Capitolul VI

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baza tehnico-PDWHULDO

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(BTM).

actorul determinant al

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sau

, care economic sunt elemente

ale capitalului agricol.
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punct de vedere economic sunt elemente

DOH FDSLWDOXOXL GH H[SORDWDUH DO WXUL GH XQHOWHOH VLPSOH

VDS FD]PDVHFHU HWF 
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GH FHOH

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superioare uneltelor agricole simple, contribuinG OD FUHúWHUHD SURGXF LHL OD KHFWDU VDX SH FDS GH
animal.
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sunt:

ULPLL SDUFXOXL GH WUDFWRDUH úL PDúLQL DJULFROH

$ÌQSURGXF LDYHJHWDO  

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1LYHOXO GH DFFHVLELOLWDWH D PHFDQL]

ULL H[SULPDW FD UDSRUW vQWUH WHUHQXO PHFDQL]DW úL

totalul terenului agricol; 
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a). strucWXUDSURGXF LHLYHJHWDOH
E ]RQHOHGHSURGXF LHDJULFRO 
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-

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-livezi.

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0

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criterii:

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2. Sisteme mecanice comune mai multor specii de animale; 
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Pe

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: 

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F WUHSURGXF WRULLDJULFROL 
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de aplatizarea perioadei de vârf; 
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mecanizare; 
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3DUWLFXODULW

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caracteristici în

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8]XUDPDLUDSLG 

úLFDDWDUHRGXUDW 

GHVHUYLFLXPDLUHGXV 

FDUHVHvPELQ GHUHJXO 

FXRXWLOL]DUHLQWHUPLWHQW vQWU RSHULRDG UHVWUkQV GHOXFUXGLQWLPSXODQXOXL

-

2. Consumarea unei

S

U L GLQ HQHUJLD XWLO

FH LQIOXHQ HD]  UDQGDPHQWXO PDúLQLORU GH IRU 

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, ceea 

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PDúLQLOHGHOXFUX 
9DULD LDFDSDFLW

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care are loc exploatarea vQ FD]XO PDúLQLORU GH IRU 

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ULL

, atât în raport cu parametrii tehnico-economici ai utilajului,

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YDODELOSHQWUXWRDWHFRQGL LLOHGHOXFUX
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DF LXQH SRDWH IL XQHRUL FRQWUDGLFWRULH JUDGXO GH X]XU  IL]LF  VDX PRUDO 

modul de organizare a

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(ILFLHQ D HFRQRPLF  D LQWURGXFHULL PDúLQLORU DJULFROH HVWH FRQGL LRQDW  GH P ULPHD
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(ILFLHQ D HFRQRPLF  vQ XWLOL]DUHD PDúLQLORU DJULFROH HVWH UHIOHFWDW  GH DSRUWXO DGXV GH

mecanizare la reducerea cheltuielilor pentru executarea unui hectar de lucrare. Pentru aceasta, prin
DQDOL]  WUHEXLH V  VH VWDELOHDVF  FXDQWXPXOILHF UXL HOHPHQW GHFKHOWXLHOL vQ UDSRUW FX QRUPDWLYHOH
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(ILFLHQ DHFRQRPLF 

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W

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celor mecanizate presupune:

LLPHFDQL]DWRULORUDJULFROL
LLOXFU ULORUPHFDQL]DWH

-VFXUWDUHDWHUPHQHORUGHH[HFX LHDOXFU

ULORUúLvQFDGUDUHDDFHVWRUDvQHSRFDRSWLP 

- reducerea cheltuielilor ocazionaWHGHH[HFXWDUHDPHFDQL]DW
,QGLFDWRULLGHHILFLHQ 

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PHQ LRQ P

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- randamentul în ha. a.n. ce revine anual pe tractor;
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- profitul net pe tractor.
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ULL

sunt:

D 2SWLPL]DUHDvQ]HVWU ULLFXPLMORDFHPHFDQL]DWH
E &DOLWDWHDWUDFWRDUHORUúLPDúLQLORUDJULFROH
F 3UH XOPLMORDFHORUPHFDQL]DWH
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ate;

H ÌQFDGUDUHDPLMORDFHORUPHFDQL]DWHvQOLPLWHOHRSWLPHGHIXQF LRQDUH
I *UDGXOGHSUHJ WLUHSURIHVLRQDO úLGHFDOLILFDUHDPHFDQL]DWRULORU

6.2. 'LUHF

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DPHFDQL]

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SHULRDGD YLLWRDUH SULQFLSDOD SRQGHUH vQ PLMORDFHOH IL[H SURGXFWLYH GLQ DJULFXOWXU  WUHEXLH V  DYHP
vQYHGHUHGLUHF LLOHGHHILFLHQ 

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LL

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2.

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care presupune mecanizarea tuturor

UDPXULORU úL FXOWXULORU úL

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'LYHUVLILFDUHD SDUFXOXL GH WUDFWRDUH úL PDúLQL DJULFROH

sub dublu aspect: completarea

SDUFXOXLH[LVWHQWFXPLMORDFHQRLúLGLYHUVLILFDUHDWLSXULORUúLP UFLORUODDFHHDúLPDúLQ  
8QLYHUVDOL]DUHD WUDFWRDUHORU úL PDúLQLORU

agricole DWkW SHQWUX SURGXF LD YHJHWDO 

FkW úL

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5.

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LPLL

de lucru;
6. $GDSWDELOLWDWHDVLVWHPHLGHPDúLQLDFWXDOHODGLPHQVLXQHDSDUFHOHLGLQJU
7.

([WLQGHUHD HOHFWULILF

ULL SURFHVHORU GH PXQF  úL D DXWRPDWL]

GLQLOH

U QHúWL

ULL FD WUHDSW  VXSHULRDU  D

PHFDQL] ULL

8. CorelareaPLMORDFHORUGHWUDF LXQHPHFDQL]DW 

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- 

ÌQ DFHVW VFRS DJULFXOWXUD WUHEXLH V  GLVSXQ  GH FFD  WUDFWRDUH úL DSUR[LPDWLY 

de combine autopropulsate.
2.

5HVWUXFWXUDUHD SURIXQG  D LQGXVWULHL URPkQHúWL

– UDPXUD FRQVWUXFWRDUH GH WUDFWRDUH úL

PDúLQLDJULFROH

- FUHúWHUHD FDSDFLW

LL GH SURGXF LH vQ YHGHUHD DFRSHULULL LQWHJUDOH D QHFHVDUXOXL GH WUD

ctoare

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- GLYHUVLILFDUHD WLSXULORU GH P

UFL vQ FRPELQD LH FX FHULQ HOH úL SRVLELOLW

LOH GH H[SORDWDUH

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-

vPEXQ W

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combustibiOLODXQLW

LOHGHOXFUX

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-VF

LLPXQFLLúLDILDELOLW

LL

GHUHDFKHOWXLHOLORUGHH[SORDWDUH

3. 3URPRYDUHDSROLWLFLLGHH[WLQGHUHDSURSULHW

LLSULYDWHDVXSUDSDUFXOXLGHPDúLQLDJULFROH

- se impune adâncirea procesului de privatizare a Agromec-XULORULQGLIHUHQWGHPRGDOLW
úLF LOHDOHVHúLSRVLELOLW

-FUHúWHUHDQXP

LOHFUHDWHSULQVXSUDHYDOXDUHDPLMORDFHORUIL[HúLDWHUHQXULORUGHLQFLQW 
UXOXLGHWUDFWRDUHúLPDúLQLDJULFROHvQJRVSRG ULLOH

U QHúWL

LOH

4. AmplifiFDUHD úL LQWHQVLILFDUHD VSULMLQXOXL HFRQRPLF DO VWDWXOXL DFRUGDW IHUPLHULORU SULQ
FUHGLWHOHFXGREkQG DYDQWDMRDV SHQWUXDFKL]L LRQDUHDGHPDúLQLDJULFROH

5. Crearea de baze organizatorice noi, originale, de folosire a tehnologiilor moderne în
agricultuU 

FDUH V  XWLOL]H]H DYDQWDMXO DVRFLHULL úL FRRSHU ULL GDU V  VH ED]H]H SH IRUPD SULYDW  GH

proprietate.
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ULORUPHFDQLFHFXSUH XOSURGXVHORUDJULFROH 

3ULQFLSDOHOHFDUDFWHULVWLFLDOHPHFDQL]

ULLDJULFXOWXULLvQSHULRDGDGHWUDQ]L LH

ÌQ DQLL FDUH DX XUPDW HYHQLPHQWHORU GLQ GHFHPEULH  vQ]HVWUDUHD WHKQLF  D DJULFXOWXULL
URPkQHúWLV

-a deteriorat continuu, în primul rând din punct de vedere cantitativ.

1. Astfel, în 1986, parcul de tractoare agricole al României era

GH  EXF

DSURDSHXQGHFHQLXUHVSHFWLYvQDFHVWDVHUHGXVHVHODEXF
LQWHUYDOUHGXFHUHDDIRVWGHODEXF

LODEXF

L LDU GXS 

L/DFRPELQHvQDFHODúL

L

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rin efectul produs asupra

gradului de mecanizare a agriculturii fiind:
- YkQ]DUHD WUDFWRDUHORU DJULFROH XQRU DJHQ L HFRQRPLFL VDX SHUVRDQH IL]LFH GLQ DOWH VHFWRDUH
DOH HFRQRPLHL FD XUPDUH D WUDQVIRUP ULL 60$ XULORU úL ,$6 XULORU vQ VRFLHW

-

comerciDOHVDXDOLFKLG

ULL&$3

L

-

-urilor;

- scoaterea din uz a tractoarelor amortizate integral;
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UXOUHGXVDOXWLODMHORUQRLDFKL]L LRQDWHSHQWUXDJULFXOWXU FDXUPDUHDOLSVHLIRQGXULORU

GHLQYHVWL LLDWkWODQLYHOXOVRFLHW
2 SULP  FRQVHFLQ

LORUFRPHUFLDOHFkWúLDSURGXF WRULORUSULYD L 

D UHGXFHULL D IRVW FUHúWHUHD vQF UF WXULL FX WHUHQ DUDELO SH WUDFWRU VDX

XWLODM DJULFRO LDU vQ DO GRLOHD UkQG SUHOXQJLUHD G XQ WRDUH D WHUPHQHORU GH H[HFXWDUH D OXFU ULORU

agricole, cu efecte negative asupra randamentelor la hectar.
Astfel, pe un tractor agricol, cu o putere de 6 TCP, reveneau în medie, în 1986, 54 ha, iar în
1995, cca. 57 ha.
)D 

GH

ULOH HXURSHQH GH]YROWDWH DFHVW UDSRUW UHOHY  R SXWHUQLF  U PkQHUH vQ XUP  D

DJULFXOWXULLURPkQHúWL'HSLOG vQF UF WXUDSHXQWUDFWRUIL]LFvQ$XVWULDHUDGHKDvQ*HUPDQLD
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9

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UL

LQH PDL PXOW GH

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LL LQGXVWULHL

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-un interval de 10 ani, un grad de mecanizare concurent cu cel al Europei

Occidentale.
2.

2 LQIOXHQ 

H[WUHP GH QHJDWLY  DVXSUD UDQGDPHQWXOXL OD KHFWDU úL DVXSUD HFR

nomiei

IRORVLULL WHKQLFLL DJULFROH R H[HUFLW  FDOLWDWHD WUDFWRDUHORU úL PDúLQLORU DJULFROH XWLOL]DWH GDWRULW 
VW ULLDYDQVDWHGHX]XU IL]LF I U DPDLDPLQWLúLGHFHDPRUDO 
$VWIHOvQODWUDFWRDUHDYHDXSHVWHDQLYHFKLPHvQWUHú

i 7 ani, 16% între 

úLDQLúLQXPDLSkQ ODDQLLDUvQFD]XOFRPELQHORUDYHDXSHVWHDQLYHFKLPH
vQWUHúLDQLvQWUHúLDQLúLQXPDLSHVWHDQL
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MXVWLILF  DWkW HFRQRPLF FkW úL WHKQLF (FRQRPLF vQWUXFkW YROXPXO UHSDUD LLORU SURGXFH R FUHúWHUH
FRUHVSXQ] WRDUHDFRVWXULORUSURGXVHORUDJULFROHLDUWHKQLF GHRDUHFH QLFLRGDW XQ XWLODMUHSDUDWILH
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3.

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FHHDFHOLPLWHD] SURGXFWLYLWDWHDúLILDELOLWDWHDDFHVWRUDGDUúLFRVWXULULGLFDWHvQH[SORDWDUH

Actualmente, daWRULW 

SR]L LHL VDOH GH PRQRSRO ID 

GH DJULFXOWXU  LQGXVWULD URPkQHDVF 

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4.

1HH[HFXWDUHD OD WLPS D OXFU ULORU DJULFROH GLQ FDX]D IDFWRUXOXL WHKQLF GHWHUPLQ 

diminuarea

SURGXF LHL 'H SLOG  vQ WRDPQD DQXOXL FDPSDQLD GH vQV PkQ DUHD JUkXOXL  DIRVW

GH  GH ]LOH ID 

GH QXPDL   ]LOH VWDELOLWH GH QRUPHOH úWLLQ LILFH (IHFWXO D IRVW F  SHVWH XQ

-

PLOLRQ GH KHFWDUH DX IRVW vQV PkQ DWH GXS  GDWD GH  QRLHPEULH FHHD FH D SURGXV R VF GHUH D
SURGXF LHL FX FFD  NJKD DGLF   WRQH vQ HFKLYDOHQW  PLOLDUGH GH OHL OD SUH XO GH 

-

lei/kg.
7RWDVWIHOSULQGHS úLUHDSHULRDGHLRSWLPHODUHFROWDWXOJUkXOXLvQYDUDDQXOXLGDWRULW 

în principal deficitului de combustibili, s-DX SLHUGXW FFD NJKD DGLF 

SHVWH  WRQH vQ

valoare de 266,1 miliarde lei. 

&KLPL]DUHDDJULFXOWXULLúLHIHFWHOHHL

Chimizarea agriculturii vQVHDPQ
chimice, respectLY vQJU 

IRORVLUHD SH VFDU  ODUJ  D XQHL JDPH YDULDWH GH SURGXVH

ú PLQWH FKLPLFH DPHQGDPHQWH FDOFDURDVH ELRVWLPXODWRUL SHQWUX SODQWH úL

DQLPDOH HUELFLGH úL LQVHFWR IXQJLFLGH PHGLFDPHQWH IROLH GH SROLHWLOHQ  FRQGXFWH GLQ PDWHULDO

-

SODVWLFVDFLSHQWUXDPEDODWDPEDODMHSHQWUXOHJXPHúLIUXFWHHWF

6.4.1.ÌQJU

ú

PLQWHOHFKLPLFH

ÌQ FDGUXO VXEVWDQ HORU FKLPLFH XWLOL]DWH vQ DJULFXOWXU  vQJU ú PLQWHOH FKLPLFH DX XQ URO
KRW UkWRU vQ VSRULUHD UDQGDPHQWHORU úL vQ  HILFLHQWL]DUHD SURGXF LHL 6SRUXO GH SURGXF LH OD KHFWDU
RE LQXWSULQDSOLFDUHDDFHVWHLVXEVWDQ H

poate fi de 5 – 6 ori.

5RPkQLDDvQFHSXWV SURGXF vQJU ú PLQWHFKLPLFHvQF GLQSHED] GHIRVIRUSHQWUX
FDGLQDFHVWHDV ILHúLSHED] GHD]RW3URGXF LDUHFRUGGHvQJU ú PLQWHFKLPLFHUHDOL]DW GH
LQGXVWULDURPkQHDVF DIRVWDWLQV vQFXPLLWRQHGXS FDUHFXUEDSURGXF LHLDvQFHSXW
V  VFDG  DMXQJkQG vQ SUH]HQW OD PDL SX LQ GH  GLQ YDORDUHD DWLQV  vQ DQXO UHFRUG &HD PDL PDUH
FDQWLWDWH GH vQJU ú PLQWH FKLPLFH DGPLQLVWUDW  OD XQLWDWHD GH VXSUDID 
NJVXEVWDQ 

D IRVW WRW vQ DQXO 

86, cu 

DFWLY  VD SHKHFWDUXOGHWHUHQDUDELOYLLúLOLYH]LFDQWLWDWHFDUHvQHUDGH

numai 48 kg s.a.
ULOHFX DJULFXOWXU LQWHQVLY úL VXSHULQWHQVLY GLQ (XURSDGH9HVWXWLOL]HD] FDQWLW
GH vQJU ú PLQWH FKLPLFH OD KH
VXEVWDQ 

DFWLY  %HOJLD

ctar (exemplu: Olanda -  NJ VXEVWDQ

-  NJ VXEVWDQ 

DFWLY  )UDQ D 

DFWLY  *HUPDQLD

-  NJ VXEVWDQ

LPDUL

- 423 kg 

DFWLY  ÌQ DFHVWH

FRQGL LLUDQGDPHQWHOHODSULQFLSDOHOHFXOWXULVXQWSHP VXUDHIRUWXOXLLQGXVWULDOI FXW

CHUFHWDUHDDJULFRO 

GLQ5RPkQLDFRQVLGHU F VWUXFWXUDSULQFLSDOHORUIHOXULGHvQJU ú PLQWH

vQ IXQF LH GH WLSXO GH VRO úL GH VWUXFWXUD FXOWXULORU HVWH XUP WRDUHD vQJU ú PLQWH SH ED]  GH D]RW

- 

vQJU ú PLQWHSHED] GHIRVIRU úLvQJU ú PLQWHSHED] GHSRWDVLX

-

- 15%.

(ILFLHQ DHFRQRPLF DvQJU ú PLQWHORUFKLPLFHGHSLQGHGHFDOLWDWHDVROXOXLSHFDUHVHDSOLF 
GHSODQWDODFDUHVHDGPLQLVWUHD] GHSODQWDSUHPHUJ WRDUHGHIHOXOvQJU ú PkQWXOXLGHWHKQRORJLD

culturii respective (irigat sau neiriJDW  GH SUH XO vQJU

ú PLQWHORU FKLPLFH úL DO SURGXVHORU DJULFROH

vegetale.
ÌQJU ú PLQWHOH FKLPLFH VXQW SURGXVH HQHUJRLQWHQVLYH $VWIHO  NJ GH D]RWDW GH DPRQLX VH

produce cu 20,47 kwh, pentru 1 kg de fosfor sunt necesari 3,27 kwh, iar pentru 1 kg de fosfor sunt
necesari 3,72 kwh, iar pentru 1 kg de potasiu, 2,56kwh.

ÌQ JHQHUDO vQJU

ú

PLQWHOH FKLPLFH VXQW VFXPSH GDWRULW 

FRQVXPXULORU

PDUL GH HQHUJLH úL D SUH XOXL DFHVWHLD ÌQ DFHVWH FRQGL LL RULFH QRX  DORFDUH GH
vQJU

ú PLQWHFKLPLFHWUHEXLHV

SHQWUXILHFDUHFXOWXU 

vQSDUWH 

VHIDF 

vQXUPDFDOFXO

ULLH[DFWHDHILFLHQ HLHFRQRPLFH

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VXQW QHFHVDUH  NJ GH D]RW  NJ IRVIRU úL  NJ SRWDVLX FHHD FH vQVHDPQ  F  OD R XQLWDWH
HQHUJHWLF FKHOWXLW VHRE LQXQLW
3ULQFLSDOHOH F

LHQHUJHWLFHGHSURGXV

L GH VSRULUH D HILFLHQ HL HFRQRPLFH D IRORVLULL vQJU

ú

PLQWHORU FKLPLFH

în

DJULFXOWXU VXQW 
$VLJXUDUHD XQHL UH HWH GH IDEULFD LH FX XQ UDSRUW RSWLP vQWUH D
FRQFRUGDQ

zot-fosfor-potasiu (NPK), în 

FXFRQGL LLOHSHGRFOLPDWLFHúLFXVWUXFWXUDFXOWXULORUGLQ DUDQRDVWU  

3URGXFHUHD úL OLYUDUHD vQJU

ú

PLQWHORU FKLPLFH QXPDL vQ VWDUH JUDQXODW

, deoarece se reduc

SLHUGHULOHúLVHXúXUHD] PXQFDGHDGPLQLVWUDUH 
)RORVLUHD vQJU

ú

PLQWHORU FRPSOH[H

, compuse din 2-3 elemente, pentru reducerea costurilor cu

încorporarea în sol. 
&UHúWHUHD FDQWLW

LL GH vQJU

ú

PLQWH FKLPLFH SH VROXULOH PDL SX LQ IHUWLOH SHQWUX F  GHWHUPLQ 

VSRUXULGHSURGXF LHPDLPDUL

5. ExtinGHUHD XWLOL]

ULL vQJU

ú

PLQWHORU FKLPLFH FX ÄGHVFRPSXQHUH OHQW

´

, pentru a preîntâmpina

SROXDUHDVROXOXLúLDDSHL 

,QGLFDWRULLGHDSUHFLHUHDHILFLHQ HLHFRQRPLFHVXQW 
3URGXF LDVXSOLPHQWDU ODKHFWDUúLSHGR] 

2. Costul suplimentar pe hectaUúLSHWRQDGHSURGXV 
3URILWXOSHKHFWDUSHWRQDGHSURGXVúLSHGR] 

4. Rata profitului; 
6SRUXOPDUJLQDOSHKHFWDUúLSHGR]  
&RVWXOPDUJLQDOSHKHFWDUSHWRQDGHSURGXVúLSHGR]  
3URILWXOPDUJLQDOSHKHFWDUSHWRQDGHSURGXVúLSHGR] 

8. Rata profitului marginal.
(ILFLHQ D DGPLQLVWU ULL vQJU ú PLQWHORU FKLPLFH WUHEXLH DSUHFLDW  úL GLQ SXQFW GH YHGHUH DO
HIHFWHORUQHJDWLYHSURGXVHFRQFUHWL]DWHvQSROXDUHDVROXOXLDDSHORUGHVXSUDID
FRQVHFLQ H JUDYH DVXSUD V Q W

LL RPXOXL 'LQ DFHDVW  FDX]  WRW PDL PXOWH 

úLGHDGkQFLPHFX
UL FX DJULFXOWXU 

LQWHQVLY  úL VXSHULQWHQVLY  DX SURFHGDW OD UHGXFHUHD FRQVXPXOXL GH vQJU ú PLQWH FKLPLFH

orientându-VHVSUHRDJULFXOWXU 

HFRORJLF 

ÌQ VFRSXO GLPLQX ULL HIHFWHORU SROXDQWH DOH vQJU ú PLQWH

lor chimice, au fost utilizate mai

PXOWHVROX LLSULQWUHFDUH
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-

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-

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rvei de azot

E &HUFHWDUHDDJULFRO DUHFDRELHFWLYLPHGLDWúLGHSHUVSHFWLY FUHDUHDGHVRLXULúLKLEUL]LGHSODQWH
FDSDELOH V  IL[H]H D]RWXO DWPRVIHULF $WHQ LD VSHFLDOLúWLORU V

-a îndreptat asupra grâXOXL

úL

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c). S-DX UHDOL]DW GHMD GDU VXQW IRDUWH VFXPSH vQJU

ú PLQWHOH FKLPLFH FX GHVFRPSXQHUH OHQW  D

F URU DGPLQLVWUDUH VH IDFH GLUHFW OD SODQW  úL QX vQ LQWHUYDOXO GLQ

tre plante. Mai mult, aceste

vQJU ú PLQWHFKLPLFHSRWUHGXFHODPD[LPHIHFWXOSROXDQW
G 8WLOL]DUHDvQJU ú PLQWHORURUJDQR

-minerale, dintre care cel mai important este gunoiul de grajd,

FDUH FRQ LQH FFD  GLQ PDVD QRXOXL SURGXV OD FDUH VH DGDXJ  VXOI

at de amoniu, uree, fosfat de

amoniu etc.
6H HVWLPHD]  F  vQJU ú PLQWHOH QDWXUDOH FRQ LQ GH 

– 8 ori mai multe elemente nutritive

GHFkW RULFH IHO GH vQJU ú PkQW FKLPLF ILH FKLDU FRPSOH[ ([SHULHQ HOH DX DU WDW F  R WRQ  GH
vQJU ú PkQW QDWXUDO SURGXFH XQ
SURGXF LHGH

spor de 40 –  NJKD GH FHUHDOH ERDEH FHHD FH vQVHDPQ

–PLOLRDQHWRQHFHUHDOHUHDOL]DW 

R 

SULQXWLOL]DUHDvQJU ú PLQWHORUQDWXUDOH

3HQWUXDVSRULHILFLHQ DHFRQRPLF DDFHVWRUvQJU ú PLQWHHVWHQHFHVDUFDHOHV ILHDSOLFDWH

în coQFRUGDQ 

FX WLSXO VROXOXL úL FX SODQWD FXOWLYDW  úL GH OD FD] OD FD] DVRFLDWH FX vQJU ú PLQWH

chimice.
3HVROXULOHSRG]ROLFHúLQLVLSRDVHDWXQFLFkQGJXQRLXOGHJUDMGHVWHLQVXILFLHQWVHSRWIRORVL
FD vQJU ú PLQWH QDWXUDOH vQJU ú PLQWHOH YHU]L OXSLQ VHFDU  UDSL 

vQ PLULúWH VDX FD SODQWH

SURWHFWRDUHGXS FDUHVXQWLQWURGXVHVXEEUD]G 

Amendamentele calcaroase

VH DSOLF  vQGHRVHEL SH WHUHQXULOH DFLGH ÌQ PHGLH FDQWLWDWHD GH

amendamente este de 5 – 6 to/ha, dar ea poate varia de la 2 – 12 to/ha.
(ILFLHQ D HFRQRPLF  D DPHQGDPHQWHORU FDOFDURDVH HVWH GHRVHELW GH ULGLFDW  vQWUXFkW
VSRUXULOH GH SURGXF LH DFRSHU  LQYHVWL LD vQF  GLQSULPXO DQ úL vQ PRGH[FHS LRQDO vQ DO GRLOHD DQ 
vQ XUP WRULL 

–  DQL VSRUXO GH SURGXF LH UHSUH]LQW 

SURILW VXSOLPHQ

tar. În România, sporul de

SURGXF LH OD JUkX SULQ DSOLFDUHD DPHQGDPHQWHORU FDOFDURDVH SH WHUHQXULOH DFLGH YDULD]  vQWUH 

– 

NJKDLDUODSRUXPEvQWUHNJKDúLNJKD
(IHFWXOHFRQRPLFDODFHVWRUVXEVWDQ HHVWH úLPDLPDUHFkQGVHDGPLQLVWUHD] vQFRPELQD LH
FXvQJU ú PLQWHRUJDQLFHúLDQRUJDQLFH

Pesticidele. ÌQ FRPSRQHQ D DFHVWRUD LQWU 

HUELFLGHOH úL LQVHFWR

-fungicidele. Administrarea

DFHVWRU VXEVWDQ H vQ DJULFXOWXU  HVWH QHFHVDU  vQWUXFkW SLHUGHULOH GH UHFROW  FD XUPDUH D DWDFXULORU
G XQ WRULORUELRORJLFLSRDWHDMXQJHSkQ OD$FWXDOPHQWHvQ5RPkQLDVXQWSHVWHVSHFLLGH
DJHQ LSDWRJHQLVSHFLLGHG XQ WRULúLSHVWHVSHFLLGHEXUXLHQLFDUHGLPLQXHD] UHFROWD
ÌQ XOWLPLL FLQFL DQL DWkW SURGXF LD LQWHUQ  FkW úL FDQWLWDWHD GH SHVWLFLGH DGPLQLVWUDW  V

diminuat puternic.

-au

3HVWLFLGHOH DX úL HIHFWH QHJDWLYH XQHOH FXQRVFXWH DOWHOH QX DVXSUD FDOLW
DJULFROHúLLPSOLFLWDVXSUDFRQVXPDWRUXOXLILQDO

LL SURGXVHORU

– omul.

ÌQFRQFOX]LHGHRFDPGDW QXVHSRDWHUHQXQ DODSHVWLFLGHOHFKLPLFLGDUHLWUHEXLHXWLOL]D LvQ
FDQWLW

LFkWPDLPLFLúLQXPDLFkQGHVWHDEVROXWQHFHVDU 

%D]DHQHUJHWLF 

vQDJULFXOWXU 

5HSUH]LQW  XQXO GLQWUH FHOH PDL GLQDPLFH HOHPHQWH GH PRGHUQL]DUH D DJULFXOWXULL ÌQ
FRQVXPXO HQHUJHWLF WRWDO DO

ULL DJULFXOWXUD 5RPkQLHL GH LQH R SRQGHUH PRGHVW  UHVSHFWLY 

– 

GLQFDUHGLQHQHUJLDHOHFWULF úLGLQHQHUJLDWHUPLF 
ÌQVWUXFWXUDFRQVXPXOXLGHHQHUJLHGLQDJULFXOWXU VHGLVWLQJGRX PDULJUXSH
D HQHUJLDvQFRUSRUDW vQvQJU ú PLQWHOH

chimice (32%);

E HQHUJLDFRQVXPDW GLUHFW  vQFRPSRQHQ DF UHLDLQWU 

- combustibili solizi – 3,6%;

- combustibili lichizi

– 94,8%, din care:

-

EHQ]LQ 

– 4,1%;

-

PRWRULQ 

– 83,5%;

-

FRPEXVWLELOLJD]RúL

– 1,6%

'DF  UHDOL] P R FRUHODUH vQWUH SURSRU LD FRQVXPXOXL HQHUJHWLF DJULFRO   vQ WRWDO
FRQVXP HQHUJHWLF DO

ULL  úL SRQGHUHD DJULFXOWXULL OD IRUPDUHD 3,% SHVWH   DMXQJHP OD

FRQFOX]LDF DJULFXOWXUDQXHVWHRUDPXU HQHUJRLQWHQVLY 
(ILFLHQ D HFRQRPLF  D FRQVXPXOXL HQHUJHWLF HVWH UHOHYDW  GH  LQGLFDWRUL ELODQ XO HQHUJHWLF
úLUDQGDPHQWXOHQHUJHWLF
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FDORULL.:+VDX-RXOLúLFRQVXPXOGHUHVXUVHH[SULPDWvQDFHOHDúLXQLW

Randamentul energeticVHFDOFXOHD]

LHQHUJHWLFH 

FDUDSRUWvQWUHHQHUJLDWRWDO RE LQXW úLFRQVXPXOWRWDO

GH HQHUJLH $FHVW LQGLFDWRU PDL HVWH FXQRVFXW úL VXE GHQXPLUHD GH

coeficient de conversie a

energiei.
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LL GH HQHUJLH

IRVLO XWLOL]DW vQDJULFXOWXU 
/LPLWDUHDFRQVXPXOXLHQHUJHWLFGLQDJULFXOWXU VHSRDWHUHDOL]DSULQ
D ,QWURGXFHUHDXQRUWHKQRORJLLGHSURGXF LHFXFRQVXPXULHQHUJHWLFHVF ]XWHGDUI U V VH
GLPLQXH]HSURGXF LD
E ÌQWUH LQHUHDúLUHJODUHDPDúLQLORUODSDUDPHWULLSURLHFWD L

F  (FRQRPLVLUHD HQHUJLHL vQ VLVWHPHOH GH LULJD LL SULQ HOLPLQDUHD SLHUGHULORU GH DS  GLQ

sisteme;
G  )RORVLUHD WUDF LXQLL DQLPDOH SHQWUX DQXPLWH OXFU UL DJULFROH WUDQVSRUWXO SH GLVWDQ H PLFL
úLWHUHQDFFLG

entat etc.);

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DSURSLHUHDX]LQHORUIXUQL]RDUHGHF OGXU 
I (FRQRPLVLUHDHQHUJLHLODXVFDUHDVHPLQ HORUúLGHVKLGUDWDUHDIXUDMHORUSULQ
XWLOL]DUHDXVF WRDUHORUFXIOX[GHDHUúLXQGHHVWHSRVLELOUHYHQLUHDODXVF WRDUHOHQDWXUDOH

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