6.

1: Using the Standardized Normal Distribution Table

CD6-1

6.1:

USING THE STANDARDIZED NORMAL DISTRIBUTION TABLE
Any set of normally distributed data can be converted to its standardized form and the desired probabilities can then be determined from a table of the standardized normal distribution. To see how the transformation Equation (6.2) on page 199 can be applied and how you can use the results to obtain probabilities from the table of the standardized normal distribution (Table E.14), consider the following problem. Suppose a consultant was investigating the time it took factory workers in an automobile plant to assemble a particular part after the workers had been trained to perform the task using an individual learning approach. The consultant determined that the time in seconds to assemble the part for workers trained with this method was normally distributed with a mean µ of 75 seconds and a standard deviation σ of 6 seconds.

Transforming the Data
From Figure 6.4a observe that every measurement X has a corresponding standardized measurement Z obtained from the transformation formula (6.2). Hence from Figure 6.4a a time of 81 seconds required for a factory worker to complete the task is equivalent to 1 standardized unit (that is, 1 standard deviation) above the mean, since Z = 81 − 75 = +1 6

and a time of 57 seconds required for a worker to assemble the part is equivalent to 3 standardized units (that is, 3 standard deviations) below the mean because Z = 57 − 75 = −3 6

Thus, the standard deviation has become the unit of measurement. In other words, a time of 81 seconds is 6 seconds (i.e., 1 standard deviation) higher, or slower than the average time of 75 seconds and a time of 57 seconds is 18 seconds (i.e., 3 standard deviations) lower, or faster than the average time.

Automobile Plant with Individual-Based Training

µ – 3σ 57 –3

µ – 2σ 63 –2

µ – 1σ 69 –1

µ 75 0

µ + 1σ 81 +1

µ + 2σ 87 +2

µ + 3σ 93 +3

X Scale
(µ = 75, σ = 6)

FIGURE 6.4a Transformation of scales

Z Scale

Suppose now that the consultant conducted the same study at another automobile plant, where the workers were trained to assemble the part by using a team-based learning method. Suppose that at this plant the consultant determined that the time to perform the task was normally distributed with mean µ of 60 seconds and a standard deviation σ of 3 seconds. The data are depicted in Figure 6.5a. In comparison with the results for workers who had an individual learning method, note, for example, that at the plant where workers had team-based training, a time of 57 seconds to complete the task is only 1 standard deviation below the mean for the group, since Z = 57 − 60 = −1 3

since 63 − 60 = +1 3 and a time of 51 seconds is 3 standard deviations below the group mean because Z = Z = 51 − 60 = −3 3 Using the Normal Probability Tables The two bell-shaped curves in Figures 6.2). Thus. That is. since for a symmetrical distribution having a mean of zero.4a and 6. Z standard deviations above the mean) must be identical to the area from the mean to ϪZ (that is. the area under the curve between any two reported times values represents only a portion of the total area possible. this corresponds to the probabilities or areas under the standardized normal curve from the mean to the transformed values of interest Z.14 represents the probabilities or areas under the normal curve calculated from the mean µ to the particular values of interest X.5a depict the relative frequency polygons for the normal distributions representing the time (in seconds) for all factory workers to assemble a part at two automobile plants. what is the likelihood that the worker’s time is between the plant mean and one standard deviation above this mean? This answer is found by using Table E. Table E. Using Equation (6. Since at each plant the times to assemble the part are known for every factory worker. and therefore the probabilities or proportion of area under the entire curve must add up to 1.14.5a A different transformation of scales –3 Suppose the consultant wishes to determine the probability that a factory worker selected at random from those who underwent individual-based training should require between 75 and 81 seconds to complete the task. the data represent the entire population at a particular plant. Z standard deviations below the mean). one that employed individual-based training and the other that employed team-based training. Only positive entries for Z are listed in the table. the area from the mean to +Z (that is. Automobile Plant with Team-Based Training 51 54 –2 57 –1 60 0 63 +1 66 +2 69 +3 X Z FIGURE 6. .CD6-2 CD MATERIAL Note that a time of 63 seconds is 1 standard deviation above the mean time for assemblage.

2580 .0080 . and. Automobile Plant with Individual-Based Training Z= X–µ 81 – 75 = = +1.0 1.14 note that all Z values must first be recorded to two decimal places.00 corresponds to the intersection of the row Z = 1.06 .1628 .3023 .2612 . To read the probability or area under the curve from the mean to Z = +1.4 0.3554 .05 .3790 .1736 .1331 . From Figure 6.2224 .2389 . This probability is 0.0438 .2088 .3749 . Therefore.0319 .1 .8 0.2704 .1: Using the Standardized Normal Distribution Table CD6-3 To use Table E.00 On the other hand.00.6a. Hence you stop in the row Z = 1.5 0.3531 . These results are illustrated in Figure 6. Next read across this row until you intersect the column that contains the hundredths place of the Z value.0910 .00 as shown in Table 6.2357 .7 0.0517 .1700 .3599 .00 +2.1406 .3365 .3686 .2a Obtaining an area under the normal curve Z .6.2881 .2 0.0199 .3413.3413. in the body of the table the tabulated probability for Z = 1.0478 .03 .0000 .7a you see that the probability or area under the curve from 60 to 63 seconds for the workers who had team-based training is identical to the probability or area under the curve from 75 to 81 seconds for the workers who had individual-based training.2157 .2a (which is a portion of Table E. which demonstrates that regardless of the value of the mean µ and standard deviation σ of a particular set of normally distributed data.14.6 0.7a.14).3389 .2823 .0987 .00 63 –2.09 0.0871 .2764 .00 σ 2 Area .1064 .1915 .0714 .6a Determining the area between the mean and Z from a standardized normal distribution 57 –3.1255 .1808 .2422 .0160 . a time of 63 seconds is 1 standardized unit above the mean time of 60 seconds.2852 .1103 .1480 .3264 .13% chance that a factory worker selected at random who has had individual-based training will require between 75 and 81 seconds to assemble the part.2794 .3315 .2995 .00 69 –1.0239 .2518 .3643 .1368 .0398 .3413 FIGURE 6.0675 .0636 .3078 .1517 .2939 .0040 .04 .3413 . TABLE 6.3106 .0.3133 .3340 .2257 . .3438 . by using Table E.3238 .1 0.1664 .0793 .0832 .1217 .0596 .07 . you know from Figure 6.1293 .0359 .5a that at the automobile plant where the workers received team-based training.2019 .2549 .3 0.3289 . a transformation to a standardized scale can always be made from Equation (6.2673 .3461 . Thus the likelihood that a randomly selected factory worker who received team-based training will complete the assemblage in between 60 and 63 seconds is also 0. any probability or portion of area under the curve can be obtained.3577 .2486 .2967 .3830 Source: Extracted from Table E.3665 .1026 .1443 .2291 .08 .2734 .0120 .2454 . there is a 34.1772 .3770 .0948 .2642 .0 0. Thus the Z value of interest is recorded as +1.3159 .1985 .1141 .0279 .1179 .1554 .00 75 0 81 87 93 X Scale Z Scale +1.00 .2123 .00.14.01 .3186 .1591 .3708 .2054 .00 +3.3485 .2324 .2).3621 . As depicted in Figure 6.0753 .02 .1844 .14 until you locate the Z value of interest (in tenths).1879 .3729 .3508 .3212 .2910 .1950 .9 1.3051 .0557 .2190 .0 with the column Z = . scan down the Z column from Table E.3810 .

from Figure 6. What is the probability that a randomly selected factory worker can assemble the part in 69 to 81 seconds? 3.6a observe that the desired probability must be its complement. What is the interquartile range (in seconds) expected for factory workers to assemble the part? Finding the Probabilities Corresponding to Known Values Recall that for workers who had individual-based training the assembly time data are normally distributed with a mean µ of 75 seconds and a standard deviation σ of 6 seconds. is to separately obtain both the probability of assembling the part in under 75 seconds and the probability of assembling the part in over 81 seconds and then use the addition rule for mutually exclusive events [Equation (4. however.7a Demonstrating a transformation of scales for corresponding portions under two normal curves –3 Now that you have learned to use Table E. How many seconds must elapse before 10% of the factory workers assemble the part? 7. What is the probability that a randomly selected factory worker can assemble the part in under 62 seconds? 4. many different types of probability questions pertaining to the normal distribution can be resolved.14 in conjunction with Equation (6.CD6-4 CD MATERIAL Team-Based Training Individual-Based Training XS cal e 51 57 63 69 75 81 87 93 ZS +3 +2 +1 0 –1 –2 cal e FIGURE 6.2). this information is used to determine the probabilities associated with various measured values.6587. This is depicted in Figure 6. 1 Ϫ 0. What is the probability that a randomly selected factory worker can assemble the part in 62 to 69 seconds? 5.4)] on page 145 to obtain the desired result. In responding to questions 1 through 4. Question 1: Finding P(X < 75 or X > 81) How can you determine the probability that a randomly selected factory worker will perform the task in under 75 seconds or over 81 seconds? Since you have already determined the probability that a randomly selected factory worker will need between 75 and 81 seconds to assemble the part.8a. that is.3413 = 0. How many seconds must elapse before 50% of the factory workers assemble the part? 6. What is the probability that a randomly selected factory worker can assemble the part in under 75 seconds or in over 81 seconds? 2. . Another way to view this problem. To illustrate. suppose that the consultant raises the following questions with regard to assembling a particular part by workers who had individual-based training: 1.

from Equation (6.3413.2) on page 199 permits you only to find probabilities from a particular value of interest to the mean. Discarding the negative sign.00 75 0 81 87 93 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6. the probability that the part can be assembled in between 69 and 81 seconds is 0. Determine the probability from the mean to 69 seconds. Sum up the two mutually exclusive results. Now you need to obtain the probability of assembling the part in over 81 seconds. is 0. the area under the normal curve from the mean to 81 seconds is 0. Hence the probability that a randomly selected factory worker will perform the task in under 75 or over 81 seconds. that is.00 σ 6 Using Table E.14 shows only positive entries for Z. then.0000.3413 + 0.5000 Area . To find the area from the mean to 69 seconds (step 2).6.2) only gives the areas under the curve from the mean to Z. as shown in Figure 6.1587 = 0.9a.00 is 0. Hence the area under the curve less than Z = 0. This result is displayed in Figure 6. Note from Figure 6.3413.00 Since the mean and median are theoretically the same for normally distributed data.00 +1.00 is 0.5000 Ϫ 0. But Equation (6.00 +3.3413.5000 + 0. the area from Z = +1.3413 = 0.14.14) the value Z = 1. P(X < 75 or X > 81).0000 = 0.6587. not from Z to +∞. you already completed step 1.5000 Ϫ 0. Because of symmetry. the area from the mean to Z = Ϫ1. For this example. . Since the transformation Equation (6.3413 since Z = X–µ = +1. Since you know that the area or portion of the curve from the mean to Z = +1. 2.6826.1587 57 63 –2. Thus you find the probability from the mean to Z and subtract this result from 0.3413 = 0. it follows that 50% of the workers can assemble the part in under 75 seconds.00 69 –1. you see that the area under the normal curve from the mean to Z = 0.00 σ Area . from step 3. Determine the probability from the mean to 81 seconds.1587.00 +2. P(69 ≤ X ≤ 81).9a that one of the values of interest is above the mean assembly time of 75 seconds and the other value is below it.00 and find the probability to be 0.00. you look up (in Table E.8a Finding P (X < 75 or X > 81) –3.2) Z = X − µ 75 − 75 = = 0.1: Using the Standardized Normal Distribution Table CD6-5 Automobile Plant with Individual-Based Training Area = . 3.00 must be 0.00 σ 6 Table E. Question 2: Finding P(69 ≤ X ≤ 81) Suppose that you are now interested in determining the probability that a randomly selected factory worker can complete the part in 69 to 81 seconds.5000 (which happens to be the area for the entire left side of the distribution from the mean to Z = Ϫ∞. Hence. Z = X − µ 69 − 75 = = −1. you can obtain the desired probability in three steps: 1. To show this.00 must be identical to the area from the mean to Z = +1.00 to Z = +∞ must be 0.8a).5000 to obtain the desired answer.

000) that a randomly selected factory worker will be so fast or so slow that he or she could be expected to complete the assembly of the part in under 57 seconds or over 93 seconds. For the plant in which the workers received individual-based training.26%) can be expected to complete the task within ±1 standard deviation from the mean.4772 since X–µ Z= = +2.3413 since X–µ = –1. You can see that for any normal distribution there is a 0.CD6-6 CD MATERIAL Area = . Area = . practically all factory workers (99.00 87 93 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6.11a Finding P (57 ≤ X ≤ 93) –3.00 +1.00 Z= σ Area = .00 69 –1. between 63 and 87 seconds).00 69 –1.9a Finding P (69 ≤ X ≤ 81) –3. and.00 σ Area = .00 75 0 81 87 93 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6.00 +1. 3 standard deviations above the mean to 3 standard deviations below the mean) is often used as a practical approximation of the range for normally distributed data.0027 or only 27 factory workers in 10.00 75 0 81 87 93 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6.73%) can be expected to assemble the part within ±3 standard deviations from the mean (that is.00 69 –1. between 57 and 93 seconds).00 +2.00 +2.00 From Figure 6.11a it is indeed quite unlikely (.00 .10a.10a Finding P (63 ≤ X ≤ 87) –3. from Figure 6.00 Z= σ 57 63 –2. slightly more than two out of every three factory workers (68.49865 since X–µ Z= = +3. Moreover.00 σ 57 63 –2.4772 since X–µ Z= = –2.00 75 0 81 +1. from Figure 6.00 +3.6826 chance that a randomly selected item will fall within ±1 standard deviation above or below the mean.44%) can be expected to complete the assembly within ±2 standard deviations from the mean (that is. Thus it is clear why 6σ (that is. Area = . slightly more than 19 out of every 20 factory workers (95.11a.00 σ 57 63 –2.00 σ Area = .3413 since X–µ = +1.00 +3.00 +2.00 +3.00 The above result is rather important.49865 since X–µ Z= = –3.

1179 .4864 .0910 .4850. .1026 .04 .06 .07 .4 .4878 .0359 .4850 .13a. suppose you wish to find how likely it is that a randomly selected factory worker can complete the task in 62 to 69 seconds.4893 . .0150.4846 .2) on page 199 only permits you to find areas under the standardized normal distribution from the mean to Z.0080 .00 +2. .0 2. Therefore.00 To determine the area under the curve from the mean to 62 seconds.1293 . Thus.00 +3. .0517 .4861 .4798 .5000 Ϫ 0.1217 .0120 .17 σ 6 6 Neglecting the negative sign.4898 . The transformation Equation (6. . .1443 . .1331 . Z = X − µ 62 − 75 −13 = = = −2.4783 .2 0. .1: Using the Standardized Normal Distribution Table CD6-7 Question 3: Finding P(X < 62) To obtain the probability that a randomly selected factory worker can assemble the part in under 62 seconds you examine the shaded lower left-tailed region of Figure 6.4918 .4838 . .0987 . .1554 .4913 . .1406 . from Figure 6. .4826 .1480 .4850 = 0. .0557 .4871 . the resulting probability or area under the curve from the mean to 2.1700 . .00 .0398 .14.4927 .0948 .1844 .4925 .4936 Source: Extracted from Table E.4842 .4808 .0596 .3a (a portion of Table E.5000 to obtain the desired answer.17 σ Area is .4817 . .1591 .4906 . .1517 .0279 . Since both values of interest are below the mean.4922 . .4812 .1879 .4911 .0636 .4788 . Hence the area from Z = Ϫ2.4887 . Since the transformation Equation (6.17 standard deviations below it is 0. .0319 .0 0.0753 . Area is .4 .12a.5000 – .14 by matching the appropriate Z row (2.1) with the appropriate Z column (. you look up the Z value of 2.1664 . .0675 .1736 .4929 .0000 .1 0.0199 .0438 . Question 4: Finding P(62 ≤ X ≤ 69) As a final illustration of determining probabilities from the standardized normal distribution.2 2.3 2.5000.4881 . .4932 . .4904 . the desired probability (or area under the curve between the two values) is less than 0.17 in Table E. TABLE 6.12a. .1255 . .4772 .4916 .17 to Z = Ϫ∞ must be 0.09 0.0150 since .17 69 –1.02 .4834 .4854 .4931 .2) on page 199 only permits you to .3 0.1141 .05 . .3a Obtaining an area under the normal curve Z .4857 .08 .4901 . .0239 . This result is illustrated in Figure 6.4890 .6.0793 . .0714 . .0040 . not from Z to Ϫ∞.4793 .4850 = .1772 .12a Finding P (X < 62) –3.4920 .4884 .1103 .4896 . .0832 .0160 . 2.4778 .4868 .1064 .1808 . you must find the probability from the mean to Z and subtract this result from 0. .4821 .01 .03 .4830 .4803 .4934 .0871 . .4850 since Z = X–µ = –2.4909 .1 2. . .4875 .00 +1.0150 57 62 –2.07) as shown in Table 6.14).00 75 0 81 87 93 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6.1628 .0478 .1368 .

00 Finding the Values Corresponding to Known Probabilities In previous applications regarding normally distributed data. That is.4850 – . respectively. and the area from the mean to 69 seconds is 0. From Figure 6.00 +3.1437 Area is . Hence. focus on Figure 6.00 75 0 81 +1.1437 probability of randomly selecting a factory worker who could be expected to complete the task in between 62 and 69 seconds.4850. For this example.4850 since Z = Area is . As examples. from step 3.00 σ Area is .17 57 69 –1.3413 since Z = FIGURE 6.00 –2. Subtract the smaller area from the larger (to avoid double counting).15a observe that this 90% can be broken down into two parts—times (in seconds) above the mean (that is.5000 Area is .00 –2. the median must be 75 seconds. suppose you wish to determine particular numerical values of the variables of interest that correspond to known probabilities. by subtracting the smaller area from the larger one you determine that there is only a 0.3413 = . Area is . then 90% of the workers would be expected to require X seconds or more to do the job. and the mean and median are equal in all symmetric distributions.15a.3413 = 0. Now.1437 X–µ = –2.14a Finding X 0 To determine how many seconds elapse before 10% of the factory workers assemble the part. you can obtain the desired probability in three steps: 1. probabilities associated with various measured values have been determined. you have already completed steps 1 and 2 in answering questions 3 and 2. 50% of the workers) and times between the mean and the desired Question 6 . Determine the probability or area under the curve from the mean to 69 seconds.4850 − 0. Determine the probability or area under the curve from the mean to 62 seconds. Since this time value corresponds to the median. 3. Since 10% of the factory workers are expected to complete the task in under X seconds. Question 5 To determine how many seconds elapse before 50% of the factory workers assemble the part.14a. however. The area from the mean to 62 seconds is 0.00 87 93 X Scale Z Scale +2. examine Figure 6. see questions 5 through 7.3413. 2.5000 75 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6.13a Finding P (62 ≤ X ≤ 69) 63 62 –3. P (62 ≤ X ≤ 69) = P (62 ≤ X ≤ 75) − P (69 ≤ X ≤ 75) = 0.CD6-8 CD MATERIAL find probabilities from a particular value of interest to the mean.17 σ X–µ = –1.

28)(6) = 67. you see that the Z value corresponding to the particular Z row (1. you can now use the transformation Equation (6.3980 . .3) X −µ σ Substituting.0636 .4236 .4015 . . .1517 .2) and Z column (. .2) on page 199 to determine the value of interest.2 0.15a Finding Z to determine X –1.0199 .3413 .4099 .3461 .3 1.3485 .4292 . .4177 .4192 . .4 . Working from this area to the margins of the table. . .1406 . you search for the area or probability 0.1103 .32 seconds Thus you expect that 10% of the workers will be able to complete the task in less than 67.3907 .4000. Using the body of Table E.01 .3729 .28 TABLE 6. .4049 . However.4000. as shown in Table 6.0000 . .3749 . X. 40% of the workers).2 1. Once Z is obtained.28).0438 .1628 .3962 .4a (a portion of Table E.1331 . . .4265 . .1480 . Area is .1591 . .1179 .3599 .3531 .4319 Source: Extracted from Table E.0478 .3686 . .0398 .0987 .4279 .5000 X 75 0 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6.3849 .3 0.3554 .07 .1000 Area is .4251 .4222 .00 .3888 .1: Using the Standardized Normal Distribution Table CD6-9 value X (that is.14). .08 .3770 .0279 .0359 .0160 .1 0. . . since it is below the standardized mean of 0. you can determine the corresponding standardized value Z. .1700 .1808 . .28. .0080 .6.15a.4162 .4a Obtaining a Z value corresponding to a particular area under the normal curve Z .3869 .0557 .06 .3997.0753 .3997 .3621 .14.3665 . .0517 . since the area under the normal curve from the standardized mean 0 to this Z must be 0.03 .1 1.14. .4000 Area is .3438 .0832 .1064 .1368 .0910 .0714 .1217 .1554 .3643 . 1. .0 0. The closest result is 0.3508 .0675 .04 . .05 . .4306 . .1844 .09 0. While you do not know X. Since Z = then X = µ + Zσ (6.1772 . . from Figure 6.1293 .0948 .1026 .08) is 1.0871 .4131 .4082 .0 1.1664 .4115 .1879 .0120 .3925 . Z = Ϫ1.4147 . X = 75 + (Ϫ1.1141 .0239 .4066 . . .32 seconds.0793 .1255 .3944 .1443 . .3790 .3810 . .3577 .0319 .1736 .0040 . . the Z value must be recorded as a negative (that is.4207 .3708 .0596 .4032 .3830 .02 .4 .

0753 . you search for the area or probability 0.3186 .1064 .1517 .1628 .1 .2257 .16a Finding Q1 –0.2054 .2454 . TABLE 6.1879 .3 0.1406 .7 0.3508 . The closest result is 0.0 0.0120 .3438 .2190 . 3.2995 . .02 .1700 .0871 .0714 .2704 .1 0.1217 .07 . you can obtain the corresponding standardized value Z.0636 . 5. This is depicted in Figure 6.1554 .04 . since the area under the normal curve from the standardized mean 0 to this Z must be 0.1808 .3770 .2157 .1844 .0675 .4 0.2389 . Sketch the normal curve and then place the values for the means on the respective X and Z scales.14. that is.05 .03 .67 0 Although you do not know Q1.0359 .6 0.2580 .CD6-10 CD MATERIAL As a review.2486.1985 . 4.3577 .3708 . Using the body of Table E.3051 .0478 . to find a particular value associated with a known probability you must take the following steps: 1.0832 .0948 .2291 .2967 .3413 .1026 .1368 .3599 . Question 7 Area is .0040 .1591 .5a Obtaining a Z value corresponding to a particular area under the normal curve Z .0199 . 2. Using Equation (6.3389 .3023 .1950 .2357 .2 0.16a.3485 .08 . as shown in Table 6.3531 . Shade the area of interest.3686 .1480 .2500.0080 .3643 .1255 .0 1.3133 .1293 .2019 .2734 .0438 .3729 .2673 .3554 .1772 .3238 .1664 . Using Table E.2939 .3264 .00 .1736 .2486 . solve for X.0000 .2549 .0160 .2852 .1141 .0319 .3289 .3078 . determine the appropriate Z value corresponding to the area under the normal curve from the desired X to the mean µ.1915 .3810 .2088 .1443 .09 0. you must determine the time (in seconds) for which only 25% of the factory workers can be expected to assemble the part faster.1103 .0557 .2518 .5 0.06 .3106 .3461 .0793 .3790 .2123 .3749 . Split the appropriate half of the normal curve into two parts—the portion from the desired X to the mean and the portion from the desired X to the tail.3365 .2500 Q1 75 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6.2500. To find the first quartile value.3665 .2642 .2794 .3159 .2500 Area is .2324 .14). X = µ + Zσ To obtain the interquartile range you must first find the value for Q1 and the value for Q3.3).0596 .2224 .5a (which is a portion of Table E.2422 .3315 .5000 Area is .1331 .2823 .0279 .14.01 .3340 .0398 .14.3621 .3830 Source: Extracted from Table E.0239 .3212 .2881 .9 1.2612 . then you must subtract the former from the latter.0517 .0910 .2910 .0987 .2764 .8 0.1179 .

3).17a Finding Q3 0 +0.17a.67)(6) 75 + 4 79 seconds The interquartile range or middle spread of the distribution is interquartile range = Q3 − Q1 = 79 − 71 = 8 seconds . Once Z is obtained. from Figure 6.67 From the symmetry of the normal distribution.2500 Area is .6. This is displayed in Figure 6. Q3 = = = = X = µ + Zσ 75 + (+0. Therefore. since it lies to the left of the standardized mean of 0. Q1 = = = = X = µ + Zσ 75 + (−0.3). However.67). the Z value must be recorded as a negative (that is.67)(6) 75 − 4 71 seconds To find the third quartile. you see that the Z value corresponding to the particular Z row (0.67. you must determine the time (in seconds) for which 75% of the factory workers can be expected to assemble the part faster (and 25% could complete the task slower). Area is .2500 75 Q3 X Scale Z Scale FIGURE 6. Hence.1: Using the Standardized Normal Distribution Table CD6-11 Working from this area to the margins of the table.5000 Area is . using Equation (6.6) and Z column (.16a. the desired Z value must be +0. Z = Ϫ0.67 (since Z lies to the right of the standardized mean of 0).07) is 0. the final step is to use Equation (6.

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