I have no doubt that to a true believer and must be an immense relief. plunging headlong to hell from the height of heaven. (" 'Tis not the star which But my That by 1 night. and replete with " a "good hater" it pure cussedness. ere it may never be dim. the Star of the Morning. original. fall (Here the enemy . 36 to scale the walls of . nor stand. . (" That your sight quickly. or day. . so many years as 273 at my door ! ") : " Non Ma casca la stella. . possa stare.") is named. live he knocks Till an enemy mia viene appichiare But else this for mia vivere.— — — " THE SPELL OF THE FALLING STAR. casca la maledizione Che di giorno e di notte Non faccio altro che maledire La maledizione che casca nome In di . so may your enemy go downward headlong with your curse pursuing him. That the curse may On .

274 The Spell of the Acorns. to which reference to this." then there was no and count back little acorn girl." preceded by another charm. si et digito medicinali. that the patient sunset. dies minuetur. Tres glandulse sorores. Quattuor fiunt glandulse. forward and backward song and ceremony to cure soreness of the as follows tonsils. given by 16. dices carminabis. Quattuor glandulse sorores. Una fit glandula. Duse fiunt glandulas. think he here means counting them. but Jupiter forbade this. 111) a curious 15.." Preller. ad vesperam. say and so glandula. " Men of yore devoured one another.' says Diodorus Siculus. Sex glandulse sorores. c. Novem Octo fiunt glandulas. Septem Sex fiunt glandulse.' the There is Marcellus (Grimm. Quinque glandulse sorores." sisters. Quinque fiunt glandulas. Duas glandulse sorores. on." till I you come am to sure that . Eight little acorn Seven little acorn sisters. fiunt glandulse. si nox. Tres fiunt glandulse. p. Septem glandulas sorores. Una glandula soror. Nulla This came is and holding them The whole by one) with : acorn little sisters (or girls). fiunt glandulse.— — — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. fit fit glandula " " — " Nine And One little little acorn acorn girl. diminishing to 1 Then begin with Nulla made. p. ac pollice : " Novem glandulse sorores. either just before sunrise or is the middle finger and thumb. giving them Hence these are called the daughters of the Oak. ' ' instead acorns. M. Octo glandulse sorores." sisters. since they so resemble female heads with hair bound in ancient fashion. one (I " Nine 1 is to take nine acorns. It is : " Glandulas mane continens eas.

ucuma. Sei. nople. applied to good luck. Died. Constantinople. io incomincio uno. Adesso Da io tornero. Which is like another English nursery song " Constantinople.— — —— ! THE SPELL OF THE ACORNS. ople. nove e dieci sei. Per La mandare. l'indietro io voglio verita in mia mano la deve dare. word I There game which could not learn that was not limited even it himself gives (19. La E La Or in English vittoria io la devo mai nel contare fare. acorns. Ibid) to stop the flow of Grimm. which nine grains of barley are counted also a for a runs Indian boys to one. ople. io sbagliero vittoria io vincero." : " You know what I will The work it I want back to do. song is still used Tuscany. tinople. sette otto. Curaa. and then backwards. 20. ma. This incantation And following the fingers. due. form in its original is in this was Ten from ten little acorn little girls. child's " counting-out " America and England a 275 blood (21. tinople. my hand I will count these acorns in There shall no error be. tre quattro. Cinque. stantinople. game spell or child's and runs as follows : as used in Taking ten " Tu Tuscany is. nople. sette. quattro. for you. time of Marcellus charms in He to these. truth shall be at my command. . . p. 13) in nearly the it is in the two other same manner : "Si cycuma. : stantinople. the actor sings : lo sai la voglio fare. though in But specially applied to the cure of the tonsils. se La vittoria io la vincero. cucuma. pull Pull. however. tre Due—uno ! Senza mai sbagliare. nove otto. a. cinque.'' In which The we have the counting or addition and subtraction in a different form. Queste diande per l'indietro io contero uno Fino al E mai non sbagliero.

or nucleus only conjecture. that there would this transferred to us in the was an Etruscan chief from an undertaking result And disorders. Five. or wishes to know to infer the result in like manner. the victory is due at first disposed to regard this as a wards. Ten. it should be the chief one. or counting-out rhyme. eight. There is yet another species of divination relating to this nut. not having read But Romagnola carefully. plant them. and. or you will win his love. Six. ten. he or she will prosper. Two — one. there must have also been some Hauptpunkt. nine. to divine luck in general. as in spell "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. three. eight. you see From one. The I saw it was same with the incantation of idea which runs through the spells of Marcellus cure depends on the counter not version. and I hazard the conjecture that is we have to say.: ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and up or grow well. three. it on discovering that the word diande. which I did not know. was applied is making a mistake. Marcellus. four. there was among the Greeks a game with acorns called Tropa. he very evident that. four. five." to repeat a difficult formula rapidly with- out an error. I if that the success of the in different modern Tuscan in the one undertakes anything. two. that is essentially the then learned that acorns were actually used in the count. But for I conjecture that good luck and it was the same as that of the also a child's counting-out game Italian which is at once a —the object being. —which as divination as to very beginning and formed the bulk of would be very remarkable of the This rest. " ! mere counting forwards and back- used. 276 Thus I'll gain a victory. he if will succeed. but I entertain no doubt that case as old as the time of Marcellus. nine. And so I now begin. or head-central invocation by counting. Take if they as many all come . as the same principle It is ways. According to Johannes Meursius (Be Ludis Grcecorum). acorns as there are letters in any person's name. six. as is it true. whether good fortune was modified to apply to certain the success of undertakings was the Etrusco-Roman augury and all if this Italian spell rites. and therefore in all it is probability in any Roman- Etruscan. &c. is modern spell to divine spell That Italian spell. So without the Now I have counted well and To me was I mistake least the victory I take. or acorns. was the for ghiande. The description of it is not given. seven. seven.

saved by judiciously managing a counting-out song. and Co. to the that that year they may not be dimmed. doloremque omnem oculorum tuorum et inde hirundines auferant. entitled. Hebrceorum inprimis ex S. in treating of disorders of the eyes. by G. without speaking." In Tuscany at the present day the sufferer does the same for sore eyes. chapter is Only counting out by numbers And evident from the context. as follows " all such trouble may be effectually averted : Cum primum aqua oculos fovebis hirundinem audieris vel videris tacitus et rogabis deum. 1692. Scriptura Talmude. eo anno non lippias. counting-out rhymes. Nutt. et illico ad fontem decurres vel ad puteum. or swallow. of. very in a does not seem to have been observed that the Sortes It Virgilianae were in the nature men doomed erudition on found possess a copy. MARCELLUS by of Bordeaux. F. tu sei un' incantrice. may be Basle.). of which I by numbers and amount of ancient vast similar matters. but the counting is it is evident that such counting out to save lives would be regarded as cabalistic or magical. and in the English-Folk-Rhymes. &c. : in There is a curious and connection with the one De described. is Mauritius the lives of certain and those of certain Talmidim to be cast into the sea were lost. Tractatus Philologiciis de Sortitione Veterum. and first well or fountain and there so the swallows will carry away all wash trouble from them. 277 much on will find the also in another recently published by D. quotes from the work of Rabbi Ben Ezra a curious tale of Sorlibus poeticis." Or " in When English : you hear or see the your eyes and pray God first swallow. Triibner. O " rondinella bella. The reader who work subject in the rhymes interested in counting-out is of Carrington Bolton . informs us that the aid of the hirundo. by TIUS. . Northall (London Kegan A Paul. go. Trench. and then repeats the following : " La prima rondinella di primaver' e arrivata La buona Ad E fortuna mi ha portata una fonte sono andata gli occhi mi sono lavata.— — — — THE SPELL OF THE SWALLOW." Canzoni Popolari cCAgrumi. the subject of divining rare work. London. how rude old German version of poetical lines The this. The Spell of the Swallow. by MARTIN MAURI- or allied to.

the swallows ever be ! this incantation contains all that is in the more. your tongue Quomodo hoc So may in —hold and say " Hirundo As it For when you see thereby prevent toothache. swallow does not make be of weather or water." swallow. And by " perfect keeping is in —go to pure shining water. pain and Yet no physician brought Yet the flies.— " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. annually you Tuscany that it : essentially identical with the It is believed in it is first dico tibi this will this the your middle (" I say to thee. n. invoked and thanked. and. my water washed its is with the very ancient hymns. I ween. mentioned.'' All of spell. what is may cure to me. 278 Che da tempo ero amallata. prescription for the eyes. which itself is is beware of troubles. and my in rostro iterum non doleant —as before O non erit toto anno. teeth pain if me no more may » year. tanto E nessun medico mi e riuscito. ! spring swallow I have seen. Greek and Latin. relief. supplies the spoken spell which Et rogabis Deum — " And pray God — " In the Italian the swallow grief. it ran to where the fountain I And in Which were so long my It may be observed that prescription. Roman wanting certainly an early Christian interpolation. as follows (p. first lucky thing was. swallow which I see first Has caused a happy Blest eyes. and dip Sic mini dentes " it. .") always have sound modern Tuscan swallows for make — MARCELLUS Grimm) :— it brings gives many another teeth. for may never be in thy beak. Ma la prima rondinella che e arrivata me Questa grazia l'ha fatta Benedette siano sempre Le (" beate rondinelle The A le belle. whether and " ad aquam nitidam accedes finger of the right hand in it " which is renewing fortune. nests in a house it brings good —but Ma guai a distruggerle perche portarebbe molte disgrazie disturbing them. in which Marcellus also teaches us again that though a summer" it rules the spring.

angulos oculorum tetigeris. will as follows woman who : has given birth to a child of seven months." Which is. There is on the whole (67. non puellas ediderit. But it is clearly In another prescription. " ' child. And this I recover Grimm) Marcellus ') must be repeated three mornings indeed some confusion in identical with ! this. take her saliva and milk mixed and anoint the eyes with them. not And girls. Del mio bambino. as I have given the spell of Marcellus. geminos peperit. Ma bagno lo Coll' innocenza E la purita. omnem acritudinem lippitudinis Ienies. anoint your eyes with it In Italian the cure " If a woman and they is she must have abstained from sexual Then if her saliva be bright and clear be cured. that if your eyes pain you. et imprimis si pura et nitida erit.' (" ' I bathe From my this Not with But eyes woman my saliva. you must take the saliva of a has given birth only to boys. et abstinuerit se pridie viro et cibis acrioribus. quae pueros. renes . saying : " ' Bagno A occhi gli questa donna. In tre giorni. union and stimulating food for three days. bathe them I With innocence. Non ne bagno lo Col mio sputo. And the purity Of my " Then make a sign of the cross on the eyes." " Mulier quae it. 279 " Si muleris saliva. humoremque siccabis.— — — ' ! THE SPELL OF THE SWALLOW. declares that fasting. Possa guarire (' " Blest be thou By the Of my ! ! innocence child.') and say : Bendetta che tu sia Per l'innocenza Del mio bambino. In three days May " Then spit thrice behind you.

——

——

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

280

dolentes super calcet, continuo sanabit,"

on the

when they pain

reins

"

them.

will cure

it

woman who

a

if

seems to be a detached fragment to cure the gout
" Venenum veneno

"

has borne twins will step

Also very obscurely

—Dices

quem

illius

in

what

peperit

ilia.

vincitur

Salva jejuna vinci non potest.

"

You must

say of that which she has brought forth

"

'

Poison

:

conquered by poison,

is

Fasting spittle cannot be conquered.'

" Say

this thrice

and

spit every

time on your soles (footprints) or of him

who

to

is

be cured."

Taking them altogether we may say the Roman and modern
spond very generally

There
"Take
cross,

is

elder (zanbuco,

and say

if

not exactly in every

also another
i.e.,

Tuscan

it,

and with

("

'

:

bathe the eyes, making thrice the sign of the

it

Be
this

'
!

Santa Lucia, to you

May

the pain in

away

driven

I

must be done by a man or woman who

I pray,

my

eyes

')

is

a seven-months' child."

All of these cures for the eyes refer in some

allied to these.
child,

To

cure a pain in the ear go to a

and while the child sucks

milk into the ear of the

sufferer,

and say

thrice,

La

il

is

to a

woman who

has given

yet another Tuscan

woman who

is

remedy

nursing a seven-

one should put three drops of her

:

" Le butto questo
Perche

way

There

birth to only boys or to a seven-months' child.

latte

male del orecchia

possa passare

"
!

return to the swallow in Tuscany, the feathers of this bird are an amulet

as follows

rosso

as follows

mal degli occhi

Gli vada via

To

is

Santa Lucia, Santa Lucia,

'

II

months'

which

:

"

"But

detail.

spell for sore eyes,

sambuco) and boil

spells corre-

:

una grazia

Quando

si vuole

—when

one desires some favouring fortune they are bound up with a red

ribbon and carried.

And

o

for this

una fortuna, sono

portati, legati con

purpose they are also put into beds.

un nastro
There

is

MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS.
a

Roman

ballad (Agrumi,

281

pop. songs) in which the swallow

Ital.

is

addressed as

an enchantress.

O

'*

rondinella bella

Tu

The swallow
because

it

is,

is

like

and of sunshine

"
!

believed to be good for troubles of the eyes (as was the lizard),

an emblem of

it,

it

sei un' incantrice

As

light, or sight.

was naturally associated with

nature ran the golden chain connecting

all

was the herald of spring

it

So through

clear vision.

all

things in poetic vein.

Minor Cures from Marcellus.
(

Marcellus
headache
"

Cum

With

modern parallels.)

their

informs us (cap.

p.

1,

35,

Grimm,

10) as follows, regarding

p.

:

intrabis

tecum ipse ad

urbem quam

capitis

dolorem

te

ante portam capillos qui in via jacebunt quot volueris collige, dicens

libet,

remedium

ex his

tollere, et

unum

capiti alligato, ceteros post

tergum

:

jacta,

nee retro respice."
("

When

you enter any

before the gate as

city, collect

many

hairs as

you

will of

any which may

lie in

the

road, saying to yourself that you do this to remove your headache, and bind one of the hairs to your head.

Throw

the others

On

away behind you and do

not look back.")

inquiry I was assured that this was

not find any special variation from
hair.

not

And

known

sacrifices

I

to

(MARK

Very much

ix. 49).

Salt
It

was an

Tuscany, but

in the ancient

'

which
fire,

is still

the one

anima buona

Se

sei

Va

in pace

Se

sei

una

!

Strega,

Scoppia, che tuoi colpi
Si sentono da lontano,

E

che

il

diavolo

Si possa sentire
Si possa scatenare

Per venir'
'

If

te appigliare

ti

'
!

thou art a good soul

Go

in peace

!

If thou art a witch

May

I

you burst so that the sound

37

did

charm, but was

was considered as binding and perfecting them.

" Whenever hairs are found they should be thrown into the

("

in

should be thrown with the

essential part of all ancient offerings

allied to this is the following,

"

salt

was included

incline to think that this

MARCELLUS.

known to-day

except that

it

in use

who does

:

this

saying

:

and

"

——

"

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

282

May be heard afar
May the devil note
And burst loose,
So

Of

human

the use of

as to

!

it

come and catch

you.' ")

do harm

hair in spells to

I shall

speak in another

chapter.

Marcellus

gives us (cap.

8,

67) a cure for the eyes which

nasty though none the less curious for that
" Mel Atticum

et stercus infantis,

permiscebis, et sic inunges

caminis

est, ut earn

Take

("
first

quod primum

eum

sed prius

mirifice

non

cannot endure

it,

dimittit, statim

ex lacte mulieris, quae puerum

allactat,.

tam prasens

possit, cujus beneficium

est, ut tertio die,

visum reddat incolumem."

Attic honey and the

feces of a babe, mix

first

the patient to the stairs (or a ladder) which

tie

peculiarly-

qui curandus est, erectum ad scalam alligabis, quia tanta vis medi-

nisi alligatus patienter ferre

omni macula,

abstersa

;

is

:

is

it

with the mother's milk and anoint (the eyes), but

bound he

of such medical power, that unless he be so

the benefit of which will be that on the third day,

being wiped away, the sight

all stain

will-

be perfect.")

The binding
"

—but

to the ladder or stair

is

found in the following Tuscan spell

bewitched, bind him, or his clothes (the latter are preferred) on a scala

If

any one

is

it,

or they,

must be of wood

"

;

then take a knife, and, while sharpening

Non

'

Ma
'

I

say

(stairs

or ladder>

:

lego questa robba

lego la strega

Che non abbia piu bene
("

it,

:

do not bind these

'

!

things,

But I bind the witch

That she may no more have good luck

We have here
charm
In

all

part,

is

often found in another, in

or the sine qua non

erit

Marcellus,

as well as in the

ipsam picem capite suo

ejus

by

modern charms.

far the

most important

remedium.

(No. 30, cap.

" Picem mollem cerebro
limiti

")

only the binding to the ladder, but a part of one prescription or

these cures the ceremony and the incantation form

Marcellus

'

!

14, p. 103) gives

impone, qui uvam dolebit

the following for the throat
et

:

pracipue ut super limen stans superiori.

adfigat.

(" Put a piece of soft pitch on the head of him

who

suffers

from a sore throat, and especially see that he

does this when standing on the outer edge of the threshold.")

In Tuscany

much

taking of magical medicine

This

also plays a part in other sorcery.

the place inhabited and the outer

life

is

where

because

is
it

done on the threshold
is

spirits freely

roam,

it

no hauntings of houses.

it

being an under-

stood law of demonology that they cannot enter a room until called on.
are evidently, however, numerous

;

the line or limit between

exceptions to the rule, else

There

we should have

MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS.
In chapter
" Serpentis

19,

page

130,

In the

tells

us

that—

senectus, id est exuviae licio alligafee et vulso circumdatae mire prosunt."

serpent's skin bound to the girdle

lie

Marcellus

283

Romagna Toscana

must say

That

that

is,

"a

of great assistance."

is

believed that

is

it

if

any one

finds a serpent's skin

:

"

Ho

trovato la pelle

Di questo serpente,
Che possa portare
La fortuna a me ;

Non
La

portero

pelle di serpente,

Ma

portero la buona fortuna,

Che

sia

sempre in casa mia."

(" I have found the skin

Of

this serpent

May
Good

;

bring

it

luck to

me

1

I will not carry

The

skin of the snake,

But

I will

That

it

bear the good luck

may

ever be in

my home

")

I

Out of the immense amount of learning which has been
subject of serpent symbolism one thing

among

And

undeniable

in this sense that

it

appears, both in the

incantation, as a cure or amulet.

For a

physician.

form, cannot

fail

in fact the

As

careful

I

examination of

to convince

most important part of

Marcellus
"

it

Si arista vel quselibet sordicula

carmen

si

ter novies dicatur

leviter

oculum

Roman

to the

sine

qua non,

all.

is

still

existing in the

Romagna,

I

may

painted on the wall for good luck or to

must always be with the head down and

gives the following

medicinali ac pollice

unknown

these prescriptions or charms, in any

all

a curious instance of serpent-lore

avert the malocckio, but

in this

conjecture that there was of yore an

any one that the words were always a

mention that the picture of a snake

digitis

collected on the
this creature was,

work of MARCELLUS and

incantation pronounced on finding the skin which was

and

—that

the Etruscans, Greeks, and Romans, a type of health, longevity, and fortune.

it is

Tuscan

is

tail

up.

:

fuerit ingressa

obcluso alio oculo ipsoque qui dolet patefacto et

pertracto, ter singula despuens dices

:

etiam de faucibus hominis vel jumenti os aut

Os Gorgonis basic
si

quid aliud

Hoc

hseserit,

item

potenter

eximit.

That

is,

that

if

a grain or mote be in one eye, close the other one, draw the

middle finger over that which pains, and say,

" I kiss the Gorgon's face"

Which

is

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

284

repeated thrice, and the charm
throat of a

man

"

If

so powerful that

is

will

draw a bone from

the-

:

anything be in the eye or in the throat of

"

'

O

("

'

man

or beast spit thrice and say

O

baccio

ti

il

volto

'

!

great Serpent

I kiss thy face

To which my

:

grande Serpente

Io

"

informant added,

")

'

!

But you must

look on the

ground when you-

this."

On

referring to

irritated spot

Marcellus

afterwards

found that to remove a small

I

from the eye (varulus) you perform a ceremony which ends by touch-

Of course touching

ing the ground thrice and spitting.
at

it

or of a mare.

In Italian they say

say

the ground implies looking

it.

Marcellus

gives as a cure for sore eyes

:

" Qui crebo lippitudinis vitio laborabit, millefolium herbam radicis vellat, et ex ea circulum
per ilium aspiciat, et dicat ter,

'

excicum

acriosos,' et totiens

ad os

sibi

circulum ilium admoveat et per

facit, ut

medium

exspuat," &c.

Which is to the effect that the patient shall pull up a plant of millefoil or
yarrow, make a ring of it and spit thrice through this ring. And further that the
herb shall be planted again, and should
In Tuscany there

the

is for

accordance with a portion of

grow, the patient will recover.

it

same complaint a remedy which
It is called

this.

La

is

perfectly in

Corona della Ruta, or the Crown

of Rue.
" When one
una

prepared by a

who

suffers

with sore eyes take a branch

corona, with red ribbon.

binds

it

woman

must say

The

room, and

in another

coccha

patient should be in
it

— of rue and

tie it

'

Preparo questa corona

Per metterla sopra agli occhi

Di quella ammalata,
(O ammalato, che sia)
Che degli occhi possa guarire

E
("

'

mal d'occhi non

gli

possa ritornare.'

I prepare this wreath,

To

place

Of

that sufferer,

That

And

it

on the eyes

his sight I

he

;

it

must be always

must not be seen by children or even by any animal, and she-

:

"

round in a wreath, in forma di

bed and not see the garland made

may

may

never

restore,

suffer

more

!

')

'

MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS.
"

And when

she gives

it

to the invalid

"

he must look through

it

Santa Lucia, Santa Lucia, Santa Lucia

'

Del mal d'occhio fatemi guarire

" Then he must spit through

Which

three times,

it

285
and say

:

!

'

!

three times."

on the whole, very much the same as the old Roman-Etruscan

is,

formula.

Santa Lucia the modern Catholic saint of

light, is

probably the direct descen-

dant of the Etruscan Losna, goddess of the moon, also of the sun.
(

Vide Losna.)

Our

recommends

author

Grimm)

14, j?. 100; p. 14,

one

toothache

the

(cap.

that for

should

carry

"salis granum, panis micam,

car-

bonen mortuum

alli-

gabis

''

("

A

phcenicio

in

grain of

salt,

a crumb

of bread, a dead coal tied in red

In Tuscany quite the same

cloth").
is

made

up,

for health

and borne as an amulet

and good

Marcellus

also

use of earthworms

vermis terrenus

luck.

prescribes the
lumbrici, or the

for local pains. In

one of these he declares that the

worms

are to be put into a bucket

or receptacle of

— possible,
iron — and water

wood

one hooped with

if

poured on them, which
In

drunk.

remedy

Tuscany

is

this

.^

is

yp

Af^4^==^H

to be

the
LOSNA.

:

" For one

suffering

headache take earthworms, also a

"

'

Lombrici che per
Tutte

Come pure conoscete
Da me .il buon piede

E

il

of spirits, and say

la terra strisciate,

Ie stregonerie le

Vi prego

litre

conoscete,

;

buon piede

di raccatare

dentro alio spirito lo potrete lasciare

!

:

i/%
>

'

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

286

("

Earthworms who

'

slip

through earth below,

Secrets of sorcery ye know,

When

Transfer

Now

good foot doth o'er you tread,

the

Or when

it

passes overhead,

power and

its

its

pray you to this

I

merit,

spirit,

To do such virtue as it may,
And let this headache pass away

(The allusion to the good foot

! '

")

to that of the sorcerers, or persons possessed

is

of a peculiar power.)
" Then

in the evening, before the patient goes to bed,

"

'

Mi bagno

he must bathe his head with the

spirit,

and say

:

capo

il

Collo spirito di lombrici a fare

Perche

" And
I

il

mal

di

capo mi possa passare

!

the next morning the pain will have quite disappeared."

nearly missed

this,

or earthworms, since in

my

because

incantation explains what

know

the word lombrici,

are called ronbricati.

This very curious

informant did not

Romagnola they

Marcellus

does not

why earthworms

chthonic creatures, or of darkness, they are supposed

The

secrets of the under-world.

renders

certain that this

it

Marcellus

cure

a

as

for

curant vermes terreni pari numero sinistra

manu

triti "

("

Earthworms

—an

I
salt,

recipe, the

lecti,

:

cum

"

Hemicranium statem

terra de limine

same remedy was used

This also indicates
for the

same

eadem

left

hand,

that, as

in the

disorder.

have already alluded to an amulet given by the same writer, consisting of

bread, and a coal in a red bag, or cloth.

of the special virtue of a cure
constat
I

spell.

headache

manu

As

with the

foot of the sorcerer

equal number gathered with the

powdered with earth from the threshold.")

modern

and to the

an extremely ancient

is

also gives

allusion to this,

are used.

to be familiar

ut quadriga

suspect that his

equis

salt,

&c,

the following was given to
of four articles in

made

me

8, p. 63),

he speaks

of four ingredients, " quia ex quatuor rebus

constat, et
in a red

In another (cap.

celeres

bag

is

in Italian,

effectus

habet,

barma

dicitur."

imperfect or wanting, because,

when

something was said about the value

it.

Le quattro cose della BUONA fortuna.
"The
silk or

four things of

cotton

;

good fortune.

Take a

little

red bag, and sew

it

with red woollen thread

the bag, too, must be of woollen, and of coarse cloth, and while sewing

it,

sing

:

—not with

;

;

——

:

MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS.
"

'

287

Chuco questo sacchetino,
Per

E
E

buona fortuna

la

della

che

mia

ci

di

me,

famiglia,

tenga sempre lontano

Dalle disgrazie come pure

Dalle malattie

"Then

take a crumb (midolla) of bread, and a

keep repeating, while making

it

up, the

"

1
'

little

coarse

salt,

a sprig of rue, and some cummin, and

And when made,

same charm.

the charm must always be borne on

the same person, by night as well as by day."

The

translation of the incantation

is

as follows

:

" This bag I sew for luck to me,
And also for my family
That it may keep by night or day,
Troubles and

illness far

La Formicola.
Once when
admired

it

like

It

it.

I

away "
!

The Ant.
MARCELLUS

read a certain prescription from

very much, declaring that she had never heard

was the following

" Ad dolorem

it

" Formica sanguen non habet nee
Fuge uva ne cancer te comedat
'

"

ant has neither blood nor poison

Fly,

O

"
over

When

it

one

I

pain, lest the crab devour thee

know

spits blood, take ants

in

'

Butto queste formicole

Dentro a questo sangue

Che

questo sangue

Possano

E

ripigliare.

a questo malatto

La possano riportare,
Che i suoi pulmoni

Non

si

E

ma

la

voglione guastare,
malattia

Avanti non possa phi andare.'"

it

on the

ceiling

:

'

")

some of the blood, and

:

"

!

of a cure for which ants are used."

and put them

:

'

The

" But," my informant added, "

anything

fel,
!

(" For one suffering from sore throat write on paper the following, and stick

'

before, or

:

uvse scribes in charta, et collo laborantis in linteolo suspendes

"

to a Strega, she

It

was

let it

as follows

stand

:

all night,

and say

laying stress fact that it must be carried : " Verbena note you if an old (i." on the following. ! ' ") a bloodless animal. they will answer every whit as well as the originals to cure disorders if he wishes to try them as effective as if and that yea. believed. " ' Non compro Ma (" My ' I buy not I buy it compro this it offers say must always be borne upon you. and perhaps the tradition all stregoni. my regards very indifferent translations beg leave to inform the reader that though not I very good poetry. la fortuna che essa porta!'" verbena as the herb which here she doubtless had a great ! ' ") when she declared that Verbena was Had she known and read Latin she might many more Latin. 288 (" ' I put these ants into this blood That his That he And May And MARCELLUS remarks may be both well and good may soon regain. Then she gave me the on the person as this. ! holiest of all in sacrifices. ! his health be sound and sain his lungs soon be his trouble him no more illness trouble that the ant ! o'er. and for a charm. and woman wishes to you some. as Friedrich was writes came down could talk ever had in the family —always spirits away since she says they . ancestors than and witches especially as me witch was quite in the right admirable in magic and for a charm. rhyme of these into recipes. who I par Eminence the holy plant during invocations of it classical authorities. great —drove However. and. was burned was the plant of all others and destroyed witchcraft and all .— — — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Verbena MARCELLUS recommends verbena authority in stregoneria hearing " it is but. An — used in medicine admirable in scorcery. or wizards The Verbena was Greeks. else she and predictions. —by the hiera botane where It it power of procreation.e. . as the fortune which I trust 'twill prove to have supported her assertion with a great array of were Especially might curse refuse. is an herb which brings great good luck. said : a magical cure " I do not think for it is a tumour. and it called was regarded as Venus gave. when she sell You must always buy some. therefore is it is used to stop bleeding according to a kind of rude and naif homoeopathy. it you must never : questa verbena perche e erba. above evil spirits. purpose they are just for this made by Lord Tennyson they had been himself. and bewitch you)." she added with animation.. which con- As tinually occurs in magical medicine. : I see.

or " for the "Take Boil them " eyes In Tuscany I find the following for the same : nine grains of barley. " grains in the eyes " both of which he prescribes nine grains of barley to be treated in a magical for manner —such nipping off the points. and repeating a Greek as incantation every time. Of this He is quern coire noles. with the addition that Marcellus gives several prescriptions in which cats. 3). Nat. — Also ! bring you good luck will Andr. thereiore of sight. . 289 — — ! ' such influences. and then take the nine grains of barley and the elder flower and the them all trouble. Ambassadors carried it as a symbol of peace. a very great resemblance between the eat and the hare between their skins.. on the cloth. while that of For a very immoral bewitchment venerio tardiorem of wheat. will in health arise ! the saint of light. dip into it a piece of linen and lay on the eyes of the patient. by thy aid. I tin-pancation —confestim — —as a black pan tin Santa Lucia also Marcellus may is Roman be used — is fieri is mere rubbish.. or the skins of animals. : iv. History. or Think of bit of who bestoweth when you smell Verbena this from a church it faery. one by one.— — — MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS. 4). and say rue. are employed. when skinned. enervabitur" And on There Marcellus should add that the English version of what "AH in ancient " Si good remedy seriously a is poor man —Saint Lucy aid ! the third day. "Semper e legatis tmus utique Verbenarius loquitur" ("One of a band of legates was called the Verbena-bearer ") (Pliny. we may infer that the following is not without affinity to 33 an Italian charm. This being admitted. que cupies in usu prescribes nine grains may as follows here be called the : of this I have had boiled To put upon the eyes. for a quarter of an hour. xxii. The two were identified mythology.. and it lay : " ' Tutto questo l'ho fatto bollire Per mettere sopra agli occhi Di questo malato che con Di Santa Lucia prima la grazia di tre giorni Possa guarire It is (all worth observing that the modern method except the nine grains of barley). it ara hinc sume verbenas tibi atque Our author gives two remedies for hordeolis oculorum eas substerne " {Terentius." remember that " Ex you take a if Verbene a certaine fata. " For there dwelleth in the fortune on those invoking her. and put them in a black pot with nine flowers of elder and nine bits of rue. then cool let it till it is Then tepid.

ut in tenuissimum cribratum in vaso nitido servabis inde cum opus fuerit tria cochlearia in potione dabis bibenda. Con E polvere di cavallo. and : when it is triturated finely to a pulverised horse-scrapings and pepper and earth. so as to reduce tile. say : " O ' rospo. Terra avvelenata e tutto Un immischia che molte persone Voglio rovinare che non abbiano Piu pace e ne bene. perche mi deve vendicare. very fine powder with it any one. The Italian spell " When you would do is evil to any one.') together in a small bag. del tuo veleno Lasciane sparso un poco sopra. that for the stone or pains in the bladder skin of a hare in a small pot or on a which. ed anche Le concedero (' ' ' grazia se mi all'ora pare. mix while taking this . e polvere di gatto la peggio. earth from under the toad. understood) to a very. Polvere di pelle di gatto." Which is. rospo. I suppose. over which a toad has passed. qu:e res sive calculos sine vessicas dolores continuo compescit. 290 " Pellem leporis recentem in olla pulverem redigere possis. fino che A me non si vengano A racommandare. For my and vengeance yet the best — for the rest And is. che siei composto Tutto di veleno. Toad. per me ma e la miglio. A A (" ' questa terra che passo portarlo casa mia. you must keep you should burn the to the finest it in a clear (glass) vase. or to do him harm to bewitch kill a black {si trita and rub the skin (by burning cat.' Poisoned earth and powder fine To the powdered cat I join. and at the time of mixing say: " ' Terra e polvere insieme Lo E E riunite. quem munda vel tegula ita cum lana sua combures. all poison from thy birth Shed thy poison on " Then put all Give me That I this earth ! 1 of thy poison some. powder. skin it fine fine). 'Tis the worst. fresh powder. when pulverised. pepe unito a terra di rospo. may bear my to it home.— " — — ETRUSCAN R OMAN REMAINS. and give the patient three spoonfuls in a drink.

Pepper next. et cum hoc per triduum faciat. Imagine an English or German peasant woman bursting out into such spasms of sorcery and poetry I have known one in Italy. in reciting an incantation. 'Tis a mixture which. et ter uno tede ad orientem saliat. and and great word-artists have poets I know over Italy travelled human romance. and fewer belongs to a world and a all it I of necromancy which if I witchcraft. to be — seized with convulsions. Shakespeare's to me. And which seems to be repressed which will yet There is — in all the people. but it is burning a fire of which only now and then has never been extinguished any more than that of Vesuvius. and when the witch came to the ! face the incantation like his and for remind the reader this humbly come And beg peace. low or high. Cat skin powdered With . it —what the key to a strange race was this old Etrusco-Roman Under a spark history for is the ashes of Italy there seen. confestim . of the sorceress death. for a hip complaint. a very remarkable prescription in MARCELLUS his book. or from literature till we get living — ever. that I have seen in exploring this Italian would believe me. We may read but we can never learn from it. whom ever met. know no good or Will rack and ruin And they shall Nor shall their sufferings ever cease. few indeed For may infernal —the was who would I Which mercy on This was chanted crescendo. et versus potionem bibat. it Earth well poisoned by a toad : when done. Until they Se mi pare word her last Does is this was reality kill. It amounts to this that the remedy must be given to the patient super scabellum : vel sellam ita ut pede uno quern dolet stans biberit saltu desiliat. the life say truly that I —not grant — to me their knees. life still could understand of which no cultivated person. naught is worse 291 j the scraping of a horse.! MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS. many a one. old times is .'") if I ot Not ? violent. there a genius as of stifled art. but serpent-like a scene in could write all horrible. yet cold. " —the spirit " Macbeth was poetry written witchcraft of old. for his Or ? for the stage. it. to make good. should please. is a something or magic power —a science be manifested when the time comes. I had they known what was grasping eagerly at every scrap of magic and passion and wonder what they would have thought or written among these people. I reflect that how many more not Goethe and Heine and Byron. and for which he can certainly have no When sympathy. has any comprehension. deep in their hearts.

and the wizards. and : " ' Prendo questa medicina Perche sono ammalato. and then jumps down. Per tre volte mi rigiro. and hops three times on one time. one foot being forward. E su questo piede sinistro. e Dare mi voglia bene. so that. left foot. And three times I turn upon it. Therefore from this stool descending. II gran Salvatore e se ne Non mi corrisponde allora. E per tre volte io chiamo.'") devotion to the principle of having two strings of faith which has enabled witchcraft to hold possible that the stregom may its exist as long as the priest own so —which . felicita e Percio scendo da questo sgabello.— — " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Ma Di non sono ammalato ma da fisico. morale. Alle strege o ai stregoni. That is — " Standing.' am (" 'I this medicine taking For a sad and serious Yet the Is of And suffer mind more than of body." will be well in three days' In another he prescribes a potion to be taken standing on one foot on the The threshold. Mi rivolgero alle strege. which I illness may soon take my this stool relieve physic and hoping my troubles. Now I'm on my left foot Ever standing on my standing. the patient facing the East drinks his medicine. Percio prendo questa medicina Sopra a questo sgabello Che mi possa guarire di questa Malattia. Serfipre dallo sinistro piede. on a little stool or chair. or on the threshold of a door. I therefore Standing on It illness. " When one gymnastic performance appear chief elements of this following Tuscan spell utter and so he foot. 2Q2 remedio gratulabitur. that I'll it is bow turn the witches me to the witches. one should stand on a stool {sgabello). Then To Which last lines indicate that to one's supernatural well. Three times calling the great Saviour. But if He should give no answer. in the : takes medicine.

it was undoubtedly eg. Attorno Me clog a Russian belt is. much modernised I think in form. is Now. done a mio cane legava. but it seems to be in a new bottle. alia mia vita. And This no more a I be sufferer ' ") MARCELLUS'S own quite after the style of several of is ! prescriptions. me mai non possa ritornare. within reflecting 293 and no other.. : in Let them fasten a and the duck live duck to their stomachs. with the words. eamque mori. p. <i se di ventre ne possa andare. promptly punished and without mercy. A " The remedy It in the for ever with a bitterest satire.' take the rope which held Now round May that my life my the cord which makes is hound.— — — ——" MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS. transire morbum ad anatem. 201) that " Corregia canina medius qui dolebit ventrem. but very is strap of any kind). ") Tuscany with the invariable musical accompaniment 01 an . at every street-corner represents the departure of the disreputable-looking attendants. my agony Pass to the dog away from me. dog's-le&sh. by MARCELLUS (cap. pass from the This man found is incantation to the duck. was if it to be superstitious be inferred from the following Tuscan formula afnnicella del cane — a rope which binds a " ' Prendo questa Che il Che Ed ' I this as — really specially with a and that this was the : : funicella. la voglio passare il mio male Al cane (" — and say . was the last great caricature accompanied with It is good riddance that this incantation my own on the clergy. thus the disease will will die. 190) " Tormina patientibus multi ventrem viventis anatis : adponunt ad firmantes." ("To those suffering from a colic. case Pope said is cingatur. to judge by the will Once the least allusion which spirit growing up among the people. statimque remediabitur" (" He who suffers from a pain is stomach will superstition since be relieved should he girdle himself with a dog-leash") (that I it is wonder that Grimm should have regarded rather a well-known fact that a girdle However. as I write. to memory. may " Take bad rubbish essentially ancient. 27. in the following (cap. in which he shows how a disorder can be transferred from a human being to an As animal. Eppur ! " si gang of and ends muove. Roman. bound. p. 28. gives great relief for such suffering. not be long.

et : dimittes. Such a bath of the blood of young children was once ordered for the Emperor Constantine. tightly.'' though very regards the principal item. one of a in balneo repleta — humano sanguine in a bath full of human blood. Che a me questo male Non mi possa mai ritornare Fino che non tomi Tu " ' a risucitare ! Duck. e di questo male Io ne possa guarire E tu di questa Tu male ne possa morire. resolved not to take it. ea cois. that " When a man wishes and then catch a say: means by which gives the following as : his wife to lizard with the left be is. his extraordinary humanity was rewarded by a miraculous cure. 294 " When one suffers from a pain in the stomach take a duck. while thou must die And may I : never feel the pain Till thou shalt Which was bad me from I have thy for the duck. same as : and put it and cork both up very in a bottle. life again However. duck. and because he. verendaque ejus The Tuscan fidelity may be secured in dum cum recipe. this ' ") ! went for very little with whose most vaunted cures was to put a patient physician. It does seem to be at all understood that for mercy and of act — several centuries after the decay of the — Roman power the world relapsed as regards barbarism and inhumanity. facies hoc lacertaa viridis vivae sinistra caudem donee inmoriatur eadem palma clausam tenebis. and the body of the bird must be placed against that of the invalid. and then say : " Anatra ' Che Anatra ! ! male mio il tu possa Pigliare. shalt take this pain ill depart. different in details. he should take sperma hand. and put it in the same left hand illius mulieris bottle. — ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. tange. this seems to have been regarded not magnanimity. nunquam alius inire possit. being moved by the cries and tears of their mothers. As related by the even by Christians as a great early chroniclers. a MARCELLUS woman " Mulierum. instead of advancing with Christianity as popularly is believed.— — — . and Shall get well. quam manu caudem curtabis tu habueris ut eamque vivum mulierem. and . so may That thou That the '" it be. is quite the the lizard caught with the faithful.

hoc est novem temperabis. power for good or as follows " one As suo capo ! long hast laid thee.— — —— — ' MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS. " the mole lives spell.") The following Romagnola charm a is La Terra dei Mucchi " Take earth from three mole-hills and put "'O mucchi che dalle tarpe tre i On O And Earth. ' If you . as siete stati the hills which moles have made. terra piombino sopra Evil heaped on this family For." amount of classic al disaster fall like lead Evermore upon is ammuchiati. as of man. pugnos plenos. which is to be found in such old Roman beliefs as. talpse faciunt. or wizards. vinegar. Friedrich {Symbolik. ever true to " Then be careful not to lose the bottle. that nine handfuls. it and while removing the earth say in a red bag. which give evil according to their natures. delle come avete ammuchiato questa Ammuchiate E bewitching or injuring any one terra che di terra vi racatto. As they heaped to a cure. ni pace who could almost believe that like the it earthworm. and. and mix them with is. that she me Ever. under the footprints of the stregone." et aceto addito. and always to keep I do not clearly understand for ing prescription "De —but quos tribus tumulis terrae. 386) writes on this : the mole hostile to is subterranean he has a chthonic. may there be ! my its head ! ' ") Marcellus has misplaced this authority explained. in applying in darkness. but it is generally most In saying which she gave in a few words a great powerful for bewitching.'' give I according to it. ter sinistra manu Grimm quot adprehenderis follow- : tolles. p. ' ' ' Qui racchiudo 295 la fedelta Di mia moglie che non possa Mai (" ' sfugirmi Here I Of my 1 put the fidelity may be wife. ("Take from ') what complaint Marcellus means the ad verrucas nisi ! three mole-hills three handfuls of earth thrice. : dispiacere di quella famiglia tutte le sfortune ("' Earth. it in the house. Che non abbiano bene e I : Tarpe { Talpi). demoniac reputation. Sopra E it for folk-lore unawares.

— —— — —— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. et omnibus nervorum dolor. but its Marcellus. And The an ingredient of witchcraft you wish to prevent a young man from and four calzolai) Make nails." to cure the gout is Saliva jejuna vinci This very ancient any house. to the house." J It (Hist. now understand why To will die. pitch appears in signification as " da When maid sit. vel is. contingas. 7) He who will was of yore much used I swallow the heart of a mole. spues. 1856). Nat.. spit in hands from your quem ' peperit ilia Die et dices : illius. and put such crosses under the seats whereon the lover and last spell. xxx. p. will receive the gift of prophecy. much more is I can has its interesting The very regarding the mole. and this In a Tuscan incantation to break love. Romer und Griechen in the and say morning. but value as illustrating the recipe of as Thus. . ") fingers. antequam a lecto terrain pedibus meis et omnibus membris meis dices hoec et ad singulas plantas tuas. fuge." its was stress Roman spell upon laid was given to me.'' your hands before rising Zoologie der alien your ' ! : Venenum veneno soles to the ends of ' : In manus tuas exspues. according to in sorcery. De si alii means : the end will be that they will quarrel. was not aware of the old setting forth blood cures weakly persons. 85. dices illius in brief. pass your : (Gotha. superstitions It ancient use of pitch in superstitious practices appears in the following from MARCELLUS." (" Stick a piece of soft pitch to the head of a be done when he is man suffering with sore throat. summis quod lenire talis et plantis ' of visiting Marcellus podagram a girl in dicitur sic : praecantas. and he will " " Aut all of these a cross.' disaster can it force in magic. qui uvam dolebit : et praecipue ut super limen stans superiori limiti ipsam picem capite suo adfigat. et a should by standing on the threshold. 296 throw a mole into a house the grandmother by means of several to the effect that especially to Pliny " its head. which here repeat for another illustration I " Picem mollem cerebro ejus impone.' cui medebere. quivering. vincitur non potest.. " Carmen idioticum. a mole's still when the Tuscan this much so might be added this be wrought to a family. : tooth pulled from the living animal cures toothache. take shoemaker's wax (pece no more come ad summos digitos manus duces " " Ter its Fuge. or recipe. podagra.

living name very much resembles podagra. spirit. anche per la gotta need not say is not so common among for three mornings a small boy causes madness. Come pure lo sputo Vince il Lo !) piede.' behind him give thrice. also for gout " Per guar ire you would cure. foot spittle away conquers thee ! shalt ne'er return again. (bambino) while fasting. and how much there is in them all which is to be found in many of the modern Tuscan spells. and while : " Gotta. the whole system. " Or if you chant it and gout. la gotta this let him say make him I or gout. with as many still in use in Tuscany. and doing complaint latter some and malaria.— — ! ' MINOR CURES FROM MARCELLUS. Grimm. caused.' " Say this thrice There is and spit on your Tuscany a very in bad maize-meal. say of that " Poison by poison is ' 297 my veins ! : conquered. and should not be far from the truth in saying that probably 39 . From both my all my nervous pains nor linger in feet. Take on the place where the gout shows spit three times itself. in method of the cures. thou from As poison conquers poison. " Fly. and commented on by J. To o la pellagra. to which — whom cure gout or pellagra. see This infant's And spit my Go That thou " Then the boy must alia tua persona. as attribute following was a cure for pellagra. or bad to it my —which La pellagra temperate peasants. and spitting thrice. others pellagra. me any further pain and repeat I this for three ') mornings. And if we consider that in this collection of the Roman physician there are a great many which run. so to speak. into one another." terrible illness. Fasting spittle cannot be conquered. ' O fly." Of the one hundred medical spells described by Marcellus. such as the not looking behind. and. capo sopra O gout. As the on those of the one soles. I have identified about fifty. Che non torni mai piu A (" ' fare Gout. we fact. veleno. by eating It is called la was told that the informant added. I say. to thee I say. e sputo mio d'un bambino Innocente sara quello Che vincera la gotta maladetta. which she bore for another. o gotta ' Va via dal (o ! mio veleno vince II pellagra il veleno.

" this If a child under a year old may be allowed to see is itself in a looking-glass." is The rattles worn in the hat cure heart swallowed whole cures consumption. in water containing the gall of a duck and a spoonful of syrup made of boiled water-melon juice. or Three Kings of the East. it will cut its teeth The Three Wise Men of the East and " Die heil'gen drei Sie frugen in 'Wo geht der Ihr lieben 'the There appeared . reader to judge of As that. beyond which question. and Balthasar.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. it own hairs in in the door you time the hairs will have swelled into snakes) he must start (for in that towards you. " Voodoos warn owner of the hair if against throwing hairs about. whether . a very interesting Magi. If the in a black silk gums bag and of a teething child- are rubbed with a mole's foot the teeth will at once appear. make it cut its The brains of a mole put teeth without pain or fever. but Kon'ge aus Morgenland jedem Stadtchen Weg nach Bethlehem. Also. "A black hen split open and placed " The right fore-foot tied of a mole round the neck of a babe will is on the body cures fevers and relieves the pain of cancer. tree. Gaspar.. a its value. were often held to be. for if a bird gets a hair and weaves will have headaches frightful —nothing a person gets the hair of another and introduces will it into a go crazy as soon as the bark grows together over the "You may call can cure until the hair slit Within four days The headache and prevent sunstroke. ' Witch Medals. Buck der article hard ' prevented by tying a mole's foot above the glass. as them. Heine. all But a general consideration and comparison still extant. Gypsy-Lore Journal of January. a very great number. G. Melchoir. it found and burned. are the ancient and all and in existence. bathe them and placing see. calling the bottle by the name of the one you wish to wish him to enter. 298 are all still were old of . but there is This abundant evidence to prove describes may have that. a good-luck charm. " The brains of a rabbit tied in a black bag and rubbed on the child's gums will bring the teeth through.] cure sore eyes. so also will a necklace of elder twigs." . Buben ind Madchen?'" in the by David Mackitchie. modern examples given in this book will best enable the in his day." been a mere popular fancy Lieder. the unfortunate [Also Hungarian gypsy. " the three in which he discussed an old opinion that the LONGFELLOW gypsy kings. " into a nest the- a friend to your presence from the ends of the earth by putting four of your a bottle of water. growing in the bark of a hair. comment on Miss Mary A. " The skin of the serpent worn around the waist cures rheumatism. To C. 1889. L. this chapter notes drawn from American negro sorcery Owen adds the following- : " Voodoo.

but which was to the effect that the Catholics believed in the old witch-coins.—— MEN WISE OF THE EAST AND THE WITCH MEDALS. or Persian." asking faith in the if those believed in " the old religion. there are " guesses good and side-light When of si defence it it I by hanging from an ancient is against witchcraft. order. they appear in Bethlehem. I subsequently received some of these new medals. like the older articles. which in the sorceries the same with the all East. possible that the " more than merely and that they were This of the Tuscan Shaman magic Gypsy soothsayers. when a child was very its That of the pre-Aryan dwellers in India. and wears In Hungary it. or perhaps Chaldee. Indian or Persian). Tuscany there current under the delle streghe. of late date —— — al collo. Reduced of the three its origin. wisdom. in have known gypsies." put who new witch-medals. conjecture In the " Quando ' witches —albeit si ha una medaglia ' (' lore. old certain especially for children. ill. excep" si portano queste streghone " (" They "). I received an account which I did not note down. medaglie perche le tre rege sulla factio. e upon to seek to cure Romagna noted down in conversation the following remarks libero delle streghe and both of these were ." or Roman coins are a sure To combat this the priests which. it is kings was " bad. as agreeing with sorcery. have made certain medals. one on the neck. but also on grown persons. one ')• " These medals are put should say " Metto * from witches On chiefly on children." not is " (that is. which changed little to facts. or in witchcraft avendone avuto multe cose giustificate " as many things had proved it — to them. name of witch-medals in relation to mette questa medaglia one has a witch-medal. Wise Men from the the old Chaldaean-Accadian school of sorcery. pass " medaglie delle streghe" I survives but still really itinerant diviners or soothsayers. For erano stessi grande new medals. or diviners. them : con questa sara sempre will be always free from And when putting one on. of Indian or other Eastern blood." And that the believers in witchcraft accepted the tionally for certain reasons. ." or " witchcraft. much more than neck Maria Theresa dollars. in this capacity that had a common Turanian we may conclude which there were many at a They were roaming about the Latin empire. or in and it lore. origin with that of the Etruscans. was 299 probability a great deal to all that they were of the Chaldaean. But a very curious incident casts a strange belief that they were of believe to have possibly I Romagna is. : questa medaglia per liberare liberamus delle streghe ' (' I put on this medal to free liberamus — '). carried them because the three kings on them were themselves great wizards They are sold for a soldo. there was connect them with gypsies as regards their If the three kings were Magi.

group of the different three magicians was that in later lore the three fairies present of I him with who appear but predict gifts his at the birth of a child not future. Tuscan full everywhere and everywhen. and that all.' would occur per the greater is st the proba . which formed one of the gifts of the Magi. who great truth it ( any meanir It ma himself would hardly by the old Romans. yet further to prove." a Catholic. secondly. h cause the devil with saints might be here remarked that this mystei by no means unknown long befor forms and under other names to both Christians and heathens. and on the other the following inscription S. this very fact. and. that this scandal among compromise true believers.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. so much or no "borrowing. and brass. Bald. enters into the position of all the modern witch-charms or fetish-bags of the having been presented with one containing some magic medicines. and intended to avert sorcery and Catholic Church . It was a happy thought to put them on reputation of sorcery them as new witch-money it was craft accepted — from " acceptable to all parties. Reges Gasp. and bear on one side the t kings worshipping the infant Jesus. are octagonal. as regards any unprejudiced reader that it of very is firstly. all that I And ] shall give. or to a Hindoo. since he ( m one of also evil influences. It is noteworthy also frankincense. will convince — use of incense from the rites of but even Cardinal denied that incense was used in sacred confident that a fair and is the offering to the infant Jesus had alleged that the Tuscans borrowed this Roman Romagna man to has the innate impulse to create will be the readiest to receh much ignored by those by those who be true that the use of believe who incline to there has been one side or the other little frankincense as a " devil-driver " naturally to an old Italian. It have. 3. Newman rites examination of witch-lore. and the believers in w friends. \ The hung about the Magi. 300 made of or halfpenny. Amen. on due the vast probable antiquity of reflection. j all does but g< widely-spread belie legends. it if —that myrrh was magical. however. Mel. the likelihood that they were transmitted from especially I For though superstitions spring up spontaneously and simultanec antiquity. Orate pro nobis Nunc et Hora in Mortis nostra.

MEN OF THE EAST AND THE WITCH

WISE

MEDALS.

301

if one brought it to the other, the other would accept it
Therefore, while we
admit that instances of spontaneous creation of myths, legends, and customs, may,

that

and

do, take place, yet,

even in prehistoric times

when we consider how extensively men have travelled,
is shown by jade relics— and with what incredible

—as

rumour will spread over an empire, and, finally, what a remarkably
and myth-mongering creature man is, it becomes evident that all

rapidity even a
story-telling

conjectures as to simultaneous creation from concurrent causes must be accepted

with the greatest possible caution after the severest scrutiny.

popular

tendency

accept as self-evident

to

is

probability that a " use " (be
influences," while transmission

— without

proof

any form) sprung up of

in

it

At

present the

— the

itself

slightest

Now,

subjected to the severest criticism.

is

" like

from

as

transmission may, in millions of cases, have been due to wandering apostolic

who took the whole world for
the Huron woman who was said

pilgrims,

such as

safe thing to challenge a proof

a route, sailors, strays, and cast-aways
to have been found in Tartary

which was perhaps buried

some old vagabond thousands of years

for ever in the

it

is

a

grave of

ago.

Myrrh, frankincense, and gold combined are an ancient and widely-spread
gift for children.

They were magical and

luck -bringing

among

the

Romans

;

and

whatever was connected with superstition, luck, and divination among them was
of Etruscan origin, for their whole

body of such

beliefs

had been derived from the

fabled Tages.

There

is

another kind of witch-money which

called

La Sega

taken

down verbatim

" The Sega

delle Strege, or the Witches' Saw.
:

delta Strege is a small coin

it

"

they do great harm "

The

spell against the

(».«.,

Saw
"

" Mulega
it is

is

Sega mulega

is

mentioned in the song

a witches' word.

let

as

or Fridays
earth,

and

:

It

means the earth which they take with

it

from

footprints.

not earth which they cut but a piece of flesh which will disappear from the soles of their

Then

it,

filano la seta.'

" If any one suspects that he has been thus bewitched,
ribbon.

give a description of

Sega mulega stregone e strege di Gaeta,

Che

that

I

It is

to those people).

of the Witches

'

very mysterious indeed.

They go with this on Tuesdays
With the coin they remove the

which witches have.

to the roads to cut or scrape the earth from footprints of people.

with

is

him be measured with

the ribbon,

let

firstly,

him stand

quite

It signifies

feet.

naked and take a black or red

the entire extent of his outstretched arms, and

then his height from head to foot.

This song of Sega mulega

making the

" cat's cradle "

is

a very

common

nursery rhyme, sung while

with a twine, which suggests the measurement with the

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

302
ribbon.

makes a
to

"

;

But

me by

once

;

it

seeing

also closely allied to witchcraft even in this

is

omens

other figures,

coffin, or

it

done.

It is

" Sega mulega,

La
Mi

it

for as the

cord

fully illustrated

was an incantation

It is in full as follows

stregoni e streghe' di Gaeta

;

had

as I

that, if properly understood,

must be sung while divining with a cord.

Che

it,

a nursery rhyme now, but

me

and a witch declared to

drawn from

are

it is

one now, and

:

!

filano la seta

ed

seta

il

bombaggio

piace quel giovane

Che

sbatte le castagne

L'isbatte tanto forte alle streghe,

Fa tremare le porte
Le porte sono d'argento,
Che pesano cinque cento ;
;

Cinque cento, cinquanta,

La mia
'

Non

'

gallina canta

era gallina che canta.'

Ma e un gallo
Ma una Strega senza
'

'

'

Se una Strega

Ma

che

il

'

Non

un

e

una Strega pur

e,

gallo che canta,

fallo.'

diavolo la porti via

sia

!

!

(" Sega mulega!

Wizards and witches of Gaeta

Ye who
There

is

He who

spin silk and cotton

who

» youth
is

!

—see

!

pleases me,

beating the chestnut tree:

Beating the witches with terrible shocks,

The
The

gates are trembling at his knocks


gates are of silver

Five hundred

fifty

Five hundred and
'

But

'tis

And, as
'

If she's

a cock

!

is it

so

'

?

I hear

fifty
'

No—a

hen

this

my

hen crow

—without

doubt,

surely, a witch, without.'

a witch, a witch

let

her be

But the devil may take her away

Whether

1

hundred they weigh,

five

for

!

me

!

")

be a nursery song, or old incantation, there

a wild uncanny " Northern

" spirit, far

song which Goethe heard

in Naples.

surpassing that of the

"

is

certainly in

Ghurughiu

it

" witch-

——

:

CHAPTER

III.

The Exorcism of
Death.
" Begone,

O Death

I fear

!

"

Song of the
Reaper, " Des Knaben Wunthee

not

!

derhorn.''

" Carmen autem evocat
orium idem tradit
pestetn

a

suis

hastes ferret."

HE

fs.

spell

l\
"

.

qui
in

I. viii.

very

and uncanny

involves one of

the deep secrets of the

wise
]V

.

Livy,

following

singular

\)

.

aversam

C they

women

which

do

make

P known.

not

It is entirely

heathen, there being
1

<*<?%

\A

no

trace

tianity

in

of

Chris-

it,

though

used on an occasion when one would suppose that among Catholics all
the appropriate rites of the Church would be employed. It turns upon the very
it

is

30

——

"

;

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

304

may be

ancient belief that death
sorceress,

and

it

by an

averted

albeit there is

itself,

by a

very interesting in several respects, as showing the degree to

is

in the rural districts of

which the old Etrusco-Roman sorcery still prevails

incantation pronounced

no lack of

even within the shadow of the

it

Duomo

Tuscany

in Florence

as I well know.

am not

I believe that I

in fact the religion, such as

quite accurate

when

I call this

which forms the real

it is,

patrons, goes back to a time of which there

polytheism died before Christianity arose

" Etrusco-Roman."

For

and

their

faith of the strege

no record.

is

The

Grseco- Roman

before that was the Etruscan, Oscan,

;

Sabine, or Umbrian, and long, long before these, the simple sorcery of the Tartar

And

Shaman.
here and

" When one
;

is

very

main

there, but in the

which we have to-day.

thee

with more or less picked up, by the way, from Etruscans

it is this,

Romans

ill

But to the

and death

in a house,

death will not come to

my

spell

malato

feared,

is

sono venuto da

Perche tu bene

Death

'

tell

when death

me

me

What one must
the night

is

:

'

I

need a favour from

voglia far venire,

te

a sentire,

lo possa dire.'

will not take

Therefore

" Then on

go to a witch and say

invalid.'

'

("

was thousands of years ago,

it

" Al mio malato non

E

what

just

:

my

friend away,

as well

you may,

do, what one must say?')

expected, the witch sleeps, and Death appears to her in a dream, and

announces to her that on a certain day the invalid is destined for him, or will be in his power.
" Then on the night when Death comes for his victim, the witch takes a pumpkin and makes in

and nose, and two

And when Death is
and

si mette

holes,

and puts

in

them two pods of beans, with the beans

in them, to

seem

expected, the witch makes the sign of the horns (la kttatura, called in Tuscany

—begins her incantation, thus

a scongiurare

"

'

O

spirito di

Da

:

Morte indegna,

questa casa tu ne puoi andare,

Questo malalto nella notte

Tu non
Perche

potrai pigliare,
le

corne a iettatura

Ti sono venuta a

("

'

fare

!

E

appena

II

ammalato piu non

E

dalla morte verra liberato

Spirit of

Thou

l'alba sara spuntata,
ti

Death, to thee

guadagnato

sarai
!

'

I say,

shalt not with thee bear

This suffering man, for at thee

The awful magic

sign I throw

away

now

it

eyes

like horns.
le corne),

'

THE EXORCISM OF DEATH.
And when

thou seest the morning dawn,

Without thy prey thou
This time

And

by an

from thy power

the priests

but that

;

Ovid describes
in

Rome

is

artist

he'll

be

for thee,

free

!

all

'

")

a very striking one, and

is

was assured that

I

the case with

it

may

be

kept a secret from

this is all

the spells described in this book.

a ceremony which

in detail

be gone,

shalt

be no gain

there'll

This picture of the Witch defying Death
studied as a subject

305

is

observed on the 9th, nth, and 13th of May, and

There was

essentially the same.

a feast of expiation to the Lemures, or
its

spirits

of death, which was

away

object was to conjure

death for the coming year.
" At midnight the
sign which spirits fear

(That

is,

he made

father of the family

Signaque dat

corne or la jettatura.)

le

walked barefooted through the house, making with

—occurred

medio cum pottice junctis

digitis,

Then he washed

his

tacito

hands with pure well-water

mouth, and threw them about the house without looking behind him, saying nine times
with these beans I redeem

" Then he washed

his

me and mine

his fingers the

ne levis umbra

sibi.

—put beans into
'

:

These

I give,

his

and

!

hands again, and

if

he did

this nine times, repeating,

'

Manes

exile patei~ni7

'

he

could look around, for then the ceremony was over."

The pumpkin-head
But

jettatura.

mony

is

not mentioned here, but there are the beans and the

Preller distinctly declares that with the course of time the cere-

of the Larvae was more developed into one of terrible apparitions, bugbears,

"They accompanied

or bogeys.

This

figures."

pumpkin

is

identifies the

is

with imitations of skeletons and ghastly
spell

with the

evidently meant to represent a skull.

pumpkin, with a lamp on a
eyes,

it

Tuscan

well

known

to

all

pole,

Roman

Even

in

ceremonies, for the

our times the hollow

being supposed to look like a skull with

rustics,

and Brom Bones employs

Legend of Sleepy Hollow to
Death is frightened away by his own

Irving's

it

frighten Ichabod Crane.

in

fiery

Washington

This means that

So among the Babylonian and
Ninevite peoples, as may be read in the Chaldaean Magic of Lenormant, the great
powers of evil among whom was Death, were more afraid of their own likenesses
than of anything else, for which reason horrible figures were placed here and there
to protect

all

houses.

likeness.

Mirrors are also a protection against demons.
really a fancy for the eccentric

I

have

and odd

no doubt that though there was
grotesque goblins
in the Middle Age, still the true reason for multiplying
kind
of homoeopathy
strange
everywhere was due to a similar belief. There is a
also

running through the lore of that time, a manifold application of similia similibus
curantur, the killing of witchcraft

the cure

by

witchcraft, the driving out of devils

by the weapon which gave the wound, which came
do

by

devils,

to perfection in

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

3 o6

This

Paracelsus.

not fortuitous,

is

and

result of correlative causes,

I

occurs too frequently to be accidental or a

it

believe that this primeval faith that

away by Death was the beginning of it

scared

believe, in fact, that just as lions

I

Death was

and monsters

for the

base of pillars can be

traced back from Byzantine to Babylonian-Ninevite architecture, so the placing

grotesque images of imps, demons, and goblins had a like origin in the same
It is certainly very
country, on the principle that the devil shuns his own likeness.

This belief explains the

Tuscan Exorcism of Death.

distinctly preserved in this

presence of such vast numbers in Christian churches of those diabolically odd
figures

They were meant

which have so long been a puzzle to antiquarians.

to

banish devils.

The Spell of the Cradle.
When

was born

I

witch, or, like

old

all

my

was

was missing,

as

last I

was found

my

but of this

;

necessary to secure

my

authorities declare that

I

am

success,
it

will

I

had

for nurse

an old

One day

familiar with occult matters.

cradle.

salt

Poel, who was supposed to be something of a

The house was

the

I,

searched in alarm, and at

There were lighted candles round

cradle in the garret.

an open Bible and a plate of

and money

in the city of Philadelphia

Dutch women,

babe,

in

was

it

Van der

Dutch woman named

on me.

I

it,

think there was a key or shears also,

was explained as a ceremony
Other and older printed
or future happiness.

not certain.

It

cause the infant to

rise in life,

the going upstairs

become an
From the Journal of American
adept in occult lore, or sorcery and magic.
Folk-Lore, June, 1892, I learn that among the descendants of German colonists
in North Carolina " the first time a baby is taken out of its natal room it must
be taken up " (stairs), " or it will not go to heaven. If the door of the room

being symbolical of ascent

steps

down

.

.

.

then the person carrying the baby must step on a chair or

book with the baby

On

in

her arms " (N. C. Hoke).

relating this to a

observance, and explained

" In the

know

that a

Romagne
babe

is

the babe, and carry

;

also that the person thus carried will

Tuscan witch she

how

it

at once recognised

was carried out

there are witches good and bad.

When

is

the

it

as a well-known

Romagna,

as follows

up

it

to the garret, or attic, that

is,

put at the

feet.

And

to the highest
it,

room under the

and puts

at its

roof.

head coarse

(culla)

Then

salt,

with

the witch

and the

Bible,

then four gold chains and four gold rings are put, one in every corner of the

bed, and two lighted candles are placed at the babe's head.
rafters (sospesi al palco),

:

they are attached to any family or place, and

born there, they enter the house as secretly as they can and take the cradle

takes the sack (saconcini) of the cradle, and lays the babe on

opened,

in

with the child in

it,

Then with

and the witch repeats

:

the chains the bed

is

hung

to the

DIVINATION WITH LEAD.
"
'

307

Io ho fatto questo

Non

per interesse mia,

Sola per l'amore che porto

A

questa famiglia che per quanto

Sono gran

di richezza,

Ma

suo

che

il

figlio

phi grande

Possa venire di talento,

E

se lo

ho messo sospeso

Cosi in alto lo ho messo,

Perche col suo talento possa venire

La persona

E
("

'

piu alta

piu importante di questo mondo.' "

This for myself

But

I

have not done.

for love to this little one,

Not because

his family-

Great or wealthy chance to be.

But that he

may

Brought him to

rise,

this

have

I

room so high;

Thus may he by talents thrive,
And be the greatest man alive

Truly a kind wish, and
in the world.

if it

always took

!

'")

effect there

would be no lack of talent

In the Italian ceremony the benevolent witch must, after repeating

the invocation, depart without looking behind her, and not return to the house that
day, which latter condition is of ancient Latin origin.
This incantation was

repeated in prose, not sung.

Divination with Lead.

The custom of divining by means of melted tin or lead dropped into water
FRIEDRICH remarks, of great antiquity, as may be inferred from the fact
that it has long been known to every race acquainted with these metals.
The
ceremony consists of melting the lead (wax was also used among the Latins),
dropping it into water, and inferring future events from its shapes. Then these
is,

as

were taken to bed by the person
influence of the image, a
is

barely possible that

it

for

whom

the oracle was destined, when, by the

dream would confirm what

its

appearance predicted.

might have entered into the heads of people

It

in different

by the shapes which melted metal would assume, but that they
conceive taking it to bed " to dream on is inconceivably less probable

countries to divine

should

all

than that

''

it

was transmitted

in superstitious times

from race to race.

This theory

of sporadic or independent invention of myths, customs, and superstitions has

been carried of

late to

such extravagance, that

if

we

accept

it all

we must

believe

"

ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS.

3 o8

had thought of anything else, developed all
that he
all the folk-lore which we now have, and
which
ideas
the
For
own race, wherever he went

that barbarous man, long before he
alone, wherever he existed,

zealously confined

to his

it

!

and peasants are very few indeed, as those know who
seem
have lived among them, and as is proved by those of the Romagna, who
to have no superstitions which are not as old as the days of the Romans.
is of
Their manner of divination by means of melted lead is as follows It
some importance, because it is not only elaborate, but, as can be shown by

" naturally occur " to savages

:

analogy,

it is

cummin.

all

these together.

Then

with a (red) ribbon.
put the plate on the

and see what forms

"Should

it

:

three seeds of
take three seeds of a rose, three leaves of nettle, two leaves of rue, and

" You must
Put

very ancient in every detail

fire,
it

Then take

and

lead,

midnight light two tallow candles, binding them

at

take a plate, put the lead and the herbs on

it,

and the herbs

melted put the herbs on

it.

Then pour

and when the lead

is

last,

that

is

to say,

the lead into water,

takes.

take the form of a river (Jiume),

house of an enemy to do him

"

If the lead can

"

When

it

is

But

a bad sign.

this

may be used

to throw into the

evil.

be thrown into running water, and if it take the form of a baptismal font (fonte),
frame of the bed, or,
it is a very good omen, and should be kept in a red bag, and this must be bound to the
it.
one
touches
that
no
better still, be put into the bed, care being taken
the lead and the herbs are put into the plate one should say

"

'

Lo

faccio per vedere

Se verra

(O
("

'

This

I

la fortuna

sfortuna) in casa mia.'

do that

I

good

If

:—

have another description of

I

may

see

(or bad) luck will

this

come

to

ceremony, which

me

is

!
'

")

more

" Melt the lead and put the seeds of roses, leaves of rue, and three seeds of
light

two candles connected with a red ribbon.

"

'

O

When

strege, strege

Che

la

!

granata non potete vedere

strege,

che di Venerdi

Siete beate,

Queste grazie

E
Se

me

potete fare,

questa grazia mi farete
volete,

Se questa

Che

il

mi

gra(zia) voi

mio piombo mi

Diu na

fonte

cummin on

it.

:

At midnight

melted, hold the plate out of a window, saying

lo ve la levo per farvi piacere

O

in detail

.

.

.

fate,

faccia la

significa

forma

:

Andeianno bene Si piombo il 309 cose mieie. le forma fa la Di un fiume e segno Che (" cose vanno molto male. Perche io vi cerchato una fortuna Che non me l'avete voluta dare " ! ' : in Italian frecce (fern). to avert some of the herb which is called. :h causes great suffering to witches. It is a . and throw this into the house of one to " Non ' Ma vi butto whom you wish good luck. may know. That to harm an enemy. Che vengha in chasa tua. Which ye can .' le O witches. it be a was chanted so irregularly you if all will river. a sign mine. Romagnola felchsa. E'er the spell of fate be o'er. is But happiness. to please it go well. il la felicita Che venga (" 'It Then : in casa vostra ! not lead which here I throw.— ' ' — — ! DIVINATION WITH LEAD. " ' And it. are Do me this favour That my lead may see a broom. Perche voi Non altre streghe maladette potete avere mai bene. rmant resumed as follows the font into a red bag. and piombo. a sign that is But should you happy on Friday. and say " ' Non Ma butto il 1 ') : piombo la sfortuna. in while ! ') put the lead on the chimney-piece or in some corner. or the a the fire bad sign.' ") is and so mingled with ordinary conversation ould not clearly distinguish between the spell and the explanation. that I throw. it is burning say Bruccio questa robba. witches! Who cannot bear to ' have removed I O who witches. 'tis That no good fortune now is ! will take the form of a font. Peace and fortune never more the lead forms a river. throw it into your house may go the river into his house. Che tu non possa avere Pace ne bene (" ' 'Tis not lead But ! which here ye evil fate.

. secret. marvels." Should the lead and ashes. virtues are attributed to invoking those which are good or are called the . P'or the assumes what the : midnight. the burning the fern way : v " There are very many most of which are kept because many associations of sorcery. it scale-fem — especially as The evil. and rose-seed entered into the oldest incantations with which we what makes the ceremony complete and most curious is leaves to destroy the influence of the witches. and say quest' uovo. Perche che tu maladetta Strega La fortuna tu possa darmi Un spiegazione Sopra questo uovo. 310 (" ' This plant upon the coals To do ye witches an May every evil come to ye. but is Let into fall it the white of an egg. in Tuscany it is practised as follows " Take a glass of water at world-old and world-wide. It But are acquainted.— — : ' — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. burn I evil turn. power against a on the five scales hand of luck. Te lo lascio fuori di finest ra Venti quattro ore Che tu abbia tempo il Di farmi vedere La mia (" ' I show That On fortuna ! this egg. to thee. because rue. I in turn my fate may see. a day at thy command. curst witch. by the people with great respect. and it is therefore closely allied to the same by dropping the white of an egg into water. I see me That none from you has come to is ' ") formula 01 mixing the lead with the ashes of the herbs and I believe that this seeds ! the true ancient Roman-Etruscan one. simply amalgamate into one special piece. Divination with lead means the making of forms or figures by the aid of incantations. that was very powerful against it was it Friedrich says me specially explained to sorcery and evil influences. and judging from the shapes which future will be as regards a question asked. The . Its roots are used in evil spirits. cummin. '"Faccio This it window That my That it it fortune I shall my shall stand. &c. are carried as a protection against misfortune or sorcery. it has no meaning. and I asked a favour. exactly. and in every all Of a mysterious and strange herb. may know future show ! ') : . or John's hand. superstitions connected with this plant. which are supposed to resemble a hand. nettles. and and especially regarded is stalk.

church and occasions. sive Secretorum Magicorum aquamin vitreum catinum effundunt. possibly." the streets of Florence. daughter of a thousand witches making an incantesimo — an incantation —with Do Che fai Yes. presence. however. and that it Trinum Magicum. Histor.saying was prohibited by again pour water into a glass basin. ' enim evangelium signum pacis Est ' saluberrimum et Cocquius. duly. and then modestly requested to take the trouble to arrange a prediction ! Divination by Oil. by times one of the secreta rariora which the witches kept for special Opus. oleique The author of knew state. he knew about so. and entered a large There was but a large ancient arch. who attend to the They are addressed egg-prophecies must be a singularly amiable with a curse. et sic in aqua mira se cernere posse putant" In English Which was all he could have told more he would assuredly have done oracle was. it If shall it show a church and a if it — OIL. it means good fortune from that particular person. step by step thrice the sign of the cross : and in : on the head and face." The witches class of ladies. with strange gestures while uttering incantations. priest giving the benediction. to do I was in all wanted to learn. . and the whole formed a very Rembrandt-like picture. and . she was dropping oil from a bottle. old in the time of anything Oleum Vlissing. my way ? of even prehistoric culture abound. published in 161 " you want to " it ? law and gospel. 1664. the lineaments of any person can be traced. and thoroughly consulted down. mixing therewith a drop of The whole my oil "Aliqui itidem so think they see marvellous things in the water. ac contemplatio sacra Plantarum. 311 have taken the form of a burying-ground. sincerely. as the flask with oil I wrote — a small one—make with it it oil." it. the table sat the fortune-teller.— — DIVINATION BY After twenty-four hours consider *' it means a death in the family . if closely. and nothing Into one of these houses ? upstairs to an invisible door room only divided from another by a light from a single —who knows —or who knows the age of I entered —into total —knocked. tell us: guttulam admiscent Some I that the divination even in the edicts of since if " Take : Charlemagne. and before her was a glass of water into At which. oil. " " I am how learn —what art thou doing. half- window. it means a wedding. And Stars presage happiness. the 1. houses which Dante were. There are in in this land where relics seems so strange as the new darkness — felt gratiae misericordise et divinse. " ? it runneth thus. not far from the Signoria.

Per mia maggior fortuna (" 'In the Of of heaven. the sign of more potent than the corna " (even the early is far on the edge of the a cross of oil. ! ') If they oil. And these extended fingers rest exactly from side to side. "While doing this the strega repeats " (" : Befania ' ' Befania ! Chi mi ha dato il Me ! lo porte via Befania 1 Befania. friend. and repeat a sign that the Befania relents and go well." she be deaf to every —the last This mixes the forth with the fierce. si nequeo superbos Acheronta movebo. ! this trouble. pass I name ! For away this trouble better luck and soon ! ' " Then with the same bottle or vial. skilfully so as to (All of this glass a hot coal to prevail And after all. head and face three times with the glass. it is a good sign. also on the edge of the tumbler. three drops of any question. " Flectere You make is is man be then once more " note that this also . if. with the left hand.— — ' ) ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. But ere departing there is still express your gratitude to the Spirit of the Fire. which it Then been renewed). " Then to thoroughly explore throw the water and oil a woman. proud feeling that though every omen by a strong will. the formula of that all Should a the fore and middle fingers. combine you wish to know whether you are to If all will go as you But desire. this oil is salt. very carefully. what you seek. or an affirmative to anything of the kind. all will yet every time go well. make three crosses with the right hand over the glass of water. or a court. if find at once. while with or spots of oil across the water (which has oil. ! malocchio. If the castagna or chestnut.' renewed three times. this ceremony all into the street. have no doubt very ancient : And is this done you go against you you are something to be done. and I then drop into the desperate resource of diabolical recklessness. or held by the thumb. the oracle is unpropitious. is short but extremely ." and water despite of all the devils. oil spell. which heathen. the omens are the thumb between Roman writers call the right the oil is times as before. ' yet terrible) dropped cross the if Befania." " And may But still unfavourable. or fall. nor heed the sacred salt. Befania Thou who didst cause Bear it away from me "Then pour or let in. or meet a the three drops remain apart is it a bad or negative sign.) Should the drop into the glass about a teaspoonful of turn of a whitish colour. the chances. Delle stelle e della luna. Mi levo questo malocchio (o altra cosa). the stars and moon. making the corna or jettatura with the forefinger and little finger of the left hand extended. and the middle and ring-finger closed. Befania. 312 " In ' nome del cielo. the make first And to pass. repeating the Befania invocation three was done with incredible quickness.

in this " say their say. ne respexeris. or hot coal. was a and a great artist would have appreciated the flashing black eyes under a thicket of tangled hair and my mind darted from the witch of Vesuvius to Virgil and Apuleius and Theocritus —who had all It fine picture. E bruce tutte le gente. salt. The reader will find by com- with the Divination by Ashes. form of a basket her side a — just as her ancestresses days of Virgil. that which was to have been. greatly admire this species of divination. if heathen. Chi brucia immensamente. portion of scaldino 1 must be thrown into a running all stream. and you depart without looking behind you. to prayer and penance in all religions whatever all of which — Which corresponds teach that the future It may may be changed or formed to not have occurred to many — suit those who readers to reflect that what 4i are " good. seen the same antique and terrible face —doubtless in the orgasme of the hot coal Other oracles and incantations are done with But it." and you begin amiably and smoothly with the gentle. the coal who smote me with and fluenti." parison that this charm has must confess that I I much in common —an always had ") " Fers cineris Amarilli foras. and defy the may at — but there under your velvet glove then Not oil. Should the sky coal. or ceremonies. rivoque it earthenware brazier in the The witch had by it. And the one in old Latin rites. incantation to the planets. it up should proceed to the greater piquancy of an intimation in it that there is an iron hand will see the thing out. and perhaps long before the time of Tarquin. fall you will hold And it up In other words. as This evil spell. the reply be unfavourable. —comes the red-hot salt failing devil. Salt is polite too — is You all. 313 fuoco benedetto. I pray thee to burn Then. Ti prego di brucciare Questo malocchio. and are But you do not give — that you mean business and with your spear. Thou who warmest all mankind. E (" O chi me l'ha dato " ! blessed Fire. Thou who burnest so immensely. transque caput jace. and when the coal went hissing into the oil and water her face had the beautiful in the expression of a sorceress defying a fiend.. You prodigal with magical courtesies. be compelled to take another course by means of persevering in enchantments." all such divina- .— ! DIVINATION BY " O OIL." give you a " yes " or " no. and have perfect faith in the last. and a give Fate every chance.

by the man who really considered himself"as belonging to " the multi" Or. &c ? " To which the answer is plain and clear is. ceremonies. accompanied is if —hold When formalities. strange love . was secret was made of this at the time editor of Vanity Voodoo work. Would you take from man his tenderest belief— from the little child in angels and a God. somewhere or in some way. 314 tions as this are equivalent to." is well. in drew for it an poem which illustration. in all tude. a number of very Presbyterian pious ladies held meetings for the purpose of praying that he might be taken away from this life and his death. fasting. Every effort to knowledge or sorcery — call it beg or force from the Unknown or Supernatural certain favours. from a church blessed and put And if a girl . I from the very to death differs wickedest witchcraft described in this book. that some of the any kind oil is to fascinate of baptism. religious people —as is very often' done in America certain object or purpose. man see wherein this piously praying a newspapers. He'll heed not the heaven above. men. in time dissipate This it all. No zeal. or is men have the beginning of time tortured and put one another to death for employing different methods of conjura- has burned and imprisoned and made miserable to death literally Mahometan and Brahmin and mild Buddhist have all done their best tion. by prayer. for a religion ? " shall still "There must be a (I never met. incantation. meetings to pray for a they divined with and oil Theodore Parker was salt extremely obnoxious to the rigidly orthodox of all sects. the Catholic millions. He'll heed not the dark world beneath him.") its faith which their is my life only the sun of on every side we hear petitions that the majority of men be kept in the old darkness. was attributed to the fervency of their . in religious a lady wrote a I I gracefully published. soon after. if never be wanting oil. not for divination or warring on witches. it is same quite the as In the year 1859. be it by by what name we prayer. and satirising this do not — I was boasted of it Fair New York. humanity.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. the in the same work —and not one of them has ever reflected that they were shades or clouds of the same primeval witch and There is a rising light which will And science. when and invoked Befania. religion all devil's darkness. you can get it. a wild. —what would the multitude do but way. the proper form for instinctive sentiment of There is into the will another method of using but to bewitch. the man who "Will be it — if not. and how to teach the child to be likewise. will that which do quite as kisses her seized with for in it is It consists in stealing lamps before the Virgin or saints anoints her lips with . From will. that if a the parents know enough to be exemplarily honest in all mutual dealings.

" This means. for to this griller. the great end and aim of life. punishment. carried is is regarded as being to the is look upon —as doubly damnable. darkly. he relates that love-charms. and is by the rilegious own who priests. as described to " When women a woman it way familiar with the process it now is : wishes to inspire sincere love in any man. as he proudly ordered the torture and burning alive of hundreds of heretics and now who steal the In his work. something worse than rack and burning holy et combusta. and from a take from this is the three drops of oil. Che non possa partirsi mai Da saint (pure che blessed. Vicarii Papse " (Griixandus was " in society " about that time and wished show his skill) " and by examining" — (this kind of examining meant rack and red-hot pincers) anointed their lips while speaking these words would love them. dated 1547.e. questo mio cuore ! ' non sia una santa). But despite : abrenuncio — to —" I found they had taken the tibi . all make " It is on to a great extent. tells the following tale. if oil of baptism. However. it is English) woman-nature and not remarkable that this oil-stealing a very ancient.. and put them in a little . . in spite of stealing oil —and church and stake. and they kissed men. compared to sardine have her without regard to is much Italian (and men. . alive. 315 everything will be lost in a delirium of devotion to the demoiselle whom the best expense. which being done. del santo) Perche questa benedizione Vada sempre al mio amore. she should go into church while the priests and are singing the benediction. not all to produce such feelings in witches. And me by one who was worked. informs — holy wafer : a year ago since I saw and examined two shameless and lewd women (due impudice mulieres) at Rome. no great wonder girls in Italy have kept on doing and the since the fear of torture either. apropos of naughty girls to He must as nothing. kinds of magic and sorcery PAULUS GRILLANDUS who. these they atoned for their crime by suffering the extreme of condign all their craft. It degree sac- last —save their in his time. or convicta GRILLANDUS. Now as it a Vhuile before him. us. who were held captive by the Reverend lord locum tenens of the Reverend D. it certainty of hell everlasting would never prevent any true daughter of Eve from doing anything which would attract admiration.— — DIVINATION BY No — all and — — " OIL. such punishment was a mere common-place. but only with the forefinger. i. and say which must be lamp burning before a male : " ' Non prendo questo oglio Ma prendo Da questo santo (Secondo il la benedizione nome . dish or plate (piattino). unholy custom.

mi vorra aiutare mi possa amare.. when the Roman Church was power. questo santo Che E the girl must say sempre nascosto delle gente. and all the I do not believe that any such words as The priests in their accusations always declare that the witches were always renouncing and denouncing Christianity. love. dear. plenitude of its by his order. and sweetness. hot oil poured all over them HORST. I take the benediction From (the name is here may move the man I love. else themselves . for I love thee dearly. sincerely. I believe that this modern Italian veritable details of the oil-stealing. thou'It For doing and saying which marry me!") thing young girls were torn with red-hot by the rack. as truly set forth all by and considering how they were treated.. 316 ('"I take not But my oil for affliction. ere long. Io E E baccio e ti E lips. why would denying its it be stolen at power ? all. . must be anointed tu pure tu presto tu mi . voglia sposare. and mercy. from lives this ' heart ! ") very carefully hidden so that for three Fridays in succession the lips And. my from I kiss thee I kiss thee. ceremony gives the whole truth. The object of stealing the oil was to get the mysterious occult virtue or power of the benediction uttered by the priest. their joints pulled out of socket {vide is. That thou mine own And for his part. And may The . In secret. but of this there is hardly a trace in the practices of the witches. SPRENGER. my home and dish should be carried and given) it " Io : baccio sinceramente. kissing her lover on the oil. . ti baccio di vero cuore. with truest love. That trifling pincers. abrenuncio tibi were ever uttered.'' and most (" I kiss thee. infallible wisdom. in the full light. . it is wonderful that they did not abuse it on all occasions. and then were burned alive. ti ti baccio di vero amore. truth to prove shalt ever be. and Christian philanthropy. And that he may ne'er depart That this saint While he Then the little no one may see with the it. meekness. there is not much sense of any kind it" while in the whole . Saint my witness be very heart. &c).— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and what sense would there be to take True. that. Dcemonomagia. Rome at before the Pope...

mind and deferred to." p. Pyromancy and Incense. have sent your or servant-maid." quoth Friar John. reader. Friedrich. B. such as Luther Yea. or witchcraft. und deshalb mussten J. all sin. with this oil. sacra Virgil de Tnv. and church-lamp business we damned redemption. bristling savage. quod is. when a priest pronounces an idiotic sinner with Now. topped off" the whole lamp When you appalled before such tremendous wickedness. But his death-bed. Element ist. through reader. Behold. all the great and wise and good men living two hundred years ago. but that in the plenitude of oil which was in those by a stealing only three drops of the oleum benedictum. or " female. authorities. reflect —and for that an unholy conventicle of witches where. but only to get a sweetheart for incantation or spell or benediction over deserved 317 the tortures of the Sacred Inquisition —and of the churches. O —who and are yet to-day absolutely believed coal. but priest or on it It is related that during the Cossacks not only drank the oil." " Sic in igne prater alia elementa. " Das Feuer ist heilig. or sorcery." seine Priesterinnen auch reine Jungfrauen sein. foolish after that young girl a passage "through flames material and temporal unto flames immaterial and eternal" what should have been decreed to a who heretic of a Cossack " dirty. The author of the describes minutely that Trinum Magicum by fire. what there nothing cruel or inhuman. — what I the colours of the rainbow from all went through for thy sake ! " A Matter of breviary. proceeding. sinful-with-all-the-sins. omnia insistebant. Symiolik der Natur. 60. milliner. Catholic or Protestant you. I. ourselves outside of to &c. und wird gottlich verehrt weil es ein reines — " Das Feuer. or touch up a takes a few drops of this same a if girl a crime it is —deadly mortal &c.— —— — ! PYROMANCY AND INCENSE. all in. JACOB BOHME what can you do with the greater malefactor ? a strange moral lurks behind matter thou with Imagination shrinks ? Let us have been calls it). . who wished It is witch. us that referring to old : Roman divination. He tells (161 1). me in — the spirit according to the general testimony of it in all. and hot water. of the street lamps. Polydort Rerum." to the Byss of the Abyss (as of the hell of And hells. be on the part of it woman. the first their impiety they even drained to the dregs all if is not magic. crecto proximus coelo sit. Satan himself was present glowering over us who were " Seeking awfully by night An And we all infernal base delight." performed ceremonies which are distinctly described as damnable by the great authorities of both churches. occupation of Paris by the allied army. enchanted liquid to attract a lover with the is to burn before a lamp.

et subito occidit. unfortunate if dispersed. was a good sign much . mean that relations or friends will soon come to visit you. " Let little old the flames. and there indicates a serious quarrel. frankincense. if was very suddenly extinguished. misfortune . 318 "There it — ' also is Pyromantia. Man. if it eventum or result ." This recalls. The identity of the modern pyromancy in Tuscany with that of the old Roman. and if ill. They were very remarkable. 1 burn with one flame clear and fine. Several flames. it To : jamne comprehendit dapes? Subito repulsit lumen. whether it be by observation of flame. poppy or follows leaves on coals. if if . Tir. . hope that That thou ! still I may see wilt truly be fortune-giver unto me ! ') coloured or varied flames are like broken ones. will turn out. or by putting grain. Fortuna tu mi voglio dare (" ' Fire. blessed Fire Unto fortune So I A "And ! I aspire. it is a. all will " If side wood be it is lighted. and if in doing this the fire ignites a bad sign. in three points. If the flame rose in one. vividly. Owen. you must study the In the (brutte) or Romagna fire attentively. men say if well. et nitidus stetit. lambent and divided. a glorious crackling or snapping. Fuoco benedetto ! Alia casa mia fortuna aspetto. If it the burns they will end badly. and that very " Tir. sign of good fortune. or may have makes ugly in our mind.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. in which powdered resin was thrown into the flames. an death ill . If a coal or spark flies avert the threatened trouble run at once to the fire towards you and spit in it is is snapping and a very serious matter it. a passage Quid flamma? largus from the (Edipus of " The Voodoo thinks that crackling. repeat this it : " ' Fuoco. indeed. either as regards events or what we you would know how a thing go well . E sempre a Che te vengo sperare l'augurio di buono."— Note by Mary A. " And before consulting the fire. Fire. Rectusque purum verticem coelo 1 Seneca if tulit. is narrated to me as : Flame.'' Resin here includes or means frankincense. if you wish to get very decided omens. you have any kind of burning wood before you. or now on one and then on the other. with a snapping. great danger. with difficulty. Utrumne clarus ignis.

Et fluctuante turbidus fumo labat Man. ultimum Sed ecce pugnax in tenebras abit ignis in partes duas Discedit Immugit aris ignis et trepidant foci." This corresponds accurately to the modern omens and incantation. parte quae magna poli Curvatae picto nunciat nimbos sinu. will it is This is poppies are used now is lay (ckicchi). 319 Non una facies mobilis flamma ? fuit. another kind of sesame or of black poppy were thrown on hot In Tuscany the divination observes. For either grains of and from the smoke rising " Take from the crop a few grains (scoppira). Quanti diavoli siete Vi scongiuro che mi dite O Se mi il fate sapere. Questo gran Turco tre Tre cambiamenti mi Se mi ama Fara la il cambiamenti. I know nothing about and if they burst And or pop well they do not burst it perhaps the real method anciently followed. summam Et An comam ? in auras fusus explicant latera circumserpit incertus viae. and that on the : " it " better.'' in later times that Indian corn. —but as follows them on the : coals." observes the author of Trinum Magicum. Captromancy. or maize. has been : fire at midnight. as a sign that the crop for the next year will be a good one. mio amore Oggi mi viene vedere. Quis desit Csemlea illi fulvis quisue sit dubites color mista oberravit notis Sanguinea rursus. Dion Cassius from them omens were drawn. fara gran Turco forma di un cuore. .— — :: — — : GRAIN ON COALS. coals. Imbrifera quales implicat varios sibi Iris colores. " There was." " popped ' was found out a more detailed account of this augury —maize —and put them on a plate. Grain on Coals. Mi vuol benee mi sposera. it Metto questo gran Turco. exploded or " substituted. but as The following is " Take some grains of gran Turco and say if that. or poppy-pods were used. Mi amore mi ama. Anciently wheat or barley. And be bad.

"Take a scaldino (a receptacle of glazed crockery like a basket in form). Che mi ha messa La mala fortuna In casa mia (" ' I ! do not pierce But (or stir) the incense. e ne di fiori ' I put this corn. (O del infamo). ' ".— . corpo. stir And as the : " ' Non buco Ma buco E tutti i questo incenso. and cummin. This is who used to ascertain has bewitched any one or to remove the evil spell. he means to wed me soon make Therefore I pray you This corn a certain form to take Should the grain be like a heart. to see. you that you may I conjure tell well this afternoon. l'anima. repeat And with knife this Then with a large knife in the the contents. and put them on the coals. If like a flower. il sentimenti Del corpo di quella infame. nuptial hour let all. go into all the time the benediction. . un di fiore non mi ama. scaldino being held in the right. ' However many ye may Me if my if me lover loves So make him come And be. the rooms and above and below the bed. the soul. si Fate diavoli maladetti Che Ne (" gran Turco non faccia forma il ! di cuore. He me from will never part Should the shape be Soon will come the me he love If Then not at the devil take he love not. . : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. ! — . And all the feelings Of the body of the wretch Who Into left hand. I pierce the body. 320 Se mi sposera La forma Ma fara la forma. devils. pronouncing has put bad fortune my home ! ') all cummin and incense the burn. with charcoal glowing hot. it all there be Neither flower nor heart for me ' ! ") Incense on Coals. and then take incense.

and wave it In nome del cielo over the bed and in every corner. or impelled. or to invoke good evil as the Befania.'' understood Roman 321 succeed the incense must burn freely. the prayer or incantation uttered. saying ! Delle stelle e della luna Mi levo questo mal d'occhio Per mia maggior' fortuna Befania ! Befania Che mi date mal Befania ! ! d'occhio maladetta sia Befania Chi mi ha dato ! Befania ! Befania ! ! maldocchio il Me lo porta via E maggior fortuna Mi venga (" ' in casa mia ! In the name of heaven And of the stars and moon. also and burned. When " all nails tied in the the incense form of a is burned. May this trouble change To better fortune soon ! Befania ! Befania ! 42 Befania ! all cummin. This did not well. throw the incense and coals into a running stream or into a river. and carry " it ' the rest of your incense and the Then take a row. you do not know who has done the harm. you have the scaldino and under the roof where it cannot be found. Do this nails not forget to have in the guilty person will be compelled. and two If cross. exceptis. he will have no It is old rest till and hide it But if you suspect any person. and put : in it . and the incense thrown on the fire. carried into his or her house Then the crossed nails. scaldino. to undo the harm or spell . and evidently very ancient incantation also another very interesting known still snapped out objects.— — ! INCENSE ON COALS. of the fire If it was all burned the omen was favourable. it happen that any kind go badly. enough in to warrant the conclusion source. affairs of fill the scaldino (or earthen fire-dish) with then take three pinches of best incense and three of the second quality. also cummin seed. and put them into the burning coal. in coals. intended to remove an which is " And should glowing fila. it she or be done. on the threshold of the door. put into the scaldino a leaf of yellow paper (always yellow). " Take frankincense. of any kind. both of the best and the inferior kind. about. or the flame followed apply to probabilities of death or marriage Though that the latter There is method and different as to the common between was was derived from an old Roman with burning incense. morte nuptiisque if it Have ready a new kept only for this purpose. there is quite modern ceremony the ancient and fortune from the mysterious witch all it. in this that to oracles (" hue In the puto de Nymphae o prope Apolloniam ") illud pertinere the incense was taken.

to the incense. e appena di sarai bruciato. E le linguaccie Male E (" ' di «. fuso questo come prima. and repeating the same incantation. Incense 1 Mayst thou burn well! And so may burn. indegne me non piu. ' ' (" Befania ' Befania 1 Chi me ha Me lo porta via dato ! maldocchio ! ! Befania ! Befania Befania ! I say. e cosi bruciare. Incenso Che bene E ! tu possa bruciare Lc male lingue che Tanto Tu La ciarlano. and then set say : " ' Incenso. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Carry " Then pass thrice it away 1 ') backwards and forwards before the fire. I pray. and spit behind you over your shoulder three times. me. Non potra mai tornare. 322 Should this Befania 1 Take deed be thine Befania Befania 1 Into this house of mine " Then when door. spitting over the left shoulder. and spell It is as follows evil against us {Je (con tre dita) : persone chi ciarlano sul nostra conto). " Against people who chatter the two fingers and the thumb against gossips. cosi bruciare. and go over all is it consumed ! away.— — ' — . ciarlare. potrano parlare 1 cosi bruciare. take incense with and put it on the threshold of the door and put a distaff and a spindle with the weight (penzoloni) hanging down. and . ' Befania ! il : 1 Since thou gavest this bad luck. rocca e il Dalla finestra E E ! coso possono bruciare fuso me ne andero a levare anche quelle voglio bruciare. it ! ') in the scaldino. slanderers. and so may burn The tongues who speak ill of me 1 fire at the window. bring luck. light the little piles of incense on the threshold of the and say three times. Incense.' " &c. e cosi bruciare." There is in Tuscany a spreaders of evil reports. backbiters. Pure quelle male lingue E di me non Fino che tornerrano piu la rocca e il Come prima non tornera.

" Preller However. sews up its mana (anima) smeared mouth. while murmuring incantations. and dries it by some wine. a rude strength and is an ingenious expression in till similarity to —turning and But what really poetical. old woman. pretty clear that in both ceremonies three pinches of incense. the reel means distaff. spindle. he present against slanderous tongues and the evil First she takes with three fingers three pinches of incense. wraps woollen thread round a in her woman. and so may burn. vorrai discacciare. applied to the fish called with pitch and penetrated with a bronze needle. of these in the field or vineyard. •" Se e Che O Then put two brooms uno to spirito a fare. but the weight things considered.'" &c. unworthy tongues me Never speak ill And burn. and as Preller remarks. and drinks the rest of it with the girls This is the version of Preller. and with a distaff and spindle. and with them. which it is its the distaff spindle turn as once before of again. make an image like a little make a cross.) so may in tornerano spinning and the tongues. Those evil tongues may they ne'er return . 323 Thou shalt be burnt. conjures as follows to protect all is most interesting old under the threshold in reel and puts these of dark colour. but from one line I understand that present. eye. it is is generally of lead. and the leaden penzolono. and say :— red rags. while moving seven beans Finally she takes the head of a mouth.— ! INCENSE ON COALS. Unto And May And There their gossip 1 neither turn again so may the vile. la frutta tu vecchia mi viene a me li sinpare. And so may burn. all suggests rhombo for plumbo. . a certain classic Latin air in this invocation. tells Then. she a mouse-hole. is —as returning An an incantation described by Ovid." There is a curious illustration of this in the following recipe for constructing a magical scarecrow "To keep " Take Put two Romagnola : Goblins and Fairies from stealing Fruit. Then will I take from the window The distaff and spindle. with the distaff and spindle — all we have against slanderers. us. Them too will I burn. " Turn cantata ligat cum a fire into which she pours fascio licia plumbo. "Spinning and turning round belong in their nature to sorcery. The distaff and spindle formed an important part of classic magic.

and having lighted all three of its.' ") Should the reader think there remark that it is (Deutsche are bewitched. children of a peasant Should the flames unite and form one first " relates that also translation. therefore this did well suit that festival. " At the salt it —and came festival of the great this signified the new mother of life all life. goblin. It is used in magic as follows. the rod being supported on a base. wicks put it detta lucerna. and well known to all travellers. The picturesque Italian lamp. Symbolik der Natur. Lady Rosy-hood In the fire-place lives Eating only coal and wood. North that a witch can be discovered by means of Mdhrchen und Sagen) fire is Herrick apparent in the Italian as in fully as It is believed in the Wolf a ring of is —just as in enters the house will be the witch. Che in croce yi ho messo. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. And in smoke she flies away. consisting of a long upright brass rod. ! There's a cross of broomsticks. Bobbing up and dancing. up and down which slides the cup with generally three wicks. art a fairy. which were and the oil and light that Friedrich. which is Powerful. when a babe is bewitched. he may made. the Egyptians For salt bumed lamps symbolised the creation of forth from darkness into existence. on a square table with a sharpened knife and three pins. Heat to all she gives." in life. 324 Se poi fossero strege ho granate. Then she no longer flashes. Merry all the day. to find out who has laid a spell on it : " Take a lampada." The Spell of the Lamp. such a lamp as is called a lucerna. is of Roman origin. Che non vengono a mangiarmi (" ' pomi i ! ' If thou. mandate Indietro tutte le strege e stregoni. But when the wood is ashes. Neith. of the year. a the Italian incantation my in this. and with them grapples When they come a-stealing apples. . —the when the person Little who fire.— — " . Who my hast stol'n fruit — beware ye ! The old woman there shall scare ye Or should they perchance be witches.

take the long. and on the blessed Italian girl. companion Which wick-fire wrote a book on is " company.' being done the one bewitched will recover in three days. with its lifeconsulted in many ways. peculiar spirit. it it is and a sign that he will not recover. fierique cupies in usu venerio tardiorem. go" to sleep. " 'Mary. one of these lamps and may know her name. reader. used for any illness : and small (una lucemina sempre oil. or fairy." so the in the mysterious and seemed so mysterious it. I commend myself to you to do in sleep. get moving fairy flames. if any old Roman lamp supposed to have is its you buy one of these will answer the purpose and seriousness an invocation to a spirit —or some old woman who practises sorcery to do so for you. lamp. round snuff (moccolaia) give this to the invalid to drink. extinguish I come may soon the favour that he make me to know who was the cause of this illness. you Mary. oh if has bewitched anybody. In Tuscany there is When a lamp be placed in his room. p. in Philosophy of Sartor Resartus was clearly anticipated. who may be And as people say in England that a fire.— —— — THE SPELL OF THE LAMP. "Si quem gives the following (94. is ill. confused. —though in faith That is to say. apparently This leaves the snuff of the wick smouldering. name the 325 me to recover. you must buy an old one. make the sign of the jettatura of the person first who repeat the following blessed Virgin. finds a yet animated light of the lamp. and if it be a witch that I may find her in the form of a cat. each light being first named or numbered. goes. out. seated in know wishing to a chair by the table. and that days. " Then to you at midnight. if he refuse it into wine. or burns. There is another method of using the lamp." : virile power you must give to drink in which the glowing snuff of a wick has been extinguished. 25) de lucerna quae sponte exstinguetur." It is here understood that the snuff of the patient. by which names are given or signs indicated by the lights going out. and not be so afflicted again. . and her life at longest may last only three " And and the illness of this child (or other person) comes from any if he be bewitched by any one. with incense—then you will have by you a household spirit. one burning any one se e possibile). and it and sews. bibendamque inscio trade Which him wine " is to the effect that to deprive a man this also in incanta: of his confestim enervabitur. But But in a dream. will be revealed : devil unchained me from illness. as she sits silent. Grimm. elf. and magic used Thus Marcellus tions." This singular mixture of invocation to the Virgin and the devil was further- by the narrator's imperfect memory of the incantation. then. what like is better. blessed Virgin. coire noles. to the Rosicrucian secrets of salt. let and when it the following. I is put into the wine without the knowledge should add to this that every lamp who may be antiquely formed lamps and pronounce over it invoked. fungos adhuc viventes in potione ejus exstingue. will cost Lord Blaize that he which book the Clothes- If you want such a from three to triple five francs. this (le it And. come). hell. Should he drink and put it voluntarily he will get well.

to the higher. HERE exist among witches a very great spells. For the further we go back behind the genial embodiment of the forces of Nature and Polytheism the darker and more vindictive does sorcery become. the Tuscan number of the object of which is injure or even kill enemies.CHAPTER IV. there is reason to and to believe that these are the most ancient of all. EVIL INCANTATIONS. For just as the babe in the womb is This may said to pass through the stages corresponding to those of lower forms of animals. 336 . be tested by races still existent.

and only be attached to his wife— take three Indian chestnuts or wild horse-chestnuts (marroni d'Indi. as fine as possible: 1 (Marcellus lays stress on the same trituration. hold them live in the same country as the Etruscans or old Latins. and say for . certainly be conceded that the Romagnola It grow of themselves of those who now who were ancestors be late years. as the wise wisdom viva voce. may. The woman " evil " in this case done to the man's mistress by withdrawing "To DO AN EVIL—-perfare una —so that a malia naturally prefers to impart her was naively explained as that which was his love ! man may be drawn from loving another woman. add to this as much more take a the blood of either as can be obtained. also bathe sotto negli in testicoli. shows that there has been an immense. even separate and without intercourse. that this is. it. which aims far more at death and injury and revenge than that there should sorcery. in his And known forms of As animals must animal stage to have great pleasure in injuring or killing others. destroy life found his It doing good. however. I have such a number of these of them. and put into it the powder. and when it shall boil have boiled a quarter of an hour. and that the theory same thing must be very sparingly often mysterious. would. put the pot under the bed. On the contrary. under similar conditions. me by The first is as follows. their progenitors. that is to say copied. and. or of woman whom he loves. we may so see the primitive or prehistoric 327 man more or less modified by soil or climate. and then at midnight. should leave the bed and :— leave the head of the husband a little. It preserved from publicity.) marram " Then new earthen pot.EVIL INCANTATIONS. —as spells did not and as they recorded by classic writers innumerable customs of their retain —none but the most captious critic can disposed to contest closely the possibility of their having inherited their super- stitions. of innate ideas if —or amount of transmission. But it does not follow from this that there has been no " borrowing " or tradition. a half litre of spirits (a full pint) the pot in another pot of water. Papuan. an impartial examination of all such folk-lore with the most scrupulous comparative analysis. and put this blood with the rest. or Australian. selvatici) and powder them fine. develop the if same superstitions or myths. the wife. what amounts — to the exercised. perfectly true that races in a low or primitive state of society. and to it in a bagno maria (balneum Maris). and mix with it three drops of the husband's blood. in Italy. employing the an almost conclusive proof of before they can enjoy first is is at be so much of still man seems so it. all these the horrible old witchcraft. in the Fuegian. predominates over benevolence. spells to It is do harm that I can give only a few from a large manuscript collection made was taken from the archives of the witches. in the form of a cross. its earliest antiquity. and specially in the African Among races. and and some water. if it be possible. as were many of these recipes from others which are jealously for an expert. For but really sprang from ancient sources.

faccio bollire questi capelli. ' Del mio marito per And Then throw for seven nights. May perish and for ever be Only in witches' company." fluenti The next —jace ne respexeris This portion that the whole spell is " To make a man it all its che porti tutto l'amore A me boil the pot and Butto via questo pento'. this must be done running stream. I possa alzare. is was ancient entitled.' ") and . see into the water. " " woman suffer. To Injure an Enemy " " and —look ! boil the hair alone. Unita a l'anima e Di E quello che In mezzo (" ' I all With cuore vivere. il mi possa amare.' si ti bathe thy heart. love that I may as I shall ever be ! ') walk away without looking behind you. quell' affare Con (" bagno piu tu non mi possa piu tu con te. me may ne'er depart That thou shalt to me be true for aye Nor with other women go thy way.') it : " do not as it or — " by the running water as old as the days of VlRGlL. donne tu non possa andare." " Rivoque back again. such as is found in the fields. donne non altre bathe not thee. alle strege debbi sempre trovare ti do not But il non possa piu non possa piu Tu doubt not : with the hair of the ' I not in his time. stare. saving deal with them. To others' Him true. and for three days after pass by that place. I ' altre tuo cuore. faccio bollire questa robba. thrice in a night. his heart and soul that he. be E butto via (" contents into il pensiero having thrown it Now ' altre. E " may.— — ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 328 " Non bagno Che sempre ' E E E lasciare. these things together thrown. take a peppercorn and man or woman and repeat :—r Non Ma a [illegible].' I cast this pot away. With my husband's thought to stray. That thy love from 1 ! Nor And " i. che io pure tanto l'amo.

toad. with nettles. which place on the hole of a . . — to . then. and red up flannel. body and boil the I . skins of Indian with the prickles. for letting the cat go." And : " Ti ho tagliato ' il pelo. and as soon as they are burned out renew them. Perche tu mandi (" ' I " Then name the one whom alia malora. [fine. wild chestnuts. pepper. soul . things will the person suffer whom spells to a : take a black cat and you would bewitch. very superstitious. Owen. that he has been or .' have cut the skin from thee That thou figs exorcism and : and cause torture an animal human being by it remove the hair from the leg of the toad and die. il corpo e l'anima . let it much left man is believes in mortal But if and put he is only go. powdered horse-scrapings. ' ' ' Non Ma ('"It Of. and pumpkins. and pulverise all very finely seed. 1 A bad trick has its let it And when remain for three days." by means of the following all leg of the toad. che sia possibile). and the candles. A. to suffer Voodooed. at midnight.') power greatly increased if the materials (red clover. is But Then take linseed and hemp- : faccio bollire Di. seeds of melons privy. and put them Then take two candles tied with black all in and red thread. is to be expected that the ignorant it is dread the same in another kind of sorcery. so that much as suffers so it when will suffer. put the pot on the and say fire. 43 in a bit of skin torn from the haunch of a live cat. may go wrong. for herself or for religion earnestly teaches the terrors of excommunication and the virtues of amulets. . a black glazed pot. dies he will die. not this pot which I boil. sulphur. it sufferings to pass in witchcraft. exactly faccio bollire questa pentola. first lighting three days are passed. fine. she does one to shudder.') the skin or hair. carrots. be to be Obtain some of the hairs of your victim. is the animal into a covered pot. Tie them to the Such is male auguro) into a house.—— — — — EVIL INCANTATIONS. he is may Another charm " Take a and not To as follows " cut To away As is common put misfortune all its skin. such as would cause any it where even the established will also 329 you wish to shalt carry misery Then take suffer. pounded glass. and even die of apprehension. and garlic. In a community where everybody nay. or the red seeds of the Indian turnip) are tied M.' . another. The success of such charms depends chiefly on the seriousness or earnestness When with which they are pronounced. say (il so suffers the it enemy its Therefore if a he priest or witch. and with these the hairs of the person. terror them the witch utters with an air of terrible vindictiveness.

harm. and from that time that person This amiable pot-pourri and thrown into the house of the one interesting from the character of is species of rapum. it is. " pr£ten- poivre vu en songe est de mauvais augure." will this house —so may know go 1 let it ' ") : salt and pepper and put it into his clothing. so that they be utterly miserable. 330 " This liquid is then put into a small bottle. Peace in " For an Enemy. That peace and happiness You Pepper is supposed to cause livres des songes. and cummin. with sconcordia (discordia).' I put this pepper And " on you. saying it : a woman deplaisirs. and say : " ' Vi metto questo pepe." says dent que dans la I may " flower. wish for a vendetta ' (" There : " Non butto questo pezzo Ma carrots as a are allied to rabio. E questo sale. et toutes sortes have two spells for de you desire that a and put into bride's back. paina. take little fine salt. le never more ill-feeling De Gubernatis ") and promote quarrels. rapa. Che non ' is evil spirits. vol.). " Les anciens ii. all its a symbol of discord.' One is as follows shall never find happiness in marriage." connection with its as discordia in Italy). " by name says FRIEDRICH. If may know. this salt thereto. et une source des querelles maison et dehors. quarrel. to simple method of setting people by the ears : you wish ingredients. or in his house. Whence curious tradition showing A short and the herb known want " throw " and evil And when you into a house." bewitching people on their wedding-day. (Mythologit des Plantes." whom Thus of which are found in the ancient recipes for injuring enemies. " di roba. and attach this to the . and never agree. that they ne'er Also the following to is possia dare piu ! " Pace in questa casa It is much butto la discordia. or rapkanus. rabo. and say it Take buy some of (no uncommon ' not this thing which I throw. " to have no peace.— — — — — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. : on the wedding-day an orange pepper. But discord. Che in vita vostra Pace e Non (" ' vi felicita possa dare.

malediction. feel forsaken. ' " Tu maladetta sia Tu non Un E 331 ! possa avere giorno di pace quando vai Inginnochiarte Avanti Tu l'altare. Give these while preparing the comfits. and make and groom on their wedding-day. mixed with rue and cummin. possa essere gia pentiti Del passa che (" ' tu fai Be thou accursed I ! Mayst thou never know A day of peace single And even when To kneel before Mayst thou ! thou dost go the altar.— " ' ! ! ! EVIL INCANTATIONS. Che non possono vivere uniti ! Tutti giorni possono leticare E uniti Non un anno possono stare Questa e Che se Basta la ! contezza devono dare. Here upon this married pair (" I ! (Here the names are given) May May May they never be united they quarrel every day their marriage Ere a year has passed away This shall be the Let that Enough life ! ") life be as ! bond be it slighted ! between them. may I into comfits. And bitterly regret The step which thou hast taken ! ' ") In another. ! make these comfits. may they bear Deep affliction. . boil all in pure water. si deve prendere del sangue menstruate chi viene alia donna. scomunica. And to the bride repeat it : " Faccio queste confette. la Ai due spose ! (E pronunciaro qui loro nome). Per che portano La E maledizione.

inapplicable to life in is no would be fewer of them it to the bitterest legal or wrongs patiently It might possibly general. which the cultivated — man can endure there This. to the effect that the entirely in the And when die. wonderful to see one on earth wronged. neither in whom Dread him the heaven —the we have thou hast deeply. have and give account in spirit. or will. torture. and levelled by the doubtless repeated is spells of black witchcraft too am I glad that my nearly allied to these spells are intended to bring faithless lovers. —sooner or above or in later among whom they live. allied to the republican doctrine that the — or simply vce or to turn the other. It was indeed very extensively preached by monks during the Middle Ages. that concentrated." carefully inculcated seeks for revenge by always is victis ! It was all very pretty in a rough injuries For a very great proportion of the passed. be it of destiny. but " cast thereof cast up. has but it a state beyond which and most biting social thou often the arrow wilt.— — " ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. cruelty and smiting. is has made his : " If hate killed men. but in it human is all nature and Justice. would simply develop bullying. deliberately whom popular opinion man who thou hast struck. and causes beyond our ken. believing themselves to be thus hated. however. others their forsaken ones. And that the witch. back to say reader. such as are incident to at present made them is. do strikes kill thus There we had less exalted ideals. This minority have no rights past. God's blood could not mine The intense strege believe. 332 Which word last me limits forbid those The Spanish malediction monk Very to give further cursing. legal or social punishment whatever. Brother Laurence. And kill. with the result of creating more cruelty. male or female. be enforced the hate has really —as religion —protect us only against the gross outrages." and There you hatred. build up an if immense army of beggars. so far from doing any good. If we were to sell all we poor. Browning the mainstay of witchcraft. many there are up the account of Orcus teachers of religion. In due pro- . it there if is " a generally prevailing wrong. is is Believe in nothing ! ! from conscience or the mysterious working the earth below. and the general application of the principle of turning the other cheek to be smitten. therefore against witches. thou shalt find thy Nemesis. the Shaman. beyond all toleration. and outrage than had ever before been known in any civilised countries.cheek it is if how cannot be denied that our laws. and the lawyer and priest get a living. like the precept to endure is against a monastery. as venomous do all been awakened by a deep wrong. have more of these I abominable to repeat. we should. allied to spells can who.

It will have a double strain on the eyes. or shade our eyes. O a violet blue Is a fairy shoe ! Blue violets in the grass. " Look through a holy And stone see the fairies pass. alive. disjoint- which shows that such subjects roasting. goodness produced softer the light the blacker the shadows. he can distinguish objects more clearly he be at the bottom of a deep uncovered Or — that for if is it he look through a long tube known not generally the properties of a telescope are not entirely in the glasses. with were the squeezings of the The The and murder. and one all light. and last farthing of excess ideal such works of " ineffable sweetness ing. How far the imagination aided in this with people dream dreams" is as follows " To see I who habitually " see visions and But the ceremony by which cannot say. and find revolting pictures of breaking and Beato Angelicos. we. and. scalding. from the type. and. or see things invisible at ordinary times. 333 " and divine tenderness abound. it is effected in Tuscany : spirits. natural result in excess of it is all a rule. The Spell of the Holy Stone and the Salagrana. an old belief that by looking with holes in them. one could improve the sight. its and exception. executed with a genial strength of the most horrible inventions of legal mediaeval torture was in the likeness of the blessed Virgin. or stones light. looking at the cemetery . meek portion. torture little evil. of cardboard like a funnel helps us to see pictures in a gallery. or rather out of all proportion.— — SPELL OF THE HOLY STONE AND THE SALAGRANA.'' improve our vision. virgins. even And if only look through our hand in a cylinder. in from peasants. take a stone from the sea. through the stone. rapine. one from the Let him read with was the discovery of his back to this principle that led to through certain consecrated rings. it. repeat : from it. or draw the by keeping together. roll that Nay. who off the " side-lights." The reader is probably aware that if well he can see the stars at noonday. that in galleries where Angelicos and Memlings. there too we on the wheel. or a wreath of verbena. standing at a little distance with the other. one which has a hole in go to a burying-ground. to illimitable saintly charities. all a small The we lids reader wishes to preserve his sight unimpaired should never read by night facing a Then he light. flaying were dear to the hearts of all in One those days. un —a round hole —then buco tondo close one eye.

E San Biagio di ! Fate che da questa pietra Io possa vedere che forma Fanno " Then repeat a de profundis thus " ' gli spirit!. and when he had resumed they are found by Salipura or Salagra. What form the spirits take ' ! " Then you may see by means of that stone the persona chome quando erano vivi —wandering white or black garments. Temme. lore as regards stones with holes in do them which apparently in India. Asiatic Pommern unci Volksagen v. . and are his iv. to obtain easy which have no peace.. p. left an old all in were when alive woman flame. vol. Through this stone. in the form of a worm. name from really a kind of Etymowgisch-symbolisch. "easy enough woman will. at rest (salvo) tell if it rich. form he the As latter. which are regarded as very sacred. they receive their They 1 are generally about the size of an orange. so shall ye be saved " Then if way become wealthy. Wilford. In te Domine. some as many who. the thought of which gives rest. some in black. 125. speak out and your treasure is. any one who if If in the ' avaricious in their spirits in such forms as they name of bold and brave. p. 1 is is much worth studying. Then it. way. 124. vol.— " — ' ' ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. it is be true" with the torch in her hand is enough that he have no —and I fear to this thing. Rogen. 334 " ' In nome di San Pietro. bored his commanded that this stone of delusion {sala-maya) should be worshipped. Also a moEOgraph pamphlet by G. By this stone I fain would see. p. Bugsein et regina Edognis Domine English 1 et fiantatis. to is God you would be while they are talking me where among themselves. 198. There are found by the river Salagrama. Domine Et Domine. Oppert. and what I must do ! he be poor and would be Truly. friars or life. being these are them no ' ' say. 413. and this is an would remark by the way that the old But there a classical character. strange begins It Gundak in Nepaul. Researches. der Natur. chaminare in —some like priests in And with a torch in her hand. ! : " ' In the name of great Saint Peter And for Saint Blasius' sake. Shiva. Friedrich. stones called Once when Vishnu the Preserver was followed by Shiva the Destroyer he implored the aid of Maia (Illusion or Glamour) who turned him to a stone.. But Vishnu escaped. xiv. materna. of behind them hidden treasures. Symb. p. Mythologisches Realworterbuch. ammonite. : De profundis clamao. Nork.

But to make it all right it was re- .SPELL OF THE HOLY STONE AND THE SALAGRANA. That of cavities. Thor that all fooled is even . had found one to it little lost. without proof. which seen such stones for sale in a curiosity-shop at a price out of not at of life had been really reverenced was evident in its being surrounded by the ornaments of coloured bread-paste. plays from the all I in of a family in which always it. a stone. mill-stone as far as sense in the literal As every by looking mill-stone has acceptation of the proverb. are But to as a remarkable gift from the witch-company. as well as ammonites. in the known well most important is an amulet against witchcraft or nightmare. but is Hindu myth is What when he goes is King Olof declares it. or Illusion. which were It is it . if me found one which had been evidently Flints with holes in them. or. in they correspond exactly to the Salagrama stones of India. which we often see on images of and it the incredible marvels narrated in the old legends were found in a very peculiar form Romagna was assured had been. be an undoubted I on being examined by experts. in order to steal the poetry. full and again I long time. I had sent and the infant Jesus. a hole through in therefore the stalagmite has been substituted. I may say. I shape of a harp with a hole hangs behind the front door of their house. fact that as mead of read that Odin once. then he whose sight was most improved would see furthest. all I all in Italy. called Odin-stones. carried by the time like summer-lightning through in all probability directly derived is know quite as clearly enounced and illustrated in the Algonkin sagas It is therefore interesting to worm-stones the to be specially noted in the that of Maia. was pronounced excellent amulet. worshipped for a very It was a piece of stalagmite value. to Jotunheim the midnight mysteries of Norse tradition due to is is a principle which appears very strongly in the Norse and Algonkin This mythologies. in England. turned himself into a 335 in the street which. that this reverence for the holed or holy in Once Tuscany. or Glamour. but had there is not much " He can see through a its origin in the belief that through the hole in a mill-stone the sight was improved. holy- stones. I conjecture. saints have since proportion to their common any man " really it England. because they were amulets. Since writing the foregoing I have learned much which is very curious relating to the stalagmites which are regarded with such reverence in Tuscany. one who is as what at all familiar with British folk-lore. &c. Oddo monk the in his know from the Norsemen. that the English saying. and Yorkshire which has a stone hole in a rock. Edda we In the later Hence all worm and went stones with holes in them were his way through a There are many superstitions attached to them. looking through the hole improved the sight. to every being lucky-stones.

my which much resembles the Indian word Salagrama. potete ammaliare. II mio sacchetino sono tante grane. or rather of a sponge. fissures small. veins and grains. and it I prize all things above 1 ' ") of the stalagmite to the heap of an earthworm was very natural that it is should be supposed they were thus . Che non potete arrivare A contare E contiene pure tanti buchi Che non vi fanno vacare. Bag presented unto me. sempro Perche voi Non mi lo voglio conservare altre strege indegne. it name inquiry from " Salagrana or But what was being put into a red bag with cummin. That she cannot cross the door And do me evil any more . dung of the animals called which take the form of a stone. and received the following statement in relation :— it is the little hills grottoes. Fortuna d'interesse come pure d'amore. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and this sack must be kept a secret from every- : " ' Questo sacchetino bello < preparato Mi E e stato regolato. I was particular in many persons. and throw up commonly found small red bag. 336 consecrated in a proper manner by having the appropriate incantation pronounced over and by it. Tutta quella che mi richiede (" ' il cuore ! ' " Here the bag I hold and see. It is called And first say One witches. Altro che fortuna in casa mia Non mi puo restare. May I have good luck and love. or earthworms). which only eat earth should make a They petrify. little a stone. La soglio dell uscio E cosi la malia Non mi potete dare. its certainly very my to it for such a stone is a Salagrana. which They keep away gold and silver and a body. That no wicked witch may come To do me evil in my In the stone which Are so many it home.— . contains. are is not stone. Perche nella pietra che contiene. That no witch can count them And so many all. but ronbrigoli (lombrki. astonishment to learn that the proper is a stone which much resembles in form a sponge. and put the salagrana in it in and with handful of concordia (an herb). Which The exact resemblance remarkable.

Comparetti. it to observe that this recalls the fail That also the salagrana. " Shake one and it awakens. we have the more singular coincidence of worm-stones worshipped in both India and The if number of small grains of some kind in Then the witch coming cannot get to him till Rice of the Goddess of the Four Winds story of — grain. so that with wildered rosalaccio by grain the evil it is believed that When its —not the in the Arabian Nights' Entertainment. have the very curious former is we believed. according to the tradition. literally. And it remembers its august abodes. but it far Italy. till the negroes in America Persia has observed that the patterns of carpets are traveller in intricate. A them This involves a very ancient confronted with a great number of seeds is or grains. was read as a paper before the Oriental Congress in London. then apply Its polished lips to your attentive ear. And murmurs as the ocean murmurs 1 there. interesting declares that " there are so " 337 Italian salagrana has not always. 1 The Spell of the Shell and the Tone of the Stone. In addition to the resemblance of the words salagrana and salagrama fact that the be made by worms. otherwise called witchcraft. This chapter on the salagrana. ghost must eat her rice. while the holes made by a worm. she has counted them. presents that supposed to bewilder the evil eye. loses all. but a kind of small house-leek. 44 .'' and mysterious This in the incantation. eye.SPELL OF THE SHELL AND THE TONE OF THE STONE. to in the latter. with a bodkin. till and she has counted them every one. This was power. like confused grains of impossible is reader cannot therefore . But curious as something far more the coincidence of salagrana and salagrama. the herb corn-poppy. she can go no further in her work Thus is the passage which is grains that no witch can count holes that she cannot cross the door. Amina and from the gypsies of motive following the witch sees the salagrana her glance " is The — derives its name from looking and when a witch sees rice. holes in granulated hole-like or corrugated appearance which is it. though erroneously. its Norse designs. were Thus. 1891. Amina the holes the interlaces all and As veins." hag-ridden. he must put a great is the form of a cross about his bed. " it it ere she cannot enter is used to protect the Tuscan word may have come a suggestion by Senator D. quite apart from the similarity of names. somewhat extended. there is many so many when a witch belief that a the world over all man —as among And she has counted every one. I the made of is design and Celtic at once be- have elsewhere remarked. made. which rooms from them and on resting the unfolds.

and if the experiment he for himself will be astonished at the success of the an audible draught of wind be blowing and six persons in a who fairy little imposed upon. and of them converse together to the effect that they can distinguish in the sound five certain words." Johannes Pr^etorius.' " : five braccit in length. 338 " Fingebantur autem ille cecinisse " Quod quod tuba. to which a long tube One gypsy speaks. shell substituted Through this the of these shells with the tube attached was shown to me by near Budapest closely allied to this telephone-tube " For the is hears the sound which the following. but always in uneven number. The that is by gypsies in Hungary listening to a shell always heard Gypsy Sorcery) believe. is blindfolded. lady. farai. Purche tu mi possa dare Soddisfazione Che Tu mi Da si questa grazia io desidero. or make others believe. and an end " ' O is is tied to a tree. Cane E abbiare. they can bring the sixth to firmly believe that he also hears them. will be trained to The apparently conduce imaginary sounds to the perceptive faculty. which I learned is : you take a thread or cord which or more. and have our attention called we can imagine that we hear words in it. quod cornua rauca quarantur litui leves calami quod suavis cantat. {vide words may be Then he in a large shell. room hear it. ut est in veteri . gatto miolare. Sicuro io avro. it must be three or and you say Spirito della Conchiglia Una cosa a te vengo demandare. Few persons are aware of the ease with which the ear may and if by means of hearing must be a very credulous If we only believe. a gypsy woman Very from a Tuscan witch shell and a attached. trial.— — ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. which has a hole at one end. to any reader Thus. tied to a shell. easily continuous sound. questa conchiglia Al mio orecchio Tre cose mi farai sentire : Gallo cantare. The dupe heard. . Si queste tre cose io sentiro. E segno che la grazia Che io desidero. Quodque epigrammate de cantu Sirenum. supplies us with images 1665.

con gran a much —that better is. as round as you can get were in the middle of some field or And garden. or else an any question. oracle. printed in " — another method of divining by sound. and one Of them I fain would The crow of a cock. me pray thee give to I 339 The thing which I require. fall little it is it may be a little patience and attention one can detect sound which the stone makes in the water the name of the person answer whom one is to marry. just as mine is it ! ' ") is a telephonic line carried through the tube. and not always very intelligible." not a stone which I throw. happiness pass for evermore ! ") . called // Libretto di Stregonerie. . to Although of the stone. Which hold to I my ear. saying " Non Ma I learn that this : butto questa pietra. just as the clock strikes one. of a cat one of the three I shall clearly hear. or I find Lamante It is called — The really by Florence " nel pozzo. "Take best if it Jracasso " a stone of rather large size. cast the stone. all the fortune here below Of (here the name) as And as they roll from May his charm to a running river. Then obscure or confused. listen with care to hear the sound produced by the to a covered well. but one thing is hear is —that So they work the In a Book little the cord clear used to convey the voice of the sorceress. . " O A ' Spirit of the Shell favour I desire. or " The Lover in the Well. stone as violently and spitefully as you can. yet with a in the it.. from a living —authority. la fortuna che il bene Gli vada nell'acqua corrente E (" It cosi is But non abbia piu bene. work of Witchcraft auricular deception. ! : —— SPELL OF THE SHELL AND THE TONE OF THE SJONE." From may and go by night —with as much noise as you can make—into the water. There are three sounds. and cast in the the waters flow this river's shore. A dog barking The mew If for me. And in this thy shell. That what This be a sign 'twill I seek shall ere long be obscure. Go be so executed as to injure an enemy. butto il bene e Delia persona .

and numerous genuflexions made. 340 There was an ancient way of divining by means of stones thrown into water. throw three pebbles into the water. in tones sweet and low." salt is put on because devils cannot endure salt. gave answer to the question that had been put. the experiment stones. and not to the Magicus (161 1) gives it The author ear. As : " As For left in a snail which the slug or shell-less snail they naturally appeared to be diabolical. but it appealed to the sight. And there is a very ancient species of ." torchlight at a spring. We " an interesting article tion have it in the cited. February 27. yes " Glory It all In in different ways. alia conjectis in . like a circle in the water. qui trifariam invicem implexi circa lapillas sumitur. . Snails were regarded from very ancient times as mysterious creatures. it. and judge from the rings which make how matters will go. Which I have done with only this conclusion that it may circles are much like men's reputations for deeds which are very great they : — the be at first in one place. whence they soon vanish thinner as they spread.— — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. of the Tractatus without reference. tells us that they who was blind. let every one of quite disappears when behind them. 8. lviii." That is. " Variae ejus sunt species divinationis per aquas . know a was once induced by a mischievous boy to preach to a multitude of cobble-stones. recited on Divination have elsewhere I : century magicians that Helenus predicted the by but growing them a vpice which could be stones had in James's Gazette. aquam stativam tribus lapillis et observatis gyris." was anciently believed that drawn out St. I find the on the distinguished authority of many sixteenth and seventeenth- known as " and it was of Troy by the form of divina- essential to the success of the them should be that the person handling fall During the night a number of stones were washed Lithomancy. it is it was supposed that they also said of unjust judges them pass away. and when all the lapides cried "Amen /" he ended The Spell of the Snail. So in trail Psalm melteth. which following afar. is —spreading : Several prayers having been veiled." Truly there are sermons in stones. Yes. as they leave a slimy it their life. 1886. Irish saint. but his authorities are almost from all classic writers. and a legend good sermon when they hear An one.

would affair — hermaphrodites they are in result." Canto del Gallo. If anything went was always a malocchio— there was bad fortune put upon them and they conjured it And there were always good signs if a cock crowed it was a good omen. the contadini as regarded education and : vero. and hardly know what to Things go better perhaps think. it : del Padre. of these and a vase. and an umbrella (reversed tree like exists in Tuscany. judging from For quas esse capable of therefore determining double or doubtful events. there for three days. IL which consisted divination. they declare to if with the contadini. it is not now as it was with new ideas all old these affairs. a lover be faithful take a chiocciola or lumaca (lumaca. it is a sign that he is man or the woman. which one the 341 and in putting snails near sticks how an ascended they — — '! androgynas putat Herodotus. and cover of the Son. me the truth husband or lover another love ? ') on the woman.— — CANTO DEL GALLO. This old divination by snails "To determine in gardens. A una And And May If is true . She replied "Da among but altra (o donna name amante) ' ? of the Father. my Il I first days examine whether the snail has gone to the picture of the be on the former. Has change of vase. fortuna per casa mi a ! . Se if it and calamint. whom of the one he is ?). unfaithful. snail or slug). Signore. In nome E E del Figlio. quando dire la verita. and arrange the vase —that of the lover and of the lady—that Che mi possa " Then : put two portraits it —one supposed to woo with a white cloth. he One day one on the other. asked one of the wise late years said of the Evil Spirit. Then they said wrong once. and put within the And It is as follows as of silver behind them. much and within " * ivy and vine leaves on one side of the and leave snail. but they are getting away. women if she thought there had been much new ideas. such as are and which leave a streak "Take one on a if still it — il gallo canto : : "'O bel gallo La mattina Canta in La buona —tu che canti alio spuntar del alba cortesia. is. having mio marito il (" 'In the after three it dello spirito maligno.

Then Is glad at heart.— — . so that And which is utilis.. cheers the sorrowful and troubled soul. Sing now. all prediger and Assessor of the Churfurstliche Sachsische Consistorii in the seventeeth century. ipso Lucifer excitatus ccelumque illuminat. who was Pfarrherr Superintendens. evil with that sound the Morning Star awakes all the sky In ruddy glory. 342 (" ' who Beautiful cock. The thief And And spreads his brilliant light o'er alarmed ceases his crows work. 24) tells us in soft Latin nee solum suavis sed etiam galli suavis in noctibus. dost sing In the morning at day-spring. Thum- crowing was a very cheering and important omen to Christians. invalid . c. Hexam. . what is better The sound is profitable unto man For as a trusty watchman he awakes And And still. Hope wakes had been —which And when he in every heart —the he before crows. tells the weary wanderer on his So much of night is way And when he gone. and when he crows at once begins his prayers. it . oritur. and. 5. Good luck to mine and me!'") witch was right in saying. or in meaning to say. almost a song . or sermon. that these omens were The once very serious matters which entered into every phase of life. them to their books — Legendi quoque munus instaurat Because the light has come and they can read And when the cock crowed thrice Saint Peter saw How great his sin Had twice denied. preached in his Gallinacio. housekeeping and other work. I pray to thee. Hoc canente lutro suas relinquit insidias. Hoc : Est But the domestic cock helps be neglected. on the crowing of the cock of the high priest in Jerusalem. : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS." shall not the ancient bishop Ambrosius " (1. and sings because he knows the mariner That as the day comes on the wind abates." With much more which " It at Meissen. And cock- Thus the Reverend Georgius Strigenitius. as follows :— " Other birds serve mankind with their song only for joy and merriment. And the wild sea grows calm The pious And earnest scholars turn man . I thus translate : a pleasant thing to hear the cock is Crow in the night.

" when cocks crow a good sign is wounded man the sorely . of a dream which I once actually had in Brighton beheld in a vision a certain man. " quered the Spartans. now they by mechanical means. betokens unpleasant surprises before . standing to " which the —the birds SHAKESPEARE night long. he Picks up a heart The burning It Boeotians knew (Pliny. I it It thought I wondrous dream this was was this in in city I will narrate of Florence. but whose And not only witty himself but the cause of wit in others. a brilliant French circle of a century ago." Which Johannes Pr^etORIUS declares is a fond and vain thing whereat all the people should say " Tush ". inspired him who was ' It is a. " Yes I see. scornful that he should tell me such a well-known thing as if I were a child." Which reminds me in the year 1871. 1. as Friedrich sagaciously remarks. or divine ! by. One gets into good society in dreams. which even is month of January. c. Now we " In the ancient times ascertain it — ask what o'clock joy I is —then they inquired what o'cock it And was. we may But good Ambrosius. IL 343 jEgris levator incommodum. since in the in favour of the should all as his writings show. the songs of birds hero one of Lever's novels. very bad the next night. 25). therefore in every house they kept a cock. replied. Dublin. 1 it For when the cock inspired is them so much the that they con- beaten he does not crow. —Note by Mary A. because Moses forbade the Jews to give heed to. in the another. negroes. » 1891. so say omen all if you hear a cock crow before midnight. Eve that on Christmas However." To which I.— CANTO DEL GALLO. Apropos of stranger. Feels less pain in his and Which often through the night. —and for a time agonies of fever cease. at Trinity College. say. " believe with still in singing birds " : " The bird of dawning singeth New '' Because they had no watches in those days." And. Testament than with the Old. there was present a gentleman who was far from being clever. the Jews made an exception Talmud it is said that when it crows one Blessed be the Eternal One who has given unto the cock underknow day from night. cock. Owen. It son. whose coryphee was a witty and beautiful duchess.'' was far more familiar with the However." in great awoke. wounds io. for keeping fined is in question recalling a passage in : being game-cocks. and he said unto me. I men knew the hour only by the crowing of cocks.

from which was hatched a basilisk mot recalled directly me what was previously written by by. " Mais Monsieur.— — — — : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. 344 by a suggestion good thing. angels nor men. fantastic. of cabalism . devil." Deus. as Lactantius observes (I —which at all when distinctly on cocks and magic. Daemon et heros. cocks were eggs in earlier humble Namque God. a bon which the duchess (who had probably in her for threepence who are neither " They invented the demons. "As —therefore hinc templa devoventur men the same thing to the rude all " of yore. and endowed them with Hence temples and new images again other names. Some it may it interesting of these forgotten rites date from the formulation others were invented by the wizards of the golden days of magic. augury. Whereupon our hostess. simple. I " ! — edition Geneva. said to the pareille It awoke —vous avez absolument feconde' votre pere haunted me as had been printed) was if it that dream (which this at first make ancient days out the connection. inspired by a demon. which pervades all this a basilisk. derived from. and moreover taught men how make to ornate and feigned images of exquisite beauty of kings long passed away. The secrets of the future the order in which a cock pecked up a given and curious ]f-and. but this been talking with Saint Germain) had 1613 as sometimes happened that a cock. unus idemque erat rudibus hominibus and hero were to state. as they had once been of Euhemerus of Messina.e. or a joke. voila une merveille sans to say a very piquancy. revolting. them great. It is by no means the most has been written upon this method of finding water. it when —thus he was /emtio/ 7 : and —a was it rerum bought I scios. So gods were men. with exquisite young man. from the wheelbarrow before mentioned). though now they be so " for Then they rose to be gods. as so well give place here to the description They were of and the history of the past could number of grains of wheat.. that in it an egg laid creature of terrible brilliancy i. oracles magic." et vovce imagines consecrantur make it must have been easy men. Of to the mediaeval magicians the divining-rod is almost the only one civilised peoples. are intelligent beings ac -peritos astrology and Etruscan divination. as Elias Schedius declares. and mind. once I I suggested could not occurred to me. James's Gazette (February 17. 1886) once set this forth and finely " as follows " Divination is among which remains in use : the most ancient of the black arts. mythology. writer in the St. of some more uncanny fashions of divination. have a copy of his works For. and for ages the scores of divinatory processes much knew among known was one of the most popular. all sorts by by writing the name of a suspected alike be laid bare . Divination was naturally enough attached to a bird which so mysteriously A " fully —perhaps without much tradition the time of day or night. Which is the doctrine Romagnola mythology.

this Amen. was taken. infunde virtutem ' upon the commencing Ecce enim veritatem was said. and each has a sacred wafer which is marked with a cup. by the flickerings of the flame of a lamp. Divination with. constituens eas consequentur effectum. being mentioned in its Cassius. . one whose is and one looks his. the sorcerer recited made eis formasti. " And to obtain these the three women go to church and partake of the communion." two verses from the Psalms. qui firmamentum pu chritudine stellarum creator down —when." me is or cup full of pure water (hot) Each must take a pinch of And be married to a man. the author of the that to divine which by the is to referring apparently to fresh breeze. maids wish to learn which of them He commands The Tuscan " Take a goblet sit. pick out fortunes. when the priest . in signa et tempora. he was hungry in his hands. or a future husband or wife. and claws cut off. or printed predictions. fieri. each one to choose a line (sulcum) and to and when that one chooses age must sometimes with the ashes from the be divined meanwhile another indicates with the tongs. when Then the ashes are stirred Or three if ashes.—— DIVINATION WITH ASHES. tum her back so as not to see the lines. 1611. There is A careful were repeated." a survival of this in Italy. particular record being kept of any unfinished heap to which he returned. beginning of the letter attributed to each heap as The by reason of letters thus indicated spelled the method to ascertain the name of name his successor. it omnium. she will rite as be taught salt dissolves first will to this day for the letters which they form by being moved. upon which two the verse its When enemy. which has passed to London by means of to divination to is up. written on the ashes with the finger or with a stick. mystic language 'Alectryomancy ") was a favourite method of ascertaining the of grains of wheat as there are letters in the alphabet ' Hebrew words were an enclosed space as many heaps floor of —a few grains to each heap. Holding the cock his repast in this unusual fashion. The Emperor Valens letters opus in in front of the heaps of grain while the the frequent recurrence of the same letter in proper names. and 45 of the into the boiling water all together or at once. Of it is a trace of it. and surely enough he was succeeded by Theodosius the Great. enough to commence and then swallowed by the cock Deus Then was the cock Domine. then they draw three lines in the shall until sacrifices. which one of them shall have chosen the same furrow three times. perfectly white.Ashes. an in Aries. says :— " And they were accustomed there Tractates Magicus. While this was being done the conjuration O ' : ' inscribed. his future wife. a successor. 345 person upon an onion. for a penny. by the movement or non-movement of the jaws of an ass while was being it roasted. little who I refer . full great antiquity. Then a young cock." salt as follows and three chairs and put it be the most fortunate. all The stuff three clad in black with black veils. ut per The were Theod. of ashes which have been very finely sifted . required. The claws were wrapped in a small piece of parchment from the lamb. that of a thief. and in a vast " Divination by the cock name of a person — whether either the sun or the (in it was moon was number of more unholy ways. " This many Dion Solet etiam divinatio interdum ex cineribus is extremely interesting from works. there were scattered trained birds. dilexi the cock pecked set decorem it ' tuam operibus nostris. is note was employed said to have be presumed. let them : in which three girls or women Then each must sit take a little same bag of red woollen with the cup in the middle. Trinum Magicunt.

" — This agrees with the ancient ceremony in this that there are ashes used by three women. butto butto l'ostia. therefore it is not necessary to bless them. and when they at on the all whose surface. PAULUS GRILLANDUS. " Hinc cineres sub primum sideris ortum. 346 them the consecrated wafer gives knowing Then it. thus over with a pin's point the heart or flower. The whole is finally thrown into a running stream. pivl ne bene. or one says " Non ' Ma butto la cenere. it is indietro will In this case they will be favoured . venitque ad flabra secundi Spurgat arenosis petris Namque ipsa retrorsum Respiciens proper^ redeat. Sortilegiis.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. speaks of by women for love-spells. il corpo e l'anima persona che vuole nominare). . but if none three float. named) is That he may no more have peace or happiness Until I have obtained this " Then they must place their hands behind them and to see the cup for a quarter of an hour .'' What renders this Tuscan incantation the only complete account which I even more interesting that is have ever met with of the manner in it is which the witches of the Middle Ages used the consecrated wafer in their sorcery. and tells us that it in his was work De specially used 1 I. I do not throw the wafer. fino che questa cosa Non ho ottenuto per bene. who go away without turning round.e..' (" 'I do not throw the ashes. two must be marked with the cup they make mouths they must slip it into their hands without the priest's marked with a cup. But I throw the wafer. his love. and if be granted. then the one se ne vada senza mai voltarsi —then they go without looking behind them. In which we have a souvenir of VlRGlL and of Theocritus. make last will desire ! ' *) the sign of the castagna. butto Non Ma (Secondo l'ostia. and not turn round look they will see whether the wafers are floating have obtained no favour my their wish. " In istis etiam . " Then each throws her ashes with the wafer into the boiling water and says. la Che non n'abbia E : pace. . it with great horror. But throw the body and soul of I (Here the person . et fluvii ferat Una vivi ministrarum. but to put in their as these three wafers are special marks or pictures as of a heart or flower. Allora only one swims. ad vada proxima Colligat. that they may be known .

" or wicked itself. words. the kind . 1855 a German in I. wrote in the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin an editorial article defending the German. us in one case he did not see or perceive any effect from tells they powdered at other times very remarkable that he It is Nephanda His witches sometimes spelling. 21). &c. me that the witches. prepared ashes which they strewed on their victims. Grillandus had 20. Mythologie der Slaven. While reading met with a very old blind I very well related to several professors. and a " wise Ashes are strewn on the woman predicts from the recover" (GRIMM. who took several cases of the the sacratissimam hostiam ipsam —the very- uttering as incantation verba satis turpia atque nephandaque hie referre non expediat ("words utterly vile and wicked which it is not expedient to introduce here "). revolting. Women sat round the hearth and drew lines at random in the ashes. make publish the peculiar particulars hoping to business ? Or looks it was did he Sometimes witches strew ashes on people and so cause terrible cutaneous disorders. —which act was and unchristian by the however. and if the number of lines was even. was a great sin —should publish the as if he had tried it — fully believing fact. Deutsche Mythologie. I have no doubt that these " nephanda. may I lines 1 1 1 around the bed of an whether the patient will 7). Nearly the same oracle is still consulted in Poland. sortilegiis ad amorem est hostia consecrata : " plurimum admisceritur sacramenta ecclesiarum. Tractatus de Hcereticis et Sortiut (Lyons. vol. possible the party acted on did not " manifest " in his presence. but it true.. here mention that in the year Pennsylvania burned the body of his wife generally bitterly reprobated as heathenish. floor vile. invalid. p. sicut (Paulus GRILLANDUS. " Many people. and that he had thus suffered is for six years. the omen was fortunate (SCHWENK. from a peculiar kind of coal-pebbles. press.— " DIVINATION WITH ASHES. with blood on the wafers " give his readers bad spells he it He indeed —which but believers in magic might very well say that . lib «'. p. symbolism et signified that umbra sumus.. abundantly proves that Grillandus would not if certainly did not object to let wrote words " horrible " and administered them them have bad in wine. that such use of the wafer . though he had been only a poor carpenter and he told . the proofs of this man who was work in Homburg les Bains. " ridicule this." Ashes into in ancient Pulvis oblivion. one of a priest " legiis - most sacred host 347 *ol. and declaring that it would be an excellent thing for . 1547)." he said. Then these were counted. Apropos of ashes and of the dead. ii. or gone remarkable that among the old Slavonians there was a divination by means of ashes which was much like the Roman. It is which is dead and past. 24). were the same which are given in the Italian incantation.

348 public health —as well as for the interests of the coal trade of burning the dead become general. but been at least one of its I believe Vorgdnger. or pioneers.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. I do not know positively that I advocate cremation in modern times. even in the United States. These It —should the practice would probably extinguish cholera remarks of mine were considered at the time as very bold. where freedom of expression is not unusual. was the that I may first person to claim to have . and yellow fever for ever.

the Etruscan and the And when there in the spiritual wonder. " Monsieur. my heart leaps up and all this I begin . early faith still is it. THE AMETHYST. charm and a solemn beauty a And of or wizard language of the olden time the world. " park." I ! Mais. for there was an era when religions lived in speak I Roman. like were." resiste a il Jean Baptista Porta. " The February-born will find Sincerity and peace of mind. and oracles spoke in their deep faith it. Freedom from passion and from If they the Amethyst care. aussi a ceux qui se veulent addonner a 1'estude. and with them . lustre violet et profite aussi nomme. Frenchman.— CHAPTER V. the the long-buried and that when it must do so en monologue. Monsieur" inquired. Magie Naturelle. comme rouge. . in all and many-hued gleams of glory. — read ancient Phoenician miration. and no moved it and grand lived. And with whom do you talk And he replied. will wear." Birthday Mottoes. et est ainsi n'estant yure. " L'Amethiste a un 'yuronguerie De la . je fais des monologues" I often feel as Roman regards and after all it. "Je le it ? " " " I exclaimed was in ad- the reply. now and I then find a flower of growing under the broad- vile leafing rank weeds which have covered antique garden. ONCE I knew young Frenchman who a man affirmed that he was the only living who — knew the ancient language of Carthage or some such town which he had recovered from " So you really can its ancient monuments. with only soul on earth a forgotten tongue my who knew language or cared for old Etrusco- had rediscovered or dug folk-lore as if I up and deciphered all this it. .

one was a salagrana and the second a piece of antimony. which has been. saying that she had nought else to give. least me I noticed she seemed to by that report. opinion on till I carried And it. originally . Perche Ed Ed it si la fortuna ad altri vede che tu ne hai voluto nelle mie io sapro sempre al non hai voluto lasciare sei pentita mani farla ricapitare bene conservarla mio fianco portarla. " very ancient and mixed with wine (wine-stone) must be carried to cause a good memory. though she it with great respect. so lost and found silk a I think. and in a red December bag. as avvinata — This pietra many buried and disinterred stone this if surprised. to to was it this : There she had been kind. was probably of It off." she said. for if lost. some at earliest ages was given it till and has celt. And I am now more ever.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. a magnificent amulet. a lady in Florence to whom nun. at occurred at once to It very famous fetish which had long been convinced of name from knew. stones of it. edge ground Roman. nothing more. like the black " That beautiful. regard the stone as something personally that she studied its you bear one you cannot be injured by wine. than it is sybil anti-vinous its This and asked Voodoo made no mention known to her. Everybody knows that the amethyst derives properties . Ma E always at your side. it and was some but of which the tradition had been of America. probably given up by penitent believer in witchcraft to a father-confessor. One was an beheld them I amethyst. Ti scongiuro o pietra Scongiuro questa pietra che sempre fortuna mi voglia portare E da ogni male mi voglia liberare Specialmente dai nemichi che volessero farmi Qualche traditimento Questa pietra mi possa liberare E se mi volessero ubbriachare. sent three singular stones for a gift of gratitude. but about two and a half inches in length. preserved. Of 25. came it my the stone to in a as a very remarkable thing that. 3SO am doing whom a to soliloquise even as I is — — . of no great value as a gem. time had its then carried by some old me to later for a Christmas present the other two stones. Should any one wish to intoxicate you to betray you {jperfarci qualche tradimento). and I for a professional form which subsequently startled me. years. ! What moved me now. : . As soon as some I sinful saw that they were amulets. and say sei certo stato sotterato. if you wear it Wear he will " Pietra che da qualche stregone o Strega ' Tu not succeed. 1891.

— ! THE AMETHYST.. owner. et prsecox drives also in the — De Amethysto I away bad brings luck . turning over my small library. And et alii (" It it in — world which it is even as the malas ilium arcere cogitationes. stone intoxication. or other My I knew wizard. but was not aware that among them I light again. thoughts. but to stimulate genius witch had declared. sempre di pietra avinato sara mio stregone wizard or some witch Hast certainly been buried long ago." good me liquor. long ago. especially for it. by mere chance. Because thou wouldst not bring good luck to others. in it there just the very is a chapter — book of xi. it. Should any wish to intoxicate • it. found that which I I. was —had been buried by or but that it about two dozen books. deceit. But witch meant. had For required. as Baptista Porta saith " ! This piece of wine-stone shall ever be I Now fortune all evil. Now And And And it is plain that thou hast repented. all books said to not only protect against intoxication. And by Levinus Lemnius. printed at Frankfort in had escaped me. would cause die ! me me from ! ' it ! ") was esteemed of old that the amethyst : " also intellect and The intelligence. unto it how right well to preserve side will bear stone me I conjure this stone to ever bring And that may it May me free who Specially from foes Some from fain me this stone free With wine." by which for the in I did not know have by me I it there was a tradition was found. hoping against hope to find something to confirm this connection of the amethyst with intellect. 351 con vino o con liquore. and confers ripe but here Rueus remembers . freeing O conjure thee. in order that others should not inherit its I to be infallible against L'amethiste attach au col sur la bouche ventricule (alfiancd) deliure de I'yurotignerie. as belief of the fortune-teller very evidently —of which had by wizard influences been brought to 1608. me. O me. — De Gemmis by Franciscus Rueus. or. hast wished to recall know I my by I ever 1 conjure thee. felixque ingenium " Addunt efficere " and happy genius "). being bound up at the end of De Miraculis Occultis. possessed a treatise It that her simple way. Questo pezzo II Ti scongiuro o (" ' liberatore " pietra ! ! ' who by some Stone. that this famous amulet with my memory.

p. collections. of a certain broker and banker. been converted to pockets I all). of course. named Jacob in Philadelphia. to Saint Isidore compared world Dii soar to the skies for they believed that . Apropos of which citations there be here and there I must. having office find with his friends. I of a story of my When early days. many fell it to my lot befell that among which was one which had pure chalcedony from its surroundings. to my shame be it said. All of which reminds boy will which are reported of it superstitions me not impart the heathenish and unchristian —as have done.: ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. because imperial. as —which may. CEdip-^Egypt. balloon of a book May dream I may teacher was an amethyst. once happened to me that the distribution (though it was the very gem of one day on the wharf Tampa from went I my examined oyster-shells had the first Being therefore a zealous mineralogist. and such-like rubbish. I was told that they were in be true which in or any other choice found in the discarded ballast of stones brought by a vessel Bay. With overloaded into the ammonites. which purple. 2). which Mundus it it I and grant that vines. and so perished. 352 and declares that he himself. . remark in this book some doubt not provokes the gently-pitying smile of chiefly this I Symbolic. the Egyptians the amethyst corresponded to the Zodiacal sign of ii. I latter in cases of great . hath in it it three colours and denotes God the Father and Ruler of the or humility (God the is its to the Trinity. 684). and Spirit {vide Picinelli. that of rose. I my got from I traded " with another boy for an air-balloon. rewards of good conduct rarely I. And as the goat was an enemy to amethyst was a foe to wine. and encouraged us to giving us on every Saturday " specimens was a small I had a Quaker schoolmaster. in frankness and simple honesty.. Son His lowliness in expressive of love and of the Holy among men) . p. The specimen " which prize inflating it. that avertite while fire add that the Rabbis called the amethyst achlamah." pronounced And it to be " nothing but common had with pains investigated after I all likelihood only three mineralogical specimens which the nun had picked up —Italian which rejected corner-stone three amulet-stones. so the my I was amethyst- fingers And wearer marvellous dreams. Among if omen —without burning my attracted to the Goat (Kircher. which caught due to the girl with the wheelbarrow from —which — slight show of many a learned folk-lorist whom parchment-bound. at from a penny to threepence (this erudition it is purchase antique lore. I nuns and their poor retainers being. Florida. which that of is violet. who. from chalam. make delivered to us lectures on mineralogy. universally well is my common addicted to science in general and geology in particular. firstly. known. — " as who Pierce.

who I home and the way take That these learned extracts. " Why that is la guirlanda delle 46 . for This tobacconist. and several contributors soon explained It consisted it was its use. thank God. (Lyons. It is made by taking a cord and tying knots in it. included the Pimander. in the belfry that could be learned at all that it was called a witch's of a church in England a first was from the authority An ladder. which accounts is it done. temptation) the volume. to which greatly indebted. and stick them into the There was also found in the bed the figure of a hen made of knots. uttering a malediction with "every one." The next day Folk-Lore Journal. first which Italian stories about : in Florence four years ago a child to all the shrines in vain. I did. whom woman with witches. or witches' garland. is has for months past wrapped up cigars for Then me there And on seven francs. While doing this pluck feathers one by one from a living hen. to get I had been &c. began with the following "Si. I showed the woman the engraving of the witch-ladder in the She was astonished. &c. took it There was I and it I would soon real nature of the find it For by mere chance.— ! THE SPELL OF THE BLACK HEN. when many buy it) And a long year. for another occasion. " Some time after something hard was felt in the bed on which the child had slept. and read that the remarked that I which was bewitched. It pined away. being asked if she knew any out. engraving of published in the Folk.Lore Journal. and in every knot the feather of a fowl had been inserted. the very conversed. or from a Latin folio of legal lore. of a cord tied in knots at regular intervals. and that most unexpectedly." flies German In the year 1 886 there was found curious object of which of an old woman and Proverbs. Trismegistus (which work to I am bought two Etruscan vases I induced the dealer to throw in the work of Marsilius Ficinus I on the Neo Platonists Iamblichus." " When a black hen over * miser Soon after that the miser dies. The parents died. They opened the bed and found what is called a guirlanda delle strege. is you may judge as it my copied entirely in I was glad if I which edition 1577). after for my leaves of the in old Encyclopczdie Francaise . Else thoud'st been lying 'neath the sod. 353 perfectly master. " When thy black hen dies. stuff (cotton or the like). of Hermes sixteenth year. not being able it The Spell of the Black Hen. I was in Italy when I saw this engraving. object had not been ascertained. and said.

Le coma gliele voglio fare. and grown people : this done. I for an hour would give him horns. " And then take the person bewitched. or the Black Hen. ora per una ora. 354 strege which I described yesterday." I did not pay any attention at the time what was said of the image of a cock or hen being found with the knotted cord. taking the into the covering of the hen. or else the stockings. keep them or children. and say — this thing in the form of a hen. and put black pins must then be hidden in the mattress or straw bed of the one It whom you : " ' Questo polio e maladetto. these you may do any it It is as follows every feather evil to . for there must be in them his Then with black and red thread sew the stockings across one another. work or weave them with black and red thread in the form of a cross into the hen. che sia. Che la maledizione la possa Et te (il Tu non E abbia ' te la piii pace ti io Non ti vengo a levare This hen 1 ! la stregeria Che And May lasciare. woman. E maladetto Le sia tutte maledizioni la portate via. Dal fondo del Ma inferno. and throw all that holds it into running water. Neither by day or night. wish to bewitch. make of them a guirlanda unita con stoppa a cord spun with flax or hemp then take or her perspiration. And if you have person. bewitch one all carefully. as it may be. the hairs of the — work up) the feathers and si cttopre questa robba you cover (or feathers.— "To remove this ' bewitchment you must open the mattress and find the hen and wreath. the hairs of the person. but I have since ascertained that it formed the most important part of the whole to incantation. This " To is the spell of // Polio nero. cursed be all ! the curses carry him away Curses from the depths of hell Now. and. possa portare ne giorno e ne notte Fino che (" nome) ho is fatto 1 * " accursed. " Take till he die: Take a black hen and pluck from With so that not one be lost. or into a church while a baptism is going on. and say : child. man. May the curse leave them on him And thou (the name) mayst And have no more peace thou bear them.— — — ! ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and carry him or her . and those not clean. Until the bewitchment Which I have wrought Be removed by me " 1 The Counter-Charm.

In Wallachia : the black fast " if a But what man plunder or die. to the quarterings of the Prince of by Dr. as the counter-charm it was found proved by the it. ' E Maria di la benedizione Di quel bambino benedisca L'anima mia ! who " This the one carries it must say is bewitched must say. . This is every reason to (archaeological) of Geneva. with some care. who To do Then find that the Italian and that the Wallachian Transylvanian well as a thief (vide Gypsy Sorcery. flat. being an object of great fear and reverence. copied is it one of a hen. di Giuseppe. this the wizard must. presumptive evidence that the and of the stone age. Mrs. ' And of Mary. may the blessing Of that infant also bless The soul of this child ! " Then carry This spell There it. and to be a black hen made for may have been thrown there to destroy the prescribes. And that it is very ancient is effectively in water it fact that other objects of the were found with it difficulty in getting and there the very old relics from Lacustrine dwellings. Leland). As spell. apply body of a black hen to the sufferer. says nothing of what the ceremonies are attendant on the charm. fast for nine Fridays. directed against any enemy. spell belongs to pre- historic or neolithic times. with a black hen. in company the thief will either bring back the gives this account. to effect a certain cure. Bell). 1852. In the museum I witch authority in Florence at once declared magic.— ' ' THE SPELL OF THE BLACK HEN. and is much is believe that some place near and bathe to it curious lore connected with extremely ancient. was worshipped From them by the Wends. there knitted or felted from black hair or wool. among is it in holy water. whole we should very nearly connected with this has been robbed he goes to some sorcerer against him. but if it be a child who cannot speak. the — of a fellow is — the result the following to take up " is a black hen. The black hen. " 355 In nome di Gesu. or both.'' it considered as very terrible. The gypsies in Hungary. as by Charles G. is I have no doubt that ceremony spell is if we had the requires* the nine Fridays' fast. then the person who : " In the name of Jesus and of Joseph.. my had some I it. pronouncing an incantation. it passed as a crest to the house of Henneberg [vide Friedrich) and the Symbolik of Wales {Puck. Gerard. is same material. In Roumania when a Jewish girl has an affaire du cceur with the devil or possibly with a devil 3 vols.

or call to prayer. and shape of the latter. once hearing that a whole dead chicken. for word. the purport of which was to avert the evil eye. dondo!" Romagnola Song. or dispel not the only use of bells in ancient days was to drive evil in every form . and is it very evident that they were in- troduced to Christian churches far more for this purpose than to For. I have found number of that and a box covered with red flannel. had been found in a feather bed. It is in I spells find it in a number of works on folk-lore and superstitions such a and incantations. 356 of these Italian witch-garlands was exhibited by Mr. in America. Tylor at the Folk- One Lore Congress present. sets forth the . the church bells were generally of the size average cow-bell of America. according paper as it e'er square old bronze write I has seen Roman the peasantry for amulets. which is at twilight-tide " those evening bells." given word. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. setting forth the fear of the witches The when they hear following from Volterra. the witches fear the spell. if demons. on either side of the chimneypiece. as in Ireland. quite dried up. Bell. The chief. The wreath had been completed by leaves. impossible to include them within the limits of this work.. And also a very small bronze Etruscan (or found at Chiusi here an it could speak These prized —resting on little among all my that Roman. I have a facsimile of this presented by the late Sir Patrick Colquhoun. little There was bell of silver bearing magical characters. I have another which was given to attaching me it Christmas for a box was a In the sprig of thorn to a small Japanese cock of feathers. When by Off they When have night they hear a bell fly. made in 1891. they hear dondo. or recesses. over the sky. of which the black hen forms the chief item. however. making no more noise than the many found not years ago in Rome away a tintinnabulum. mention. object had been put into the bed I by some black person The Spell of the " Much as a little doubt that this Voodoo charm. dondo. —and to Professor Milani) bell what an aid it would be ! bells with round corners are much In the mountain land they are always kept in one of the two small cupboards. As feathers for beds are always picked over. that when I was a boy in may I Philadelphia. I have a quaint little song in the Bolognese-Romagnola dialect.

or small cupboard by the chimney-piece {buco del cammino). manner day in which the old campanologistic 357 been preserved to the present faith has : " The little bell (campanello) or sign against witches. mia casa A presenta questa E tutti maligni si si vengano campano suonare possino allontanare. fly. and cannot approach the bearer nor do him harm. of serpent.' In this corner of the cupboard. — Ne Ne Ne forma di cane e ne di gatto. ne di civetta. and four-comered it sounds there the ring strokes of the clapper (quante volte il pallino batte). WORN AS AN AMULET. one goes out of an evening he should carry one in his pocket it but because should be of bronze. the bell ringing drive the wretches away . 2. is held of great esteem in the Romagna. " Then putting this incantation it into the recess. (In possession of the writer. nor of an owl. and are thus obliged to . cat. as ajetiatura. ! my home. nor of crow Should they come into May not come. ! — THE SPELL OF THE BELL. repeat : " ' Metto nel buco del cammino. mapero Usogna and while going along the bell and the witches cannot count the is indistinct. e Quando ' alia ne di cornacchia. di serpe. in di topo. That in this house they may Neither in form of dog or Nor Nor of mole.— — " .) OLD roman magic bell. in questa casa non si possino presentare -ETRUSCAN BRONZE BELL. Questo campanello per tenere lontano Pluto e Che le sue compagne. When —but che sia di bronzo e quadrato jingles in the pocket . I put this bell to drive afar Pluto and his company. as well as in Volterra. FROM CHINUSI.

Per sepulchras regionum. utterly annihilating it. Cogens omnes ante thronum. number of marvellous without any human aid instances —as and ways of their own is apparent from the recorded of their having rung of themselves they did at the death of Von Rodenstein — albeit . by the way. that the belief that of themselves. I may It still lives. thrill you are in all of whose O this. or trumpet. and when bees swarmed it it is an awfully curious thing. The shoemaker who gave this incantation had. c. as I find which the author rides may Pluto read. and of great noise. the more do appear. and that tin pans are now beaten in their stead. wills. and let a happy hour. or La Chiesa Apostolica. by the way. and was derived from a heathen source. as by Lucian in Philops. however. is chance Pluto But as on earth. friend. Think of marvels and miracles came out of the same old tub. church and hear the padre of heathenism pass at the sound through your heart Not only bells. for life Roman be a survival. which reminds the Day but trumpets and cymbals were used to drive away demons me that few know whence came the idea of the last trump at of Judgment " Tuba mirum spargens sonum. This was to play during the last agony on the horn." Timpani are tambourines. confirmed by Maffei in his Magica Distrutta origin. 358 Pluto —not that the further the — — ! Satan —here appears as leader of the witches. when.] That bells have souls. Roman gods some tincture of letters. to full tilt bells ring of old spirits. and that chains announce the presence of rattle. which vulgar opinion is set the air. as is set forth in the following same Arte Magica Distrutta of Maffei (1757) " There was a strange religious passage from the : ceremony which the Gentiles observed when dying. of metal. is —a work in at the windmill of sorcery. or instruments of metal. The motive to believed. add that subsequent inquiry removed this dire suspicion.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. this was doubtless the belief that it drove away larve (demons) which. concerning the driving away of whom by demons were driven away by [ forth was The Dire were noise Pliny writes (1. having studied he gently doubtful. but his very last would not deprive a dying god of I be noted here. hated the sound witches 2)." It is the great blast to be blown at the death-bed of a dying world. have observed I we get from the Romagnola mountains into the plains. 28. that these timpans were anciently used. who Eusebius flew through tells us that the sound of timpans. some darkened and gloomy in ring his little bell. and but never perceiving that he also destroys with the same lance another black spectre known Santa Fede as la Cattelica.

bronze bell is human the more is supposed to be a fairy as having a voice." And being by let this window — it the clothes cease to boil charm compelled to this knife. as taken down four years ago a witch : When " Quando si/ia uno bambino stregato (" put them leaked out This was recalled to issue. as you in the chapter on Bells in Southey's " Doctor " corde tenes read : " Bellula bella. the witch will remove the illness from the . rare. and which makes its appear- very often in the form of a medical student. sticking " Non ' Ma infilo the clothes of the child. and sharpen at it a table. Jiew and very large knife. or some but shifting forms {forme cambiate). are known to the multitude. or dog. The reader must not suppose that the charms. for these are 1 may be I at the ') door —in the form of a cat. and do not take the till three o'clock. in. addressed them as saints. but most of them are secrets rich who. 'knife will appear at the But be in no from the table nor *' -child. incantations. and it in the table Then take a : questo coltello infilo la maladetta Strega Che non viene Non Take "). up among the . mi puella Tu me Which may : " ! The Spell of the Boiling Clothes. and have. and devilments of different kinds which are here solemnly confided to him. Remains to be remarked that the — as her form suggests—and lady little who fancy did not escape the monks. That she cannot my Until unto She again " Then the witch -form or spectre. come and obey. leave them as a rich legacy elect me by a curious incident alluded to in the pray you read the following. resist coming child restores health fear. in a spirit my 359 much belief. given to noise and mischief. but always as a youth. dying. may have been done by it a Poltergeist. in Many — from is true. and say. Che non ! viene ! possa resistere Sinquando in mio bambino II salute (" ' non lo fa ritornare I do not sharpen I whet the accursed witch. who Praetorius. Firstly. with shoes and stockings. suggests that which is ance. I 1888 it a babe is bewitched All the garments must go in a pot to boil at midnight. treasured unto their preface.— — — — ' THE SPELL OF THE BOILING CLOTHES. and devotes several pages to this important subject in his marvellous rare Gliickskopf (1669).

journeyman " 3. much as a great secret. Omodeo. the following account of a Mediceval Scene at Porta Ticinese. March Italy. room for mercy. pro- as they See now. " In an instant a great crowd had assembled. aged twenty-five. La Micheletti being required to disenchant the child. labourer. pretended to some knowledge of medicine. but the crowd rushed in. still home trembling from her terrible sad impression of this savage mediaeval scene will long be remembered in the suburb ot Porta Ticinese. " ! ') ' Ecco se non if And the child was cured. . more dead than alive. her hair attacked her. Being a friend of them mended. " The women who tore the hair from the head of La Micheletti. a months gone with way with woman to have that at the and thus comfire.— ' ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. and while she knelt before the grand altar. water began to boil. and haled along to the Here was another savage scene. for a ill woman who the Franciosis. one of the only 1891. " Finally the Delegate. in « floor. was taken in a brougham and put experience. among the weeping and screaming women who " The poor victim was then of the Franciosis. amid all abuses and curses. hearing the cry and accusation. modest room on the fourth 61. Micheletti fled into the street. Then the woman Franciosi. or parish priest. and it is details. e vera ch'e stata stregata ! ' (' it. it it to to be be done ? ' ' The woman. as all —seeking to tear The poor creature. The to This morning she was better but bed. and very singular disturbance: serious would be quite it obstinate. declared that useless to have recourse to physicians and and that priests. was literally torn from her head and divided The parocco. and then she was very cruelly beaten. tried and he himself escaped narrowly from being knocked down. the witch make pelled to would be drawn to the place by an known. succeeded. ' dog. and the clothes put in the pot and the pot on the just as the thirty-four years of age. She was the wife of a child. and yet to true in every one of "In No. wooden shoes a pair of entered. " At seeing her the mother screamed ' Datti alia strega I (' ' Give it to the witch ! ') La Micheletti. all set upon La Micheletti So she fled. with two which has been A neighbour of to cure that . and received howls. in dispersing the mob. raising her hands in supplication. and strange disorder. who. taught done by putting the clothes of the child into a pot with water and boiling them. more exasperated. I was advised to do so by another — I was blinded ! " In the afternoon the poor Micheletti. went to their homes and burned nouncing incantations. But how was would be to discover the sorceress who had made the mischief. which has by far the most extensive circulation of any journal appeared. with some military police and with great trouble. Omodeo. month with some unknown. This was one Angela Micheletti. morning here relate occurred yesterday in Milan. her to pieces. and on her irresistible diabolical force. Sig. but in vain. ing that her friend had gone mad. from the church. a the child was bewitched way which we this and shocking startling its varnislier. was it She declared This was done. convinced too late of her unpardonable folly. carried. to shield her. after instant of the boiling. she dropped in to inquire as to the health of the child. and than ran to the room of the Franciosis to see declared they had found if it is not true that she it is somewhat a witch better. seven them how entreaty from the Franciosis. per lacerarla a brani Dalli alia strega ! ' think- her force. there in A " " We seem dream. Virginia. dwelt the family of a Malaterra Franciosi and his wife. the Via Ripa Porta Ticinese. accompanied by her husband and Sig. mad crying. 360 In the Secolo of Milan. fell on her knees before La Micheletti exclaiming. herself " By mere chance. and blows. a glove-maker. to which she replied asserting her innocence of all such evil. by love of my child ' I am not to blame . howled with ' Aiuto ! La strega ! ' ('Help ! the witch I La ') she had been a if the mad mob. curses. but the other. tried to calm her. they cried. pursued by took refuge in the church of Santa Maria del Naviglio. children. the Franciosis.

Can anybody imagine that if these Milanese had been Protestants they would have acted as they did ? By their fruits shall ye know them licensed and approved ! Now in all such superstition Milan Florence. ever tell sorcery. In mia presenza. La Strega del mio bambino. the youth frequently alluded how quite recently. and that it delusion is all teachers whose duty is was it is no such thing as is to enlighten their flocks. and witchcraft. but had that at the altar. There are three. 47 . are all done by the devil. the fields and rolled unmercifully over the ground till she lost all her power of the witch appeared. was which was dying account as to child core in the saved by boiling "Diavoli its to. to try to shield the ever in craft. or skein. and these books have been by the Pope. priest no such thing as witch- Italy. or in have elsewhere &c. the child was cured. Tutti e fate venire. Then Sia " ! by casting the usual gomitolo. or all once told the people that there his life all this horrible story will It is this: It 361 attract doubts as to the truth of their own peculiar sorts of sorcery. it woman parish priest. who. and Florence in this respect as light to darkness is is the same in compared to our relation to the Toscana Romagna. and I know not how many more. a Romagna Toscana. playing banjoes in the dark. into the Then the witch was taken by two other witches into air. incantation. But the spoken. as the burning of hair to remove bewitchment moral meaning of real should to every reader. " for certain peculiar " points Sometimes gloves or stockings alone are boiled Of in bewitching. asked reproachfully. when informed by his father that And have me in the same way about Jesus too ? The Church at Rome does not deny the existence of modern witchcraft and sorcery. you been playing it off written to prove that all " " on the mighty miracles of modern spiritualists. such as carry- ing cigarettes to secret places. No . and magic —just as the small American boy. a long and detailed in the village clothes of Premil- and saying : tutti Del inferno scatenatevi.— THE SPELL OF THE BOILING CLOTHES. not appear at once any of the Catholic them plainly that there For that would be to of course not. and bringing penny bouquets from Paradise. Roman Catholic books there was no such Christmas spirit as Santa Claus. I have also from Peppino. Did any priest ? I very well for the parocco.

this is a very ancient species of prediction or invocation. and whether produced by involuntary mental action or by external causes. or vase. et super tripodem ad certa verba motis Dactylomancy tions. " among are. the startling. or is divining by means of rings made at certain planetary conjunc- with incantations. divide hold the end of the thread in the authority Then ask a however. * As I any other Then prima tie ring. have one of shall These small objects the most ancient forms of divination in existence." de Cartes de Mile. zione. Lenormand. in who and has prepared himself to holds the thread work the oracle replies spelled out are often very remarkable. or sacrasi in tion. Take a and. the same in principle with the planchette. or cylinder. but requires only one operator. let '. the Hungarian gypsies. and strike on the spell out the reply. have said. rupture. the small image of a frog. (Conopera- dell a thread to right and it hand and a sprig of verbena the Let the ring hang left. gold.) wrapped round the thumb and pass over the pulse so and be it Vanello the letters is. and for rings any small objects. seeds of the deadly thorn-apple. in Lapland. very consecrated. not to is by say deeply I It is may in earnest. and to the early is Dactylomantia divinat annulis ad certam posituram constructis vel incantamentis.ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. Le Jeu Divination by means of rings was well thus described {Trac. 92) " : known Romans. the thread should be as to secure the right vibra- question and the ring will begin to swing. in According to one cylinder. be observed that when the person believing. In modern Italy there ancient. and For "). et gauche figure il : Abandon. many parts as there are letters of the alphabet. It many countries. and moved on the tripod with certain words we tripod read tambourine. or serious reflection. "A droite l'anneau presage Prompt A heureux mariage. its and is known inner edge into so is another kind of ring prophecy. Take a bowl. 362 Ring Sorcery. coeli (" p. they are cases curious. It in most have met with the assertion that by means of the thread and ring . Magicus.

grow well and look sign. is at Homburg les Bains a colRoman remains. Also a play roulette vouch " with both hands. might describe the story of Schiller's Diver. covered with numbers and it falls. Around the edge. doubt not. put I shall quite covered with earth or buried. would be It because the action this or it is when the edge of the cup be where the day it is divided into twenty- is and true answers would be often just the same. all scales. it letters. &c. Give the bar a turn and when opposite which it is a kind of roulette. or needle like that of a mariner's compass. comes from the operator. number stops. and in an adjoining room the roulette table which used in 1871. which every year. said to be the best for divina- with the image of a toad cut in haematite in four hundred years old. take a ring and spin say a wooden plate surrounded by a border flat surface. been frequently tried in about spells. Two or three of the average class of English. and enamel messenger ring which once belonged to King Roger of Sicily. circles. or with fine earth. on which This ceases revolving observe the letter or it is We as one spins a coin. " And is that old Roman. on seeing the wheel." having heard it.AMULETS. new cone have a somewhat similar oracle which also makes a very pretty it But good luck. and Apropos of roulette and the ancients there lection of ancient was last truth of An tion. in the centre of a plate. is subjective. Another variety of would 363 given. in are letters and numbers. one can always ascertain exactly what o'clock four hours ? " How " divided in twelve parts. Then draw conclusions from the letters. growing badly Should is a bad with you when you travel. which has. Amulets. Again. and even carry every scale. being shown through the collection. to maintain the principle {bisogna tenere la sistema) you should plant a American young Then on the finoli (nuts or seeds) have been removed. or American. it is But you must always keep give is the pine-cone. The first " Take a pine-cone. on a pivot. OMENS AND SMALL SORCERIES. I include in this chapter certain odds and ends of folk-lore which are not with- out interest. it is a . after within it between the the cone in it it And prettily a lupine (dry). a sign that it by you all Then Put take a flower-pot and it out in the air. tourists. which. kind of divination is to place an evenly balanced rod. Omens and Small Sorceries.'' in the sweet potato flowers or leaves well. to secure the ladies fortune-teller. cried. This surface half an inch in height. take a round. I which I did the Romans ancient ring which has been long worn have one of silver silver How ! is interesting ! " I For the it. and plant fill it and water things will go well with you. if it could tell all it ever witnessed. If it like its it any flower.

eighteen inches raisin with earth and hang the cage over fill it earth the cleanings of the cage and a few canary or very and perhaps much the planting of cress. I trust will be. has been you keep a bird One very easy form in all countries. 364 sign that the owner will grand festa. it be magnificently dressed on her wedding-day.) organ. But will call to above all you spirits things. be favourable to you and aid you. —say a canary—get an empty box. one can stop " to : clef pres de ta Dans who women.— : : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. which. soon very lucky for the canary. or seeds of any sort to divine luck earlier. James's . mustard. grow." all be mentioned that since Roman times." divine with keys in several ways. If — Throw it or about an inch high will be devoured into the These will by the bird with seeds. the word key success in your next undertaking. as was once set forth in the St. and when sprouting This avidity. Annonce If found." success with is a good sign " or fairies. a or two feet in length. Key becomes the act of copulation. small gardening. and chiavare. it in love By locking a intimacy between them. padlock when a couple it is with the sieve that a great sorcerer. La chiave pero Che sia sempre ma non porto la fortuna appresso di me. : "Non E lo prendo questo chiave l'ho trovato porto con me. is to me. (" 'Tis not a key which I have found Nor one which I shall But fortune which Ever " And this The may be special my friend meaning of the key being applied to the an omen is is La Tu you blow or whistle We can will Master Gazette — Thus to main tes derniers projels. And or it is carried in the pocket While very lucky to find one. is hemp is by their as follows box. will be " in I may Apropos of the papers. are married. and have a suppose. "to key virile Its general signification as dream of a key or see one and near which said for anything else bear around. picking it up you should say They may be luck. Very old keys are good amulets for hung up by a red ribbon in the room. auras du succes in a key. this common growth. especially all {chiave) qu' a la fin an old one.

mies. has driven a profitable trade with infallible means of The formulae most frequently used for these purposes were known to our dies. or lay them across one another on the table. la casa mia.' operator. from the finger of a young unmarried If neither of . la fortuna. sisting of six woman. of heaven the stars and the dream and If this I see The poppy was not only . was suspended from a pair of ' To divine with scissors held by two name of the suspected person. 365 " Methods of discovering the names of thieves and the whereabouts of stolen goods were endless many an down almost old hag. . and of the suspected person was written to The assistants. and the whole suspended by a cord spun purpose. for clear. all A sieve the certainty of a thing. : del cielo. the proverb methods. preserved in the Bibliotheque de l'Arsenal — recounts that he used method three times with the the sieve spin round. Che non possa abbandonar' Mai It has been several times published . (le mie intenzione). so commonly seen in the apothecaries' windows.jesquet. benedoe. if at them moved and ' volume of Scripture. but owing immense number of its seeds was a type of fertility and wealth. the six • compelled the demon to make —the author of a most entertaining manuscript work on the elements of magic. . Hence the poppy-heads. twigs or bits of small Bind two of these so a cross. and then gave it up man — greatly. or stand. Fate mi face (" 'In the May been compelled to doubt.'") . Hence.' Pierre D'Abanne 1 most complete success. Another amulet allied to dreaming boughs from an oak-tree as to make (in is made by taking England of mountain-ash). . fearing that the . I sogno secondo il name . finds Then put it it. dowina—' which neither he or his assistants understood. and repeat before going to sleep : " Non metto questa Ma metto quercia. to his chargin. as the key ' and ' around a key . having pronounced the words If the person was his innocence be the most certain of —to express upon a piece of paper placed the words the key and the book turned. Domine ' this was deemed the sieve ' . should you But on picking it. no the truth three times in succession to one tell —would draw liar his tormentor into toils Never pass by a to the person who coin. OMENS AND SMALL SORCERIES. own time. delle stelle. repeated a shibboleth confet. will end. the guilt of the suspect was proved. ' divination as old as the fire-worshippers. sacred to the god of dreams and of sleep. make a hole in this demon. by your bed. Three times she repeated in for the a low voice the verse Divination by the sieve was long in high favour. since he shake out the seed and place in beneath your pillow and repeat " in revenge for having from which there would be no escape. The name the sieve. however and takes ' In nome is by nature a trifling .— — — " AMULETS.'' the last edition is by Scheibele of Stuttgart (in his Kloster).' ' the key was tied to a ' Exurge. (here repeat your wish). moon ' ! that full soon. " To know the future or how any event poppy-pod. della luna. whose name was mentioned were magical words guilty. which are or to the gilt were originally amulets to bring money. Take a dry a paper on which your question is written. . or let it lie your luck will pass up repeat the same it what your luck it be in a lottery will : lines. says Erasmus.

it But ever in The —by my dwelling stay. If you is numbers your luck will depend on not injuring with serpents or any animals which are marked. especially if Red (especially me ! that luck. it will portend —Good fortune. is as general in the colour of the blood and of So a red ribbon or heat.— . —Peace. and look in the lottery. content. catch wings. and the cross thus sticks should may be hung up formed and spelled becomes an amulet which away misfortune. Orange—Misfortune. or cloth be new and fresh. ") or pick up. for there To you can without hurting as carefully as often find characters which indicate winning as lucky in find a horse-shoe. " When one under or its sees a very fine large butterfly. Silver— Disquiet. successful it which you : love. intelligence. calm. we can And but read elsewhere. prosperity.") be bound with red ribbon (woollen). it is or over a sacred to bed brings luck. for there you No to a question. Grey Gold — Fortune. Whenever one puts on a new garment. discontent. prosperity. gold. any find is of he accursed be if the first colour. gain. is writing in Tuscany as make all things it is if it." Hay is also a red bag and put the horse-shoe . it is red. 366 Tis not oak which here (" But good fortune May I place. maladetto sia Chi cerca nella mia ! vita Di portar qualche malia " ! ("This coat To If Should you find. or even see Thus to happen. you may divine by bit of ribbon. trouble. Yes this is the case it. for find a horse-shoe luck-bringing. pain. Black The Italy as life and belief in the it is magic virtue of As ancient. — ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. disturbance. grace its never pass away. especially oi red wool. —Vexation. cloth hung from a window fire. or it. he to bring good luck or drive " Porto questo or she should repeat this spell : vestito Per maggior fortuna Sia maladetto. or string. this garment bear. —Jealousy according to some. passion. Yellow . Then may let it it go again. is wear. man begrudge any May what I bring good luck to scarlet) it any object.

and it be an admirable amulet.— ! — ! ! AMULETS. gloves when boiled in water yield a In this case Shoes or however of great use manner in When which though in witchcraft. that good fortune By me may be won O Fire-fly! Make When a woman it my own has a sore throat ! Fire-fly {effeto ! ") di lu gola abassata). a also an incantation for luck liquid am I they sing a strange fire-fly. sure to and takes fall off her in love with own and her. Mette Al la briglia figluolo del re. put On So . the been taken man is off. for three own apron and measure or fold mornings in succession. vi discongiuro In came ed " laces by In Voodoo them Mary if a woman gets another's shoes inside the other pair. this soupe au shoe which if not palatable is not informed as to the exact served up. bridle the bridle the king's son. will It is to 367 be kept always in the bed. put three pins crossed with a sharpened knife stuck into the table and say " Diavolo.—Note . she must take her in a cross thrice (misuararla in croce). Then when she has done it this she must. and so leaves them : ! ossa. Luciola mi a Viene da (" Fire-fly O ! me " ! Fire-fly Enter the course Come.. OMENS AND SMALL SORCERIES. put the Now on the horse Come. 1 is children see a lucciola. A. which have till just morning. Che la fortuna Venga con me. into it with hay. " If a youth loves a maid he will do much win her to affections should he give her amorino. that is mignonette." we can infer that nomen est omen. before eating. Owen. little song which is : " Lucciola ! Lucciola ! Viene a gara Mette A la briglia la cavalla.

Sinoquando questa donna non guarira Questo coltello del tavola non sortira E cosi la Strega piu pace ("Devil.") Shamanism according to which every pain be caused by sorcery a doctrine which exists interesting as indicating the or the least disorder is supposed to in full force in another form known — as Prayers for the Sick. and then strike making the sign of the cross : witch-work. Pii non possa." However. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. i' the witch shall feel the knife In her soul and in her This ! I conjure thee alone. one should after eating an egg break the shell to fragments. In and in bone ! woman bewitched If this The witch at once shall Till she's freed knife from is be.— " . luck will spoil. some think it is the palm of the hand in the wine. 368 Si questa donna e stregata Questa Strega tenerla stregata. . flesh The And non avra life !. tu porta via Assieme coll' acqua corsia " ! (" If thou art a witch. Therefore Egg-shells are witches' goblets for drinking. lest they use them for such. when the wine upsets. O devil's daughter 1 And be borne away On It is commonly the running water ! ") said that- ' Spilling or dropping wine a very lucky sign Is But spilling or Much good dropping oil. set her free ! her pain all the table shall remain. and so they put it on the forehead and say. Go. and throw into a running stream and say them : " Se sei Va Che una strega al diavolo.

And water well the thirsty field. stelle e della me ha chi 369 dato lascia la luna malaugurio. There are many curious ideas current as to old which are. with heads 48 . il buona fortuna ! ("In the name of heaven. stones was common in Italy in And we know dry seasons. the stars and May the one Bring me better luck and soon ! ") But that. OMENS AND SMALL SORCERIES. especially work on the Etruscan books of in his coloris antiqui by that such an application of similar in the country. not it alone. est petras. was rolled his priests through the town. As among the Romans. le pietre. On : and especially beware seeing those figures depicted or set forth in bronze. generally supposed to be connected with ancient sorcery. rullo campi mi possa umidire. which was thus described " When the field it : has not rained for a long time and the and say fields are dry. " In nome Delle A Me del cielo. this subject I obtained the following "When Roman and Etruscan relics. writes : And Labeo " Fibrae jecoris sandaracei dum fuerint." Traces of the custom are found in other countries. manales tunc vertere opus. i cosi buona raccolta possa venire wish indeed to And Pacqua in terra possa venire. There is a very curious custom observed in La Romagna. rudely painted. p.— — . It forms the theme of an old Norman-French fabliau. leather. id est quas solebant in modum cylindrorum per limites trahere pro pluviae commutanda inopia. or cloth. they take stones and roll them through : " Queste pietre voglio rullare. when there was a great drought. the picture of a bunch of grapes. — " ! AMULETS. Of moon who gave misfortune.. however. So that it may good harvest yield I roll the stone that ' ! PRELLER states {Rom. she should not look at animals. which are half animals and half men. as an amulet to secure a good crop. yet it is " 1 ' roll this stone. is a very old belief. water may Come in these fields so dry to-day. Myth. vin repandu porte bonheur. ' Ma non Rullo Che Ed E (" ' I rullo le pietre. or enceinte. ritual. a woman is very curious information incinta. is placed in vineyards in Northern Italy. ") 312) that in the temple of Mars there was kept a great stone cylinder which.

or else to defeat break a spell or cure a disease. an its fruit shall shall not it be arranged on the the earth shall not receive it : festivals of kings and gods it 1 cast the evil fate. may it happen that she easily be born in similar form and so will easily have a son like them. at Pan and the sylvan . the same in nature with the in Catholic churches. which are so frequently found in sckiavi. form with several fades. The author remarks that while pronouncing them the operator had to perform certain conjurations resembling those described in the Pharmaceutria of Theocritus Virgil's VIII. the person or Again. the Eclogue.. ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. for which they were translated from Accadian cylinders. expense in It is Among little figures of wax so common much greater such marks of gratitude for divine aid than do modern Catholic Chris- employed by the is now. given in Lenormant's Magie Chaldaienne. the belief being that.the violent lines of be trained into an orchard. and same to wither. gambe di Cristiano). his wife. which freely faithful. or excavations. or else a piece of it pulled apart. and the sun shall not smile upon be offered at the The man who has ." full is cut to pieces of pins and broken.. so shall also the spell The burning It shall not it shall not fire shall devour its a vine arbour . such a time looks at these to pass in such cases that he will That is. and in The . it. Certain spells are used in Tuscany with a double meaning. they evil witch.e. or to A plant or herb. which is left to similarly a has become a legal form. . operation. many it become a wizard. which are also essentially those Assyrian incantations are as follows As this plant withers. the curses. ! — ! — . gods). 370 like goats and legs of Christians (col capo di capra. root not grow. bronze figures of rural deities or lares. All of these spells are very ancient may be found in certain conjurations. now in use. the sins. as disease or enchantment will slowly die or vanish.. with the same consequences. an apple an orange or lemon dry up. but was quite as it employed Among these are the following having had an incantation pronounced over I have given) is left it (nearly the common form of magic —or formula known in the West where woollen felted or woven cloth is Also a it : in stick is is stuck is to say. e le like those of a horse " woman If a may come (i. for the old latent sorcery will pass to the child and be developed in The images here referred to are mostly the old Roman ex voto offerings. or faces with the legs of devils. the finger pointing. that are these are worth observing that the ancients went to Bronze was dearer then than wax tians. a an either to injure a certain person. the written spell.

day I the other to tearing up a piece of should in my ! also recog- . ! cast the evil fate. my in is branch from which festivals of cast the evil fate. the evil spell. the violent operation. ! two other incantations. and bruises.e. in may my bruises. the violent operation the evil that ! it devour fire bruises. and be rent like the burning fire Like unto this devour it my wool this may this are flesh. like this plant devour fire flesh. the finger pointing. OMENS AND SMALL SORCERIES. day! this it may the evil fate depart. of disease. spirit.!! !!! ! ! ! AMULETS. in 371 day this it may ! behold the light again I 11. my body. in be divided in pieces all [that] May May [i.. is shall not arrive at a perfect state of splendour The man who has . in my be broken in pieces and plucked up devour fire this it may the evil fate depart. so shall also the spell be is devour fire shall it shall not return to the supporting it shall not be offered at the The man who has may the burning kings or gods cut off. his wife. the sins. The evil may [all that] May May the burning which my in is my body. these are so strikingly like the common bruises. As The burning this It shall it wool is rent so also shall the spell be. in behold the light again frilled stuff. his wife. so shall also the spell be. all diseases— as Slavonian heretics of the fourteenth century Bogomile The seventy-seven fevers— i. the evil that my in is [all that] May May the evil fate depart and be withered the burning my body. of disproof in reference to a common and origin These Chaldsean cylinders speak of coming from the seven primary demons sceptic. is it ! evil invocation]. As this twig The burning fire shall devour it not again unite themselves to the trunk its fibres shall it plucked up and broken in pieces. and my like this fruit I behold the light again ! in. the sins. fire shall devour it not return to the back of shall not sheep its . sense fall I call attention to modern Tuscan both general treatment.. the written spell. twig like this day behold the light again I ! IV.e. the curses. the finger pointing. the the evil which is in my body. his wife. the written spells. in flesh.. the curses. be offered for the garments of kings and gods The man who ! has cast the evil fate. the pointing with the finger. in flesh. that the burden on the the fact that as regards subject. one applied to rending a banner. the written spell. As this fruit The burning divided into pieces. in may May all [that] May the evil fate depart. sins. the curses.

it. amulets.e. however. may be tied. personified) the operator same O ! : thou dear Lord against the plague must turn his face the seventy-seven (i. which must not. and requires no further initiation. 1 It would be useless to attempt to palm one. Christ. or the king. and cultivate the possession of an power authenticated " cunjerin'. the owner by the mere act of possession becomes a grand this Even the past-master Voodoo. which it am —or to hold as I write. It is is the seventy-seven fevers he must not speak to any one spell as a cure for fever the following -" In the Chaldaean incantation German we have an old in very remarkable that all over the world a black pebble of kidney shape supposed to be one of the most powerful of amulets. as that it. it in I hold it my in left hand thereby charm. It had been kept with the most jealous care many generations in the families of these sorcerers. possess one which was brought from Missouri and presented to me by I myself Miss Mary A. . In the towards the setting sun. the postulant must fast and watch. but I in.— ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. or a bag. Take away from ! . has never been able to get one. since the recipe for it was given by an angel to Saint Elizabeth of Hungary. be carried in a wrapping. and came originally from To become an ordinary Voodoo. such stones were exhibited from widely different countries. .. like It closed all Voodoo by wrapping a would prevent the Once a week it may free should be dipped assured that eau de Cologne will answer just surely ought to do. mildly trusting that I reader. s7 2 And nised the seventy-seven fevers and had an exorcism for them. which involves the idea. " undergo revolting penances. German spell current in " Good-morning. must. or at least interest thee. Black believers have been known to make a their possessors are all pilgrimage of a thousand miles to be touched with this marvellous stone the hand. Owen. for Africa. But or conjuring-stone. whiskey. O be egress or ingress of the spirit which dwells in or touched with. chief black sorcerer in Missouri." " and " will " all his life. to which most extraordinary value and reverence was attached by the black Voodoos and their disciples. till after sunrise. renders all unnecessary. take Pennsylvania dear Thursday them away from him. 1 This remarkable man who was known as " King Alexander " died while this work was being printed. since said that there are in all it is mine being one of the half-dozen as is every mark in the stones. as well. which string round five. — off a similar black pebble for a real North America only six and —or rather well known. At the Folk-Lore Congress of 1891. or multote.

or to bring luck. gemme co pezzetti di metatto ." " Non solum di quale si credeva avessero Gnostici. bring good luck to me. Thou most who me attirerai for lead " ! and copper art of zinc I powerful. ai ! alontanerai verb. Maffei. santo Ireneo." et participationem. are the old stones. imitationem (Interpre Marsilio Ficino). which I evil eye. two of which I piece of lead ore is possess. de Arte Magica Distrutta. however. in the for a half-franc each. A supposed to possess peculiar virtue as an amulet against malocchio. I keep thee ever by me. sed etiam in lapidibus aspicere verb in plantis qua? vestigium habent quandam luminum supemorum. buona fortuna a (" Antimony. vitae. effective still is a Roman sling- This is supposed For these I have also SLING-STONE.") was obtained me. written in the following words.. or pointed slugs of lead. which are as follows. Proclus de Sacrificio et Magia licet. great power. as talismans for the to also contain zinc and copper. " Talisman! erano pietre. 1757. 373 Lead and Antimony. of of which must be pronounced when one evil people. in forza ma la frequenza loro. Of these I have seen three. however. alontanera. it them. e il credito venne da' o straordinarie virtu. with the invocation which usual red woollen bag. e da Basilidiano.— — — " LEAD AND ANTIMONY. Lugduni. me That thou mayest banish from And : tengo sempre con me. Perche tu mi alontani lit.. quali assai parla nel suo libro. the scongiurazioni. But more bought I lump of crude antimony. e singolari. for :— " Antimogno che Non Ma di piombo sei ai la stessa forza della zingo e prestati per la forza Tutte le chattive che tu persone da Ela buona fortuna mi me attirerai rame. 1577. have two. to be imper- I believe : " Antimonio che II piu potente sei di ti Da me E la zingo e di rame le cattive gente. which give That up tied which such numbers are everywhere found. and ROMAN fectly recalled is Far more potent. et .

deep most probably derived from the old "body" of bronze. And seemed to linger it quaintly in the fancy that copper and antimony and lead have and magic mystic power. that : —when their lustre and copper as the worship of light just to the I elicited these ideas —that still on the the stars are in the nightly heaven. and copper. is . it was one where the prezzi fissi principle was carried of fixed prices marked. or luck-bringing Antimony But occult virtues all their in the earth. 171 1). is that the piece of paper marked Its is being "fisso" any " fixed. this light is. or rather it copper and lead. Not having the art lead. one of god Nosoo. light it is supposed to form part of antimony. intelligible that those earthly gatherers of light was concentrated is its in the sun or as set forth it is — et septem by Nork in his also curious since as other seers read should be associated with the heavenly ones." i.e. 8. "a So I purchased it for a old bronze Etruscan images. because selectorum lapidum " ") Copper and gold have the reddest evil beings. as the American negroes say. or the deus franc —the bargain Aplu and the other of incognitus. Varietate. That thou It will " it. that are the gleaming metals in the dark abyss of the earth. assigned a glittering metal according to out. This does not mean at all in Italy that a dealer will not take less.. a this is the . xvi. force of zinc But grant that by the power which thou hast. A few days ago I bought in a piece of copper was embedded. mighty strong including two cunjerin' little Apropos of is. but that he binds himself not to take more. genial. fixed.. dreaded by light is my informant which difficulty me people from all evil be observed that in both of these invocations great stress virtue of copper. shines in itself. according to the Italian idea. on the wares. so unto every leading planet there was degree of radiance. reading in the earth the past. heavens the future. Paris." suggests the source whence Novalis drew his it famed simile that miners are inverted in the astrologers." : ETRUSCAN ROMAN REMAINS. regarding keep wilt The price is convenient as giving a basis for a bargain. owing Etymologisch-symbolisch-mythologisches Realworterbuch What Roman stronger than lead. is always has in There and after and their light in darkness. ." strong is of confirmation Cardanus (De Rerutn theory in this and Peter of Aries {Sympathia septem metallorum ad planetas. stone. and and planets. 9) therefore ! had to put her ideas into form. it consists of three metals. it is This laid is religious feeling much weary inquiry. this shop.'' all their " light an old shop an amulet of lead ore in which This was. 374 ("Thou who antimony. which as the The metals have broken .

like mine. — for or even older. " 375 a bargain. have gold backgrounds. but with gesso looks every whit of rehabilitating buy may I much ladies with All of his madonnas. 1737. of the Museum Etruscum seeing that I wanted "Throw ground. Now or stuck on the article indicated." but for eight. for ever I for the sale of damaged Virgins —which I —and I so that and gouache it fifty years. The picture my it acquaintance was its I restored it four hundred and the surroundings are favourable to such work such rifatture ." So the Madonna was thrown in and we were all satisfied. he offered and it's first marked "ten volume francs. white of eggs. and gold. and gum. seems better than new. colours." I it young man had the this of Antonio F. stories about . in a —she was hurry — worth about really well tenpence This was indeed —as the French advertisement a shop — une Vierge d'occasion. it on a panel. Florence is and But then a famous place for have heard some marvellous omit for want of space. Gori. with a gold back- in that fourteenth-century Virgin said.LEAD AND ANTIMONY. in Roman here mention which very I who only admires fearfully dilapidated." in Catholic " idolatries " announced " that these are the only kind of pictures which resemble a young gentleman of large fortunes.

) . (In possession of the Author.BRONZE ETRUSCAN AMULET AGAINST THE EVIL EYE.

Romagna. 217 Bell.. 13. 132 in . 345 Blaize. 177 Aretino Pietro. 119 Alpena. Puck The Spell of the.. 133 Bell. 267 Ambrosius. II prete Stregone. A. 116 Amber beads. Beato.INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES. 19 Aristophanes. 268. &c. 325 Walnut . 141. 219 Arabian Night? Entertainmenfs. Bishop. 117. 65 Arnobius. 80 Ashes. 349~353 in formjof mouse. (on the Black I/en) 355. 49. 131 Baptist. 17 On . Dr. 58. 103. 112 Beato Angelico. 153 343 American Folk. and B. Barbatus. 211 Albertus Magnus. 312. 374 Arno. 257 Baphomet. 218 Basket origin of interlaces. and the birds. Emperor. 112-116 Apuleius. 274 Admission of imperfections. 256. 152 (vide Bernoni. Arrimini. 179 Ancient deities still existing in the Tuscan Basile. 185. 360 Bacchus. St. 123 Anna. Amulet 324. as amulets. 135 Artemisia. Divination by. Italian Dictionary. 14-15 light. a goddess of the air. 70 Albina. and Fortuna Redux. Divination by. Bellaria. or cure for the eyes. 170 Bauhinus. 333 Befania. Hymn of. John the. 238-240 Antimony and its virtues. 78 Authenticity of these traditions. 96 Augustus. 36. 117. 219 Bewitchment by food. 123 Algonkin Legends of of. &c. 161 Baumnymphen Angelico. 321-322 2 of. Walnut-tree Witches. Legend (tree-nymphs). and Small Sorceries. Lord. 345-348 Atta Navius. Legend the lizard.) Bergoia. 190 form of pig. 245 . 119. Battista. Omens. The Spell of the. medal. 270-272 Birds. 246 Anthony Antonio. Saint. Poem on the cock. 342- 13 Amethyst.). 158 Alpan New England. Baretti. Bells used for charms. 373 Aplu. 37-38 Apple-Tree. The river. 267 255 Amulets. Caspar. The. 272 Agobard. 270 Aries.Lore Journal. 356 225-226 Benevento. 206-207 Birds and Treasures.. Bishop. Dei. Peter of. 363 Anacreon. Gian. Fire 49 and Salt. 356-359 Bell rung to prevent storm. flowers.(Elian. (vide Alpena). 30. St. 235 Archilochus. 82. Apollo. Acorns. 119 Amber beads 271 Augustin (Civ. 162 Arval Brothers. 255 of. Babe bewitched. 17 Aurora. Attilio.

347-348 Bunsen. 9i. Incantation to Colours. Spirit of the Wind. 359-361 Cocquius. Lo Spirito della. 36. 204. 254 in 1855. Caesar Borgia. 255 Cross.INDEX OF SUBJECTS AND AUTHORITIES. the Spirit of the Baize. 149. and Herodias. 345 Castagna (or lafica). 139 a. 205 Cat and Hare skins in magic cures. 37o-37i sorcery. a name of Juno. 72-75 Corssen. 245-246 Diana. Anthol. 43. 366 Bostonians. 197. 117 Corredoia. Cavaletta. 182-185 Cures. Dus {vide Dusio) 126 Chaucer. Curena. La. 319 5. American. the Roman god of horses. 361 155. 109. 139-140 Burmann. 139 Boy. . 187 Palermo — worship of mur- derers. Sir Patrick. from Marcellus. Philadelphia Evening. 187