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mTavarepiskoposi anania jafariZe

deda eklesia
qadagebani da werilebi

deda eklesia

gamomcemloba ,,ganaTleba~ Tbilisi - 1996

wignSi Tavmoyrilia saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis wmida sinodis wevris mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis qadagebani, werilebi da gamokvlevebi, romelnic wlebis ganmavlobaSi qveyndeboda da ipyrobda sazogadoebis yuradRebas. qadagebani da publicisturi werilebi gvamcnoben istoriul beds im qarTvelebisa, romelnic ganSordnen deda qarTul marTlmadideblur eklesias, ris gamoc mSobeli erisagan gaucxovdnen, dakarges erovnuli cnobiereba da gadagvardnen. avtori agreTve warmoaCens Tanamedrove saeklesio cxovrebas, istorias qarTuli eklesiisa, afxazeTisa da samaCablos tkivilebs, ganixilavs axali Taobis aRzrdis sakiTxebs. wigni gankuTvnilia sasuliero saswavleblebis studentebisa da farTo mkiTxveli sazogadoebisaTvis.

deda eklesia

winasityvaobis magier

madliT cxebul saqarTveloSi Zvelad zneobriv aRzrdas saZirkvlad edo RvTisa da moyvasis siyvarulis mcneba, mis nayofs ki ,,saRmrTo moqalaqeoba~ warmoadgenda - sulierad spetaki, erisaTvis Tavdadebuli kacis moRvaweoba qveynis sasargeblod. ,,saRmrTo moqalaqeobis~ saswavli saxelmZRvaneloa saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis wmida sinodis wevris, mTavarepiskopos anania jafariZis wigni ,,deda eklesia~, romelSic Tavmoyrilia misi qadagebani, saganmanaTleblo, polemikuri, eklesiis dRevandelobis da warsulisadmi miZRvnili werilebi. maTSi gadmocemul tkivilsa da sixaruls mkiTxveli uSualod Tavadac ganicdis. saberZneTSi, iveronis monasterSi dacul eqvTime mTawmidelis mier Targmnili ,,dialoRonis~ xelnawers wamZRvarebuli aqvs sityvebi ,,saqebel arian, romelTa werilni keTilni da sargebelni sulisani dautoves sofelsa amas Sina~. meufe ananias werilebic, maTSi gadmocemuli siyvarulisa da mgznebarebis gamo ,,keTilni da sulisaTvis sasargebloni~ arian. maT Soris, albaT, gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia eklesiis istoriisadmi miZRvnili gamokvlevebi. Cveni deda eklesiis istoriis kvlevas meufe ananiam mravali weli miuZRvna. saqarTvelos istoriisa da eTnografiis institutSi sakandidato minimumis Cabarebis Semdeg man sadisertaciodac es Tema SearCia. rogorc meufe brZanebs, RvTisa da eris siyvaruli mas saskolo asakSi Caenerga da maSinve gadawyvita maTTvis mieZRvna Tavisi Tavi. saqarTvelos politeqnikuri institutis damTavrebis Semdeg Tavisi specialobiT ramdenime weliwadi imuSava da maleve berad aRikveca (1979). winamZRvrobda jer Tbilisis wmida samebis eklesias, Semdeg ki - alaverdis monasters. mieniWa iRumenisa da arqimandritis xarisxebi. TxuTmeti wlis win (1981, 15.03) sveticxovlis sapatriarqo taZarSi meufe anania (eriskacobaSi Tengiz anatolis Ze jafariZe) episkoposad akurTxes da wmida sinodis gadawyvetilebiT daadgines jer nikorwmidis, Semdeg ki samcxe-javaxeTis eparqiis mmarTvelad, sadac iRvawa 12 weli. es iyo xana aTeistebis batonobisa: am dros xelisuflebis saTanado organoebi TavianTi damsjeli aparatis gamoyenebiT saeklesio Senobebs ukve aRar angrevdnen, magram sanacvlod sastikad devnidnen maTTvis arasasurvel RvTismsaxurebs. ramdeni tanjva, damcireba da ciliswameba gadaitana meufem im wlebSi..., magram RvTis ZaliT gamxnevda, daiviwya piradi da viT eklesiasa da mrevlze mzrunvelma mamam dagvitova sulisaTvis friad saWiro nawerebi. meufe anania bednieria imiT, rom swored aRniSnul wlebSi, miuxedavad sastiki winaaRmdegobisa, man samocdaaTwliani uqmobis Semdeg akurTxa da pirveli wirva Caatara varZiis, zarzmis, safaris, udes, kimoTesubnis, borjomis, xviliSas, koTelias, sadgeris, abasTumnis, axaldabis da sxva mraval eklesia-monasterSi, aamoqmeda isini, xeli 2

daasxa maTTvis gankuTvnil mRvdlebsa da diakvnebs, daaarsa q. axalcixeSi sasuliero saswavlebeli, dawera misi studentebisaTvis saswavlo saxelmZRvaneloebi ,,axali aRTqmisa~ da ,,eklesiis istoriisa~, xolo imis Semdeg, rac 1992 wlis 25 dekembers sveticxovlis taZarSi aRyvanil iqna mTavarepiskoposis xarisxSi, aRadgina da pirveli wirva daayena algeTis taZarSi (manglis-walkis eparqia), rac albaT simboluria. algeTi - Cveni xalxis mier ganicdeba imedad imisa, rom mova axali morwmune Taoba, namdvili memkvidre erisa, romelic WeSmaritad aaRorZinebs, aayvavebs, gaaerTianebs da gaamTlianebs saqarTvelos zRvidan zRvamde, gulidan gulamde da miwidan zecamde, amin.

patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno!

episkoposma leonti mrovelma ,,qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ wmida mamaTa mier daculi aRTqma gadmogvca, romelic ufalma ieso qristem Tavis dedas - yovladwmida RvTismSobels misca Semdgomad imisa, rac mas wilad iveriis moqceva xvda: - ,,hoi, dedao Cemo, ara ugulebelvyo eri igi sazepuro ufros yovelTa naTesavTa meoxebiTa SeniTa maTTvis~. cnobilia, rom ufalma RmerTma Tavdapirvelad aRTqma noesa da mis STamomavlobas (kacobriobas) daudo. Semdgom ki - abraamsa da mis STamomavlobas (rCeul ers - ebraelobas). rogorc viciT, amis Semdeg ufals aRTqma arc erTi erisaTvis ar miucia. am SemTxvevaSi, Tanaxmad ,,qarTlis cxovrebisa~, qarTveli eri gamonakliss warmoadgens. marTalni viqnebiT, Tu vityviT, rom ufalma aRTqma qarTveli eris mfarvelobisa RvTismSobel mariamTan dado, iseve rogorc abraamTan ebraelTa da noesTan kacobriobis mfarvelobisa. amitom iseve, rogorc abraami mamamTavaria ebraelTa, xolo noe kacobriobisa, aseve RvTismSobeli dedaa anu meTauria qarTveli erisa. qarTveli eris Sesaxeb micemuli aRTqmis xilul niSnad unda vigulisxmoT uflis kvarTi, romelic misive nebiT Cvens qveyanas moebara. wminda ninom Tavisi RvTivganbrZnobili yuradReba Tavidanve miapyro uflis kvarTs, romelic pirveli saukunidanve mcxeTaSia daculi, swored aq, uflis kvarTze daefuZna samociqulo saydari qarTuli eklesiis saWeTmpyrobelisa. uflis kvarTi niSania saqarTvelos eklesiisa da qarTveli eris mTlianobisa da mudmivi siqaduli Cveni qveynisa. ityvis ufali: ,,me da mama Cemi erT varT~ (ioane 10, 30) sxvagan mamis, Zisa da suli wmidis Sesaxeb vkiTxulobT: ,,ese samni erT arian~ (I ioane 5, 7). es saidumlo erTianobisa da ganuyofelobisa asaxulia saxarebiseul ambavSi qristes kvarTis Sesaxeb. kvarTi ar gauyviaT da ar daunawilebiaT, igi mTlianad erTs Sexvda. amasTan dakavSirebiT saRmrTo werili ambobs: ,,xolo kvarTi igi, romel iyo ukervel zeiT gamoqsovil yovlad, Tqves urTierTas: ara ganvxioT ese, aramed wil-vigdoT amas zeda, visica iyos~ (ioane 19, 23-24). am kvarTs mamisagan maRliT erTianoba hqonda micemuli da amitomac misi danawevreba ar SeiZleboda, imaT, visac is ergoT, igi erTxel da samudamod mTliani da ganuyofeli darCaT. amitom, SeuZlebelia qristes samosi hqondes imas, vinc qristes eklesias arRvevs. Tavisi kvarTis saidumloTi ufalma eklesiis erTianobaze migvaniSna. wmida kvipriane TiTqosda winaswar Wvretda beds im qarTvelebisa, romelnic qarTul marTlmadidebel anu uflis kvarTis eklesias ganSordnen, ucxo eklesiebs miekedlnen da dakarges ra erovnuli TviTSemecneba, gadagvardnen. rogorc istoriis kvleva gviCvenebs, grigoriani qarTvelebi gasomxdnen. berZnuli eklesiis mrevlad qceuli qarTvelebi - gaberZndnen, xolo XVIII-XIX saukuneebSi ruseTSi emigrirebuli qarTvelebi, mrevli rusuli eklesiisa - miuxedavad TavianTi uwarCinebulesi gvariSvilobisa, garusdnen. CvenTvis 4

gansakuTrebiT samagaliToa mesxeTis qarTvelobis ,,gaTaTreba~ imis Semdeg, rac maT deda qarTuli eklesiis wiaRi miatoves da gamahmadiandnen. ra iyo mizezi denacionalizaciisa? - uflis kvarTis eklesiisagan ganSoreba. viTarca suli da sxeuli erT arsebas qmnian, aseve erTarsia qarTuli eklesia da qarTveli eri. sxeuli wyvets sicocxles misgan sulis ganSorebisTanave, msgavsadve deda eklesiisagan ganSorebas Sedegad ara mxolod sarwmunoebrivi dacema, aramed erovnuli gadagvarebac mosdevs: ,,scade da moswyvite mzis sxivi Tavis sawyiss - calke is ver iarsebebs, motexili toti mokvdeba, saTaves moSorebuli nakaduli daSreba. Tavisi kvarTis saidumloTi ufalma eklesiis erTianobaze migvaniSna. vin Seupyria ise Zalumad ganxeTqilebis Camogdebis vnebas, rom SesaZleblad miaCnia, anda kadniereba aqvs daarRvios RvTaebrivi erTianoba - uflis kvarTi qristes eklesiisa. TviT ufali Segvaxsenebs da gvmoZRvravs Tavisi saxarebiT - ,,da iyvnen erT samwyso da erT mwyemsi~. wmida episkoposi am sityvebiT gvamcnobs mizezs qarTul eklesias mowyvetili qarTvelebis gadagvarebisa. WeSmariti sarwmunoebis ,,dacvis~ Tu ,,aRiarebis~ momizezebiT qarTvelTa erTi nawili dRes mimdevari xdeba ucxo eklesiebisa Tu seqtebisa: gana SeuZlia mas, vinc ar icavs eklesiis erTianobas, CaTvalos, rom sarwmunoebas icavs? es maSin, roca pavle mociquli ambobs eklesiis Sesaxeb: ,,erT xorc, da erT sul, erT ars ufali, erTi sarwmunoeba, erTi naTlisReba, erT ars RmerTi~. mtkiced unda davicvaT es erTianoba, nuravis tyuils nu ahyveba Cveni Zmoba, nuravin daemuqreba sarwmunoebis WeSmaritebas muxanaTuri mzakvrobiT. ,,erTia eklesia, erTi samwyso, erTia deda, vinc ganudgeba eklesias, is akldeba qristes mier dapirebul jildos~, naTqvamia iqve. samwuxarod, amJamad iseve, rogorc Zvelad, CvenSi Seqmnili viTarebis gamo mravalma qarTvelma miaSura ucxoeTs. maT ar unda gawyviton kavSiri deda eklesiasTan, TavianTi Tavi mxolod qarTuli eklesiis mrevlad, mis wevrebad unda CaTvalon. warRvnis Semdgom ufalma RmerTma dedamiwaze sxvadasxva erebis warmoqmna ineba. Cveni macxovris ieso qristes amaRlebis Semdgom suliwmidis madliT mociqulebs miecaT niWi sxvadasxva erebis enebze ametyvelebisa. msoflio marTlmadidebloba pativs scems yvela xalxis erovnul niSan-Tvisebas, amitomac marTlmadidebluri eklesiebi, gansxvavebiT sxva eklesiebisagan, erovnuli niSnis mixedviTaa mowyobili. adgilobrivi eklesiebi TavianT mrevls ara mxolod TavianT qveynebSi, aramed ucxoeTSic mwysian. magaliTad, rusul eklesias ucxoeTSi, Tavisi qveynis sazRvrebs gareT, ormilioniani mrevli hyavs. es imas niSnavs, rom ucxoeTSi mcxovrebi rusebis ZiriTadi nawili ar xdeba mrevli sxva, Tundac marTlmadidebluri eklesiisa da Tavisi mSobliuri eklesiis wevrad rCeba. TavianTi erovnuli eklesiebi mraval qveyanaSi aqvT agreTve bulgarelebs, ruminelebsa da sxva marTlmadidebel xalxebs. berZnebi, sadac ar unda cxovrobdnen isini, mxolod berZnuli eklesiebis wevrebi xdebian (e. i. ar inaTlebian, ar loculoben, araviTar wesebs ar asrulebineben sxva eklesiebSi) da sulieri kavSiri mxolod berZen 5

(berZnuli eklesiis) RvTismsaxurebTan aqvT. msgavsadve iqcevian aramarTlmadidebeli erebic, magaliTad, somxebs msoflios mraval qveyanasa da did qalaqSi aqvT TavianTi somxuri saepiskoposoebi. sxva erebSi asimilirebisagan Tavis asarideblad msgavsadve unda moiqcnen ucxoeTSi dRes ukve mravlad mcxovrebi qarTvelebic. isini wevrni unda iyvnen mxolod da mxolod qarTuli eklesiisa, maT sarwmunoebrivi Temebi unda Camoayalibon da qarTveli RvTismsaxuri moiZion, romelic ierarqiulad qristes kvarTis eklesias - saqarTvelos sapatriarqos da mis meTaurs, mociqulis taxtze mjdom kaTalikospatriarqs daeqvemdebareba. Zvelad, saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlamde, ucxoeTis qveynebSi mravlad arsebobdnen qarTuli eklesia-monastrebi; isini ara mxolod qarTuli kulturis kerebs, aramed, TavianTi pirdapiri daniSnulebis Sesabamisad, ucxoeTSi mcxovreb qarTvel morwmuneTa samrevlo centrebsac warmoadgendnen, saidanac isini sulierad imwyemsebodnen. es eklesia-monastrebi saqarTvelos saxelmwifo da saeklesio moRvaweTa mzrunvelobiT iyvnen moculni. erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlis Semdgom maT yuradRebas veRar aqcevdnen, mrevlic Sesustda da daifanta. amJamad ucxoeTSi saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis iurisdiqciaSi arc erTi qarTuli eklesia-monasteri aRar arsebobs. bolo wlebSi qarTvelTa raodenobis zrda ucxoeTSi Zveli tradiciis aRdgenas saWiroebs, radgan maT STamomavlobas erovnuli gadagvarebisa da sxva erebSi gaTqvefisagan mxolod qarTul eklesiasTan sulieri erToba gadaarCens. rogorc aRiniSna, ucxoeTSi, sxvadasxva qalaqebsa Tu regionebSi mcxovrebma qarTvelebma sulieri Zala unda moikribon da erovnulsarwmunoebrivi Temebi da sazogadoebebi Seqmnan. rac mTavaria, maT unda gamoZebnon da Temebis saTaveSi Caayenon saqarTvelos eklesiasTan ierarqiulad dakavSirebuli RvTismsaxurebi: mxolod mas - qarTvel mRvdels unda moanaTvlinon Svilebi, Seasrulebinon yovelgvari sarwmunoebrivi wesi. Tu erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi Temebi saWiroebisaTvis eklesiis agebas ver SeZleben, RvTismsaxurebisaTvis mcire Senoba an oTaxi unda gamonaxon, sadac igi ilocebs da qristianul wesebs Seasrulebs. qarTveli RvTismsaxuris garSemo TandaTanobiT Camoyalibdeba sasulieri centri, mcire skola, sadac qarTveli axalgazrdebi qarTul wera-kiTxvas, literaturasa Tu samSoblos istorias Seiswavlian da ucxoeTSic qarTuli suliskveTebiT aRizrdebian. msgavsadve funqcionireben ucxoeTSi sxva marTlmadidebeli erebis sasuliero kerebi, romelnic ise arian gaZlierebulni, rom erovnuli kolejebi, gamomcemlobebi, stambebi da sxva dawesebulebebi aqvT. TavisTavad igulisxmeba, rom saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi yoveli qarTveli movalea daicvas erovnuli eklesiis erTguleba, radgan rogorc iTqva, ufalma, maradis mfarvelma Cveni erisa, qarTuli eklesiisagan gandgoma saqarTvelos arc erT Svils ar apatia. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi qarTveli RvTismsaxurni didad iRvwodnen erovnuli da 6

eklesiuri erTianobis SesanarCuneblad. maTi es mecadineoba aRwerilia Cveni Sromis erT nawilSi, romelsac mkiTxvels vTavazobT, amasTanave, maTgan viTxovT Sendobas daSvebuli Secdomebis da uzustobebisaTvis, Cveni mxridan Cvenc SevTxovT ufals mouteos maT Secodebani maTni, raTa sasufeveli daimkvidron. upirveles yovlisa ki, vevedrebiT Cvengan maradis sadidebel yovladwmida samebas, kvlav wyalobiT moxedos RvTismSoblis wilxvedr Cvens ers, Tanaxmad Cveni uflisa da macxovris ieso qristes aRTqmisa da Segviwyalos Cvenc da Cveni qveynis yoveli moqalaqec, amin.

(saqarTvelos eklesiis kalendari). 1994

qarTvelebis gaberZneba

warRvnis Semdgom gamravlebuli kacobrioba, Tanaxmad wmida werilisa, erebad da tomebad dayofili ar yofila: ,,erTpiri iyo mTeli dedamiwa da erT enaze metyveli~ (dab. 11, I). Semdgom ki ufalma RmerTma kacobriobis eTnikur jgufebad dayofa ineba da warmoiqmna enebi, tomebi, erebi. rogorc kacobriobis istoria miuTiTebs, aRniSnuli eTnikuri erTeulebi mudmiv, ucvlel kategoriebs ar warmoadgendnen. droTa msvlelobam mravali eri warmoSva, gaaZliera; Semdgom daSala da gaaqro. eris gaqroba adamianTa fizikur mospobas ar niSnavs, umetes SemTxvevaSi asimilacia, erTi eTnikuri jgufidan meoreSi gadasvla denacionalizacia xdeba. magaliTad, Sumerebisa aqadelebad, midielebisa - sparselebad, kapadokielebisa - berZnebad. am procesis dros, erTi eris warmomadgeneli sxva romelime eris enas, wes-Cveulebebs iTvisebs da Svilebs sxva eris eTnikuri wevrobis suliskveTebiT zrdis. adamiani swored im erovnebisa xdeba, romlis wevradac Tavis Tavs Tvlis. ra aris mizezi erebis daSlisa, ra uwyobs amas xels; dRes eri ewodeba garkveul Semofarglul teritoriaze mcxovreb mosaxleobas, romelsac Tavisi saxelmwifo gaaCnia. wmida ilia marTlis TqmiT, es ,,erTsuli da erTxorci mkvidrni saerTo istoriiT arian SeduRebulni (ix. i. WavWavaZe, Txz. 1984 gv. 716). ers uTuod unda hqondes Tavisi saxelmwifo. usaxelmwifod eri erobas kargavs. iSleba swored is eri, romelmac saxelmwifoebrioba dakarga, anda romlis saxelmwifoc nawilebad daiyo, romelTac politikuri TavisTavadoba dakarges. ucxo saxelmwifos sazRvrebs SigniT moqceuli eri, asimilacias anu denacionalizacias ara swrafad, aramed TandaTanobiT, etapobrivad, saukuneTa manZilze ganicdis. am wesidan garkveuli gamonaklisic arsebobs, Tavisi erovnuli saxelmwifos gauqmebis Semdgom zogierTma eTnikurma jgufma, ZiriTadad eTno-sarwmunoebrivi Temebis SeqmniTa da erovnul-kulturuli avtonomiis dawesebiT, ucxo saxelmwifoSic SeZlo TavisTavadobis SenarCuneba. sazogado wesidan arc qarTveli eria gamonaklisi. saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSla - eris eTnikur jgufebad dayofas, xolo saxelmwifos gaerTianeba - eris konsolidacias uwyobda xels. saukuneTa manZilze saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia saqarTvelos gaerTianebisaken miiswrafoda da eris erTianobisaTvis iRvwoda. Cveni deda eklesiisaTvis cnobili iyo, rom saqarTvelos dayofa da ucxo saxelmwifos gavlenis sferoebSi misi nawilebis moqceva ZiriTadi mizezi iyo erTiani qarTveli eris jer eTnikur jgufebad (qarTlelebad, kaxelebad, imerlebad, mesxebad, megrelebad, gurulebad da a. S.), dayofisa, xolo Semdgom saerTod denacionalizaciisa - erovnuli gadagvarebisa. XIX saukuneSi ilia WavWavaZem eTnikur erTeulebad daSlil qarTvelobas eris tomobrivi daSlis saSineli saxe daanaxa da miZinebuli erovnuli erTianobis suli gamoafxizla. 8

Zveli qarTveli istoriografebi, romlebic ZiriTadad Cveni eklesiis wmida mamebi iyvnen (leonti mroveli, arseni beri da sxv.), saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos orgzis daSlas agviweren. farnavaz mefis mier qristes Sobamde daarsebulma mTeli saqarTvelos momcvelma samefom mTlianoba TiTqmis 800-900 wlis manZilze SeinarCuna. me-6 saukunis bolos vaxtang gorgasalis STamomavalTa dros ki igi daiSala da saxelmwifoc gauqmda. VIII-IX ss-Si saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi warmoiqmna qarTuli saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebi (tao-klarjeTis, kaxeThereTis da afxazeTis samefoebi), romlebic X s-is bolos da XI s-is dasawyisSi gaerTiandnen erTian saqarTvelos samefod, romelic Semdgom, kerZod XV-XVI saukuneebSi isev daiSala. rogorc aRiniSna, erTiani saxelmwifos dros Zlierdeboda qarTveli eris konsolidacia da, piriqiT, kuTxuri saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebis warmoqmna xels uwyobda kuTxuri, tomobrivi niSan-Tvisebebis gaZlierebas, eris eTnojgufebad dayofas. ufro metic, ucxo saxelmwifoTa sazRvrebs SigniT moqceul saqarTvelos nawilebSi daiwyo qarTvelTa asimilacia ucxo tomebTan, magaliTad, osmaleTis saxelmwifoSi moxvedril mesxeTSi intensiurad mimdinareobda qarTvelebis gamahmadianeba, rasac Semdgom nawilobriv maTi gaTaTreba (erovnuli cnobierebis Secvla) mohyva. iqve mimdinareobda religiur niadagze sxva eTnoprocesebic. msgavsi procesi mimdinareobda sparseTis imperiis sazRvrebSi moqceul aRmosavleT kaxeTsa (War-belaqansa) da qvemo qarTlSi (aq ZiriTadad xdeboda qarTvelebis gamahmadianeba da armenizacia), msgavsi procesebi Semdeg daiwyo Crdilo kavkasieli tomebis gavlenis sferoSi moqceul afxazeTsa da Sida qarTlSi - ucxo garemoSi moxvedrili qarTvelebi kargavdnen erovnebas da sxva eTnikur jgufebs erwymodnen. ganvixiloT qarTvelebis gaberZnebis sakiTxi. konstantinepolis aRebis Semdeg osmalebma berZnuli marTlmadidebluri sapatriarqo ar gaauqmes, ufro metic, mas uflebebi gaufarToves, patriarqs ,,berZnuli Temis eTnarqis~ funqciebi daakisres. sulTans qristianTa Soris wonasworobis da samarTlianobis damyarebis pretenzia gaaCnda (ix. S. lomsaZe ,,axalcixuri qronikebi~, gv. 23). osmalebma TurqeTis teritoriaze mcxovrebi qristianebi or mTavar jgufad dayves da maT sulier meTaurad konstantinepolSi myofi berZeni da somexi patriarqebi daniSnes. berZenTa (ase uwodebdnen marTlmadideblebs) sapatriarqos ganmgeblobaSi Sevidnen: berZnebi, bulgarelebi, serbebi, albanelebi, valaxebi, moldavelebi, xorvatebi, sirielebi, qristiani arabebi, lazebi (iqve, gv. 25). mesxeTis dapyrobis, anu osmaleTis imperiaSi samxreT saqarTvelos Sesvlis Semdgom maT ricxvs qarTvelebic miematnen. waTe bawaSi wers: ,,1476 wels mehmed II mier gamocemul ,,kanun-names~ mixedviT dawesda statusi aramusulmanuri religiuri TemisaTvis da damtkicdnen konstantinepolSi marTlmadidebluri (berZnuli) da somxuri (grigorianuli) patriarqebi da ebraelTa mTavari rabini. yvela marTlmadidebeli (berZnebi, bulgarelebi, serbebi, albanelebi, qarTvelebi, valaxelebi da moldavelebi) amieridan ganixileboda rogorc erTi ,,berZnuli Temi~ (berZeni eri), romelzedac berZenTa patriarqi rogorc saeklesio, iseve sasamarTlo ZalauflebiT 9

sargeblobda, katorRaSi gagzavnis CaTvliTac ki. berZenTa patriarqs da episkoposebs ekuTvnodaT kontroli marTlmadidebeli erovnebis skolebsa da wignebze. maT hqondaT miniWebuli agreTve zogierTi piradi privilegia. osmaleTSi ,,eris~ cnebas religiuri Sinaarsi hqonda, e.i. yvela musulmans - osmalo, yvela kaTolikes - frangi, yvela marTlmadidebels - berZeni, yvela grigorianels - somexi ewodeboda. osmalebis imperiaSi oTxi ,,eri~ cxovrobda; am oTxi eris (osmalo, berZeni, somexi, frangi) arsebobas aRiarebda saxelmwifoca da mosaxleobac (sinamdvileSi, rogorc aRiniSna eTnojgufebis, erebis, raodenoba uamravi iyo. ix. a. jafariZe ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria~ t. 4, gv. 343). ra bedi ewiaT osmaleTis sazRvrebs SigniT moqceul mesxeTisa da lazeTis qarTvelebs? isini osmaleTis qveSevrdomebad iqcnen. qveynis kanoni ki moiTxovda, rom marTlmadidebeli mesxebi da lazebi konstantinepolis berZnul sapatriarqos daqvemdebarebodnen. gagrigorianebuli qarTvelebi ki - somex patriarqs. imperiaSi arsebuli Sexedulebis Sesabamisad mesxeTis (da lazeTis) mosaxleoba oTx jgufad daiyo - musulmanebad (TaTrebad), frangebad, somxebad da berZnebad, Tumca yvela isini qarTvelebi iyvnen. isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom mesxeTis Crdilo mxareSi mcxovrebi mcirericxovani marTlmadideblebi, romelTac bolomde ar gauwyvetiaT faruli kavSiri mcxeTis (qarTul) sapatriarqosTan - ,,qarTvelebad~ iwodebodnen. qarTvelTa eTnikuri gansaxlebis sazRvari samxreTis mimarTulebiT evfratamde aRwevda. XVII s-Si antioqieli patriarqi makari, romelmac TiTqmis mTeli mesxeTi fexiT moiara, adasturebs, rom adre saqarTvelos samxreTi sazRvari evfratamde aRwevda, amasve mowmobs Celebic. arzrumis midamoebs didxans SemorCa qarTuli mosaxleoba. arqanjelo lamberti wers, rom maT qarTveli episkoposi ejdaT arzrumSi; XVII s-Si t. gabaSvilma giumiSxaneSi daadastura qarTuli eklesiebis arseboba da agreTve mosaxleobaSi SemorCenili xsovna, rom adre es adgili saqarTvelod iTvleboda (S. lomsaZe ,,samcxe-javaxeTi~ gv. 58). es faqti imiTac aris saintereso, rom dRevandel saqarTveloSi berZnuli mosaxleoba swored giumiSxanedan da arzrumidan gadmosaxlda XIX s-Si, Tumca mas ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris dadebuli SeTanxmebiT saberZneTSi gadasaxlebac SeeZlo, magram saberZneTSi wasvla ar isurva da Sida qarTlSi (walkasa da sxvagan) Casaxleba irCia. rogorc iTqva, osmaleTis imperiaSi Semavali balkaneTis naxevarkunZulis, aseve pontos da mesxeTis marTlmadidebluri mosaxleoba konstantinepolis sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi imyofeboda. es iurisdiqcia ara mxolod sasuliero, aramed saero xasiaTsac atarebda. berZen patriarqs, mis mitropolitebsa da episkoposebs sasamarTlo da sagadasaxado uflebebi hqondaT yvela marTlmadidebeli qristianis mimarT, ganurCevlad maTi erovnebisa. yvela skola marTlmadideblebisa damokidebuli iyo konstantinepolis patriarqze, skolaSi swavleba, rogorc wesi, berZnul enaze mimdinareobda. berZnul enaze sruldeboda mRvdelmsaxurebac. berZnuli sapatriarqo yovelmxriv ewinaaRmdegeboda sxva erovnul kulturaTa ganviTarebas. am mizezis gamo 10

osmaleTis imperiaSi berZnuli ena sayovelTaod gavrcelda marTlmadidebelTa Soris. es gamoiwvia ganaTlebisa da eklesiis ,,elinizaciam~ da agreTve ekonomikurma moTxovnilebebma (ix. waTe bawaSi: ,,eTno-religiuri procesebi anatoliaSi~ 1988 w. gv. 40-41). rogorc aqedan Cans, bizantiis imperiis damxobis Semdeg berZnulma eklesiam miiRo ufleba osmaleTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi yvela marTlmadidebeli erovnebis Tavisi iurisdiqciis qveS moqcevisa, ramac berZnuli enis gavrceleba da zogierTi eTnikuri jgufis gaberZneba gamoiwvia. rogorc aRiniSna, konstantinepolis patriarqi axlad SemoerTebul araberZnul samrevlos berZen mRvdels ugzavnida. mRvdels ki, osmaleTis saxelmwifoSi miRebuli kanonebis Tanaxmad, Tavis samwysoze ganusazRvreli uflebebi hqonda, mRvdeli misTvis ara marto sasuliero piri, aramed msajulica da mosamarTlec iyo. mas damnaSavis katorRaSi gagzavnac ki SeeZlo. mrevlSi mRvdeli erTdroulad iyo msajuli, mamasaxlisi, maswavlebeli, gadasaxadebis amkrebi, yovlis momcveli meurve da xelmZRvaneli sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi. mesxeTisa da lazeTis qarTveloba romelic dapyrobaTa Sedegad osmaleTis saxelmwifos sazRvrebSi aRmoCnda, sarwmunoebriv sakiTxebSi fenebad daiyo. vaxuSti wers: ,,Seiqmna sruliad mahmadianoba, wesiTa da sjuliTa maTiTa. da aRSendebodian meCeTni. aramed darCnen glexni umwyemselni, viTarca pirutyvni~ (,,qarT. cx.~ t. 4, gv. 729). daaxloebiT 1659 wlisaTvis mesxeTis mosaxleoba sarwmunoebrivad or fenad gaiyo: maRal fenas miuRia mahmadianoba, xolo glexebi kvlav qristianebad darCenilan, magram winamZRvarTa gareSe. qarTvel glexobas qarTveli samRvdeloeba aRar emsaxureboda, radganac qarTul eklesias materialur-finansuri safuZveli gamoecala, xolo warCinebulebi ki ukve eklesiaze aRar zrunavdnen. qarTuli eklesiis gareSe, rogorc vaxuSti wers ,,pirutyvebiviT~ umwyemsod darCenili glexebi erovnuli TviTSegnebis dabali donis gamo berZnulma, somxurma da kaTolikurma eklesiebma gainawiles erTmaneTs Soris, romelTac osmaleTis imperiaSi saxelmwifoebrivi statusi hqondaT (aRiarebulni iyvnen xelisufalTa mier), xolo glexebis nawili warCinebulTa wabaZviT gamahmadianda. aqve isic unda aRiniSnos, rom qarTuli eklesia osmaleTis imperiaSi sastikad idevneboda, radganac osmal xelisufalTa TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelos saxelmwifo ruseTis saxelmwifos gabatonebas amierkavkasiaSi qarTuli eklesiis nebiT apirebda. ruseTi ki osmaleTis imperiasTan mebrZoli qveyana iyo. mesxeTsa da lazeTSi mcxovrebi is qarTveli glexebi, romelTac marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoeba SeinarCunes, rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, osmaleTis saxelmwifos kanonTa Sesabamisad konstantinepolis berZeni patriarqis mrevlad iqcnen. qarTveli marTlmadideblebis ricxvi gansakuTrebiT didi iyo arzrumsa da giumiSxaneSi. maT XVII-XVIII ss-Si konstantinepolma, rogorc kanoni moiTxovda, berZeni ierarqebi da samRvdeloeba gaugzavna, risi wyalobiTac maTSi TandaTanobiT berZnuli cnobiereba Camoyalibda, magram XIX s-Si maT, ruseT-osmaleTis SeTanxmebis Sesabamisad, mosaxleobis gacvlis dros, ara saberZneTSi, aramed saqarTveloSi 11

wasvla isurves: am mosaxleobas urumebi ewodebodaT. eTnografiuli niSnebiT urumebi ufro qarTul-kavkasiur-osmalur samyaros ganekuTvnebian, vidre berZnuls. maT ar icodnen berZnuli ena da Turqulad saubrobdnen. SeinarCunes marTlmadidebluri rwmena, magram enis SenarCuneba ver SeZles. urumebi maT viTarca anatoliis mkvidrT ewodebodaT, anatolia ki bizantiis imperiis ZiriTad nawils warmoadgenda. bizantia - mecnieruli terminia; bizantielebi TavianT Tavs - romaelebs, Turqebi ki urumebs uwodebdnen (sityva romidan); urumebs eZaxdnen agreTve am teritoriaze damkvidrebul osmalebsac. arzrumsa da giumiSxanidan gadmosaxlebul urumebSi ramdenime eTnikuri jgufi Sedioda, maT Soris lazebic. isini XIX s-Si walkaSi, bolnisSi, borjomsa da sxvagan dasaxldnen. urumebis Camosaxleba saqarTveloSi intensiuri iyo XIX s-is 50-ian wlebSi da grZeldeboda XX s-is 30-ian wlebamde (ix. i. axuaSvili: ,,berZnuli axalSenebi qvemo qarTlSi~). isini dausaxlebiaT qarTvel memamuleTa miwebze garissa da TrialeTSi, Zvel qarTul soflebsa da nasoflarebSi. maT iq qarTveli mkvidri mosaxleobis garkveuli raodenoba daxvedriaT. ruseTis mTavroba maT yuradRebiT epyroboda da yovel mxriv cdilobda maTSi berZnuli TviTSegnebis ganmtkicebas. i. axuaSvilis Sromebis Tanaxmad es qarTvelebi gaberZnebulan (ix. ,,mnaTobi~ 1988 w. N6; 1988 w. N10; 1989 w. N12). dokumentebidan Cans, rom aridaSvili Cawerilia aredovad, aslaniSvili aslanovad, aslamaziSvili - aslamazovad, anesiSvili - amosovad, amanaTaSvili - trapetuntovad, baraTaSvili Cawerilia jer darCievad, xolo Semdeg - baraTovad. aivazaSvils miuRia gvari - aivazovi, balabaniSvils - balabanovi, berZeniSvils - gurjievi. am gvarTan dakavSirebiT unda iTqvas, rom gurjievad Cawerilan TeTraZeebi da aseve qarTveliSvilebi. bostanaSvils miuRia gvari bostanjievi, beruaSvils berovi, biWiaSvils - bidJoevi, gabaSvils - gabaoRli, giorgaSvils giorgi oRli, gigolaSvils - gigolovi, vaxtangiSvils gvari ar Seucvlia, magram aRwerisas erovnebad berZeni Cauwerinebia, zazaSvils zazoevi, TevdoraSvils - anozovi da fedorovi, TofuriZes gvari ar Seucvlia, magram erovnebiT - ,,berZenia~, TomaSvils - tomazovi, iordaniSvils - Culaevi, isanamiSvils - simonovi, isakaZes - baxirovi, kalaZes - kalaiCevi, kostanaSvils - kostanovi, kekelaSvils gvari ar Seucvlia, magram erovnebiT ,,berZenia~. lazariSvils - lazaridi, maliSvils - mazmulovi, mazmaniSvils - mazmulovi, mermaniSvils mermaevi. erovneba SeucvliaT: muradaSvils, mirzaSvils, merabiSvils, nikolaZes, romelic nikodimovad Cawerila, petriaSvili - dimoevad, sakaliZes gvari ar Seucvlia, erovnebiT ,,berZenia~. aseve sabaZes, uflisaSvili - plizoRli, farajanaSvili - farajanovi, feriaSvili varaqlievi, furcelaZe - ergiSevi, falavandiSvili - paflenovi, RviniaSvili - xristoforovi, yarajaSvili - yarajievi, WedilaSvils gvari ar Seucvlia, xeCinaSvili - xeCinovi, xamajagaSvili - Ciflievi, jaliaSvili - kilinkarovi, javaraSvili - javaroRli. qarTvelebis asimilacia, sxvadasxva erebsa da tomebSi Serwyma, rogorc aRvniSneT, XV-XVI ss-Si saqarTvelos saxelmwifos erTianobis daSlam da dapyrobaTa wyalobiT zogierT kuTxeSi saxelmwifoebriobis moSlam 12

gamoiwvia. msgavsi procesi mimdinareobs yovel erSi. saxelmwifomoSlili eri, romelic ver SeZlebs TviTSemecnebis maRali donis gamomJRavnebas, ver inarCunebs TavisTavadobas da nawili xdeba sxva erisa. qarTvelebis gaberZnebac ar aris gamonaklisi, swored amitom ambobda wmida ilia marTali: ,,vai im xalxs, romelsac saerTo ZarRvi gauwyda. gavTiTeuldiT cal-calke daviSaleniT, aso-asod daviWeriT, didebuli qarTvelobis azri is sayovelTao saxeli gonebidan gamogvecala... is SemkreblobiT didebuli erTiani azri, romelsac yoveli Cvengani qarTvelobaSi unda xedavdes, is saxeli, romelic yvelas gverqva, dairRva, Cvenis gonebidan amoSra~. erovnuli TviTSegnebis dabali done iyo ZiriTadi mizezi qarTvelebis gaberZnebisa, gaTaTrebisa da gasomxebisa. politikuri viTarebis gamo qarTveli eris erTian sxeuls CamoSordnen is qarTvelebi, romlebic nebsiT Tu uneblieT ganSordnen Cvens dedas, saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesias da ucxo eklesiaTa mrevlad iqcnen. madli, #8, 1994

13

qarTvelebis gamahmadianeba

wmida werilSi mravaljer gvxvdeba gamoTqma ,,Cveni mamebis RmerTi~. ufal RmerTs Tayvans scemdnen israelSi, viTarca abraamis, isaakisa da iakobis RmerTs. ucxo ,,RmerTebis~ Tayvaniscema ,,mamaTa RmerTis~ anu WeSmariti, samyaros Semoqmedi RmerTis uaryofad, winaprebis upativcemulobad, eris, misi istoriisa da warsulis gmobad miiCneoda. ,,mamaTa RmerTis~ siyvaruliT cxovrobda RvTisgan rCeuli eri. Cven, qarTvelebi, ukve ori aTasi welia Tayvans vcemT Cvens ufals, ieso qristes, yovladwmida samebas. ori aTasi wlis manZilze mravali Taoba cxovrobda WeSmariti RmerTis siyvaruliT, amitomac, SegviZlia Tamamad vTqvaT, rom Cveni winaprebis RmerTi ieso qristea da kurTxeulia ufali RmerTi Cveni mamebisa. ieRovelebi cdiloben, rom Cvenma xalxma amJamad Tayvani maT mier naqadageb ,,RmerTs~ sces. mama-papaTa RmerTis uarmyofelT ki is daemarTebaT, rac qarTvelTa erT nawils SeemTxva WeSmariti uflisa da deda qarTuli eklesiis uaryofis Semdeg. winaparTa mrwamsis uarmyofel qarTvelebs, ucxo eklesiaTa mrevlad qceulT, didi ubedureba ewiaT imiT, rom erovnuli cnobiereba dakarges da mSobel ers moswydnen. marTalia, gamahmadianebuli qarTvelebis saukeTeso nawils erovnuli TviTSegneba ar daukargavs, magram ucilobeli faqtia, rom mometebuli nawili sxvadasxva mahmadian xalxTan asimilirda. erovnuli eklesiis uaryofis Semdeg msgavsadve aiTqvifnen sxvadasxva xalxebSi berZnul, grigorianul da romaul eklesiebs Sekedlebuli qarTvelebi. aseve gaucxovdebian momavalSic deda eklesiis uarmyofeli qarTveli ieRovelebi da sxva seqtebis wevrebic. ganvixiloT qarTvelTa gamahmadianeba. marTalia amJamad qarTveloba mcirericxovan erad miiCneva, magram XV saukunis bolosaTvis, saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlis win, is sxva didi erebis gverdiT idga. osmaleTis imperiis daarsebis droisaTvis qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli ara marto amierkavkasiis udidesi nawili, aramed mcire aziaSi evfratis, Woroxisa da areziis xeobaTa saTaveebi. qarTvelTa gamahmadianebis Sedegad saqarTvelos mTeli rigi mxareebi Camoscilda lazeTi, hereTi, aRmosavleT kaxeTi (saingilo), mesxeTi, qvemo qarTlis nawili (taSiri, aboci, gelaqunamde), Crd. afxazeTi. gamahmadiandnen Crd. kavkasiaSi saqarTvelos mosazRvre mxareebSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi. gansakuTrebiT mZime danakliss warmoadgenda qarTuli erovnuli sxeulisaTvis mesxeTisa da aRmosavleT kaxeTis (saingilos) gamahmadianeba. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi qarTvelTa masobrivi gamahmadianebis Sedegad erT dros didi saxelmwifo saqarTvelo umniSvnelo qveynad iqca. mesxeTis vrcel mxareSi (30000 kv. km) mcxovrebi qarTvelebi mawyvereli, kumurdoeli, iSxneli, anCeli, arzrumeli, mtbevari, wurwyabeli, wyarosTaveli, eruSeli, valaSkerteli, aneli, kareli, baneli da dadaSneli episkoposebis mrevls warmoadgendnen. mesxeTi, wmida ilia marTlis TqmiT, qarTuli qristianobis akvans warmoadgenda 14

da gaocebas iwvevs is faqti, rom qristianuli sarwmunoebisaTvis Tavdadebuli qarTvelebi, romelnic mamapapeul rjuls, saukuneTa manZilze icavdnen, sakmaod swrafad gamahmadiandnen, maSin, roca sxva kuTxeebSi (magaliTad qarTlsa da kaxeTSi) ucxo sarwmunoebis gavrcelebas mosaxleoba Tavdauzogavad ewinaaRmdegeboda. mesxeTSi sarwmunoebrivi viTareba mahmadianobis gavrcelebis win garTulebuli iyo. rogorc ivane javaxiSvilma gamoikvlia, mesxeTSi mahmadianobis swraf gavrcelebas garkveulwilad aTabagebis ugunurma saeklesio politikamac Seuwyo xeli. im dros, roca am mxareSi qristianoba hyvaoda da misi mkvidrni gulmxurvale morwmuneebi iyvnen, aTabagebma TiTqmis asi wlis manZilze (XV saukunis Sua wlebidan) ibrZoles qarTuli eklesiis mTlianobis darRvevisa da misi wiaRidan mesxeTis eklesiis gamoyofisaTvis. samwuxarod, maT es SeZles da mesxeTis eklesia mcxeTis sakaTalikososagan ,,damoukidebeli~ gaxades. amas mawyverel-safareli episkoposebis saeklesio separatizmmac Seuwyo xeli. mesxeTis eklesiis gamoyofas qarTuli eklesiidan sabediswero Sedegi mohyva. rogorc iv. javaxiSvili wers, mesxeTis deda eklesiisagan CamoSorebam gawyvita is sulier-sarwmunoebrivi kavSiri, romelic am mxares danarCen saqarTvelosTan aerTianebda: ,,mesxebis gaTurqebas, ueWvelia, sxvaTa Soris aTabagTa mier mesxeTis saqarTvelos eklesiisagan CamosaSoreblad warmoebulma daundobelma brZolam da rasakvirvelia, TviT gamoyofamac Seuwyo xeli. erTi mxriv, am gamwarebulma brZolam xalxis TvalSi eklesiisa da qristianobis avtoriteti Seasusta, meore mxriv mesxeTis samRvdeloebas, deda eklesias mowyvetils da ganmartoebuls, mahmadianobis gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg brZolis unarianoba daukarga. xolo iq, sadac qristianobam mahmadianobas dauTmo asparezi, qarTvelobis erovnuli gadagvareba da gaTurqebac daiwyo~ - wers ivane javaxiSvili (ix. a. jafariZe saq. samoc. eklesiis istoria t. IV, gv. 405). qristianuli eklesiis avtoriteti mesxeTSi ise daeca, rom erTsa da imave pirobebSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi mahmadiandebodnen, somxebi ki ara. hakob karnecis cnobiT, imis Semdgom, rac sulTanis (ibrahim I, 1640-1648) brZanebis mere qristianebs gadasaxadi daumZimdaT, TorTomis (mesxeTis am kuTxis, sadac oSkisa da xaxulis taZrebi iyo) qarTuli mosaxleoba gadasaxadis momatebiT imdenad SeZrwunebula, rom erTianad mahmadianoba miuRia, xolo somxebs qristianoba SeunarCunebiaT. taSianis cnobiT, somxebi sarwmunoebas axalcixis safaSos centrsa da mesxeTis sxva did dasaxlebebSic inarCunebdnen. marTalia, amas Tavisi politikuri mizezebi hqonda, magram gadamwyveti mniSvneloba mosaxleobis sulier daqvemdebarebas eniWeboda. somexi mecnieris cnobiT, mesxeTis somxuri mosaxleoba mxolod politikurad eqvemdebareboda safaSos, sulierad ki Tavis sasuliero centrebTan, am SemTxvevaSi eCmiaZinTan iyo dakavSirebuli, somxuri eklesiis mrevlad yofna ucxoeTSi mcxovreb somxebs erovnuli TviTSemecnebis mdgradobas aniWebda. mesxeTisa da saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebic Tavis erovnebas aseve mxolod da mxolod deda eklesiasTan kavSiriT inarCunebdnen. rogorc aRiniSna, qarTul eklesias CamoSorebuli mosaxleoba 15

qarTvelobas kargavda. qarTvelebis gamahmadianeba Tavis TavSi erovnuli TviTSemecnebis Seryevasac gulisxmobda. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi arsebuli cnobierebiT ,,qarTveli~ ewodeboda eTnikuri warmoSobiT qarTvels, romelic amave dros qarTuli eklesiis mrevlic iyo. xolo eTnikuri warmoSobiT qarTvelebs, romlebic JamTa viTarebam somxuri, berZnuli, anda kaTolikuri eklesiebis mrevlad aqcia, Sesabamisad, ,,somxebs~, ,,berZnebs~ anda ,,frangebs~ uwodebdnen. qarTvelTa gamahmadianebis gamo zedized gauqmda saepiskoposoebi mesxeTisa: XVI s. meore naxevarSi banis, iSxanisa da anCis samRvdelmTavroebis (eparqiebis) gauqmebis Semdgom asi wlis ganmavlobaSi TiTqmis yvela saepiskoposo gauqmda. ise, rom XVII s. 60-iani wlebisaTvis, am mxareSi erTaderTi saepiskoposoRa iyo darCenili. upatronod rCeboda eklesiebi, romlebic Tavisi simdidriT oqromWedlobis, xatebis, Zvirfasi Tvlebis nimuSebiTa da wignebis siuxviT gamoirCeoda. erovnebiT qarTvelma rostom faSam XVII s. Sua wlebSi mesxeTis eklesiebsa da sasaxleebSi arsebuli qristianuli siwmindeni moagrova, xatebs Zvirfasi Tvlebi moxsna da isini dasawvavad moagrova saxarebebTan, jvrebTan da sxva saeklesio wignebTan erTad, romelic imdeni yofila, rom maTgan msgavsad wylisa, moedineboda oqro da vercxli (iqve, gv. 419). mesxeTSi gauqmebuli saepiskoposoebidan devnili episkoposebi da saeklesio moRvaweni guriaSi, imereTSi, qarTlSi, kaxeTsa Tu samegreloSi gadadiodnen. S. lomsaZis cnobiT, XVII s. 30-ian wlebSi safareli episkoposi tbeTSi gaiqca da ,,mtbevarad~ iqca, XVIII s. dasawyisSi awyuris episkoposi imereTSi gadavida da bolos ,,genaTeloba~ miiRo. miuxedavad Seqmnili viTarebisa, mesxeTSi episkoposebs jer kidev hqondaT SenarCunebuli garkveuli gavlena mosaxleobaze. rogorc Cans es sulTanis karzec gaiTvaliswines. sulTanma mesxeTSi episkoposi sagangebo firmaniT daniSna, ris Sedegadac episkoposis devna Sewyda. 1640 wels sulTans firmaniT iSxneloba, mawyvereloba da Cans, safarel-mtbevroba gaucia. erTi episkoposisaTvis ramdenime saepiskoposo kaTedris gaerTianeba iSxanis, awyuris, safarisa da tbeTis eparqiebis damcrobiT iyo gamowveuli. mesxeTis sxva saepiskoposoebi ukve gauqmebulni iyvnen. amis Semdgom, sul raRac asiode weliwadSi, sarwmunoebrivi viTareba kidev ufro gauaresda. Tu XVI saukunis 40-ian wlebSi osmaleTisaTvis mesxeTSi qarTuli saepiskoposos arseboba ramdenadme misaRebi iyo, saukunis bolosaTvis is miuRebeli gamxdara. marTlmadidebel qristianobaSi osmaleTi ruseT-saqarTvelos kavSiris safuZvels xedavda da araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar surda misi Sewynareba axalcixis safaSos teritoriaze. am mizezis gamo, osmaleTi qarTuli eklesiis winaaRmdeg yoveli RoniT ibrZoda. ruseTis imperia, romelic am qveynebs ganadgurebiT emuqreboda, Tavis sayrdens kavkasiaSi poulobda. osmaleT-sparseTis saxelmwifoebs ruseTis mzardi imperia sasikvdilod emuqreboda. ruseTis imperiis sayrdens kavkasiaSi marTlmadidebeli saqarTvelo warmoadgenda. osmaleTi da sparseTi imedovnebdnen, rom qarTuli eklesiis dasustebis Sedegad ruseTis imperiis sarwmunoebrivi 16

sayrdeni kavkasiaSi moixsneboda. sparselebi da osmalebi rom swored qarTul eklesias ebrZodnen, es iqidanac Cans, rom uSualod am qveynebSi sxva qristianuli eklesiebi, Temebi da samrevloebi legalurad ixseniebodnen, rogorc cnobilia, osmaleTis dedaqalaqSi aqtiurad moRvaweobdnen somxuri da berZnuli sapatriarqoebi, iranis saxelmwifos teritoriaze ki eCmiaZinis somxuri sapatriarqo. miRebuli wesis Tanaxmad, osmaleTis teritoriaze mcxovrebi yvela marTlmadidebeli, erovnuli warmoSobis miuxedavad, berZnul sapatriarqos unda damorCileboda, xolo yvela grigorianeli ki - somxur sapatriarqos. osmaleTis imperiaSi, mesxeTsa da lazeTSi, imis gamo, rom qarTuli eklesiis mrevloba akrZaluli iyo, qarTvelTa Soris warmatebiT vrceldeboda kaTolikuri da grigorianuli sarwmunoebani. xalxi Tavs imiT inugeSebda, rom ar gmobda qristianobas, ar iRebda mahmadianobas da mxolod sxva, Tumca ki araerovnul eklesias ekedleboda. Seqmnili viTarebis gamo, bolo episkoposi mesxeTisa, romelic rogorc aRiniSna, erTdroulad iyo mawyverel-safarel-iSxnel-mtbevari, iZulebuli gamxdara, uareyo marTlmadidebloba da kaTolikoba mieRo. S. lomsaZe wers - ,,am erTaderTma saepiskoposom samcxe-javaxeTSi, rogorc Cans iarseba 1763 wlamde. 1763 wlis bolos da 1764 wlis dasawyisSi am mxaris episkoposma vinme giorgim iZulebiT datova marTlmadidebloba... nacvlad miiRo kaTolikuri sarwmunoeba, rac sakmarisi sababi gamxdara imisaTvis, rom Turq moxeleebs SeewyvitaT saepiskoposos devna. samagierod gakaTolikebul episkoposs devna dauwyo eCmiaZinis patriarqma... somex patriarqs mopovebuli hqonda sulTanisagan ufleba TurqeTSi Semavali kavkasiis qristianebis meurveobisa~ (iqve gv. 420-421). mesxeTisa da lazeTis qarTulma mosaxleobam osmaleTSi Seqmnili socialur-politikuri viTarebisa da dabali erovnuli TviTSegnebis gamo deda qarTuli eklesia uaryo da gamahmadianda, anda kaTolikur, grigorianul da berZnul eklesiebs Seekedla, ramac qarTvelTa erovnuli cnobiereba kidev ufro daSala. mesxeTis da lazeTis qarTveloba deda eklesiidan gasvlis Semdeg sarwmunoebriv Temebad daiyo da imJamindeli cnobierebis Sesabamisad sarwmunoebrivi niSnis mixedviT TaTrebad (Turqebad), frangebad, berZnebad da somxebad daiyo. qarTvelobis SenarCuneba mesxeTis, erT dros vrceli qveynis, mravalricxovani mosaxleobis mxolod umniSvnelo nawilma SeZlo, kerZod imaT, romelnic qarTlisa da imereTis sazRvarTan cxovrobdnen da TavianT Tavs qristianuli saqarTvelos saepiskoposoebis samwysos akuTvnebdnen. mesxeTis qarTvelobis udidesi nawili XVIII saukunisaTvis ukve gamahmadianebuli iyo, magram qarTuli ena jer kidev ar hqonda daviwyebuli. sagangebod unda aRiniSnos, rom osmaleTSi iZulebiT ar amahmadianebdnen. iq iseTi socialur-ekonomikuri pirobebi iyo Seqmnili, rom xalxi ,,nebayoflobiT~ mahmadiandeboda. iZulebiT gamahmadianebas mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevaSi mimarTavdnen. waTe bawaSi wers ,,mosaxleobis ZaldatanebiTi gamusulmanebis process masobrivi xasiaTi ar miuRia, es arc Seesabameboda imperiis socialur-ekonomikur interesebs. Cveulebriv musulmanobas mosaxleoba iRebda sakuTari 17

sazogadoebrivi da ekonomikuri pirobebis gasaumjobeseblad~ (iqve, gv. 412). mesxeTisa da osmaleTis xelisufleba yovel Rones xmarobda, rom qarTul eklesias ekonomikur-uflebrivi safuZvlebi gamocloda da umwyemsod darCenili qarTvelebi sxva eklesias Sekedlebodnen. aseTma mdgomareobam marTlac gamoiRo Tavisi nayofi. qarTul eklesias zurgSeqceuli qarTvelebi erovnulad gaucxovdnen. rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, iv. javaxiSvilis azriT, mesxeTSi qarTvelTa swrafi gamahmadianeba aTabagebisa da mesxi episkoposebis ugunuri politikis Sedegi iyo. jer kidev im dros, roca qveyana qristiani iyo, maT surdaT mesxeTis eklesiis gamoyofa deda qarTuli eklesiisagan mawyvereli episkoposis meTaurobiT. saeklesio separatizms Tan sdevda lanZRva-ciliswameba samRvdeloebisa da sazogadod qarTuli eklesiisa, romelsac maSin mcxeTis (patriarqis sasaydro qalaqis mixedviT) eklesia ewodeboda. mcxeTisagan mesxeTis episkoposebis ,,damoukideblobas~ ara mxolod adgilobrivi qarTuli xelisufleba, aramed ucxoeli sasuliero pirebic aqezebdnen. am periodSi mesxeTSi sagangebod miiwvies ierusalimantioqieli patriarqebi da mitropolitebi. maT, TiTqosda, Zveli sigelgujrebis Semowmebis Semdgom daadgines, rom kanonikurad mesxeTis eklesia ara mcxeTas, aramed antioqia-ierusalims unda daqvemdebareboda. sazogadod mesxeTis mTavarTa separatizmi safuZveli gaxda saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlisa. sofel aradeTTan samarcxvino omis Semdeg, rodesac saqarTvelos mefe misma yofilma vasalma - mesxeTis mTavarma daamarcxa, mesxeTis samTavros gza gaexsna ,,damoukideblobisaken~. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia, rogorc wesi aqtiurad iRvwoda saxelmwifos centralizebuli mmarTvelobis aRdgenisaTvis. am sferoSi qarTuli eklesiis moRvaweoba mesxi mTavrebisaTvis sruliad miuRebeli iyo, miT umetes, rom mesxeTis eklesia-monastrebSi wirva-locvis dros samRvdeloeba saeklesio wesebis Sesabamisad pirvel rigSi saqarTvelos mefis saxels ixsenebda da misi dRegrZelobisaTvis loculobda. am dros ki locvaSi moxseniebuli mefisa da mesxi mTavris mxedroba erTmaneTs samkvdro-sasicocxlod erkineboda. mesxma mTavrebma miznad daisaxes sruliad saqarTvelosagan ara mxolod saxelmwifoebrivi, aramed eklesiuri gamoyofac. maTi mizani mesxeTis damoukidebeli saxelmwifos Seqmna iyo. eklesiuri damoukideblobis aRiarebisaTvis saWirod CaTvales saqarTvelos sapatriarqosagan mesxeTis eklesiis gamoyofis ,,kanonierebis~ dadastureba berZnuli antioqia-ierusalimis sapatriarqoebis mier. marTlac XV-XVI saukuneebSi mesxeTSi mravaljer miiwvies antioqielierusalimeli, iv. javaxiSvilis sityviT rom vTqvaT ,,mokalmase~ mRvdelTmTavrebi, romelnic ukiduresi ekonomikuri gaWirvebis gamo (es sapatriarqoebi im droisaTvis ukve mahmadianTa mier dapyrobil qveynebSi mdebareobdnen da finansurad Zlier gasaWirSi imyofebodnen), iZulebulni iyvnen SeesrulebinaT mesxeTis umdidresi mTavris moTxovnebi (miT umetes, rom im droisaTvis marTlmadideblobisa da eklesiis moyvaruli mesxi mTavrebi ara Tu mtkiced idgnen sarwmunoebaze, aramed mdidar Sesawiravsac swiravdnen ucxoeTis 18

marTlmadideblur centrebs; maT am dros aRadgines iverTa monasteri saberZneTSi). ucxoeli mRvdelTmTavrebis mogzaurobebs mcxeTaSi eWvis TvaliT uyurebdnen. maT mier mesxeTis eklesiis ,,damoukideblobis~ aRiarebas politikurad unda mohyoloda mesxeTis eklesiebis, monastrebis da qristianuli mosaxleobis darwmuneba aTabagTa saeklesio politikis samarTlianobaSi. ucxoeli mRvdelTmTavrebi mesxeTis eklesiis saqarTvelos sapatriarqosagan gamoyofis kanonierebas ase asabuTebdnen saqarTvelo eklesiurad mudam antioqiis sapatriarqoze iyo damokidebuli, radganac misi eklesiis avtokefalias kanonieri safuZveli ara aqvs, is axlac antioqias unda eqvemdebarebodes, amitomac mesxeTi, viTarca qarTuli qveyana Tu sulierad antioqias daeqvemdebareba, amiT samarTlianoba aRdgeba da aqedan gamomdinare, aTabagebis brZola mcxeTis eklesiidan gamoyofisaTvis aris ara ukanono qmedeba, aramed saeklesio samarTlis aRdgena. - ase arwmunebdnen ucxoelebi mesxeTis berebsa da saeklesio moRvaweebs. ucxoeli mRvdelTmTavris erTi aseTi vizitis dros mesxeTSi saqarTvelos patriarqi Cavida. rogorc mematiane wers, avida ,,safaris Tavze~ da ,,kanonqveS Seyara berebi~, romelTac umaspinZles da miiRes qarTuli eklesiis daSla-danawevrebis mowadine mogzauri. safara mesxeTis mTavrebis ZvalTSesalag akldamas warmoadgenda, iqve mdebareobda maTi sasaxle; aq moRvaweobdnen aTabagTa saeklesio politikis aqtiurad mxardamWeri berebi. ,,safaris Tavze~ saqarTvelos patriarqis asvla da gankerZoebis mosurne samRvdeloebis ,,saeklesio dasja~ SemTxveviTi ar iyo. magram miuxedavad saqarTvelos patriarqis mcdelobisa ,,mesxeTi eklesiuradac gamoeyo danarCen saqarTvelos, ramac savalalo Sedegi moutana qarTvel ers~. amis Semdgom mesxeTi male osmaleTma daipyro. vaxuStis Tanaxmad, mesx Tavad-aznaurTa gamahmadianebis Semdgom osmaleTis xelisuflebas mesxeTis eklesia-monastrebisaTvis mamulebi CamourTmevia, usaxsrod darCenil samRvdeloebas ki patronoba veRar gauwevia jer kidev qristiani glexobisaTvis. umwyemsod darCenili qarTveli qristianebi sxvadasxva sarwmunoebriv Temebs miekedlnen. droTa viTarebaSi isini berZnulma, romaulma da grigorianulma eklesiebma gainawiles erTmaneTs Soris. ivane javaxiSvili werda, rom mesxeTSi arsebulma separatizmma avtoriteti Seuryia qarTul eklesias. mosaxleobis qristianuli rwmenis simyare eklesiis avtoritets efuZneboda. qarTuli eklesiis dacemam gza gauxsna mahmadianobis gavrcelebas. musulmanma mqadageblebma qarTvelebis sarwmunoebrivi gaoreba SeniSnes da TavianT sasargeblod gamoiyenes. mesxebs gamahmadianebis dros aTqmevinebdnen fics, sarwmunoebriv formulas, romlidanac Cans, rom maT ara mxolod winaparTa rwmenas, aramed sakuTar erovnebasac agmobinebdnen. Cvenamde moRweulia osmaluri dokumentebi, romelTac ,,qarTvelTa gamahmadianebis wesi~ ewodeboda. masSi gadmocemulia qarTvelTa gamahmadianebisas saTqmeli formula, romelSic qristianis fsiqikaa gaTvaliswinebuli. kerZod, am dokumentis 19

Tanaxmad, rjulSecvlili, TiTqosda ara ieso qristesa da RvTismSobel dedas gmobda, aramed mxolod ,,qarTvelTa rjuls~, kerZod dokumentSi naTqvamia: ,,wminda mariami, imisi Svili, ieso mociquli, RmerTma gaaCina, dedaSvilni mociqulni RmerTis msaxurni arian... muhamedi Cveni wminda adamiani ari, mociquli RmerTis msaxuri ari, imis rjuli rom TaTris rjuli aris, sufTa aris, mociquli RmerTis rCeuli aris. - davijere, qarTvelis rjuli rom boroti iyo, gonji iyo, eSmakis rCeuli iyo gavagde~ (iqve, gv. 410). maSasadame, gamahmadianebis dros qarTveli adamiani iZulebuli iyo, sajarod ,,qarTvelis rjuli~ daegmo da misTvis ,,gonji, bilwi da boroti~ ewodebina. amave dros sajarod unda eqo ,,TaTris rjuli~ da ganecxadebina, rom daijera mahmadianuri sarwmunoebis siwminde. unda vifiqroT, rom erT dros oSksa da xaxulSi mlocvel qarTvelebs, SeZrwunebulT Sewerili gadasaxadis simZimiT, nebayoflobiT sarwmunoebis Secvlisas qarTuli rjuli anu qarTuli eklesia daagmobines da Semdgom ,,gaaTaTres~, anu ,,TaTris rjuli~ miaRebines. kidev erTxel mivaqcioT yuradReba imas, rom osmaleTis imperiaSi mcxovreb qarTvel qristianebs ,,gaTaTrebis~ dros mxolod ,,qarTul rjuls~ da ara sazogadod qristianul rjuls agmobinebdnen, anu ar agmobinebdnen ,,berZnis rjuls~, ,,somxis rjuls~, ,,frangis rjuls~. aqedanac Cans, rom osmalo xelisufalni TavianT qveyanaSi qarTul eklesias gansakuTrebuli sisastikiT devnidnen, sxva qristianuli eklesiebis mimarT garkveul loialobas iCendnen. qarTuli eklesiis marTlmadidebloba, rogorc aRiniSna, Zalze afrTxobda osmalebsa da sparselebs. maT icodnen, rom saqarTvelos da ruseTis saxelmwifoebis daaxloeba qarTuli da rusuli eklesiis erTmorwmuneobas efuZneboda. samwuxarod, ruseTis saxelmwifom, imis Semdgom, rac man qarTvelTa SemweobiT amierkavkasiaSi fexi Semodga, mahmadiani qarTvelebis dabruneba deda eklesiis wiaRSi ar isurva, Tumca ki, moRweuli sabuTebis Tanaxmad, qarTveli mahmadianebi mzad iyvnen, kvlav gaqristianebuliyvnen (maTSi jer kidev iyo daculi qristianuli wesCveulebani), magram ruseTis administraciam es ar ineba, piriqiT, faqtiurad qarTveli mahmadianebis erTi nawili aiZula samSoblodan osmaleTSi gadasaxlebuliyo, maT nacvlad ki qristianuli somxuri mosaxleoba Semoasaxla. S. lomsaZe wers - ,,mxecoba da eniT gaugonari, aziaSic ki ar smenili sisastike, romelic rusis jarma mesxi musulmanebis mimarT gamoiCina, gansakuTrebiT axalcixis aRebis dros, mTel osmaleTSi gaxda cnobili. mosaxleoba yvelgan daSinda. mTeli anatolia panikam moicva~. xanZarwakidebul saxlebSi iwvodnen qalebi, moxucebi da bavSvebi. qalaqis erT did SenobaSi Seketili 400 kaci SenobasTan erTad amoibuga. rogorc axalcixis aRebis TviTmxilvelni werdnen, rusuli administraciis mier mesxeTSi gamoCenilma sisastikem qristianuli sarwmunoebis mimarT mtrulad ganawyo qarTveli mahmadianebi. amis gamo ,,ufro gacxovelda musulmanuri eklesiis saqmianoba, sasuliero moZRvrebs, molebs specialurad anatoliidan iwvevdnen, molebi adre gaSlil muSaobas axla amTavrebdnen. fanatizmiT Sepyrobili 20

axalgazrdoba alahis am mociqulebs sasoebiT Sehyurebda da qarTul enas TandaTan Sordeboda~ (iqve, gv. 426). XX saukuneSi, aTeistebis batonobis damyarebis Semdgom, mesxeTSi darCenilma qarTvelma mahmadianebma mravalgzis sTxoves mTavrobas maTTvis gaexsnaT qarTuli skolebi. ,,Tqven TaTrebi xarT, TaTrulad iswavleT~ - aseTi rezoluciiT istumrebdnen qarTvel mahmadianebs moxeleebi. rogorc aRiniSna gamahmadianda samxreT saqarTvelos qarTvelebis udidesi nawili, amitomac gamahmadianebulTa gvarebi uTvalavia. ver davasaxelebT saqarTveloSi verc erT sagvareulos, maT Tanamogvares mahmadianoba rom ar mieRo; kerZod, gamahmadiandnen baraTaSvilebi, orjonikiZeebi, baqraZeebi, muxranskebi, gurgeniZeebi, aznaurov-aznauraSvilebi da sxva mravali (sof. awyurSi), gvaramaZeebi (sof. tyemlanaSi), maRraZeebi (wrioxSi), javaxiSvilebi, mWedliSvilebi, talaxaZeebi da sxvebi - (sayuneTSi), gogolaZeebi, nadiraZeebi da sxvebi (zikiliaSi), jafariZeebi - (winubanSi), lolaZeebi - (gurkelaSi), CitaZeebi da sxvebi - (agaraSi) da ase Semdeg - axalcixidan - arzrumamde gvarebi da soflebi aTasobiTaa. aseTi Sedegi gamoiRo deda eklesiisagan mowyvetam. es samagaliTo unda iyos yvelasaTvis. xalxi, romelic saukuneebis manZilze qarTveli eris nawils warmoadgenda da Tayvans awyuris yovladwmida RvTismSoblis xelTuqmnel xats scemda, sarwmunoebis Secvlis Semdgom madldakarguli sxvadasxva mahmadianur qveynebSi gaifanta, zogierTs pasportSi uzbeki an tajiki aqvs Cawerili erovnebad, zogierTs Turqi an azerbaijaneli, Tumca guliT grZnoben, rom isini mama-papaTa RmerTis uarmyofeli qarTvelebi arian, bibliuri uZRebi Svilis darad TavianTi xvedriT mwuxareni. ,,madli~ #15, 1993

21

qarTvelebis galekeba

kaxeTis samefos yvelaze nayofieri da mosavliani miwebi saingiloSi anu aRmosavleT kaxeTSi mdebareobda. alaznis gaRma mxare (kaxis, zaqaTalis, belaqnis da mimdebare raionebis miwa-wyali) zomieri da Tbili klimatiT, vrclad gadaSlili venaxebiT, xilis, kaklisa da TuTis baRebiT iyo cnobili; qveyana dafaruli iyo Wala-tyeebiT. saingiloSi mdebareobda kaxeTis samefos Zveli dedaqalaqebi - Zegami, zageSi da bazarqalaqi. aqedan imarTeboda mTeli kaxeTi. aq aaSena samefo sasaxle merve saukuneSi mefe arCilma (belaqnis wyalTan), aqve mawis wyalTan sxva samefo sasaxlec idga. giSis wyalTan ijda episkoposi ,,mwyemsi elisenisa, wuqeTisa da Sakixisa~. fifineTis wyalTan (Wari) iyo ,,monasteri gumbaTiani, keTilSeni~. saerTod aq mravali eklesiamonasteri iyo ,,xolo kacni da qalni Svenieri, haerovani da msgavsni yovelTave qarTvelTa zniTa CveulebiTa da qceviT mosilni qarTulad, eniTa da sarwmunoebiTa qarTlisaTa da samwysoni qarTlis kaTalikozni~ - wers vaxuSti. aRmosavleT kaxeTis bedi imis Semdgom Seicvala, rac Sah-abasma 1604 wels jer politikurad CamoaSora igi kaxeTis samefos, xolo 1616 wlis Semosevis Semdgom kak-eniselidan 100000 qarTveli ayara da iranSi gadaasaxla. Sahma aRmosavleT kaxeTSi (saingiloSi) Camoasaxla ucxo tomi, mTebidan Camosaxleba iwyes agreTve lekebmac, sabednierod, qarTvelma mefeebma Semdgom wlebSi mdgomareobis gamosworeba SeZles. viTareba mkveTrad Seicvala 1677 wlidan, roca kaxeTis mmarTvelebad mahmadiani (yizilbaSi) xanebi dasxdnen. isini lekebSi TavianT mokavSireebs xedavdnen da maT kaxeTSi Camosaxlebas xels uwyobdnen; qarTvelTa (qristianTa) winaaRmdeg aqezebdnen. Tu leki an TaTari qarTvels moklavda, pasuxs ar agebinebdnen, amarTlebdnen sityvebiT ,,esreT jer ars~, qristians ki damnaSave mahmadianis mokvlis uflebac ki ar hqonda - ,,ara jer ars giaurisagan musulmanis sikvdili~ - ambobdnen isini. Tu aqamde lekebi kaxelebs emorCilebodnen (daRestnis dasavleTi mTianeTi kaxeTis samefos xeldebul qveyanas warmoadgenda), aRmosavleT kaxeTSi lekTa Camosaxlebis Semdgom sparseli xanebis mxardaWeriT lekebma daipyres alaznispira dablobSi mdebare soflebi da aqauri qarTuli mosaxleoba ymebad gaixades. me-18 s. dasawyisSi aRmosavleT kaxeTSi avarel da waxurel lekTa ,,ubatono Temebi~ Camoyalibdnen, romelTac kaxeTis samefos didi nawili daimorCiles. marTalia, Tavdapirvelad, rogorc sparseTi, ise osmaleTi kaxeTis samefos aRmosavleTSi aRmocenebul War-belaqanisa da elisus sasulTanos aZlierebdnen, magram male sparseTisaTvis es miuRebeli gaxda. miuxedavad amisa, me-18 s. meore naxevarSi War-belaqani da ,,Tavisufali Temebi~ mTel amierkavkasiaSi Zlier politikur Zalas warmoadgendnen, kerZod, isini daRestnelebs saqarTveloze laSqrobisas placdarms uqmnidnen. erekle da Teimurazi ocnebobdnen daepyroT War-belaqani da iq ,,qarTveloba~ aRedginaT, risTvisac Tanaxmad, p. butkovisa, ruseTidan oTxi aTas jariskacs iTxovdnen. ,,qarTvelobis aRdgenaSi~ igulisxmeboda 22

gamahmadianebuli kaxelebis kvlav gaqristianeba alaznis marcxena sanapiroze. War-belaqnisa da Tavisufali Temebis ZiriTad mosaxleobas (umravlesobas) socialurad diferencirebuli qarTvelebi warmoadgendnen. erTi nawili qarTvelebisa lekur Temebs miekedla, ris Sedegadac socialuri kibis maRal safexurze asvla moaxerxa, xolo meore nawils lekTa morCilebis qveS myofi glexoba warmoadgenda. sarwmunoebrivi TvalsazrisiT, Tavis mxriv, glexobac or nawilad gaiyo. umravlesobam mahmadianoba miiRo, mxolod meore nawiliRa darCa erTguli mamapapeuli sarwmunoebisa - qristianobisa. rogorc iTqva, aRmosavleT kaxeTSi me-17 saukuneSi monRoluri tomi muRalebi - Zveli mahmadianebi Camoasaxles. SemdgomSi aqve Camosaxlnen lekebic - ZvelTaganve gamahmadianebulebi, qarTvelebs, romelTac mahmadianoba maT Semdgom miiRes, axlad moqceulebi anu ingiloebi uwodes, radganac isini muRalebTan da lekebTan SedarebiT marTlac ufro axali mahmadianebi iyvnen (Tu arafers vityviT sparselebsa da Turqmanul tomebze). XIX s. dasawyisSi War-belaqanis damorCileba rusebsac gauWirdaT, xolo SemdgomSi, ajanyebaTa Tavidan acilebis mizniT, iZulebulni gaxdnen aRmosavleT kaxeTSi arsebuli sazogadoebis socialuri saxe ecnoT. 1830 wels imperatorma nikoloz I daamtkica wesdeba, romelSic, kerZod, naTqvamia: - ,,Waris provincia dRevandeli mdgomareobis mixedviT ganiyofa or klasad: gabatonebul mflobelebad, romlebic umTavresad lekebisagan Sedgebian, da maT mier damorCilebul qarTvelebad, romelTaTvisac lekebs iZulebiT mahmadianuri sarwmunoeba miuRebinebiaT~ (ix. a. jafariZis ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria~, IV. gv. 393), marTlac, saingiloSi ori umTavresi jgufi cxovrobda - lekebi da qarTvelebi. amasTan, saingiloeli lekebis umetesi nawili warmoSobiT qarTvelebi iyvnen. es rusma Cinovnikebmac ki icodnen. am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT ,,zaqaTalis mxaris wodebrivsaadgilmamulo mowyobis komisias~ mravali masala daugrovda, v. ivaSenko werda, rom qarTvelebis galekeba XVIII saukunis II naxevarSi moxda - ,,damorCilebuli qarTvelebi TiTqmis mTlianad galekdnen da gamahmadiandnen~ (iqve, gv. 374). 1801 wlis aprilSi peterburgSi Casuli qarTveli elCebi acxadebdnen - ,,Warelni STamomavlobiT TvisiT arian Zveli kaxeTisaganni da adgili igi, romelTaca zeda daSenebul ars, awca kaxeTisaa~ (ix. T. papuaSvili, ,,War-belaqani~, gv. 381). Tavdapirvelad qarTveli diplomatebi Warelebs lekebisagan ganasxvavebdnen; magram Semdgom maTac lekebi uwodes. qarTvelTa galekebas politikurTan erTad, socialuri mizezic hqonda. galekeba, rogorc Cans, ara iZulebiT, aramed TiTqos nebayoflobiT xdeboda. lekdebodnen ara marto qarTveli Tavadebi, aramed glexebic - ,,rac Seexeba glexobas, isini lekebSi TavianT klasobriv moZmes xedavdnen. lekebis mxareze gadasvliT maT imedi eZleodaT, rom batonymobis mZime uRels Tavs daaRwevdnen da mdgomareobas gaiumjobesebdnen. ,,lekTa mxareze mTeli soflebi gadadiodnen~ (iqve, gv. 376). n. berZeniSvili ki amis Sesaxeb ambobda 23

,,kaxeli glexebi ,,lekobaSi~ ubatonobas xedavdnen~ (aRsaniSnavia, rom batonymobis uRlisagan Tavis dasaxsnel xerxad Sida qarTlel glexebs gaoseba miaCndaT, odiSelebs - gaafxazeba. nawilobriv amis gamo iRebdnen mahmadianobasa da grigorianobas mesxi da qarTleli glexebic. mahmadianuri samyaro ar icnobda batonymobas, aseve gagrigorianebis Semdgom vaWar-xelosanTa klasSi Sesuli mosaxleoba meti uflebebiT sargeblobda). ,,lekebi, Tavis mxriv, xerxianad sargeblobdnen batonymuri Zarcvis niadagze gamwvavebuli klasobrivi urTierTobiT, ,,emociqulebodnen~ glexebs, kavSirsa da mSvidobas aRuTqvamdnen maT da Tavadebis winaaRmdeg mouwodebdnen~ - wers n. berZeniSvili. vaxuSti wers - ,,am JamTa iwyes glexTa mZlavrebisaTvis lekTa ltolvad da misvlad lekTa Tana (e. i. lekebis Zalmosilebis gamo lekTa mxareze gadasvla. safiqralia, afxazTa amJamindelma Zlierebamac ar Seacdinos Cveni Cagruli mosaxleoba afxazeTSi, anania jafariZe), rameTu aklian raime mepatroneTa TvisTagan da mun misrulni etikobdian da daesxmian dabnebTa, aseve - mrowleTa, kacni mosrnian, tyveni da saqonelni wariyvanian~. maSasadame, roca qarTvel saero xelisufalTagan raime daakldebodaT, qarTveli glexebi Tavs anebebdnen Sromas, lekebis mxares gadadiodnen da yaCaRobas - qristian TanamoZmeTa Zarcvas iwyebdnen. XVIII s. erT periodSi mTel kaxeTs ,,galekebis~ safrTxe Seeqmna, ris mizezadac am drois saxelmwifo moRvaweebi mtris SemosevaTa gamo ilajgawyvetili xalxis uimedobas miiCnevdnen; mSveleli arsaidan Canda, mudmivma warumatebelma Tavdacvam ki xalxs imedi gadauwura; amas Tan glexkacis ,,uWkuobac~ daerTo. rogorc kaxeTis mmarTveli, warmoSobiT qarTveli bagrationi - imam yuli-xani vaxtang VI-s werda: ,,soflebma piri misces, maT laSqarSi erekebian. amdeni omi da xmlis qveS yofna, Tqvenc mogexsenebaT, kacisagan ar gaiZleba. glex kacs amas emociqulebian - Cveni piroba daiWireTo da Tqven aras SegcodebTo da amave sityviT bevri elaparakaT, Tqvenc mogexsenebaT glex kacs mokle Wkua aqvs, rasac TvaliT ar naxavs, mis meti ara ician da merme meSveli jari versad naxes, mudmiv brZolisagan Sewuxebulni diad uimedod gaxdnen~ (iqve, gv. 379). mosaxleobis galekebis SiSiT Sepyrobili kaxeTis xani vaxtangs werda, rom Tu kaxeTs ,,maSveli ar mouvidoda, maSin, vinc darComilan da vinc daxiznulan, esenic leks pirs miscemen~. alaverdi, Telavi da gavazi lekebma daiWires. kaxeTis taxtze mjdomi konstantine (daviTis Ze) fSavSi gaixizna. sabednierod kaxeTi ajanyda, lekebi gaaZeves, magram alaznis gaRma kaxeTis miwa-wyali lekebs darCaT. rusTa mmarTvelobis damyarebis Semdeg mravalma lekma gaixsena Tavisi qarTuli warmomavloba. T. papuaSvili wers - ,,kak-eniselis mTisZira soflebis mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba, avareli lekebis aq Camosaxlebis Semdeg galekda, eTnikurad Seerwyo maT. am garemoebiT aixsneba is faqti, rom, rodesac ,,zaqaTalis komisia~ War-belaqanSi musulmanuri maRali wodebis uflebebs arkvevda, pretendentTa Soris mravalni aRmoCndnen iseTni, romelnic TavianT Tavs kaxeli Tavadebis Camomavlebad sTvlidnen. amis sailustraciod Cven belaqanis TemSi mcxovrebi galajovebi gamogvadgebian~ (iqve, gv. 382). 24

leki galajovebi - vaCnaZeebi yofilan warmoSobiT, SabanoRlebis winapari vinme ivane TavadiSvili yofila, rajaboRlebis winaprebi zurabiSvilebi. ,,zogierTi aqauri leki dResac atarebs gvars - weToebs, amboben, rom maTi winaprebi qarTvelebi yofilan - wereTlebi~ - wers m. yuloSvili (iqve, gv. 384). unda aRiniSnos, rom galekda aRmosavleT kaxeTis mosaxleobis mxolod erTi nawili. mTeli mosaxleobis galekeba TviT lekebisTvisac miuRebeli iyo. saqme isaa, rom lekoba - socialur klass warmoadgenda, lekebis Temi am qveynis miwebis mflobeli - mepatrone iyo. maT miwis muSebi esaWiroebodaT, romelTaganac miwaTsargeblobis sanacvlod gadasaxads iRebdnen. lekTa miwebs ingiloebi da muRalebi amuSavebdnen. saingiloSi mesame fenac arsebobda - vaWar-xelosnebi. XVII-XVIII ss-Si mTel saqarTveloSi saSualo fenam grigorianuli sarwmunoeba miiRo, anu ,,gasomxda~. am mxriv arc saingilo yofila gamonaklisi. aRsaniSnavia, rom ingilo socialuri TvalsazrisiT ufro Tavisufali iyo, vidre saqarTvelos qristianul nawilSi mcxovrebi glexebi (ymebi). ingiloebi mxolod miwis gadasaxads uxdidnen lekebs, sxva mxriv lekebi ar ereodnen maT cxovrebaSi. ingiloebs lekebisagan miwis SeZenac SeeZloT. amis gamo saqarTvelodan War-belaqanSi mosaxleobis ltolva SeimCneoda. miuxedavad SedarebiTi Tavisuflebisa, lekTa mier qarTveli (ingilo) glexebi ufro iCagreboda, vidre muRalebi. qarTveli mahmadianebis (ingiloebis) soflebia: aliabadi, Tasmalo, zagemi, hengaani, verxiani, mosuli, yandaxi, yapanaCxi, marsani, lalafaSa, suskenti, yoraRani, SoTavari da sxva. qarTveli qristianebi (Semdgom isinic ingiloebad iwodnen) cxovrobdnen kaxSi, alibegloSi, muSambaSSi, alaTemurSi, bazarTalaSi, baxTalaSi, sakanSi, yarameSaSi, qeSguTanSi, xaraz-TalaSi, qoTuqloSi, yoraRanSi da sxvagan. saingilos qarTveli mahmadianebi faruli qristianebi iyvnen. isini rusTagan aqtiur mxardaWeras, miwebze mflobelobis dabrunebas, lekTa Seviwroebas elodnen da yovelive amis Semdeg gaqristianeba surdaT, magram es ase ar moxda, piriqiT, fanatikosi musulmanebis SiSiT maTi gamahmadianebis procesi kvlav gagrZelda, xelisufleba ki dumda, radganac ajanyebisa eSinoda. amis magaliTia 1863 wlis mahmadianuri ajanyeba. 1850 wels TbilisSi 8 ingilo Camovida da monaTvla moiTxova. isini sionSi TviT mTavarmarTebelma da umaRlesma aristokratiam monaTles. am gulisxmieri damokidebulebis Sedegad War-belaqansa da elisuSi mravali qarTveli mahmadiani daubrunda deda-eklesias, magram es procesi mahmadiani fanatikosebisaTvis sruliad miuRebeli aRmoCnda da 1863 wels isini ajanydnen, xelisuflebam ukan daixia, gamarjvebulma mahmadianebma gaqristianebis dawyebuli procesi Sewyvites, xolo zogierTi gaqristianebuli kvlav gaamahmadianes. amJamad mahmadiani ingiloebi pasportis mixedviT azerbaijanelebad iTvlebian, skolebSic momaval Taobebs azerbaijanuli erovnuli suliskveTebiT zrdian. gansakuTrebiT damafiqrebelia Semdegi faqti: miuxedavad imisa, rom maT jer kidev aqvT SenarCunebuli qarTuli ena da cnobiereba, axal ideas unergaven, TiTqosda isini ara qarTvelebis, aramed Turquli tomis - ,,gaxebis~ STamomavalni arian. 25

zogierTi azerbaijaneli mecnieris azriT, Zveli albaneTis xanaSi mdinare alaznis aRmosavleTiT gax-ebis (kax-ebis) Turqul-albanuri modgmis tomi cxovrobda, romlis STamomavalic dRes TiTqosda Tanamedrove saingilos mosaxleobis umetesi nawilia. rogorc azerbaijanelebi, ise qarTvelebi am kax-ebis STamomavalni arian, maT adaT-wesebsa da CveulebebSi Zvelalbanuri tradiciis nakvalevi Cans (iqve, gv. 366). ufro metic, mTeli kaxeTi albaneTis miwa-wyladaa miCneuli, xolo albanelebs (herebs) ratomRac azerbaijanelTa uSualo winaprebad Tvlian. aq unda iTqvas is, rom saingilos mosaxleoba Zvelad marTlac iwodeboda ,,kax~-ebad, magram isini ara Turqul-albanuri tomis gax-ebis (saerTod, saeWvoa aseTi modgmis tomis arseboba) modgmad, aramed qarTvelTa eTnarqis qarTlosis Zis - kaxosis STamomavlebad miiCneodnen. Cveni winaprebi kaxelebs (e. i. dRevandeli saingilos mosaxleobasac) upirveles qarTvelebad Tvlidnen. swored amitom warmoaCina isini mematianem qarTlosis STamomavlebad da kaxosis namravlad. yvela qarTveli mecnieri, romelic saingilos sakiTxs ikvlevs, ingiloebs kaxelebad, da ara herebad miiCnevs, xolo saingilos aRmosavleT kaxeTs uwodebs da ara hereTs (ingiloebs herebs ratomRac presisa da informaciis muSakebi uwodeben). Tanamedrove saingilo rom ZvelTaganve marTlac kaxeTis miwa-wylad miiCneoda, amaze vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebaSi daculi cnobac miuTiTebs, kerZod imis Taobaze, rom TviT axlandeli qalaq Seqis sanaxebSi mcxovreb mosaxleobas ,,kaxeTis mTiulebi~ ewodeboda (q. Seqi mdebareobs zaqaTalis aRmosavleTiT 64 km manZilze). vaxtangis Zem ,,mefeman daCi dahpatiJa mTeulTa kaxeTisaTa, raTa aRiaron qriste, xolo maT ara inebes da gandges yovelni nopatelni~ (q. cx. I, gv. 205). nopatelni igivea, rac nuxpatelni (ix. iqve, leqsikoni, gv. 415). VIII s. ,,kaxeTis mTeulTa~ (dRevandeli saingilos mimdebare mTianeTis mosaxleoba) gaqristianeba ineba arCil mefem - ,,Zmisa Semdgomad movida arCil kaxeTad... dajda wuqeTs, pova wuqeTis mTavari... ara ineba misgan warRebad wuqeTi da aRaSena cixe-qalaqi erTi nuxapetis orTa wyalTa Sua. xolo nuxapetelni uwinares iyvnen kacni warmarTni~ (iqve, gv. 243). maSasadame, arCili mefea kaxeTisa, rezidencia-sajdomi ki wuqeTSi aqvs. aqedan Cans, rom ZvelTaganve ,,kaxeTi~ mdinare aragvis aRmosavleTiT mcire kuTxes ki ar ewodeboda, aramed mxares, romelSic kavkasiis mTispira zoli, maT Soris saingiloc Sedioda. kuxeTsa da hereTs kaxeTi ZvelTaganve ewodaT. Tanaxmad vaxuStisa, saxelwodeba kuxeTi VIII-IX saukuneebSi gaqra, xolo hereTi XV s-is Semdgom - ,,gandga grigol mTavari, aman mospo saxeli kuxeTisa da iwoda kaxTa mTavrad anu qorikozad~; hereTTan dakavSirebiT ki ambobs: ,,xolo Semdgomad gandgomilebisa qoronikons 1466 moispo saxeli hereTisaca da iwoda sakuTrad kaxTa mefed~. aqedan Cans, rom aRmosavleT kaxeTs (saingilos) XV saukunidan ar SeiZleboda wodeboda hereTi. mas kaxeTi ewodeboda im drosac, roca 250 wlis Semdeg (XVII s-Si) igi saqarTvelos CamoaSores. misi mosaxleobis anu kaxelebis (da ara herebis) gamahmadianeba da galekeba ZiriTadad XVIII s-Si mimdinareobda. aqve isic unda aRiniSnos, rom herebic, rogorc 26

Cans, erT-erTi qarTveluri tomi iyo, istoriiTa da kulturiT ZvelTaganve WeSmariti qarTvelebi, magram Cveni mematiane mainc xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom ,,herosi~ ,,Tvisi~ iyo ,,qarTlosisa~, ,,kaxosi~ ki Svili. e. i. mematianes kaxelebi iseTive qarTvelebad miaCnia, rogorc mcxeTosisa da qarTlosis sxva Zeebis STamomavalni. qarTvelTa mTavar-eTnarqis Svilebis Sesaxeb naTqvamia: xolo SvilTa Soris misTa gamoCndes xuTni gmirni, romelTa saxelebi ese ars: pirvelsa mcxeTos, meoresa gardabos, mesamesa kaxos, meoTxesa kuxos, mexuTesa gaCios ese - xuTnive iyvnes gmirni, aramed mcxeTos ugmire iyo sxvaTa maT~ (q. cx. I. gv. 8). Zveli qarTveli istorikosebi, romelnic saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis eTnikur suraTs saukuneTa manZilze akvirdebodnen, miiCnevdnen, rom Tbilisis ara marto aRmosavleTiT, aramed samxreTiT mdebare teritoriac ara herebis, aramed qarTlosis ZeTa miwa-wyals warmoadgenda, kerZod, arc rusTavi mdebareobs hereTSi, rogorc es amJamadaa miCneuli (igi qarTlosis colma aaSena), arc gardabani (ase ewodeboda Zalze vrcel mxares Tbilisis samxreT-aRmosavleTiT), radganac gardabnelTa eTnarqi gardabosi qarTlosis Zea, arc aseve vrceli mxare gaCiani (,,gaCiosic~ qarTlosis vaJia) da amave mizezis gamo arc kuxeTi da, miTumetes, arc kaxeTi (radganac ,,kaxosi~ msgavsad mcxeTosisa - qarTlosis Zea). maSasadame, zemoT CamoTvlil vrcel mxareTa mkvidrni anu kaxelebi, kuxelebi, gardabnelebi da gaCianelebi ara herebi, aramed iseTive qarTvelebi arian, rogorc mcxeTelebi. zemoT naxsenebi yvela mxaris mcxovrebni - radganac ,,mcxeTos ugmire iyo sxvaTa maT~ mcxeTis irgvliv gaerTiandnen; herelnic, cxadia enaTesavebodnen mcxeTelebs, magram isini sxva saxlis Svilebad miiCneodnen. cnobilia, rom hereTi istoriis zogierT monakveTSi Tavisi politikuri gavlenis sferos afarToebda, zogjer ki piriqiT. iyo periodi, roca mis sazRvrebSi marTlac Sedioda Tbilisis samxreTi da aRmosavleTi mxareebi, magram eTnikurad zemoaRniSnul mxareTa mosaxleoba yovelTvis qarTvelebad miiCneoda. Zvel somex istorikosTa mierac - yovel SemTxvevaSi - XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi aRmosavleT kaxeTis (saingilos) mosaxleoba kaxelebs warmoadgendnen da ara herebs (samwuxarod, zogierTi azerbaijaneli istorikosi, rogorc aRvniSneT, herebs albanelebad miiCnevs da maTi qarTuli samyarodan gayvanas cdilobs. ufro metic, am moments nebsiT Tu uneblieT gamahmadianebuli aRmosavleli kaxelebis qarTuli ojaxidan gasayvanadac iyeneben). sabolood unda iTqvas, rom bedi gamahmadianebuli mosaxleobisa aRmosavleT kaxeTSi Zalze mZime iyo. misi gadagvarebis upirveles mizezs sarwmunoebrivi gaucxoeba, deda-qarTuli eklesiisagan mowyveta warmoadgenda. maTi bedi mama-papaTa sarwmunoebis Secvlam gansazRvra. qarTuli erovnuli TviTSemecneba SeeryaT im qarTvelebs, romelnic marTlmadideblobasa da Cvens erovnul eklesias moswydnen. meore mxriv, erovneba swored im ingiloebma SeinarCunes, romelnic Cvens sarwmunoebasa da eklesias erTguloben. qarTvelTa denacionalizaciis Semdgom gadagvarebuli qarTvelebi ara mxolod saqarTvelos mimarT gaucxovebul masad, aramed zogjer mSobliuri qveynis mtradac ki iqcnen. cnobilia, rom afxazeTSi 27

yovelives, rac qarTulia, yvelaze ufro daundoblad gaafxazebuli qarTvelebi ebrZvian, aseve iqcevian gaosebuli qarTleli mTielebi samaCabloSi da gaTurqebuli mesxebi; imave suraTs vxedavT saingilos lekebSic. aqedan Cans, Tu ramdenad saxifaToa qarTvelTa denacionalizacia saqarTveloSive, anu ramdenad mniSvnelovania erTguleba erovnuli qarTuli eklesiisa, mama-papaTa marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoebisa. saerTod, denacionalizaciis process Rrma mecnieruli Seswavla, xolo qarTuli eklesiis istoriis daubeWdav saxelmZRvaneloebs gamocema esaWiroeba. sagazeTo werilebiT am problemis mxolod gacnoba Tu SeiZleba. ,,madli~ #3, 1994

28

qarTvelTa gaoseba

xSirad amboben, rom qarTvelebs msoflioSi monaTesave eri ara gvyavs, ZiriTadad es marTlac asea, magram Tu davukvirdebiT, TviT saqarTveloSi mosaxle sxvadasxva erTa Sorisac vipoviT monaTesaves, metic, Cveni saxlis Zvel ganayofs, Cveni erovnuli ojaxidan gasuls, axlobels sisxliT, adaT-CveulebebiT, cxovrebis wesiT, iersaxiTa da sxva. vaxuSti bagrationi osTa Sesaxeb werda, rom maT eTnogenezisSi Zvelad kavkasiurma tomebma, axal droSi ki qarTvelebma (dvalebma da qarTlelma mTielebma) miiRes monawileoba. Tu osebs am TvalsazrisiT SevxedavT, isini Cveni monaTesaveni arian. kargia SevicnoT naTesavi, raTa masTan erTad vicxovroT mSvidobiT, myudroebiT, ,,yovliTa RvTis msaxurebiTa da siwmidiT, rameTu ese ars keTil da saTno winaSe macxovrisa Cvenisa RvTisa~ (I tim. 2, 3). qarTvelebis gaosebis Sesaxeb ara marto Cveni, aramed ucxoeli mecnierebic weren. gansakuTrebiT sando da mniSvnelovania cnobili mogzaurisa da mkvlevaris giuldenStedtis cnoba, romelic wers ,,kavkasiel mTielTa Soris, gansakuTrebiT lekebsa da osebSi, arian bevri qarTvelebi, romlebmac religiasTan erTad enac daiviwyes~. rogorc vxedavT, osTa garemoSi mcxovrebi, ,,bevri qarTveli~ gaosebula. maTi gadagvareba gamowveuli yofila imiT, rom maT jer marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoeba, xolo Semdgom mSobliuri enac daukargavT. vaxuStis Tvalsazriss Zvel dros osTa eTnogenezisSi kavkasielTa monawileobis Sesaxeb ramdenime wlis win q. orjonikiZeSi dabeWdili ,,Crdilo oseTis assr istoriac~ iziarebs (t. I, 1987), romlis mixedviT osebis winaprebi, rogorc skviTur-sarmatul-alanuri tomebi, aseve kavkasieli aborigenebi arian, romlebic erTmaneTs Crdilo kavkasiis stepebSi Seerivnen (gv. 5), wignis avtorTa Tanaxmad, alan-osuri erovnebis formireba X-XII saukuneebSi moxda mdinareebs yubansa da Tegs Soris mdebare velze (gv. 140). aq maT Seqmnes Zlieri saxelmwifo, romelic xangrZlivi brZolebis Semdeg monRol-TaTrebma gaanadgures. aRniSnuli wignis avtorTa Tanaxmad alanebis didi nawili monRolebTan omSi daRupula, xolo gadarCenili mosaxleoba msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi gafantula. gadarCenilTa erTi jgufi kavkasiis mTebs Sexizvnia da centraluri kavkasiis Crdilo kalTebze damkvidrebula. monRolebTan omis Sedegad, avtorTa Tanaxmad, alanebs daukargavT TavianTi samkvidro teritoria (e. i. Crdilo kavkasiis velebi) da sxvaTa miwebs, maT Soris saqarTvelos Sexizvnian. saqarTveloSi osebs xelsayreli pirobebi SeeqmnaT, rac imdroindeli saerTaSoriso viTarebiT iyo gamowveuli. XIII s-is meore naxevarSi, ori erTmaneTis mimarT mtrulad ganwyobili, uzarmazari monRoluri saxelmwifo warmoiSva. oqros urdo Crdilo kavkasias, yirims, volgidan dunaimde gadaWimul stepebs da sxva teritoriebs moicavda xolo hulagidebis ilxanTa iranis monRolur saxelmwifoSi amierkavkasia, mcire aziis nawili, erayi da iranTan erTad 29

TurqmeneTi da avRaneTic Sedioda. es ori uZlieresi imperia, erTmaneTs sastikad mtrobda. maT saerTo sazRvari hqondaT - kavkasiis qedi, romlis uReltexilebsac didi strategiuli mniSvneloba eniWeboda. osebis mimarT am or imperias sxvadasxvagvari damokidebuleba hqonda. oqros urdos laSqarma 1222, 1238 da 1278 wlebSi sastikad daamarcxa osebi da maTi saxelmwifo mospo. osebi cdilobdnen oqros urdosTan omSi samxreT monRoluri saxelmwifo gamoeyenebinaT; Tavis mxriv, ilxanebic endobodnen da iyenebdnen kidec osebs amierkavkasiasa da saqarTveloSi. saqme isaa, rom qarTvelebi ilxanTa winaaRmdeg oqros urdos gamoyenebas cdilobdnen, osebi ki - piriqiT. amiT iyo gamowveuli, rom giorgi brwyinvalemde ilxanTa mier dapyrobil saqarTveloSi osebi gaZlierdnen, monRolTa gaZevebis Semdgom saqarTvelodan osebic gaaZeves. aq igulisxmeba, rom saqarTvelodan ara osebis eTnosi (isini kompaqturad jer kidev ar saxlobdnen CvenSi), aramed monRolTa samxedro wyobis msgavsad formirebuli osuri laSqari (e. i. meomrebi TavianTi deda-wuliT), anu monRolTa damxmare Zlieri samxedro Zala gaaZeves. osebi kvlav gamoCndnen saqarTveloSi Temur-lengis laSqrobaTa Semdgom, rac saerTaSoriso politikur interesebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. ori monRoluri imperia kvlav samkvdro-sasicocxlod erkineboda erTmaneTs. Temur-lengi Tavis upirveles mosisxle mtrad ToxTamiSs oqros urdos xans miiCnevda. Temuris saxelmwifo derbendidan da kavkasionis mTebidan iwyeboda (moicavda saqarTvelos, armenias, azerbaijans) da amitomac oqros urdosgan misi dacvis mizniT kavkasionis uReltexilebis Caketvas udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda. 1382 wels kavkasionis gadmosasvlelis gziT ToxTamiS-xani irans Seesia, Temur-lengma sastikad iZia Suri Tavrizelebze, romlebic ToxTamiSs daexmarnen; cxadia Temuri arc saqarTvelos apatiebda kavkasionis gadmosasvlelebis gaxsnas, romelTa xelSi Cagdebasac udides mniSvnelobas aniWebda, amitomac 1395 wels Crdilo kavkasiaSi gamarTul did omSi, ToxTamiSTan gamarjvebis Semdgom, man derbendi xelaxla gaamagra da mcvelebi dauyena. ukan dabrunebisas Temur-lengma sagangebod dalaSqra Crdilo-kavkasiis mTianeTi, gansakuTrebiT ki is qveynebi da xalxebi, romelTac kavSiri hqondaT saqarTvelosTan, daungria maT eklesiebi, ,,jvar-xatebi~, da ZaliT miaRebina islamis rjuli. rogorc vaxuSti gadmogvcems, am dros osebi saqarTvelos mTis erT kuTxeSi Semosulan, romelsac dvaleTi ewodeboda da daupyriaT igi. rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, osebi samxreTel monRolTa daxmarebiT cdilobdnen gadaegdoT oqros urdos uReli. isini ToxTamiSs mtrobdnen da Temurlengs exmarebodnen. unda vifiqroT, rom Temur-lengma kavkasionis yvelaze mniSvnelovani gadmosasvlelebis dacvis mizniT sagangebod daasaxla osebi dvaleTSi. saqme isaa, rom dvaleTi darialis xeobasa da mamisonis uReltexils Soris mdebareobda, rac imas niSnavda, rom Crdilo kavkasiaSi gamavali yvela mTavari uReltexili (darubandis garda) dvalebis xelSi iyo, ramac SemdgomSi gansazRvra kidec maTi bedi. Temur-lengamde dvaleTi Tavisi uReltexilebiT saqarTvelos saxelmwifos gamgeblobaSi imyofeboda, Temuris Semdeg mdgomareoba 30

Seicvala. vaxuSti wers - ,,Semdgomad mosvlisa lang-Temurisa da aRebisa konstantinepolisa, emZlavrnen ovsTa iqiT TaTarxanni da aqeT langTemuris elni - mahmadianni da Semoivltodnen kavkasiasa Sina da daipyrnes kavkasTa naTesavni, romel arian dualni~. dvalebi warmoSobiT qarTul-kavkasiur toms warmoadgenda, romelic, rogorc amas vaxuSti gviambobs, osTa mier ,,dapyrobis~ Semdeg gaosdnen. marTalia, osebis pirveli talRa kavkasiis mTebSi Cingiz da baTo yaenebis dros Sesula, magram XV s-is dasawyisisaTvis, Temur-lengis Jams, osebis axal talRas dvaleTSi ukve gabatonebuli mdgomareoba moupovebia. dvaleTis dapyrobis Semdgom sruliad Seicvala saqarTvelos am kuTxis bedi. Seicvala dvaleTis sazogadoebis socialuri saxe. dapyrobis Semdgom dvaleTSi sazogadoebis maRal, didgvarovan fenas osebs uwodebdnen, xolo dabal, uqonel da Rarib fenas - dvalebs. vaxuSti Tavisi Tanamedrove dvaleTis mosaxleobis Sesaxeb wers: ,,uwyian gvarnica da uwarCinebulesni gvariTa arian ovsni~, xolo ,,ugvaroni dvalni~. vaxuSti sxvaganac imeorebs - ,,awca gvarianTa maT uwodeben osad, xolo sxvaTa ugvaroTa - kvalad dvaladve~. aqedan Cans, rom dvalebis gaosebas safuZvlad religiurTan erTad, romelsac qvemoT SevexebiT, socialuri mizezic hqonda, kerZod dvaleTis dapyrobis Semdeg osebma socialuri privilegiebi moipoves, dvalebma ki dakarges. Seiqmna axali fsiqologia, romelic rogorc Cans, kavkasiis am regionis eTnofsiqologias daedo safuZvlad da romlis mixedviTac osoba sasaxelo iyo, dvaloba ki - saTakilo; pirveli ufrosi - batoni iyo, meore - daqvemdebarebuli - mona, - ,,rameTu dvalni umdablesni arian gvariTa~. saqarTvelos istoriuli mxare dvaleTi dRevandel Crdilo kavkasiaSi mdebare e. w. naro-mamisonis qvabulsa da javis raionis mTian nawils moicavda. dvalebi eTnikurad iberiul-kavkasiur enaTa ojaxs ganekuTvnebodnen da sruliad gansxvavdebodnen iranulenovan osebisagan, romelnic istoriulad Crdilo kavkasiis velebze cxovrobdnen. dvalebi ZvelTaganve qristianebi iyvnen da qarTuli eklesiis samwysos warmoadgendnen. vaxtang gorgasalis dros dvaleTi niqozeli episkoposis eparqiaSi Sedioda. dvalebi qarTuli eklesiisa da qarTuli kulturis aqtiuri moRvaweni iyvnen. magaliTad, cnobilni arian qarTuli wignis dvali gadamwerebi da kaligrafebi, romelnic ara mxolod saqarTveloSi, aramed ucxoeTSic qarTuli qristianobis Tavdadebul moRvaweebs warmoadgendnen IX-XI saukuneebSi. dvalebis bedi, rogorc aRvniSneT, XIII saukunis Semdgom, gansakuTrebiT ki XV saukuneSi Seicvala, roca iq ucxoelebi gabatondnen. Seicvala dvaleTis sarwmunoebrivi saxec. osTagan dvalebis dapyrobis Semdgom, dvalebi, rogorc iTqva, dabal fenad iqca. isini viTarca Zveli qristianebi qristianebadve darCnen, maRali fena ki - osebi, araqristianebi vaxuStis TqmiT, mahmadianebi iyvnen. ,,warCinebulni maTni arian mahmadianni da dabalni glexni qristianni~. rogorc cnobilia, bizantiis imperiis dacemis Semdgom, mahmadianur rkalSi moqceul saqarTveloSi qristianoba garkveulwilad Sesustda, saqarTvelos mTian kuTxeebs qarTuli eklesia iseT yuradRebas veRar aqcevda, rogorc adre - VI-XIV saukuneebSi, 31

miTumetes, dvaleTs, sadac Sesuli osebi ara mxolod skviTurwarmarTuli sarwmunoebis, aramed mahmadianobis mimdevarnic iyvnen. osur warmarTobas dvalebis sarwmunoebaze Tavisi gavlena mouxdenia. amis gamo dvaleTSi verc osebi icavdnen mahmadianobas da verc dvalebi qristianobas. vaxuSti maTze wers: ,,garna umecarni orives sjulisani, rameTu garCeva maTi aris ese: romelni sWamen Rorsa arian qristianeni, da romelni sWamen cxensa eseni arian mahmadianni, garna yovelTa uwyian msgavsi kerpisa, romelsac uwodeben vaCilas... Tayvanscemen tyavsa mas dResa Sina eklesiasa raTa ara mouvlinos eliam setyvani da mosces nayofi qveyanisani~. dvaluri ena dRes mkvdari enaa, isic ki araa dadgenili, igi damoukidebeli ena iyo Tu dialeqti qarTveluri enebisa, Tumc ki dvaluri toponimebi, rogorc Crdilo kavkasiaSi, ardonis xeobaSi, ise mis samxreTiTac qarTulenovania: ,,zekara~, ,,xoxis mTa~, ,,bruc-sabrZela~, ,,kedela~, ,,kasris kari~, ,,basiani~ (samxreT saqarTveloSic aris es toponimi), ,,yayiduri~, ,,kvira~, ,,qurTaTa~, ,,Tagauri~, ,,xeTaZe~, ,,JRelis Rele~, ,,dabis wyaro~ da sxva. XVIII s-is dasawyisSi vaxuStis dros dvalTa gaosebis procesi jer kidev dasrulebuli ar yofila, magram am saukunis pirvel naxevarSi dasrulda. XIX s-Si dvalebi, rogorc TavisTavadi tomi, aRar ixsenieba. VI saukunidan moyolebuli, dvalebis gaqristianebis Semdgom, dvaleTSi sarwmunoebis, literaturis, qveyanasTan (saqarTvelosTan) urTierTobis ena qarTuli iyo da dvalebi, iseve rogorc maTi mezobeli raWvelebi, moxeveni, aragvispirelni da qarTlelni qarTvelTa didi ojaxis wevrebs warmoadgendnen. monRol-TaTrebma da Semdgom sxva mtrebma Cveni erovnuli ojaxidan gaiyvana erT-erTi qarTveluri tomi. aq Cveni erovnuli TviTSemecnebis sazogadod dabalma donemac iqonia gavlena. dvalebis gaosebis Semdgom daiwyo axali procesi qarTvelebis denacionalizaciisa - qarTleli mTielebis gaoseba. rogorc cnobilia, saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlis Semdgom, XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi, saqarTvelosken daiZrnen da Cvens qveyanaSi Camosaxldnen Crdilo kavkasiuri tomebi, aRmosavleT kaxeTSi (saingiloSi) daRestnelebi, afxazeTSi - afsar-Cerqezebi, Sida qarTlis mTianeTSi ki dvalebi, im droisaTvis ukve gaosebulni. vaxuStis dros osi-dvalebi nawilobriv ukve iyvnen Camosaxlebulni qarTlis mTianeTSi, kerZod zogierTi xeobis saTaveebSi. vaxuSti wers: ,,xolo raodenni osni davwereT am adgilebiTa Sina, pirvelad saxlebulan qarTvelni glexni, Semdgomad... gardmosaxlebulan osni da qarTvelni barTa Sina Camosulan~, cxadia yvela qarTveli qarTlis mTianeTidan barSi ver Camosaxldeboda, mTaSi darCenili qarTuli mosaxleoba osur garemoSi moeqca da gaosda. XVIII s-is 20-30-ian wlebSi qarTlSi gadmosuli osi-dvalebi aragvisa da qsnis saerisTavoebs, maCablebis samflobeloebs Seexiznen, mcire nawili ki muxraneli bagrationebis, favleniSvilebis, falavandiSvilebis da xerxeuliZeebis samflobeloebSi damkvidrda. unda iTqvas, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifos dasustebis Semdgom mTieli mosaxleoba eurCeboda centralur xelisuflebas. 1625 wels osuri orientaciis 32

dvalebis ajanyeba giorgi saakaZem CaaxSo, romelmac dvaleTSi (e. i. Crdilo kavkasiaSi) ilaSqra. vaxtang meeqvsis politikuri marcxis Semdeg, roca qarTlSi jer osmalebi, Semdgom ki yizilbaSebi gabatondnen, os-dvalebs, rogorc osmalebi, ise sparselebi mahmadianTa winaaRmdeg ajanyebul qarTvel xelisufalTa winaaRmdeg brZolaSi iyenebdnen. 1744 wels qarTl-kaxeTis qristianuli saxelmwifo aRdga. Teimuraz II da erekle II-m, rogorc meistorie papuna orbeliani gadmogvcems, upirveles yovlisa, saWirod CaTvales daecxroT aragvispireTsa da qarTlSi Semosaxlebuli osebis ajanyeba. mematianis TqmiT, am droisaTvis ,,osebi cemdnen zemo qarTls~, aragvisa da qsnis saerisTavoebSi Sesuli osebi samefo gadasaxads ar ixdidnen: ,,orsav saerisTaoni diad avkacobdnen, arc begaras aZlevdnen, arc moxele SeuSves~. mefeebi Sevidnen osTa mier daWeril teritoriaze: ,,moegebnen osni da Seiqmna omi. mobrZanda batonic, daerivnen xmaldaxmal da gaaqcies osni da miiyvanes, Sehyares koSkebSi da Semoadgnen kars. ganaZliera jari mefem. ormoci koSki dawves, Trusi daatyveves da yovlis gziT yalTani uyves, rom risxva RmrTisa dasces. ra es ambavi da aragvis osis waxdenis ambavi Seityves erisTavis osTa, mividnen maSinve vanaTs da Semoexvivnen mefes. Teimurazs mosTxoves danaSaulis firmani da mosces sruli begara~. es imas niSnavs, rom qarTlis mTianeTSi gadmosul osebs qarTvelma mefeebma ori mxridan Seuties - mefe erekle aragvis xeobas ahyva da iq daamarcxa osebi, xolo mefe Teimurazi qsnis xeobaSi Sevida, aragvispireli osebis damarcxebis ambis gagebis Semdeg samaCabloeli osebi SeSindnen, TxovniT mimarTes mefe Teimurazs da misgan Semorigebis firmani miiRes. amis Semdgom qarTlis mTianeTSi mcxovrebi osebi qveynis mSvidobian moqalaqeebad iqcnen. maT iseTive samoqalaqo uflebebi hqondaT, rogorc qarTvelebs, isini erTgulebdnen qarTvel mefeebs, ramac gavlena iqonia maT bedze XIX s-Si. XIX saukuneSi Cveni qveynis ruseTis imperiaSi Sesvlas Tan ajanyebebi mohyva, qarTlsa da kaxeTSi saxalxo ajanyebaTa sulis Camdgmelebi bagrationTa samefo saxlis wevrebi iyvnen. Tavdapirvelad osebi isev erTgulebdnen qarTul samefo saxls da mravaljer ajanydnen rus xelisufalTa winaaRmdeg farnavaz, iulon da aleqsandre batoniSvilTa mxardasaWerad, magram SemdgomSi paskeviCma didad iRvawa, raTa qarTulosuri erTsulovneba gaeTiSa, risTvisac osebs garkveuli socialuri uflebani mianiWa, xolo qarTveli memamuleebis uflebebi os glexebze saeWvod miiCnia, ris gamoc 1830 wels maCablebma saCivari Seitanes goris sasamarTloSi. 1830 wlidan 1845 wlamde sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba ar gamoutania, Semdgom ki gadawyvita, rom osebi maCablebis mudmiv mflobelobaSi unda darCeniliyvnen. am droisaTvis osebi saqarTveloSi kompaqturad mxolod maCablebis mamulSi cxovrobdnen. sasamarTlos gadawyvetileba glexebma gaasaCivres, Tbilisis sasamarTlo palatam igive daadgina, osi glexebis qarTvel TavadTa mflobelobaSi moqceva umaRlesi xelisuflebisaTvis miuRebeli aRmoCnda. amitomac saqme peterburgSi - senatSi gasarCevad gadaitanes. senatma sasamarTloTa wina gadawyvetilebani gaauqma da osebi maCablebis ymebad ar cno. es 1851-52 wlebSi moxda. senatis es dadgenileba Zalze mniSvnelovania qarTvelTa 33

gaosebis sakiTxis garkvevisaTvis, rameTu am dadgenilebiT senatma osi glexebi batonymobisagan saqarTveloSi batonymobis gauqmebamde cameti wliT adre gaaTavisufla. batonymobisagan osebis gaTavisufleba qarTleli glexebisaTvis udides sacdurs warmoadgenda. ymobisagan ganTavisufleba yvelas surda, Tavisufleba ki mxolod maT eniWebodaT, romelnic osebad iyvnen cnobilni. ,,osobiT~ batonymuri uRlisagan TavdaRweulma Sida qarTlis mkvidrma glexebma xiznebis saxiT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebs miaSures. Cveulebriv glexebTan SedarebiT xiznebs garkveuli upiratesobani hqondaT: garda piradi Tavisuflebisa, maT ufleba hqondaT memamulis miwebis uvado moxmarebisa garkveuli sazRauris gadaxdiT (,,samxr. oseTis istoriis narkvevebi~ gv. 172), memamulis miwaze mcxovrebi xizani Tavisi sakarmidamo miwis gadasaxads ar ixdida da SeeZlo ufasod esargebla tyiTa da sarwyavi wyliT. es kanoniT iyo gansazRvruli. saglexo reformis Semdeg mravali qarTveli memamule Seecada gaesaxlebina TavianTi miwebidan osi xiznebi, magram ver SeZlo: urC glexobas xelisufleba ar sjida, memamuleebs ki Zala ar SeswevdaT, ufro metic, xiznebi hklavdnen memamuleebs, uwvavdnen saxl-kars, uCexavdnen tyes, sargeblobdnen saZovrebiT, uxnavdnen miwebs (iqve gv. 198). xelisufalTa faruli mxardaWeriT faqtiurad xiznebs darCaT qarTvelTa miwebi Sida qarTlSi, voroncov-daSkovis dros arsebobda proeqti, romlis mixedviTac Sida qarTli, rogorc mtkvris marjvena, ise marcxena sanapiroze, osi moaxalSeneebisaTvis unda gadaecaT. miwebis miRebis mizniT qarTleli glexebi osebad acxadebdnen TavianT Tavs, tovebdnen mamapapeul soflebs da xiznebis saxiT dRevandeli goris, duSeTis, qarelis, xaSuris, kaspis, borjomis, mcxeTisa da sxva raionebSi saxldebodnen. saqarTveloSi osebis raodenoba mkveTrad gaizarda, rac mxolod bunebrivi matebis gziT SeuZlebeli iyo. socialurTan erTad arsebobda aranakleb mniSvnelovani mizezi qarTvelTa gaosebisa. kerZod, religiuri. rogorc aRiniSna, dvalebi me-6 saukunidan moyolebuli qristianebi iyvnen da qarTuli eklesiis mrevls Seadgendnen, XIX s-mde gaosebul dvalebsa da mTielebs tradiciulad qarTuli eklesia emsaxureboda. dvaleTis eklesiebsa da salocavebSi XIX s. Suawlebamde wirva-locva qarTul enaze tardeboda da RvTismsaxurebisaTvis qarTuli saeklesio wignebi gamoiyeneboda. arc Tu didi xnis winaT istoriul dvaleTSi (Crd. kavkasiaSi) zaromagis eklesiis nangrevSi aRmoCnda qarTuli fsalmunis xelnaweri, romelic X saukunes ekuTvnis. iqvea eklesia qarTuli warwerebiT. sofel waidan (amJamad cei ewodeba) iyo qarTuli eklesiis wmidani - nikoloz dvali. wai mdebareobda ,,kasris karTan~ (vaxuStis cnobiT, es ,,kari ardonis xeobaSi qarTvel mefeebs augiaT ,,osTa gadmousvlelobisaTvis~). qarTul eklesiasTan aTaswlovani kavSiris gamo dvaluridan osur enaSi saeklesio terminologiaa Sesuli, osurad umaRles RvTaebas ,,xucavi~ ewodeba (qarTuli ,,xucesidan~). osuri ,,kuira~, ,,baraska~, ,,taranjelo~, ,,jiorqoma~, ,,saniba~, ,,miqelgabrita~, ,,mariam~ da sxva qarTuli saeklesio terminologiidanaa gadaRebuli da fonetikurad saxeSecvlili. (Sesabamisad - kvira, paraskevi, mTavarangelozi, giorgoba, sameba, 34

miqelgabrieli, mariami (ix. a. jafariZe saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria t. IV, gv. 263). javis raionSi mravlad iyo e. w. ,,Zuarebi~ (e. i. jvrebi), romelTac fSav-xevsurTa da mTielTa xat-jvrebis msgavsad Tayvans scemda adgilobrivi mosaxleoba (arsebobda sagvareulo da saTemo ,,Zuarebi~). aRniSnuli mosaxleobis sarwmunoebrivi kavSiri deda-qarTul eklesiasTan XIX s-Si, avtokefaliis gauqmebis Semdeg, gaZnelda. cnobilia, rom Crd. kavkasiaSi mcxovreb osTa Soris qristianobis gasavrceleblad rusi saeklesio xelisufleba XVIII saukunidanve iyenebda qarTvel saeklesio moRvaweebs. 1815 wels aRadgines e. w. ,,oseTis sasuliero komisia~ da misi moqmedebis arealSi Tbilisis guberniis osebiT dasaxlebuli miwebic Seitanes. am droisaTvis ardonis xeobis nar-mamisonis qvabuli Tbilisis gubernias ekuTvnoda. es teritoria, romelic mudam saqarTvelos saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda, 1858 wels mefisnacvalma bariatinskim Tbilisis gubernias CamoaSora da Tergis olqs SeuerTa. xelisufleba TuS-fSav-xevsureTsa, xevSi da saerTod, saqarTvelos mTianeTSi Seryeuli qristianobis aRdgenas Seecada. mTis rTuli sarwmunoebrivi viTarebis gamosasworeblad rusuli eklesia im codnasa da gamocdilebas iyenebda, romelic XVIII saukunidanve hqonda dagrovili oseTis sasuliero komisias. 1814 wlis 17 oqtombers gamoica brZaneba ,,saqarTveloSi iyos erTi egzarqosi da sami eparqia - qarTlisa, oseTisa da siRnaRisa, mozdokis osuri komisiis movaleoba daekisros Telavis arqiepiskoposs. osi uxucesebis waxalisebisaTvis gaices 1500 maneTi~ (iqve, gv. 267). avtokefaliis mospobis Semdeg saqarTvelos barSi mravali eparqia gaauqmes, mTaSi ki e. w. ,,oseTis eparqia~ Seqmnes, ara mxolod eklesiurad, administraciuladac Seiqmna ,,oseTis okrugi~, romelSic moxeveni, mTiulni da samxedro gzispiras mcxovrebi qarTvelebi Seiyvanes. am ,,okrugis~ centrad mTiuleTSi mdebare qarTuli sofeli qveSeTi airCies (iqve, gv. 267). xelisuflebam miznad daisaxa ,,oseTis eparqiasa~ da ,,oseTis okrugSi~ mcxovrebi mTielebis gaqristianeba (aRsaniSnavia, rom aRniSnuli mosaxleoba Tavis Tavs mtkice qristianad Tvlida, magram unaTlavni iyvnen). pirvel xanebSi marTlac bevri ,,gaqristianda~ (e. i. moinaTla). rogorc aRiniSna, mTielTa gaqristianebis saqme ,,oseTis sasuliero komisias~ evaleboda, romelic yvela monaTluls osad acxadebda. amaze monaTlulTa kolosaluri raodenoba miuTiTebs. 1815 wels 11445 kaci iyo monaTluli, xolo 1820 wels 31.997 (monaTlulTagan yvela osi rom ar iyo, es iqidanac Cans, rom 1865 wlisaTvisac ki CvenSi mcxovrebi osebis raodenoba p. guguSvilis monacemebiT 40.000 kacs ar aWarbebda). 1820 wlisaTvis rus samRvdeloebas SeumCnevia, rom monaTluli mTielebi kvlav warmarTobas ubrundebodnen, ris gamoc dausaxavT RonisZiebani. saerTod unda iTqvas, rom xalxis gaqristianebisas formalobas iCendnen. saxelmwifo am didi saqmis aRsrulebisaTvis didi TanxebiT ajildoebda samRvdeloebasa da administracias, romelnic Tavis mxriv monaTlulTa ricxvis gazrdas cdilobdnen. monaTlulTa kvlav ,,gawarmarTebis~ erT-erT mizezad ruseTis saeklesio 35

xelisuflebma osur enaze saeklesio literaturis ar arseboba miiCnies, amitomac qarTul eklesiaSi aRzrdil ioane iaRluziZes qarTulidan osurad wmida saxareba aTargmnines, magram gawarmarTebis saqme mainc ar gamosworda. Tavis marTlebis mizniT saegzarqosoSi gamoimuSaves pozicia, romelic wm. sinodisadmi egzarqosis miwerilobidan Cans: ,,qristianobis warmatebiT gavrcelebis gamaZnelebel mizezTa Soris os xalxSi, romelic monaTvlis Semdgom araiSviaTad daubrunda kerpTmsaxurebas unda miekuTvnos: 1. osur enaze wignebis ararseboba, 2. samRvdeloebis mier osuri enis ucodinaroba da piriqiT, osebis mier qarTulisa, romelzec sruldeba saRmrTo liturgia da qristianobis sxva wesebi~ (iqve, gv. 269). saegzarqosom miznad daisaxa Seecvala mTianeTSi qarTuli saeklesio msaxureba. qarTuli eklesia ki mTis mosaxleobis qarTvel erTan damakavSirebel ZarRvs warmoadgenda, xalxic qarTulenovan msaxurebas iyo SeCveuli, ar uaryofda qarTvel samRvdeloebas da siamovnebiT iRebda mas. saegzarqosos administraciuli Careva dasWirda - qarTvel mRvdlebs mTianeTSi samsaxuri aekrZala. saswrafod akurTxes adgilobrivi mkvidrni, ucodinarni, erT-erTi aseTi piris daviT begizovis naambobi Cveni saukunis pirvel naxevarSia Cawerili: `qrTamiT amiRes dokumenti ,,o blagonadeJnosti~, mimiyvanes saqarTvelos egzarqosTan, romelsac aekrZala samxreT oseTSi qarTvelis mRvdlad an maswavleblad gagzavna. egzarqosma swrafad makurTxa, damloca, Camiwyves wignebSi furclebi, ra wamekiTxa jvris weraze, ra panaSvidze da ra romel dResaswaulze. mqonda jamagiri, dramis fuls ar viRebdi, es gadasaxadi osebma ar icodnen. javis zeviT me viyavi pirveli osi mRvdlad da kidev iyo Semdeg ori osi, Torem uwin sul qarTvelebi iyvnen CvenSi am samsaxurSi~ (iqve, gv. 270). saqarTvelos sapatriarqos gauqmebis Semdeg qarTlel mTielTa Soris qristianobis gavrcelebis saqmes xelisuflebam saTaveSi qarTveli saeklesio pirebi Cauyena. uxvad asaCuqrebdnen gaqristianebul (e. i. monaTlul) mTielebs, oRond im pirobiT, rom isini ,,osebi~ unda yofiliyvnen. axlad monaTlul qarTvels saCuqari ar eZleoda, mxolod osi saCuqrdeboda. amis gamo gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi SeuTxzavT satira qarTvel arqiepiskopos dosiTeosze, romelic dekanoz aleqsi petriaSvilTan (keTilSobilTa saswavleblis pirvel reqtorTan) erTad uxvi saCuqrebiT anu rogorc satiraSia - ,,CiTiT~ naTlavda mTielebs. ,,kantora rom uwodes, ras amboben bilman, dosiTeos aleqsiT winaswariT bilman... CiTiT naTlaven osebsa, qristianad bilman~. satiraSi moxsenebulia 1814 wels daarsebuli qarTl-kaxeT-imereTis sinodaluri kantora, romelTanac erTad ganaxlda oseTis sasuliero komisia. dosiTeosi daniSnes kantoris wevrad da komisiis xelmZRvanelad. mas mTielTa Soris qristianobis danergva-gavrceleba evaleboda, marTlac, ,,mokle xanSi aTasobiT osi moaqcia qristianad. rasakvirvelia, aseTi warmateba dosiTeosisa da misi xelqveiTi pirebis ,,misioneruli moRvaweobisa~ da osebis maRal sarwmunoebrivi Segnebis Sedegi ar yofila. warmatebis mizezi materialuri pirobebi iyo. saqme isaa, rom 36

komisiis daarsebisTanave dosiTeosis energiuli SuamdgomlobiT aleqsandre I-ma 1814 w. 30 agvistos qsnis erisTavebs qsani da gverdisZiri CamoarTva. uamisod qristianoba ver gavrceldeba mTielebSio, amtkicebda dosiTeosi... is arwmunebda osebs, rom Tu qristianobas miiRebdnen, erisTavis winaSe yovelgvari movaleobisagan ganTavisufldebodnen da mxolod saxelmwifo gadasaxads gadaixdidnen, rom qristianobamiRebuli osi ukve arc erT memamules aRar ekuTvnis, igi mxolod saxazino glexia da qristiani beris garda maT ufrosi aRar eyolebodaT~ (,,aqtebi~, VI, gv. 363 ix. g. berZniSvili, masalebi. I. 1980, gv. 218). qarTvelTa gaosebis sakiTxi CvenTvis sainteresoa Tundac imitom, rom es procesi mecnierTa TqmiT amJamadac grZeldeba. r. TofCiSvili wers: ,,TviT Cvenc araerTi SemTxveva gvqonda Sida qarTlis mTianeTSi gvenaxa gaosebuli an gaosebis gzaze Semdgari qarTvelebi. aseTi procesebi Sida qarTlis mTianeTSi metnaklebad dResac mimdinareobs~ (iqve, gv. 252). CvenTvis gaosebisa da qarTvelTa denacionalizaciis sxva procesebis codna saWiroa, raTa ufro Rrmad CavwvdeT Cvens erovnul bunebas, Tavidan aviciloT TanamemamuleTa gadagvareba saqarTvelosa da ucxoeTSi. Cveni eri erTi mxriv - Zlieri da mxnea, razec misi aTaswlovani istoria miuTiTebs, meore mxriv, faqizi da susti, erovnuli cnobierebis swrafad damkargveli. qarTvelTa gaosebis, gaberZnebis, armenizaciisa da gamahmadianebis suraTebi aCvenebs, rom araxelsayrel garemoSi cxovrebisas, gansakuTrebiT ki qarTul eklesiasTan kavSiris gawyvetis Semdgom, qarTvelebi denacionalizacias ganicdian. swored amitom ucxoeTSi amJamad mravlad gasuli qarTvelebi yoveli RonisZiebiT unda ecadon ar gawyviton kavSiri erovnul eklesiasTan. erovnuli niSniT Seqmnan Temebi, sazogadoebani. iyolion uTuod qarTveli RvTismsaxuri, romelic ierarqiulad ara romelime ucxo eklesias, aramed mxolod da mxolod saqarTvelos sapatriarqos anu qarTul eklesias daeqvemdebareba. ucxoeTSi da saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebisaTvis cnobili unda iyos ramdenad saxifaToa maTTvis sxvadasxva seqtebSi Sesvla, kavSiris gawyveta deda-qarTul eklesiasTan. erovnulma eklesiam SeunarCuna cnobiereba Cvens mama-papaT saukuneTa manZilze. eWvi aravis epareba, rom amJamad adamianebi, romelTac TavianTi Tavi osebad miaCniaT osebi arian, radgan adamianis erovnebas warmomavlobasTan erTad cnobierebac gansazRvravs. mravali gaosebuli qarTvelis gvaria gamokvleuli mecnierTa mier. aq ar gadmovcemT gaosebuli qarTvelebis gvarebis sias, rameTu amas exeboda wina wlebSi gamoqveynebuli Cveni werilebi (,,saqarTvelo, Sen vin mogca Svili dasakargavi~, ,,Cvengan ganviSoroT Cveni sisxli da xorci?~), romelnic sagangebod daiwera, raTa Sewyvetiliyo samarcxvino devna saqarTvelos SesaniSnavi moqalaqeebisa - osebisa, romelnic CvenSi damkvidrebul araqarTvelTa Soris yvelaze ufro axlos arian qarTvel erTan, mis kulturasTan da wes-CveulebebTan. osebis mniSvnelovani nawili ara mxolod zrdida Tavis Svilebs qarTul skolebSi, aramed ojaxebSic unergavda maT qarTvelTa siyvaruls (igulisxmeba samaCablos gare saqarTvelos raionebi). 37

osTa dasacavad gamoqveynebuli vrceli werili gazeT ,,erSi~ swored Tbiliss, borjomsa da sxvagan antiosuri kompaniis dros movamzade. me arasodes damaviwydeba is axalgazrdebi, moxucebi, qalebi da kacebi, romelnic im gasaWiris dReebSi uwyvetad modiodnen CemTan borjomis rezidenciaSi, viTarca, - osebis damcvelTan. miCvenebdnen istoriis institutis mier gacemul cnobebs maTi qarTuli warmoSobis Sesaxeb (am cnobebis nomrebi me gadmoveci aRniSnul werilSi); sxvebi momiTxrobdnen ojaxebSi SemorCenil Zvel gadmocemebs TavianTi qarTveli winaprebis Sesaxeb; zogierTs isic ki axsovda (TavianT winaparTagan), sad, saqarTvelos romel raionSi moxda maTi gaoseba (magaliTad, bestavaSvilebis gaosebis Sesaxeb me dawvrilebiT momiTxres saojaxo gadmocemebi, rac gadmoveci). Cven qristiani eri varT, amitomac ufleba ara gvaqvs wavbaZoT afxaz da os faSistebs, romelTac usaSinlesi genocidi mouwyes qarTvelobas da masobrivad daxoces isini. Cveni eri ZvelTaganve SemwynareblobiT, tolerantobiT gamoirCeoda, amas avaldebulebda mas RvTismSoblis wilxvedriloba. ,,madli~, #2, 1994

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qarTvelebis armenizacia
ra bedi eliT im qarTvelebs, romlebic ganSordnen Cvens dedas saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesias da ucxo eklesiaTa mrevlad iqcnen? amJamad sxvadasxva sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebani, romelnic erovnulobas uaryofen, - ieRoveloba, baptizmi, ormocdaaTianeloba, staroveroba da sxvani, cdiloben fexi moikidon saqarTveloSi. cxadia, Cven pativs vcemT yoveli adamianis Tavisufal sindiss, magram istoriuli gamocdileba gvarwmunebs, rom saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiisagan ganSorebuli Cveni Tanamemamuleni erovnuladac gadagvardnen. amJamadac xom ar gaucxovdebian qarTvelobisagan qarTveli ieRovelebi anda baptistebi, maTi STamomavalni qarTvelebad CaTvlian Tu ara TavianT Tavs? es kiTxva upasuxod ar unda darCes, rameTu sazRvrebis gaxsnis Semdgom mravali qarTveli miaSurebs ucxoeTs. isini TavianTi ucxouri sarwmunoebis wyalobiT ucxoeTSi gaiTqvifebian, Tu Tavs kvlav deda qarTuli eklesiis wevrebad CaTvlian da amiT ufali RmerTis SemweobiT qarTvelobas SeinarCuneben? Cven gvaqvs istoriuli magaliTi, istoriuli gamocdileba, romlis analizi zemoT gamoTqmuli daeWvebis uflebas gvaZlevs. saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlis Semdgom nawilebad dayofili qveyana mahmadianurma imperiebma erTmaneTs Soris gainawiles. mteri yoveli RonisZiebiT cdilobda qarTuli eklesiis dasustebas. marTlmadideblebs iseTi politikuri da ekonomikuri pirobebi Seuqmnes, rom qarTvelebis arcTu ise mcire nawili deda eklesias ganSorda da saqarTveloSi arsebul ucxour eklesiebs Seemata, romlebic ara marto ucxoeTidan finansdebodnen, aramed adgilobriv xelisufalTa mxridanac hqondaT SeRavaTebi, ris gamoc XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi qarTvelebis erTi nawili somxuri da kaTolikuri eklesiebis mrevlad iqca, xolo ufro mometebuli nawili gamahmadianda. ucxo eklesiaTa frTebqveS moqceuli qarTvelebi sulieradac gaucxovdnen, nawilobriv maTi erovnuli cnobierebac Seicvala. ucxo eklesiis wiaRSi Sesuli Cveni Tanamemamuleni TandaTan kargavdnen sakuTar erovnuls da im eris niSan-Tvisebebs iZendnen, romlis eklesiasac TavianT Tavs akuTvnebdnen, iTvisebdnen ucxour wesCveulebebs, zogjer enasac. SemTxveviTi ar iyo, rom xalxi qarTvel grigorianelebs - ,,somxebs~, qarTvel kaTolikeebs ki ,,frangebs~ uwodebda. deda eklesiisagan gaucxoveba saukuneTa manZilze mimdinareobda. ganvixiloT is mizezebi, romelTac qarTvelebis armenizacias Seuwyves xeli. XVI s. bolosaTvis samefo-samTavroebad daSlili saqarTvelo gavlenis sferoebad dainawiles sparseTma da osmaleTma. xolo samxreT saqarTvelo (mesxeTi da lazeTi), qvemo qarTli da aRmosavleTi kaxeTi politikurad mowyvites Cvens qveyanas da uSualod ucxo saxelmwifoTa mmarTvelobas dauqvemdebares. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi sagareo-politikuri viTareba mniSvnelovnad Seicvala. saqarTvelos CrdiloeTiT axlad warmoqmnili ruseTis imperia 39

swrafad afarToebda Tavis sazRvrebs. igi kavkasiis qeds miuaxlovda, yirimisa da Crdilo kavkasiis dapyrobis Semdeg ruseTma miznad daisaxa konstantinepolis aReba Savi zRvis sruteebis xelSi Cagdebis mizniT, indoeTis xelSi Casagdebad ki sparseTis dalaSqvra dagegma. ruseTis imperiis swrafma zrdam da agresiulobam sasikvdilo safrTxe Seuqmna sparseTisa da osmaleTis imperiebs. jer kidev kaxeTis mefeTa winaaRmdeg mebrZoli daRestnis Samxali afrTxilebda osmaleTis sulTans, rom swored saqarTvelos gziT da qarTvelTa meoxebiT apirebda ruseTi konstantinepolis dapyrobas, osmaleTis imperiis daSla-damorCilebas da sparseTis dalaSqvras. marTlac, kavkasiaSi ruseTis imperiis upirveles sayrdens saqarTvelo warmoadgenda. im SemTxvevaSi, Tu amierkavkasiaSi rusebi gabatondebodnen, sparseT-osmaleTis imperiaTa mze Caesveneboda (es marTlac ase moxda XIX-XX saukuneebSi). sparseTisa da osmaleTis mmarTvelebisaTvis cnobili iyo, rom qarTvelebi rusebs erTmorwmuneobis gamo siyvaruliT ekidebodnen. es osmalebmac da sparselebmac icodnen da dapyrobil qarTul miwebze (mesxeTSi, lazeTSi, qvemo qarTlSi, afxazeTis nawilSi, aRmosavleT kaxeTSi) marTlmadideblur sarwmunoebas sastikad ebrZodnen, xolo gavlenis sferoSi moqceul qarTl-kaxeTsa da dasavleT saqarTveloSi Zlier zRudavdnen mas. mtrebi cdilobdnen aRmoefxvraT qarTvelTa Soris marTlmadidebloba da mis nacvlad mahmadianoba gaevrcelebinaT. xolo im SemTxvevaSi, Tu amas ver SeZlebdnen, yovel Rones xmarobdnen, raTa qarTvelebi marTlmadidebluri eklesiis wiaRidan moewyvitaT, radgan somxuri da kaTolikuri eklesiebi maTTvis safrTxes ar warmoadgenda. amis gamo saqarTveloSi TandaTanobiT fexs ikidebda somxuri da kaTolikuri eklesiebi. Cveni eklesiis istorikosi e. nikolaZe wers, rom spars-osmalTa xelSewyobiT saqarTveloSi friad gaZlierebula somxuri eklesiis propaganda, romelsac didad dauzaralebia marTlmadidebloba. is wers: `mTeli xramis uReltexili, borCalos mazra da alaznis gaRma mxare savse iyo somexTa misionerebiT, romlebic sqolastikurad ganaTlebulni, didad cdilobdnen, rom saqarTvelos politikuri ubedurebas Tan mimateboda sarwmunoebrivi ganxeTqileba. somexTa mwvalebloba warmatebiT vrceldeboda qarTvelTa Soris, imitom, rom saqarTveloSi iyo gamocxadebuli sarwmunoebrivi Tavisufleba da mTavrobas ar SeeZlo sarwmunoebrivi davis akrZalva~. e. nikolaZe wers, rom saqarTveloSi grigorianuli sarwmunoebis gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg ibrZodnen ganaTlebuli kaTolikosebi: nikoloz amilaxvari (1675-1688 ww.), domenti (1705-1724) da gansakuTrebiT uwmidesi besarioni (1724-1739) (ix. a. jafariZis ,,saq. samociqulo eklesiis istoria~, t. II, gv. 1097). qarTvelTa sarwmunoebrivi gasomxebis Sesaxeb Cveni Zveli saeklesio moRvaweebic werdnen. nikoloz ColoyaSvilma, saqarTvelos erT-erTma yvelaze ufro gavlenianma sasuliero pirma, rostom mefis winaSe mwuxarebiT ganacxada kidec - ,,yovel dRe Cveni TvaliT vxedavT, rom mravalni qarTvelni somxdebian da ufro mometebuli maTgani mahmadis sarwmunoebas Rebulobs~ (iqve, gv. 1087). 40

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, somxur eklesias saqarTveloSi aZlierebda spars-osmaluri xelisufleba, rasac ucxoeli mogzaurebic amCnevdnen. frederiko de bua werda: ,,saocari esaa, rom marto qarTvelebs sdevnian da ara somxebs~. igulisxmeba, rom mtrebi sdevnidnen qarTvel marTlmadideblebs da ar devnidnen qarTvel grigorianelebs da saerTod grigorianuli eklesiis wevrebs. rogorc cnobilia, konstantinepolis dapyrobis Semdeg, Turqebma somxebs TavianTi imperiis dedaqalaqSi sapatriarqo dauarses, romelsac ara marto somxebi, aramed osmaleTis imperiaSi mcxovrebi sxva erovnebis qristiani xalxebic daumorCiles. S. lomsaZe m. ormanianze dayrdnobiT wers: ,,axlad Seqmnil somexTa sapatriarqos Turqebma daumorCiles somxebi, sirielebi, qaldevelebi, koptebi, qarTvelebi (igulisxmeba am dros Turqebis mier samxreT saqarTvelos dapyrobili provinciebis qarTvelebi, yars-arzrumisa da nawilobriv imier taos mimdebare midamoebis qarTuli mosaxleoba) da abisinielebi~. ara marto mesxeTSi, aramed yvelgan, mTel saqarTveloSi, sadac spars-osmalebi batonobdnen, somxur eklesias ufleba eZleoda qarTvel qristianebze, xolo qarTuli eklesia idevneboda. S. lomsaZe wers: ,,TiTqos gasakviria, magram faqtia, XV saukunis Sua xanebSi TurqeTis dapyrobil teritoriebze arnaxulad gaizarda rogorc somex vaWarmrewvelTa, ise somxur grigorianuli eklesiis Zliereba da avtoriteti. sakuTari saxelmwifo dakarguli somexi xalxi TurqeTis sulTanebs TavianTi politikis dasayrden iaraRad miaCndaT~. sulTan mehmed II somxebs Tavisi interesebis erTgul damcvelad Tvlida. saerTod somxuri monofizituri qristianuli sarwmunoebrivi mimdinareoba, romelsac mogvianebiT (1836 wels) grigorianeloba Seerqva, somxebs SedarebiT privilegirebul mdgomareobaSi ayenebda rogorc TurqeTSi, ise iranSi. amrigad, somexi xalxi somxuri saxelmwifos ararsebobis pirobebSi ucbad ori sapatriarqos (eCmiaZin-konstantinepolis), ori sakaTalikosos (sisiisa da axtamaris) patroni gaxda. amave periodSi sparseli Sahebis xelSewyobiT iranSi somxur eklesiebs agebdnen brwyinvale arqiteqturuli gadawyvetiT, mooqrovili WeriTa da gumbaTebiT, daxvewili evropuli stilis ferweriT (1605-1663 wlebSi). sparsi Sahebi somxur saeklesio dResaswaulebze dadiodnen da qristianul ritualebs eswrebodnen. gamosuli iyo gansakuTrebuli brZaneba, romlis ZaliTac sjidnen yvelas, vinc somex qristians Seuracxyofas miayenebda. nadir Sahis erT rayamSi vkiTxulobT: ,,Tu romelime somexi qristiani miiRebs mahmadianur sarwmunoebas, maSin mas CamoerTmeva mTeli misi memkvidreoba~ (ix. iqve, gv. 1084). amave epoqaSi, ki, Sah-abasis Semosevebis Semdgom, kaxeTis mosaxleoba masobrivad ahyares miwa-wylidan da sparseTSi gadaasaxles, sparsTa mier xelisuflad dadgenilma rostomma saqarTvelos kaTolikosi edemoz diasamiZe kldidan gadaagdebina, mesxeTSi ToTxmeti qarTuli saepiskoposo gaauqmes, dasavleT saqarTveloSi tyveTa syidva da mahmadianur qveynebSi gayidva daiwyo. Tbilisis sioni meCeTad gadaqcevas qarTveli didebulebis Tavdadebis wyalobiT gadaurCa. 41

XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi somxurma eklesiam did brwyinvalebas miaRwia. mahmadianur samyaroSi pativs scemdnen somxebs, rogorc vaWarmrewvelebsa da xelosnebs. somxuri eklesiis mrevli Rirseulad iyo ganfenili evropisa da aziis qalaqebsa da regionebSi - bombeidan londonamde. saqarTveloSi xelisufleba pativs scemda somxebs viTarca vaWrobasa da xelosnobaSi daostatebul moqalaqeebs. somxurma eklesiam SeZlo Caenerga Tavisi mrevlisaTvis aRebmicemobis, vaWrobisa da xelosnobis siyvaruli miwis muSakobasTan erTad. saqarTveloSic somxuri eklesiis mrevlad qceuli mosaxleobac TandaTanobiT vaWroba-xelosnobas hkidebda xels. am viTarebis gamo TandaTan ,,somxoba~ vaWar-xelosanTa fenis aRmniSvnel terminad iqca. iransa da TurqeTSi (da maT mier damorCilebul saqarTveloSi) somxebs rogorc saxelmwifos ekonomikuri warmatebis sayrdens ise uyurebdnen. swored amis gamo maT SeRavaTebi eniWebodaT. somxebs aTavisuflebdnen samxedro begarisagan, ymas - batonymobis uRlisagan; Tu qarTveli glexi Tavis Tavs somxuri eklesiis wevrad aRiarebda, igi samxedro samsaxuridan Tavisufldeboda. garda amisa, grigorianelebs TavianT eklesiebTan Seqmnili hqondaT erTgvari korporaciebi, urTierTdaxmarebis salaroebi. eklesia exmareboda Rataks, aZlevda bavSvebs ganaTlebas, aswavlida vaWrobas da rac mTavaria, tyved wayvanili ojaxebis gamosyidvasac axerxebda da Tavis sacxovrebel adgilze abrunebda, rac somxur eklesias did mimzidvelobas aniWebda. amave dros ki qarTuli eklesia ukidures ekonomikur siduxWires ganicdida, is Tavad saWiroebda Tavisi mrevlisagan Sewevnas. rogorc aRiniSna, es imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom mahmadianTagan damorCilebul qveyanaSi mteri yoveli RoniT ebrZoda marTlmadidebel sarwmunoebas, viTarca mzardi ruseTis imperiis dasayrdens saqarTveloSi, xolo grigorianul sarwmunoebas, viTarca neitralurs, saxifaTod ar miiCnevda, amitom garkveul SeRavaTebsac aniWebda. ,,iran-osmaleTisaTvis SedarebiT ufro mosaTmeni iyo rusulisagan gansxvavebuli qristianoba, ris gamoc qarTvelni farulad qristianobdnen, somexni ki cxadad~ wers g. maisuraZe. aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTveli mefe-mTavrebic mzrunvelobiT epyrobodnen grigorianelebs, zogjer somxur eklesiebsac ki aSenebdnen, eCmiaZins mamulebsa da ymebs swiravdnen. es faqti, garda ekonomikuri motivebisa, imiTac aixsneba, rom iranis gavlenis sferoSi moqceuli aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo iZulebuli iyo igive sarwmunoebrivi politika gaetarebina, rogorsac irani atarebda. gansakuTrebiT gaizarda somxuri eklesiis mrevli saqarTveloSi qarTlis mefe rostom xanis dros. male rostomis karze maRali sarwmunoebrivi Tanamdebobebi grigorianelebma daiWires (igulisxmeba erovnebiT qarTvelebi). rostomi grigorianelTa mimarT sparsul politikas atarebda, icavda da mfarvelobda maT maSin, roca marTlmadideblur eklesias devnida; qarTlis kaTalikosi evdemoni daaxrCobina da cixidan gadmoagdebina. man icoda, rom qarTuli eklesia da marTlmadidebeli qarTveloba samefo taxtze mxars mis metoqes, Teimurazs uWerda. 42

rostomis dros gaizarda da ganviTarda saqalaqo cxovreba, xelosnuri warmoeba, vaWroba. dawinaurda Tbilisi, gaCnda sxva qalaqebi, maT Soris surami, axalqalaqi, rac grigorianelTa ricxvis gazrdasac gulisxmobda, radgan vaWroba-xelosnobas swored isini misdevdnen. amanac Seuwyo xeli qarTuli marTlmadidebluri mrevlis erTi nawilis sarwmunoebriv gasomxebas. Tavis mxriv arc eCmiaZini iyo gulze xeldakrefili. igi saqarTveloSi (iqve, gv. 1113) soflebs, mamulebs, ymebs iZenda, patri ambrozis cnobiT, ,,somexTa xelqveiTi qarTvelebi male gadadian somxis wesze~. Tbiliseli vaWrebi yidulobdnen marTlmadideblebs saxlis saWiroebisaTvis, saxelosnoebSi samuSaod. sxvadasxva kuTxeebidan devnili qarTveli ymebi eTvisebodnen somxebs, irqmevdnen somxur saxelebs, ,,somxoba~ maT batonymobis uRlisagan aTavisuflebda. z. WiWinaZe werda: ,,dRes mTeli qarTl-kaxeTi da imereTi savsea qarTveli grigorianelebiT, maT yvelas kargad etyobaT, rom isini STamomavlobiT namdvili qarTvelebi unda iyvnen. amas eWvi da yoymani ar unda, Tuki vinme daakvirdeba~. ,,tomiT qarTvelni da sjuliT somexni~ varTo - acxadebda zogierTi. z. WiWinaZis TvalsazrisiT qvemo qarTlisa da Tbilisis mkvidri somxebis umetes nawils qarTveli grigorianelebi e. i. eTnikurad qarTvelebi, sarwmunoebiT ki somxuri eklesiis mrevli warmoadgenda. am mxriv aRsaniSnavia eTnograf n. volkovas Sromebi. n. volkovam qvemo qarTlSi eTnografiuli muSaobis Sedegad gamoavlina, rom ,,aqauri somxuri gvaris matareblebi warmoSobiT qarTvelebi arian da aq asiode wlis win mosulan sxvadasxva raionebidan, ase magaliTad, minasiancebis da miqeliancebis winaprebi diRmeli TeTraZeebi yofilan, marqarovebisa - goreli nabdiSvilebi da a.S. aqaurebs kargad axsovT, Tu rogor Seucvala adgilobrivma somexma memamulem qarTvelebs gvari somxurad~. z. WiWinaZis, r. TofCiSvilisa da sxva mecnierTa Sromebze dayrdnobiT Cven SegviZlia CamovTvaloT zogierTi qarTveli grigorianelis gvari, romelnic Tumca warmoSobiT qarTvelebi iyvnen, magram sarwmunoebrivi aRmsareblobis gamo rus xelisufalTa mier saaRwero masalebSi somxebad ewernen. aseTni iyvnen: axaldabaSi papuaSvilebi, TaTriSvilebi, nacvliSvilebi; axalqalaqSi mamasaxlisSvili, qvriviSvili, xuciSvili, mezurniSvili, goginaSvili, oqromWedliSvili, CalaSvili, tatanaSvili, abuaSvili, gabrieliZe, wverianaSvili, mWedliSvili, nasyidaSvili, iverianovi, firaliSvili, goderZiSvili, mamacaSvili. berbukSi - gigaurebi, verxviaSvilebi; vayaSi imedaSvilebi, mamulaSvilebi, mefariSvilebi; grakalSi - goginaSvilebi, durgliSvilebi, tatiaSvilebi, papuaSvilebi; did garejvarSi TuSiSvilebi, munjiSvilebi; darbSi - kulumbegaSvilebi, doliaSvilebi, moZmanaSvilebi, TeTruaSvilebi, qoTuaSvilebi, berianaSvilebi, paataSvilebi; zemo rexSi kakitaSvilebi, mamukelaSvilebi, qarTveliSvilebi, kabulaSvilebi; tyviavSi - qarelebi, merabiSvilebi, giguaSvilebi, xabaziSvilebi da mravali sxva. kavTisxevSi nanikaSvilebi, qsovrelebi, iremaSvilebi, basiaSvilebi, biWikaSvilebi; qvaxvrelSi - berikaSvilebi, papiaSvilebi, gogolaSvilebi, maTiaSvilebi, 43

xuciSvilebi, gigolaSvilebi. axalgorSi - mzareulovi, murdinovi, varayovi, kakilovi, kikolaSvili, xubaSvilebi, xoceulaSvili, beriaSvili, loseuraSvili, gaTenaSvili, geliaSvili, daTiaSvili, gremelaSvili, cagareli. am siis gagrZeleba SeiZleba 1886 wlis saaRwero masalebis mixedviT Tbilisis, Telavis, siRnaRis mazrebidan. r. TofCiSvilis mixedviT, kumisis mosaxleobis didi nawili: grigorianuli rwmenis gamo somxebad Cawerili qarTvelebi iyvnen - babalaSvili, guraspaSvili, sayvarelaSvili, maTuraZe, TaTaraSvili, gziriSvili, garsevaniSvili, xositovi, guramovi, gabievi, JuJiaSvili, tetiaSvili, kaxelaSvili, qobulaSvili, olqiaSvili, dedilaSvili, noniaSvili, soziaSvili, maisuraZe, sayevarovi, kaxurovi, rostiaSvili. patara engeTSi - griquaSvili (igive mestviriSvili). sanioreSi - oxanaSvili (igive orkodaSvili). sarqisaSvili (kikuaSvili), yandauraSi - kuzanaSvili (igive ganmtkiculaSvili), CumlaySi - demurovi (menabdiSvili), ananurSi stepanovi (muxaSvili). qarTvel grigorianelTa gvarebi gacilebiT ufro metia naSromSi. grigorianelebis ricxvi gansakuTrebiT gaizarda XIX sis II naxevridan, rac saaRwero monacemebidanac Cans, roca esa Tu is gvarebi jer qarTvelebad - ramdenime aTeuli wlis Semdeg ki somxebad arian Cawerilni. amis mizezi iyo rusTa batonobis gamo qarTuli eklesiis dasusteba da somxuris gaZliereba, qarTveli mrevli somxur sarwmunoebas miekedla. am process SeuSfoTebia ruseTis umaRlesi xelisufleba, amitomac TviT ruseTis imperatoris miTiTebiT gadawyvites gamoecaT anton I kaTalikosis cnobili wigni ,,mzametyveleba~, romelic sagangebodaa dawerili monofizituri sarwmunoebis gansaqiqeblad. masSi yoveli kaci ipovis mza pasuxs mwvalebelTa yovel kiTxvaze. aRsaniSnavia, rom 1752 wels dasrulebuli aRniSnuli wigni mimarTulia grigorianuli sarwmunoebis winaaRmdeg. am wignma XVIII saukuneSi udidesi saqme aRasrula saqarTvelos eklesiis gansamtkiceblad da somxur-kaTolikuri propagandis Sesasusteblad. XIX saukuneSic, rogorc aRiniSna, imperatoris nebarTviT is kvlav gamosces. gansakuTrebiTaa aRsaniSnavi, rom somxdebodnen is qarTvelebic, romlebic iRebdnen kaTolikur sarwmunoebas. qarTveli kaTolikebis gasomxebas m. TamaraSvili imiT xsnis, rom radgan vatikanSi qarTuli ena ar iyo damtkicebuli RvTismsaxurebis enad, saqarTvelos kaTolikur eklesiebSi laTinuri da somxuri enebi gabatondnen, magram imis Semdeg, rac XVI-XVII ss-Si TurqeTma evropaSi misasvleli gzebi Caketa da misionerebs saqarTveloSi Semosvla aukrZala, saqarTvelos kaTolikuri eklesiebidan (upirveles yovlisa igulisxmeba mesxeTi) TandaTanobiT ganidevna laTinuri ena da qarTvel kaTolikebs wirva-locvis enad somxuri SemorCaT. kaTolikur mrevls somexi kaTolikeni xelmZRvanelobdnen, rac qarTvel kaTolikeTa srul dabnevas iwvevda. radganac Sin qarTulad laparakobdnen, aiZulebdnen elocaT somxurad, adidebdnen romis paps da cxovrobdnen Turquli politikis qveS (igulisxmeba mesxeTi), maT naTlobisas arqmevdnen somxur saxelebs: aviwyebdnen TavianT warmomavlobas. mesxeTSi (romelic saqarTvelos teritoriis erT mesameds moicavda), uamravma qarTvelma SeZlo qristianobis SenarCuneba kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis miRebis gziT, magram 44

kaTolike qarTvelebi somex-kaTolike samRvdeloebis xelSi moeqcnen da gasomxdnen. ase rom, qarTvelebi Seqmnili politikur-socialuri viTarebis gamo XVII-XIX saukuneebSi ara marto grigorianelobis miRebiT, aramed kaTolikuri sarwmunoebis aRiarebiTac somxdebodnen. amitomac am process zogadad SeiZleba qarTvelebis armenizacia vuwodoT. qarTvelebis gasomxebis upirvelesi mizezi iyo maTi gasvla dedaqarTuli eklesiis wiaRidan da Sekedleba ucxo eklesiaTa frTebqveS. aman ara marto sulierad - xorcieladac gadaagvara isini - daakargvina erovneba. amJamadac, roca qarTuli eklesiis wiaRs tovebs romelime adamiani Tu ojaxi, kargad unda Caufiqrdes kiTxvas: misi STamomavali SeZlebs erovnebis SenarCunebas, Tu sulTan erTad gvar-tomobasac dakargavs? gazeTi ,,madli~, N#11, 1993 w.

45

qarTvelebis gaafxazeba

ierusalimis daqcevas hgavda uwyalo mtris mier 1993 wels soxumisa da, saerTod, afxazeTis sofel-qalaqTa dangreva. iltvodnen qarTvelebi, hgodebdnen umweo balRebi, qalebi da moxucebi. TiTqos saqarTvelos am umSvenieresi kuTxis aoxrebas xatavs ieremia winaswarmetyveli: `cremlebma daSrites TvalisCini, mewvis gul-RviZli, miwaze daiRvara Cemi naRveli, radgan Ronemixdilni yrian ymawvilebi da ZuZuTa bavSvebi qalaqis quCebSi, daxocilni arian mravalsarTuliani saxlebis sardafebSi SequCuli mcxovrebni, xolo godebis gzebze Cvilebi dedebs SebRavian: sad aris puri da saWmeli? da ikrunCxebian daWrilebiviT da suls Rafaven dedis kalTebSi.~ ra vTqva Senze, ras Segadaro saqarTvelos asulo afxazeTo, ras migamsgavso, rom ganugeSo cxumis qalaqo, radgan zRvasaviT didia Seni daqceva, vin aris Seni ganmkurnebeli? taSs Semohkravs Senze yoveli gzad Camvleli mTieli da Crdiloeli, daustvens da Tavs gaaqnevs Cemi eris asulze - es is qalaqia, romelzec ambobdnen srulqmnili mSvenierebaao, mTeli saqarTvelos sixaruliao? xaxa daaRes Senma mtrebma, ustvenen, kbilebs aRrWialeben, yvirian: CavylapavT ukve! aha, es dRe, romelsac velodiT, moveswariT, vxedavTo mas! soxumis kedlebo, niaRvariviT RvareT cremli dRedaRam, Svebas nu moicemT, nurc SeSreba Tqveni Tvalis gugebi, iRaRade RamiT, yovel ganTiads, wyaliviT daRvare Seni guli uflis winaSe, gaiwode xelebi misken, Seni Cvilebis sicocxlisaTvis, SimSiliT rom ixocebian gzajvaredinebze. moixede, ufalo, da dainaxe, yrian quCis mtverSi ymawvili da moxuci, Seni qalwulebi da moymeebi tyviiT daecnen. daixocnen Seni risxvis dRes, dakles, ar daindes... vixseneb amas da miRondeba suli, vpasuxob Cems guls - imedi maqvs ar daileva uflis madli, ar Sewydeba misi wyaloba. Cemi xvedria ufali, ambobs Cemi suli, amitomac maqvs sasoeba misi, keTilia ufali misi mZebneli sulisaTvis. gaixsene, ufalo, rac dagvemarTa, mogvxede da dainaxe Cveni damcireba - Cveni samkvidro ucxom daimkvidra, Cveni saxlebi - gadamTielebma, oblebi gavxdiT, mama ara gvyavs, daqvrivdnen Cveni dedebi, ucxoelT vuSverT xels, ucxoT, rom puriT gavZReT, Cvenma mamebma Sescodes, aRar arian, Cven ki maT sasjels vixdiT, dapyrobil miwaze Cvens xalxs monebad amuSaveben, biWebi forTxaven mZime tvirTis qveS, aRar mRerian ymawvilebi afxazeTSi, moxucebi karibWesTan aRar sxedan, Semwydaria Cveni gulis sixaruli, glovad gadaiqca Cveni cekva-TamaSi, gaukacrielda afxazeTi, turebi darbian iq, sikvdils gadarCenilni ki ,,afxazebad~ ewerebian, raTa sicocxle SeinarCunon. Sensken mogvaqcie ufalo da moviqceviT, gangviaxle dReebi, rogorc Zvelad iyo. 46

nuTu sabolood SegviZule da usazomod gajavrdi Cvenze? - ase godebda ieremia da sityvebi davesesxeT mas, amJamad Cveni saglovi afxazeTis damxobisas. afxazeTi daipyres... mtris sisastikiT Tavzardacemuli aseul aTasobiT qarTvelis ltolvam mSobliuri kuTxidan iqneb daanaxos Cvens ers saxarebiseuli simarTlis dacvis saWiroeba - ,,scaniT WeSmariti da WeSmariteba gangaTavisuflebT Tqven~. iqneb axla mainc virwmunoT, rom simarTlis Tqma yovelTvis da yvela pirobebSi - qristianis movaleobaa, rom yovelgvari sicrue SeuTavsebelia qristianis saxelTan, radgan WeSmariteba RmerTia, xolo mamad tyuilisa eSmaki iwodeba. ufali ambobs: me var gza da me var WeSmariteba da cxovreba. pavle mociquli ki gvaswavlis: - ,,ganiSoreT sicrue da TiToeulma TqvenTaganma Tavis moyvass WeSmariteba elaparakos~ (efes. 4, 25). sicrues Seagonebdnen Cvens xalxs ,,afxazTa~ eTnikuri warmoSobisa da vinaobis Sesaxeb, sicruem moaduna misi yuradReba, rameTu aseT daundobel gawirvas ,,ZmaTagan~ ar eloda, sicruem dagvakargvina afxazeTi, realoba ki qarTvelTa masobrivi genocidia. kidev erTxel uwevs Cvens qristian xalxs warmarTTa da mahmadismoyvare mtrisagan tanjva-wameba, xocva da Jleta, SeSinebuli, panikiT moculi xalxi, iseve rogorc wina saukuneebSi, mTebs, xeobebs, tyeebsa da gamoqvabulebs afarebs Tavs, tovebs saxl-kars, qonebas da gaurbis mtrebs, romelnic bavSvebs xel-fexs amtvreven da sarze acvamen, erTad Serekil qalebs manqanis saburavebis cecxlSi cocxlad wvaven, Wabukebs ZarRvebs uxsnian da maT sisxls svamen... ratom? ra danaSauli miuZRvis maT winaSe mSvidobismoyvare Cvens xalxs? riT daimsaxures Cvenma Tanamemamuleebma aseTi sisastikiT mopyroba, iqneb es SurisZiebis, samagieros gadaxdis wyurvilia? ara, mteri Cvens xalxs samagieros ar uxdis, mtris sisastike sxva viTarebiTaa gamowveuli. rac dRes xdeba, es saukunovani mtruli Semotevebis gagrZelebaa. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi afxazeTsa da odiSs Crdilo-kavkasiuri adiReCerqezuli tomebi (jiqebi, abazebi, afsarebi anu afsuebi) Semoesivnen. im droisaTvis isini an warmarTebi, an kidev mahmadianebi iyvnen da mkvidr qarTul mosaxleobas imgvari sisastikiT epyrobodnen, risi mowmenic Cven dRes gavxdiT. qarTveli mematianeni da ucxoeli mogzaurebi xSirad aRwerdnen daundobeli rbevis sazarel suraTebs. Semoseulma mTielebma SeZles odiSis Zlieri samTavros damarcxeba, TandaTanobiT CamoaWres mas ayvavebuli miwa-wyali biWvinTidan enguramde da dapyrobil teritoriaze ,,afxazTa~ saxelwodebiT gabatonebul eTnosad Camoyalibdnen. gabatonebis Semdeg mTielebma mkvidri mosaxleobis erTi nawili, romelic daxocvas gadaurCa - monebad aqcies. monebs afsuaTa enaze ,,agirua~ erqva, rac megrels niSnavs, xolo meore nawilma ki momxdurebis gaugonari sisastikiT daSinebulma, sicocxlis, ojaxisa da qonebis gadarCenis mizniT Tavisi Tavi ,,afxazad~ gamoacxada, TandaTanobiT SeiTvisa ra SemoseulTa ena, Cveulebebi da adaTebi. gaafxazebulTa ricxvi afxazTa samTavros teritoriis gazrdis 47

kvaldakval (odiSis xarjze) XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi TandaTan mravldeboda. saqarTveloSi Semosvlis Semdeg rusebma afxazTa ricxvi Seamcires (didi nawili TurqeTSi gadaasaxles), afxazeTSi darCenil afxazebs ki qarTvelebTan SedarebiT yovelgvari upiratesobani mianiWes, ar dabegres samxedro samsaxuriT (ar mihyavdaT jarSi), ramac ,afxazoba~ qarTvelTa TvalSi mimzidvelad aqcia. XX s-Si ki afxazoba afxazeTSi eTnokratias warmoadgenda, politikur upiratesobaTa mqone, mkvidr qarTvelebze gabatonebul fenas. afxazeTSi mcxovreb yovel uniWo da zogjer ki niWier qarTvels nanatri karierisaTvis advilad SeeZlo mieRwia Tavisi Tavis ,,afxazad~ gamocxadebiT. faqtiurad afxazeTSi afxazoba eTnokratias warmoadgenda XVIII s-dan dRemde, CvenSi rogorc rusebis damkvidrebamde, ise mis Semdegac. bolo wlebSi afxazeTis eTnokratiam, anu rogorc Cven vuwodebT ,,afxazobam~, sasikvdilo safrTxe igrZno - aRorZinda saqarTvelos saxelmwifo, ris Sedegadac pirveli demokratiuli arCevnebis CatarebisTanave dakargavda batonobas afxazeTSi, radgan CagrulTa fena - qarTveloba umravlesobas warmoadgenda, msoflioSi aRiarebuli Tanacxovrebis wesi ki iTxovs yvela moqalaqis uflebaTa gaTanabrebas. afxazebisaTvis uflebaTa gaTanabreba niSnavs eTnokratiis anu ,,afxazobis~, rogorc sxvebze batonobis Camoyalibebuli sistemis mospobas. eTnokratiisaTvis am sasikvdilo safrTxis Tavidan acilebis mizniT afxaz separatistTa meTaurebma SeimuSaves gegma - CaetarebinaT eTnikuri wmenda afxazebi afxazeTis mosaxleobis umravlesobad eqciaT. ase, rom afxazTa argagonili sisastike warmoadgens ara SurisZiebasa da samagieros gadaxdas, aramed winaswar SemuSavebul RonisZiebas qarTvelTa mosaspobad da dasaSineblad, maTgan afxazeTis teritoriis ,,gasawmendad~. miaRwies mizans, da vai, rom ufro uaresia mosalodneli: garkveuli xnis Semdgom, msoflio sazogadoebrivi azris Secdenis mizniT afxazebi ukanve daabruneben ltolvili mosaxleobis garkveul raodenobas, amave dros ki maluli Tu aSkara xerxebiT ukandabrunebulebs pirobad daudeben ,,afxazad~ Caweras, mosalodnelia qarTvelTa gaafxazebis saukuneTa win dawyebuli procesis gaRrmaveba, miTumetes, rom rogorc ukve amboben, galis raionSi darCenili qarTuli mosaxleobis nawili, sicocxlis gadarCenis mizniT, Tavs afxazad acxadebs. Tu afxazeTis mdgomareoba ar gamosworda da dRes iq Seqmnili viTareba ar Seicvala, eTnikuri warmoSobiT qarTvelebis axal Taobas afxazuri suliskveTebiT gazrdian da maT qarTvel ers daupirispireben. mteri Cveni geniT gaZlierdeba da saqarTvelos Wriloba gangrenad iqceva. afxazeTis dapyrobam kidev ufro Seaviwrova mahmadianuri rkali, romelic Semortymuli aqvs saqarTvelos. genocidma safrTxe Seuqmna afxazeTSi qristianobas, gansakuTrebiT ki - qarTul eklesias. Zvelad saqarTvelos dapyrobil kuTxeebSi mteri qarTul mosaxleobas ukrZalavda yovelgvar kavSirs deda qarTul eklesiasTan. amJamadac mosalodnelia, rom dapyrobil afxazeTSi deda qarTuli eklesiis nacvlad gaabatoneben araqarTul eklesiebs, seqtantur qristianul 48

mimdinareobebs, gaaZliereben mahmadianobas, rac gamoiwvevs Cveni eklesiis mrevlis (qarTvelebisa da araqarTvelebis) Cvengan gaucxoebas, gadagvarebas, ufro metad sawuxari ki isaa, rom qristes daekargeba samwyso, suls wariwymeds aseuli aTasobiT adamiani. afxazeTis dampyroblebi, upirveles yovlisa, qristianobis mtrebi, misi amomZirkvelebi arian. qristianobis mterTa winaaRmdeg msoflio eklesiis wminda mamebi mZafri sityviT qadagebdnen, ,,uflis fexiT dasaTrgunel aspidsa da vasiliskos~ uwodebdnen maT. qarTuli eklesia TavdadebiT ibrZoda mTis warmarTul-mahmadianuri tomebis saqarTveloSi SemoWris winaaRmdeg. episkoposebi da saepiskoposo jarebi uSualodac ki gadiodnen brZolis velze qristianobis mtrebTan sabrZolvelad ara mxolod sityviT, aramed xmliTac. saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlisTanave Crdilo-kavkasiurma tomebma Semouties saqarTvelos sxvadasxva mimarTulebiT, maT Soris gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda daRestnelebis Semosevebi aRmosavleT kaxeTSi (saingiloSi), gaosebuli dvalebis Camosaxleba Sida qarTlSi da Cerqezuli tomis - jiqebis (afsuebis anu Tanamedrove afxazebis erTerTi winaprebis) Semosevebi. jiqebi Tavs esxmodnen guria-odiS-afxazeTis zRvis sanapiro zols da aoxrebdnen. imereTis mefis bagratis TaosnobiT gadawyda laSqroba maT dasasjelad da Crdilo-dasavleTis mxridan gzis Casaketad. 1533 wlis ianvarSi gurieli da dadiani salaSqrod gaemarTnen. pirvel brZolaSi jiqebi damarcxdnen, magram Semdgom brZolaSi Ralatis Sedegad damarcxeba qarTvelebma ganicades. dadiani brZolaSi daiRupa, gurieli ki Tavisi ZmebiT, episkoposiTa da jariT tyved Cavarda. episkoposis monawileoba am omSi mowmobs, Tu ra did yuradRebas uTmobda qarTuli eklesia miwa-wylis dacvas am mimarTulebiT. marTlac, am marcxis Semdeg Cveni udidesi saeklesio centri biWvinTa - daucveli darCa. ramdenime aTeuli wlis Semdeg biWvinTis sanaxebi ukve Cerqezebs hqondaT daWerili, ris gamoc sakaTalikoso taxti biWvinTidan gelaTSi iqna gadatanili. adiReelma warmarTebma mospes qarTuli qristianobis saukunovani centris - biWvinTis cxovelmyofeli moRvaweoba. gansakuTrebiT Zlieri iyo adiRe-Cerqezebis meore Semoteva XVII saukuneSi. maT 1640-iani wlebidan sul ramdenime aTeul weliwadSi SeZles odiSis teritoriis dapyroba kodoridan enguramde. mteri, upirveles yovlisa, spobda mosaxleobas, qristianobas, mospo iq arsebuli saepiskoposoebi moqvisa, drandisa da bediisa. vaxuSti werda ,,iyo Wiri didi odiSs, viTarca aRvwereT da umetes afxazTagan, rameTu movidodian navebiTa da xmeliTa da styvevnidian, daipyres vidre egrisis mdinaremde da daeSenebodnen TviT afxazni da arRara iyo drandas da moqvs episkoposi~. italieli misioneri werda - samegrelo samegrelo aRar aris, omebis gamo ukanasknel siglaxakeSia Cavardnili. daqceuli da aoxrebulia, kacs aRar SeuZlia uSiSrad iyos - mudam afxazebis SiSiao. Cerqez-jiq-afsarebi atyvevebdnen, yiddnen, xocavdnen mosaxleobas, ayvavebul mxares - udabnod aqcevdnen (erT dros zemoaRniSnuli saepiskoposoebis mrevliT mWidrod dasaxlebuli mxare kodorsa da engurs Soris - gaudaburebul kuTxed iqca), am ubedurebis Tavidan 49

asacileblad levan II dadianma da qarTvelma episkoposebma 100 kilometriani TavdacviTi nagebobis - cixe-galavnis (e. w. ,,afxazeTis kedeli~) mSenebloba wamoiwyes, didi sazRauris fasad aages kidevac, magram mtris Sekaveba mainc ver SesZles. amis Sesaxeb aRniSnavdnen arqanjelo lamberti, kasteli da vaxuSti (ix. a. jafariZe, saq. samociq. ekl. istoria, IV, gv. 278). qristianobis mtrebis Semosevebma sruliad mospo da aRmofxvra moqvis, drandisa da bediis saepiskoposoebi. rogorc es aRiniSna, ucxoeli mogzaurebi da damkvirveblebi dabejiTebiT werdnen, rom am saepiskoposoTa mosaxleobas warmoadgendnen qarTvelebi. n. berZeniSvili cnobebis analizis Sedegad askvnis: ,,me-17 saukunis dasawyisSi moqvis raioni ara marto politikurad samegreloa, is eTnikuradac megrelebiTaa dasaxlebuli. dranda, iseve rogorc bedia - samegreloSia, igulisxmeba, rom drandis raioni, rogorc bediisa, qarTvelebiTaa dasaxlebuli~ (iqve, gv. 272). am kuTxis dapyrobis Semdeg afxazebma zedized mospes qarTuli saepiskoposoebi. TviT i. voronovic wers, rom drandis bolo episkoposi Tavisi kaTedridan afxazeTis samTavros gafarToebis Sedegad, e. i. imis gamo iqna gandevnili, rom drandis saepiskoposo afxaz mTielTa xelSi moeqca da amis gamo episkoposs iq aRar edgomeboda (iqve, gv. 272). n. berZeniSvili gansakuTrebul yuradRebas saepiskoposoebis gauqmebas aqcevda. is uaryofda mosazrebas, rom Zveli da axali afxazebi erTi warmoSobis xalxia: ,,afxazeTSi uqmdeba zedized saepiskoposoebi, qreba qristianoba, ra unda yofiliyo amis mizezi? ra moxda? moxda is, rasac adgili hqonda araerTgan saqarTvelos mTisa da baris urTierTobaSi - feodaluri baris dasustebis Sedegad Camowva mTa~. ,,Camowva mTa~ niSnavs imas, rom barSi araqarTuli warmoSobis warmarTul-mahmadianuri tomebi Camosaxldnen, romelTac, cxadia, saepiskoposoebi ar esaWiroebodaT. XVI-XVII saukuneebamde biWvinTis, drandis, moqvisa da bediis saepiskoposoebis arsebobisas afxazeTSi wirva-locva mxolod qarTulenovani iyo, amas mowmobs uamravi warwerebi eklesiebsa da saeklesio nivTebze, Semonaxuli sabuTebi: lixnis taZris, bediis barZimis qarTulenovani warwerebi, moqvis saxareba da sxva. magaliTad moqvis saxarebas aqvs aseTi warwerebi - ,,moqvisa RvTis mSobelo, Seiwyale suli moqvel mTavarepiskoposisa~, ,,Cveni saxarebani pirvelTagan wmidad Targmnilia da keTilxanmetnica da sabawmidurica~ aqedan Cans, rom saxarebis mepatroneni moqveli RvTismsaxurni ,,Cven saxarebas~ uwodeben IV-VI da VIII saukuneebis Semdegdroindel saxarebis ZvelqarTul xanmetsa da sabawmidur redaqciebs. gansakuTrebiT mZime danaklisi iyo qristianobisaTvis, qarTveli erisa da mTlianad saqarTvelosaTvis mTielTa Semosevis Sedegad biWvinTis sakaTalikoso centris gauqmeba. biWvinTis taZarSi idga taxti afxazeTis kaTalikosisa da amitomac igi qarTuli eklesiisaTvis mcxeTis tol dedaqalaqad miiCneoda. gansakuTrebuli mowiweba, siyvaruli da pativiscema hqonda qarTvelTagan biWvinTis deda RvTismSoblis xatsa da taZars. saukuneTa manZilze, 50

rogorc es dokumentebidan Cans, qarTveli RvTismsaxurni ase adidebdnen mas: ,,eha asulo Sveniero, iovakimis nayofo, sitkboebiT aRsavseo, anas morCo, rto gardafenilo, solomonis venaxo, rqa mewamulo, daviTis yvavilo, dabadebulTa sulnel myofelo, ieses kverTxo, didebiT ayvavebulo, iudas SroSano, iakobis kibeo zecad aRmarTebao, isakis vardo ubiwoebiT ayvavebulo, abramis kvirto, didebiT aRmofrCvenilo...~ da sxva. saukuneTa manZilze swiravdnen biWvinTas Sesawirs qarTveli mRvdelmTavrebi da saerTod, aseul wlobiT nagrovebi ganZi iyo daculi afxazeTis eklesiebSi, erTi-ori sabuTidanac ki Cans, Tu ra auracxeli ganZis patroni iyo qarTuli eklesia am mxareSi. magaliTad, ai ra qoneba Seswira qarTvelma mamaTmTavarma biWvinTas 1600 wels - ,,nebiTa RmrTisaTa ars evdemon kaTalikozis Sewiruli: erTi oqros xati, erTi oqros jvari moTval-margalituli, erTi barZimi oqroisa moTvalmargalituli, erTi oTxTavi oqroT moWedili moTval-margalituli~ anda ,,Sevwire afxazeTsa kaTalikozman efTvimi sayvareliZeman biWvinTisa RvTismSobelsa - gvirgvini oqroisa moTval-margalituli, omofori mZimed moTval-margalituli, bisoni stavrisa oqros Rilebiani, qamari oqrosai, enqeri sirmisai moTval-margalituli, oqros xati mZimed moTval-margalituli, erTi feSxumi oqroisa da erTi vercxlisai, erTi qamari oqroisa moTvaluli, oqros kondaki, oqros dostaqani~. afxazeTis kaTalikozma malaqiam biWvinTas Seswira: - ,,erTi murasa gulsakidi xati, erTi didi lanbaqi oqroisa oTxass flerisa, bisoni moTvalmargalituli, oqros omofori mZimed moTval-margalituli erTis didis laliTa, bisoni stavrisa ormocdaeqvsi yirmizi iagundi, sxva mravali TvaliTa da margalitiTa~; biWvinTas guria-odiSSi, imereTSi da dasavleT saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi swiravdnen mamulebs, soflebs, ymebs, uTvalav qonebas, romelTa aRwerilobiT avsilia saeklesio sabuTebi, romelTagan mxolod umciresi CamovTvaleT. mxolod Sewiruli wignebis saTaurebis CamoTvlac ki SeuZlebelia, imdenad mravalia isini. biWvinTis sakaTalikoso centri savse iyo saukuneebis manZilze nagrovebi saeklesio ganZiT, romelTa gamravlebazec ganuwyvetliv zrunavdnen afxazeTis kaTalikosebi - malaqia abaSiZe (15291557), evdemoz CxetiZe (1557-1578), eqvTime I sayvareliZe (1578-1605), evdemon sayvareliZe (1600-iani wlebi), malaqia gurieli (1616-1639), maqsime maWutaZe (1639-1657), zaqaria qvariani (1657-1660), svimon CxetiZe (1660-1666), evdemoz II sayvareliZe (1666-1669), eqvTime II sayvareliZe (1669-1673), daviT nemsaZe (16731696), grigol lorTqifaniZe (1696-1742), germane wulukiZe, besarion erisTavi, ioseb bagrationi da sxvebi. mTieli warmarTebisaTvis, romelnic ukiduresad uqonelni, CamorCenilni iyvnen da ucxoel misionerTa aRweriT ar eweodnen miwaTmoqmedebas, ar hqondaT qalaqebi, soflebi da umetesad tyeebSi cxovrobdnen, gorakebze agebul patara mownul facxebSi - afxazeTis saeklesio ganZi - zRaprul simdidres warmoadgenda. am ganZis mosapoveblad da mis dasataceblad isini Zalas, energias da sicocxlesac ki ar iSurebdnen. iseve rogorc pirvel saukuneebSi romSi 51

daculi simdidris xelSi Casagdebad daiZra Crdilo evropisa da aziis tomebi, me-18 s-Si afxazeTSi daculi ganZis dasataceblad mTelma Crdilokavkasiurma, adiRe-Cerqezulma tomebma gamoilaSqres; ganZis datacebisa da eklesia-monastrebis mospobis Semdeg maT afxazeTis mkvidri qarTveli mosaxleobis motacebasa da tyveebad gayidvas mohyves xeli. afxazebma mTeli soflebi ahyares da glexebi col-Svilianad tyveebad da monebad waasxes. imdroindel sabuTebSi vkiTxulobT: ,,nayanevs sofeli abxazebs aeyara~, anda ,,bebia bolqvaZe afxazs colSvilianad waeyvana~. afxazeTis samRvdeloeba ,,afxazebs~ Tanxas uxdida da am gziT aTavisuflebda tyveobidan qristianebs. aseT rTul viTarebaSi afxazeTis kaTalikosebs miznad dausaxavT afxazeTidan ,,ayrili~ qarTuli mosaxleoba saqarTvelos SedarebiT dacul kuTxeebSi - imereTsa da samegrelo-guriaSi daesaxlebinaT, risTvisac didi gasaWiris miuxedavad, miuRweviaT kidevac (ix. iqve, gv. 266). mTiel-afsaruli tomebis SemoWris Semdgom kaTalikosma evdemon CxetiZem biWvinTa datova da gelaTSi gadmoinacvla, Tumca biWvinTas, rogorc erT-erT saeklesio centrs, arc amis Semdeg Seuwyvetia arseboba. XVII-XVIII saukuneebis yvela mogzaurisaTvis cnobili iyo, rom afxazeTSi omi mkvidr qarTvelTa da mTidan Camosul CerqezTa Soris mimdinareobda. qaTib Celebs Cerqezebi da abazebi (afxazebi) erTi xalxis tomebad miaCnia (iqve, gv. 300). me-19 saukuneSi evropeli mogzauri spenseri im xalxs, romelsac Cven amJamad ,,afxazebs~ veZaxiT, Cerqezebs uwodebs. biWvinTa mis dros ukve Cerqezebis xelSi yofila. J. gambas cnobiT, teritoria engursa da kodors Soris afxazebis ganuwyveteli Semosevebis gamo ukacriel udabnod (mcired dasaxlebul miwad) qceula. is wers: ,,lekebisa da afxazebis saxelmwifoTa sazRvrebze udabnoebia gadaWimuli. amdenad gasakviri ar aris, rom engursa da kodors Soris moqceuli qveyana dausaxlebelia da miwebi gamouyenebelia~. XIX s. bolosa da XX saukuneSi qarTveloba afxazeTSi kvlav gamravlda. Sromismoyvare qarTvelebma daaSres Waobebi, qveyana baRebiTa da plantaciebiT daamSvenes, magram rogorc ki afxazebma saqarTvelos saxelmwifos sisuste igrZnes, kvlav Zvel gzas daadgnen, kerZod, qarTvelTa sruli mospoba moisurves. Tu rogori SemarTebiT ibrZodnen afxazebi sxvisi miwa-wylis misataceblad, amis Sesaxeb erT mogzaurs movusminoT: ,,aqauri mravalricxovani mcxovrebni kavkasiis yvela toms Soris cnobilni iyvnen, rogorc yvelaze meomari bunebisa da ruseTis dauZinebeli mtrebi, roca Cerqezebi (gulisxmobs afxazebs - a. jafariZe) Tvals mohkravdnen napirisaken moaxloebul gems, TiTqosda jadosnuri joxis daqnevaze, gorakebi Tvalis daxamxamebaSi ivseboda SeiaraRebuli xalxiT, maTi kivili erTgvarad waagavs turebis ymuils. igi imdenad Semazrzeni da araadamianuria, rom Tu is pirvelad esmis adamians, SeiZleba gonebac ki dakargos. panikuri SiSi ipyrobs Cerqezebis sabrZolo yiJinaze rusebis armias, sazarelia gamZvinvarebul mTielTa brbos yiJina~.

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amitomac araa gasakviri soxumelTa da afxazeTis qarTvelTa panikuri SiSi da gaqceva afxazeTidan Tovliani mTebisaken sicocxlis gadasarCenad. istoria Semobrunda da grZeldeba. SeuZlebelia afxazeTis dapyrobam, qarTvelebisagan am kuTxis daclam saukunod ar aaRelvos Cveni eri, ar SeiZleba am ubedurebis mimarT ugrZnobi iyos romelime adamiani. ,,mkvdaria ugrZnobi kaci, usazarlesi mkvdarzeda~ - ambobda vaJa, aseve mkvdaria eri, romelic sakuTari ubedurebis mimarT ugrZnobi darCeba. erma, axalgazrdobam unda gaacnobieros is sircxvili, romelic afxazeTis dakargviT Tavs dagvatyda. saqarTvelo mTliani saxiT miiRo Cvenma Taobam - aseve unda gadavceT momaval Taobebsac. Cven pirnaTelni unda viyoT rogorc giorgi mTawmindelisa, romelic am kuTxes ,,qveyanasa Cvensa~ uwodebda da sxva sulkurTxeul winaparTa winaSe, aseve TviT afxazeTSi amJamad daRupul axalgazrdaTa, yrmaTa da dedaTa winaSec. kidev ufro udidesi sircxvilia qarTvelebis afxazebad Cawera, rac miuTiTebs Cvens ukiduresad dabalsa da SezRudul erovnul cnobierebaze, Tumca isic aRsaniSnavia, rom amas safuZvlad uimedoba da afxazeTSi qarTvelad yofnis gausaZlisoba udevs. SeiZleba yvelafers SevurigdeT, magram ar SeiZleba SevurigdeT afxazeTSi mcxovreb Cvens TanamemamuleTa, Cveni sisxlisa da xorcis Cvengan gaucxovebas, qarTvelTa gaafxazebis process. gaafxazebuli qarTveloba, gamahmadianebuli mesxebisa (e. w. Turqimesxebis) da gaosebuli dvalebis msgavsad mraval mougvarebel problemas Seuqmnis saqarTvelos. msgavsad epidemiebisa da SimSilobisa, omi didi sazogadoebrivi ubedurebaa, RvTis mier daSvebuli eris gamosasworeblad da gonze mosayvanad. rwmenisa da mamulisaTvis omSi mkvlelobas eklesia ar Tvlis adamianis pirad codvad, miTumetes rom omSi TiToeuli meomari qristes mcnebis Tanaxmad mzadaa Tavisi sicocxle samSoblos, xalxisa da sarwmunoebis dasacavad gaswiros. erisa da mamulis dasacavad omSi kacis kvla meeqvse mcnebis darRvevad da codvad ar iTvleba, piriqiT, codvaa, rodesac mtris mier samSoblos Tundac erTi kuTxis dapyrobis Jams kaci Tu qali mTel Tavis Zalas, ukanasknel sisxlis wveTs ar iRebs qveynisaTvis, Tavisi yoveldRiuri Tavdadebuli SromiTa da morCilebiT ar aZlierebs saxelmwifos, ar emzadeba samSoblos gasaTavisufleblad, ar zrdis momaval Taobas, ar unergavs mas suliskveTebas mama-papaTa sisxliT morwyuli miwis dasaxsnelad, dReniadag ar wvrTnis mas fizikurad da zneobrivad erovnuli miznis aRsasruleblad. Cven ar movuwodebT axalgazrdebs SurisZiebisaken; Cveni xalxis qristianulma sulma SeTxza ambavi dedisa, romelic Svilis mkvlelis dedas uTanagrZnobs, ilias moTxrobis gmirma nikoloz gostaSabiSvilma swored imitom ar mokla mravali qarTveli vaJkacis mkvleli, rom isic vaJkaci iyo. Cveni eri, romelsac Sendobis unari aqvs, albaT Zalas moikrebs da ganacxadebs, rom warsuls daiviwyebs, oRond erTi pirobiT - saqarTvelos wmida miwaze, afxazeTSi qarTvelebma da afxazebma Tanabari samoqalaqo uflebebiT unda icxovron. gazeTi ,,madli~, 1994, #16. 53

saeklesio cxovreba

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sityva warmoTqmuli axalcixis eklesiaSi 1981 wlis seqtemberSi

wmida marines taZarSi, sazeimo wirvis Semdeg, uwmidessa da unetaress, sapatio stumarsa da mamamTavars ilia II-s sityviT mimarTa axalcixisa da mesxeT-javaxeTis eparqiis episkoposma ananiam.

Tqveno uwmidesobav da unetaresobav! Cveni eris keTilo mwyemso, wmida sinodis wevrno, moZRvarno da Svilno qarTuli eklesiisa, morwmuneno!

am dReebSi zeimia mesxeTis miwisa. Cveni erovnuli kulturis Zveli medroSe da samWedlo - mesxeTi sixarulis cremlebiT Sexvda eris mamaTmTavaris, uwmidesi da unetaresi patriarqis CamobrZanebas. dRes sixarulisa da bednierebis dRea. Tqven, Tqveno uwmidesobav da unetaresobav, saqarTvelos arcerT eparqias ar aklebT mzrunvelobasa da yuradRebas. Tqven yvela eparqiis ara iSviaTi stumari brZandebiT, magram sul sxva azri da mniSvneloba aqvs Tqvens - saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis - CamobrZanebas am kuTxeSi, mesxeTSi. ukve ramdenime aseuli weli gavida, rac mesxeTs ar swvevia saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqi, rogorc oficialuri stumari. diax, ramdenime aseuli weli. es gamowveuli iyo mesxeTis - saqarTvelos am Zveli erovnuli burjis - tragikuli bediT. jer kidev ramdenime aseuli wlis win, yvaryvare da mzeWabuk aTabagebis dros, mesxeTis eklesia gavida mSobliuri Tbili keridan, ixetiala, igvema mravlad da bolos isev CvenTan, saqarTvelos erTian wmida samociqulo eklesiasTan, Cvens wmida kalTasTan dabrunebiT xarobs. rogorc ki mesxeTis mosaxleobis erTma nawilma iZulebiT miiRo mahmadianoba, man dakarga ara marto qristianoba, aramed erovnebac; maSin, roca qristianma qarTvelebma mtkiced Semoinaxes TavianTi qarTveloba, hzides qristes jvari da dRemde moitanes saqarTvelo. WeSmaritad ganuzomelia sidiade qristianuli sarwmunoebisa. Tavisi srulqmnilebiT, kacTmoyvareobiTa da siyvaruliT, is ayalibebs adamianis maRal zneobas. qristianis Sinagani buneba Tavisi sarwmunoebiT isea aRzrdili, rom mas ara marto Tavisi moyvasi, aramed Tavisi moZuleca da maWirvebelic 55

uyvars. qristianma icis, rom misi mteric RvTisganaa Seqmnili. amitom RvTis siyvaruliT ixseniebs mas. unda iTqvas isic, rom saqarTveloSi arasodes hqonia adgili sarwmunoebriv devnas. saqarTvelos istoria moicavs aTaswleulebs, magram, rogorc didi ivane javaxiSvili wers, - mTeli istoriis manZilze qarTul saxelmwifoSi erTnairi uflebebiT cxovroben qarTvelebica da araqarTvelebic. qarTvel ers arasodes ar dauCagravs sxva eri. gansakuTrebiT ucxo iyo CvenSi sarwmunoebrivi devna. es usaTuod unda iTqvas swored aq, mesxeTis mravalnatanj miwaze, mis wmida salocavSi. macxovarma, ufalma ieso qristem, Tavisi jvarcmiT da aRdgomiT aRadgina codviT dacemuli kacobrioba. macxovarma ixsna yoveli adamianis suli, amitom gviyvars da gvwams Cven Cveni ufali ieso qriste. aqac, saqarTvelos am ulamazes mxareSic, rusTavelisa da aSot kurapalatis, grigol xanZTelis, serapion zarzmelis, arsen safarelisa da sxva Rirs mamaTa samSobloSic gansakuTrebiT uyvardaT igi. mesxebi iyvnen didi kapadokielebi da didi aToneli mamebi: ioane, eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebi - mnaTobebi sruliad saqarTvelosi, Tornike erisTavi, Zmebi bakurianis Zeni. mesxeTi burji iyo qristianobisa. aq hyvaoda ara marto sulieri, aramed materialuri kultura, xelovneba. iqmneboda originaluri nawarmoebebi, magram rogorc ki qristianoba dahkarga, mas Semdeg aq aRaraferi Rirebuli da mniSvnelovani aRar Seqmnila. adamianebi igiveni darCnen, mosaxleoba ar Secvlila, sulieri da materialuri kultura ki Cakvda. ra iyo amis mizezi? mizezi iyo is, rom qarTveli kaci Tavisi Sinagani bunebiT qristiania. misTvis qristianoba mSobliuri garemoa. am garemoSi is Tavisuflad amJRavnebs qarTuli bunebis sidiades. sxva sarwmunoeba misTvis borkili aRmoCnda. mahmadianobis miReba iyo qarTveli adamianis Sinagani arsis Seryeva. dRes zeimis dRea. Tavisi Svili isev daubrunda mSobliur keras qarTul eklesias. Tqveni, rogorc saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis, msoflio eklesiaTa sabWos prezidentis CamobrZanebiT, gaxarebulia ara marto xalxi, mesxeTis auracxeli taZrebis CuqurTmiani qvebic ki mRerian da RaRadeben sixarulisagan. Tqveni CamobrZaneba - es aris niSani imisa, rom mesxeTi dRes ara marto fizikurad, aramed sulieradac ganuyofelia erToblivi saqarTvelosagan. dRes Zveli mesxeTis dideba kvlav brwyinavs. madlieri mesxeTis, Cveni eparqiis yvela morwmunis saxeliT, gmadlobT Tqven, Tqveno uwmidesobav. ,,jvari vazisa~ #2, 1981 w.

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mogzauroba aTonze

1981 wlis 19 seqtembers saberZneTSi iverTa monastris mosalocad gaemgzavra Cveni xuTkaciani jgufi. marSruti aseTi iyo: Tbilisi-moskovisofia-aTeni-Tesaloniki-uranopolisi-iveroni. uranopolisidan aTonis naxevarkunZulisaken gavemgzavreT patara gemiT. aTonis naxevarkunZulze, anu mTawmidaze ganlagebulia ori aTeuli monasteri. maT Sorisaa iveronis monasteric. intensiuri samonastro cxovreba aq dawyebula adreul Sua saukuneebSi da uwyvetad mimdinareobs dRemde. aTonis monastrebSi daculia msoflio mniSvnelobis materialuri da sulieri kulturis Zeglebi, uamravi xelnaweri, miniatura, istoriuli sabuTi, mxatvroba, mdidari samonastro ganZi, istoriul pirTa memorialuri nivTi da wmidanTa nawilebi. aTonis naxevarkunZuli namdvili ganZTsacavia. amitomac aravis uSveben specialuri nebarTvis gareSe. pirvel rigSi saWiroa konstantinepolis patriarqis nebarTva. am nebarTvis safuZvelze saberZneTis Sinagan saqmeTa saministro iZleva aTonis naxevarkunZulze Sesasvlel saSvs. Cven konstantinepolis patriarqis nebarTva TbilisSive miviReT, xolo aTenSi qorepiskopos qrizostomosis Tavaziani daxmarebiT miviReT saSvi. aTonis naxevarkunZulis patara navmisadgom ,,dafnisSi~ dagvxvda iverTa monastris erT-erTi winamZRvari proiRumeni, arqimandriti kalinike. didi, momqancveli gzis gavlis Semdeg maspinZlis Sexvedram Zalze gagvaxara. dafnisidan iveronisaken gavemgzavreT avtobusiT. proiRumenma kalinikem Soridan dagvanaxa iveroni, didebuli iverTa monasteri. ,,mamani Cvenni... moiwines... ganmamravleblad naTesavisa Cvenisa... aRaSenes didebuli ese lavra samkvidreblad qarTvelTa~ - wers giorgi mTawmindeli. saukuneTa manZilze moRvaweobdnen qarTveli berebi iveronSi. maTi Rvawlis Sedegi iyo is, rom ,,Seimko da aRyvavda ena Cveni~, ,,ganaTlda qarTvelT qveyana da ena~. iverTa monastris Sesasvlel mSvenier karibWesTan Segvxvdnen monastris mmarTveli uxucesTa sabWos wevrebi, berebi. mRvdelTmTavarTan Sexvedris tradiciuli wesis Sesabamisad, meufe konstantines moaxures mantia, miarTves samRvdelmTavro kverTxi, amTxvevines saxarebaze da darekes zarebi. monastris ezoSi SegviZRva ori axalgazrda beri. anTebuli grZeli sanTlebiT, maspinZlebTan erTad, sazeimo sagalobliT SevediT iverTa monastris mTavar taZarSi. uceb sxva samyaroSi movxvdiT. esaa yavisfer-oqrosferi usasruloba, romelic iwvevs sasoebisa da mokrZalebis grZnobas. aq srulebiT icvleba adamiani. didebulia taZris interieri - kankeli, WaRebi, didi qorkandeli, gamoqandakebuli Sandlebi, mSvenieri uZvelesi, mooqrovil-perangiani saswaulTmoqmedi xatebi, freskebi, mdidari saeklesio samkaulebi. taZris gumbaTi eyrdnoba 4 mZlavr marmarilos svets. mis centrSi gumbaTis qveS damagrebulia ,,kiklo~ - mrgvali spilenZis rkali, romelzedac weria: ,,me davamyare oTxi boZi da ar Seiryeva ukuniTi ukunisamde - giorgi monazoni, iveri qtitori~. 57

diax, qarTvelebma avageT iveroni. iveroni siamayea aTonis wmida mTisa, saberZneTisa da mTeli marTlmadideblobisa. Cven iverebi varT. amitomac varT aq aseTi yuradRebisa da mzrunvelobis qveS. iveronis mTeli monasteri saqarTvelos istoriisa da qarTveli eris kulturis namdvili muzeumia. gasaocrad cocxldeba aq Cveni eris warsuli, TiTqmis uwyvetad, X s-dan dRemde. monastris yvela Senoba ukavSirdeba romelime qarTvel saeklesio, saxelmwifo an sazogado moRvawes. taZari, romelSic dasvenebulia iveriis saswaulmoqmedi RvTismSoblis xati - ,,portaitisa~, agebulia aSot muxranbatonis mier. igi amave taZarSia gamoxatuli, dasavleTis kedelze. aqve, karibWis SesasvlelTan, eqvTime mTawmindelis cnobil koSkSi, iwereboda qarTuli saxareba. mTavari taZari agebulia giorgi mTawmindelis mier. monasters icavs umSvenieresi, Zalze didi koSki, bizantiuri stilisa, agebuli yvaryvare aTabagis mier. masve auSenebia satrapezo. mesame taZari agebulia yvelaze ufro adre, ioane mTawmindelis mier. qarTvelebis agebulia samrekloc da saerTod, Zveli nagebobebis umravlesoba. monastris garSemo aris XIX da wina saukuneebSi qarTveli berebis mier aSenebuli samlocveloebi da ,,skitebi~. iveronSi gansakuTrebuli mowiwebiT uyvarT am monastris damaarsebelni. yoveli wirva-locvis dros, monastris tipikonis Sesabamisad, Camolocvisas aucileblad dReSi ramdenjerme moixsenieba ioane, eqvTime, gabriel, giorgi mTawmindelebi. maT Sesaxeb erTmaneTsa da stumrebs uyvebian Zvel gadmocemebs. isini arian wmidanebi Rirsi mamebi, romelTac Txoven Svelasa da daxmarebas, meoxebas RvTis winaSe. sixaruliTa da siamayiT uCveneben mlocvelebs maT nivTebs, Tu werilebs. maTi xsovna ara marto iveronSi, aramed mTels aTonis mTaze cocxlobs. aTasi wlis win moRvawe Cveni wmida mamebi gzas gvikvalavdnen saberZneTsa da aTonze. magaliTad, aTonze erTi monastris molocvisas gzaze Semogvxvda beri, romelmac ar icoda Cveni vinaoba. avuxseniT, magram ver gaigo. Semdeg vuTxariT, rom im qveynidan varT, saidanac iyvnen ioane, eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebi. maSinve mixvda, romel qveyanaze iyo laparaki da Cvens mimarT aSkara mowiwebisa da pativiscemis grZnobiT ganimsWvala. iveronis monastris aTasi wlis aRsaniSnavad moWres samaxsovro medali, sakmaod didi diametrisa. masze gamoxatulni arian qarTveli wmida mamebi: - ioane, eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebi. aTonze ocze meti monasteria. SevZeliT mogveloca aTiode monasteri, sadac Cven, iveriel episkoposebs, gasaocari siyvaruliTa da sixaruliT, tipikonis sruli dacviT gvxvdebodnen. zogierT monasterSi gakvirvebasac ki gamoTqvamdnen, ratom ar iyvnen iverTa monasterSi iverieli, qarTveli berebi. mTels aTonze gabneulia qarTuli wignebi da nivTebi. magram sul sxvaa iveroni, esaa qarTuli kulturis centri. uamravi qarTuli erovnuli, istoriuli, saeklesio nivTiT, SenobiT, wigniT. Zalze sagulisxmo iyo CemTvis qarTuli dro. diax, iveroni muSaobs drois sadReRamiso aRricxvis sakuTari sistemiT, romelsac qarTul dros eZaxian. es modis ZvelTaganve. saerTod, aTonis monastrebSi drois 58

aRricxva gansxvavebulia saberZneTisa da mTeli evropis droisagan. aTonis monastrebi muSaoben bizantiuri droiT. maTgan gansxvavebiT mxolod iveroni muSaobs, rogorc aRvniSneT, drois sakuTari aRricxviT - qarTuli droiT. es dro, rogorc gviTxres, miRebuli yofila Zvel saqarTveloSi. yvelaferi mniSvnelovania iveronSi, ubralo wvrilmanic ki, magram mainc SeuZlebelia gansakuTrebiT ar aRiniSnos iveronis sami siamaye iveriis RvTismSoblis saswaulTmoqmedi xati - ,,portaitisa~, biblioTeka - qarTuli xelnaweri wignebiT da muzeumi - qarTuli nivTebiT. sayovelTaod cnobilia, Tu ra didi siyvaruliT sargeblobs yovel marTlmadidebel qristians Soris iveriis RvTismSoblis xati. warmoudgenelia iverTa monasteri am uwmidesi sidiadis gareSe. Cven mowmeni viyaviT imisa, Tu rogor amxnevebs da sulierad aZlierebs ,,portaitisa~ monastris berebs. am xatTan yovel diliT sruldeba paraklisi iveriis RvTismSoblisa. iveriis RvTismSobeli moWedilia. axali moWedilobis qveS Cans Zveli qarTuli moWediloba. xatze Camokidebulia oqrosa da Zvirfasi liTonebis nakeTobani, medalionebi, jvrebi da sxva. es Semowirulobaa. ase yofila Zvel saqarTveloSic. cnobilia, rom xaxulis RvTismSoblis xatsac swiravdnen Cveni mefeebi da mlocvelebi Zvirfas nivTebs. Zneli asaweria is zemoqmedeba, romelsac axdens ,,portaitisa~ mTels iveronsa da aTonze. rogorc vTqviT, igi aris siamaye, siqaduli, Rirseba iveronis monastrisa da ara marto iveronisa, SeiZleba iTqvas, mTeli saberZneTisa da yvela marTlmadidebeli qristianisa. da raoden sasixaruloa CvenTvis, qarTvelebisaTvis, rom es cnobili xati dakavSirebulia qarTveli beris - gabrielis da iveronis qarTveli mamebis saxelTan. iveronis qarTuli biblioTeka SedarebiT kargadaa cnobili saqarTveloSi. am biblioTekis xelnawerebis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb informirebulia Cveni sazogadoebrioba. am xelnawerebis mikrofilmebi Camotanilia saqarTveloSi. CvenSi yvelaze naklebadaa cnobili iveronis muzeumi; piriqiT ki unda iyos; aq imdeni Zveli, Rirebuli, mniSvnelovani qarTuli nivTia. gviCvenes monastris sigelebi, qarTuli minawerebiT. minawerebis umravlesoba isea gamqrali, rom maTi foto, an kinofiqsacia SeuZlebelia. minawerebis amokiTxva iqve, adgilze SeuZlia mxolod specialists. magaliTad, sigel #8-ze aris qarTuli winadadeba; ufro zustad, winadadebis fragmentebi ,,yovlisa (?) mTisagan (?) dawerili romels (?) eris as aravin gardaxdebodes~ aseve aris #N10 da #N11 xelnawerze. es xelnaweri sigelebi berZnulia, minawerebi ki - Zvel qarTuli. muzeumSi gvaCvenes qarTuli dafarnebi qarTuli warwerebiT. erT dafarnas aqvs warwera - episkoposi elise. gviCvenes qarTuli enqerebi, barZim-feSxumebi qarTuli warwerebiT, moWedili saxarebebi aseve qarTuli warwerebiT. aris berZnuli saxareba, agreTve, aRsavlis karebze Camosafarebeli kretsabmeli, romelzec gamoxatulia Tornike erisTavi. aris uamravi qarTuli oqromkediT 59

Sesrulebuli samRvdelo da samRvdelmTavro samoseli, qarTuli umSvenieresi petraxilebi, samajurebi da sxva. qarTuli SesamoseliT yovel aRdgomis dRes aucileblad unda Seimosos mTavar taZarSi mwirveli mRvdelmTavari, - aseTia tradicia. muzeumSi inaxeba qarTuli wmida nawilebi. iveronSi 30-mde beria. yvelaze axalgazrda beri, ioakime, 24 wlisaa, yvelaze moxuci, damianosi - 90-is. igi iveronSi mivida 1910 wels da 71 weli gaatara monasterSi da amJamadac erT-erTi yvelaze sapatio meTauria iveronisa; Zalze gamWriaxi da naTeli gonebisaa. monasterSi eridebian axalgazrda berebis miRebas. msurvelma jer unda gaiaros kursi specialur skolaSi. aseTi skola aris aTonis ,,dedaqalaq~ kariesSi. skolis damTavrebis Semdeg gaanawileben romelime monasterSi, sadac man morCilad unda dahyos mniSvnelovani dro (1 weli mainc). morCilebis vada damokidebulia TviT morCilze, mis qcevaze, berobisaTvis mzadyofnaze. Tu morCili gamoiCens Tavs, mas berad aRkvecaven. beri didi pativiscemiT sargeblobs. is gamorCeuli adamiania. rogorc gviTxres, iveriis monasteris beri evseviosi Teologiis profesoria, beri genadiosi - enaTmecnierebis doqtori, beri gerasime filologi, erTi beri eqimia. saerTod, berebi naTeli gonebis, Zalze ganviTarebuli, erudirebuli adamianebi arian. maT yvela piroba aqvT Seqmnili muSaobisa da SemoqmedebisaTvis. aqvT mSvenieri binebi monastris SenobaSi, miwis sakuTari nakveTebi sacxovrebelTan axlos, sakuTari baRebi. isini cxovroben cal-calke, damoukideblad, magram qmnian erT mTlian SemWidroebul koleqtivs. umTavresad maT aerTianebT wirvalocva, romelsac dRe-RameSi daaxloebiT 8 saaTi eTmoba. danarCen dros srulebiT Tavisuflebi arian. monastrebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavdebian tipikonis mixedviT. tipikoni - esaa monasterSi berebis cxovrebis wesi. cxadia, bers romeli monastris tipikonic moswons, im monastris ZmobaSi Seva. magaliTad, monaster stavronikitaSi ufro mkacri tipikonis berebi arian, monaster simon-petreSi ki piriqiT, naklebi simkacrea. samagierod, aq yuradReba gamaxvilebulia sasuliero xelovnebis Seswavla-ganviTarebaze. aToni sargeblobs avtonomiiT. aTonis administraciul centrSi, kariesSi, anu kareaSi, aris aTonis mTis gubernatoris rezidencia, qalaqis xelisufleba da aTonis wmida mTis monastrebis mmarTveli sabWo kinoti. sabWos wevrebs irCeven didi monastrebidan yovelwliurad. 1982 wels am sabWoSi ufrosi iqneba iveronis warmomadgeneli. oTxSabaTs kareaSi vewvieT wmida kinots, sadac mogviwyves oficialuri, Zalze sazeimo Sexvedra. gadavixadeT saerTo paraklisi ,,dedaqalaqis~ mTavar taZar protatSi. Semdeg migviwvies rezidenciaSi. mmarTvelma mogvmarTa sityviT. didi survili aqvT, ufro mWidro kavSiri hqondeT saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiasTan. xuTSabaTs gavemgzavreT did, anu aTanases lavraSi. gzad moviloceT monaster karakalaSi. monasterSi sul 12 beria, magram maTi samonastro cxovreba da sulieri simaRle samagaliToa. karakalas Semdeg moviloceT monasteri filoTeosi. es monasteri sainteresoa qarTveli kacisaTvis. 60

Segvxvdnen gansakuTrebuli zeimiTa da sixaruliT. rogorc Semdeg SevityveT, es sixaruli gamowveuli yofila imiT, rom Cven viyaviT saqarTvelos eklesiis warmomadgenlebi. qarTvelebs didad umoRvawiaT am monastris aRdgenasa da gamSvenierebaze, misi sulieri ganmtkicebaayvavebisaTvis. paraklisis Semdeg migviwvies sadilze. SevediT mSvenier, did satrapezoSi. swored aq SevityveT qarTvelTa Rvawlis Sesaxeb. satrapezos kedelze gamoxatulni arian kaxeTis mefeebi: levani da misi Ze - aleqsandre. maT xelSi uWiravT modeli monastrisa (ara erTi taZrisa, aramed mTeli samonastro ansamblisa). es imas niSnavs, rom maT mTeli monastris aRdgena-gamSvenebaSic miuZRviT didi Rvawli. monastris Tavdapirveli maSenebeli iyo filoTeosi, romlis saxelsac atarebs monasteri. Cvens kiTxvaze, iyo Tu ara monasterSi qarTuli wignebi, an raime nivTi, gvipasuxes, rom aris erTi qarTuli wigni, romelSic Cawerilia sia im pirebisa, romelTac ixseniebdnen wirva-locvis dros. es wigni ver vnaxeT, radgan monastris iRumeni imJamad ar iyo monasterSi. Cvenc vCqarobdiT. yvela maT sityvaSi igrZnoboda siyvaruli saqarTvelosa da qarTvelebis mimarT. xalisiT gvaCvenes Savi yurZeni, gviTxres qarTuliao. igi gavrcelebulia mTels aTonze. aqve gamoTqves wuxili iveronSi qarTveli berebis aryofnis gamo. ,,filoTeo~ Zalze didi monasteria, - sufTa, mdidari, gamorCeuli. aq aris 70-mde beri. aq Cveni mkvlevari Zalze bevr qarTuls aRmoaCenda da Seiswavlida. aucileblad saWiroa qarTveli mkvlevaris mivlineba. aTanases didi lavra aTonze mTavari lavraa ara sididiT, aramed Tavisi mniSvnelobiT, igi wmida aTanasem, aTonze samonastro cxovrebis damwyebma daaarsa. amitomac am monasters gansakuTrebuli avtoriteti aqvs. rogorc gviTxres, wm. aTanases deda qarTveli yofila, lazi. misgan hqondao aTanases siyvaruli qarTvelebis mimarT. amiT asabuTeben gansakuTrebul mzrunvelobasa da mfarvelobas, romelsac wm. aTanase iCenda wm. ioane mTawmindelis, ,,iveronis~ damaarseblisadmi. wm. aTanasem misca ioanes monastris aSenebis nebarTva. es nebarTva axlac Senaxulia. aTanases lavra ganTqmulia Tavisi biblioTekiTa da muzeumiT. biblioTekaSi ramdenime qarTuli xelnaweri gviCvenes, erTi qarTuli xelnaweris nomeri iyo Z1-37. amas garda, sxva qarTuli xelnawerebic aris. yvela xelnaweris mikrofilmia gadaRebuli. isini inaxeba salonikSi. muzeumSi aris qarTuli nivTebi, Zalze iSviaTni da Zalze sainteresoni. zogierTi gamofenilia vitrinaSi. magaliTad, aq aris XVI saukunis epitraxili qarTuli warwerebiT. rogorc gviTxres, Zalze bevria aq qarTuli nivTebi. maTi umravlesoba Cawyobilia yuTebSi da araa gamofenili. aTanases lavra aTonis naxevarkunZulis boloSia, yvelaze Znelad misasvlel adgilze. amJamad iqamde midis axlad gayvanili moukirwylavi gza. samagierod, iveroni yvelaze karg adgilzea. aq midis yvelaze ukeTesi gza. axloa centrTan. aTonze Camosuli stumari aucileblad unda ewvios iverons. es gamowveulia siaxloviT da iveronis gamorCeuli stumarTmoyvareobiT. iverTa monastris proiRumeni kalinike xumrobda wm. aTanase berZeni iyo, cxadia, Zunwi da ara stumarTmoyvare; amitomac 61

daaarsa Tavisi monasteri xalxisaTvis Zneladmisadgom da Zneladmisagneb adgilze. samagierod, ioane mTawmindeli qarTveli kaci iyo, stumarTmoyvare, amitomac advilad misadgom adgilze daaarsao monasteri. iveronSi nebismieri stumari aucileblad unda miiRon, Rame gaaTevinon da kargad gaumaspinZldnen. aseTia saukunovani tradicia. am tradiciiT es monasteri gansxvavdeba sxva monastrebisagan. es cnobilia sayovelTaod. paraskevs iveronis mTavar taZarSi wirva Sesrulda qarTul enaze. amave dRes Tayvani veciT iverionis wmida nawilebs. wmida nawilebiT, saerTod, mdidaria iveroni. isini aq, mTavari taZris erT-erT oTaxSi, vitrinebSia gamofenili. vitrinebs mTeli oTaxi ukaviaT. aq aris wm. giorgis qveda yba. TiTqmis yvela wmidanis wmida nawili inaxeba aTonze. nebismieri monastris umTavres simdidred wmida nawilebi iTvleba. magaliTad, monasteri ,,qsiropotami~ saxelganTqmulia imiT, rom aq inaxeba cxovelmyofeli jvris (anu im jvris, romelzedac damsWvales ufali ieso qriste) yvelaze didi nawili, xolo monasteri simon-petre amayobs mariam magdalinelis xelis nawiliT. es nawili xandaxan Tbeba. es mariam magdalinelis didi siyvarulis siTbo ariso, gviTxres berebma. Cven gvqonda bedniereba, gveloca sul sxvadasxva wmidanis wmida nawilebTan. monastris molocvisas stumars Tu wmida nawils aCveneben, es niSnavs, rom is miRebulia Zalze sapatio stumrad. aTonelebi Zalze arian dainteresebulebi saqarTveloSi saukuneTa manZilze dacul wmida nawilTa bediT. berebi gvekiTxebodnen maT Sesaxeb. magaliTad, ainteresebdaT, amJamad sad inaxeba RvTismSoblis sartylis naxevari. am sartylisaTvis XIX saukuneSi, zugdidSi auSenebiaT specialuri taZari. sartylis meore naxevari amJamad daculia saberZneTSi da qveynis mTavar siwmided iTvleba. ainteresebdaT, sad inaxeba amJamad wmida saba ganmwmedelis didi nawili, romelic XX s. dasawyisSi safaris monasterSi iyo daculi. gvekiTxebodnen sxvadasxva uamrav nawilTa Sesaxeb. ainteresebdaT bedi im cxovelmyofeli jvris nawilisa, romelic levan kaxTa mefem ierusalimidan Camoasvena alaverdis monasterSi, agreTve, langrisa, romelic saidumlo serobis dros ixmares da Toma mociqulis Tavis qalasTan erTad jer kidev XIX s-Si daculi yofila qvaTaxevis monasterSi, gvekiTxebodnen ferxTa ficrisa da qristes samsWvalTa Sesaxeb, romelic jer kidev adreve gautaniaT saqarTvelodan, magram isev daubrunebiaT qarTvelebs Sua saukuneebis dros da sxva. aTonis sazogadoebrioba Zalze dainteresebulia saqarTveloSi daculi wmida nawilebis bediT. SeiZleba iTqvas, dainteresebulia iseve, rogorc Cveni, qarTveli sazogadoebriobaa dainteresebuli aTonze daculi qarTuli xelnawerebiTa da nivTebiT. Cven SegveZlo erTmaneTs Soris gagvecvala informacia am siwmideTa Sesaxeb. es CvenTvis Zalze sasargeblo iqneboda, radganac aTonze gabneulia uamravi qarTuli nivTi da xelnaweri wigni. SabaTs me vwire ,,portaitisas~ taZarSi. am mcire, aSot muxranbatonis mier agebul taZarSi marTlmadidebel qristianTa saunje - iveriis 62

RvTismSoblis saswaulTmoqmedi xati aris dasvenebuli. aq uwyvetad mimdinareobs wirva-locva da paraklisi. TviT is gasaocari faqti, rom Cven am wmida taZarSi neba dagvrTes qarTuli wirvisa, metyvelebs qarTuli eklesiis axlandeli didi avtoritetis Sesaxeb. es iyo niSani mokrZalebisa da pativiscemisa iverieli qtitorebisadmi. Cven winaswar ramdenjerme gagvafrTxiles, gvewira mxolod da mxolod qarTul enaze. maT miaCndaT, rom qarTuli wirvis Semdeg ioane, eqvTime, giorgi da gabriel mTawmindelebi ufro meti meoxni da mfarvelni iqnebodnen RvTis winaSe iverTa monastrisa, rom qarTul monasterSi, qarTuli wirvis Semdeg, RmerTi ufro met mowyalebas gaiRebda monastrisadmi. vwire marto, radganac sakurTxevelis simciris gamo sxvebis Tanamonawileoba wirvaSi uxerxulobas Seqmnida. me Semmoses XVI saukunis qarTuli SesamoseliT. es CemTvis iyo didi bedniereba da mowyaleba RvTisa. vmadlob ufals, rom Rirsi gamxada qarTulad mewira iverTa RvTismSoblis uwmindesi xatis taZarSi. SabaTs, wirvis Semdeg, moviloceT aTonis monasteri - simon-petre, qsiropotami, panteleimoni, stavronikita. simon-petres monasteri aSenebulia uzarmazar kldeze da Soridan cixe-qalaqs hgavs. dauviwyaria simon-petres berebi. yvela umaRlesi ganaTlebiTaa. amiT es monasteri gamorCeulia. kdemamosileba, siyvaruli da saTnoebaa aRbeWdili maT fermkrTal saxeebze. miuxedavad ganaTlebisa da sulieri simaRlisa, isini yvelani morCilni da Tavmdabalni arian. simon-petredan wasvlisas Cvens gasacileblad monastridan berebi gamoiSalnen. isini Cveni delegaciis wevrma, mama aleqsandre SaTiriSvilma Seadara bartyebs mercxlis budeSi. simonpetre marTlac hgavs kldeze aSenebul mercxlis budes, xolo berebi Savi SesamosliT da sayeloze TeTri zoliT - mercxlebs. aq 50 beria. ,,panteleimonis~ rusTa monasterSi didi sixaruliT Segvxvdnen. vemTxvieT wmida panteleimonis nawilebs. RvTismSoblis safarvelis taZarSi Tayvani veciT ierusalimis RvTismSoblis xats. paraklisis Semdeg migviwvies sadilze. monasteri stavronikita patara, magram cnobili monasteria. is mdebareobs iveronis monastris mezoblad. iveronelebi mis berebs did pativs scemen. kviras iveronis mTavar taZarSi CavatareT Sereuli, qarTul-berZnuli wirva. mwirvelebi viyaviT yvelani. yvela CvenTaganma vigrZeniT, rogor gardamovida Cvenze madli RvTisa - es gamoixata erTmaneTis mimarT mometebuli siyvarulisa da pativiscemis SegrZnebiT. wirvis Semdeg migviwvia iveronis uxucesTa sabWom. gamoiTqva survili Cvens Soris urTierTobis kidev ufro gaRrmavebisa. aqve daadgines, sapasuxo vizitiT gamoegzavnaT iveronis sami beri saqarTveloSi. marTlac, saqarTveloSi Cveni dabrunebis Semdeg, Cvens samociqulo eklesias ewvia sami meTauri proiRumeni maqsime, proiRumeni kalinike da saqmeTa mmarTveli anTimozi. kvira saRamos gamosaTxovari qarTuli paraklisi gavmarTeT iveronis RvTismSoblis xatTan. Cven veTxovebodiT deda-RvTisas - mfarvels da meoxs qarTveli erisas, veTxovebodiT iveronsa da aTons. am dros Zneli 63

iyo cremlis damalva. Cven cremliT, tiriliT vTxovdiT deda-RvTisas Semweobasa da mfarvelobas misdami wilxvedri iverTa miwisa da erisa. orSabaTs proiRumenma kalinikem navsadgur dafnimde migvacila. TesalonikSi oficialuri miReba gvqonda Tesalonikis mitropolit panteleimonTan. man mogvmarTa sityviT, romelSic gagvacno Tesalonikis eklesiis axlandeli mdgomareoba. is meTauria Tesalonikis universitetisa. man gamoTqva am universitetSi 2 qarTveli studentis miRebis survili. saqarTvelos eklesiidan warmogzavnil or axalgazrdas universitetSi Cvenive xarjebiT da stipendiiT mivaRebinebT ganaTlebaso. manve gagvacno gegma, romlis mixedviT gadawyvetili aqvs Seqmnas marTlmadideblobis Semswavleli Teologiuri centri TesalonikSi, yvela eklesiidan warmomadgenlebis monawileobiT. man gamoTqva survili, saqarTvelos eklesiamac wargzavnos mudmivi warmomadgeneli am centrSio. sapasuxo sityvaSi vusurveT ayvaveba Tesalonikisa da saberZneTis eklesias. mitropolitma panteleimonma dagvajildova wmida simonis medlebiT. TesalonikSi viloceT samitropolito da dimitri Tesalonikelis uZveles, didebul taZarSi. aTenSi davyaviT ramdenime dRe. vcxovrobdiT aTenis axlos, pendelis monasterSi, Cveni keTili maspinZeli iyo am monastris winamZRvari, eladis eklesiis meTauri qorepiskoposi qrizostomosi. is adre iyo sinas mTis monastrebis iRumeni - meTauri. mas xeli miuwvdeba sinas mTis qarTul xelnawerebze. ramdenime dRe gvqonda aTenis dasaTvaliereblad, misi Semogarenis, monastrebisa da eklesiebis mosalocad. aTenSi 1000 moqmedi eklesiaa. eklesiebi didebuladaa movlili. Cvenze gansakuTrebuli STabeWdileba datova qalTa monasterma - daupendelma. es monasteri meaTe saukunemde dauarsebiaT taodan Camosul qarTvel berebs - aseTia adgilobrivi gadmocema. monastris mTavari taZris erTi nawili marTlac hgavs qarTul taZars - jvris tipisas. aseTivea aTonze, tyeSi Cakarguli erTi taZari - esaa ormeoc mowameTa eklesia - aseve msgavsi jvris tipisa. Zalze kargad aris mowyobili samonastro cxovreba qalTa monaster daupendelSi. aqauri monozvnebi xataven xatebs, qargaven, gamohyavT mcenareTa da yvavilTa nergebi, hyavT msxvilfexa da wvrilfexa saqonlis farebi, keTilad awyoben eklesiasa da sacxovrebel binebs. gasaocaria maTi locva-morCileba. aq dainteresdnen qalTa qarTuli monastrebis cxovrebiT. maT SemogvTavazes CvenTvis Zalze saintereso azri: gamocdilebis gasaziareblad miiwvion saqarTvelodan 2-3 monozoni. es monoznebi icxovreben dau-pendelSi, mcire xniT. aTenSi saqarTvelos eklesiis warmomadgenlebi oficialuri vizitiT vewvieT saberZneTis eklesiis meTaurs - aTenisa da sruliad eladis mTavarepiskopos serafimes. ,,jvari vazisa~ #N2, 1981 w.

64

qarTlis cxovrebis furclebi


mesxeTis warsulidan
daaxloebiT 1270 wels cnobili saxelmwifo moRvawe sargis jayeli berad aRikveca. samefoSi erT-erTi pirveli kaci, erTdroulad aTabagi, meWurWleTuxucesi da spasalari, mflobeli vrceli qveynisa ,,tasiskaridan karnu-qalaqamde~ monasterSi sabas saxeliT Sevida. man erisTavis wiTeli, oqrosarSiebiani Sesamosi Tavis vaJs, mandaturTuxuces beqas, gadasca. es axali xelisufali RvTismoyvare iyo ,,maSenebeli qveyanaTa, eklesiaTa, monasterTa~, didad afasebda Tavis mamas - saba sargisyofils, da gadawyvita mis pativsacemad wmida sabas saxelze safaraSi aeSenebina didebuli eklesia. beqa mandaturTuxucess safaris monastris wmida sabas mSvenieri eklesia mouxatvinebia kidec; TviTonac Sigaa daxatuli mamasTan, saba aTabagTan erTad. sabas beris Sesamosi acvia, beqas ki wiTeli, mTavrisa. safaris monastris mnaxveli verasodes ifiqrebs, rom es brwyinvale mravalCuqurTmiani taZari monRolobis drosaa aSenebuli. igi migvaniSnebs, rom WirTa Siganac ar Semdrkala qarTveli kacis suli. mravali warwera Semounaxavs safaras. igi gvacnobs rom xuroTmoZRvarTa farezisZeebs ,,saZirkveliTve yovliTa feriT~ auSenebiaT da sruluqmniaT taZari. qvebze sxva SemomwirvelTa da mSenebelTa saxelebicaa aRbeWdili - gabacaZisa, RavasaSvilisa, svimon berisa... xalxs ki isini aRar axsovs, daviwynia. didi dro gavida XIII saukunis Semdeg. dRes Tu ikiTxavT safaris axlomaxlo soflebSi safaris maSeneblis saxels, ver gipasuxeben, ar ician; arc beqa da sargisi axsovT... magram SeiZleba giambon ambavi safaris maSenebeli xarisa. saxelic axsovT im xaris, romelic qvebs taZris asaSeneblad ezideboda. induSa xari erqva Turme. mis Tavdadebas da amags axlac, 700 wlis Semdeg, siyvaruliT da mowiwebiT, gulidan amosuli siTboTi hyvebian. legenda aseTia (mTqmeli andriawmideli Tamar inasariZe): ,,sofel andriawmidas safarasTan axlos aqvs yanebi. am yanebis boloSi aris erTi vake adgili, sadac unda aSenebuliyo safaris monasteri. daiwyes Seneba; erT dRes imuSaves, saRamos datoves samuSao xelsawyoebi da wavidnen saxlSi. meore dRes ki xelsawyoebi adgilze ar daxvdaT. ase ganmeorda ramdenjerme. dainteresdnen, dauwyes Zebna da bolos ipoves. xalxi ambobs, es iaraRebi waiRes angelozebma im adgilas, sadac dRes aris safara. angelozebis arCeul axal adgilze dauwyiaT safaris mSenebloba. samSeneblo qvas ezidebodnen andriawmidis axlo mTidan - elias gverdidan. iyo erTi xari... arc meurme, arc aravin ar mihyveboda, daudebdnen tvirTs da waiRebda. mraval wels imuSava, erTxelac daiRala da daeca. gzaze mokvda. roca xari arc safaraSi da arc eliasgverdze ar mivida, orive adgilidan wavidnen mis mosaZebnad da naxes, rom mkvdaria, qva ki marxilze devs. es qva dResac gdia gzaze da mas ,,induSas qvas~ eZaxian. am xars induSa erqva~. 65

aseTia legenda. mTqmelma am ambavs moaba cnobili leqsi imis Sesaxeb, Tu adamianis Senaxva rogor ,,ido Tavzed~ xarma. amiT gaxarebulma angelozebma kacis marCenal xars rqebze sanTlebi daunTes. xari imitom uyvarT, rom kacis erTgulia, kacis marCenalia. andriawmida patara sofelia, oTxmocamde komli cxovrobs, magram aq ramdenime eklesia da mravali wmida adgilia. bevri naeklesiaria andriawmidis irgvliv nasoflarebSi. aris wmida andriasa da wmida Tevdores eklesia (dResaswauloben didmarxvis I kviris SabaTs), soflis axlos, eliasmTis wverze wmida ilias naeklesiaria (dResaswauloben 2 agvistos), sofelTan axloa safara (morwmune andriawmidelebi aq 28 agvistos ,,mariamobas~ dResaswauloben, 18 dekembers ki sabaobas), aqvea nasoflarebi ,,ulva~ da ,,oxumi~ (aq amaRlebas dResaswauloben), nasoflari ,,borjmebi~ maxlobladaa. hyvebian legendas, TiTqosda, ulvelebi da oxumelebi baTumSi gadasaxldnen da ase daaarses es qalaqi, xolo borjmelebma - borjomi. mraval saintereso legendas moismenT aq. magaliTad, rogor gaaqvava wmida Tevdorem TaTrebi. sainteresoa ,,namdvili ambavi~ wmida ilias Sesaxeb, romelsac Turme hyveboda aw gardacvlili erTi andriawmideli. ,,Tivas vTibavdi, xorblis damwifebas erTi kviraRa aklda. amasobaSi eliasmxridan (eliasmxare hqvia maRal mTas) wamovida Savi Rrubeli, Semdeg wamovida setyva. Cven buCqebs SevefareT, erTma Cvenma amxanagma kacma moixada qudi, gaixada fexze da urbenda Tavis yanas garSemo da exveweboda elias - ,,wmida elia, nu damitoveb colSvils mSiers, amdeni Svilebi rogor gamokvebo~, Cven ki buCqebSi vijeqiT da vicinodiT. setyvam rom gadaiRo, vnaxeT, rom am kacis yanaSi erTi marcvali ar iyo Cavardnili, Cveni ki gaoxrebuliyo. axla am kacma icina Cvenze~. andriawmideli morwmuneebi did pativs scemen wmida andria mociquls, romlis saxelic hqvia maT sofels. isini wmida andrias eklesiaSi dResaswaul - ,,andriaobas~ litoniobiTa da Ramis TeviT atareben, mraval saswauls hyvebian, romelnic wmida andrias miewereba. es ar mogveCveneba gasaocrad, Tu gavixsenebT, rom wmida andria mociquli marTlac iyo am mxareebSi, mesxeTSi da, albaT, am sofelSic. qarTuli qristianoba aqedan dawyebula, am mxareebidan, pirveli qristianebi aWarlebi da mesxebi yofilan. Cveni uflisa da macxovris, ieso qristes Sobis wels saqarTvelos samefo taxtze asula mefe aderki. man, mematianis cnobiT, ,,daipyra yoveli qveyana: qarTli da egrisi, xolo pirvelsave welsa mefobisa misisasa iSva ufali Cveni ieso qriste beTlems uriastanisa~. Zveli istorikosi SemTxveviT ar ukavSirebs erTmaneTs macxovris Sobas da aderkis mefobas. aderkis dros saqarTvelodan ierusalimSi Cavidnen da jvarcmas daeswrnen mcxeTelebi; iqve SeiZines uflis kvarTi da Camoasvenes saqarTveloSi. aderkis mefobaSive saqarTveloSi Semovidnen wmida mociqulebi. aderkis drosve moxda qristianobis pirveli devna saqarTveloSi. wmida mociquli andria pirvelwodebuli mesxeTSi didaWaridan gadmosula, sadac mas RvTismSoblis saxelze eklesia daufuZnebia. saqarTveloSi pirveli eklesia aWaraSi dafuZnebula, pirveli mRvdlebi 66

da diakvnebic aqve ukurTxebia wmida andrias - ,,daadgina mRvdelni da diakonni, da daudva wesi da sazRvari sarwmunoebisa~. aWarisa da mesxeTis sasazRvro mTaze wmida andrias aRumarTavs didi rkinis jvari. Cauvlia oZrxes (abasTumnis) xevi da misula samcxis sofel zaden-goraSi, sadac kerpebs swiravdnen msxverpls. aqedan is misula awyurSi, romelsac adre sosanigeTi ewodeboda. andrias saqarTveloSi pirveli saepiskoposo awyurSi dauarsebia, iqve ukurTxebia pirveli episkoposi. awyuris saepiskoposoSi I saukuneSi erTi episkoposi da ramdenime mRvdel-diakoni yofila. am saepiskoposos mrevlisaTvis wmida andrias uswavlebia - ,,...yoveli wesi sjulisa da sarwmunoebisa da daudginna episkoposi, mRvdelni da diakonni...~ aq masTan erTad yofilan sxva mociqulebic: simon kananeli da mataTa. awyurSi maT daasvenes RvTismSoblis xelTuqmneli xati. andria pirvelwodebulma mouTxro awyurTan axlos ,,saqrisis velze~ Semokrebil qarTvelobas, Tu ratom mieniWa maT qveyanas aseTi madli. uflis amaRlebis Semdego - uambobs igi qarTvelobas - Cven, mociqulebma wili vigdeT, Tu vis romel qveyanaSi gveqadaga,~... maSin yovladwmidasa RvTismSobelsa wilad xvda moqcevad qveyana saqarTveloisa da CvenebiT eCvena mas Ze misi, ufali Cveni, da rqua: hoi, dedao Cemo, ara ugulebel vyo eri igi sazepuro ufros yovelTa naTesavTa, meoxebiTa SeniTa maTTvis, xolo Sen waravline pirvelwodebuli andria nawilsa mas Senda xvedrebulsa, da Tanawaratane xati Seni viTarca pirsa Sensa dadebiTa gamoisaxos da Sen wil xati igi Seni mkvidrobdes mcvelad maTda ukunisamde JamTa~. wmida andriam Semokrebil qarTvelebs gadasca xati da uTxra - ,,xati ese TviT yovlad wmidisa RvTismSoblisa pirsa zeda dadebiT gamosaxuli ars~. da miuTxra yovelive... viTar-igi yovlad wmidasa RvTismSobelsa wil-xvda qveyana ese... da mis mier warmogzavnil ars xati igi sasod da mcvelad wilxdomilTaTvis~. aWaris, taos, klarjeTis, samcxis garda wmida mociqulebma: andriam, svimon kananelma da mataTam imoRvawes dasavleT saqarTveloSic samegrelosa, svaneTsa da afxazeTSi. iqve aResrulnen kidec mataTa da svimon kananeli. ori mociqulia dakrZaluli saqarTveloSi, svimon kananelis gansasvenebeli sayovelTaod cnobilia, mociquli mataTa ki dakrZaluli yofila zRvispireTSi baTumidan samxreTiT 10-15 kilometrze, punqtSi, romelsac ,,afsari~ ewodeboda. samxreT da dasavleT saqarTveloSi mosaxleobis gaqristianeba SeumCneveli ar darCenia warmarT mefe aderkis. man maSinve mkacri zomebi miiRo qristianTa winaaRmdeg, mosaxleoba kvlav ,,miqceula~ warmarTobisaken - ,,xolo viTarca esma mefesa aderkis megrelTagan sjulisa dateveba, ganuwyra da waravlina erisTavni misni da iZulebiT kualadve miaqcevina megrelni. da damalnes xatni da jvarni da Serisxna mefe aderki erisTavsa klarjeTisasa, romelmac mSvidobiT ganuteva andria mociquli~. mefe aderkis andria mociqulis mokvla sdomnia, xolo mosaxleobas ara mTlianad ganugdia qristianoba, aramed ,,daumalavT~ qristianobis niSnebi - xatebi da jvrebi. 67

gavida dro. qristianoba qarTuli saxelmwifos mier akrZalul sarwmunoebad iqca, magram mosaxleobaSi qristianTa ricxvi Turme izrdeboda, amaze miuTiTeben laTinuri wyaroebi. zogierTi am wyaros Tanaxmad, qristianobas CvenSi avrcelebdnen romis imperiidan kolxeTsa da bosforSi gadmosaxlebuli qristianebi. kerZod, saqarTveloSi qristianobis gamavrceleblad am wyaroebs miaCniaT romis papi klimentiosi, da Savi zRvispireTSi imperator haleniusis dros (253-268) gadmosaxlebuli qristianebi. qarTvelTa gaqristianebis epoqad II-III saukuneebi miaCniaT laTinur wyaroebs. amas TiTqosda, exmianeba ioane sabanisZis ,,abo tfilelis wameba~, sadac VIII saukunis avtori amayad acxadebs, qarTvelebi ukve 500 wlis qristianebi varTo. miuxedavad imisa, rom dasavleTi saqarTvelo qarTuli qristianobis upirvelesi keraTagania, mesxeTi mainc gansakuTrebuli madliT aris aRbeWdili. Tu wmida ninos Semosvlamde qristianoba qarTvelTa erTerTi religiaTagani iyo warmarTobasTan erTad, wmida ninom qristianoba Cvens erTaderT erovnul sarwmunoebad aqcia. mesxeTis miwa iyo pirveli maspinZeli Cveni mociqulTa-swori Rirsi dedisa, wmida ninosi. gza, romelic wmida ninom gaiara javaxeTidan mcxeTamde, cnobiswadils aRuZravs Cvens morwmuneebs. wmida nino pirvelad javaxeTSi Semovida, faravnis tbasTan. mematiane gadmogvcems - ,,mesxeTis bunebis simkacrem ise SeakrTo nazi qalwuli, sicocxle aRar undoda~ - da warmovida muniT wmida nino... da Tvesa meoTxesa, romel ars ivnisi, warmoemarTa da moiwia mTaTa javaxeTisaTa, sadac igi miemTxvia tbasa didsa gadamdinaresa, romelsac hqvia faravna, xolo mixeda ra muniT da ixilna mTani Crdilosani; rameTu dReTa maT zafxulisaTa iyvnen savseni TovliTa da haeriTa sastikiTa da SeZrwunda wmida nino da Tqva. ,,ufalo, ufalo, miiRo suli Cemi Cemgan~. faravnis tbasTan wmida ninom ori dRe dahyo, gaesaubra mcxeTel mwyemsebs, romlebic Tayvans scemdnen armazs da zadens. misi saboloo mizani iyo misuliyo mcxeTaSi, sadac cxovrobda qarTvelTa mefe da igi qristes rjulze moeqcia. es davaleba wmida ninom TviT uflisagan miiRo. amitom kiTxulobs, sad mdebareobs mcxeTa da rogor mivides iq. matianis Tanaxmad, wmida nino gahyva faravnis tbidan gamaval mdinares. miaRwia qalaq urbniss, aqedan ki mcxeTaSi Cavida. mematiane aRwers wmida ninos gzas - ,,da Semdgomad amisa waremarTa mdinaresa mas tbisasa, da iyo dineba misi dasavleT - kerZo da miudga gzaTa... vidreRa miiRwia adgilsa mas, sad wyalman aRmosavliT iwyo dineba... miiwia qalaqsa mas, romelsa ewodebis urbnisi~. matianis Tanaxmad, wmida nino faravnisa da mtkvris xeobas gahyolia urbnisamde. amJamadac javaxeTidan samcxemde da Semdgom xaSuramde dRevandeli gza am xeobebs gasdevs. es erTaderTi sagzao adgilia, sxvagan gzis gayvana mouxerxebelia. Sua saukuneebis saqaravno gzac am xeobebze gadadioda. xeoba Zalzed viwroa da tyiTaa dafaruli. wmida ninomac, Turme... naxa Wirni didni gziTagan da SiSi didi mxecTagan, vidreRa miiwia adgilsa mas, sada wyalman aRmosavliT iwyo dineba~. 68

axalcixe-awyurTan mtkvari gaivakebs da Crdilo-aRmosavleTiT miedineba. aqedan wmida nino urbnisSi Casula, Semdeg mcxeTaSi. wmida ninos gza qarTuli eklesiis siwmidea, simon kananelisa da mataTa mociqulis saflavebTan da andria mociqulis mier gavlil gzasTan erTad. faravnis tbasTan wmida ninom ,,...daidva lodi sasTumal, dawva da daiZina gardasadinelsa mas tbisasa. da viTar eZina, movida kaci erTi CvenebiTa... da mosca man wigni dabeWduli wmidasa ninos da rqua: ,,miarTu ese mcxeTas mefesa mas warmarTTasa~. xolo wmidaman nino iwyo tirilad da vedrebad misa: ,,ufalo me dedakaci var ucxo da umecari...~, wignSi, romelic wmida ninom miiRo mefisaTvis gadasacemad, sxvaTa Soris, esec ewera - ,,arc mamakaceba ars, arc dedakaceba, aramed Tqven yovelni erT xarT~. - es qristianobis mier mocemuli srulebiT axali ideaa, ucnobi warmarTuli msofliosaTvis. idea qalisa da mamakacis Tanasworobisa, romelic wmida ninom Semoitana, qristianobis sxva mcnebebTan erTad aitaca qarTulma azrovnebam, gaiTavisa, ganaviTara da did SoTas aTqmevina - ,,lekvi lomisa sworia, Zu iyos, Tunda xvadia~. qalebma Zalze didi saqme itvirTes qarTveli erisa da eklesiis istoriaSi. maT Soris, Cveni mematiane gamokveTilad gadmogvcems ori dedoflis ambavs, romelTagan erTma sikvdilis SiSiTac ar uaryo wmida ninos rjuli, meorem ki uaryo, riTac ara marto Tavisi suli daiRupa, aramed mTeli Tavisi kuTxe - mesxeTi. XVI saukunis Semdeg, dapyrobil qarTl-kaxeTsa da mesxeTSi, zogjer, iZulebis gamo, gavleniani ojaxis meTauri mamakaci ,,TaTrdeboda~ mahmadiandeboda, magram ojaxis deda - qali mtkice qristiani iyo; rogorc wesi, Svilebi qristianebi iyvnen, amitom qveyanac qristianuli rCeboda. magaliTad, qarTlis mahmadiani ,,mefe~ rostomis meuRle mariami burjad edga qristianobas. ase iyo sxva ojaxebSic. mesxeTis aTabagebi iZulebulni gaxdnen mahmadianoba mieRoT, risTvisac faSoba eboZaT. maTi ojaxebi ki qristianuli iyo, vidre faSamde. faSas meuRlis ,,gaTaTreba~ TviT osmaleTis xonTqarma moiTxova. saqarTvelos ori dedofali: kaxeTisa - qeTevani da mesxeTis dedofali - dedisimedi erT epoqaSi cxovrobdnen. Tu odesme gamoCndeba mwerali, romelic dawers am ori qalis paralelur biografias, mkiTxveli dedisimedis fonze naTlad dainaxavs wmida qeTevanis udides Rvawls. erTma Tavisi uxasiaTobiTa da unebisyofobiT xeli Seuwyo mesxeTis ,,gaTaTrebasa~ da gadagvarebas, meorem ki piriqiT, Tavisi magaliTiT kaxeTi da qarTli SeamWidrova da ganamtkica. ucnaurad moiqca dedofali dedisimedi... roca mas sarwmunoebis dagmoba da ,,gaTaTreba~ aiZules, gadmocemis Tanaxmad, ganacxada: me rom gavTaTrde, mesxeTis yvela qal-rZalis dasacini gavxdebi. jer yvela gaaTaTreT da mere mec gavTaTrdebio. marTlac, erTi xelis dakvriT, rogorc mematiane gadmogvcems, mesxeTis zeda fena gaaTaTres; amis Semdeg ki dedisimedic mahmadis rjulze miiqca ,,...gamohgzavna kaci xonTqarman da dapatiJes sjuli mahmadisa colsa rostom faSisa, xolo mas esma, SeZrwunda friad da zari daeca da ganigula sikvdili Tavisa Tvisisa da 69

ara dateveba sjulisa... hyvandaT Sepyrobili da suls iqiT Rone aRara hqonda. da ra misWirda qalsa mas, maSin uTxra: ,,ukeTu yovelsave saaTabagoSi Sina myofsa qalsa da kacsa yvelakas gaaTaTreb, meca gavTaTrdebio, da ukeTu ara, Tavs moviklavo da ara viqo. maSin daaTaTres yovelive da igica gaTaTrda: da yovelTave mun myofTa dauteves sjuli qristianobisa da iqmnes mohamedian~. marTalia, mesxeTis gamahmadianebas sxva, ufro seriozulma mizezebmac Seuwyves xeli; kerZod, miwaze sakuTrebis wesis Secvlam, umiwo glexobas ki qristianobis SenarCunebisaTvis gamxneveba da gverdSi amodgoma esaWiroeboda, aseTi kaci ki ar Canda ...qarTveli feodalebi an gamoiqcnen an gamahmadiandnen. amgvarad, osmalur saaTabagoSi qarTvel glexs batoni gamoecala. am droidan daiwyo samxreT saqarTvelos ,,gaTaTreba~ ... me-16 saukunis miwurulSi dawyebuli es procesi me-19 saukunis dasawyisSic ar yofila dasrulebuli. osmalobis damyareba samcxe-saaTabagoSi feodaluri saqarTvelos udidesi marcxi iyo... gadagvarebis gzas daadga erTi yvelaze ufro dawinaurebuli da kulturul-SemoqmedebiTi unariT dajildoebuli nawili; samSoblo eqvTime da giorgi mTawmindelebisa, beqa opizarisa da SoTa rusTavelisa. qeTevanma ki ar uaryo qristianoba, aramed Tavi Tvisi msxverplad Seswira qristes sjulsa da Tavis mravaltanjul qveyanas. mematiane gadmogvcems - ,,gaubes xel-fexi da gaaSiSvles wmida qeTevan dedofali da gaxurebuli gazebiT daglijes ZuZuebi da gaxurebuli sajebi naglej xorcze Semoawyves da daglijes. gaaxures lursmnebi da dauyares qveS da zed gaatares. daawvines da SiSvels Semoayares lursmnebi gaxurebuli, kvalad gaxurebuli Samfurebi gaavles mucelsa da ZuZumkerdSi. gaxurebuli qvabi daarqves Tavze, kvalad gaxurebul qvabSi Casves da Tavsac daxures, Semouwyves gaxurebuli barebi Sublze da ixeTqa Tavisa kefa...~ wmida qeTevanis sikvdili iyo gacnobierebuli sikvdili. man winaswar icoda, Tavisi rwmenis dacvisaTvis ra saSineli tanjviT moklavdnen. patimrobaSi didi dro hqonda fiqrisa da arCevanisaTvis da tanjviT sikvdili arCia Tavisi mrwamsis, meobis uaryofas. orive dedoflis magaliTi gadamdebi iyo. maT eri Sehyurebda. dedisimeds naklebad hqonia qristianuli morali, kerZod, Tavis dadeba da sikvdili moyvasis sicocxlisa da gadarCenisaTvis, rac am sityvebiTaa gadmocemuli wmida saxarebaSi - ,,...umjobesia mokvdes erTi adamiani xalxisaTvis, vidre mTeli eri daiRupos~ (ioane. 11,50), xolo rusTavelma ase gamoxata: ,,me igi var... vis sikvdili moyvrisaTvis TamaSad da miCans mRerad~. TviT ufalma ieso qristem mogvca pirveli magaliTi xalxisaTvis Tavdadebisa, man Tavisi nebiT ineba jvarcma da sikvdili kacobriobis gadarCenisa da saukuno sicocxlisaTvis. ieso magaliTi iyo wmida qeTevanisaTvisac. ,,gaTaTreba~ xalxis gadagvarebas da sxva xalxebSi gaqrobas niSnavda. am dros Zalze uWirda mesxeTs. vinc mahmadianobas ar miiRebda, ara marto sagangebo ,,urwmunoTa~ gadasaxadi unda exada sxva gadasaxadebTan erTad, aramed ganecada sastiki devnac. mTel qristianul 70

soflebs Jletdnen. amis Sesaxeb sofel musxSi hyvebian legendas, romelsac ,,axdila~ hqvia. ,,axdila Turme im sofels erqva, romelsac dRes musxi hqvia. adre sofeli musxi gzidan moSorebiT mTaze mdebareobda. maSin mxolod mTebSi, miuval xriokebSi SeeZlo marTlmadidebelTa sofels arseboba. ,,axdilaSi~ sul ramdenime aTeuli wlis win Casaxlebulan musxelebi. isini soflis saxelis warmoSobas ase xsnian: mezobel mahmadianebs gauwyvetiaT am soflis yvela mcxovrebi qristiani. SemTxveviT gadarCenila axalgazrda qal-vaJi. maT soflis miwisqveSa eklesiaSi jvari dauweriaT da saxlSi gvian dabrunebulan. cecxli daunTiaT. diliT mahmadianebs daunaxavT, rom erTi buxridan kvamli adioda; gaocebulan, uTqvamT, am sofelSi yvela davxoceT da kidev darCenilano. Sesulan saxlSi da axaljvardawerili col-qmari mouklavT. amis gamo Tqves Turme ,,ax, dila, dilao~. sofelsac ,,axdila~ daarqves.~ - aseTia legenda. mesxeTis tragedia imaSic mdgomareobda, rom Zveli xalxi erTmaneTisagan ver arCevda erovnebasa da sarwmunoebas. sarwmunoebaSecvlili, gamahmadianebuli qarTvelebi sul sxva xalxad Tvlidnen Tavs da mtrobdnen TavianT yofil naTesavebs TavianT sisxlsa da xorcs - qristianebs. is mahmadianebi, romlebsac ,,axdilas~ qristianebi daxoces, qarTvelebi iyvnen, magram maT ar icodnen amis Sesaxeb. gamahmadianebis Semdeg mesxeTis eTnikuri saxe ar Secvlila, mosaxleoba kvlav qarTuli darCa, magram Seicvala eTnofsiqologia. didi ivane javaxiSvili dainteresda, Tu ra iyo mizezi mesxeTis gamahmadianebisa, xolo saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeTa mier qristianobis SenarCunebisa. gamoikvlia da daaskvna, rom ,,mesxeTis gamahmadianebas, saqarTvelosagan CamoSorebas da misi udidesi nawilis gaTurqebas ueWvelia, sxvaTa Soris, aTabagTa mier misi saqarTvelos eklesiisagan CamosaSoreblad warmoebulma daundobelma brZolam da, rasakvirvelia, TviT gamoyofam Seuwyo xeli~. saqarTvelos sam samefod da xuT samTavrod dayofis Semdeg, mesxeTis aTabagebi sjidnen da asaxelebdnen im episkoposebsa da samRvdeloebas, romelnic erTiani saqarTvelosa da mcxeTis sapatriarqosadmi daqvemdebarebisaTvis iRvwodnen. iv. javaxiSvili wers - ,,...kaTalikos-patriarqiRa iyo saqarTvelosa da qarTveli eris mTlianobis gamomxatveli. deda eklesiisagan CamoSoreba maSin im sulier sarwmunoebriv kavSirsa wyvetda, romelic mxolod aerTebda danarCen saqarTvelosTan ama Tu im politikurad ukve gankerZoebul nawils... kaTalikosebi sruliad, ganuyofeli saqarTvelos SenarCunebisaTvis ibrZodnen~. daSlili da daqucmacebuli saqarTvelos pirobebSi eklesiis mTlianobis dacvas ufro meti politikur-erovnuli mniSvneloba mieniWa. aTabagebma icodnen es, icodnen, rom isini ver SesZlebdnen saqarTvelosagan mesxeTis gamoyofas, Tu eklesiurad ar CamoSordebodnen mas; amitomac ar moeridnen patriarqTa da mis momxre episkoposTa ciliswamebas. aman ,,...xalxis TvalSi eklesiasa da qristianobas avtoriteti Seususta, meore mxriT, mesxeTis samRvdeloebas, dedaeklesias mowyvetilsa da ganmartoebuls, 71

mahmadianobis gavrcelebis winaaRmdeg brZolisunarianoba daukarga; xolo iq, sadac qristianobam mahmadianobas dauTmo asparezi, qarTvelobis erovnuli gadagvareba da gaTurqebac daiwyo~. ai, Turme, ra yofila mizezi mesxeTis gadagvarebisa - Sinauri SuRli. XV saukunis Semdeg marTlmadideblobas mesxeTSi bedi ar swyalobda. Tu dapyrobamde ciliswamebiT iyo saxelgatexili, dapyrobis Semdeg TurqeTis saxelmwifom aq saerTod akrZala marTlmadidebeli qristianoba. TurqeTSi TiTqmis yvela sarwmunoeba-religias iTmendnen marTlmadideblobis garda. gansakuTrebiT afrTxobdaT marTlmadidebloba saqarTveloSi, radganac is miaCndaT marTlmadidebluri ruseTis erTmorwmuned. marTalia, konstantinepolis aRebis Semdeg Turqebs marTlmadidebelTa berZnuli sapatriarqo ar gauuqmebiaT, magram srulebiT daimorCiles is, gamosces gankarguleba, romlis ZaliTac TurqeTis saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebi yvela marTlmadidebeli unda daqvemdebareboda berZnebis am sapatriarqos. mesxeTSi mcxovrebi marTlmadideblebi amis Semdeg konstantinepolis patriarqs unda daqvemdebarebodnen. rogorc S. lomsaZe wers, Turqebma konstantinepolSi somxuri sapatriarqoc daaarses da marTlmadidebelTa patriarqs daalocvines, riTac msoflios daanaxves, TiTqosda isini qristianebs ar devnidnen. grigorianul sarwmunoebas TurqeTi da sparseTi pativiscemiT ekidebodnen, radganac neitralur sarwmunoebad miaCndaT is arc marTlmadidebluri iyo, arc kaTolikuri. marTlmadideblur da kaTolikur saxelmwifoebs ki TurqeTi ganuwyvetliv eomeboda XVI-XIX saukuneebSi. TurqeTSi ase gadaiWra erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi sakiTxi - qristiani, romelic eqvemdebareboda konstantinepolis berZnul sapatriarqos - iTvleboda ,,berZnad~; qristiani, romelic eqvemdebareboda grigorianul sapatriarqoebs iTvleboda ,,somxad~, qristiani, romelic emorCileboda romis paps iTvleboda ,,frangad~. kaTolikobas qarTvelTa Soris fexi monRolebis dros moukidnia. m. TamaraSvils Tavis cnobil wignSi mohyavs amonaweri a. xaxanaSvilis werilidan, sadac, kerZod, aRniSnulia - ,,XIII saukunidan iwyeba qarTveli kaTolikebis eklesiis dafuZneba...~ am dros maTi ricxvi Zalze mcire iyo, mdgomareoba Seicvala XVI saukunis Semdeg, roca aq marTlmadidebelTa devna daiwyo. gaTaTrebisagan gadarCenis mizniT, marTlmadideblebi iRebdnen kaTolikobas. aseTi mdgomareoba iyo ara marto mesxeTSi, aramed aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi mTlianad, gansakuTrebiT XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi. am dros, spars-osmalTa mier dapyrobil qarTl-kaxeTsa da mesxeTSi devnili marTlmadideblebi masobrivad iRebdnen grigorianobas an kaTolikobas. m. TamaraSvils mohyavs sityva cnobili qarTveli diplomatisa nikoloz irbaxisa, romelic man 1634 wels sasamarTloze warmoTqva: ,,yoveldRiv Cvenis TvaliT vxedavT, rom mravalni qarTvelni somxdebian da ufro mometebuli maTgani mahmadis sarwmunoebas Rebulobs, maS visac ki unda gafrangeba, raRad unda daeSalos?~, aqve cnobil mecniers moyvanili aqvs misioner ambrozis moxseneba, gagzavnili romSi 1640 wels, sadac misioneri sTavazobs roms, kaTolikebma SeiZinon 72

saqarTveloSi mamulebi, soflebi da ymebi. man icis, rom am soflebsa da mamulebSi mcxovrebi mosaxleoba am gziT gakaTolikdeba; radganaco, wers is, aq mdidarma grigorianebma da iudevelebma SeiZines mamulebi da soflebi, romelTa mcxovreblebmac TavianTi batonebis xelqveiT myofebma, miiRes da aRiares grigorianoba, anda iudevelobao. qarTvelebio, - wers is ,,...raki maTi xelqveiTi gaxdebian, bevri maTgani gadadis somxis weszed, amazed uaresic vnaxeT, zogierTma saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma mdidarma uriebma gaauriaves ramdenime TavianTi yma da mosamsaxure~. es procesi qarTl-kaxeTSi ar gaRrmavebula, radganac ase Tu ise, damoukidebloba SeinarCuna da aq saqarTvelos sapatriarqos siZlieregavlena ar Seryeula; mesxeTSi ki TurqeTis batonobis xanaSi qarTveloba daiSala. mesxebi an gamahmadiandnen, an gagrigoriandnen, an gakaTolikdnen, xolo is mcirericxovani marTlmadideblebi, romlebic qarTlis sazRvarTan moSorebiT cxovrobdnen, berZnebad ganixilebodnen. S. lomsaZe wers, rom antioqieli patriarqis, makaris mtkicebiT, saqarTvelos samxreTi sazRvari mis dros (XVII s.) iyo mdinare evfrati. amas mowmobs Turqi istorikosi Celebi da konstantine porfirogeneti. XVIII s. Sua wlebSi timoTe gabaSvilma giumiSxaneSi (saidanac XIX saukuneSi berZnebi Camosaxldnen saqarTveloSi), daadastura ara marto qarTuli eklesiis arseboba, aramed mosaxleobaSi SerCenili xsovnac, rom adre igi saqarTvelod iTvleboda. aseve lazeTis didi qveyana marTlmadidebluri iyo. TurqeTis saxelmwifosaTvis yvela marTlmadidebeli, ra erovnebisac ar unda yofiliyo is, ,,berZeni~ iyo. ase iqcnen marTlmadidebeli lazebi da mesxebi - ,,berZnebad~, mxolod saqarTvelos (qarTlis) sazRvarTan axlos, axalcixesa da mis SemogarenSi - samcxesa da javaxeTSi mcxovreb marTlmadideblebs uwodebdnen - qarTvelebs, mesxeTis samxreTi nawilis marTlmadideblebs ,,berZnebi~ uwodes. amis Semdeg mesxeTSi mahmadiani qarTvelebi iwodebodnen ,,TaTrebad~, kaTolike qarTvelebi - ,,frangebad~, grigoriani qarTvelebi - ,,somxebad~, marTlmadideblebi qarTvelebis erTi nawili - ,,berZnebad~, meore nawili ki - ,,qarTvelebad~. TurqeTis batonobis drosac sarwmunoebrivi aRmsareblobis Sesabamisad daSlil qarTvelebs - sabednierod gaaCndaT erTi saerTo ram, rac maT aerTianebda da agonebda namdvil vinaobas - es iyo dedaena. yvela maTgans saojaxo, saSinao, mSobliur enad hqonda qarTuli ena. yvelas axsovda saqarTvelo da qarTveloba. maT Soris xandaxan ibadebodnen xolme WeSmariti qarTveli patriotebi. XVIII saukunis bolos iseTi suraTi ixateboda, rom TiTqos mTeli mesxeTis mosaxleoba qarTvelobisaken ixreboda, ise Canda, TiTqos gadagvareba niRabi iyo, Tu Sesabamisi momenti dadgeboda, yvelaferi kvlav Zveleburad aRsdgeboda. XIX saukunem viTareba Secvala. am dros sxvadasxva mizezebis gamo gaZlierda musulmanuri (da saerTod, sarwmunoebrivi) fanatizmi. fanatikosebma qarTuli ena qristianobis enad gamoacxades da SeiZules is. d. baqraZe da sxva mogzaurebi aRniSnavdnen, rom mSoblebma da bebiababuebma kargad icodnen qarTuli ena, Svilebma ki aRar, an Zalze cudad. 73

mesxeTis es magaliTi gviCvenebs, rom xalxis mier mSobliuri enis daviwyeba, Turme, SesaZlebeli yofila 20-30 wlis ganmavlobaSi, im SemTxvevaSi, Tu am enas misi momxmarebeli arafrad Caagdebs, an SeiZulebs. simtkicesa da qarTuli enis siyvarulis didi magaliTi gviCvenes qarTvelma kaTolikebma. WeSmaritad devnili qarTuli ena maT Seifares da TavianTi mtkice, Seuryeveli, utexi xasiaTis wyalobiT wmidad moaqvT dRemde. sofeli ude mesxeTis Seuryeveli sofelia. is sxva, sul ramdenime sofelTan erTad, qristianobis SenarCunebis gamo, TavisTavad aris Zegli sulieri siZlierisa, moTminebisa da gamZleobisa. am soflebSi mravlad arian morwmuneni, gansakuTrebiT moxucebulni, romelnic, mtkiced da udidesi siyvaruliT inaxaven mravalWirgamovlil sarwmunoebas, mesxeTis dRevandeli qristianoba miagavs didi taZris nangrevebSi aqa-iq mimofantul umSvenieres CuqurTmian qvebs, romelnic, Tavis mxriv, dasrulebuli Sedevrebi arian, magram isini mainc nawilni arian mTelisa, romlis aRdgena ocnebas Tu SeuZlia. aqaur TiToorola moxucs, aRvsilT RvTis madliT, eklesiurobiTa da sulierobiT, srulyofilad SemounaxavT araTu qristianuli sarwmunoeba, aramed sruli saeklesio tipikoni. zepirad ician uamravi galoba, locva, saeklesio wesi. isini warmoadgenen cocxal eklesias, ara axlad Seqmnils, aramed ZvelqarTuls, Semonaxuls dRemde. erTi aseTi moxucia udeli elene parunaSvili-merabiSvilisa, mtkice, utexi qristiani, mravalWirnaxuli, kargad axsovs Turqebis bolo Tavdasxma mesxeTSi, maSin xuTi wlis viyavio, hyveba (dabadebulia 1913 w.), maxsovs zamTarSi, RamiT, mTeli sofeli aviyareT da axalcixeSi gaWirvebiT CavediT ltolvilebi. dedaCemma xelSi qaTami momca Tbilia, xelebi aRar gageyinebao. kargad icis Zveli galobebi, locvebi, Tqmulebebi, gadmocemebi. misgan 1985 wels Caviwere anbanTqeba, rogorc TviTon uwodebs ,,RvTismSoblis locva~. es aris gamWvirvale leqsi, aRvsili poeziiT. anbanTqeba Zalze popularuli iyo saqarTveloSi XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi. Cans, locvebic ki anbanze iyo gawyobili. mTqmeli anbanis asoebs uwodebda ara an, ban da a. S., aramed ano, bano, gano... (wodebiTi formiT). misTvis ase uswavlebiaT ,,tantraze~ - anbanis saswavlo dafaze, romelic sakuTrad hqonia yovel moswavles. mas es locva kargad aRar axsovs, zogierT adgils ki ramdenjerme imeorebs. es mesxuri anbanTqeba aseTia -

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,,locva - avsilxar, yovlad wmidao, RvTismSoblisa ano - avsilxar, yovlad wmidao, yovlisa madliT uflisa, bano - baxCa xar, aRyvavebuli, sadgomad sulis wmidisa, gano - gabrielis xarebiTa mogvevlina Zali xvTisa, dono - deda xar ieso qristesi, qali zecier mamisa. eno - emanuil SengniT iSva, mizezad Cveni daxsnisa, vino - vardi xar metad lamazi, mosawonari uflisa, zeno - zixar mudam Sens ZesTana, meoxev codvilebisa, Tano - Tvali Seni Cvenzed iyos, SiSi ar gvqondes mterisa. ino - igi ZuZu dailocos, rom awove qristes pirsa, kano - kurTxeuli xar mariam, deda xar mowyalebisa, laso - lampari xar anTebuli, gamnaTebeli bnelisa, mano - mariam, mimadlebulo, sityva gaqvs angelozisa. naro - netareli xar mariam, xilva gvaRirse zecisa, ono - orni gzani migvaCnia, gviwinamZRvrebs samoTxesa, paro - pilwsa eSmaksa nu migvcem, Segvaxvewe macxovarsa, Jano - Jami igi dailocos, rom awove qristes pirsa. rae - ra Rirs varT, rom Cven Sen gaqoT, Tu Sen ar mogvcem enasa, sano - sanTeli xar anTebuli, gamnaTebeli bnelisa, taro - titveli var me codvili, kaba Camacvi naTlisa, uno - uSenod ar SemiZlia xilva wmida samebisa. faro - farfoTliani vardi xar, suni gaqvs ukvdavebisa, qano - qveynis mcvelad gaCenilo, samyaro Cveni zecisa, Rano - Rrubeli xar uwvimari, wvima gaqvs Svidmaisisa, yaro - yovlis feradad Semkulo, taZaro solomonisa, Sino - SiSveli var me codvili, kaba Camacvi naTlisa, Cino - CvenTvis Sens Zes Segvaxvewe, nu gvkiTxavs Cven codvilebsa, cano - cam - qveyanam ganixara, ieso qriste Sobila, Zino - Ze RvTisa qveynad mobrZanda... wilo - wyalobis kari gagviRe, Rirsi gagvxade zecisa Waro - ... xano - ... jano - ... hae - ... hoi - hoi, ra tkbili deda xar, xilva gvaRirse zecisa, amin~...

aseTia es anbanTqeba. SeiZleba es locva anbanis dasamaxsovreblad, moswavleebisaTvis iyo gankuTvnili. 72 wlis moxuc mTqmels is unaklod aRar axsovda. sainteresoa, aseve misgan Cawerili Zalze kargi melodiis mqone galobis ,,mariam Sena xar~ zogierTi strofi - ,,mariam Sen xar xvTis tkbili deda, Cven gaqebT guliT, dideba Senda, glocavT, glocavT, glocavT mariam (2-jer), iveri usmens am Cvens galobas...~ da a.S. am galobaSi wm. nino ixsenieba. 75

dRes mesxeTis qristianebs emsaxureba axalcixis wmida marines eklesiis samRvdeloeba. axalcixis im ubans, sadac es eklesiaa, rabaTi hqvia. rabaTSi imyofeboda jer aTabagebis, mere faSebis rezidencia. amJamad mesxeTSi wmida marines eklesiaa erTaderTi memkvidre taoklarjeTis ubrwyinvalesi qristianuli kulturisa, aTasobiT da aTiaTasobiT wmida mamisa, romelnic erisa da sulis ukvdavebisaTvis iRvwodnen. wmida marines eklesia 1980 wels gaixsna Cveni didi meufis, saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarq ilia II-is locva-kurTxeviTa da xelisuflebis daxmarebiT. roca Cveni eklesia gaixsna, axalcixis raionSi ukve moqmedebda iudevelTa sinagoga, grigorianTa da somexkaTolikeTa eklesiebi. taZris Senoba Zveli ar aris, rogorc misi Zunwi warwera gvamcnobs, Seneba 1869 wels dauwyiaT da 1893 wels daumTavrebiaT. XX saukunis damdegs gamocemuli erTi wignidan Cans, am dros taZarSi qarTulenovani wirva-locvis gauqmeba da berZnulis daweseba sdomebiaT, rasac axalcixis qarTvelTa sazogadoeba aRuSfoTebia. egzarqosis Camosvlis Semdgom, mdgomareoba gamosworebula. taZari misi cxonebuli Tavmjdomaris, parmen jafariZis gadmocemiT, 1923 wlamde moqmedebda; magram misi faqtiuri axali cxovreba 1982 wlidan daiwyo - SekeTebis Semdeg. 1982-83 wlebSi mTlianad SevcvaleT saxuravi, Seilesa, damontaJda eleqtroba, gaTboba. Cven vlocavT da saSviliSvilod vakurTxebT yvela im morwmunes, vinc eweoda am saqmes. amJamad, Tumca mravali saqmea gasakeTebeli, magram saerTo mdgomareoba damakmayofilebelia. XIX saukuneSi axali eklesia Zvelis adgilze auSenebiaT. aqve asiod metrSi faSebis mTavari meCeTia, ramdenad mosaTmeni iyo maTTvis, meCeTTan axlos, marTlmadidebelTa eklesiis arseboba? Cans, verc iTmendnen. amaze naTlad miuTiTebs adamianis Zvlebis gasaocari simravle, romelic keTilmowyobis dros aRmoCnda ezos yovel kuTxeSi. marTalia, saerTod, eklesiebis ezoebi droTa ganmavlobaSi sasaflaoebad iqceodnen xolme, magram wm. marines ezoSi erTmaneTze uwesrigod dayrili Zvlebis uzomo raodenoba gvafiqrebinebs, rom aq im qristian marTlmadidebelTa saZmo saflavi iyo, romelTac masobrivad xocavdnen. daxocilebs albaT, TavianT eklesiaSi erTad moasvenebdnen urmebiT an sxva saSualebiT da erTad asaflavebdnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom Zvlebi TiTqmis miwis zedapirzea, baris erT pirze. XIX saukunis mSeneblebs Zveli warweriani qvebi samSeneblo masalad gamouyenebiaT saZirkvlis zemoT. sainteresoa masSi Cayolebuli erTi saflavis qvis epitafia, romelic SairiT yofila dawerili - (samuSaoTa dros am warweris meore naxevari gamoCnda, naxevari kedelSia moqceuli) - ,,TavadTa Soris mec viyav abaSiZobiT Tqmulio, xuT wels vicxovre nikoloz osmalSid dakargulio...~, axalcixe maSin osmaleTis teritoriaze iyo, Cans Tavadi nikoloz abaSiZe saqarTvelodan gaqceula da osmaleTSi ,,dakargula~, sadac xuTi weli ucxovria. aq warweriani qvebis arcTu didi raodenobaa. yoveli saRmrTo liturgiis dros Cven vlocavT da vakurTxebT mesxeTis miwas, SevTxovT ufal RmerTs aq qarTveli eris gamravlebas, 76

rom mesxeTi kvlav iqces qarTuli kulturis brwyinvale kerad, rom misi naTeli drom ver gaanelos. ,,jvari vazisa~, #N2, 1986

77

pirveli wirva udes taZarSi


saqarTvelos erT-erT uZveles da udides sofel udeSi amoqmedda eklesia. ssr kavSiris ministrTa sabWosTan arsebulma religiebis saqmeTa sabWom ama wlis 14 (27) maisis dadgenilebiT registraciaSi aiyvana am soflis morwmuneTa sazogadoeba. 7 (20) ivniss sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikos-patriarqis locvakurTxeviT, eklesiis kurTxevisaTvis udeSi abrZanda axalcixisa da samcxe-javaxeTis eparqiis mmarTveli episkoposi anania (jafariZe). eklesiis ezoSi episkoposis molodinSi Sekrebiliyvnen soflelebi da mesxeTis sxva kuTxeebidan Camosuli morwmuneebi. maT ormocdaaTi wlis uqmobis Semdeg eklesiis gaxsniT gamowveuli sixarulis damalva ar SeeZloT. daireka eklesiis zari da episkoposi anania axladdaniSnul dekanoz stefane nadiraZis TanxlebiT taZarSi SebrZanda. daiwyo taZris kurTxeva, ris Semdgomac morwmune mrevlTan erTad samRvdeloebam samgzis Semouara eklesias. episkoposi aiazmas asxurebda taZarsa da xalxs, ismoda galoba. kurTxevis dasrulebisa da Camolocvis Semdeg taZris ambionidan man sityviT mimarTa morwmuneebs.

episkopos ananias qadageba udes eklesiaSi


saxeliTa mamisaTa, da ZisaTa, da wmidisa sulisaTa. patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno, morwmuneno, qristesmier sayvarelo Svilebo! dRes didi sixarulisa da bednierebis dRea. aTeuli wlebis uqmobis Semdgom RmerTma ineba gaxsna da kurTxeva udes didebuli yovladwmida RvTismSoblis eklesiisa. dRevandeli dRe saxelovania, dRevandeli dRe istoriulia. Cven axla, am wuTebSi safuZveli davudeT qarTuli eklesiisa da qarTveli mrevlis erTianobas mesxeTSi. inebos RmerTma, rom Tqvenma STamomavlobam siamayiT moigonos es dRe udes eklesiisa. taZari, romelic Cven dRes vakurTxeT, erT-erTi mSvenieria saqarTveloSi, iseve cnobilia rom Tqven, udelebi, qristes mcnebaTa mtkice da erTguli damcveli qristianebi iyaviT warsulSi. mravali tanjvisa da garemomxduri mtris moZalebis miuxedavad, wmidad moitaneT dRemde Tqveni sarwmunoeba, dedaena, mSobeli qveynisadmi mamuliSviluri siyvaruli: amitomacaa, rom RmerTma ar daiviwya Cveni mxare, moxeda wyalobiT da ineba gaxsna Tqveni eklesiisa. Cvens wmida wignSi - ,,qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ naTqvamia, rom wina droebaSic RmerTi mowyalebiT moxedavda xolme qarTvelobas da deda RvTismSobeli ki Tavis kalTas afarebda. swored ase ganacxada, am mxareSi, mesxeTSi Semosulma Cveni uflisa da macxovris ieso qristes upirvelesma mowafem - mociqulma andria pirvelwodebulma. Tqvens winaprebs, qarTvelTa Soris pirvel qristianebs, Tavis garSemo Semokrebil mesxebs andria mociqulma amcno, rom iveria RvTismSoblis wilxvedri qveyanaa, xolo iverielebs yuradRebas arasdros moaklebda ufali RmerTi. 78

swored andria pirvelwodebulma daudo safuZveli qarTul eklesias. Cveni eklesia daarsebulia wmida andrias mier. es aris samociqulo eklesia. meoTxe saukuneSi ki aq, mesxeTSi Semovida TviTonve mesxi kapadokieli qali, mociqulTaswori wmida nino. man gaiara samcxe, Cavida mcxeTaSi, qristes sarwmunoebaze moaqcia iveriis mefe-dedofali miriani da nana, ris gamoc erTianad moinaTla mTeli qarTveli eri. gaizarda wmida andrias mier daarsebuli qarTuli eklesiis mrevli. wmida ninom icoda, rom qarTuli samociqulo eklesiis centri unda yofiliyo mcxeTaSi, saqarTvelos maSindel dedaqalaqSi, sadac Senaxuli iyo da cxadia dResacaa kvarTi uflisa. misi nebiT dadgenili iqna sruliad saqarTvelos mTavarepiskoposi, romelsac SemdgomSi kaTolikos-patriarqis tituli mieniWa. ,,kaTolos~, romlisaganac warmomdgara sityvebi ,,kaTolikosi~ da ,,kaTolike~ - berZnulia da qarTulad niSnavs - ,,sayovelTaos~. ,,kaTolikos-patriarqi~ igivea qarTul enaze, rac - sayovelTao mamaTmTavari. mesxeTis qristianebi, Tqveni winaprebi, ise rogorc sxva kuTxeTa qarTvelebi, mudam, mxoloddamxolod mcxeTas eqvemdebarebodnen. mcxeTis sakaTolikoso sapatriarqos mrevli iyvnen Tqveni winaprebi saukuneTa manZilze. I-X saukuneebSi msoflio eklesia iyo erTiani, mTliani da dauyofeli. am mTlian eklesias maSin ewodeboda sayovelTao anu ,,kaTolike~ eklesia. mociqulTa mrwamsSi, romelic yoveli morwmunis kredoa, naTqvamia - ,,mrwams erTi wmida kaTolike da samociqulo eklesia~. ras niSnavs es? es imas niSnavs, rom yovel qristians swams, rom mTel msoflioSi arsebobs erTiani anu sayovelTao samociqulo eklesia... Cven es kargad unda vicodeT, Cveni mrwamsis Tanaxmad Cven gvwams ara ramdenime, ara sxvadasxva eklesia, aramed erTi sayovelTao msoflio eklesia. msoflioSi arsebobs erTi eklesia, radganac erTi iyo ieso qriste - damaarsebeli da meTauri msoflio, anu sayovelTao, kaTolike eklesiisa. es mrwamsi, romelsac dRes aRiarebs qarTuli eklesia, saqarTveloSi iqadages da gaavrceles TviT mociqulebma. sxvadasxva qarTul da ucxour wyaroTa Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi qadagebda ara marto andria, aramed sxva mociqulebic, kerZod, svimon kananeli, mataTa, barTlome, Tadeozi da Toma. Cveni uflisa da macxovris 12 mociqulidan eqvsi mociquli saqarTveloSi qadagebda. es imiTac iyo gamowveuli, rom mociqulTa dros iberia iyo romis imperiis metoqe Zlieri saxelmwifo, romlis xelSic iyo parTiasa, skviTiasa da nawilobriv pontoSi Semavali savaWro gzebi. ori mociquli ki mataTa da svimon kananeli saqarTveloSi arian dakrZalulni. mociquli mataTa aq, CvenTan, dasavleT saqarTveloSi, baTumTan axlos ganisvenebs. rogorc mociqulebma qarTvel xalxs misces mrwamsi, romelsac axlac ubiwod da umwikvlod icavs qarTuli eklesia. qarTuli samociqulo eklesia ara marto mrwamsis im nawils icavs mtkiced, romelSic naTqvamia: ,,mrwams erTi wmida kaTolike da samociqulo eklesia~, aramed mTlian mrwamssa da sarwmunoebis saerTo sispetakes. didma giorgi mTawmindelma, romelic Cveni mxridan, javaxeTidan iyo, Rirseulad ganucxada bizantiis imperators - ,,es aris 79

sarwmunoeba Cveni naTesavisa - raJams RmerTi erTgzis gvicnobies, ar mivdrekilvarT arc marcxniv da arc marjvniv da arc mivdrkebiT, Tu RmerTs undeso~, arsen iyalToeli werda: ,,yoveli eri Cveni mtkiced da Seuryevlad sdgas marTal sarwmunoebaze~... amasve ambobdnen sxva mamebic. amis Tqmis uflebas qarTvel samRvdeloebas aZlevda is, rom maSin, roca msoflio eklesia XI saukuneSi orad gaiyo, bizantiisa da dasavleTis eklesiebad, am eklesiaTa meTaurebis SuRlisa da erTmaneTisadmi qiSpobis gamo, qarTuli eklesia mociqulTa swavlebis erTguli darCa. msoflio eklesiis orad ganyofis im qariSxlian dros giorgi mTawmindelma gamoikvlia qarTuli eklesiis, agreTve dasavleTis, bizantiisa da monofizitTa eklesiebis sarwmunoebrivi mimarTulebani da daaskvna, rom mTel msoflioSi erTaderTi qarTuli eklesia iyo WeSmaritad erTguli mociqulTa swavlisa. marTlac, dasavleTis eklesia ganviTarebis Tavisi gziT wavida, bizantiis eklesiaSi Tavidanve mravali wvaleba da eresi iyo danergili, xolo monofizitTa Secdomebi Tavidanve iyo dagmobili msoflio mamaTa mier. qarTuli samociqulo eklesia saukuneTa manZilze ar Secvlila, is iseve wmida da ubiwoa, rogorc iyo mociqulTa dros. swored amaSi gamoixata Cvenze moniWebuli madli ieso qristesi da deda RvTismSoblis mfarvelobisa. mesxeTi yovelTvis qarTuli qristianobis burji iyo, mesxeTs msoflio qristianobis winaSec miuZRvis Rvawli. am dalocvilma kuTxem msoflio eklesias aRuzarda iseTi didi wmidanebi da mamebi, rogorebic iyvnen: wmida giorgi, wmida nino, basili didi da misi Zma didi grigoli. aseve mravali sxva wmidani. isini kabadokiidan iyvnen. kabadokia ki qarTul koloniad iTvleboda. maT mianiWes simtkice mesxeTisa da mTeli saqarTvelos qristianobas. aq tao-klarjeTis ,,qarTvelTa samefos~ daarsebis Semdeg moRvaweobdnen wmida mama grigol xanZTeli da misi mowafeni, mesxeTidan Casuli berebi avsebdnen aTonis iverTa da petriwonis monastrebs. hyvaoda aq qarTuli qristianoba... xolo mesxeTSi arsebuli ToTxmetive saepiskoposo mTeli Tavisi mrevliT sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqis samwysoSi Sedioda. osmalTa mier mesxeTis dapyrobam XVI saukunis Semdeg bolo mouRo qarTul qristianobas am kuTxeSi. Turqi dampyroblebi pirvel rigSi ebrZodnen da anadgurebdnen qarTvel samRvdeloebas. samasi wlis manZilze angrevdnen (XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi) qarTul kulturasa da saeklesio cxovrebas. mteri moiTxovda qarTvel samRvdeloebas gaewyvita kavSiri saqarTvelos sakaTolikososTan. Turqebi devnidnen ara marto yvela qristians, aramed imas, vinc mcxeTis sakaTolikoSi Sedioda. magaliTad, mesxeTis 14 saepiskoposodan 1764 wlisaTvis darCenili iyo mxolod erTaderTi, romlis episkoposi giorgi CamoSorda saqarTvelos eklesias da daukavSirda dasavleTis qristianobas. misi sastiki devna maSinve Sewyvites. mesxebs neba miecaT mieRoT nebismieri sarwmunoeba, oRond aucileblad unda uareyoT qarTuli. maT kavSiri unda gaewyvitaT saqarTvelos eklesiasTan. marTlac mesxebis Zalze didma nawilma 80

iZulebiT miiRo mahmadianoba. osmalebma neba misces ucxoeTis samRvdeloebas Semosuliyo mesxeTSi. ase gaCndnen monofizitebi da kaTolikeni. Zvel dros, samwuxarod, xalxi erTmaneTisagan ver arCevda erovnebasa da sarwmunoebas, amitomac im qarTvelebs, romelTac mahmadianoba miiRes - ,,TaTrebi~ uwodes, im qarTvelebs, romelTac monofizitoba miiRes - ,,somxebi~, xolo imaT, romelnic evropul qristianul centrs daukavSirdnen - ,,frangebi~. im dros mTel evropas osmaleTSi ,,safrangeTs~ uwodebdnen. Turqebis Semosevamde mesxeTSi ar cxovrobda qarTvelebis garda arc erTi sxva xalxi. isini arc Semdgom Camosaxlebulan mesxeTSi, magram, rogorc aRvniSneT, ,,TaTrebi~ mahmadian qarTvelebs uwodes; is qarTvelebi ki, romelTac mahmadianoba ar miiRes, magram arc qarTuli eklesiis wevrad darCena SeeZloT, qristianobis SenarCunebisaTvis iZulebulni gaxdnen evropeli misionerebis mrevlad qceuliyvnen. aRniSnuli mdgomareobis ukeT danaxvis mizniT me minda mogawodoT amonaweri SoTa lomsaZis wignidan ,,samcxe-javaxeTi~ (gv. 502). ,,qarTvel kaTolikebSi, imis gamo, rom vatikanSi kongregaciis mier qarTuli ena ar iyo damtkicebuli RvTismsaxurebisaTvis moqmed enad, gabatonda laTinuri da somxuri... qarTuli kaTolikuri eklesiebidan gamoidevna laTinuri ena da qarTveli kaTolikeni SerCnen somxur enas. xSir SemTxvevaSi, qarTvel kaTolikeTa mrevls somex kaTolikeTa warmomadgenlebi Tu gasomxebuli qarTvelebi winamZRvrobdnen. aseTi viTareba qarTvel kaTolikeTa srul dabnevas iwvevda, radganac metyvelebdnen qarTulad, aiZulebdnen elocaT somxurad, adidebdnen romis paps da cxovrobdnen Turquli politikis qveS. somxur-kaTolikuri eklesia xelmZRvanelobda maT jvriswera-monaTvlas. monaTvlisas arqmevdnen somexi kaTolike episkoposis mier rekomendebul saxelebs da, ase TandaTan, icvleboda maTi namdvili vinaoba. xSirad axal saxels axali gvaris xelovnurad Seqmna da gadakeTebac mosdevda. Sovinisti kaTolike moZRvarni yvelafers akeTebdnen imisaTvis, rom qarTvel kaTolikebs daeviwyebinaT mSobliuri ena, gvari, warmomavloba da bolos, radganac kongregacias maT saeklesio enad somxuri ena hqonda damtkicebuli, somxebad gamoecxadebinaT. samwuxarod, rogorc zemoT vnaxeT, sofel vales magaliTze, mesxeTis sinamdvileSi es nawilobriv kidec gakeTda. amas TiTqmis aRaraferi eSveleboda, rom es saqme TviT mesxeTis qarTvel kaTolikebs ar gadaeWraT. isini: ioane xucesi, petre xarisWiraSvili, ivane gvaramaZe, mixeil TamaraSvili da sxvani gmiruli SemarTebiT aRudgnen yalbismqmnelebs da mecnieruli sabuTianobiT yvelaferi saaSkaraoze gamoitanes. diax, saukuneTa manZilze aqauri qarTveli qristianebi valdebulni iyvnen wirva-locvisas, jvris-werisa da naTlobisas exmaraT somxuri ena, qarTuli ena akrZaluli, uxmari da gamouyenebeli iyo. aman gamoiwvia am mxaris eTnikuri saxis Secvla. Turqi moxeleebisa da maTi agentebis mier sastikad idevneboda ara marto qarTuli, aramed yvela piric, vinc gabedavda da qarTuli enis gamoyenebas moiTxovda. qarTuli enis dacvisaTvis XVIII saukuneSi mesxeTidan gandevnili ioane xucesi, iZulebuli gaxda imereTisaTvis Seefarebina Tavi; aseve, 81

qarTuli enis dacvisaTvis mesxeTidan gaaZeves petre xarisWiraSvili da ucxoeTSi gadaxvewes. risi gakeTebis nebac mas Tavis samSobloSi ar misces, ucxoeTSi SeZlo - qarTuli monasteri daaarsa stambolSi. mama miqael TamaraSvili, saqarTvelodan gaZevebuli, Caujda romis arqivebs da daamtkica, rom mesxeTis kaTolikeni erovnebiT qarTvelebi arian. ,,irekdev da gangeRoT Tqven, eZiebdeT da hpoveT~ - nabrZanebia wmida saxarebaSi, TandaTan sruldeba am kuTxis saukunovani ocneba, iRviZebs qarTuli wirva-locva mesxeTSi. aRsrulda didi mamis, petre xarisWiraSvilis ocneba - udis RvTismSoblis eklesiaSi dReidan wirva-locvis ena iqneba ara sxvaTa ena, aramed - qarTuli. Tqven xarT bednieri, radgan Tqvenive mowadinebiTa da mondomebiT SesZeliT is, risTvisac Tqveni winaprebi saukuneTa manZilze iRvwodnen. gixaroden, qarTulad monaTlavT Tqvens bavSvebs. gixaroden, am wmida taZarSi amieridan mkvidrdeba qarTuli ena, qarTuli galoba. SevTxov ufals, ukuniTi ukunisamdi iyos Tqveni sixaruli. aRsrulda is, risTvisac mTeli sicocxlis manZilze ibrZodnen am kuTxis saxelovani Svilebi. xelisufleba mzrunvelobiTa da yuradRebiT moekida Cvens mravalgzis saTxovars; Tqveni sarwmunoebrivi moTxovnilebani dakmayofilebulia. didi ilia WavWavaZe imdroindeli qarTvelobis Sesaxeb werda: daviSaleniT, gaviTiSeniT davcalcalkevdiT imerlebad, mesxebad, qarTlelebad, megrelebad, kaxelebad... mxolod Cveni kuTxeni gvaxsovs. erTiani eri ki gadagvaviwydao. aseT dayofas sarwmunoebrivi sisustec iwvevs, radganac eSmaki Zlieria mcire sarwmunoebis mqone adamianTan. RmerTi SeaerTebs, eSmaki ki ganyofs. RmerTis nebaa gaerTianeba mesxeTis qristianebisa mTel qarTvel qristianebTan, eSmakis survilia ganacalkeos mesxeTis qristianebi saqarTvelosagan, magram sustdeba igi. erTiania Cveni eri, erTiania Cveni eklesia. wmida andrias mier daarsebuli qarTuli samociqulo eklesia saqarTvelos yvela kuTxis qristianebs emsaxureba da mwyemsavs I saukunidan dRemde. TandaTan aRsdgeba erTianoba qarTuli eklesiisa, amitomac dRevandeli sixarulis - am eklesiis kurTxevis didebul dRes, me vlocav mesxeTsa da mTel saqarTvelos, glocavT Tqven, Tqvens ojaxebs, SevTxov ufal RmerTs Tqvens gamravlebas. sixaruli, siZliere da mSvidoba moganiWoT ufalma, mraval sixaruls daeswariT, amin. ,,jvari vazisa~, #N2, 1987

82

pirveli wirva safaraSi


1988 wlis 28 agvistos yovladwmida RvTismSoblis miZinebis dRes safaris monastris wmida sabas taZarSi swira axalcixisa da samcxejavaxeTis episkoposma ananiam (jafariZe). es iyo pirveli liturgia 20iani wlebis Semdeg. ziarebisas episkoposma qadagebiT mimarTa morwmuneebs.

episkopos ananias qadageba


patiosanno da didebulo qarTvelno, marad aRavsebs madli yovladwmida deda RvTismSoblisa Cvens morwmune ers. yovladwmidis mfarvelobiT dRes safaris wmida taZarSi pirvelad, ociani wlebis Semdeg, kvlav Seiwira wmida wirva TiTqmis samoc wlisTavze. Cvenma ufalma da macxovarma ieso qristem Tavis dedas - yovladwmida RvTismSobels ganucxada (Tanaxmad ,,qarTlis cxovrebisa~), rom arasodes moaklebda Tavis mfarvelobasa da wyalobas ,,sazepuro~ qarTvel ers, da marTlac, qristianoba kvlav Cveni erovnuli niSan-Tvisebaa, Cveni morwmune xalxi kvlav im gziT midis, romeli gziTac winaprebs uvliaT. ena, mamuli da qristianuli sarwmunoeba - ai, didi ilia marTlis mier datovebuli anderZi. qristianoba CvenTvis ara marto sazogado religiaa, aramed Cveni subieqturi Tviseba, Cveni piradoba da meoba. Cvens winaprebsac aseve miaCndaT da im qarTvels, romelic qristianobas uaryofda, qarTvelad aRarc ki Tvlidnen. es Cveni kuTxis tragediac iyo, rogorc amas uCvenebs magaliTi mesxebis im mniSvnelovani nawilisa, romelTac nebsiT Tu uneblieT mahmadianoba miiRes. dRevandel wirvisas me TqvenTan erTad movixsenie am wmida taZris aRmaSenebelTa sulni, saba-sargisyofil da beqa jayelebisa da aseve, sulni aTasobiT berisa, romelnic am monasterSi saukuneTa manZilze mkvidrobdnen. safaraSi TviT Turqebis saSineli gabatonebis drosac ki, wirva-locva ar Sewyvetila. ,,aw xucis amaraao~ - werda XVIII saukuneSi vaxuSti batoniSvili. Semdeg saukuneebSic aq kvlav daemkvidrnen berebi, Cveni saukunis pirvel meoTxedSi ki sasuliero cxovreba sruliad Cakvda. Tqvenc xedavT, ra Sedegi gamoiRo am eklesiis umoqmedobam. Cvens winaa srulebiT mouvleli, upatrono eklesia, aRarsadaa kankeli da xatebi, wvimis wyals gauJonavs kedelSi, aTxrila iataki, usufTaobis daRi aZevs yovelives da, ra Tqma unda, ar ismis zaris xma. bevri Tqvenganisagan msmenia, rogor gamoiyureboda es eklesia 50-60 wlis win mSvenivrad naCuqurTmevi, mooqrovili kankeli, maRalmxatvruli, uZvirfasesi xatebi - mSvenieri CarCoebiT, TiTqmis mTeli darbazis Semavsebeli brinjaosagan ostaturad Camosxmuli qorkandeli, moWedil-moTvalul yuTebsa da kolofebSi pativiscemiT Calagebuli wmidaTa auracxeli nawilebi, sagangebo Sandlebi da sasanTleebi da aqauri berebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT Tayvansacemi saba ganwmedilis (VI s.) wmida nawilebi. ucxoeTSi - saberZneTSic ki mkiTxes, 83

amJamad sad inaxeba ganZi msoflio marTlmadideblobisa - nawilebi wmida sabasio? vin icis, TvalTagan miefara Cveni urwmunoebis gamo. vin unda davadanaSauloT? mxolod Cveni Tavi. yvelam, yvela Cvenganma unda CavixedoT gulSi, vaRiaroT Cveni Secodebani. sinanuli, aRsareba da codvebisagan ganwmenda aRadgens Cvens qristianobas. ara cudmedidoba, cudmetyveleba, sxvisi gankiTxva da augi, aramed siwmide, simdable, moTmineba da siyvaruli. es, da mxolod es, kvlav aRgvamaRlebs. wmida wignebSi nabrZanebia, taZari SeiZleba daingres da Tavisi qvebiTve aRadginon, magram adamianis daSlili sulis aRdgena aRaravis xelewifebiso. Cven unda vifiqroT adamianis sulze. ar unda dairRves adamianis sulis mTlianoba, saxarebac aseve brZanebs - gwamdes RmerTi da giyvardes adamiani, taZars ki sulmTeli adamiani kvlav aRaSenebs. diax, unda vizrunoT taZarze, magram isic unda vicodeT, rom taZrebi adamianisaTvis, misi sulis cxonebisaTvis aris agebuli. 1828 wlisaTvis aTasobiT Cveni sisxli da xorci, Cveni xalxi, valaSkertis, anisis, arzrumis Tu karis qarTuli saepiskoposoebis yofili mrevli, im droisaTvis ukve CamoSorebuli qarTul deda eklesias, Camosaxlda samcxe-javaxeTSi, TrialeTsa da walkaSi. maT dedaenac daviwynodaT da Turqulad laparakobdnen, magram qristianuli suli SenarCunebuli hqondaT. TurqeTSi yvela marTlmadidebels ,,berZens~ uwodebdnen, miuxedavad maTi erovnebisa, konstantinepolis berZnuli sapatriarqos mrevlad miiCnevdnen. yvela grigorians - ,,somexs~, yvela kaTolikes ,,frangs~, samxreT mesxeTSic - arzrumsa, giumiSxanes, valaSkertsa Tu basianSi mcxovreb qarTvel marTlmadideblebs ,,berZnebs~ uwodebdnen, lazebsac ki, romlebmac mahmadianoba ar miiRes da marTlmadidebloba daicves, Turqebi ,,berZnebs~ uwodebdnen. imis Semdeg, rac es ,,berZnebi~ TurqeTidan saqarTveloSi gadmosaxldnen, CvenSic gaugebroba moxda, Cvenc aRar vuwodeT maT TavianTi namdvili saxeli. saukuneTa manZilze sxvadasxva socialur, kulturul da politikur garemoSi mcxovrebma Tanamorwmuneebma erTmaneTi ver SevicaniT. dRevandel dRes ise, rogorc yovelwliurad, albaT kvlav ineba yovladwmidam Cveni morwmuneebis Sekreba varZiis kedlebTan. wlevandel varZiobaSi monawileobis survili, sofel turcxSi mcxovrebma kaTolikebma - e. w. ,,frangebmac~ gamoTqves. sayovelTad cnobilia da mecnieruli gamokvlevebic arsebobs imis Sesaxeb, Tu TurqeTis sazRvrebSi moxvedrili sofel velis qarTveloba 1828 wlis gadmosaxlebis dros rogor daesaxla javaxeTis ramdenime sofelSi xulgumoSi, turcxSi, bavrasa, kartikamsa da sxvagan. maT am dros icodnen TavianTi dedaena. S. lomsaZe SromaSi ,,sofel velis istoriidan~ wers, rom maT 1841 wlamde eklesiebSi qarTuli tipikoni hqondaT, xolo Semdeg ki - somxuri. zogierT zemoT CamoTvlil sofelSi Cveni saukunis 50-ian wlebamdis qarTuli skolebi arsebobda. dRes ase aRar aris. am soflebSi Casaxlebul velel qarTvelebs qarTuli ena dedaenad aRar miaCniaT da TiTqmis aRarc ician. maT saqarTveloSive, Cvens Soris dakarges dedaena da qarTuli tipikoni. swored amis gamo, maT monawileobas varZiis dResaswaulSi didi mniSvneloba unda mieces. 84

varZiis amoqmedebas imediT elian javaxeTSi SemorCenili sul ramdenime qarTuli soflis mcxovrebni. plato, romelic varZias gadmohyurebs javaxeTis zegani - Zalze mWidrodaa dasaxlebuli, aq axalqalaqis da bogdanovkis raionebSi 120 aTasze meti adamiani saxlobs, magram maTgan mxolod samiaTasamdea qarTveli. swored maT, gogaSnelebma, koTelielebma, pretenelebma da CunCxelebma iTxoves varZiis eklesiis amoqmedeba. es eklesia maT marTlmadideblobis (anu qarTvelobis) SenarCunebisaTvis aucileblad esaWiroebaT. SevTxovoT yovladwmidas, mixedos Tavis mowyale javaxeTs. Cvenc xeli SevuwyoT da qristianuli siTbo vagrZnobinoT Tanamorwmuneebs. javaxeTis qarTvelobas usaTuod unda davexmaroT - Tu maTTvis wylisa da gzis gayvana ar SegviZlia, is xom mainc SegviZlia, ubralod avideT, movinaxuloT, vesaubroT. amiT maT gulis siTbos vagrZnobinebT, marTlmadideblobasa da qarTul enas ar davaviwyebT! iq amJamad ara marto bavSvebs, mozrdilebsac uWirT qarTulad gamarTuli laparaki. asea axalqalaqis axlo mdebare qarTul sofel xospioSic. am sofelSi miTxres, es raa, sofel murjaxeTSi qarTvelebma qarTuli srulebiT ar iciano. axalgazrdebic toveben am soflebs. TiTqmis erTi saaTi vesaubrebodiT da mSoblebTan erTad varwmunebdiT erT xospioel axalgazrdas, ar wasuliyo sacxovreblad sxva respublikis romeliRac qalaqSi, darCeniliyo Tavis raionSi, magram amaod. ufali wmida saxarebaSi brZanebs - ,,eZiebdeT da hpoveT, irekdeT da gangeRoT Tqven~, rasac ufal RmerTs wmida rwmeniT SevTxovT, uTuod agvisruldeba, magram Cveni ubedoba swored Cvens urwmunoebaSia, RmerTs sasoebiTa da siwmidiT aRarafers vTxovT, maSasadame, aRarc sikeTis miRebis unari gvaqvs da Tu uflisagan sikeTes ar viRebT, gvaqvs is, rasac Cven TvaliT vxedavT - samcxe-javaxeTis dRevandeli demografiuli yofa. es, upirvelesad yovlisa, iTqmis gamravlebaze. muclis moSla da dedis wiaRSi bavSvis mokvla udidesi codvaa. minda erTi magaliTi mogiyvanoT. me vkiTxe erT mahmadian inteligents, cxra Svilis mamas da meaTis momlodines, surda Tu ara mis meuRles amdeni bavSvi. man mipasuxa - Cems meuRles RmerTi swams da bavSvis mokvliT Tavis Tavze RvTis risxvas ar daitexs, Tavisi codviT RmerTs ar ganarisxebs. saerTod, yvela Cveni qali aseTia - yoveli bavSvi RvTisagan moniWebul ZRvnad miaCnia da rasac RmerTi aZlevs, sixaruliT iRebso. aseTi RvTis ridi rom hqondes ara marto samcxe-javaxeTis, aramed mTeli saqarTvelos dedebs, demografiuli problemac aRar iarsebebda. uRmerTobam da urwmunoebam ara marto zneobrivad Segvcvala, RvTis im moWarbebuli madlis miRebis unaric gamogvacala, riTac ase uxvad ajildoebs ufali yovel qarTvels. ai, axla Cven safaris wmida taZarSi vimyofebiT, romelic amave dros, saukuneTa manZilze saZvalec iyo warCinebuli qarTveli aristokratiisa da saeklesio moRvaweTa, amJamad ki, Tqvenc xedavT, RvTismSoblis miZinebis eklesiaSi iataki aTxrilia, saflavebi Riaa, amoyrili Zvlebi aqamde kuTxeebSi iyo miwyobili, axla saerTod aRar Cans; es sul ukanaskneli wlebis ,,naRvawia~. me gekiTxebiT, gana maTi sulebi, romelTa saflavebic ase udierad xelvyaviT, iloceben RvTis winaSe CvenTvis? 85

magram RmerTi mowyalea, xolo dro yovelives mkurnali. SevTxov RmerTs, Cvens sulsa da gulSi Rrma sarwmunoebiT daemkvidros qriste. morwmuneno, dRes aris, agreTve, Tayvaniscema awyuris RvTismSoblis xatisa. awyuris RvTismSoblis saswaulmoqmed anu rogorc mesxeTSi ityvian, ,,saswaulian~ xats Tayvans scemen sxva qveynebis eklesiebic. magaliTad, ruseTis sapatriarqos kalendarSi aRniSnulia, rom es xati aris I saukunisa. ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, is mociqulma andria pirvelwodebulma Camoasvena ierusalimidan awyurSi, sadac am xats udidesi taZaric auges. es aris RvTismSoblis xelTuqmneli xati. CvenSi cnobilia macxovris xelTuqmneli xatic - anCisxati. xSirad ibadeba kiTxva, SeiZleba Tu ara xati iyos xelTuqmneli? diax, SeiZleba. Tu Cvens winaprebs amis Sesaxeb gaaCndaT rwmena, Cven gvaqvs codnac. eklesiaSi daculia mravali gadmocema, Tu rogor gadadioda qristes RvTaebrivi saxe tiloze, ficarze an kecze (gamomwvari Tixa). avadmyofi mefe abgaris mxatvarma ver SeZlo iesos saxis srulyofilad gadatana tiloze, maSin ufalma miido saxeze naWeri da masze aRbeWdili gamosaxuleba gaugzavna mefes. es iyo iesos pirveli xati. andria mociqulmac aseve ficarze aRbeWdili RvTismSoblis xelTuqmneli xati Camoasvena. rogorc mecnierebis erT nawils miaCnia, turinis sudaraze gadasulia ieso qristes sxeulis sruli anabeWdi. am sudaraSi iyo is gaxveuli gardamoxsnidan aRdgomamde. Tu yuradReba miaqcieT wlevandel gazeT ,,za rubeJom~-s, mis erT nomerSi aRwerilia is daintereseba, romelsac iCenen msoflios mecnierebi am sudaris mimarT. msoflios umsxvilesma samecniero kvleviTma centrebma yvelaze Tanamedrove xelsawyoebiTa da sxva saSualebebiT gamoikvlies sudara. 50-me gamoCenilma amerikelma mecnierma, agreTve, frangma da italielma specialistebma yovelmxrivi analiziT (speqtrometriuliT, rentgenuliT Tu sxva xerxebiT) daadgines, rom turinis sudaraze aRbeWdili gamosaxuleba ar warmoadgens adamianis xeliT daxatuls, es aris ,,xelTuqmneli xati~. aRsaniSnavia, rom turinis sudaris gamosaxulebis fotografia Seitanes kosmosuri kvlevis sagangebo xelsawyoSi - e. w. ,,gamosaxulebis analizatorSi~, romlis umTavresi komponenti aris mikroeleqtrogamomTvleli manqana. aq TviT mecnierTa TqmiT, moxda SeuZlebeli da daujerebeli ram - manqanis displeeze gamoCnda adamianis samganzomilebiani gamosaxuleba, romelic iyo nagvemi maTraxiT da jvarcmiT. mas grZeli Tma da wveri hqonda da Tavis mravalricxovani Wrilobebidan gamomavali sisxlis nakvalevi aCnda. aRniSnul displeeze miRebuli gamosaxulebis foto gazeTis amave nomerSia dabeWdili. swored turinis sudaris msgavsi xelTuqmneli xatia awyuris RvTismSoblis xati, romelsac dRes Tayvans vcemT. awyuris xatma saukuneTa manZilze sruliad gaiziara mesxeTis bedi. awyuris taZridan is orjer gaitaces sparselebma, magram saswauliT yovelTvis samcxes ubrundeboda, mesxeTis gamahmadianebis Semdeg ki is gelaTSi gadaasvenes. saubedurod, awyuris xatis mrevli (mesxeTi) qristianobas ganudga (mosaxleobis erTi nawilis garda), romelTa winaprebic Tayvans scemdnen WeSmarit RmerTs mociqulTa droidan. isini ramdenjerme gadaasaxles kidec da axla maT ,,Turq-mesxebs~ uwodeben. 1944 wels mesxeTidan 86

gadasaxlebis dros ki isini TavianT Tavs ,,musulmanebs~ ,,binalebs~ e. i. adgilobrivebs uwodebdnen. ruseTis imperiis aRweris wignSi, kerZod 1870 wels gamocemul ,,Tbilisis guberniis aRweris masalebis krebulSi maT ewodebaT ara Turqebi, aramed ,,qarTveli sunitebi~ (axlandeli adigenis, axalcixis, aspinZisa da axalqalaqis raionebSi). swored maT, qarTvel mahmadian sunitebs uwodeben axla ,,Turq mesxebs~. es saxeli maT mxolod gadasaxlebis Semdeg miiRes, Tumca zogierTebs qarTuli gvarebi Semonaxulic ki aqvT da qarTulic ician. SesaZlebelia, maTi erTi nawili kvlav daubrundes Tavis qveyanas. rogor unda SevxvdeT maT? wmida saxarebaSi nabrZanebia - ,,RmerTi siyvarulia~. maSasadame, usiyvaruloba mxolod uRmerTobis niSania. Tu Cven siyvaruli gvaqvs, Tu RmerTi gvwams, Cven unda vicnoT Cveni Zmebi, Cveni sisxli da xorci, gzasacdenili, natanji Svilebi qarTveli erisa, TavianTi Tavis Secnobis unaric rom aRara aqvT da TavianTi saxelic ar axsovT. vapovninoT TavianTi Tavi, davubrunoT isini mSobel ers. me minda dRevandel RvTivkurTxeul dRes safaris wmida taZarSi SevTxovo ufals, mowyale TvaliT gadmoxedos sruliad saqarTvelos, mesxeTs. SevTxov Tqvens sixarulsa da gamravlebas, RmerTma daglocoT. ,,jvari vazisa~ #N4, 1988

87

wirva vales eklesiaSi


axalcixidan Tormetiode kilometrze, sofel valeSi, mdinare focxovis napirze dgas patara lamazi samnaviani bazilika. Tavdapirvelad is gumbaTiani taZari yofila. fasadebze axlac SemorCenilia Zveli, meaTe saukunis mdidruli dekori, wmida giorgisa da sxva cxenosani wmidanebis reliefuri qandakebebi, qvaSi gamokveTilia saero pirTa figurebi. es taZari RvTismSoblis saxelobisaa. valelebi aq dResaswauloben RvTismSoblis Sobas. 1988 wlis 21 seqtembers RvTismSoblis Sobis sadResaswaulo wirvis Semdeg soflelebs sityviT mimarTa axalcixisa da samcxe-javaxeTis episkoposma anania jafariZem.

episkopos anania jafariZis qadageba vales eklesiaSi


saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da wmidisa sulisa. yovladwmida RvTismSobeli marad saTayvanebelia CvenTvis. misi saxelis xsenebac ki imediT aRavsebs yovel CvenTagans. rameTu deda RvTisa ara marto mfarvelia Cveni qveynisa da deda yoveli qristianisa, imedi mlocvelisa da mkurnali sneulisa, Semwe gaWirvebulisa da patroni oblisa, aramed didi magaliTis mimcemi aris yoveli CvenganisaTvis. deda RvTisam am qveynad icxovra samagaliTo cxovrebiT. wmida saxarebis Tanaxmad, is gansakuTrebuli Tviseba, gansakuTrebuli madli, romlis gamoc ufali mieaxla mas, iyo umankoeba, locva da Sromismoyvareoba. kurTxeulia uflis mier Sromismoyvareoba. mSromelTa ojaxSi ineba Soba Cvenma macxovarma ieso qristem, Tumca, cxadia, mas sxvagvaradac SeeZlo. marTali iosebi damwindveli qalwul mariamisa - mSromeli kaci iyo, xolo deda RvTisa Tavisi siymawvilidanve gasaocari sibejiTiT da SromismoyvareobiT gamoirCeoda. patiosanma da marTalma ioakimem da anam TavianTi patara Svili mariam RmerTs Seswires da oTxi wlisa eklesias miabares. aq mas locvasa da ubiwoebasTan erTad Seayvares Sroma da garja, xelsaqme, qsova, qargva... im dros yoveldRiuri Sroma Zalze mZime iyo, magram miuxedavad amisa, kviraSi eqvs dRes TavdadebiT Sromobdnen, erT dRes uqmobdnen, guliT loculobdnen da zomier garToba-TamaSobasac ar iviwyebdnen. xelsaqme da dauzareli Sroma qalwul mariams dawindvis Semdegac uyvarda. Zveli mxatvrebi angelozis mier xarebis dros RvTismSobels xelsaqmiT xelSi xatavdnen. yovladwmidas mibaZviT TviT Tamar mefec xelsaqmesa da Sromas ar ukadrisobda, Tumca misi saxelmwifos xazina umdidresi iyo. es wmida mefe uxvad gascemda mowyalebas, pirad Semweobas ar aklebda gaWirvebulsa da qvriv-obols, magram maT aZlevda ara saxelmwifo xazinidan, aramed Tavisi xelsaqmis gayidviT miRebul Tanxas gascemda. 88

Tavis mxriv saxelmwifoc Tavisi Semosavlis meaTeds daxmarebisaTvis gascemda. mefe Tamari eklesiisTvisac ar iSurebda madlian Sromas mRvdlebs Tavisi xeliT ukeravda wirvis Sesamosels - ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad is amiT Sromismoyvareobisa da garjis saWiroebis magaliTs aZlevda Tavis xalxs. gamrjeli iyo Cveni xalxi, dauzareli, mSromeli, amis utyuari magaliTia uTvalavi cixe-taZari gadaSlili Zvel saqarTveloSi. amis magaliTi erTi qarTuli xalxuri novelac aris, romelsac hqvia ,,mefoba xeloba ar aris~ ...erT axalgazrda mefes ubralo ojaxis Svili Seuyvarda, magram gogonam iukadrisa. roca mizezi hkiTxes, Tqva marTalia is mefea, magram mefoba xeloba ar aris, man arc erTi xeloba ar iciso. mefem gogonas siyvaruliT xaliCebis qsova iswavla. am xelobam is Semdeg sikvdils gadaarCina. gonieri gogona ki dedofali gaxda. ,,xelobas~ Cveni xalxi eZaxda imas, rasac amJamad ,,specialobas~ vuwodebT. Cvens erSi xelobis mcodne kacs dafaseba hqonia. yvela wodebis adamiani raime xelobas flobda. unda vifiqroT, rom Tu mefobac ki xelobad ar iTvleboda, miTumetes, arc umaRlesi ganaTlebis diplomis qoneba CaiTvleboda Zvel dros xelobad. amasTan dakavSirebiT minda Cemi dakvirvebis Sesaxeb mogaxsenoT: axalcixeSi, rabaTSi, Cvens eklesiasTan bevri somexi da berZeni cxovrobs. yoveli adamiani, ra erovnebisac unda iyos is, RvTisagan dabadebulia, RvTis Svilia, sasiyvarulo da dasafasebeli. Cveni xalxi yovelTvis pativs scemda sxva eris adamianebs, maTgan karg magaliTsac gadmoiRebda xolme. axlac unda gadmoviRoT maTgan kargi magaliTi. me didad vafaseb maT Sromismoyvareobas, Tqvenc maT SromismoyvareT uwodebT. xelobis anu ,,specialobis~ SeZenis mxriv Tu SevadarebT Cvens da maT axalgazrdebs, Zalze did sxvaobas davinaxavT. xSirad vxedav, Cveni qal-vaJi 18-25 wlisani ,,diplomatebiT~ da saqaRaldeebiT dadian quCaSi - ,,emzadebian~ umaRles saswavlebelSi Sesasvlelad. maTi 14-18 wlis ymawvilebi ki uTuod raime xelobas swavloben, ar eTakilebaT, ar ezarebaT Sroma da garja, piriqiT, xelobis codna sasaxelo da saxelovan saqmed miaCniaT. 14-17 wlis asakSi euflebian da ukve ician asakis Sesabamisad lesva, Seneba, durgloba da sxva. samuSaod miwveva da ,,saqmis aReba~ siamovnebT, esaxelebaT, amitomacaa, rom ukve 17-18 wlis asakSi maTi vaJebi ekonomikurad damoukidebeli pirovnebebi arian. dagrovili aqvT mcireodeni Tanxa, ukve aqvT samsaxuri - xelosnebi arian. am asakSive irTaven qalebs da ...Tavisive xeliT iwyeben sakuTari saxlis Senebas, ramdenime welSi amTavreben kidec TavianTi toli ymawvilebis xelosnebis daxmarebiT. amitomacaa, rom, axalgazrdobaSive gaxarebulni, xalisianni, mxneni, energiulni, saqmianni, Tavis TavSi dajerebulni arian. Cveni TvaliT vxedavT, aqvT kidec mSvenieri saxlebi, axalgazrdobaSive hyavT ara erTi da ori, aramed oTxi-xuTi kargad Cacmul-daxuruli bavSvi. amaSi mesxeTis yvela mkvidri dameTanxmeba. imaSic dameTanxmebiT, rom arc wveulebani da sma-Wama ician uzomo da xalxmravali. diax, swavla-ganaTlebis moyvarea Cveni xalxi, magram winaT mas swavlasTan erTad Sromac didad hyvarebia. qarTveli eris mier msoflio 89

saganZurSi mitanili sakacobrio mniSvnelobis uTvalavi Rirebuleba mxolod SromiTaa Seqmnili. gana axlac yovelgvari Rirebulebis Seqmna mxolod SromiT da garjiT ar xdeba? gana uSromelad raimes miviRebT? gana mxolod Sroma da mxolod garja ar dagvayenebs swor gzaze janmrTelobisa, simdidrisa da gamravlebisaken? gana danaSauls ar sCadis is kaci, romelsac SeuZlia muSaoba da ki ar muSaobs, aramed diplomis saZieblad saqarTvelodanac ki miemgzavreba? gana xarbad ar unda CaiTvalos kaci, romelic diplomis wyalobiT cdilobs sxvisi Sromis miTvisebas? madloba RmerTs, es yvelaze ar iTqmis. Cveni axalgazrdebi ZiriTadad Sromismoyvareni arian, magram, albaT, sworad ar aris mimarTuli maTi usazRvro energia. swavlis wyurvili da codnis miRebis survili didad dasafasebelia, magram raRac sxvaa saWiro, sxva. es ,,sxva~ didma ilia marTalma adreve gansazRvra da Tqva - ,,xmliT mosulma vera dagvaklo ra - SromiT da garjiT, codniT da xerxiT mosuli ki Tan gagvitans~ (,,ra giTxraT, riT gagaxaroT~). maSasadame, gvesaWiroeba ara marto akademiuri codna, aramed Sroma, garja, codna da xerxi erTad. swavla mxolod diplomisaTvis - usargeblo Sromaa. Cveneburi gamrje kaci siamayiT ityvis xolme - ,,me Sromis fasi vici~. misTvis Sroma sasaxelo da sasiamovno saqmianobaa da ara usiamovno iZuleba. Sromas siyrmidanve unda SeeCvios bavSvi. Zvelad 7-8 wlis ymawvilebs patara Toxs gaukeTebdnen da muSaobis dros gverdSi amoiyenebdnen. patara xelurems gaukeTebdnen, patara namgals miscemdnen, bavSvs Sroma exerxeboda, ar ezareboda, siamovnebda, ar eTakileboda. amiT igi Sromas eCveoda. xeliT Sroma, miTumetes, xelosnoba CvenSi saTakilo arasodes ar yofila, piriqiT, saTakilo is iyo, Tu kacs Sroma ar exerxeboda da xeloba ar icoda. didi ilia ambobs - ,,Sroma patiosania, Tavmosawonia, Sroma namusiania, TavgamosaCeni, Sroma vaJkacobaa~. ,,vaJkac guladze mSromeli samis gafreniT metiao~. ai, es mindoda meTqva TqvenTvis Sromisa da xelosnobis Sesaxeb. Cveni mesxeTi - ara didi qalaqebis, aramed patara soflebis mxarea. Tqveni sofeli valec aseTia. sofels mSromeli, gamrje xelosnebi sWirdeba da ara qveynis dasalierSi diplomisaTvis wasuli axalgazrdebi. me minda gakurTxoT: - gaufrTxildiT bavSvebs. maT magaliTsa da Sromas nu moaklebT. wmida mociqul petres gamonaTqvami saqveynodaa cnobili - ,,vinc ar muSaobs nu Wams~. man isic Tqva - ,,gaakeTe Seni saqme sakuTari xelebiT~. Cvens saqmes Cvens nacvlad aravin ar gaakeTebs. me minda mogaxsenoT saeklesio enis Sesaxebac. valeSi, udesa da aralSi, saerTod, samxreT saqarTveloSi, Zalze mwvaved idga saeklesio enis sakiTxi bolo saukuneTa manZilze. es sakiTxi am kuTxis zogierT morwmunes axlac mniSvnelovnad miaCnia. saqme imaSi mdgomareobs, rom am kuTxeSi batonobis dros Turqebma qristianuli eklesiebidan gandevnes mxolod qarTuli ena da qarTveli qristianebisaTvis somxur-laTinuri tipikonis dawesebas xeli ar SeuSales, magram es iyo ara neba da survili qristianTa umaRlesi xelisuflebisa, rogoradac miaCnia 90

zogierTs, aramed mxolod mahmadianuri qveynis qmedeba, gamiznuli am mxaris mosaxleobis gaTiSvisaTvis. unda iTqvas WeSmariteba saeklesio enis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi, sadac uZvelesi droidanve wirva-locvis aRsruleba nebadarTuli iyo mxolod ZvelqarTul enaze. ZvelqarTuli ena mTliani, sruliad saqarTveloSi erTaderTi saeklesio ena iyo, miuxedavad imisa, rom aq araqarTveli qristianebic cxovrobdnen. msgavsadve iyo sxvaganac - evropaSi didxans erTaderTi saeklesio ena iyo laTinuri ena, miuxedavad misi mravalerovnulobisa, aseve mravalerovnul aRmosavleT evropaSi erTaderTi saeklesio ena iyo da aris slavuri ena. yovelive amas aqvs Teologiuri safuZveli, magaliTad, ZvelqarTuli saeklesio ena aerTianebda da momavalSic unda gaaerTianos sruliad saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi qristianebi erT samwysod, erT eklesiad. eklesia es aris cocxal morwmuneTa erToba, magram ar iarsebebs araviTari erToba erTi enis gareSe. saqarTvelos qristianebisaTvis aseTi ena iyo ZvelqarTuli ena. mudam, rogorc dasavleT ise aRmosavleT saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxis eklesiaSi, sadac unda yofiliyo is, mTaSi Tu barSi, moqvsa da drandaSi, largvissa Tu ikorTaSi, Tbilissa Tu quTaisSi, biWvinTasa Tu awyurSi, cxinvalsa Tu javaSi da cxadia, aqac, valeSic, erTdaerTi saeklesio ena iyo ZvelqarTuli ena. merve saukuneSi, 720 wels daarsda Tanaxmad ,,qarTlis cxovrebisa~ afxazeTis sakaTalikoso. am droidan rvaasi wlis manZilze - meCvidmete saukunemde afxazeTis kaTalikosi biWvinTaSi ijda. mTeli am xnis manZilze, ise rogorc Semdeg saukuneebSi, am sakaTalikosoSi erTaderTi saeklesio ena iyo mxolod da mxolod ZvelqarTuli ena. es aris istoriuli WeSmariteba. aseve iyo, cxadia, mesxeTSic Turqebis Semosvlamde, aseve iyo Cveni qveynis yovel kuTxeSi. Tumca isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom mecxramete saukuneSi egzarxosobis dros zogierTi qalaqis eklesiaSi qarTulTan erTad slavuric dawesda, amitomac ocian wlebSi eklesiebis masobrivi daxurvis dros daixura am enebze dawerili saeklesio wignebi. arc erT sxva enaze, amaT garda, Cvens eklesiaSi wirva-locva arc arsebula da arc gagonila. qarTuli ena RvTismSoblis enaa, saRvTo enaa. dRes RvTismSoblis dResaswaulia da amitomac unda gavixsenoT es. ai, ras gviambobs wmida eqvTime mTawmindelis mama wmida ioane mTawmindeli: ,,aTonze Cemi Svili - yrma eqvTime Seipyro mZafrma senma sasikvdilod daavadda - ,,sikvdils mieaxla~, megona suli amoxdeboda, vinaidan aRarc sityvis Tqma SeeZlo da aRarc xmis amoReba, davkarge sasoeba misi sicocxlisa, ase SeSfoTebuli wavedi RvTismSoblis taZarSi, davvardi wmida dedoflis xatis win da mxurvale cremliT vevedrebodi uxrwnel maradis qalwul RvTismSobels, raTa Seweoda da eSvela. vamcne mRvdels swrafad amosuliyo da eziarebina. swrafadve gaveSure eqvTimes saxilvelad Tu ra daemarTa, gavaRe senakis kari sadac is mwoliare davtove. da uceb viynose suni surnelebisa sakvirveli, rameTu iqmna moxedva wmida RvTismSoblisa. da vixile eqvTime misi madliT aRdgomiliyo da ijda sawolze yovelmxriv janmrTeli da uvnebeli. SekrTa Cemi goneba da vkiTxe mas - ,,ra aris es, Svilo?~ mipasuxa: - ,,axlaxan warmomidga vinme didebuli dedofali da miTxra 91

qarTuli eniT - ra aris, ra gtkiva eqvTime?~ - xolo me vuTxar ,,movkvdebi dedofalo~, da es rom vTqvi, momiaxlovda, momkida xeli da miTxra - ,,aRaraviTari vneba SenTan aRar iqneba, adeqi, nu geSinia da qarTulad unaklod ilaparake!~ - da aha, rogorc mxedav srulebiT araferi mtkiva~. da ambobda xolme netari iovane, rom - am Jamamde eqvTime Znelad saubrobda qarTulad da friad mwuxare viyavi amis gamo, xolo mis Semdeg Seuwyvetliv, rogorc wyaro amodis misi piridan qarTuli sityva, yvela qarTvelze ufro wmidad~. ,,qebai da didebai qarTulisa enisai~ gvamcnobs rom yoveli ,,siyvaruli saidumlo am enaSia Senaxuli (damarxuli). qarTuli enis erT-erTi saRvTo saidumlo albaT is aris, rom Zvelad SeZlo da kvlav unda SeZlos saqarTvelos qristianTa gaerTianeba, erT mrevlad Sekvra, erTian eklesiad qceva. giorgi merCule, mkvidri mesxeTis, brZanebs ,,qarTlad friadi qveyana aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis~, maSasadame, qarTls veRar vuwodebT qarTls, Tu mis yovel kuTxeSi wirva-locvas qarTul enaze ar SevasrulebT. qarTli ki sruliad saqarTvelos ewodeboda Zvel qarTul enaze, im enaze, romelsac ,,saxarebasa Sina lazare hqvia~, da ,,ese enai, Semkuli da kurTxeuli saxeliTa uflisaTa, mdabali da dawunebuli moelis dResa mas meored mosvlasa uflisasa~ - nabrZanebia ,,qebai da didebai qarTulisa enisaiSi~. patiosano morwmuneno, dRevandel dRes minda SevTxovo ufal RmerTs, yovlad wmida RvTismSobels kurTxeva da gamravleba mesxi qarTvelebisa. sicocxle da madli uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi Tqven yovelTa Tana. amin.

92

mesxeTis Sesaxeb
(polemika)

27 marts gazeT ,,eris~ korespondenti esaubreboda kaTolikuri wmida mociqulebis petresa da pavles eklesiis moZRvars patr ian sniJinskis: ,,- patr ian, gTxovT mogviTxroT, Tu ramdeni kaTolikuri eklesiaa saqarTveloSi? - saqarTveloSi gasabWoebamde ramdenime moqmedi kaTolikuri eklesia iyo, dResdReobiT ki mxolod erTi - wmida mociqulebis petre da pavles eklesiaa~. am winadadebam CvenSi, mesxeTSi, gaugebroba dabada. saqme isaa, rom mxolod mesxeTSi dReisaTvis xuTi kaTolikuri eklesia moqmedebs: esenia: 1. sxvilisis kaTolikuri eklesia, romelic mudam, kerZod, maSinac ki moqmedebda, roca mesxeTis yvela marTlmadidebluri eklesia daketili iyo; 2. wyalTbilas kaTolikuri eklesia (axalcixis raioni); 3. turcxis kaTolikuri eklesia (axalqalaqis raioni); 4. vales kaTolikuri eklesia; 5. naoxrebis kaTolikuri eklesia (axalcixis raioni). amaT garda aTeulobiT araregistrirebuli kaTolikuri eklesia moqmedebs ninowmindis (bogdanovkis), axalqalaqis da axalcixis raionebSi, yvela kaTolikur sofelSi (amis Semowmeba advilia). es eklesiebi umoZRvrebod ki ar arian mitovebulni, aramed maT emsaxurebian saqarTvelos sazRvargareTidan mowveuli mRvdlebi patrebi. zogierTi maTgani ukve sakmao xania (magaliTad, sxvilisis mRvdeli aT welze metia) rac Tavis mrevls emsaxureba. dResdReobiT mesxeTSi imyofeba da moRvaweobs sami kaTolike moZRvari. isini cxovroben soflebSi - sxvilisSi, wyalTbilasa da turcxSi, aqedan isini mTel samcxe-javaxeTis regions swvdebian. sul axlaxan, 31 marts referendumis win, Cen sagangebod moviareT eparqiis soflebi, eklesiebi, sadac paraklisis gadaxdis Jams winaswar vlocavdiT yvela morwmunes, romelic xmas miscemda samSoblos Tavisuflebas, rameTu ,,Tavisufleba TavisiTa sisxliTa mogvaniWa Cven ieso qristeman, ganmaTavisuflebelman yovelTa kacTa~); SevediT zogierT somxur sofelSic, kerZod, wyalTbilas kaTolikur eklesiaSi Cvens qadagebas eswreboda samcxe-javaxeTis sami (!) kaTolike moZRvari, mowme amisa aris axalcixisa da varZiis ori marTlmadidebeli mRvdeli, erTi Tbiliseli moRvawe beri, axalcixis sasuliero saswavleblis moswavleebi, romelnic galobdnen paraklisis gadaxdis dros. amitomac aRar viciT, ras mivaweroT zemoT moyvanili gancxadeba, rom saqarTveloSi mxolod erTi kaTolikuri eklesiaa. 1981 wlamde, imis gamo rom saqarTvelos samociqulo (marTlmadidebluri) eklesia gansakuTrebiT iyo devnili xelisuflebis mier, mesxeTSi, anu samcxe-javaxeTis eparqiaSi, romelSic Sedian borjomis, axalcixis, adigenis, aspinZis, axalqalaqis, ninowmindis raionebi, ar moqmedebda arc erTi qarTuli eklesia, maSin, roca mudam moqmedebda da morwmuneebs emsaxureboda omamde da omis Semdegac 93

somxur-grigorianuli eklesiebi axalcixesa da axalqalaqSi, agreTve zemoT aRniSnuli kaTolikuri eklesia sofel sxvilisSi (es sofeli dRes faqtiurad axalcixis gareubans warmoadgens da erT-erTi yvelaze SeZlebulia am mxareSi). qarTuli eklesiebis umoqmedobis gamo qarTuli mosaxleoba iZulebuli iyo bavSvebi mosanaTlad Tbilissa Tu xaSurSi Caeyvana. visac amis SesaZlebloba ar hqonda, iZulebuli iyo bavSvebi mesxeTis somxur eklesiaSi moenaTla. TviT 1944 wlis Semdeg mesxeTSi Camosaxlebuli imerlebis didi nawili zemoT aRniSnuli iZulebis gamo bavSvebs somxur eklesiaSi naTlavda (bavSvis mounaTlavad datoveba ufro did codvad miaCndaT am axlad dasaxlebul, Rarib adamianebs, romelTa umravlesobas TbilisSi bavSvis mosanaTlad Cayvana udides fufunebad miaCnda da arc SeeZlo). swored aRniSnuli ukuRmarTi faqti daedo safuZvlad axalcixelebis ganuwyvetel saTxovars, romlis Semdegac mTavrobam ineba wmida marines eklesiis gaxsna aRniSnul wels. am aTi wlis win es eklesia erTaderTi moqmedi eklesia iyo mTel samcxe-javaxeTSi (RvTis SemweobiT amJamad aq mravali eklesia axlad vakurTxeT, monastrebi da sasuliero saswavleblebic ki, magram mRvdelmsaxurTa Zlier naklebobas ganvicdiT; maSin, roca javaxeTSi Tavis kaTolikur mrevls saqarTvelos farglebsgaredan sagangebod Camosuli patri emsaxureba, qarTvelTa Soris erTi mRvdelic ki ar gamoCnda aq moRvaweobis survilis mqone, adgilobrivi kadri ki ar aris, TviT Cvens saeparqio saswavlebelSi arc erTi mesxi vaJi ar swavlobs, swavloben Tbiliseli, rusTaveli, saqarTvelos sxvadasxva regionebidan - samegrelodan, qarTlidan, imereTidan - Camosuli axalgazrdebi: Cven axali saswavlo wlisaTvis imedi gvaqvs, mesxi vaJebic Seavseben Cvens sasuliero saswavlebels. mesxeTSi qarTuli eklesiis gaxsnam da saepiskoposo centris daarsebam sarwmunoebrivi viTareba Secvala. CvenTan mosanaTlad modiodnen ara marto marTlmadideblebi, aramed qarTveli kaTolikenic, miuxedavad imisa, rom mesxeTSi, rogorc aRiniSna, ukve arsebobda Zlieri, moqmedi kaTolikuri eklesia (sofel sxvilisisa). qarTveli kaTolikeni aSkarad eridebodnen TavianT kaTolikur eklesias da CvenTan saqarTvelos samociqulo-marTlmadideblur eklesiasTan - cdilobdnen dakavSirebas. ratom? im mizezis gamo, rom istoriulad mesxeTSi kaTolikoba mxolod sarwmunoebriv mimarTulebas ar niSnavda, istoriulad is am mxareSi (osmalos saqarTveloSi), somxur-kaTolikuri eklesiis batonobis gamo qarTveli kaTolikebis gasomxebas uwyobda xels; aseve iyo rusTa mpyrobelobisa da komunistebis mmarTvelobis drosac. sxvilisis eklesiac somxur-kaTolikuria. visac miqael TamaraSvilis ,,istoria kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris~ Tu ,,pasuxi somxis mwerlebs~ waukiTxavs, mixvdeba, ratom arideben Tavs qarTvelebi aRniSnul kaTolikur eklesias, imasac mixvdeba, ratom iltvian isini Cvenken - saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiisaken. maT kargad ician, rom somxur-kaTolikuri eklesiis wiaRSi yofna, javaxelTa msgavsad, maT gasomxebas gamoiwvevs droTa viTarebaSi, TandaTan. 94

gasuli saukunis dasawyisSi TurqeTis soflebidan (velidan, gugubodan, artanidan da sxv.), javaxeTSi gadmosaxldnen qarTveli marTlmadideblebi. javaxeTSi dasaxlebis Semdeg es qarTveloba kaTolikuri eklesiis mrevlad iqca. kaTolikuri eklesia ki mesxeTSi rogorc aRiniSna, somxuri orientaciisa, somxurenovani wirva-locviT, somxuri kulturisadmi daqvemdebarebiT. somxur-kaTolikuri eklesiis wiaRSi moqceuli javaxeTSi gadmosaxlebuli qarTvelebi gamravldnen, mravali sofeli daaarses, amave dros ki erovnuli saxecvlilebac ganicades; amis gamo XIX saukunis bolosve veleli Tu artaaneli qarTvelebis erovnuli kuTvnileba sadavo gaxda. somxebi maT somxebs akuTvnebdnen, qarTvelebi - qarTvelebs, mTavroba ruseTisa iZulebuli gaxda sagangebo komisiebis meSveobiT daedgina maTi erovnuli vinaoba. ,,1883 w., roca somex da qarTvel kaTolikeTa wreSi ,,tomobriobasa da gvarovnebaze~ kamaTi atyda, velidan gadmosaxlebulTa sakiTxis Sesaswavlad gamoiyo komisia saxelmwifo gamomZieblis ignatievis TavmjdomareobiT, romelmac dakiTxa soflis moxucebi, maT upasuxes, rom 1841 wlamde qarTul tipikons vxmarobdiT da qarTulad vgalobdiTo, rom Cveni mama-papa marTlmadidebeli qarTvelebi iyvneno. sakiTxis dazustebisaTvis 1885 w. amave soflebSi gaigzavna meore komisia dondurovisa da korsanovis SemadgenlobiT, meore komisiamac TiTqmis igive gaimeora - velelebi warmoSobiTa da yofaqceviT qarTvelebi arian - axla aswavlian somxur enasao. samwuxarod, am komisiebis mier warmodgenil daskvnebs jerovani Sedegi ar mohyolia~ (S. lomsaZe, samcxe-javaxeTi, 1975, gv. 364). kerZod, riT gamoixata komisiis daskvnebis uSedegoba? gamoixata imiT, rom velelebi amJamad somxebad aRiricxebian. qarTveli marTlmadideblebi, romelTa qarTveloba TviT ruseTis mTavrobis sagangebo komisiebis mier iyo dadgenili, asi wlis ganmavlobaSi kaTolikuri eklesiis wiaRSi moqcevis wyalobiT somxebad iqcnen da amJamadac somxebad aRiricxebian. isini albaT javaxeTis mosaxleobis 10%-s mainc Seadgendnen, Tu ufro mets ara. velelebi, guguboelebi da sxvebi javaxeTSi gadmosaxlebis Semdeg dasaxldnen soflebSi - turcxSi, bavraSi, sulgumoSi, uartikamSi da sxvagan. sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis Semdeg javaxel kaTolikebs eklesiebSi danergili somxurenovani tipikonis analogiiT bolSevikebma somxurenovani skolebi gauxsnes, sadac maT Seiswavles da gaiTavises somxeTis didebuli istoria, Seiyvares brwyinvale somxuri kultura. ai, ratom iltvis qarTveli kaTolikebis inteleqtualuri nawili da axalgazrdoba Cveni erovnuli, deda eklesiisaken. saocaria, magram faqtia is, rom qarTveli (mesxi) kaTolikebis swrafvas, daubrundnen wiaRs qarTuli (marTlmadidebluri) eklesiisa, romlidanac erT dros (ZiriTadad XVII-XVIII ss-Si) gavidnen maTi winaprebi, garkveulwilad aferxebdnen Tbilisis zogierT wreebSi, magaliTad, ramdenime wlis win sofel vales mcxovrebni, kaTolikebad saxeldebulni, dabejiTebiT da xvewna-mudariT Txovdnen mTavrobas, gaexsna maTTvis eklesia, sadac imoRvawebda qarTveli mRvdeli, amasve iTxovdnen isini Cvenganac dagveniSna maTTvis mRvdeli, magram amisaTvis saWiro iyo ministrTa sabWos sagangebo organos mier am eklesiis, rogorc saqarTvelos 95

sapatriarqoSi Semavalis, registracia. ministrTa sabWom ki sofel vales eklesia faqtiurad gadasca somxur kaTolikuri sxvilisis eklesiis samrevlos Tavisi Seusabamo registraciis wyalobiT, winaaRmdeg qarTveli morwmuneebis Txovnisa. unda aixsnas Tu ras niSnavs es: zemoT naxsenebi pativcemuli patri ian sniJinskic aRniSnavda, rom romis kaTolikur eklesias saqarTveloSi saepiskoposo ar gaaCnia, amitomac saqarTveloSi arsebuli kaTolikuri samrevloebi eqvemdebareba baltiispireTSi arsebul kaTolikur saepiskoposos, romelsac saqarTveloSi ori samrevlo aqvs, erTi TbilisSi da erTic mesxeTSi. mesxeTis kaTolikuri samrevlos faqtiuri centri mdebareobs sofel sxvilisSi. vales eklesiac am kaTolikur samrevloSi Seiyvanes. es imas niSnavs, rom sxvilisis somxur-kaTolikuri eklesiis patri adis vales eklesiaSi, ayenebs iq wirva-locvas, emsaxureba qarTul mrevls. marTalia, es patri erovnebiT araa somexi, magram is somxur-kaTolikuri eklesiis winamZRvaria da misi meSveobiT qarTvel kaTolikeTa erTi nawili somxur-kaTolikuri sulieri daqvemdebarebis qveS moeqca. ara marto valelebi, aRniSnuli patri aralisa da ivlitas qarTul soflebsac emsaxureba. am gziT ki mesxeTis qarTveloba istoriulad ganicdida armenizacias. miTumetes, rom somxuri eklesiis iurisdicqiis sferoSi moxvedril qarTvel kaTolikeebs somxuri mxare erovnuladac somxebad acxadebs xolme. ramdeni Sroma dasWirda Cvens sulkurTxeul didebul winaprebs ivane gvaramaZes, miqael TamaraSvils, petre xarisWiraSvils da sxvebs, raTa qarTveli kaTolikebis erovnebiT qarTveloba daemtkicebinaT. maTi Sroma ki dRes wyalSia gadayrili aRniSnul qarTul soflebSi somxur-kaTolikuri eklesiis mRvdlis muSaobis wyalobiT, anu min. sabWos usamarTlo registraciis meoxebiT, romelic aqaur qarTvelebs araerovnul eklesias uqvemdebarebs. Cveni erovnuli (marTlmadidebluri) eklesiis Sesaxeb miqael TamaraSvili werda, rom saqarTvelos eklesias ,,mtkiced aqvs daculi msoflio krebaTa dadgenili yovela dogmebi, amitom romis eklesia mas ar uwodebs eretik-mwvaleblad. aramed uxmobs marto gayrilad... swored am dogmatobrivi erTgvarovnebis mizezia, rom dResac konstantinepolSi qarTvelTa kaTolikis tipikonis berebi xmaroben Seucvlelad yvela im liturRiis qarTul wignebs, rac dabeWdilia ruseTsa da saqarTveloSi da rasac dRes saqarTvelos mTeli samRvdeloeba xmarobs~ (m. TamaraSvili, istoria kaTolikobisa qarTvelTa Soris. 1902, gv. 54-55). es imas niSnavs, rom ,,dogmatobrivi erTgvarovnebis~ gamo qarTveli kaTolikeni unda xmarobdnen im saeklesio wignebs, wirva-locvisa da saeklesio msaxurebis im wesebs, rac ixmareba Cvens deda-qarTul eklesiaSi da ara ucxoqveyniurs. ase rom, saqarTveloSi ara erTaderTi, aramed mravali kaTolikuri eklesiaa. 3 aprili, 1991, axalcixe. (gaz. ,,eri~ I.V.1991 w.)

96

enkenia abasTumnis eklesia


qarTuli sataZro arqiteqturis erT-erT centrs - mesxeTs eklesiaTa mSvenierebiT ver gaakvirveb, magram abasTumnis eklesia marTlac rom ulamazesia samcxe-javaxeTSi viTarca qaSueTi TbilisSi. qaSueTiviT, abasTumnis eklesiac, axal taZrad iTvleba (aSenebulia XIX saukuneSi ruseTis saimperatoro karis dakveTiT, odnav gadakeTebuli aslia zarzmis didebuli monastrisa). qaSueTiviT isic Tavisi drois udidesi mxatvris mieraa moxatuli (moxata cnobilma nestorovma) da masac marmarilos kankeli amSvenebs. es didebuli taZari bolo 70 wlis manZilze barbarosuli mopyrobis, wirva-locvis gauqmebisa da upatronobis Sedegad Zalze dazianda da ai, ufalma RmerTma ineba eklesiis amoqmedeba. 1991 wlis 14 apils taZari xelaxla akurTxa da pirveli saRmrTo liturgiis Jams usisxlo msxverpli Seswira samcxejavaxeTis eparqiis mmarTvelma episkoposma anania jafariZem, romelmac wirvis Semdeg sityviT mimarTa abasTumnel da maxlobeli soflebidan am dRisaTvis sagangebod mosul mravalricxovan morwmuneebs.

episkopos anania jafariZis qadageba abasTumnis eklesiaSi


patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno, saqarTvelos sayvarelo Svilebo, pirveli sityva, romelsac aRmoTqvams Cveni mZime bage Tqvens ganaxlebul, axlad nakurTx eklesiaSi pirveli wirvis Semdeg aris sadidebeli RvTisa: dideba Senda ufalo, qriste RmerTo Cveno, dideba Senda. Cveni ena ar dadumda Sens sadideblad, rameTu mogvaswar am wmida taZris aRdgenas, qarTveli eris gamoRviZebas, saqarTvelos ganaxlebas. vin ifiqrebda Tu daemxoboda saSineli boroteba, romelic gvikrZalavda ara marto am taZarSi Semosvlasa da locvas, aramed varZiaSic, safarasa, zarzmasa Tu sxva eklesiebSi, ara marto morwmuneebsa da samRvdeloebas, episkopossac ki. amJamad, RvTis madliT, moqmedebs mesxeTis yvela mniSvnelovani eklesia. oriode wlis win vakurTxeT iqamde upatronod mitovebuli Tqvens raionSi mdebare zarzmis monasteri, axla ki iq yofnas araferi Seedreba, samoTxis baRiviTaa ayvavebuli misi ezo-garemo, patronis xeli daetyo, asevea safarasa da varZiaSi. dRevandeli dRe marad mosagonari sazeimo dRe unda iyos TqvenTvis, rameTu taZris ganaxleba didi dResaswaulia. ZvelqarTulad mas - enkenia erqva, am dRes sagangebo locvebi ikiTxeboda da dResac SevTxovT ufals - ,,...moec taZarsa amas enkeniai sulis mier wmidisa, raTa dausjelad amas Sina Tayvans gcemdeT da gadidebdeT Sen mxolosa WeSmaritsa RmerTsa, radgan moavline ieso qriste... aw aRSenebuli taZari ese ganaaxle da winaSe Sensa Sewirul hyav... mogvxede Cven codvilTa da uRirsTa monaTa SenTa da daamtkice saxli ese cadamde aRwevnili da amas Sina saRmrTo qadagebai da msxverplis Sewirvai ganamravle da daamtkice sadideblad didebisa Senisa... aRavse didebiTa da siwmidiTa da madliTa 97

sakuTrxeveli ese... da aw aRmarTuli taZari ese Seni da suliTa SeniTa wmidiTa ganaaxle ese...~ Cven didxans vfiqrobiT Tu vis saxelze gvekurTxebina ganaxlebuli taZari, amisTvis vloculobdiT da bolos Cveni deda RvTismSoblis saxelze vakurTxeT igi. marTalia, Zvelad sxva wmindanis saxelobisa iyo, magram morwmune mrevli am taZris uqmobis drosac ezoSi RvTismSoblobas zeimobda, garda amisa, swored aq, am kuTxeSi ganacxada Cveni uflisa da macxovris mociqulma andria pirvelwodebulma, rom saqarTvelo RvTismSoblis wilxvedri qveyanaa. Tqven mogexsenebaT andria pirvelwodebuli aWaridan gadmovida oZrxeSi, sadac aRmarTulia abasTumnis taZari, Semdeg ki man samcxeSi awyurSi Semokrebil qarTvelobas ganucxada deda RvTismSoblis danabarebi, rom qarTvel ,,sazepuro ers~ ufali RmerTi ar moaklebda Tavis siyvaruls, mariam RvTismSobeli ki - patronobas, amitomac vakurTxeT mis saxelze ganaxlebuli taZari. dRes aseve Cveni morwmune eri aRniSnavs kviracxovlobas anu aRdgomis ganaxlebas, mas aseve Tomas kvira ewodeba. aRdgomis Semdeg Cveni macxovari ieso qriste Tavis mociqulebs gamoecxada, maT Soris ar iyo Toma mociquli. ambis gagebis Semdeg man ganacxada ,,ar davijereb iesos aRdgomas, sanam Cems TiTs ar Cavyof mis xelTa nalursanevSi da dalaxvruli gverdis WrilobaSi~. ieso kvlav gamoecxada Tavis mociqulebs, maT Soris iyo ,,urwmuno~ Tomac. ufalma mouwoda mas da uTxra - modi Toma da ixile Cemi Wrilobebi da Cahyavi maTSi Seni TiTi. uflis aRdgomiT aRfrTovanebulma da gaxarebulma Tomam wamoiZaxa - ufali Cemi da RmerTi Cemi, iesom mas uTxra netari xar Sen romelmac mixile da irwmune, ufro netaria, is, vinc ver mixilavs, magram irwmunebso. maTSi Tqven, morwmuneni igulisxmebiT, romelnic uxilavi RmerTis siyvaruliTa da madliT xarT aRvsilni. dRevandel dRes - 14 aprils Cveni eri zeimobs - ,,qarTuli enis dRes~. Cveni, saqarTvelos eklesiis wmidanma ilia marTalma ena, mamuli da sarwmunoeba qarTvelTaTvis tolfard kategoriebad miiCnia, am wmida taZarSi (sanam moqmedebda Zvel dros) wirva-locva rusul-slavur enaze tardeboda da rusi wmidanis saxelic erqva eklesias, ganaxlebis Semdeg ki, dReidan aq mxolod qarTuli eniT vadidebT ufal RmerTs. SevTxov mas Tqvens dRegrZelobasa da janmrTelobas, mravals daeswariT. IV. 1991 w.

98

pirveli wirva kimoTesubanSi

1992 wlis 19 agvistos, Cveni uflisa da macxovris ieso qristes feriscvalebis dRes, 70 wlis uqmobis Semdeg pirveli wirva, anu pirveli liturgia kimoTesubnis taZarSi aRavlina mesxeTis episkoposma, yovladusamRvdeloesma meufe anania jafariZem. ziarebis Semdeg man sityviT mimarTa Semokrebil morwmuneebs.

patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno, qristes mier sayvarelo Svilebo, dRes CvenTvis ormagi dResaswauli da sixarulia. dRes msoflio marTlmadidebloba didebiT aRniSnavs Cveni uflisa da macxovris ieso qristes feriscvalebas, xolo CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sazeimoa es dResaswauli, rameTu 70 wliani uqmobis Semdeg vakurTxeT da pirveli wirva davayeneT kimoTesubnis eklesiaSi, diax, 20-ian, 30-ian wlebSi am wmida monasterSi qristianobis mtrebma akrZales wirva da locva, RvTismsaxureba, qadageba, naTlisReba, mironcxeba, ziareba, yoveli qristianuli saidumlos aRsruleba, moxsnes da moSales wmida trapezi, kankeli, xolo taZris wmida sakurTxeveli, romelSic Zvelad aTasi wlis manZilze Cveni samRvdeloeba ufal RmerTs adidebda, swiravda usisxlo msxverpls, aqcies sakoncerto scenad, sadac fsevdopatrioti muSakebi aiZulebdnen Cvens ymawvilebs emReraT da ecekvaT mmarTvelTa saameblad da saseirod. daiviwyes, rom mxolod ufali RmerTia sadidebeli. da ai, moveswariT pirvel wirvas, ,,dideba maRalTa Sina RmerTsa, qveyanasa zeda mSvidoba da kacTa Soris saTnoeba~, am sityvebiT daviwyeT wirva. vmadlobdeT ufals Cvenzed movlenili sikeTisaTvis. dRes, rogorc aRvniSneT, vdResaswaulobT Taboris mTaze Tavis mociqulTa da mowafeTa winaSe uflis feriscvalebas, odes zecaSi amaRlebuli uflis saxe iqmna viTarca mze da ubrwyinvales mzisa, xolo samosi misi spetak, viTarca Tovli. simboluria, rom am wmida taZris kurTxeviT dasrulda Cveni samcxe-javaxeTis, eparqiis fescvalebac, am aTiode wlis win mesxeTSi ar moqmedebda arc erTi qarTuli eklesia, maSin, roca moqmedebdnen yvela sxva erebis eklesiebi, somxurni - axalcixesa da axalqalaqSi, kaTolikuri eklesia, sinagogac ki, marTlmadideblur eklesiaTa umoqmedobis gamo faqtiurad Cveni eparqiac ar arsebobda, xolo adgilobrivi qarTvelebis mniSvnelovani nawili somxur eklesiebSi inaTlebodnen axalcixesa da axalqalaqSi. bednieri var rom RvTis madliT pirveli wirvebi davayene, vakurTxe da amoqmedda safaris, varZiis, zarzmis, borjomis, sayuneTis, aspinZis (xviliSas), vales da abasTumnis eklesiebi, vakurTxe axali mRvdlebi: mama serafime varZieli, mama giorgi zarzmeli, mama ioane aspinZeli, amJamad varZieli, mama efremi abasTumneli, axlaxan ki vakurTxeT mama 99

giorgi - kimoTesubneli, vakurTxeT mravali sxva mRvdelic, maT Soris borjomSic. Cvens eparqiaSi, did taZarTa Soris mxolod kimoTesubaniRa iyo darCenili kurTxevis gareSe da ai, es dRec dadga, dRevandel feriscvaleba dRes, ukve moqmedebs mesxeTis yvela didi taZari, dideba Senda ufalo, am dResac mogvaswari. Tqven mogexsenebaT, bolSevikebi daostatebulni iyvnen saeklesio qonebis ZarcvaSi. kimoTesubnis eklesia safuZvlianadaa gaZarculgapartaxebuli maTi partiis yofili wevrebis mier, amitomac am wmida taZarSi pirveli wirvis dayenebisaTvis didi mzadeba da Sroma dagvWirda iseve, rogorc sxva taZrebis amoqmedebisas. aRvadgineT kankeli, daqceuli da gauqmebuli, davageT xis iataki sakurTxevelSi, aRvmarTeT trapezi, gavawyeT xatebiT sakurTxeveli da kankeli, aRvadgineT samkveTlo, SeviZineT Sandlebi, Sesamoseli, wirvalocvisaTvis saWiro uTvalavi saeklesio inventari, magram, cxadia, eklesias aklia mravali nivTi; rac aTeisturma xelisuflebam 70 wlis manZilze eklesiidan gazida, erTbaSad ver Seivseba, magram saerTo mondomebiT yvelafris miRwevaa SesaZlebeli. eklesia eris sulieri saxlia, is aris taxti Cveni Semoqmedisa, kera marTlmadideblobisa, romelmac Cven, qarTvelebs erovneba da nacionaluri saxe SegvinarCuna, amitom gana yoveli adamiani movale araa daexmaros da Seewios deda eklesias, vinc unda iyos is xelisufali Tu miwis muSa? garegnulad, sityvierad yvela exmareba, magram saqmiT ki aravin, magaliTad, kankelisa da sakurTxevlisaTvis saWiro xis masala aravin gamogviyo, da iZulebuli gavxdi sul sxva eklesiisaTvis saWiro xis masala 5 kuburi metri gamogveyenebina am saqmisaTvis. ,,saRmrTo kldezea dafuZnebuli deda eklesia da brWeni jojoxeTisani ver moerevian mas~. ara mas esaWiroeba Cveni daxmareba, aramed piriqiT, Cven adamianebs gvesaWiroeba eklesiis daxmareba, swored ase esmodaT es sakiTxi Cvens winaprebsac. Cveni didebuli mama-papani eklesiebs aSenebdnen ara imisaTvis, raTa raime ,,istoriis~ anda ,,kulturis Zegli~ (rogorc axla uwodeben) aeSenebinaT, aramed isini mTeli SegnebiT aSenebdnen saRmrTo saxlebs, romelSic mlocvel samRvdeloebas saukuneTa manZilze unda moexsenebinaT eklesiis mSenebel-arqiteqtorTa sulebi. adamiani, rogorc mogexsenebaT, ori sawyisisagan, ori substanciisagan Sedgeba: sulisa da xorcisagan, suli ukvdavia, swored isaa Cveni ,,me~, is imyofeba xorcSi (sxeulSi), viTarca WurWelSi, droTa viTarebaSi WurWeli imsxvreva anda iSleba, anu adamianis sxeuli kvdeba, xolo suli Tavisufldeba, is ganagrZobs arsebobasa da sicocxles. sxeulisagan ganTavisuflebis Semdeg suli miiltvis RvTaebrivi naTlisaken, RmerTisaken, sulis netarebaa caTa sasufevlis damkvidreba, xolo sulis tanjva RvTaebrivi naTlisagan ganSoreba, swored amisaTvisaa saWiro samRvdeloebis locva sulisaTvis, suls esaWiroeba miwaze darCenili adamianebis locva, gansakuTrebiT eklesiebSi, swored amitom aSenebdnen Cveni winaprebi eklesiebs, amkobdnen da amSvenebdnen, 100

maT icodnen, rom liturgiis, anu wirvis dros samRvdeloeba Sesabamis ,,kvereqssa~ Tu ,,asamaRlebelSi~ uTuod moixsenebdnen mSenebelTa suls. ai, dRevandeli wirvis drosac iTqva locva: ,,saukuniTgan aRsrulebulni monani da mxevalni RvTisani, aRmaSenebelni wmindisa amis taZrisani, moixsenos ufalma RmerTma sasufevelsa Tvissa, yovladve, aw da maradis da ukuniTi ukuneTamde, amin!~ dRes mraval adamians aRar swams sulis ukvdaveba, aRar zrunavs Tavis ukvdavi sulis moxseniebisaTvis, amitomac aRarc taZarTa aSenebaSemkobas cdilobs. qristesmier sayvarelno Svilno, sul ramdenime dRis Semdeg 28 agvistos msoflios qristianoba dResaswaulobs ,,mariamobas~ anu yovladwmida deda RvTismSoblis ,,miZinebis~ dRes. es dRe kimoTesubnis taZris dResaswaulic iqneba, rameTu taZari RvTismSoblis saxelzea nakurTxi, Tqven mogexsenebaT, rom varZiisa da safaris taZrebi RvTismSoblis miZinebis saxelobisaa, amitomac am dRes vdResaswaulobT varZiobas, safarobas, aseve kimoTesubnobac idResaswauleba. yovladwmida deda RvTismSobeli miZinebis win fiqrobda saqarTveloze da loculobda qarTveli erisaTvis, Cven amas gvamcnobs ,,qarTlis cxovreba~. Cveni uflisa da macxovris ieso qristes amaRlebisa da suliwmidis mofenis Semdeg mociqulebma da RvTismSobelma wili iyares, Tu vis romel qveyanaSi unda eqadagna qristianoba. RvTismSobels wilad xvda iveriaSi qadageba, swored amitom ewoda saqarTvelos RvTismSoblis wilxvedri qveyana, saqarTveloSi gamomgzavrebis win deda RvTisas eCvena misi Ze - Cveni ufali ieso qriste da uTxra: ,,hoi dedao Cemo. me ar ugulvelvyof yvela xalxze ufro sazepuro qarTvel ers. Sen ki Sens wilxvedr saqarTveloSi waravline andria pirvelwodebuli~. marTlac deda RvTisam Tavis nacvlad CvenTan qristianobis saqadageblad gamogzavna andria mociquli, mizezi is iyo, rom moaxloebuli iyo miZineba yovladwmida mariamisa, anu gardacvaleba. andrias dedaRvTisam uTxra - ,,me marad viqnebi qarTvelTa cxovrebis ganmgebeli. marad Sevewevi, aravin mterTagan mZle eqmnas maT~. RvTismSoblis dResaswaulis Sesaxeb naTqvamia: yovladwmida qalwul mariamis miZinebis dResaswauls eklesia aRasrulebs yovelwliurad, ,,rameTu igi ukue uaRres ars yovelTa bunebasa angelosTa da kacTasa igi ars kverTxi, romlisagan aRmoscenda yvavili qristesi, misTvis Tqva winaswarmetyvelman: aha, qalwulman muclad iRos da Sves Ze~. mraval dResaswauls aRvasrulebT RvTismSoblis mosaxseneblad, magram miZinebis dResaswauli yvelas aRemateba - ,,rameTu miicvala igi cxovrebad ara mxolod suliTa, aramed xorciTac~, viTarca ilia winaswarmetyveli xorceulad amaRlda zecad. deda RvTisam 15 wlis asakSi Sva Ze Tavisi da Cveni macxovari ieso qriste. uflis jvarcmisa da amaRlebis Semdgom cxovrobda ioane RvTismetyvelis saxlSi da miicvala anu miiZina moxucebulma. 101

miZinebisas RvTis gangebiT masTan Seikriba yvela mociquli Tomas garda. is dakrZales geTsamaniis baRSi, daflvis Semdeg, mesame dRes movida Toma mociqulic, romelic didad wuxda dakrZalvaze ar yofnis gamo, surda saflavis xilva, mivida sxva mociqulebTan erTad mis saflavze da ,,vera poves gvami yovlad wmidisa RvTismSobelisa, maSin yovelTa rwmena, rameTu xorciTa sakvirvelTa gangebiTa RvTisaTa, saflavisagan zecisa sufevasa aRiyvana~. rogorc iTqva 28 agvisto (miZineba) dResaswaulia kimoTesubnisa, am dRes aq Catardeba mRvdlis mier liturgia, wirva, xolo Cven varZiaSi vwiravT. taZarSi wirva-locvis dayenebisaTvis uTuod saWironi arian mgaloblebi, medaviTneebi, mnaTeebi, eklesiuri adamianebi. dRes Cvens sazogadoebas maTi mocema ar SeuZlia, amitomac axalcixis sasuliero saswavlebels davakisreT medaviTneebisa da mgaloblebis aRzrda. raionis axalgazrdebs qalebsa da vaJebs siamovnebiT miviRebT Cven saswavlebelSi. istoriulad Tori - mesxeTis administraciul centrs warmoadgenda, rameTu am kuTxidan iyo mesxeTis mmarTveli erisTavebis sagvareulo Torel-cixisjvrelebi. maT saukuno savanes warmoadgenda es wmida taZari, Salva axalcixeli, erT-erTi qtitori am taZrisa, romlis xsenebac ramdenime kviris win aRvniSneT, wmida mowamea romelmac Tavi dado Tavisi erisaTvis. jalaledinTan omis dros mters Seerkina mesxTa mowinave laSqariT, magram mxargrZelTa Ralatis gamo Seipyres, Salvam ar uaryo qristianoba, mtkiced daicva sarwmunoeba usastikesi tanjvis miuxedavad. dRes gaxarebulia misi suli, iseve, rogorc am taZarSi aswleulobiT moRvawe berTa da monazonTa sulebi, rameTu aRsdga RvTismsaxureba. dideba ufals. gaz. ,,borjomi~, 28.VIII.1991 w.

102

episkopos anania jafariZis sityva warmoTqmuli panaSvidisas eklesiaSi mefe solomon meoris neStis q. axalcixidan gadasvenebis Semdeg
patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno, axlaxans axalcixidan gavacileT neSti saqarTvelos keTilmsaxurisa mefisa, romelmac aRasrula mcneba Cvenisa macxovrisa ieso qristesi da suli Tvisi dasdo erisa TvisisaTvis. ufalma RmerTma kacTa modgma Tavisufali nebisyofis yofiT Sehqmna. Tavisufleba TvisiTa sisxliTa mogvaniWa Cven ieso qristeman ganmaTavisuflebelman yovelTa kacTa, amitomac maradJams, yvelgan da yovelTvis mecadineoba erisa da qveynis ganTavisuflebisaTvis wminda saqmed iTvleboda, xolo saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia samSoblos TavisuflebisaTvis mebrZol yovel kacs didi RmerTis sakurTxevlis siaxloves adgils uboZebda xolme. pirvelqmnili sikeTiTa da mSvenebiT aRsavse mefe solomon meore Cveni qveynisa da eris Tavisuflebis dacvisaTvis mxned da Seudreklad ebrZoda uzarmazar, uZlieres imperias, romlis winaSec Zrwodnen msoflios mravalricxovani erebi. dedamiwis meeqvsedis mpyrobeli imperia Cvens keTilmsaxur mefe solomon meores ebrZoda ara erTi da ori, aramed uxangrZlivesi aTi wlis ganmavlobaSi - 1801 wlidan 1810 wlis CaTvliT. mefes gverdiT edga mTeli qarTveli eri, magram uxeSma Zalam daTrguna is da mefe solomonma ucxoobaSi dalia suli. Tavisuflebismoyvare qarTvel ers marad gaaCnda Tavisi erovnuli saxelmwifo. erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos pirveli mefis farnavazis Semdgom saxelovani samefo saxli farnavazianebisa TiTqmis aTassamasi weli marTavda saqarTvelos, mefe aderki, romlis drosac iSva Cveni macxovari ieso qriste, mefe rev marTali, romelic jer kidev III saukuneSi aRasrulebda macxovris zogierT mcnebas, mefe miriani romlis wyalobiT wmida ninos mier gaqristianda qarTveli eri. wmida mefe vaxtang gorgasali - farnavazianTa samefo saxlis Svilebi iyvnen. am saxelovani dinastiis naTesavsa da memkvidres warmoadgenda kidev ufro saxelovani samefo saxli bagrationebisa, romelic aTas welze met xans warmarTavda qarTvelTa cxovrebas da maT dros Cveni samSoblo bednieri iyo. saqarTvelo Tavisi eris bunebiTi kanonebis mixedviT imarTeboda. qveyana Tavisufali da damoukidebeli iyo, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ki mxned ibrZoda TavisuflebisaTvis. xalxi ekonomikurad SeZlebuli, eklesia ayvavebuli, beri berobda, eri erobda, qali qalobda, vaJi vaJobda, - ,,miT iyvis ukedo~ - ambobda didi ilia marTlis lelT Runia. qarTvel xalxs uyvarda Tavisi mefeebi. swored am dReebSi Cvenma wmida eklesiam aRniSna xseneba mefisaTvis Tavdadebuli ioTam zedginiZisa, romelmac mefis sikvdils arCia Tavad momkvdariyo da Tavi daedo mefis gadasarCenad. saqarTvelos Tavisuflebis momspobi xelisufleba eZebda mkvlels mefe solomon meoris mosaklavad, magram qarTvelTa Soris mkvleli ver moZebnes. ,,qarTvelebi TavianT mefes eTayvanebian, arc erTi qarTveli araviTar safasurad mefes ar moklavs, isev TqvenSi moZebneT aseTi mkvlelio~ - werdnen maT. ufro metic, 103

qarTvelebi Tavs debdnen mefe solomonisaTvis, ase moxda TbilisSic, saidanac gamoapares Sepyrobili mefe da axalcixeSi pativiTa da RirsebiT Sexvdnen. aq is sulkurTxeul aleqsandre batoniSvilTan erTad eZiebda gzebs saqarTvelos xsnisaTvis. Cvenma didma winaprebma erTmorwmuneobis gamo kavkasiis kari gauxsnes ucxo saxelmwifos, romlis Cinovnikebmac qalebi da bavSvebi uRlis qveS Seyares, ramac mTiuleTi aajanya 1804 wels, 1812 wlis kaxeTis ajanyebis Caqrobisas TviT oTxmoc wels mitanebuli monazonic ar daindes da sxvebTan erTad CamoaxrCes, xolo jaris Sesagebeblad jvriT xelSi mdgari samRvdeloeba xiStebze wamoages, 1820 wlis imereTis saeklesio ajanyebis moTaveobisaTvis episkoposebic ar daindes, dosiTeos quTaTels xiStiTa da cemiT suli amoxades, imave xelisuflebam erTi saukunis Semdeg msgavsadve miwaSi cocxlad damarxa mitropoliti nazari, xolo eklesia-monastrebi daangria, samRvdeloeba mospo. viTomda erTmorwmuneebma sinamdvileSi Searyies safuZveli qristianobisa da qarTveloba sarwmunoebis mimarT gaagulgriles. xalxuri leqsic ki arsebobs, raWis sofel futieTSi gamoTqmuli, romelic aujanyda sisastikes - ,,...moxvediT qristes saxeliT, magram gvingrieT saydrebi, SebRaleT yovlad wmidani, Cveni salocav-xatebi...~, yovelive amas winaswar sWvretda Cveni keTilmsaxuri mefe solomon meore. ganmeZarcva me pirvelqmnili sikeTe da mSvenebao, nabrZanebia misi saflavis epitafiaSi, da, ai, mefeo Seni saqarTveloSi CamobrZanebiT kvlav gmosavs qarTveli eri pirvelqmnili sikeTiT, romliTac aRvsili iyo bagrationTa samefo gvari. mogixsenos Sen ufalma sasufevelsa Tvissa da sajos ufalman winaaRmdgomni Senni. saukuno iyavn xseneba Seni Rirso netarebisao samaradisod xsenebulo mefev qarTvelTa. xseneba da kurTxeva Seni.

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nu daanawevrebT!
warsulSi saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia mudam eswrafoda Cveni qveynis erTianobas, mxars uWerda Zlieri centralizebuli saxelmwifos arsebobas, daqucmacebuli, urTierTdamoukidebel teritoriebad daSlili saqarTvelo mouTmeneli iyo, vinaidan erToba aZlierebda ersa da qveyanas, danawevreba ki asustebda. marTlac, XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi erTiani centralizebuli saxelmwifos daSlis Sedegad warmoqmnili kuTxuri dauZlurebuli samefo-samTavroebi mezobelma imperiebma erTmaneTs Soris gainawiles da qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobac moispo. da, ai, oraswlovani iZulebis Semdeg, qarTvelma erma kvlav Seqmna axalqarTuli saxelmwifo. parlaments jer kidev ar gamoucia kanoni saqarTvelos administraciul-teritoriuli mowyobis Sesaxeb... sazogadoeba msjelobs. Tavis statiaSi pativcemuli batoni ambrosi griSikaSvili (ix. gaz. ,,saqarTvelos respublika~ 27.II.93) saqarTvelos administraciulteritoriuli dayofis Sesaxeb wers - ,,sasurvelia, Tu amas safuZvlad daedeba saqarTvelos istoriul-eTnikuri dayofa - qarTli, kaxeTi, imereTi da ase Semdeg, ise rogorc es iyo istoriul saqarTveloSi da rogorc aris amJamad safrangeTSi, germaniaSi, avstriaSi da sxvagan~. mas surs Camoyalibdes - ,,damoukidebeli, maqsimaluri uflebebis mqone teritoriul-administraciuli erTeulebi - qarTl-kaxeT-imereTguria-samegrelo da ase Semdeg~, romelTac unda gaaCndeT ,,reanimirebuli, eTnikur qargas morgebuli mmarTveloba~. avtori ara marto aRiarebs eris SigniT ,,eTnikuri jgufebis~ arsebobas, aramed miiCnevs, rom ZvelqarTuli saxelmwifoc ,,eTnikur teritoriebad~ iyo dayofili. Cven unda ganvacxadoT, rom saqarTvelos saxelmwifos Tavisi erTianobis dros centralizebuli mmarTveloba gaaCnda da is ,,eTnikur teritoriebad~ dayofili ar yofila. saqarTvelos mefes yovel kuTxeSi TviTmpyrobeli xelmwifis uflebebi hqonda. samefo kari da umaRlesi saeklesio ierarqia saxelmwifos mkacrad centralizebul mmarTvelobas xelmZRvanelobda. am mxriv samagaliToa Wyondideli episkoposebis uflebebis gaxseneba. qarTlis, kaxeTis, imereTis samefoebi, mesxeTisa da sxva samTavroebi warmoiqmnen erTiani saxelmwifos rRvevis Semdgom, am rRvevis Sedegad. am ,,damoukidebeli~ saxelmwifoebrivi erTeulebis gaqrobisaTvis anu maTi gaerTianebisaTvis saukuneTa manZilze iRvwodnen qarTveli eris saukeTeso Svilebi. amis uaryofa SeuZlebelia. ramdenime wlis win mosaxleobis bolo ,,sakavSiro~ aRweris dros, erTi leningradeli ,,mkvlevari~ amtkicebda, rom saqarTveloSi cxovroben qarTvelebad saxeldebuli, magram sinamdvileSi TavisTavadi ,,eTnikuri jgufebi~ (fSavlebi, xevsurebi, moxeveni, qarTlelni, kaxelni, gurulni, megrelni da sxvani) da moiTxovda saaRwero monacemebSi maTi ,,eTnikuri TavisTavadobis~ Caweras: maSin am xelovnurma dayofam mTeli qarTveli eri aRaSfoTa. XIX s-is rusi moxelenic igives amtkicebnen. rusuli midgoma gamomdinareobda ,,dayavi da ibatones~ principidan da 105

emsaxureboda ruseTis imperiis ganmtkicebas, es naTeli iyo Cveni sulkurTxeuli winaprebisaTvis, amitomac iliasa da eris sxva mamebs ar uWirdaT am sakiTxze rusis moxeleebTan brZola. magram amJamad, roca qarTvelebis erTi nawili axalqarTuli saxelmwifos mSeneblobis saZirkvlad debs ,,eTnikuri dayofis~ princips - eri gaurkvevlobis burusSi efloba. arsebobs Tanamedrove midgoma erisa da saxelmwifos cnebebisadmi. dReisaTvis miCneulia, rom erT saxelmwifoSi erTi eri cxovrobs, gamomdinare principidan - yovel ers Tavisi saxelmwifo unda hqondes amJamad ersa da saxelmwifos erTmaneTTan aigiveben. ers qmnis saxelmwifos yoveli moqalaqe. magaliTad frang ers - safrangeTis moqalaqeni qmnian eTnikuri warmomavlobis miuxedavad. aqedan gamomdinare safrangeTSi, germaniasa da avstriaSi administraciul-teritoriuli mmarTveloba ar efuZneba ,,eTnikuri~ dayofis princips, rogorc aRniSnuli avtori wers. safrangeTis romelime kuTxeSi SeiZleba arsebobdes istoriulad Camoyalibebuli administraciuli erTeuli, magram es imas ar niSnavs, rom iq frangi eris romelime eTnikuri jgufi cxovrobs, rameTu frangi eri erTiania, is Sedgeba safrangeTis moqalaqeebisagan (rogorc iTqva) da ar aris daSlili eTnikur jgufebad. aseTi jgufebis arseboba Tanamedrove safrangeTis saxelmwifosaTvis ucnobia (Tu saxelmwifo Tavis teritoriaze cnobs romelime eTnikuri jgufis arsebobas, kidec unda misces avtonomiuri mmarTvelobis raime forma - kulturuli, Tu teritoriuli), asevea germaniasa da avstriaSic (marTalia II msoflio omSi germaniis dammarcxebelma saxelmwifoebma, germaniis saboloo dauZlurebis mizniT, gadawyvites qveynis dayofa eTnoteritoriebad, magram germanelTa erovnuli TviTSegnebis maRali donis gamo mowinaaRmdegis mizani miuRweveli aRmoCnda). germania centralizebul saxelmwifod gacilebiT ufro gvian Camoyalibda, vidre safrangeTi, inglisi da evropis sxva saxelmwifoebi. qveynis dayofam damoukidebel samTavroebad, germanel ers mravali tragikuli gansacdeli mouvlina Semdgom saukuneebSic, radganac gaerTianebis Semdgom aRmoCnda, rom msoflio bazari ukve mezobel centralizebul saxelmwifoebs eWiraT, germaniis industria ki geopolitikur sivrces iTxovda. evropis yvela qveyanam gaerTianebis Semdgom uCveulo warmatebas miaRwia (aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom es etapi qarTul saxelmwifos jer kidev ar gauvlia, ruseTis mier saqarTvelos dapyrobamde Cveni qveyana daSlili iyo, amJamad ganTavisuflebul da axladSeqmnil qveyanas esaWiroeba ara kvlav danawevrebis, aramed centralizaciis etapis gavla). gaerTianebisa da centralizebul saxelmwifod Camoyalibebis Semdgom (XV s.) safrangeTis calkeuli olqebi da eTnikuri regionebi erTmaneTs Seerwya savaWro urTierTobisa da erTiani meurneobis ganviTarebis Sedegad. Zlierma xelisuflebam uzrunvelyo wesrigi, Sewyda Sinaomebi, centralizebul saxelmwifoSi Camoyalibda saerTo franguli kultura. adre samxreT safrangeTis mcxovrebni, rogorc es istoriis saskolo saxelmZRvanelodanacaa cnobili, TavianT Tavs gankerZoebul eTnojgufad Tvlidnen, maT cudad esmodaT CrdiloeT 106

safrangeTis mcxovrebTa ena. qveynis gaerTianebasTan erTad XV s. dasasrulisaTvis Camoyalibeba iwyo erTianma frangulma enam, Camoyalibda erTiani eri. safrangeTi araa gamonaklisi. yvela qveyana da eri istoriis kanonzomierebas eqvemdebareba - qveynis gaerTianebis Semdgom yoveli centralizebuli saxelmwifos SigniT xangrZlivi istoriuli Tanacxovrebis Semdgom yalibdeba erTiani eri, erTi ena, erTi kultura da piriqiT - qveynis daSla-danawevreba xels uwyobs erTiani eris tomebad da ,,eTnikur jgufebad~ daSlas, erTiani saliteraturo saxelmwifoebrivi enis dasustebas. calkeul ,,damoukidebel~ provinciebSi dialeqtebis da Semdgom axali enebis warmoqmnas. saubedurod, saqarTvelos centralizebulma saxelmwifom daSla maSin iwyo, roca evropaSi aseTni iqmnebonen. erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos daSlas Sedegad mohyva dialeqtebis warmoqmna-gaRrmaveba, calkeul kuTxeTa Soris eTnografiuli sxvadasxvaobis warmoCena. amasTan dakavSirebiT ilia werda: ,,ganvTviTeuldiT, cal-calke daviSaleniT, aso-asod daviWeriT... didebuli qarTvelobis azri, is sayovelTao saxeli gonebidan gamogvecala, saxeli Cvenis xalxobisa xuT Tu eqvs naWrad davyaviT, qarTvels romelsac sazogado mniSvneloba hqonda, kerZoobiTi mniSvneloba mieca~ (i. WavWavaZe, rCeuli I, 1975). ,,imereli, guruli, megreli, qarTleli, kaxeli - es cal-calke miTvisebuli kerZoobidan miRebuli ganmyofeli saxelebi Cemis zemoxsenebulis sityvis cxadi magaliTia~ (iqve, gv. 141). ilias TvalsazrisiT saqarTvelos centralizebuli saxelmwifos daSlis Semdgom XV s-dan XIX s-is II naxevramde erTiani qarTveli eri kuTxur-tomobrivad daiyo: ,,qarTveli Cvenis tomis saerTo saxeli aRar aris, aRarc Sina da aRarc gareT, arc maxlobelTaTvis da arc ucxoTaTvis. imereli - imerelia, guruli - gurulia, megreli - megrelia, qarTleli - qarTlelia da sul yvelani ki erTad qarTvelni ar arian. vai im xalxs, romelsac saerTo ZarRvi gauwyda~ (iqve, gv. 142). ase danawevrda qarTveli eri erTiani centralizebuli saxelmwifos kuTxeebad dayofis Semdgom. magram ufro adre, wina saukuneebSi, erTiani saxelmwifos arsebobisas - eri mTliani iyo, kuTxobrivi niSniT dayofili ar yofila. Tvali gadavavloT Cvens aTaswlovan saeklesio da saistorio literaturas. giorgi mTawmindelis ,,ioanesa da efTvimis cxovreba~ TvalnaTliv gviCvenebs, rom centralizebuli saxelmwifos arsebobis dros erovnuli mTlianobis grZnoba Seudareblad maRla idga, vidre qveynis daSlis Semdgom. ioane mTawmindeli mesxi iyo. mas rom ecxovra XV-XVI saukunis Semdeg, aucileblad aRniSnavdnen mis mesxobas, magram agiografi saerTod ar aRniSnavs wmidanis kuTxur warmomavlobas. is wers: - ,,ioane iyo naTesaviT qarTveli~ (Zveli qarT. lit. Zeg. gv. 225), imitom, rom ,,mesxi~ - tomobrivi erTeuli im dros ar arsebobda. arsebobda mesxeTi, magram mkvidri mesxeTisa iyo qarTveli. aman mesxeTis mezobel xalxTa Sorisac hpova asaxva. isini (mag. osmalebi) mesxeTis mkvidrT ,,gurjebs~ uwodebdnen da ara ,,mesxebs~, magram mas Semdeg, rac Camoyalibda mesxeTis 107

damoukidebeli samTavro, aswleulTa manZilze samTavros SigniT mcxovreb qarTvelebs gamoumuSavdaT tomobrivi saxe. iverTa monasterSi mTawmindelTa dros moRvaweobdnen arseni ninowmideli da ioane xaxuleli, ninowmida kaxeTSia da arsenic Cans kaxeli iyo warmoSobiT, magram misi kaxeloba iseve, rogorc ioane xaxulelis mesxoba, arasodes arsad ar aRiniSneba erovnuli TviTSemecnebis gaubzarvelobis gamo, magram saxelmwifo mTlianobis moSlis Semdeg XVI-XVII saukuneebSi, roca iveronis axlos monasteri ,,filoTeo~ aRadgines kaxeTis mefeebma levanma da aleqsandrem, maspinZlebma maTi qarTveloba daiviwyes, kaxeloba ki moixsenies. waaweres kidec satrapezoSi gamoxatul maT freskas berZnulad - ,,aleqsandre da levani kaxeTis mefeebi~. maRali iyo erovnuli mTlianobis grZnoba saqarTvelos gaerTianebis winac IX saukunis msoflio marTlmadideblobis cnobili moRvawe - ilarioni - kaxeli iyo, kaxelebi iyvnen misi mSoblebi, magram mas eklesia da bizantiuri samyaro icnobda saxeliT - ,,ilarion qarTveli~. am wmindans rom ecxovra XVI s-is Semdgom, mis saxels albaT kuTxur elfers mianiWebdnen, msgavsadve VIII s. moRvaweni, argveTis mTavrebi daviT da konstantine ,,qarTvelebad~ iwodebodnen TanamedroveTa mier da ara ,,imerlebad~, aseve gana odesme aRniSnula giorgi Wyondidelis megreloba? gana svanebi saxelmwifoebrivi mTlianobis dros ,,erToblivi saqarTvelosaTvis~ ar loculobdnen, rogorc amas svaneTSi daculi warwera gvamcnobs? kidev erTxel unda davaskvnaT, rom centralizebuli saxelmwifos arsebobis dros qarTvelTa erovnuli TviTSemecneba Seudareblad ufro maRla idga, vidre qveynis daSlis Semdgom. zemoT moyvanili msjelobiT Cveni survili iyo dagvemtkicebina, rom Tu amJamad saqarTvelos administraciul-teritoriul dayofas safuZvlad daedeba ,,istoriul-eTnikuri dayofa~ da amis gamo saqarTvelos SigniT Camoyalibdeba ,,damoukidebeli, maqsimaluri uflebebis mqone teritoriul-administraciuli erTeulebi - qarTli, kaxeTi, imereTi da ase Semdeg~, romelTac eqnebaT ,,reanimirebuli, eTnikur qargas morgebuli mmarTveloba~ - qarTveli eris konsolidacia gadaideba ramdenime saukuniT, qarTvel erSi arsebuli kuTxobrioba kidev ufro gaRrmavdeba, saqarTvelo gadaiqceva separatistuli ,,TviTgamorkvevis~ arenad, qveyanas moicavs kuTxuri omebi da qaosi. iseve ,,rogorc es iyo istoriul saqarTveloSi~ (zemoxsenebuli avtoris sityvebs Tu gavimeorebT), roca qarTlelebis aRma xnuls kaxelebi daRma farcxavdnen, roca mZvinvarebda tomobrivi SuRli ,,mtroba da Zviris xseneba, gzebze dasxdoma mzirisa~ (Tu guramiSvils davesesxebiT). avtori brZanebs, rom amJamad saqarTveloSi ver xedavs separatizmis raime seriozul gamovlinebas. SeiZleba ase iyos axla, Tumca es azri sadavoa, magram Semdgom ,,istoriul-eTnikur~ teritoriebze, romelTac ,,eTnikur qargas morgebuli mmarTveloba~ eqnebaT, kuTxuri niSanTvisebebi gaRrmavdeba da separatizmi seriozul saxes miiRebs. msoflio integraciis gziT midis. cxadia, saqarTveloc ver acdeba amas, es gamoiwvevs saqarTveloSi arsebuli ,,eTnikuri teritoriebis~ (Tu aseTni Seiqmnebian) Serwyma-gaerTianebis pirobebis Seqmnas, ,,eTnikur 108

qargas morgebul mmarTvelobas~ garkveuli xnis Semdeg daemuqreba gaqroba, magram ,,eTnikur-Cinovnikuri nomenklatura~ Tavisi savarZlebis gauqmebas ase advilad ver Seeleva. isini waaqezeben regionis mosaxleobas separatizmisaken, Canergaven kuTxul patriotizms. magaliTebisaTvis Sors wasvla ar dagvWirdeba. rom ar yofiliyo e. w. ,,samxreT-oseTis~ eTnikuri administracia, Cven ar gveqneboda qarTulosuri konfliqti, rameTu qarTvelebsa da osebs Soris SesaniSnavi urTierTdamokidebuleba arsebobda. separatizmisaken saqarTvelos osuri mosaxleoba ,,eTnikurma administraciam~ waaqeza. aseve iyo afxazeTSi, SeiZleba aseve moxdes sxva kuTxeSic, rac, Cans, awuxebs avtors. Tu saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi mcxovrebi qarTvelTa jgufebi miiReben eTnikur teritoriebs~, gana ufro meti ufleba ar eqnebaT saqarTveloSi kompaqturad dasaxlebul araqarTvelebs msgavsi ,,eTnoteritoriebis~ moTxovnisa? es ki saqarTvelos sikeTes ar moutans. sabolood, rogorc erTi amomrCeveli, mamaSvilurad vTxov parlamentis wevrebs - ucvlelad datovon saqarTvelos administraciulteritoriuli mowyobis arsebuli saxe, nu daanawevreben saqarTvelos ,,istoriul-eTnikur~ regionebad. ,,saqarTvelos respublika~ 29.V.1993

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eklesiis istoria

mociqulTa gza
,,saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdgom saqarTvelos respublikis yoveli moqalaqe movalea Tavis qveynis warsuli icodes~ werda didi ivane javaxiSvili 1919 wels (ix. ,,damokidebuleba ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris~, gv. 1). Cveni qveynis warsuls ver gaviazrebT qarTuli eklesiis monawileobis gareSe da, piriqiT, istoria qarTuli eklesiisa aris istoria qarTveli qristiani erisa. marTalia, qarTvel xalxs erovnuli erTianobis Segneba ukve qristeSobamde didi xniT adre hqonda da farnavaz mefis mier safuZvelCayril dasavleT-aRmosavleT saqarTvelos momcvel erTian saxelmwifoSi uxdebodaT moRvaweoba Cveni uflis ieso qristes mociqulebs, magram, imis Semdeg rac qristianuli sarwmunoeba miiRo da gaiTavisa yvela qarTvelma, eris istoria qarTuli eklesiis gareSe warmoudgenelia. sazogadod qristianuli eklesia da qarTveli xalxi urTierTSeTavsebul, urTierTSerwymul mTlianobad iqca. viTarca suli da sxeuli Seadgenen erT mTels da sxeulSi ganfenili suli iRvwis misTvis, aseve qarTuli eklesia - erisaTvis. sagangebod aRsaniSnavia, rom Cveni eri msoflios im mcirericxovan erTa ricxvs ekuTvnis, romelTac damoukidebeli erovnuli eklesia aqvT. msoflios sul ramdenime aTeul ersa aqvs erovnuli (,,adgilobrivi~) eklesia. maTi meti wili XX saukuneSi Camoyalibda. qarTuli eklesia ki, Tanaxmad giorgi mTawmindelisa, mociqulTa mieraa daarsebuli am ori aTasi wlis win. Cven imdenad SeveCvieT am faqts, rom veRarc ki vafasebT mis didebulebas. ,,Zvel saqarTveloSi ueWvel WeSmaritebad iyo aRiarebuli wmida andriasa da sxva mociqulebis CvenSi moRvaweoba da qadageba. axal droSi, gansakuTrebiT XX s. dasawyisSi, wmida andrias saqarTveloSi qadageba legendad gamocxadda. uarmyofelebs erT Tavis argumentad isic miaCndaT, rom iberia umniSvnelo qveyana iyo, romelsac ar SeeZlo mociqulTa yuradRebis mipyrobao. sinamdvileSi, mociqulTa epoqaSi, I s. 30-iani wlebidan II s. 60-iani wlebis CaTvliT iberia iyo Zlieri saxelmwifo, romelic faqtiurad moicavda amierkavkasias. I-II saukuneebis saqarTvelos sidiadiTa da siZlieriT mxolod daviT aRmaSeneblisa da Tamaris gaerTianebuli saqarTvelo Tu Seedreba. mociqulTa epoqis iberia saxelganTqmuli da cnobili qveyana iyo mTels maSindel msoflioSi, amitomac romaeli istorikosebi tacitusi, dion kasiusi da sxvebi siamovnebiT uTmobdnen TavianT TxzulebebSi adgils iberiis sisxlsavse cxovrebis aRweras da Sua saukuneTa evropelebi antikuri drois iberias 110

ukeT icnobdnen, vidre TavianTi drois saqarTvelos (ix. a. jafariZe, ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria~, t. I, 1988, gv. 11-12). CvenTvis sasaxeloa, rom imperatorma avgustma, romlis drosac wmida saxarebis Tanaxmad daibada ufali ieso qriste (luka 2,1) safuZveli daudo megobrul urTierTobas romis imperiasa da iberiis saxelmwifos Soris. romTan urTierTobis wyalobiT, iberiis saxelmwifos sazRvrebi gafarTovda, am droisaTvis albaneTi misi gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda, xolo somxeTs zogjer iberiis samefo ojaxis wevrebi marTavdnen (magaliTad, farsman mefis Ze radamisti, iberiis mefis Zma miTridate) I sis Sua wlebSi, xolo I s-is 70-ian wlebSi, rogorc amas 1940 wels aRmoCenili warwera uCvenebs, farsman mefis Ze miTridatem somxeTSi didi gamarjveba izeima. iberiis saxelmwifos sazRvrebi Savi zRvis pirze rom gadadioda, mowmobs ariane (II s-is dasawyisSi), amitomac romi iberias didi pativiscemiT ekideboda. imperator antonius piusis (133-161) dros iberiis mefe farsman II-s sazeimo Sexvedra mouwyes romSi da msoflios dedaqalaqSi misi cxenosani qandakebac aRmarTes, rogorc es sayovelTaodaa cnobili, dion kasiusis Tanaxmad, imperators ,,gaufarToebia misi samflobelo. ,,Cans ara marto cno iberiis ukve arsebuli sazRvrebi, aramed daumata kidec sxva miwebi SavizRvispireTsa da somxeTSi~ (iqve, gv. 26). romTan megobrobisa da sagareo omebSi warmatebebis gamo saqarTveloSi didi simdidre dagrovila - ,,Zvel istorikosTa cnobebs iberiis Sesaxeb adastureben arqeologebi, romelnic rwmundebian, rom qarTvel ers aseTi mdidari da brwyinvale saxelmwifo arasodes hqonia, Tu ar CavTvliT Tamaris epoqas (gv. 13). cnobilia, armazis arqeologiuri ganZis simdidrem iv. javaxiSvils aTqmevina, rom xelaxla iyo dasaweri saqarTvelos istoriis es monakveTi. swored iberiis Zlierebis aRniSnuli periodi I s-is 30-iani wlebidan II s-is 60-iani wlebis CaTvliT iwodeba mociqulTa epoqad. am dros Cveni uflisa da macxovris ieso qristes mociqulebi (aTTormetni da samocdaaTTaganni) qadagebdnen mTels msoflioSi, daaarses pirveli adgilobrivi eklesiebi da safuZveli daudes msoflio qristianobas. am dros ki, rogorc araerTxel aRiniSna, iberia ubrwyinvalesi saxelmwifo iyo - amierkavkasiis hegemoni. maS ratom unda aeqciaT gverdi mociqulebs iberiisaTvis? ruseTsa da ucxoeTSi dastambuli axali aRTqmis yvela seriozul gamocemaSi dasaxelebulia msoflios mravali qveyana, sadac mociqulebs uqadagniaT anda mowameobrivad aRsrulebulan, kerZod, romis imperia, skviTia, egvipte, eTiopia, sparseTi, asia, frigia, afrika Tu indoeTi. samwuxarod, maTSi araferia naTqvami mociqulebis saqarTveloSi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. cnobilia, rom berZeni da romaeli avtorebi skviTias uwodeben Savi zRvis garSemo gadaSlil vrcel qveyanas, romlis erTi nawili Semdgom ruseTis saxelmwifom daiWira: amis gamo Zvel rusul (slavur) saeklesio istoriografiaSi gaCnda Txzulebani, romelTa Tanaxmadac andria pirvelwodebulma dnepris gziT miaRwia im adgilebamde, sadac Semdgom aRmocenda kievis qalaqi. andria mociqulma aq ,,akurTxa kievis gorebi~, slavur saeklesio istoriografiaze dayrdnobiT, rusuli eklesia 111

gamocxadebulia wmida andria pirvelwodebulis mier dafuZnebulad. ruseTis sapatriarqos mier gamocemuli naTlisRebis aTasi wlisTavisadmi miZRvnili wigni - ,,russkaia pravoslavnaia cerkov~ amas aRniSnavs da did mniSvnelobas aniWebs am faqts. axlaxan daibeWda a. nikitinis gamokvleva ,,mociqul andrias nakvalevze~, romelSic mraval wyaroze dayrdnobiT garkveulia andria mociqulis mier Crdilo dasavleT SavizRvispireTSi ganvlili gza (ix. a. nikitin, ,,po sledam apostola andreia~, 1990), romlis Tanaxmadac, mociquli andria SavizRvispireTidan romSi Casula mdinare dunaize im droisaTvis arsebuli saerTaSoriso gziT. ase rom, msoflioSi udidesi da erT-erTi yvelaze gavleniani ruseTis eklesia, misi mkvlevari istorikosebi, TavianTi erovnuleklesiuri saWiroebisaTvis SeuzRudavad iyeneben wmida andrias Sesaxeb arsebul cnobebs. CvenSi ki, ratomRac sifrTxiles iCenen yovelTvis. ara Tu andria pirvelwodebulis, TviT wmida ninos moRvaweobac ki Tavis droze legendad gamocxadda, ufro metic, istoriul WeSmaritebad iyo miCneuli azri, rom qarTvelebma wmida ninos moRvaweobis Sesaxeb legenda Caiweres IX-X saukuneebSi, da amitomac Cvenamde moRweuli wm. ninos cxovrebis vrceli redaqcia - ,,ar unda iyos IX s-ze adrindeli Zeglio~. ,,wmida ninos cxovrebis~ Tanamedrove mkvlevari - mecnieri m. CxartiSvili qarTuli wyaroebis mimarT amgvar damokidebulebas ,,hiperkritikuls~ uwodebs. is wers: ,,zemoTqmulic aSkaras xdis, rom qarTuli wyaroebis mimarT hiperkritikuli damokidebulebis pirobebSi ,,ninos cxovrebis~ vrceli redaqciis gviani saukuneebiT daTariReba xdeboda faqtebze ZaldatanebiT... dRes specialistTa nawilis mier vrceli ,,ninos cxovrebis~ gvianxanaSi Seqmnis Sesaxeb Tvalsazrisis gaziareba emyareba mxolod da mxolod dasaxelebul mkvlevarTa avtoritets da ara raime ganmtkicebul sabuTs~. m. CxartiSvili wers: ,,SeuZlebelia vaRiarebdeT imas, rom qarTlSi qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebas IV s-Si hqonda adgili da amave dros vamtkicebdeT, rom cnobebi am faqtis Sesaxeb mxolod IX s-Si Caiweres. esec rom ara, rogor SeiZleba warmovidginoT, ,,rom V s-Si ,,rigiT~ wmindans SuSaniks saqarTveloSi eZRvneboda specialuri Txzuleba, qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblis ,,mociqulTasworis~ ninos cxovreba ki aRwerili ar iyo!~. marine CxartiSvilma Tavisi kvlevis meSveobiT daadastura Zvel qarTul istoriografiaSi miRebuli, xolo axal qarTulSi uaryofili, faqti imisa, rom wmida ninos cxovreba IV saukuneSi daiwera. amis aRiareba garkveulwilad sarisko iyo, rameTu qarTul wyaroTa mimarT hiperkritikuli damokidebuleba dogmad iyo qceuli. Cans amis gamo uyurebdnen qarTul wyaroebs mometebuli eWvis TvaliT. ,,Cans, maSin, roca es striqonebi iwereboda, marTlac aucilebeli iyo qarTul wyaroTa mimarT hiperkritikuli damokidebuleba, Torem sxvagvarad warmoudgenelia amgvari pretenzia waeyenos nawarmoebs~ (m. CxartiSvili ,,qarTuli hagiografiis wyaroTmcodneobiTi Seswavlis problemebi~, 1987, gv. 80). Zvel qarTul wyaroTa da qronikaTa mimarT hiperkritikuli damokidebulebis recidivebi amJamadac arsebobs. magaliTad, andria 112

pirvelwodebulma, Zvel cnobaTa Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi Semoasvena RvTismSoblis cnobili - awyuris saswaulmoqmedi xati, maSasadame, es xati I saukunisaa, aseve pirvel saukunisad TariRdeba awyuris xati yovelwliur rusul saeklesio kalendrebSi, xolo CvenSi es xati XVIXVII saukuneebiT TariRdeba moWedilobis mixedviT; aseve Cveni wyaroebi weren, rom andria pirvelwodebulma saqarTveloSi araTu ,,gorebi akurTxa~, aramed pirveli saepiskoposoc ki daaarsa awyurSi (,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad) Tavis samRvdeloebiT, aseve samRvdeloeba daudgina didaWaris gaqristianebul mrevls. es cnobebic daufasebelia. andria pirvelwodebulis mier saqarTveloSi ganvlili gzis gansazRvra SesaZlebelia Zveli qarTuli wyaroebisa da Zveli rukebis SejerebiT, Cven amis Sesaxeb vwerdiT 1988 wels zemoT aRniSnul wignSi. wm. andrias Sesaxeb yvelaze adreul cnobebs iZleva evsevi kesarieli meoTxe saukunis dasawyisSi. rogorc cnobilia, uflis amaRlebis Semdeg deda RvTismSobelsa da mociqulebs wilad xvdaT msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi qadageba, sadac unda eqadagnaT qristianoba. evsevi kesarielis Tanaxmad, andria gaemgzavra skviTiaSi, romelic imdroindeli gansazRvrebiT moicavda Savi zRvis dasavleTiT, CrdiloeTiT da aRmosavleTiT mdebare miwebs. andrias aseve mouvlia anatoliis CrdiloeTi, kavkasia, azovispireTi, yirimi, bizantia, elada (v. g. vasilevski, Sromebi, t. II, 1909, gv. 214). Zveli mwerlobis cnobebs andriasa da sxva mociqulebis skviTiaSi mogzaurobis Sesaxeb didi yuradReba miapyres Cvenma didma mTawmindelma wmida mamebma X s-is bolosa da XI s-is dasawyisSi. maT am aTasi wlis win gadmogvces iberiaSi mociqulebis mier ganvlili gza, ramac asaxva hpova ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ CanarTebSi. maT SeamCnies, rom Zveli avtorebi skviTiasa da skviTuri tomebis qveS xSirad gulisxmobdnen kolxeTsa da dasavlur qarTul tomebs. marTlac, Zveli avtorebi skviTias kaspiisa da Sav zRvas Soris moqceveul teritoriasac uwodebdnen, rac uflebas aZlevs iv. javaxiSvils ,,Zv. w. aR. pirvel aTaseulSi mcxovreb skviTsarmatebSi ZiriTadad qarTvelTa monaTesave Crdilo-kavkasiis mosaxleoba igulisxmos~ (g. axvlediani, iv. javaxiSvili epikuri... lit. Ziebani, III, 1989, gv. 455). ZvelqarTveli istorikosebi ki amCnevdnen, rom das. saqarTveloSi mosaxle tomebi, romelTac Zveli avtorebi zogjer ,,skviTebs~ uwodebdnen, iyvnen dasavleT saqarTveloSi andrias mier damoZRvrili qarTuli tomebi. aq TandarTul rukaze gadmocemulia andrias saqarTveloSi mogzaurobis gza, Sedgenili Zvel cnobebze dayrdnobiT. aRsaniSnavia, rom ZvelqarTvel istorikosTa mier gadmocemuli andria mociqulis marSruti - trapizoni, afsari (gonio), didaWara, oZrxe, awyuri, dasavleTi saqarTvelo, cxumi (sebastopolisi), nikofsia - TiTqmis emTxveva Zvel romaul IV saukunis sagzao rukas - ,,tabula peutingerianis~, romelzec saerTaSoriso savaWro gzebia datanili; marTalia, es ruka IV saukunisaa ,,magram mniSvnelovanwilad ufro Zvel III ss. masalas emyareba (ix. saq. ist. nark. I. gv. 535). wm. andrias saqarTveloSi ramdenjerme umogzauria, pirvelad is marto Camosula, xolo Semdeg sxva mociqulebTan, kerZod, simon kananelsa da mataTa mociqulTan erTad. Cvens mier garkveulia, rom pirvelad wm. andrias 113

saqarTveloSi umogzauria 30-35 wlebSi (ix. a. jafariZe, dasax. naSr. gv. 38) da aseve isic, rom mociquli mataTa ganisvenebs saqarTveloSi (iqve, gv. 39), Zvel afsarSi (gonioSi). xolo simon kananelis saflavis Sesaxeb nikofsiaSi miuTiTebda jer kidev giorgi mTawmindeli. amJamad, ki simon kananelis gansasvenebelia, mdinare fsircxas xeobaSi, axal aTonTan axlos (ix. ,,saq. marTlmadidebeli eklesia~, rusul enaze, m. 1983, gv. 3). Cans, mociqulis wmida nawilebi nikofsiidan gadmoasvenes XVI-XVII saukuneebSi, afxazeTSi momxdar eTnikur cvlilebebTan dakavSirebiT Seqmnili daZabuli politikuri viTarebis gamo. aRniSnul kuTxeTa garda andrias umogzauria taoSi, aseve svaneTSi. saidanac is gadasula ,,oseTSi~, iqedan ki afxazeTis gavliT dabrunebula cxumSi (savaraudo gza asaxulia rukaze). ,,oseTi~ im droisaTvis, rogorc cnobilia mdebareobda swored svaneT-afxazeTis CrdiloeTiT, Cans amis gamoc afxazeTis erT Crdilo kuTxes ,,alania~ erqva. aseve mniSvnelovania CvenTvis wmida ninos mier ganvlili gza. ,,wmida ninos gza qarTuli eklesiis siwmindea simon kananelisa da mataTa mociqulis saflavebTan da andria mociqulis mier ganvlil gzasTan erTad~, Cveni mematianeebis mier gadmocemuli wmida ninos marSrutis Sesaxeb masSi aRniSnulia - ,,mematianeebis Tanaxmad, wmida nino faravnis da mtkvris xeobas gahyolia urbnisamde. amJamadac javaxeTidan samcxemde da Semdgom xaSuramde gza am xeobas gasdevs. es erTaderTi sagzao adgilia, sxvagan gzis gayvana mouxerxebelia~. am xuTi wlis win am winadadebis gamo Cemi azriT ,,hiperkritikulad~ ganwyobilma mkvlevarma sayveduri gamoTqva. man ganacxada, rom wmida nino gahyveboda ara faravnis tbidan gamdinare mdinares, aramed faravnidan urbnisSi mimaval TrialeTis qedze gamaval saqaravno gzas. marTlac sul axlaxan dastambuli ,,SidaqarTlis~ V s-is ruka (ix. saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis ZeglTa aRweriloba, #5, 1990, gv. 17) uCvenebs, rom faravnidan marTlac gadadioda pirdapiri gza TrialeTis gavliT ruissa da urbnisSi, iqve darTuli wina saukuneTa rukac aseve uCvenebs faravnis tbidan qarTlSi Semaval mokle gzebs, magram me vfiqrob, Cven unda vendoT mematianes, Zvel wyaros, miTumetes, rom javaxeTsa da samcxeSi arseboben mtkvris piras taZrebi wmida ninos saxelobisa, arc isaa SemTxveviTi, rom samcxeSi, uravlis xeobaSi, sofels ewodeba ,,andriawmida~, rac am kuTxeSi andrias moRvaweobis damadasturebel niSnad miiCneva. wmida ninosTan dakavSirebiT unda gavixsenoT cnobili somexi istorikosis movses xorenacis mier gadmocemuli cnoba, rom wmida ninom iqadaga ,,klarjeTidan masquTebamde~ (ix. somxeTis istoria, 1984, gv. 172). masquTebi kaspiis zRvis pirze cxovrobdnen, iberiidan masquTebisaken mimavali yvelaze moxerxebuli gza gadioda axlandel saingilos, anu Zveli aRmosavleT kaxeTis gavliT. xorenacis cnobiT wmida ninos gacilebiT met arealze uqadagnia, vidre amas ,,qarTlis cxovreba~ gvamcnobs. TandarTul rukaze gadmocemulia wmida ninos gza ,,qarTlis cxovrebisa~ da savaraudo gza - xorenacis mixedviT.

114

iberiis I-V saukuneebis ruka Sedgenilia Zvel wyaroTa mixedviT. ,,qarTlis cxovreba~, iseve, rogorc sxva qronikebi Tanmimdevrulad gvamcnoben, rom (gansakuTrebiT ,,moqcevai qarTlisai~) qarTlis, anu iberiis samefos sazRvari Crdilo-dasavleTiT gadioda egriswyalze mefe farnavazidan vidre mefe vaxtang gorgaslamde. vaxtangis dros iberiasa da bizantias Soris sazRvari gavlebuli iqna mdinare klisuraze, rac aRniSnulia rukaze.

gaz. ,,eri~, 21. VIII. 1991 w.

115

qristianoba andria mociqulidan wmida ninomde


qristianoba saqarTveloSi gaavrceles TviT wmida mociqulebma Tanaxmad qarTuli eklesiis wmida mamebisa; amasTanave Cven viciT, rom qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelia Rirsi deda nino. SeiZleba daisvas kiTxva: Tu qarTveli xalxi moaqcies (gaaqristianes) wmida mociqulebma, raRa saWiro iyo wmida ninos qadageba. am kiTxvaze pasuxi ZvelTaganve arsebobda, ramac asaxva hpova ruis-urbnisis krebis ZeglisweraSi (1103), sadac kerZod naTqvamia - ,,andria pirvelwodebuli, Zma mociqulTa Tavisa petresi, Cvenamdec movida, saxareba iqadaga saqarTvelos yovel kuTxeSi (dedanSia - ,,yovelsa qveyanasa saqarTvelosasa~), xalxis uricxvi raodenoba ganaSora eSmaks, aswavla erTi RmerTis, qristesa da maTi Tanaarsis suliwmidis Tayvaniscema, magram qarTlis (e. i. saqarTvelos) eris umravlesobam didi drois ganmavlobaSi daiviwya mociqulis qadageba da kerpTa sacdurs daubrunda... gavida 300 weli konstantines gamefebamde. konstantine gaxda pirveli qristiani mefeTa Soris... amave dros maRliT gamogvxeda Cven aRmosavalma, vinme tyve dedakacma, romelsac nunna kapadokiels uwodeben, CvenSi arsebuli saeklesio moTxrobebi, miizida qarTvelTa sruli modgma~.1 andria mociqulis mier qarTuli eklesiis daarsebis Sesaxeb XI s-is dasawyisSi ganucxada giorgi mTawmindelma antioqiis patriarqs ,,wmidao meufeo, Sen ityvi, viTarmed Tavsa mis mociqulTaisa petres saydarsa vzio: xolo Cven pirvelwodebulisa da Zmisa Tvisasa mwodebelisa nawili varT da samwysoni da mis mier moqceulni da ganaTlebulni: da erTi wmidaTa aTormetTa mociqulTagani - simons vityvi kananelsa, qveyana Cvensa damarxul ars afxazeTs, romelsa nikofsi ewodebis. amaT wmidaTa mociqulTa ganaTlebulni varT da vinaiTgan erTi RmerTi gvicnobies aRara uar gviyofies~.2 giorgi mTawmindelis azrs imis Taobaze, rom qristianoba CvenSi uwyvetad arsebobda, arqeologia da werilobiTi wyaroebic adasturebs. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania bolo wlebis arqeologiuri aRmoCenebi. saqarTvelos mraval kuTxeSi aRmoCnda I-II-III saukuneTa samarxebi, romlebSic micvalebulebi dakrZalulni arian qristianuli wesiT (gulaRma gaSotili TaviT dasavleTisaken). I-II saukuneebs ganekuTvneba 1978 wels mcxeTaSi arqeologiuri eqspediciis mier mikvleuli samarxi. ,,dakrZalulTa poza, damxroba, nivTieri masalis simcire, saneke beWedi, sardionis Tval-intilioTi erT mxares mimarTuli ori Tevzisa da Ruzis gamosaxulebiT, migvaniSnebs, rom samarxi qristianisaTvis gaumarTavT~.3 micvalebulTa qristianuli wesiT dakrZalvis niSnebi aRmoCnda didi mcxeTis sxva samarovanzec - ,,kerZod, qristianuli samkvdro wesebis metnaklebi dacviT gaupatiosnebiaT micvalebulebi samTavros samarovanze, 1938-1940 da 1976-1983 wlebSi gaTxrili samarxebis erT nawilze~.4 T. bibiluris Tanaxmad mcxeTa-qalaqSi, sveticxovlis midamoebSi Seswavlili samarxebis erT jgufSi, romelnic zogadad II-III saukuneebs ganekuTvneba, micvalebulebi met-naklebad qristianuli wesebis dacviT arian dakrZalulni.5 116

gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia, rom I-III saukuneebis qristianuli wesebis dacviT dakrZaluli micvalebulebis samarxebi aRmoCnda ara marto didi mcxeTis teritoriaze, aramed, saerTod, saqarTvelos centralur provinciebSi - mcxeTidan vidre modinaxesa da rganamde (dasavleT saqarTvelos soflebamde). ,,qristianobis oficalur religiad gamocxadebamde saqarTveloSi qristes sjulis mimdevarTa arsebobaze migviTiTebs ioane sabanisZe Tavis ,,abo Tbilelis wamebaSi~. IV saukunemde qarTlSi qristianTa arsebobas varaudrobdnen i. javaxiSvili, s. janaSia, g. lomTaTiZe, p. ingoroyva, g. gozaliSvili, a. bogveraZe. vfiqrobT am varauds mxars uWers saqarTvelos teritoriaze mTel rig raionebSi (mcxeTa, erwo, axali Jinvali, aragvispiri, zRuderi, modinaxe) Catarebuli arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad aRmoCenili qristianuli samarxebi, romlebic II-III saukuneebiT TariRdeba~.6 rogorc aRiniSna, II-III saukuneebSi, Tanaxmad arqeologiuri aRmoCenebisa, qristianebi cxovrobdnen ara marto aRmosavleT, aramed dasavleT saqarTveloSic. zemo imereTSi momuSave arqeologiurma eqspediciam daafiqsira II-III saukuneTa qristianuli samarxebi, samarovanze warmarTebis gverdiT qristianebsac krZalavdnen ,,dakrZalvis wesic met-naklebad warmarTulia - micvalebulebi marcxena an marjvena gverdze wvanan mokrunCxul pozaSi... zogierT samarxSi qristianuli dakrZalvis wesic dafiqsirda, es didmniSvnelovani faqtia~.7 ara Tu qristianuli samarxebi, arqeologebma aRmoaCines II-III saukuneTa qristianuli eklesiis naSTi sofel nastakisSi. Cveni erovnuli eklesiis istoriisaTvis uaRresad didi mniSvnelobisaa arqeologTa mier II-III saukuneebis saeklesio Senobis safuZvlis aRmoCena nastakisis naqalaqarze - ,,nastakisis velze ufro Zlieri dasaxlebac yofila Sua saukuneebSi, rasac naqalaqaris teritoriaze gaTxril nagebobaTa naSTebi mowmobs. sacxovrebeli nagebobani mravali oTaxisa da erTi didi darbazisagan Sedgeboda. amgvar nagebobaSi erTi oTaxi mcire eklesias warmoadgenda, mkveTrad gamoyvanili absidiTa da narTeqsiT. am periodSi qristianoba jer kidev ar aris gamocxadebuli oficialur saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad, aralegalur mdgomareobaSia da TavSefarebuli Cans sacxovrebel nagebobaSi. am faqts ki didi mniSvneloba aqvs qarTlis samefoSi qristianuli religiis istoriis Sesaswavlad~.8 arqeologiurma aRmoCenebma daadastura ZvelqarTul wyaroTa mtkicebani imis Sesaxeb, rom qristianuli sarwmunoeba saqarTveloSi iqadageboda I saukunidanve. qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT andria pirvelwodebuli saqarTveloSi Semosula mefe aderkis dros, romelic Tanaxmad g. meliqiSvilisa, mefobda ,,Cveni eris I s-is dasawyisSi, 30-iani wlebis Suamde~ saqarTveloSi Semdgomi mogzaurobis dros wmida andrias Tan Semoyolia mociqulebi mataTa da simon kananeli, romelnic saqarTveloSive gardacvlilan da aqve arian dakrZalulni, Tanaxmad berZnuli wyaroebisa. epifane konstantinepolelis (VIII s.) Tanaxmad, romelic iyenebda Zvel wyaroebs, mociquli simon kananeli dakrZalulia nikofsiaSi, xolo 117

epifane kviproselis (IV s.) Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi meore mociqulicaa dakrZaluli - mataTa anu mataTia, romelic mociqulad arCeuli iqna nacvlad iuda iskariotelisa - ,,mataTiam... iqadaga saxareba meore eTiopiaSi (kolxeTSi, sadac aris afsaris cixe-simagre da svisis navsadguri... igi gardaicvala da damarxulia (gonioSi) dRemde~.9 afsari, romelsac dRes ewodeba gonio (baTumis axlos), warmoadgenda mniSvnelovan punqts, sadac romaelTa didi garnizoni, xuTi kohorta idga. qarTul wyaroTa Tanaxmad andriasa da sxva mociqulebs ara marto xalxi gauqristianebiaT, safuZveli CauyriaT qarTuli saeklesio organizaciisaTvis, kerZod, maT dauarsebiaT saqarTveloSi pirveli saepiskoposo imdroisaTvis did qalaq awyurSi (,,qarT. cxov.~ I, gv. 41). ukurTxebiaT sasuliero pirebi - diakvnebi, mRvdlebi da episkoposi (iqve). aRniSnulTa garda, sxva mociqulebsac uqadagniaT saqarTveloSi. efrem mcire berZnul wyaroebze dayrdnobiT werda, rom saqarTveloSi sxvebTan erTad iqadaga mociqulma barTlomem. arqanjelo lambertic, Cans, laTinur wyaroebze dayrdnobiT werda - ,,darwmunebuli unda viyoT, rom ori mociqulis (andria pirvelwodebulisa da barTlomes) qadagebiT dainerga sarwmunoeba am qveyanaSi~.10 XVI s. slavuri wyaros Tanaxmad - ,,adgili mociqul Tomasi aris iveriis saydari~.11 Cveni eklesiis istoriis mkvlevarebis m. kelenjeriZisa da c. nikolaZis Tanaxmad, mcire aziasa da kapadokiaSi mcxovreb qarTvelTa Soris, uqadagniaT mociqulebs - petres, pavlesa da ioanes. ara marto 12 mociqulTagan, 70 mociqulTaganac yofilan iberiaSi da uqadagniaT. ,,m. TamaraSvilma Seiswavla da daamuSava manamde sxvaTaTvis xelmiuwvdomeli didZali masala laTinur, italiur, frangul enebze, mkiTxvels gaacno ramdenime qarTveli moRvawe... aseTebia evagre, markioni, orentiusi, heroisi, farnacio, firmani, firma, kiriake da longini. isini qarTveli meomrebi iyvnen da imperator maqsimilianes emsaxurebodnen I saukuneSi. SemdgomSi isini gaitaca qristianulma moZraobam, risTvisac imperatorma TavianT qveyanaSi, kolxidaSi gaaZeva. es qarTvelebi TavTavianT soflebSi dasaxldnen cal-calke... erTob sainteresoa, rom pirveli aTeisti, romelic msoflio istoriaSi Sevida da saqveynod gaxda cnobili, qarTveli yofila, misi saxelia markioni. is Cv. w. I saukuneSi cxovrobda, TiTqmis qristes Tanamedrove iyo. ganaTlebiT sasuliero piri yofila - kolxeTis episkoposi. mamamisic palmosic episkoposi iyo... palmosma urwmuno Teoriis qadagebisaTvis sajarod dawyevla Svili da eklesia waarTva. markioni kolxididan sagangebod wavida romis papTan anikitesTan Sesavedreblad, magram man uari uTxra, radgan mamis wyevlis moxsna ar SeeZlo... romaeli avtoris ireneiosis cnobiT episkoposma palmosma da misma megobrebma kolxidaSi 70 eklesiamonasteri aaSena~.12 erTi cnoba aseTia - ,,iberiis im nawilma, romelic pontos zRvasTan mdebareobs da kolxidad iwodeba, saxareba jer kidev imperator traianes dros mqadagebeli papis wmida klimentis SemweobiT miiRo. wm. klimenti im mxareSi iyo gadasaxlebuli~.13 118

rogorc zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, I-II saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi ori saepiskoposo yofila, romelTagan erTi mesxeTSi (awyurSi) mdebareobda, meore ki kolxeTSi iyo. aq episkoposad palmosi iyo gamorCeuli. Cvenma didma kaTolikos-patriarqma anton pirvelma Zveli masalebis gadamuSavebis Sedegad aRwera II s-is dasawyisSi wamebuli qarTveli qristianebis cxovreba. Tanaxmad antonisa, II saukuneSi wamebuli 19 qarTveli qristianis xsenebas Cveni eklesia aRniSnavda saukuneTa manZilze. is wers - ,,mamaTgan gaCenili igi xsenebai: TqmulTa mowameTa saTanado iqmna Cvenda ara datovebad~, vinaidan weril ars - ,,nu scvaleb sazRvarsa, romeli damtkices mamaTa SenTa~.14 antoni ase aRwers am ambavs - ,,Zma uflisa~ mociquli iuda edesis samTavroSi Sexvda saberZneTidan gamogzavnil xrisosa da mis TanmxlebT, daimowafa isini. xrisos mRvdlad kurTxevis Semdgom iuda mociquli aResrula. xriso da misi ukve naTelRebuli Tanmxlebni daemkvidrnen ,,martoebiT~ evfratis saTaveebSi. aRsaniSnavia, rom evfratis saTaveebi warmoadgenda qarTvelTa istoriul sacxovriss. TviT XVII saukuneSic ki evfratis saTaveebSi antioqieli patriarqis makariosis cnobiT qarTveli marTlmadideblebi cxovrobdnen. xrisos da mis ,,moyvasT~ male dauwyiaT qadageba, maT evfratSive mounaTlavT somxeTis samefo karze stumrad myofi ,,alvaneli aznaurni~ - ,,amaT, romelTaca naTel iRes, ixiles qriste borcvsa zeda~, isinic iqve daemkvidrnen da 44 weli ,,mZovarni~ moRvaweobdnen gandegilni. am xnis manZilze kani gauuxeSdaT da eqcaT tyavad, romelic TmiT daefaraT, rasac isini daucavs sxeulis sneulebaTagan. maTi saxelebi yofila - suqios, lukanos, polievqtos, kondratos, ivqiririon, mimianos, foka, nerangios, domentios, andrianos, zosimos, viktarios, Talalos, iordanos, anastasios, iakobos, Teodoritos. maTi samSobloSi dabruneba viTarc warCinebulebisa da aznaurebisa mouTxovia ,,alvanis~ mefes, aseve mouTxovia maTgan qristianobis uaryofa, razedac uari miiRo. ris gamoc mefis mier gagzavnilebma wamebiT daxoces qristianobis damcvelni. maTi ganuxrwneli gvamebi 230 wlis Semdeg mociqulTa swor imperator konstantine didis (gard. 337 w.) dros unaxavT. maSasadame, mesukavelebs moRvaweoba evfratis saTaveebSi dauwyiaT 67 wels, xolo aRsrulebani, rogorc aRiniSna, 44 wlis Semdeg anu 107 wels. qarTuli saeklesio istoriografiis Tanaxmad isini iyvnen ,,qarTvelni mowameni~.15 unda davaskvnaT, rom mociqulTa qadagebas saqarTveloSi unayofod ar Cauvlia. irineosi Tvlida, rom qarTvelebma (iberebma), romlebic iwodebian kolxebad (geografiuli adgilis mixedviT) qristianoba jer kidev romis imperator traiannemde (98-117) miiRes. imave cnobiT im qarTvelebma, romlebic kaspiis zRvisaken kavkasiis mTebTan cxovroben (igulisxmeba aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba) qristianuli sarwmunoeba ufro gvian miiRes. es cnoba srulebiT eTanxmeba ,,qarTlis cxovrebas~, romlis monacemebiTac qarTvelTagan qristianoba pirvelebma miiRes megrelebma (kolxebma) da klarjebma (samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba). saqarTveloSi qristianobas sazogadoebis moralsa da zneobaze mouxdenia Tavisi dadebiTi gavlena II-III saukuneebSi, rogorc amas 119

uCvenebs mefe rev marTalis (gard. 213) reforma. am qarTvel mefes hqonia ,,siyvaruli qristesi~ - ,,ese rev mefe daRacaTu iyo warmarTi, aramed iyo mowyale da Semwe yovelTa WirveulTa: rameTu smenil iyo misda mcired rame saxareba uflisa Cvenisa ieso qristesi da aqunda siyvaruli qristesi. man aRaravis uteva qarTlsa Sina yrmaTa kvlav, romelsa amisa uwinares da pirvel kerpTa mimarT Seswiravdes msxverplad yrmaTa da vidre igi iyo mefed, arRaravin klavda yrmaTa kerpTaTvis, aramed cxvrisa da zroxisa Sewirva ganuwesa, amisaTvis ewoda mas rev marTali~ (q. cx. I. gv. 58). ,,TavisTavad cxadia, rom aseT radikalur reformas mefe ver moaxdenda, Tu rom warmarTul sarwmunoebas Zveli gavlena da mniSvneloba sakmaod Seryeuli ara hqonoda, Tuki uwindeli msoflmxedvelobis mimarT kritikul damokidebulebas sazogadoebaSi fexi ar hqonoda mokidebuli... qarTuli saistorio wyaros miTiTeba imaze, rom revi icnobda qristes saxarebas, maincdamainc mermindel CanarTad ar unda miviCnioT, sruliad bunebrivad SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom qristianoba, rogorc axali msoflmxedvelobiTi moZRvreba, rogorc axali religiur-zneobrivi sistema, jer ara rogorc saxelmwifoebrivsarwmunoebrivi sistema, Cveni welTaRricxvis pirvel saukuneebSi cnobili iyo saqarTveloSi, ara mxolod mefeTa da warCinebulTaTvis, aramed mosaxleobis nawilisaTvisac~.16 ,,iberias Zalze mWidro kavSiri hqonda imdroindel kulturul msofliosTan. romisa da Semdeg bizantiis imperiebi misi uSualo mezoblebi iyvnen. saqarTvelos erTi nawili mcire aziis geografiul regionSi mdebareobda. mcire azia da siria ukve II-III saukuneebSi qristianul regions warmoadgenda qristianTa simravlis gamo. III saukunesa da IV s-is dasawyisSi romis imperiis aRmosavleTi mxare gansakuTrebiT ki mcire azia - mWidrod iyo dasaxlebuli qristianebiT~.17 saqarTveloSi IV s-is dasawyisSi qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad qceva yofila ara moulodneli, Semotanili anda Tavsmoxveuli aqti, aramed efuZneboda qristianobis adgilobriv saukunovan tradicias - ,,SeuZlebelia laparaki ama Tu im qveyanaSi qristianobis ubralo SemoRebaze, gansakuTrebiT usafuZvloa azri, romelime saxelmwifoSi qristianobis Setanisa da mis iq gabatonebaze. qristianobis gavrceleba mxolod misi propagandis, qadagebis Sedegi ar SeiZleba iyos, rasakvirvelia, propagandis, qadagebis rolis uaryofa ar SeiZleba. qristianobis qadageba romis imperiaSi saukuneebis manZilze warmoebda~ (iqve, gv. 21). zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, wmida nino ver SeZlebda mTeli qarTveli xalxis gaqristianebas, saqarTveloSi wmida mociqulebsa da mqadageblebs qarTveli xalxi Semzadebuli rom ar hyoloda qristianobis sajaro aRiarebisaTvis. am Tvalsazrisma asaxva hpova kidec wmida ninos ,,cxovrebaSi~, sadac ufali ucxadebs wmida ninos - rom saqarTveloSi ,,samkali friad ars, xolo muSaki mcire~, es imas niSnavs, rom saqarTveloSi mociqulTa mier daTesil saxarebis marcvals nayofi gamouRia - xalxi moumzadebia saerTo saxalxo - monaTvlisaTvis. wmida nino saqarTveloSi Semosula diokletianes mier atexili devnis dros - ,,303~ wels, rogorc es gaarkvia v. goilaZem: wm. ninos 120

Tanamgzavrebi somxeTis mefe Trdatma diokletianes miTiTebiT sikvdiliT dasaja. male 305 w. 1 maiss, diokletianes gadadgomis Semdeg, qristianTa devna Sewyda (kerZod, imperiis aRmosavleT nawilSi galeriusis mier 311 wlis 30 aprils nikomidiaSi gamocemuli ediqtiT). 303-306 wlebSi wm. nino farulad loculobda - ,,sam wel~. wmida ninos Semosvlidan 14-15 wlis Semdeg qarTli mouqcevia. e. i. 317-318 wlebSi. ,,qarTlis samefo karis mier (aseve somxeTis) qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad aRiareba 318 wliT unda daTariRdes~.18 ,,erTi saqmea moqceva, gaqristianeba xalxisa... sxva saqmea monaTvla ukve moqceuli xalxisa, ritualis Sesruleba~ (k. kekeliZe)... ,,aseTi aqtisaTvis mxolod 324 wels, konstantines mier gamocemuli ediqtis Semdeg, Seiqmna xelsayreli pirobebi... nikeis msoflio saeklesio krebis wina 324 wlis bolo Tveebi yvelaze xelsayreli iyo somxeTisa da qarTvelis eklesiaTa meTaurebis oficialuri kurTxevisaTvis~ (iqve). uZvelesi wyaro, romelic mogviTxrobs qarTlis moqcevis Sesaxeb, aris ,,moqcevai qarTlisai~. masSi Sedis sakiTxavi wmida ninos cxovrebisa, avtoria salome ujarmeli, mowafe wmida ninosi. am cnobis siswore daadastura m. CxartiSvilma Tavisi kvlevis Sedegad. salome yofila qarTlis pirveli qristiani mefis mirianis Zis coli. mas Tavis Txrobis nawili uSualod wmida ninos karnaxiT dauweria (e. i. 320-ian wlebSi). ,,IV s-is II naxevarSi bizantiaSi imyofeboda salomes SviliSvili, maSin jer kidev ufliswuli, SemdgomSi qarTlis mefe bakur Trdatis Ze. man cnobil bizantiel istorikosebs - gelasi kesarielsa da rufinuss uambo qarTvelTa gaqristianebis istoria~.19 m. CxartiSvilis azriT bakuris naambobs gelasisa da rufinusisadmi safuZvlad edo werilobiTi wyaro - ,,dideda salomes Canaweri wmida ninos mier qarTvelTa gaqristianebis Sesaxeb~ (iqve). unda davaskvnaT, rom qristianuli sarwmunoeba met-naklebi siZlieriT uwyvetad arsebobda saqarTveloSi andria mociqulidan wmida ninomde, magram saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad is mxolod wmida ninos moRvaweobis Sedegad iqca.

1. ,,didi sjuliskanoni~, 1975, gv. 545, ix. ,,ekl. kalendari~, 1987, gv. 464. 2. giorgi mcire, cxovreba giorgi mTawmindelisa, Zveli qarT. lit. Zeglebi, 1978, gv. 310. 3. T. surgulaZe, T. bibiluri, m. ZnelaZe, adreuli qristianobis simbolo mcxeTidan. saq. mecn. akademiis moambe, t. 101, gv. 741-742. 4. T. bibiluri, saintereso samarxeuli kompleqsi mcxeTidan, Zeglis megobari #62, 1983, gv. 94. 5. T. bibiluri, qristianuli religiis sawyisebi saqarTveloSi ,,mnaTobi~, 1987, #6, gv. 142. 6. i. mgalobliSvili, qristianuli qarTli IV-V ss-Si, macne, enisa da lit. seria, 1988, #1, gv. 105. 7. jurxa nadiraZe, rganis saganZuri, gaz. ,,kom.~ 22. XII. 1989, #293. 8. a. boCxaZe, Zalisi da naxtakisi, gaz. ,,kom.~ 1988, 28. VIII. 9. v. vasilevski, ,,mociqul andrias mimosvla~, 1909, ix. p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule.

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10. i. tabaRua, saqarTvelo evropis arqivebsa da wignsacavebSi, 1984; t. I. gv. 56. 11. k. kekeliZe, qarT. lit. istoria, 1978, t. I, gv. 40. 12. naTela fofxaZe, m. TamaraSvilis arqivis italiuri fondis siaxleebi, ,,ciskari~, #11, 1988, gv. 149. 13. i. tabaRua, dasax. naSr. gv. 17. 14. m. sabinini, saq. samoTxe, 1882, gv. 622. 15. m. sabinini, saqarTvelos samoTxe, gv. 621-629. 16. g. gozaliSvili, qarTlis moqcevis problema da bakuri, 1975, gv. 39. 17. g. gozaliSvili, dasax. naSr. gv. 25. 18. v. goilaZe, ,,wmida ninos~... mnaTobi, #2, 1986 w. gv. 153. 19. m. CxartiSvili, ,,wmida ninos cxovrebis~... qarT. hagiografia. 1987, gv. 149.

gaz. ,,madli~, 1991. 27. IX.

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wmida ninos tropari

qarTuli mxatvruli sityvis namdvili margalitebia wmidaTa troparebi. troparTa yoveli sityva damuxtulia poeziiTa da sulierebiT, yoveli sityva da fraza Zalze tevadia da gaocebas iwvevs maRalmxatvruli ostatobiT. erT-erTi aseTi aris wmida ninos tropari: ,,sityvisa RvTisa msaxurTa Tana-mosagreo, da andrias qadagebisa warmarTebao, qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelo, da sulisa wmidisa qnaro nino, evedre qristesa Sewyalebad sulTa CvenTaTvis~. troparis avtoris ostatobis ukeT SecnobisaTvis davyoT es tropari muxlebad da ganvixiloT TiToeuli muxli cal-calke. pirveli muxli: ,,sityvisa RvTisa msaxurTa Tanamosagreo~... Tanamedrove qarTuliT gamoiTqmeba ase: ,,-RvTis sityvis msaxurebis Tanamosagrev...~ ,,sityva~ anu ,,RvTis sityva~ aris macxovari, Tanaarsi wmida samebisa, Ze RvTisa, WeSmariti RmerTi ieso qriste. ratom uwodebs troparis avtori macxovars RvTis sityvas? ,,caTa da qveynisa, xilulTa yovelTa da araxilulTa~ Semoqmedma RmerTma, Tavis xatad da msgavsad Seqmna adamiani. SemdgomSi adamianma dakarga mfarveloba RvTisa, radganac codviT daeca. adamis STamomavloba saukuneTa ganmavlobaSi codvebSi cxovrobda. RvTis Semweobis gareSe, Tavisi ZalebiT, adamianTa modgmam ver SesZlo Tavis daRweva codvebisagan, Tumca amas Zlier cdilobda. kacobriobis gadarCenisaTvis aucilebeli aRmoCnda RvTis daxmareba. RmerTma - wmida samebam, imdenad Seiyvara Tavis mierve Seqmnili kacobrioba, Tavis mier Seqmnili adamiani, rom gadawyvita adamianTa xsnisaTvis wmida samebis erT-erTi piri - Ze RvTisa moevlina qveynad adamianis saxiT. marTlac Cveni cxovrebisaTvis - e. i. codvebisagan daxsnisa da adamianTa sulis gaukvdavebisaTvis Ze RvTisa ,,gardamoxda zeciT da xorci Seisxa da gankacda~, SemdegSi Tavisi vnebiT da jvarcmiT ,,erT gzis Tavi Tvisi Seswira, viTarca msxverpli Tvisisa mamisa... (ziarebis locva, sZlispiri 9). e. i. kacobriobis codvebis dasaxsnelad, codvebis misateveblad Ze RvTisam Tavisi Tavi msxverplad Seswira. amiT man aRadgina codviT dacemuli kacobrioba, ukvdaveba moaniWa adamians. aRsrulda neba RvTisa. wmida samebis gadawyvetileba aRasrula Ze RvTisam. ufali ieso qriste wmida samebis nebis gamomxatveli da aRmasrulebelia, amitomac aris is RvTis sityva, anu sityva. swored mis gamo Tqva ioane maxarebelma: ,,pirveliTgan iyo sityvai da sityvai igi iyo RvTisa Tana, da RmerTi iyo sityvai igi~ (io. I,I). e. i. wmida ninos troparis pirvel muxlSi: ,,sityvisa RvTisa msaxurTa Tana-mosagreo...~ ,,sityvisa RvTisa~ SegviZlia SevcvaloT sityvebiT ,,ieso qriste~, da maSin miviRebT - ieso qristes msaxurTa Tanamosagrev anu - ieso qristes msaxurebis Tanamosagrev...

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vin iyvnen ieso qristes msaxurebi? pirvel rigSi misi mowafeebi, misi mociqulebi, mimdevrebi, RvTis sityvis Semsruleblebi, saxarebis mcnebaTa aRmasruleblebi. aq igulisxmeba mamamTavrebi, Rirsi mamebi. Tanamosagre niSnavs TanamebrZols, Tanamoazres, erTi miznisaTvis mebrZolebs. magaliTad, didi ilia WavWavaZis Tanamosagre iyo akaki. wmida keTilmsaxuri mefis daviT aRmaSeneblisa - ki giorgi Wyondideli episkoposi. Tanamosagreni SeiZleba iyvnen ara marto Tanamedrove, aramed sxvadasxva epoqaSi da sxvadasxva dros, magram erTi ideisaTvis mebrZoli adamianebi. magaliTad, erTiani saqarTvelos pirveli mefis, farnaozis Tanamosagre iyo giorgi V brwyinvale. maT aerTianebda erTi didi mizani - qarTvel ers hqonoda sakuTari, Zlieri saxelmwifo. e. i. ,,sityvisa RvTisa msaxurTa Tana-mosagreo~-Si Tu CavsvamT Sesabamis Tanamedrove sityvebs - iqneba ase ,,ieso qristes mimdevrebis TanamebrZoli~ - aseTi iqneba pirveli muxli. meore muxli: ,,andrias qadagebisa warmarTebao~. wmida andria mociquli iyo ieso qristes pirveli mimdevari - pirvelwodebuli. ,,iyo andria, Zmai simon-petresi, erTi orTagani, romelTa esma ioanesagan, da misdevs mas. pova aman pirvelad Zmai Tvisi simon da hrqua mas: vpoveT mesia, romel ars TargmanebiT:. ,,qriste~... aman moiyvana igi iesusa~ (io. II,40-41-42). ufal ieso qristes amaRlebis Semdeg mociqulebs daevalaT warmarTebis moqceva: ,,warvediT yovelsa sofelsa da uqadageT saxarebai ese yovelTa dabadebulTa~ (mark. 16,15). mociqulebi da masTan erTad RvTismSobeli Seikribnen, raTa wili eyaraT, Tu vis romeli qveyana da romeli eri moeqcia qristianul sarwmunoebaze. wilis yris dros RvTis gangebiT RvTismSobels Sexvda ,,iveria~ e. i. RvTismSobels saqarTveloSi unda eqadaga sarwmunoeba. RvTismSobeli emzadeboda saqarTveloSi gamosamgzavreblad, roca ecnoba neba RvTisa misi miZinebis Sesaxeb. amis gamo RvTismSobelma daavala saqarTveloSi saxarebis qadageba andria pirvelwodebuls. ,,pirvelad qristianobam, iq samcxe-klarjeTSi moikida fexi andria mociqulis moZRvrebiTa, maSin, rodesac qarTl-kaxeTSi jer kidev kerpmsaxureba sufevda. qristes aqeT pirvel saukuneSi aderki mefes (60 w.) undoda kerpT-Tayvanebis sarwmunoeba moefina da amisaTvis saSineli brZola autexa samcxe-klarjeTs, magram samcxe-klarjeTSi qristianoba aramc Tu moispo, piriqiT ufro gavrcelda da damkvidrda jer kidev wmida ninos mosvlamde~1. marTlac, andria pirvelwodebulma da mociqulma simon kananelma iqadages saqarTveloSi qristianoba. wm. andriam moitana saqarTveloSi RvTismSoblis xelTuqmneli xati. andrias qadagebaTa kvali dResac atyvia saqarTvelos. xalxSi dResac cocxalia gadmocemebi saqarTveloSi misi moRvaweobis Sesaxeb. andria aris qarTveli eris upirvelesi ganmanaTlebeli. man daayena qarTveli eris erTi nawili WeSmaritebis gzaze, magram Semdeg II-III saukuneebSi warmarTobam imZlavra saqarTveloSi. saWiro iyo ganmtkiceba qristianobisa, misi saxelmwifoebriv doneze ayvana. saWiro iyo, rogorc qveynis mmarTvels, aseve ubralo miwis muSasac erTnairad hyvareboda qriste. marTlac, RvTis madliT, qristianoba iqadaga da samefo karic 124

qristes mimdevrad aqcia wmida ninom. wmida ninos Semdeg qarTveli eri aTeul saukuneTa manZilze siyvaruliT atarebs qristes tkbil uRels. e. i. qristianoba saqarTveloSi pirvelad iqadaga andriam, xolo Semdeg, andrias mizani sabolood aRasrula misma Tanamosagrem wmida ninom. amitomac uwodebs troparis avtori wmida ninos andrias qadagebaTa warmmarTvels. wmida ninom andrias saqme gaagrZela, warmarTa, miiyvana saboloo gamarjvebamde - amitomac iTqva - ,,andrias qadagebaTa warmarTebao~. mesame muxli: ,,qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelo~. rogor ubralod da martivad gvesmis Cven dRes es sityva. qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebeli aris is adamiani, romelmac mTel qarTvel ers aswavla WeSmaritebis gza qristianoba, gananaTla mTeli eri e. i. gamoiyvana warmarTobis uvicobidan da codviT sikvdilisagan. magram arc Tu ise Soreul warsulSi, XVI saukunidan XIX saukunemde, ,,qarTvelis~ qveS gulisxmobdnen ara mTel qarTvel ers, aramed mis erT nawils qarTlelebs: ,,ganvTiTeuldiT, cal-calke daviSaleniT. aso-asod daviWeriT... didebuli qarTvelobis azri, is sayovelTao saxeli gonebidam gamogvecala - saxeli Cvenis xalxobisa xuT, Tu eqvs naWrad davyaviT... qarTvels, romelsac sazogado mniSvneloba hqonda, kerZoobiTi mniSvneloba mieca... imereli, guruli, megreli, qarTleli, kaxeli - es cal-calke miTvisebuli kerZoebiTad miRebuli ganmyofeli saxelebi Cemis 2 zemoxsenebulis sityvis cxadi magaliTebia~ . wmida ninos troparis avtori, iseve, rogorc saerTod nebismieri Zveli qarTuli eklesiis mama da mwerali yovelTvis sityva ,,qarTvelis~ qveS gulisxmobda mTel qarTvel ers da ara mis romelime kuTxis Svils. es imitom, rom qarTuli qristianuli mwerlobis Camoyalibebis dros da saqarTveloSi qristianobis Casaxvis periodSi qarTveli eri erTiani iyo da mTliani. amas amtkicebs mTeli Zveli qarTuli mwerloba. XVI saukunis Semdeg saqarTvelo iSleba calkeul nawilebad. aman xeli Seuwyo kuTxobriv separatizms, kuTxobriv patriotizms, eris tomebad daSlas, amitomac gamoCndnen imerlebi, gurulebi, megrelebi, kaxelebi, mesxebi da sxv. Zvelad es ase rom ar iyo, da kuTxobriobas Zalze mcire anda araviTari mniSvneloba rom ar eniWeboda, amas adasturebs XV-XVI saukunemdeli mamaTa cxovrebani, qarTuli saistorio, saeklesio da saero mwerloba. magaliTisaTvis sakmarisia Tvali gadavavloT mxolod giorgi mTawmindelis ,,ioanesa da efTvimes cxovrebas~, rom TvalnaTliv davrwmundeT amaSi. ioane mTawmindeli mesxi iyo. mas rom ecxovra XV-XVI saukunis Semdeg, aucileblad aRniSnavdnen mis mesxobas, magram giorgi mTawmindels saerTod ar aRuniSnavs misi kuTxuri warmomavloba. is wers: ,,ioane iyo naTesaviT qarTveli~,3 imitom rom ,,mesxi~ - tomobrivi erTeuli, im dros ar arsebobda. arsebobda ,,mesxeTi~, magram mkvidri mesxeTisa iyo qarTveli, aseve iyo saqarTvelos nebismier kuTxeSi.

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magaliTad ,,ganiTqva saxeli misi da pativsa uyofdes berZenni da qarTvelni~4. aq qarTvelSi igulisxmeba saqarTvelos nebismieri kuTxis Svili. eqvTime ,,gamoCnda samkaulad naTesavisa Cvenisa~: ,,Cveni naTesavi~ - es termini Zvelad, eris dayofamde, aRniSnavda ubralod qarTvel ers. ioanem ,,qarTvelTa gansvenebisaTvis... Tavs idva amisi xelyofa~ - e. i. monastrisa. ,,iwyes mieriTgan qarTvelTa mosvlad da ganmravlebad~ (monasterSi). ,,kacni varT saxelovani da qarTvelni mogvmarTeben~ (e. i. ioanesa da eqvTimes). ,,ineba, raTa qarTvelni oden iyvnen monastrisa amis mkvidrni yovelni~ - e. i. rom iverTa monastris yoveli mkvidri yofiliyo qarTveli. ,,qarTvelSi~ igulisxmeba qarTveli - dRevandeli gagebiT, maSin roca XVII-XVIII da XIX saukunis dasawyisis mkiTxveli am ,,qarTvelis~ qveS igulisxmebda ,,qarTlels~. ,,iltvoda spaniad... rameTu asmioda viTarmed qarTvelni ara mciredni naTesavni da erni mkvidrn arian mun~. e. i. espaneTSi undoda gamgzavreba, radganac gagonili hqonda TiTqosda iq mravalricxovnad mkvidroben qarTvelebi. iveronSi im dros moRvaweobda arseni ninowmindeli da ioane xaxuleli. ninowmida kaxeTSia, arsenic kaxeli iyo warmoSobiT, magram misi kaxeloba, iseve rogorc ioane xaxulelis mesxoba, arasodes arsad ar aRiniSneba. samagierod, saqarTvelosa da eris daSlis Semdeg, XVIXVII ss-Si, aTonis mTaze erT-erTi monasteri ,,filoTeo~ aRadgines kaxeTis mefeebma levanma da aleqsandrem. isini gamoxatuli arian am monastris satrapezoSi da maT freskas aqvs aseTi warwera: ,,aleqsandre da levani kaxeTis mefeebi~. amitomac axla saWiroa aqauri berebis darwmuneba, rom kaxeli igive qarTvelia. maT rom ecxovraT XV saukunemde, sityva kaxels saerTod ar ixmardnen. ioanem eqvTimes ,,pirvelad qarTuli swavla aswavla da mere berZnulad gaaswava~. eqvTime uyveba ioanes: ,,awRa warmomidga vinme didebuli dedofali da mrqva qarTuliTa eniTa rai ars, rai gelmis eqvTime?~ ,,ararai ars vneba Sen Tana, aRsdeg nu geSinian da qarTulad xsnilad ubnobdi~. im dromde ,,Zniad ubnobda qarTulad~, ,,xolo mieriTagan dauyeneblad viTarca wyaro aRmodin uwmides yovelTa qarTvelTasa~. miaqcieT yuradReba ,,yovelTa qarTvelTasa~; - mSvenieri terminia. saqarTvelo RvTismSoblis wilxvedrili qveyanaa, is qarTveli eris mfarvelia, qarTuli enac - misi sayvareli enaa, amitomac aRudgina qarTuli metyveleba RvTismSobelma eqvTimes. amitomac ,,egeviTari Targmani... arRa gamoCinebul ars enasa Cvensa~ ,,daatkbo ena Cveni~ - ase ambobda nebismieri kuTxis qarTveli saukuneTa manZilze. mere saqarTvelo daiSala. gaCndnen samefoebi, samTavroebi da ara marto qveynis, eris sulieri meTauris, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos erTianobac daiSala. Seiqmna dasavleT saqarTvelos (afxazeTis) sakaTalikoso, deda eklesias gamoeyo samxreT saqarTvelos - mesxeTis eklesiac. irRveva erTianoba erisa. Cndeba imerloba da amerloba. XV sis meore naxevramde aris niSnebi eris daSlisa tomebad da kuTxeebad... 126

,,qarTveli Cvenis tomis saerTo saxeli aRar aris, aRarc Sina da aRarc gareT, arc maxloblisaTvis da arc ucxosaTvis. imereli - imerelia, guruli - gurulia, megreli - megrelia, qarTleli - qarTlelia, da sul yvelani ki erTad qarTvelebi ar arian: vai im xalxs, romelsac saerTo ZarRvi gauwyda... ,,ganvTiTeuldiT, cal-calke daviSaleniT, aso-asod daviWeriT... didebuli qarTvelobis azri, is sayovelTao saxeli gonebidam gamogvecala... saxeli mTelis Cvenis xalxobisa xuT, Tu eqvs naWrad davyaviT... qarTvels, romelsac sazogado mniSvneloba hqonda, kerZoobiTi mniSvneloba mieca...~ hgodebda didi ilia5. ,,aba daiZaxe qarTveli-Tqo, Tu Savis zRvidam moyolebuli kaspiis zRvamde marto Rip-gadmobrunebulis qarTlelis metma (e. i. goris mazraSi mcxovrebelma) Semogxedos vinmem da Tu gaWirda, iqneba kaxelmac Tavisi sxvili kiseri Sensken moiRrijos, sxvani ki yursac ar gaTxoveben, TiTqo amaT ar eZaxio, TiTqo isini ki qarTvelebi ar ariano. is SemkreblobiTi, didebuli erTiani azri, romelsac yoveli Cvengani qarTvelobaSi unda xedavdes, is saxeli yvelas gverqva, dairRva, Cvenis gonebidam amoSra, da qarTveli exla erTis kunWulis mcxovrebTa sakuTari kerZoobiTi saxeliRa gaxda da ara saerTo, sayovelTao mTelis im xalxisa, romelic erTad tanjula...6. am saSineli krizisis dros eris gamaerTianeblad gamodis qarTuli ena da qristianuli sarwmunoeba. eris sulieri sazrdo ZvelTaganve qarTul enaze Seqmnili qristianuli literaturaa. wmida ninos troparic am saqmes emsaxureba, erovnuli TviTSegnebis grZnobis, eris gadarCenisaTvis ibrZvis. da vinaidan saeklesio tipikoni saqarTvelos yovel kuTxeSi absoluturad erTnairi iyo, amitom yvelgan erTnairad iTqmoda wmida ninos tropari: ,,wmidao nino... qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelo~. saqarTvelos yovel kuTxeSi wmida nino miaCndaT qarTvelTa ganmanaTleblad. marTalia am dros ,,kaxeTSi kaxelobdnen, imereTSi imerlobdnen, svaneTSi svanobdnen, samegreloSi megrelobdnen~, magram yvelgan, yovel kuTxeSi erTnairad ambobdnen da evedrebodnen ,,wmidao nino, qarTvelTa ganmanaTlebelo~. qarTvelis qveS, cxadia, yovel kuTxeSi Tavis Tavs gulisxmobdnen. ase iyo saukuneTa manZilze. wmida nino erovnul TviTSegnebas aRvivebda da amitomac is sulierad aerTianebda saqarTvelos yovel kuTxes; aerT-mTlianebda qarTvel ers; aRviZebda erovnul grZnobas yovel qarTvelSi. meoTxe muxlia saocrad poeturi fraza: ,,sulisa wmidisa qnaro~ - ras niSnavs es? mrwamsSi gvaqvs: da suliwmida, ufali da cxovel-myofeli... romeli ityoda winaswarmetyvelTa mier~. winaswarmetyvelebi movlenilni iyvnen RvTisagan, aswavlidnen xalxs RvTis sityvas. isini TavianTi gonebiT, Tavisi azriT ki ar qadagebdnen, aramed qadagebisa da winaswarmetyvelebis dros maTi piriT ityoda, winaswarmetyvelebda suli wmida. aseve wmida nino TaviT TvisiT ki ar qadagebda, aramed winaswarmetyvelebda suliwmidis mier. winaswarmetyvelebze naTqvamia, rom isini ityodnen suliwmidis mier, xolo wmida nino ki ar ityoda, ubralod ki ar ambobda da metyvelebda, aramed is galobda, mReroda. igi 127

suli wmidis ubralo gamomTqmeli ki ar iyo, aramed iyo suliwmidis qnari. wmida ninos saSualebiT suliwmida galobda. is, avtoris SedarebiT, emsgavsa musikalur instruments, romelzedac ukravda RmerTi - suliwmida. wmida nino iyo qnari suliwmidisa. ase maRalia troparis avtoris poeturi ostatoba. mexuTe muxli: ,,evedre qristesa RmerTsa Sewyalebad sulTa CvenTaTvis~. wmida ninom Tavisi amqveyniuri cxovrebiT daimsaxura mowyale RmerTisagan is, rom misi suli imyofeba RvTis naTelSi, RmerTTan axlos. mas SeuZlia RmerTs Seavedros Cveni codvili sulebi, SeuZlia evedros, raTa RmerTma Segviwyalos Cven. wmida nino avedrebs RmerTs misgan moqceul qarTvel ers.

1. i. WavWavaZe, rCeuli, I, 1975, gv. 150. 2. iqve, gv. 142. 3. Zveli qarT. literaturis Zeglebi, gv. 225. 4. iqve, gv. 226. 5. i. WavWavaZe, iqve, gv. 142. 6. iqve, gv. 141. ,,saRvTismetyvelo krebuli~ 1, 1984.

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mironis kurTxevis Sesaxeb

axal qarTul mecnierebaSi damkvidrda azri imis Sesaxeb, rom qarTulma eklesiam mironis kurTxevis ufleba miiRo IX saukuneSi, marTlac grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi weria, rom mironis kurTxevis neba ierusalimis patriarqs gamosTxova efremmao. Zvel qarTul mwerlobaSi ki sxvagvari azri iyo damkvidrebuli, kerZod, mironis kurTxevis neba qarTulma eklesiam miiRo qalkedonis krebis - 451 wlis Semdego. Zveladve, ekurTxeboda Tu ara qarTul eklesiaSi mironi? am sakiTxis garkvevisaTvis didi mniSvneloba aqvs imas, Tu rogori mdgomareoba iyo am mxriv mezobel somxeTsa da albaneTSi, ekurTxeboda Tu ara Cvens uSualo mezobel eklesiebSi mironi ZvelTaganve. somxur istoriografiaSi Semonaxuli cnobebis Tanaxmad qarTveli xalxi da samRvdeloeba qarTuli eklesiis Rirsebas ufro maRla ayenebda, vidre albanuri eklesiis Rirsebas, amitomac rodesac raRac mizezis gamo somxeTis patriarqma albaneTis eklesias upiratesoba misca qarTul eklesiasTan SedarebiT da albanuri eklesia qarTul eklesiaze win daayena, es qarTvelma mamamTavarma iukadrisa da uxtanesis mier Segrovili cnobebis Tanaxmad srulebiT gawyvita kavSiri somxur eklesiasTan. amis Sesaxeb albaneli istorikosi mose kalankatueli wers, rom somxeTis ,,...mTavarma saeklesio moRvaweebma, somxeTis ampartavani xasiaTis mixedviT, TviTnebuli surviliT ganaweses abraami patriarqad, albaneli - arqiespikoposad, qarTveli - mitropolitad, aRSfoTda qarTveli, romelsac kirioni erqva da sawinaaRmdego kamaTi daiwyo. xolo wmida mamamTavari abraami ambobda, rom albanelebi qarTvelebze adre iyvnen qristianebi da mTavarepiskoposoba maT SeeferebaTo (uxtanesi, istoria gamoyofisa somexTagan qarTvelTa. komentari gv. 365). qarTuli eklesiis pativisa da Rirsebis damcirebad miiCniao qarTulma eklesiam albaneTis eklesiaze ufro dabal safexurze dayeneba. aseTi Tvalsazrisi ara marto mose kalankatuels, aramed Zvel somex istorikosebsac hqondaT, amas zogierT wreSi saeklesio ganxeTqilebis mizezad miiCnevdnen. aqedan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom qarTul eklesias Tavisi Rirseba da pativi albanur eklesiaze naklebad ar miaCnda, qarTul eklesias Tavisi Rirseba arc somxur eklesiaze naklebad miaCnda, amitomac Tuki somxur, anda albanur eklesiebSi mirons akurTxebdnen, maSin aucileblad qarTul eklesiaSic akurTxebdnen mirons, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi qarTuli eklesiis damoukidebloba sruli ar iqneboda da veRarc Seedreboda Tavisi pativiTa da RirsebiT im eklesiebs (am SemTxvevaSi albaneTisa da somxeTisas), romelTac mironis kurTxevis ufleba hqondaT mopovebuli. albaneTis eklesias, mose kalenkatuelis Tanaxmad, mironis kurTxevis ufleba ara Tu IX saukunemde hqonia, aramed VI saukuneSic. ufro metic, am dros albaneTis eklesia sivnieTis eklesiasac ki aZlevda mirons. mose kalankatueli Tavisi ,,albaneTis istoriis~ 48-e Tavs ase asaTaurebs ,,...sivnielTa moqceva somexTagan albaneTisaken da xeldasxma da zeTis maTgan miReba~ (iqve, gv. 361). 129

uxtanesi am mdgomareobas ase xsnis: ,,...somxeTi sparselebsa da berZnebs hqondaT erTmaneTSi gayofili... gayofili sapatriarqo saydari uaryves sivnieTis uflebma da winaaRmdegobis gamo ar daTanxmdnen romelimes damorCilebodnen petre episkoposis brZanebiT, romelmac... ubrZana Tavis samwysos xeldasxma, mironis kurTxeva albanelTagan mieRoT, sanam wmida grigoris sapatriarqo saydari gaerTiandeboda. am droidan aqamde xeldasxmasa da mirons sivnielebi albanelTagan iRebdnen...~ (iqve, gv. 187). aqedan Cans, rom rogorc albaneli mose kalankatuelis, ise somexi uxtanesis mixedviT albaneTis eklesia TviTve akurTxebda mirons jer kidev somxeTis sakaTalikosos orad gayofamde. somxeTis sakaTalikoso orad gaiyo VI saukunis dasasruls. ioane kogoviteli, gayofis droindeli somexi qalkedoniti kaTalikosi 590-611 wlebSi zeobda. albaneTis eklesia VI saukuneSi mirons akurTxebda, xolo saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi ki mirons sxva eklesiasac awodebda. z. aleqsiZe wers: ,,mose kalankatuelis gadmocemiT, roca somxeTis sakaTalikoso orad gaiyo VI-VII ss-is mijnaze ioanesa (qalkedoniti) da moses (monofiziti) Soris sivnieTis mmarTvelebma arc erTi aRara scnes da xeldasmisaTvis albanelTa kaTalikosebs mimarTavdnen xolme. albaneTidanve iRebdnen mirons, sanam abraamma ar gaaerTiana orive saydari~. (arseni safareli, ganyofisaTvis somexTa da qarTvelTa, gv. 124). aqedan SeiZleba davaskvnaT, rom Tu albaneTis eklesias mironis kurTxeva VI saukuneSic SeeZlo, qarTul eklesiasac aseTive ufleba eqneboda, radganac qarTul eklesias albanur eklesiaze Rirseulad da meti pativis mqoned miaCnda Tavi. somxeTis kaTalikosisadmi kirion qarTvelTa kaTalikosis mier gagzavnili werilebidan Cans, rom qarTul eklesias Tavisi Tavi somxuri eklesiis Tanaswor da Tanatol eklesiad miaCnda. hqonda Tu ara somxur eklesias mironis kurTxevis ufleba? hqonda, radganac VII saukunis dasawyisSi, sapatriarqo taxtze asvlisTanave kaTalikosma abraamma mironi akurTxa. uxtanesi aRwers kidec Tu ra aris mironi da rogori wesiT akurTxeben mas. somexma ierarqebma - wers uxtanesi - krebis damTavrebis Semdeg ,,...isic kanonierad miiCnies, rom Sevedrebodnen TavianT mamamTavars, ekurTxa da maTTvis mieca sacxebeli zeTi, ese igi mironi, romliTac scxeben da naTlaven... radganac moses Semdeg aravis ukurTxebia sacxebeli zeTi... Seudga mwuxris msaxurebas fsalmunebiT, kurTxeviTa da sulieri galobiT dRis saidumlos Sesaferisad kiTxviT gaaTies Rame da mTeli dRe mRviZared RmerTissa mimarT locvaSi, vidre aRsruldeboda yvela saidumlo RmerTis sadideblad. xolo meore dRes gaunawila mamamTavarma kurTxevis zeTi...~ (uxtanesi, gv. 113). uxtanesi wers, rom VI saukunis bolos, kaTalikosma mosem (574-604) akurTxa mironi, xolo meSvide saukunis dasawyisSi abraamma. rogorc zemoT aRniSnulidan Cans, saqarTvelos mezobeli eklesiebi somxeTi da albaneTi mirons akurTxebdnen VI-VII saukuneebSi da albaT V saukuneSic, amitomac maTi Tanatoli - Tanafardi, maTTan saeklesio kavSirSi myofi qarTuli eklesiac mirons akurTxebda VI-VII saukuneebSi. Tu Tanabari Rirsebis sami avtokefaluri eklesiidan, romelnic 130

,,saeklesio erTobas~ hqmnidnen, ori mirons akurTxebda, maSin mesamec akurTxebda, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi qarTuli eklesia naklebi Rirsebisa da pativisa iqneboda da arc araviTari pativi eqneboda albanur eklesiasTan SedarebiT. qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT qarTuli eklesia V saukuneSive mirons akurTxebda. moRweulia kidec, rogorc Cans im drois mironis kurTxevis teqsti, romelic Sevsebulia Semdgom saukuneebSi, masSi Camatebulia axal saukuneTa atributebi, amitomac axali drois dokumentad miiCneva. aseve efrem mcire Tavis SromaSi wers, rom mironis kurTxevis neba qarTul eklesias mieniWa V saukuneSio, is aRwers Tu rogor da ra dros mieniWa qarTul eklesias mironis kurTxevis neba. efrem mcire ase aRwers am process: wmida ninos droso qarTuli eklesia daamyara evstaTi antioqielma patriarqma. gadawyda, rom mironi qarTul eklesias mieRo antioqiis sapatriarqodan, imis gamo rom im dros, IV saukuneSi, mirons mxolod antioqiis sapatriarqo amzadebda da akurTxebda, mironis Sesasyidad qarTvelebs antioqiisaTvis unda eZliaT aTasi komlis gadasaxadi, mcire xnis Semdeg antioqiam aTasi komlis gadasaxadis nacvlad iTxova aTasi drahkani yovelwliurad. male antioqiam berZenTa mefis SuamavlobiT qarTvelTa aTasi drahkani gadasca ierusalimis sapatriarqos. axla ukve mironis Sesasyidi Tanxa qarTvelebs ierusalimisaTvis unda eZliaT. zemomoyvanili aRweris Semdeg efrem mcire wers: ,,aqa dagviSTa saZiebeli kurTxeva mihronisa da amisda cnobad... vpove sazogadod yovelTaTvis viTarmed qalkidonisa krebasa esma, romel siZvirisaTvis fasiT hyiddes mihronsa, amisTvis brZanes wmidaTa mamaTa, raiTa ara xolo antioqias, aramed sxvaTaca eklesiaTa Sina wmida iqmnebodes mihroni. xolo Tvisagan qarTvelTa sagonebel ars viTarmed siSorisaTvis gzisa da romel friad saSiS ars ucxo TeslTa Soris xmeliT antioqiiT qarTls warReba wmidisa mihronisa, amisaTvis TviT adgilsa dawesebul ars maTda kurTxeva mihronisa~ (efrem mcire, ,,uwyeba mizezsa qarTvelTa~... gv. 10, 1959 w.). efrem mcires azriT, mironis saqarTveloSive kurTxevis gza aseTi yofila - IV saukuneSi mirons antioqiidan vyidulobdiT. Semdeg maleve IV saukunis bolos an V saukunis dasawyisSi mironis sayidel Tanxas ierusalims vuxdidiT, V saukuneSive 451 wlis qalkedonis krebis Semdeg yvela eklesias da maT Soris qarTul eklesiasac neba mieca adgilze mironis kurTxevisa, asec rom ar yofiliyo, siSorisa da gzis siZnelis gamo mironis transportireba Zalze Zneli iyo. ase rom, efremis Tanaxmad, saqarTveloSi mironi V saukunidanve ekurTxeba. aRsaniSnavia, rom saqarTveloSi ZvelTaganve damkvidrebuli iyo tradiciuli gadmocema, romlis Tanaxmadac mironi gadmoedineboda sveticxovlidan anu cxovelmyofeli xis gadanaWridan mcxeTaSi. amitomac, roca arseni iyalToeli imeorebs efremis cnobas ,,...sasyidlad nivTTa wmidisa mihronisaTa eklesiasa antioqiisasa... drahkani aTasi~ (Zv. qarT. lit. Zeglebi, gv. 393) am dros arseni darwmunebulia, rom ara TviT mirons yiduloben qarTvelebi, aramed mironis SemzadebisaTvis saWiro surnelovan, aromatul nivTierebas, xolo TviT mironis SezavebakurTxeva da damzadeba saqarTveloSi xdeba, aRniSnul Zvel slavur 131

antioquri qronografis TargmanSic weria ,,wmida mironis aromatis SesaZenad~ da ara wmida mironis SesaZenad (efrem mcire - ,,uwyeba...~ gv. 10). qarTvelebi TiTqosda mironis SezavebisaTvis saWiro nivTierebas, aromats yidulobdnen, sinamdvileSi ki esec ,,arasruli avtokefaliis~ momxre berZenTa SeTxzuli Teoriaa. mironis kurTxevis wesi aseTi yofila: ,,odes mefe, aTabagi, qarTlisa erisTavi, spasalari da yovelni erisTavni da yovelni mRvdelmoZRvarni Semokrben mcxeTas didsa xuTSabaTsa - didisa somxeTisa mitropolitsa marTebs nivTTa zeda dgomad. da qvabni sakurTxevelTad gamoixvnen da mitropolitsa da qadagsa etvirTnen keti qvabTani. winaTa ketTa mitropoliti Seudges da ukanaTa qadagi. Tu mwirveli iyos TeTriTa SesamosliTa Semosil iyos Tu mwirveli ara iyos, TeTrisa atlasisa CaCi Tavsa exuros moyuntuzvili da meoreTa qvabTa mTavar-episkopozi qveSa udges da wina mividodes da ukanaTa ketTa mawyvereli da ukana mTavarepiskoposi mihyvebodes. da raJams ganazaveben takuksa, takuki mawyverlsa etvirTos da raJams ganazaon, takuki qadagisa xeliTa daibeWdvides. da yovelTa episkoposTa TiTo koka mironisa etvirTos...~ (qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, t. II, gv. 47.). amave dokumentSi moxsenebulia mefe arCili da kaTalikosi miqaeli, mefe arCili davalebas aZlevs saeklesio pirs miqaels, Seadginos mironis kurTxevis gangeba, rasac garkveuli drois Semdeg asrulebs miqaeli, is iZiebs, irkvevs mironis kurTxevis wess da adgens gangebas mironis kurTxevis Zveli ,,niSnis~ Sesabamisad, xolo dokumentis gamocemis dros is ukve kaTalikosia. ,,didni SfoTni da amboxni iqmnebodes efiskoposTa colobisagan da RmerTiv-gvirgvinosanman mefeman arCil ara saTno iCina amaT SfoTTa qmnad da gvibrZana gaCenad, viTa niSanTa Seetyveboda da xelvyaviT me, glaxakman miqael qarTlisa kaTalikozman da vakurTxeT wmida mironi...~ (,,kurTxeva mironisa~ qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, II, 1965, gv. 47). Cans, rom es dokumenti mironis kurTxevisa Sedgenilia IX saukunemde. amitom azrs, rom qarTulma eklesiam mironis kurTxevis neba miiRo IX saukuneSi, es dokumenti abaTilebs. arsebobs mosazreba, rom es dokumenti aris ,,natyuari~, unda iTqvas, rom ,,natyuari~ sigeli anda dokumenti SeiZleboda SeedginaT rame kerZo mcire adgil-mamulis da msgavsTa Taobaze, romlis Semowmeba saerTo-saxelmwifoebriv da sazogadoebrivi interess ar warmoadgenda, magram mironis kurTxevis saerTo saxalxo-saxelmwifo mniSvnelobis ceremonialSi monawileobdnen saxelmwifos meTauri - mefe, qveynis yvela provinciaTa mmarTveli erisTavebi, kaTalikos-episkoposebi, muSaobda mTeli saxelmwifo da saeklesio aparati, imarTeboda sagangebo darbazoba, am darbazobaze erisTavebi da episkoposebi sxdebodnen mtkiced gansazRvruli wesiT da rigiT da nuTu isini ,,natyuar~ dokuments iWerdnen xelSi da imis mixedviTa akurTxebdnen mirons, darbazobaze ki dgebodnen da sxdebodnen? ,,xelmwifis karis garigebidan~ srulebiT aSkarad Cans, Tu ra didi mniSvneloba hqonda aseTi saxelmwifoebrivi ceremoniis dros sagangebo wesebis dacvas. aseTive saxis dokumentia ,,kurTxeva mironisa~. am dokumentidan Cans, rom mironis kurTxevas eZRvneboda sagangebo darbazoba da am darbazobaze episkoposebi sxdebodnen dadgenili wesiT, 132

romlis rRveva da Secvla mxolod mefisa da kaTalikosis CareviT SeiZleboda. ,,mironis kurTxevis~ aRniSnuli dokumenti xelT hqoniaT erekle II-sa da anton kaTalikoss da mis mixedviT ganusazRvravT ninowmideli episkoposis pativi da adgili darbazobis dros. es dokumenti erekle II-sa da anton I miaCndaT im drois Sedgenilad, roca qalaqi tfilisi ar iyo samefo anu sataxto qalaqi. am dokumentis Sedgenis dros samefo qalaqi yofila nisani da quTaisi, amis gamo, weren isini, Tbileli episkoposis pativi da Rirseba SedarebiT mcirea da is dgas episkoposTa rigis boloSio. ,,tfileli ukve ganCinebasa mas Sina samefosa friad qvemeore dgebodis da jdebodis krebasa Sina, amisaTvis romel samefo qalaqi ar iyo tfilisi droTa mis Sina, aramed nisani da quTaisi~. - (qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi, II. gv. 401). anton I-sa da erekle II-is mixedviT mironis kurTxevis dokumenti Sedgenili yofila VI-XI saukuneebSi, radganac mcxeTa dedaqalaqad araa moxseniebuli, xolo XII saukunis Semdeg Tbilisi dedaqalaqia. maT aseT mtkicebas isic eTanxmeba, rom mironis kurTxevis dokumentSi 35 saepiskoposoa CamoTvlili, aseve cnobilia, rom VI saukunis dasawyisSi saqarTvelos sakaTalikoso Sedgeboda 35 saepiskopososagan, SeiZleba dagveSva, rom V saukunis bolosa da VI saukunis dasawyisis mironis kurTxevis dokumentSi CamoTvlili episkoposTa ricxvi Semdeg saukuneTa gadamwer-Semavsebel-Semcvlelebma ar Secvales, Tumca amis gamo uxerxul mdgomareobaSi Cavardnen. maT axal siaSi gamoutovebiaT ramdenime saepiskoposo, rac Semdgom arSiebze miuweriaT. sabuTi ,,kurTxeva mironisa da gangeba darbazobisa~ - ...pirvelad T. Jordaniam gamoaqveyna. igi fiqrobda, rom sabuTSi moxseniebuli ,,mefe arCili~ unda iyos pirveli (gardaicvala 434 w.) da ara meore (gard. 718), radganac ukanasknel dros miqel kaTalikosi ara Cans da arc dasajerebelia, rom VII-VIII saukuneebis arevdarevis dros amisTana kiTxvaze mocla SesaZlebeli yofiliyos, arc didi ,,somxeTis mitropoliti~ yofila VIII saukuneSi, magram radgan aTabagi aris moxseniebuli ,,darbazobaSi~ da sxva ramdenime arCil I drois winaaRmdgomni weswyobilebani, amiT safuZveli gveZleva vifiqroT, rom ,,darbazobaSi~ droTa mixedviT sxvadasxva cvlilebebi unda SemoeRoT~ (iqve, gv. 596). mironis kurTxevis ufleba qarTul eklesias IX saukunemde rom hqonia, amis Sesaxeb wers ,,qarTlis cxovrebac~, saidanac Cans, rom qarTuli eklesiis ZvelTaganve V saukunidan arsebuli ufleba mironis kurTxevisa VII saukuneSi daudasturebia msoflio saeklesio krebas: ,,...iqmna kreba meeqvse. am krebisa mier brZanes esreT wmindisa eklesiisa saqarTvelosTvis, rom ars wminda mcxeTa, raTa iyos swor pativiTa viTarca wmidani samociqulo kaTolike eklesiani, sapatriarqoni da iyos kaTalikosi qarTlisa swori patriarqTa Tana... am krebisa mier dagvimtkicebia patriarqad... xolo odesca enebos Semzadeba da kurTxeva mihronisa akurTxos Tvissa eklesiasa~ (q. cx. I, gv. 232). aqedan Cans, rom 681 wlis krebas daudasturebia, rom qarTul eklesias ufleba aqvs - ,,odesca enebos Semzadeba da kurTxeva mihronisa akurTxos Tvissa eklesiasa~. 133

marTlac, amierkavkasiis yvela avtokefalur eklesias VI-VII saukuneebSi (igulisxmeba somxeTisa da albaneTis eklesiebi) ufleba hqondaT mironis kurTxevisa da akurTxebdnen kidec, qarTuli eklesia ar SeiZleba gamonaklisi yofiliyo, radganac swored somxuri wyaroebidan Cans, rom im droisaTvis qarTuli eklesia iseTive rangis avtokefaluri eklesiaa, rogorc somxuri da albanuri eklesiebi. amitomacaa, rom efrem mcires Tanaxmad, romelsac yvela qarTuli wyaro eTanxmeba, qarTvelebi mirons ukve V saukunidanve akurTxebdnen. Cvens mecnierebaSi amJamad damkvidrebulia Tvalsazrisi, TiTqosda mironis damzadebis ufleba qarTulma eklesiam ,,...mxolod IX saukunis 40iani wlebidan miiRo, misi damzadebis ufleba ierusalimis patriarqisagan, risi iniciatori da saqmis momgvarebeli iyo awyuris episkoposi efremi...~ (saRvTismetyvelo krebuli, 1981 w. N#12, gv. 88). aseTi Tvalsazrisi ar aris misaRebi, radganac giorgi merCules cnobis araswor gaSifrvazea damokidebuli. giorgi merCule wers ,,rameTu pirvelad a-sa kaTalikosTa mihroni ierusalimiT mohyvanda, xolo efrem qristesmieriTa brZanebiTa mihronis kurTxeva qarTls ganawesa ierusalimis patriarqisa ganwesebiTa da wamebiTa sixaruliT, aramed qarTlad friadi qveyana aRiracxebis, romelsac Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis...~ (Zv. qarT. agiogr. lit. Zegl. 1978, gv. 182). giorgi merCules am cnobaSi Semdegdroindel gadamwers sworad ver gauxsnia qaragma ,,a-sa~; qaragma - ,,a-sa~ konteqstis mixedviT unda gaixsnas ,,afxazeTisa~, maSin azri naTeli da sruliad gasagebi gaxdeba - mwerali wers. Tavidan afxazeTis kaTolikosebs mironi ierusalimidan mihqondaT, efremis SemweobiT ki afxazeTisaTvis saWiro mironis kurTxeva gadawyda qarTlSi, radganac afxazeTi anu dasavleT saqarTveloc qarTlia, qarTuli eklesiis nawili, radganac wirva-locva aq qarTul enaze swarmoebso. azri sruliad naTeli da gasagebia. amJamad ki, roca nacvlad afxazeTisa kiTxuloben ,,aRmosavalisa~, qaragmis araswori gaxsnis gamo azri dabnelebuli, uSinaarso da arasworia TiTqosda aRmosavleTis qveynebis sakaTalikosoebs Tavdapirvelad mironi ierusalimidan mihqondaT, es srulebiT mrude azri ar SeiZleba iyos giorgi merCules dawerili, radganac giorgi merCule aris srulebiT sando, ganaTlebuli, moazrovne moRvawe. saqme isaa, rom I saukunis 70-ian wlebSi ierusalimi srulebiT daangries da mis adgilze erTi mcire sofeliRa aRmocenda saukunis Semdeg. IV saukuneSi elenem da konstantinem, romis imperatorma, es qalaqi aRadgina, magram misi episkoposi im dros eqvemdebareboda xan antioqiis episkoposs, xan ki - kesaria-palestinisas. mxolod V saukuneSi qalkedonis krebis Semdeg gamovida ierusalimis episkoposi kesaria - palestinis episkoposis daqvemdebarebisagan da gadaiqca sapatriarqo eklesiad. amitomac, I-V saukuneebSi aRmosavleTis qveynebis sakaTalikosoebi mirons ierusalimidan ver waiRebdnen. I saukunis 70-ian wlebamde, roca qalaqi ierusalimi arsebobda, aRmosavleTis sakaTalikosoebi ar arsebobdnen, xolo Semdeg saukuneebSi ierusalimi ar iyo arc saeklesio da arc saerTaSoriso mniSvnelobis qristianuli centri. aseTi iyo mTeli aRmosavleTisaTvis mxolod antioqia, amitomac SeiZleba marTalia 134

roca efrem mcire wers, rom antioqiis sapatriarqoSi ekurTxeboda mironi da sxvagan arsado. Tu aRmosavlisas qveS vigulisxmebT qarTlis kaTalikosebs, maSin swored ,,qarTlisa~ unda daewera kidec avtors, miTumetes, rom ramdenime sityvis Semdeg naxsenebia sityva qarTli. magram konteqstidan Cans, rom am cnobaSi laparakia axlad Seqmnil afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mier mironis miRebis Sesaxeb, kerZod Tavidan afxazeTis kaTalikoss mironi ierusalimidan mihqonda, xolo Semdeg ganewesa, rom afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mironi mieRo ara ierusalimidan, aramed qarTlis sakaTalikosodan, radganac afxazeTis qveyana (e. i. das. saqarTvelo) qarTlis qveynis nawilia, xolo afxazeTis sakaTalikoso qarTlis sakaTalikosos anu erTiani qarTuli eklesiis nawilia radganac ,,...qarTlad friadi qveyana aRiricxebis romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locva yoveli aResrulebis~. giorgi merCules axali araferi ar uTqvams, radganac dasavleT saqarTvelos ukve mefe farnavazis droidanve uwodebdnen qarTls mdinare egriswylis aRmosavleTiT mimdebare qveyanas, vidre albaneTis sazRvramde. giorgi merCules cnobidan aseTi daskvna unda gamovitanoT, rom afxazeTis sakaTalikoso daarsebis Semdeg, e. i. 720 wlidan mirons iRebda ierusalimis sapatriarqodan, xolo 840-ian wlebSi mirons iRebda ukve mcxeTidan - msoflio marTlmadideblobis dasturiT. marTlac afxazeTis sakaTalikoso 830 wels scno qarTlis (taoklarjeTis) samefo karma da albaT qarTlis (mcxeTis) sapatriarqomac, maleve am cnobis Semdeg is mirons mcxeTidan iRebs - e. i. afxazeTis sakaTalikosoSi mironi ar ekurTxeboda, dasavleT saqarTveloSi mironi mcxeTidan mihqondaT. xolo rac Seexeba mcxeTas - aq mironi V saukunidanve ekurTxeboda. ismis aseTi kiTxva - ratom mihqonda afxazeTs mironi ierusalimidan IX saukuniis 40-ian wlebamde? roca dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTis abazgiis saarqiepiskoposos da lazikis samitropolitos gaerTianebis Semdeg warmoqmnilma eklesiam xatmebrZoluri eresis gamo gawyvita kavSiri konstantinepolis sapatriarqosTan - am eklesias jer kidev ar ewodeboda afxazeTis sakaTalikoso. am axalma eklesiam konstantinepolTan kavSiris gawyvetis Semdeg Cans kavSiri daamyara ierusalimis sapatriarqosTan. arsebobs msgavsi magaliTic - roca VIII saukunis I naxevarSi konstantinepolis sapatriarqoSi warmoqmnili xatmebrZoluri eresis gamo kavSiri gawyvita konstantinepolTan, goTeTis mTavarepiskoposi ierusalimSi Cavida kurTxevisaTvis da iq sami weli eloda kurTxevas (ix. ,,cxovreba ioane goTelisa~). ioane goTeli antioqiis sapatriarqoSi ar mivida im mizezis gamo, rom antioqieli patriarqebi arabTa Semosevebis gamo ara antioqiaSi, aramed konstantinepolSi imyofebodnen im dros. aseve, roca abazgiis saarqiepiskopososa da lazikis samitropolitos gaerTianebiT Seqmnilma axalma eklesiam (romelsac Semdgom afxazeTis sakaTalikoso ewoda) VIII saukunis I naxevarSi xatmebrZolobis gamo

135

kavSiri gawyvita konstantinepolTan, mas kavSiri daumyarebia ierusalimis sapatriarqosTan. aRsaniSnavia da yuradReba unda mieqces imasac, rom ierusalimis sapatriarqoSi goTeTis episkoposi ar akurTxes da qarTlSi (iberiaSi, mcxeTaSi) ekurTxa qarTlis kaTalikosis xeliT. ioane goTelis mcxeTaSi kurTxevis Sesaxeb berZnuli wyaroebic miuTiTeben, aseve srulebiT msgavsia da eTanxmeba aRniSnul faqts is, rom afxazeTis eklesiis Sesaxebac aseve moqceula ierusalimis sapatriarqo. msgavsad goTeTis damoukidebeli eklesiisa, afxazeTis eklesiac iberiis qarTlis eklesiisaTvis dauqvemdebarebia ierusalimis sapatriarqos. Cans, ierusalimsa da qarTul eklesias Soris im dros kargi urTierToba iyo. cnoba ioane goTelisa da afxazeTis mcxeTaze damokidebulebis Sesaxeb erTmaneTis msgavsia. ierusalimis sapatriarqos nebiT afxazeTisaTvis saWiro mironi mcxeTas (qarTlSi) ekurTxeba, ierusalimis sapatriarqodan mosuli ioane goTelic mcxeTaSi ekurTxeba. unda davaskvnaT, rom mironi mcxeTaSi V saukunidanve ekurTxeba. xolo daaxloebiT 720-830 wlebSi dasavleT saqarTvelos is nawili, romelic ufro adre konstantinepolze iyo damokidebuli, mirons ierusalimidan iRebda, xolo amis Semdeg mcxeTidan.

gaz. ,,madli~, 1992 w. 7. IV.

136

saqarTvelos sapatriarqos adgili marTlmadideblur diptixSi

meaTe da meTerTmete saukuneTa mijnaze saqarTvelo gaerTianda, risTvisac saukuneTa manZilze iRvwoda iberiis eklesia. sxvadasxva qarTuli politikuri erTeulebis gaerTianebam erTian mZlav saxelmwifod gamoiwvia saqarTvelos hegemonoba mTel kavkasiaSi. aRmosavleTis eklesia gansakuTrebiT savaldebulod xdida samoqalaqosaero dayofis gadaRebas saeklesioSi, ase rom, yovel cvlilebas saeroSi Sesabamisi cvlilebebi unda mohyoloda saeklesioSi. amitomac saxelmwifos gaerTianebas Tan mohyva qarTuli eklesiis gaerTianeba. aqamde afxazeTis samefoSi arsebobda ,,afxazeTis sakaTalikoso~, qarTlis samefoSi ki - ,,qarTlis sakaTalikoso~. samefoTa gaerTianebis Semdeg gaerTianda eklesiebic da erTian qarTul saxelmwifoSi warmoiqmna erTiani eklesia saqarTvelos sapatriarqos saxelwodebiT. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo, garda afxazeTisa da qarTlis sakaTalikosoebisa, Seicavda agreTve saqarTvelos saxelmwifos gavlenis sferoSi Semaval Crdilo kavkasiis qristianebs, agreTve somxeTisa da yofili albaneTis marTlmadidebel mosaxleobas. Crdilo kavkasiis qristianebi uSualod saqarTvelos patriarqs eqvemdebarebodnen, rasac mowmobs epigrafikuli masala, xolo XV saukunisaTvis Crdilo kavkasiis aRmosavleTiT Seqmnili iyo xunZeTis sakaTalikoso, romelic Cvens sapatriarqoSi Sedioda. saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi Sevida somxeTis samitropolito, romelic istoriuli saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT mdebareobda somxeTis (anisis) yofil samefoSi. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Seqmnis Semdeg sakaTalikosoebi ar gauqmebulan, isini arsebobas ganagrZobdnen, ise rogorc bizantiur sapatriarqoSi arsebobdnen samitropolitoebi. rogorc wesi, patriarqi imave dros mcxeTis anu qarTlis kaTalikosic iyo, mas sveticxovlis patriarqic ewodeboda sasaydro taZris mixedviT. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo kavkasiis masStabiT Zalze didi eklesia iyo. is moicavda ara marto kavkasiis marTlmadideblobas, aramed Zalze scildeboda kavkasiis sazRvrebs CrdiloeTisa da samxreTis mimarTulebiT. samxreTiT saqarTvelos sapatriarqos esazRvreboda vanis tba da teritoriebi, romelic daviT kurapalatma Seiyvana qarTvelTa samefoSi. aqaur mosaxleobaSi qarTvelebi mravlad iyvnen. konstantine porfirogenetis cnobiT ,,...mdinare araqsis (anu fasisis) marcxena mxare iberiisaken mipyrobili epyraT iberebs...~, XI saukunisaTvis saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Tavisi saepiskoposo mdinare arezis (raxsis) samxreTiTan (marjvena mxaresac) hqonda - valaSkertSi. mdinare arezis aqeTa mxaresa da arzrumis midamoebs didxans SemorCa qarTuli mosaxleoba. XVII s. arzrumis midamoebSi gamovlilma arqanjelo lambertim ramdenime qarTuli sofeli naxa, romelTac arzrumelad wodebuli qarTveli mwyemsmTavari ejdaT arzrumSi. XVII s. antioqieli patriarqi makaric, romelmac TiTqmis mTeli mesxeTi fexiT moiara, adasturebs, rom adre saqarTvelos samxreTi sazRvari iyo mdinare evfrati da evfratis aqeTa teritoriebi sul saqarTvelod iTvleboda, rom saqarTvelos sazRvari 137

evfratamde Cadioda, amas mowmobs Celebic (S. lomsaZe, samcxe-javaxeTi, 1975, gv. 257). XVIII saukunis Sua wlebSi t. gabaSvilma giumiSxaneSi daadastura ara marto qarTuli eklesiis arseboba, aramed mosaxleobaSi SemorCenili xsovnac, rom adre igi saqarTvelod iTvleboda. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebisTanave XI saukuneSi Tavisi mrevli da saepiskoposoebi hqonda yofili pontos diocezis marjvena mxares. sapatriarqoSi Sesuli iyo istoriuli qarTuli miwebi: mtkvrisa da Woroxis auzi mTlianad, amas garda ,,mesxeTis Zireul nawils Seadgenda mcire moculobis seqtorebi mezobeli araqsisa da dasavleT evfratis xeobebisa~ (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule. gv. 297). es teritoriebi pontos diocezis sakmao nawils warmoadgenda, pontos diocezi ki Tavisi ,,barbarosebiT~ qalkedonis msoflio krebis 28-e kanoniT konstantinepolis sapatriarqos ekuTvnoda. amitomac konstantinepolis sapatriarqo da saerTod, bizantiuri sapatriarqoebi ar apatiebdnen saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Tavisi kanonieri iurisdiqciis gavrcelebas qarTul miwaze. marTlac, XI saukuneSi saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebis Semdeg, bizantiis imperiaSi daiwyo qarTuli eklesiisa da qarTveli berebis totaluri devna da rbeva. miTumetes, rom saqarTvelos sapatriarqom Tavisi iurisdiqcia ara marto ,,pontos diocezis~ erT nawilze, aramed pontos diocezis iurisdiqciaSi Semaval ,,barbarosebzec~ ,,skviTiaze da alaniaze~ ganaxorciela Crdilo kavkasiaSi. aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTsa da CrdiloeTiT yofili pontos diocezis kesaria - kapadokieli misionerebis mier moqceuli qristianebi ,,barbarosebi~ konstantinepolis sapatriarqos pontos diocezSi Semavlad miaCnda da masze iurisdiqcias axorcielebda. Crdilo kavkasieli qristianebi ki TviT xersonesamde da kafamde saqarTvelos sapatriarqoSi Sedioda. XV saukuneSic ki qarTuli eklesiis iurisdiqciis Crdilo sazRvari kafamde (xersonesTan) da ruseTamde aRwevda. XVI saukuniT daTariRebul ,,biWvinTis iadgarSia~ - afxazeTis (qvemo iberiis) ,,kaTalikozis sakurTxi aris, samwyso - lixsa da kafas Sua da ruseTis samzRvarsa da WaneTs Sua~ (qarT. samarTl. Zegl. II. gv. 180). kafa hqvia navsadgursa da naxevarkunZuls xersonesTan, es aris istoriul skviTiaSi. arqanjelo lambertis Tanaxmad, xersonesi 500 miliT iyo daSorebuli kolxeTidan. XVI saukunisaTvis ruseTi jer kidev ar aRwevda kavkasiamde da daaxloebiT aseTi manZiliT iyo daSorebuli saqarTvelodan. istoriuli ,,alania~, CerqezeT-oseT-CeCneTinguSeT-daRestani saqarTvelos sapatriarqos iurisdiqciaSi Sevida. amas mowmobs rogorc Crdilo kavkasiaSi aRmoCenili da Seswavlili mravalricxovani eklesiebi qarTuli warwerebiTa da kedlis mxatvrobiT, agreTve werilobiTi monacemebic. 1310 wlis erT-erTi saxarebis minaweridan Cans, rom saqarTvelos sapatriarqos Tavisi saepiskoposoebi hqonda kaspiis zRvis siaxloves, rogorc amierkavkasiaSi, ise imierkavkasiaSi (xunZaxis, anwuxisa da waxurisa). amasve mowmobs sinas mTis erT-erTi xelnaweri, xolo Crdilo kavkasiaSi mdebare imierkavkasiis erT-erT umniSvnelovanes qristianul Zeglze - tyobaierdis eklesiaze aris moxsenieba, romelSic saqarTvelos patriarqs melqisedek I-s (XI s.) ewodeba ,,aRmosavleTis patriarqi~. 138

saqarTvelos sazRvrebs gareT aRmoCenili masala, romelic adasturebs, rom saqarTvelos patriarqs uwodeben ara saqarTvelos anda kavkasiis patriarqs, aramed saerTod aRmosavleTis patriarqs, adasturebs, rom aRmosavleTis qristian-marTlmadideblebisaTvis qarTuli eklesia warmoadgenda Zalze maRali avtoritetis mqone eklesias, romlis meTaursac mTel aRmosavleTze hqonda gavlena. saqarTvelos sapatriarqos warmoSobamde ar arsebobda qarTuli eklesiis meTauris Rirsebis bizantiel ierarqebis RirsebasTan Sedarebis saWiroeba, amitomac albaT qarTul eklesiaSi diptixi ar gamoiyeneboda, viTareba Seicvala sapatriarqos Seqmnis Semdeg. axalma mdgomareobam warmoSva sakiTxi Tu patriarqTa rigSi romel adgilze unda daeyenebinaT, anda romeli patriarqis Semdeg unda exsenebinaT axali patriarqi - qarTuli eklesiis meTauri. marTalia, im dros zogierTi aramarTlmadidebluri eklesiis meTaurs hqonda patriarqis tituli, magram msoflio marTlmadideblur eklesiaSi mxolod xuTi patriarqi arsebobda, rasac msoflio saeklesio krebebic adasturebda. im dros gadaxedes arsebuli patriarqebis rigs da daadgines, rom axali qarTveli patriarqi iyo meeqvse patriarqi romis papis, konstantinepolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiis da ierusalimis patriarqebis Semdeg. ase Sesdga qarTuli eklesiis diptixi. qarTuli eklesiis diptixi ukve arsebobda saeklesio ganyofamde romsa da konstantinepols Soris da amitomac am ganyofamde ukve arsebuli diptixi saukuneebis manZilze ucvlelad gadadioda sabuTidan sabuTSi. XIII saukunis dokumentSic aseTi diptixia daculi: ,,...Cvenca, glaxaki qristes mier, Semdgomad xuTTa patriarqTa da upirveles maTsa... sveticxovlis meeqvsisa patriarqisa da qristes mier yovlisa saqarTveloisa kaTalikozi nikoloz vamtkiceb da warvwer...~ (qarT. samarTl. Zegl. II, gv. 66). aqedan Cans, rom qarTuli eklesiis meTaurs diptixis patriarqTa rigSi meeqvse adgili uWiravs, magram mas Tavisi Rirseba arc erTi patriarqis Rirsebaze naklebad ar miaCnia. diptixSi qarTvel patriarqs VI adgilze XI saukunis dasawyisSive rom ayenebdnen, es Semdegidan Cans: saqarTvelos sapatriarqo Seiqmna msoflio qristianobis kaTolikebad da marTlmadideblebad gayofamde, rac 1054 wels moxda, amis Semdeg qarTuli eklesia marad marTlmadidebelTa didi ojaxis wevri iyo, amitomac gayofis Semdgom Sedgenil qarTul sabuTebSi romis papi aRar ixsenieboda marTlmadideblobasTan da marTlmadidebel patriarqebTan kavSirSi. gamonaklisia qarTuli eklesiis diptixi, masSi romis papis sxva aRmosavleli patriarqebis gverdiT dayeneba miuTiTebs imaze, rom qarTuli eklesiis diptixi Sedgenilia saeklesio ganxeTqilebamde, xolo Semdgomi saukuneebis sabuTebSi diptixis Seucvlelad gadatana miuTiTebs saeklesio tradiciulobaze, romelic gansakuTrebiT iyo daculi qarTul eklesiaSi. garda amisa, qarTuli eklesia mudamJams erTguli iyo saeklesio krebaTa kanonebisa, gansakuTrebiT ki qalkedonis krebisa. qalkedonis krebam ki Tavis 28-e kanonSi daadgina, rom konstantinepolis patriarqi unda mdgariyo ara pirvel adgilze, aramed meore adgilze. pirveli adgili romis patriarqs unda daekavebina, konstantinepoli ,,...meore iyo Semdgomad misa...~ (didi sjuliskanoni, gv. 139

275). igive daadastura iustinianem Tavis 131-e novelaSi, kerZod, ,,saeklesio kanonebis gansazRvrebis Tanaxmad uwmidesi papi Zveli romisa iyo pirveli yvela mRvdelmTavarTa Soris. axali romisas ki eqneba meore adgili Zveli romis wmida samociqulo saydris Semdeg, magram adgils daiWers sxva saydrebis maRla~ (das korpus iuris civilis..., nov elem, leipcig, 1833. s. 648-649). trulis saeklesio krebis 36-e kanonmac gaimeora Zveli kanonebi da sapatriarqoTa adgilebi ase gansazRvra ,,...ganvasazRvrebT raiTa saydarsa konstantinepolisasa swori pativi aqundes Zveli romisa saydrisa da viTarca-igi gandidnebis saeklesioTa Sina saqmeTa meore iyos Semdgomad missa, romlisa Semdgomad iyavn aleqsandrielTa didisa qalaqisai da Semdgomad missa ierusalimelTa qalaqisai~ (didi sjuliskanoni, 1975, gv. 386). trulis krebam, gaimeora ra konstantinepolis saydarTan dakavSirebiT meore msoflio krebis me-3 kanoni da 28-e kanoni meoTxe msoflio krebisa, gansazRvra, rom pirveli yofiliyo romis saydari, meore konstantinepolisa, mesame aleqsandriisa, meoTxe - antioqiisa da mexuTe ierusalimisa. mcxeTis (saqarTvelos) sapatriarqo saydari dadga ierusalimis saydris Semdeg. qarTuli diptixis Sedgenisas gaTvaliswinebuli iqna meore msoflio krebis mesame, qalkedonis 28-e, trulis 36-e kanonebi da miiRo aseTi saxe: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. romis saydari, konstantinepolis saydari, aleqsandriis saydari, antioqiis saydari, ierusalimis saydari, mcxeTis (sveticxovlis) saydari.

qarTuli diptixis mixedviT, saqarTvelos eklesiis meTaurs sxva avtokefaluri eklesiebis meTaurTa rigSi eWira me-6 adgili. qarTuli eklesiis meTauris me-6 adgilze moxseniebas qarTul eklesiaSi saukuneebis manZilze hqonda istoriul-tradiciuli mniSvneloba da iseve Seucvlelad iTvleboda, rogorc saeklesio krebaTa da mamaTa kanonebi. diptixis zemoT moyvanili saxe miuTiTebs imaze, rom is Sedgenilia saeklesio ganyofamde. bizantiis imperiaSi gabatonebuli iyo ,,pentarxiis Teoria~, msoflioSi xuTi avtokefaluri eklesiis arsebobis Sesaxeb. es Teoria iyo gamonagoni bizantiuri saimperatoro da sapatriarqo karisa. TviT imperiaSive arsebobda meeqvse avtokefaluri eklesia kviprosisa, xolo iustinianem daaarsa axali avtokefaluri eklesia ,,pirveli iustinianes~ saxelwodebiT, xolo imperiis gareT ZvelTaganve iberiis (saqarTvelos) avtokefaluri eklesia arsebobda, miuxedavad amisa, aRmosavleTis eklesiebSi da maT Soris saqarTveloSic icnobdnen pentarxiis Teorias da masSi koreqtivic SehqondaT. qarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, qarTveli patriarqi idga ,,xuT~ msoflio patriarqis Semdgom. saqarTveloSi gabatonebuli mosazrebis Tanaxmad, xuTi msoflio patriarqis Semdgom idga saqarTvelos anu mcxeTis kaTalikos-patriarqi. 140

saqarTvelos sapatriarqos daarsebidan mcire xnis Semdeg 1057 wels mefe bagrat IV-is Sewirulebis sigels SiomRvimisadmi aqvs minaweri qarTuli eklesiis meTaurisa, romlis Tanaxmadac is dgas meeqvse adgilze msoflios xuTi patriarqis Semdeg. vinc es sigeli daarRvioso, wers is ,,...krulmca arian... xuTTa patriarqTa jvariTa... da Cem glaxakisa jvariTa~ (qarT. samarTl. Zegl. gv. 28). 1245-1250 wlebis dawerils SiomRvimisadmi aqvs minaweri - ,,...xuTTa patriarqTa jvariTa. wmidisa da samociquloisa kaTolike eklesiisa madliTa da raodeni mas Sina wmidani qarTlisa kaTalikozni sxdomil arian da dasxdebian maT yovliTa jvariTa~ (iqve, gv. 41). wmida kaTolike samociqulo eklesia iyo qarTuli eklesiis saxelwodeba, da yovelTvis am formuliT moixsenieboda is. es sigelic xuTi msoflio sapatriarqo saydris Semdeg qarTul eklesias asaxelebs. 1259 wlis Sewirulebis dawerils rkonis monastrisadmi amtkicebs saqarTvelos eklesiis meTauri - ,,...Cvenca Semdgomad xuTTa patriarqTa... meeqvsisa patriarqisa... vamtkiceb...~ (iqve, gv. 66). zemoT moyvanilidan Cans, rom ukve meTerTmete saukuneSive, saqarTvelos sapatriarqos CamoyalibebisTanave, saqarTvelos patriarqs marTlmadideblur diptixSi eWira meeqvse adgili xuTi patriarqis Semdeg. marTalia, qarTuli eklesiis diptixSi qarTvel patriarqs eWira meeqvse adgili, magram scnobdnen Tu ara amas msoflios sxva sapatriarqoebi, aRiarebdnen Tu ara isini qarTveli mamamTavris saydars meeqvse adgilze? Cven dabejiTebiT unda vTqvaT, rom rogorc romis papebi, ise aRmosavleTis oTxi patriarqi scnobdnen iberiis eklesiis adgils meeqvse adgilze ierusalimis sapatriarqos Semdeg. amas miuTiTebs ferara-florenciis saeklesio krebis diptixi. am krebaze qarTul eklesias eWira VI adgili romis, konstantinepolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiisa da ierusalimis saydrebis Semdeg. es rom SemTxveviTi ar iyo da eklesiaTa adgilebis ganawilebas am krebaze ise, rogorc ,,XII msoflio~ krebaze, sagangebo yuradReba eqceoda, iqidanac Cans, rom florenciis krebam 1438 wels uniis Sesaxeb dekretSi daadgina: ,,konstantinepolis patriarqi iqneba meore wmida romis papis Semdeg, aleqsandrieli mesame, Semdeg meoTxe antioqieli da mexuTe ierusalimeli...~ (a. kartaSevi, msoflio krebebi, 1963, gv. 425). marTalia, am krebas ar gamoucia dokumenti Tu rogor unda ganawilebuliyo Semdegi adgilebi, radganac kreba exeboda ara diptixis sakiTxs, aramed sarwmunoebis sakiTxs, magram saerTod eklesiaTa (kaTedraTa) adgilebis ganawilebas Zalze didi yuradReba rom eqceoda, zemoT moyvanili dadgenilebidanac Cans. qarTuli anu iberiis eklesiis warmomadgenels am warmomadgenlobiT krebaze eWira VI adgili. 1438 wlis 5 Tebervals feraraSi gaxsnil da florenciaSi gagrZelebul ,,msoflio~ saeklesio krebas, sadac erTmaneTs Sexvdnen aRmosavleTisa da dasavleTis warmomadgenlebi da romlis aqtebsac aRmosavleTis sapatriarqoebma xeli moaweres, ,,Tanabari uflebiT eswreboda iberiis mitropoliti~ (heinrix., storia generale delle missionikatoliSe... torino, 1846, p. 13; wignidan i. tabaRua, saqarTvelo evropis wignsacavebsa da arqivebSi, I, gv. 101). 141

,,iberiis mitropoliti ijda marTlmadidebelTa mxares mexuTe adgilze konstantinepolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiisa da ierusalimis warmomadgenlebis Semdeg. - ,,pirveli kardinalis pirdapir idga patriarqis savarZeli... patriarqis Semdeg oTx skamze ganlagebulni iyvnen... ierusalimis patriarqis warmomadgeneli menziis arqiepiskoposi da iberiis mefis warmomadgeneli iberiis mitropoliti~ (iqve, gv. 102). krebis monawileni isxdnen Semdegi rigis mixedviT: centridan Tanabar manZilze idga ori taxti - romis imperatorisa da berZenTa imperatorisa. sasuliero pirebi ganlagebulni iyvnen Semdegi rigis mixedviT: erT mxares isxdnen laTinTa warmomadgenlebi, meore mxares isxdnen marTlmadidebelTa warmomadgenlebi. CvenTvis saintereso marTlmadidebelTa rigi iyo Semdegi saxisa: marTlmadidebelTa rigSi pirvelad idga - 1. konstantinepolis patriarqis savarZeli (patriarqi am sxdomas ar eswreboda); patriarqis Semdeg oTx skamze ganlagebulni iyvnen: - 2. aleqsandriis patriarqis warmomadgeneli - arqiepiskoposi; 3. antioqiis patriarqis warmomadgeneli - arqiepiskoposi; 4. ierusalimis patriarqis warmomadgeneli - arqiepiskoposi; 5. iberiis patriarqis (dokumentSia - ,,mefis~) warmomadgeneli - mitropoliti. amis Semdeg diptixis mixedviT isxdnen sxva marTlmadidebeli episkoposebi. ,,nawyveti florenciis wmida msoflio saeklesio krebis oqmidan... sasuliero pirebis ganlagebis Sesaxeb... pirveli kardinalis pirdapir idga patriarqis savarZeli (patriarqi, SeuZlod yofnis gamo, im dRes krebas ver eswreboda)... patriarqis Semdeg oTx skamze ganlagebulni iyvnen - herakliis arqiepiskoposi, romelsac aleqsandriis patriarqis kanonieri mandati hqonda da misi adgili ekava; antioqiis patriarqis mier gamogzavnili efesiis arqiepiskoposi; ierusalimis patriarqis warmogzavnili menziis arqiepiskoposi da iberiis mefis warmomadgeneli iberiis mitropoliti; amaT Semdeg isxdnen trapezuntis, rizes, nikeis... arqiepiskoposebi... mitropolitebi... berebi, TavianTi wesis mixedviT~ (iqve, gv. 214; laTinuri teqsti, gv. 280). florenciis krebaze ara marto eklesiaTa warmomadgeneli sasuliero pirebi isxdnen ,,wesis~ anu diptixis mixedviT, aramed saero pirebic aseve ,,wesis~ mixedviT isxdnen. ferara-florenciis ,,msoflio~ saeklesio krebidan Cans, rom qarTuli eklesiis meeqvse adgili msoflio eklesiaTa rigSi, xolo mexuTe adgili marTlmadidebelTa rigSi aRiarebuli da cnobili iyo rogorc romis papis, aseve msoflio (konstantinepolis) patriarqis da sxva aRmosavleTis patriarqebis mier, winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi iseT, Tavisi droisaTvis Zalze mniSvnelovan krebaze, romelic msoflio eklesiis gaerTianebas isaxavda miznad, romisa da aRmosavleTis qristianebi erTmaneTTan uTanxmoebaSi ar Sevidodnen iberiis eklesiis adgilis ZiebisaTvis. iberiis eklesiis adgili diptixSi ZvelTaganve cnobili iyo, amitomac man am ,,msoflio~ krebaze yovelgvari davis gareSe Tavisi adgili daiWira. meTxuTmete saukunis I naxevris diptixi, daculi ferara-florenciis krebaze, aseTia: 1. romis papi, 2. msoflio (konstantinepolis) patriarqi, 3. aleqsandriis, 4. antioqiis, 5. ierusalimis, 6. iberiis, 7. trapezuntis, 8. rizes, 9. nikeis, 10. lakedemoniis, 11. nikomediis, 12. trivoniis, 13. 142

amasiis, 14. mitilenis, 15. tolozinos, 16. stavropolis, 17. tustricis, 18. garinis, 19. melentinis, 20. aqilis, 21. muldulis patriarqebi da arqiepiskoposebi (iqve, gv. 214-215; laTinuri teqsti, gv. 280). marTalia, am krebaze ase isxdnen eklesiis ierarqebi, magram maTgan avtokefalur eklesiad miiCneoda mxolod xuTi eklesia: konstantinepolis, aleqsandriis, antioqiis, ierusalimisa da iberiisa, amitomac am avtokefalur eklesiaTa warmomadgenlebs am krebaze eWiraT gansakuTrebuli, sxvebisagan gansxvavebuli skamebi krebis monawileTa pirvel rigSi. xolo iberiis mefis elCi, romelsac agreTve trapezuntis imperatoris mandati hqonda, papis Tanmxlebi piris pirdapir ijda (iqve, gv. 215). aseTi saxis diptixi iyo ,,msoflio~ eklesiis diptixi. marTlmadidebluri diptixidan ki gavida romis papis moxsenieba, magram amas araviTari gavlena ar mouxdenia qarTuli eklesiisaTvis kanonikurad miCneul me-6 adgilze. kerZod, marTalia, marTlmadidebluri diptixidan gavida romis papis moxsenieba, ramac vakanturi adgili warmoSva adgilobrivi eklesiebis meTaurTa eqvseulSi, magram male vakanturi adgili daiWira ruseTis eklesiam msoflio sapatriarqosa da sxva sapatriarqoTa gadawyvetilebiT, rac scno qarTulma eklesiam. ,,konstantinepolis patriarqma genadi sxolarim (1453-1460) sxva aRmosavlel patriarqebTan erTad scno rusuli eklesiis damoukidebeli arseboba da gansazRvra CaTvliliyo avtokefaluri rusuli mitropolia Tavisi RirsebiT ierusalimis sapatriarqos Semdeg, ese igi mexuTe adgilobriv marTlmadidebel eklesiaTa diptixSi~ ( , 1985, gv. 3). aqamde qarTul eklesias diptixSi adgili ierusalimis patriarqis Semdeg eWira, amis Semdeg ki man Tavisi tradiciuli VI adgili daiWira ruseTis eklesiis Semdeg. 1589 wels ruseTis sapatriarqos daarsebis Semdeg misma patriarqma diptixSi maRali adgili daikava. ,,roca didma krebam 1593 wels gansazRvra moskovis sapatriarqos mdgomareoba, mas gamoeyo ufro maRali adgili, vidre maSin arsebul arqiepiskoposebs avtokefalur da TviTmmarTvel eklesiebisa - arxidiisas, kviprosisas, iveriisas da pekiisas, magram ara aleqsandriis patriarqis Semdeg, rogorc surda ruseTis mefes, aramed mxolod ierusalimis patriarqis Semdeg, imasTan dakavSirebiT, rom krebis mamebma Sesabamis mimarTvaSi ganacxades wmida mamaTa kanonebis Seucvleloba~ ( ,,~, gv. 11). ruseTis mefes surda da aRmosavleTis sapatriarqoebic ar iyvnen winaaRmdegni, ruseTis patriarqs diptixSi daeWira adgili aleqsandriis patriarqis Semdeg, magram radganac wina saukuneebSi wmida mamaTa mier dadgenili iyo diptixSi aleqsandriis sapatriarqos Semdeg antioqiisa da ierusalimis patriarqTa xseneba, rac dadasturebuli iyo trulis krebis kanoniT, amitomac aRmosavleTis patriarqebma gadawyvites ruseTis patriarqis adgili marTlmadideblur diptixSi yofiliyo ierusalimis patriarqis Semdeg. es adgili ruseTis sapatriarqom miiRo Tavisi ara marto sididisa da ekonomiuri siZlieris gamo, aramed imitomac, rom im dros mahmadianur qveynebSi arsebuli aRmosavleTis yvela patriarqi 143

ruseTis qristianul saxelmwifos imedis TvaliT Sescqeroda. aseve iyo saqarTveloSic, amitomac qarTulma eklesiam scno da aRiara ruseTis sapatriarqos adgili ierusalimis sapatriarqos Semdeg. magram diptixSi VI adgilze kvlav qarTuli eklesia unda yofiliyo. qarTulma eklesiam ruseTis patriarqis adgili ierusalimis patriarqis Semdeg rom aRiara, amas miuTiTebs saqarTvelos kaTalikospatriarq antonis mimarTva ruseTis imperatrica elisabedisadmi. 1757 wels anton I, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi werda: ,,...yovelsa, rasaca aRiarebs da daamtkicebs, Seiwynarebs da miiRebs dRes wm. eklesia aRmosavleTisa, romel ars konstantinepolisa, aleqsandriisa, antioqiisa da ierusalimisa da yovlisa ruseTisa - meca aRviareb...~ (ev. nikolaZe, saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria, 1918, gv. 188). aqedan Cans, rom ukve XVII saukunis Semdgom qarTuli eklesiis diptixi aseTi iyo: 1. konstantinepolis msoflio sapatriarqo, 2. aleqsandriis, 3. antioqiis, 4. ierusalimis, 5. ruseTis sapatriarqoebi, 6. saqarTvelos sapatriarqo. amJamadac marTlmadideblur diptixSi qarTul eklesias uWiravs istoriul-tradiciuli VI adgili, rac srulebiT kanonieria.

,,jvari vazisa~ #1, 1993.

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muxranel bagrationTa didi ojaxis mamuliSviloba

erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlisa da gansakuTrebiT qarTlSi rostom-xanis gamefebis Semdeg aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi qarTveli eris moRvaweobis yoveli sfero sparseTis wamlekavi gavlenis qveS moeqca, gaukuRmarTda, erovnul saxes ucxoelTa daRi daesva, Cveni qveyana sulier-kulturuli daRupvis gzas daadga. ,,qarTveli eri am dros marTlac uaRres gansacdelSi iyo Cavardnili. misi momavali saxeiros aras moaswavebda, Tu rom is mTels Tavis sulier Zalas ar moikrebda da erovnuli gansacdelis Tavidan acilebas ar ecdeboda. sabednierod man es SeZlo, am saSinel gasaWirSi man marTlac mTeli Tavisi energia da SemoqmedebiTi niWi moikrifa da gamanadgurebel mimarTulebas winaaRudga~ (iv. javaxiSvili, damokidebuleba ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris, 1919, gv. 3). qarTuli kulturis uaRresi dakninebis dros, erovnuli TviTSemecnebis gamoRviZebisa da gaRvivebisaTvis gansakuTrebiT iRvawa muxraneli bagrationebis im Stom, romelsac saTaveSi edga vaxtang V Sahnavazi. am ojaxis wevrebi anda masTan daaxloebuli pirebi iyvnen is udidesi moRvaweni, romelTac intensiuri erovnul-patriotuli, kulturul-mecnieruli SemoqmedebiT SeZles RvTismetyvelebis, istoriuli mecnierebis, medicinis, qimiis, maTematika-astronomiis, filosofiis, pedagogikis, bunebismetyvelebis, geografiis, samxedro saqmis ara Tu aRorZineba, aramed erovnul niadagze gadayvanac. aRorZinda rusTvelologia, didaqtika, daibeWda wmida werili-biblia, wignebi saeklesio saWiroebisaTvis. ar iyo arc erTi dargi, arc erTi saxe erovnul-kulturuli mimarTulebisa, romelsac saTaveSi ar hyolia muxran-batonTa aRniSnuli ojaxis romelime wevri anda maTTan daaxloebuli piri, arCil mefe, giorgi XI, vaxtang VI Tu vaxuSti, maTive ojaxis uaxloesi piri sulxan-saba orbeliani Tu sxvebi.

145

muxranel bagrationTa Stos genealogia aseTia:

vaxtang V (Sahnavazi)

arCil mefe (Sahnavaz xani)

giorgi XI mefe (Sahnazar xani)

levan mefe aleqsandre

luarsab solomon

anuki Sahis coli

Tamar

qaixosro mefe

vaxtang VI mefe (husein yulixani)

domenti kaTalikosi

iese mefe (aliyulixan)

svimoni Teimurazi

anton I kaTalikosi baqar mefe (Sah-navaz xani) vaxuSti istorikosi

safiqrebelia, rom muxranel bagrationTa ojaxisa da maT irgvliv Semokrebili moRvaweebis erovnul-patriotul suliskveTebas safuZveli daudo am ojaxis pirmSom (vaxtang V-is ufrosma vaJma) arCil II-m, magram mravalmxrivobiTa da nayofierebiT vaxtang VI-s veravin Seedreba (aq igulisxmeba Teimuraz meoremdeli epoqa). arCili im dros cxovrobda da moRvaweobda, roca qarTvel ers gansakuTrebiT uWirda. saqarTveloSi mahmadianTa gavlena igrZnoboda ara marto saxelmwifoebriv, aramed kulturul-sayofacxovrebo da sulier sferoSic. qveyana sisxlisagan icleboda, naxevari kaxeTi tyveebad garekes saukunis (XVII) dasawyisSi, qarTlSi qarTvelad yofna gausaZlisi gaxda, SeZlebuli da gavleniani didebulebic ki, visac qristianad darCena surda, saqarTvelodan ruseTSi gadadioda sacxovreblad. dabali fenebis nawili, SeWirvebulni mahmadianTa da lekTagan, Tavdacvis mizniT grigoriandeboda (somxebs Sah-abasis Semdeg iranSi ara Tu devnidnen, saxelmwifoebriv doneze SeRavaTebsa da upiratesobebs aniWebdnen, qarTul qalaqebSi ki iranis garnizonebi idga, mahmadiani mmarTvelebi batonobdnen. isini grigorianebs (,,somxebs~) am mizezis gamo patronobdnen). dasavleT saqarTveloSi tyveTa syidva mZvinvarebda, xSirad tyved gasayidad gamzadebuli qalebi da kacebi Tavebs imaxinjebdnen da Tavsac iklavdnen, iyo SemTxvevebi, roca dedebi tyveebad gamzadebul bavSvebs TavianTi xeliT hklavdnen (icodnen, rom gaTaTreba ar ascdebodaT) da sxva mravali msgavsi movlena iyo gabatonebuli.

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qarTul mwerlobasa da literaturaSi iseTi Temebi Warbobda da batonobda, rom Tu ara evropeli misionerebis Canawerebi da Semdegdroindeli qarTvel istorikosTa Sromebi, adamiani ifiqrebda TiTqosda saqarTvelo umSvenieres saukuneSi cxovrobda. qarTuli istoriografia saerTod dumda da ar aRwerda arsebul viTarebas, qveyanaSi gabatonebuli iyo siyvaruli poeziisa, Zveli prozauli nawarmoebebic ki poemebad gadaakeTes. rac Seexeba Temebs, popularuli iyo ara erovnul-patriotuli anda istoriuli xasiaTis leqsebi da poemebi (proza saerTod ar uyvardaT im dros, rogorc iTqva), aramed msubuqi, gasarTobi, romantikul-ararealuri, sadevgmiro Temebi. yvavilebis, xilTa, anbanis da msgavsTa qeba. qarTvelTa (didebulTa) didma nawilma kargad icoda sparsuli ena (urevdnen kidec sparsulsa da qarTul sityvebs erTmaneTSi). swored sparsuli poezia iyo sulieri sazrdo qarTvelobisa, imdenad, rom ara Tu didebulebi, TviT dabali fenebic ki izepirebdnen ,,rostomianis~ (Sah-names) pasaJebs da misi gmirebis saxelebs qarTvelebi TavianT bavSvebs arqmevdnen. eri ucxour (da Tanac dampyroblis) sulier kulturas daewafa, Tumca ki mSvenivrad Targmnilsa da galeqsils. ,,rostomiani~ gauleqsavs 16 marcvlovani SairiT XVI saukunis I naxevris poets, imave saukuneSi misi Sroma meore poets gaugrZelebia. ,,iranul literaturaSi firdousis ,,Sahnames~ bevri mimbaZveli hyavda... am saxis naSromebi qarTuladac gadmoukeTebiaT. aseTebia ,,uTruTiansaamiani~, ,,zaqiani~ da sxvebi~ (saq. ist. narkv. IV, gv. 365). marto sparsuli zRaprebiT ar kmayofildebodnen, qarTuli ,,amirandarejanianic~ - gauleqsavT mose xonelisa (TavisTavad mSvenieri romani, magram am epoqis sulieri saWiroebisaTvis gamousadegari). ,,zRapruli prozis SesaniSnavi nawarmoebia ,,rusudaniani~, erTmaneTTan Sinaarsobrivad da ideurad dakavSirebuli 12 zRapris krebuli~ (iqve, gv. 365) Tumca, rogorc Cans, esenic saWironi iyvnen: ,,nawarmoebSi gamoxatulia optimisturi Sexeduleba cxovrebaze: dabrkolebebi, gasaWiri, gansacdeli, bolos da bolos daZleuli iqna da Wiri lxiniT Seicvala~ (iqve, gv. 365). TviT Teimuraz I-ic ki, romelmac saTave daudo qarTul mwerlobaSi erovnuli motivebis aRorZinebas Tavisi poemiT ,,wameba qeTevan dedoflisa~, sparseli Tematikis wamlekav gavlenasaa ayolili, Targmnis ,,leilmejnunians~, ,,iosebzilixanians~, ,,vardbulbulians~, ,,Samifarvanians~, magram is gansxvavdeba sxva moleqseebisagan imiT, rom ,,ucxour fabulaSi qarTul erovnul suliskveTebas aqsovs~ (iqve, gv. 366), Tumca ki amiT saerTo suraTi ar icvleba - sparsuli gavlena wamlekavia. arc qarTveli eris istoria iwereba am umZimes epoqaSi. ,,aravis unda saxareba, arca wigni mociqulTao~ - werda Teimurazi. ,,saRmrTo wigni bevri waxda uydoTa da ubudobiTo~ - wuxs arCili. am epoqis dabalsulierebasa da znedacemulobas swored is apirobebda, rom daviwyebuli iyo qarTul-erovnul-patriotuli Temebi, daviwyebuli iyo qarTvelTa erovnuli sarwmunoebis umTavresi saRmrTo wignebi, saxareba Tu samociqulo. TviT ,,vefxistyaosnis~ maRalsulierebis gagebac gaZnelebuliyo. is, rogorc Cans, sparsuli poeziis rangis nawarmoebad miaCndaT, da rostomianisa Tu zaqianisa darad pativs scemdnen (Semdgom 147

vaxtnag VI-s sagangebo msjeloba dasWirda imis dasamtkiceblad, rom ,,vefxistyaosani~ sparsuli poeziis rkalSi moqceuli poema ki ara, aramed erovnul-qristianulia). sabednierod pirvelma arCilma auRo alRo am ubedurebas (sulier dakninebas, uideobas, sparsofilobas mwerlobaSi) da safuZveli daudo muxran-batonebis did ojaxTan erTad (samefo ojaxi magaliTis mimcemi da orientiri yofila qarTvelTaTvis) - erovnulobas, ideurobas, patriotuli suliskveTebis literaturas, sityvakazmul mwerlobasa Tu mecnierebas. ,,fizikur saSualebaTa gverdiT - wers n. berZeniSvili - TandaTan SemuSavda agresiis winaaRmdeg ideuri brZolis saSualebani, TandaTan Camoyalibda ideur-politikur moRvaweTa Zlieri dasi: poetliteratorebi, mecnier-politikosebi, saxelmwifo da saeklesio moRvaweni. saTanado mebrZoli motivebi gaCnda poeziaSi (arCili, ioseb Tbileli), saamisod ,,gaimarTa~ istoriac (,,axali qarTlis cxovreba~), gaCnda mahmadianobis winaaRmdeg propaganda (giorgi XI, iakob Semoqmedeli), daiwyo qristianobis aRdgenisaken mimarTuli energiuli moqmedeba (arCili, vaxtang VI)~. (n. berZeniSvili, saqarTvelos istoriis sakiTxebi, IV, 1967, gv. 296). ,,miCneulia, rom arCilma qarTul mwerlobaSi axali etapi daiwyo; mTeli ,,skolac~ Seqmna imxanad saqarTveloSi moZalebul sparsofilur tendenciaTa aRsakveTad. am ,,skolis~ umTavresi principebi Semdegnairad warmoisaxeba: mwerlobam unda asaxos drosa da sivrceSi realurad momxdari faqti, konkretuli istoriuli sinamdvile, rac istoriulad ar yofila, is monaWoria, zRaparia ,,tyuilad gasagonari~. asaxva unda moxdes ,,marTlis Tqmis~ principiT, avisa da kargis warmoCeniT..., ,,sparsTa naWoriT~, e. i. ucxouri warmoSobis fabuliT gatacebas arCili upirispirebs ,,erovnul~ Tematikas: mwerali unda asaxavdes saqarTvelos warsuls Tu awmyos. mwerali unda werdes gamarTuli qarTuli eniT (,,qarTuli mwerloba~, I, 1984 w. gv. 27). arCili erTmaneTTan akavSirebda erovnulsa da qristianuls. ,,Tavisi msoflmxedvelobiT igi uSualod dakavSirebulia qristianul religiasTan: ,,vinca mokvdes sjulisaTvis, daijere, ese cxondes~ (iqve, gv. 26). amitomac ,,man dasabeWdad moamzada biblia, risTvisac erTmaneTs Seudara sxvadasxva nusxa da slavuri teqsti~ (saq. ist. narkvevi IV, gv. 368), 1705 wels moskovSi daarsda qarTuli stamba, sadac saeklesio wigni - daviTni daibeWda. aqve surda bibliis dabeWdva, rac Semdeg baqar batoniSvilma SeZlo. arCili imdenad iyo mowadinebuli qarTul literaturaSi erovnulpatriotuli mimarTulebis damkvidrebisa da patriotuli grZnobebis gaRvivebiT, rom TviT rusTavelsa da Teimurazs ,,...usayvedurebs, rom isini TavianT nawarmoebebs safuZvlad udeben sparsul naWor da zRaprul ambebs. ucxouri fabulis uarismyofeli poeti moiTxovda qarTuli erovnuli Sinaarsis fabulis damuSavebas, arCilma pirvelma aimaRla xma enis siwmindis dasacavad~ (iqve, gv. 368). arCils, viTarca ufros vaJs ekuTvnoda taxti qarTlisa, magram antiiranuli orientaciis gamo, is ara Tu ,,gurjistanis valad~ daamtkica iranma, aramed eZebda, raTa Seepyro da daesaja, Tumca ki mamis 148

sicocxleSi vaxtang VI-is dros is gamefda jer imereTSi da Semdeg kaxeTSi, imereTis taxtze is kidev 4-jer avida, Semdeg ki gaZevebuli ruseTSi gadasaxlda. arCilis Semdgom qarTlis taxtis memkvidre iyo misi momdevno Zma giorgi XI, romelic gamefda kidec. sulxan-saba orbeliani bagrationTa karze izrdeboda, aqve miuRia mas ara marto sasuliero da saero ganaTleba, aramed is ideur-politikuri gzneba, romelsac mTeli cxovrebis manZilze aRvivebda. amaSi udidesi wvlili Seutania giorgi XI-s, romelic yofila aRmzrdeli da ,,sulieri moZRvari~ sulxan-sabasi. Tavis mxriv sulxani iyo aRmzrdeli giorgis Zmiswulisa vaxtang VI-isa. ,,cnobilia mariam dedoflis Rvawli ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ krebulis gavrcelebis saqmeSi, agreTve giorgi XI-is zrunva xelnawerTa dacvagamravlebaze, ukanasknelis davalebiT daamzada 1680 wels mdivanma begTabeg TaniaSvilma ,,vefxistyaosnis~ Zvirfasi xelnaweri. misive davalebiT galeqsa iakob dumbaZem bagrat batoniSvilis polemikuri naSromi mahmadianTa winaaRmdeg. giorgi XI-m SeukveTa sulxan-saba orbelians qarTuli ganmartebiTi leqsikonis Sedgena~ (saq. ist. nark., IV, gv. 300). aseTive erovnul-patriotuli suliskveTebis mqone iyo giorgi XIis momdevno Zma - levani, romelic ,,iyo brZeni da mecnieri, Sors damnaxavi saqmisa da ganswavluli samecniero wigniTa~ ... levanma gazarda istorikosi sexnia CxeiZe, romelic Semdeg giorgis karze moRvaweobda da dawera ,,cxovreba mefeTa~. cnobili poeti ioseb Tbileli (saakaZe) giorgi XI-is erTguli mokavSire iyo. mas didi Rvawli miuZRvis Tbilelis wignsacavis daarsebis saqmeSi~ (iqve, gv. 360). erTi SexedviT SeiZleba sruliad bunebrivad mogveCvenos saqarTvelos saxelmwifos mmarTvelTa mamuliSviloba da gansakuTrebuli araferi davinaxoT maT erovnul-qristianul RvawlSi, magram erekle I-is (kax. bagrationTa Stodan) da iese-aliyuli xanis (TviT muxranel bagration - vaxtang VI-isa da domenti kaTalikosis Zmisa) mefoba miuTiTebs, rom ara iranis ymobaSi myofi qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba apirobebda mmarTvelTa erovnul patriotul midrekilebebs, aramed maTi piradi meoba, zneoba da xasiaTi. ,,erovnuli TviTSemecnebis gamoRviZebisa da gaRvivebisaTvis, gansakuTrebiT ki ganmtkicebisaTvis, warsulis codnas aqvs didi mniSvneloba: istoria adamianis msoflmxedvelobas da imave dros saWiro siRrmesa da safuZvlianobas aniWebs. es kargad esmoda saqarTvelos didebul mefes vaxtang VI-s (1703-1714, 1719-1724), romlis mravalmxrivi, dauRalavi moRvaweoba Cveni istoriis erT-erT saukeTeso furcels Seadgens~ (iv. javaxiSvili, damokidebuleba ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris, 1919, gv. 3). am droisaTvis ,,qarTlis cxovreba~ mxolod me-14 saukunemde yofila moyvanili. vaxtangma sagangebod Sedgenil swavlul istorikosTa komisia moiwvia, romelTac gaagrZeles da daweres ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ gagrZeleba me-14 saukunidan me-18 saukunis damdegamdis. ,,am garemoebam qarTuli saistorio mwerloba kvlav gamoaRviZa da gaacxovela~ (iqve, gv. 4). ,,qarTuli mowinave wreebi istoriuli TavgadasavlebiTa da TemebiT iyvnen gatacebulni... poetebma gansakuTrebuli saistorio poemebis weras mihyves xeli, qarTuli

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mxatvruli mwerlobis sxva dargebsac erovnuli simTa JRera daetyo~ (iqve, gv. 5). vaxtangma gansakuTrebuli yuradReba dauTmo qristianobis ganmtkicebas. qristianoba qarTvelobis tolfasi kategoria iyo da qristianobaze zrunva qarTvelobis SenarCunebaze zrunvas udrida. iranis urTierTobis xasiaTi aiZulebda qveynis meTaurs mahmadianoba mieRo. saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi mahmadianebi iranis mfarvelobiT sargeblobdnen. es zrdida gamahmadianebis safrTxes. kulturis yvela dargi iqna Cayenebuli qristianobis SenarCunebisa da gaZlierebis samsaxurSi. qarTuli stambis daarsebac am interesiT iyo nakarnaxevi. stambaSi umTavresad sasuliero wignebi ibeWdeboda (1709 wlidan 1722 wlamde daibeWda 17 dasaxelebis sasuliero wigni). ,,vefxistyaosnis~ dabeWdvis drosac ki vaxtangi sarwmunoebis interesebs iSveliebda da SoTas am ukvdav qmnilebas qristianul wignad aRiarebda. am xanebSi axldeba qristianobisaTvis wamebulTa cxovrebis aRwera. magaliTad daiwera Sio axlisa da garejelTa martviloba (besarion kaTalikosisa) da sxva~ (S. xanTaZe, qarTuli istoriografia, 1985, gv. 18). saqarTvelos istoriis wyaroTa wreSi Semotanili iqna ,,cxovrebani~, riTac TvalsaCinod gafarTovda es wre. am saqmis iniciatori da pirveli aRmasrulebelni vaxtang VI da misi swavlul kacTa komisia iyo. es istoriografiuli faqti aixsneba saeklesio saqmis mZime mdgomareobiT vaxtang VI-is xanaSi. ,,mahmadianuri iranis mesveurTa Semoteva, qristianobis SezRudva-Seviwroeba am xanaSi aiZulebda mefes ezruna qarTvelTa erovnuli sarwmunoebis ganmtkicebaze, qristianobis dacvaze, saeklesio saqmeebis mowesrigebaze. am saerTo politikis erT-erTi rgoli iyo qarTvel saeklesio moRvaweTa damsaxurebis xazgasma, maT Sesaxeb cnobebis Setana qarTlis cxovrebis wignSi... maTSi yuraReba gamaxvilebulia qristianobis, qarTuli qristianuli eklesiisaTvis Tavdadebis faqtebze~ (iqve, gv. 31). vaxtangma didi samuSaoebi Caatara samarTlisa da saxelmwifo weswyobilebis mosawesrigeblad, Seqmna saxelmwifo kanonebis wigni dasturlamali, Seadgina samarTlis wigni, risTvisac jer qarTuli samarTlis yvela Zegli Seagrova, romelsac Tan daerTo sxva erebis kanonmdeblobidan gamorCeuli samarTlis wignebi. vaxtangis samarTali lmobierebiTa da humanurobiT gamoirCeva. ,,vaxtang VI-is intensiurma kulturul-mecnierulma moRvaweobam, aRorZinebaSi misma wvlilma, sastambo saqmianobam, rusTavelologiuri xasiaTis kvlevam, maTematikur-astronomiuli traqtatebis Targmanebma, medicinisa da qimiis saxelmZRvaneloebis gavrceleba-Sedgenam, filosofiur-didaqtikur TxzulebaTa Seswavla-damuSavebam mniSvnelovani adgili daikaves qarTuli kulturis saganZurSi~ (m. qiqoZe, dasax. naSromi, gv. 4). muxranel bagrationTa Stos ekuTvnoda vaxuSti batoniSvili, romlis Rvawli sayovelTaodaa cnobili, vaxuStis kargad SeumCnevia, rom tradiciulad wmida ninos droidan erTiani qarTuli eklesia saTaveSi edga yovelgvar erovnul-mamuliSvilur sulier saqmes, ase iyo saukuneTa manZilze. saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg, roca 150

mahmadianTa Semosevebs xalxma veRar gauZlo da saqarTvelo moeSva, kvlav eklesiam iTava gamxneveba erisa. is wers - ,,aramed episkoposTa svla laSqarTa, nadirobaTa da brZolaTa Sina amis mier Cveuleba iqmna: raJams uwyes mahmadianTa Semdgomad daviT mefisa (daviT meaTe. 1505-1525 ww.) daucxromeli brZola da kirTeba, da ixiles Rafloba uRonoba qveynisa erTa episkoposTa, maSin etyodian episkoposni: ,,nu moRafldebiT da nu mouRonovdebiT brZolad maTda, da nu dautevebT sarwmunoebasa, rjulsa da Cveulebas Tqvensa, da Cven viqnebiT winambrZolni Tqveni~ (q. c. IV, gv. 37). qarTuli eklesiisa da misi episkoposebis zemoT aRniSnul mowodebas erTgulad asrulebda muxranel bagrationTa didi ojaxi, maTTan daaxloebuli moRvaweni, icavdnen sarwmunoebas, rjulsa da qarTul erovnul Cveulebebs. Tavis mxriv Zveleburi moRvaweoba grZeldeboda qarTul saepiskoposoebsa da samrevloebSi.

gaz. ,,madli~. 1992. 10. III.

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afxazeTis Ria Wriloba

Tamar dedoflis vaJis saxeli

mraval adamians aRuZravs cnobiswadils Tamar mefis Zis saxeli: laSa-giorgi. ,,qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ naTqvamia, Tamar mefis vaJis dabadebisas qarTulma mxedrionma axalSobils miuZRvna erT-erTi laSqroba - ,,bedsa da svesa zeda laSasa, romeli ganmanaTleblad soflisa iTargmna afsarTa eniTa~ (q. cx. tomi 2, 1959 w. gv. 58). maSasadame, laSa afsaruli sityvaa da qarTulad ganmanaTlebels niSnavs. vin iyvnen da sad cxovrobdnen ,,afsarebi~, romelTa enidanac ewoda saxeli mefis vaJs? ,,afsni~ da ,,afsua~ - Tanamedrove afxazeTsa da afxazebs ewodebaT afxazur enaze, aseve ,,a-laSa-ra~ CiraRdans (ganmanaTlebels) hqvia Tanamedrove afxazurad, maSasadame ,,laSa~ afxazuri sityvaa, magram ratom miiCnies Cvenma mematianeebma ,,laSa~ ara afxazTa, aramed afsarTa sityvad? Cveni Zveli mematianeni da meistorieni kargad cnobdnen afxazebsa da afxazeTs, ,,laSa~ maT dros afxazuri sityva rom yofiliyo afsarul sityvad ar miiCnevdnen. saqme imaSia, rom Zvel dros afxazebs sxva xalxs uwodebdnen, xolo afsarebs sxvas. afxazebs uwodebdnen afxazeTis mkvidr qarTvelur toms, xolo afsarebs mis mezoblad kavkasiaSi damkvidrebul CerqezuladiReur enaze molaparake toms. Crdilo kavkasiis dasavleTi nawili dasaxlebuli iyo Cerqezuli tomebiT. im dros CerqezTa saerTo ricxovneba Turme didi yofila. Cerqezuli iyo afsarTa, abazTa, adiReTa, yabardoelTa, ubixTa da sxva tomebi. yvelani isini enaTa erT jgufs ganekuTvnebodnen da maTi saerTo saxeli Cerqezi iyo. im droisaTvis sul sxva enaTa jgufs ganekuTvneboda afxazuri ena. pavle ingoroyvam gamoarkvia, rom Tanamedrove afxazeTSi afsaruli anu Cerqezuli tomebis damkvidrebamde cxovrobda abasxebis qarTulenovani tomi, aRsaniSnavia, rom abasxebis tomi agreTve samxreT saqarTveloSic basianSic mkvidrobda. marTlac, berZeni meistorieni weren, rom henioxebis tomi im dros mkvidrobda afxazeTsa da samxreT saqarTveloSi (ix. p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, Tb. 1954 w.). henioxebs qarTulad abasxebi ewodebodaT, saidanac momdinareobs berZnuli termini - abazgia (afxazeTi) da qarTuli termini - basiani. abasxidan aris nawarmoebi (bgeraTa gadanacvlebis gziT) - afxazi. p. ingoroyvam damajereblad gamoarkvia uZvelesi qarTuli da ucxouri wyaroebis moSveliebiT, rom afxazTa es tomi qarTulenovani yofila. amas sxva monacemebTan erTad uCvenebs afxazeTis uZvelesi toponimebic (dafiqsirebuli ucxour rukebsa da wyaroebSi), romelTac mxolod qarTulenovani axsna aqvT.

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marTlac, zogierTi toponimis JReradoba Tanamedrove mkiTxvelisTvisac ki gasagebia. magaliTad, biWvinTasTan axlos gamdinare mdinare kapoetiswylis xeobas ,,bzebis~ - (bzifis - bza mravlobiT ricxvSi megruli formiT) - uwodebdnen, amJamad am mdinaresac bzifi ewodeba, misi uZvelesi saxeli kapoetiswyali nawarmoebia Tevzis kapoetis saxelisagan. saerTod, afxazeTis toponimika adasturebs, rom ZvelqarTuli abasxebis tomi Tayvans scemda mcenareebs. magaliTad: iseve rogorc bzifi bziT dafarul xeobas ewoda, aseve soWi (amJamad qalaqis saxelwodeba) soWnars soWian adgils, biWvinTa fiWvnars (ZvelqarTulad fiWvs - biWvi erqva), xolo cxumi - (cxemlnars - cxomela, rcxila) erqva; toponimi cxumari svaneTsa da qarTlSic (liaxvis xeobaSi) dasturdeba. aseve qarTulenovani axsna aqvs afxazeTis uamrav uZveles toponims - magaliTad ,,egriswyali~ - dRevandeli eriswyali, ,,klisura~ (kelasuri), kodori (es toponimi kaxeTSic dasturdeba). qarTuli daboloebiTaa nawarmoebi Zveli toponimebi - bedia, ilori, moqvi, dranda, webelda, anakofia da sxva. abasxebi anu afxazebi qarTuli tomi rom iyo iqidan Cans, rom swored am tomma daudo safuZveli erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Camoyalibebas, daSlili saqarTvelos Sekrebasa da gaerTianebas VIII-X saukuneebSi (cxadia, qarTuli saxelmwifos Seqmna araqarTul toms iseve ar SeeZlo, rogorc indoelebs Cinuri saxelmwifos Seqmna ar SeeZloT; slavebs germaniisa da frangebs inglisis saxelmwifoebisa). yoveli eri TviTve qmnis Tavis politikur-saxelmwifoebriv erTeuls. abasxebi anu afxazebi araqarTuli tomi rom yofiliyo, is ara qarTul erovnul saxelmwifos Seqmnida, aramed sakuTars. Zveli afxazebis qarTvelobas isic miuTiTebs, rom, am tomma erovnuli saxelmwifos SeqmnisTanave Tavisi qveynis miwa-wyalze akrZala berZnulenovani (e. i. mSobliurenovani) RvTismsaxureba. cxadia, afxazebis deda-ena Tuki afxazuri iyo, maT berZnulis nacvlad afxazurenovani wirvalocva unda daeyenebinaT. winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi raRa azri eqneboda erTi ucxo - berZnuli enis meore ucxo - qarTuli eniT Secvlas, magram qarTuli ena afxazebisaTvis iyo ara ucxo, aramed mSobliuri ena. swored amitom gaimarjva am enam ,,afxazeTis samefoSi~. aq qarTuli ena iyo erTaderTi ena kulturisa, mwerlobisa da administraciisa, is xalxis ena iyo. biWvinTaSi TiTqmis aTasi weli ijda dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTuli eklesiis meTauri afxazeTis kaTalikosis tituliT. aq merve saukunidan meCvidmete saukunemde mTieli warmarTi Cerqezuli tomebis Semosvlamde mxolod da mxolod qarTulenovani wirva-locva da sagaloblebi gaismoda. ,,afxazeTis sakaTalikosos - dasavleT saqarTvelos sakaTalikosos daarsebas zogi mkvlevari VIII saukunes, zogi ki X s-is II naxevars miakuTvnebs. afxazeTis sakaTalikoso ganasaxierebda qarTul erovnul da centralizebul eklesias, romlis politikur safuZvels qarTuli saxelmwifo - ,,afxazeTis samefo~ (dasavleT saqarTvelo) warmoadgenda~ (qse t. 2, gv. 31). ismis kiTxva, aqvT Tu ara Zvel afxazebTan (qarTvelur tomTan) genetikuri memkvidreobiTi kavSiri Tanamedrove afxazebs (afsarulCerqezul toms). am kiTxvas sxvadasxvagvarad pasuxoben mecnierebi, SeiZleba iTqvas, rom am erTmaneTisadmi dapirispirebul mosazrebaTa Soris saSualoa azri cnobili mecnieris d. musxeliSvilisa: ,,...movlena, 153

romelsac adgili hqonda gvian saukuneebSi mTeli kavkasiis masStabiT, aris kavkasiis mTis mosaxleobis moZaleba da TandaTanobiT Camosaxleba politikurad dasustebul (zogan ayril-aoxrebul) barSi. ase iyo kaxeTSi ase iyo qarTlSi, ase iyo afxazeTSi. awindeli afxazi mosaxleoba zemoxsenebul mTielTa da aborigenTa Serevis Sedegia (gaz. ,,komunisti~, 5 aprili, 1989). erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSlis Semdeg, XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi Cveni qveynis mTianeTSi TandaTanobiT esaxleba Crdilo kavkasieli tomebi. aRmosavleT kaxeTSi (Tanamedrove saingiloSi) lekebi da daRestnelebi Casaxldnen, imierkavkasiidan qsnisa da liaxvis xeobebisaken gadainacvles alanurma tomebma, afxazeTSi TandaTanobiT Casaxldnen Cerqezuli tomebi, inguSuri tomebis (qistebis) mcdeloba saqarTveloSi damkvidrebisa aRkveTes xevsurebma da sxva qarTvelma tomebma, aseve yabardoelebi svanebma Seakaves. Cerqezebis (anu afsarebis) mier afxazeTis dakaveba gagrZelda TiTqmis sami saukune (XVI-XVIII ss.). samegrelos samTavro medgar winaaRmdegobas uwevda am process. magram imis gamo, rom im droisaTvis Cerqezebi Crdilo kavkasiis yvelaze mravalricxovani xalxi iyo, maTi Sekaveba SeuZlebeli gaxda. imereTis samefosa da samegrelos samTavros gaerTianebulma Zalebmac ki ver SeZles SeekavebinaT Cerqezebis (afsarebis) afxazeTSi Camosaxleba am saukuneebSi. aseve ver SeZles qarTl-kaxeTis gaerTianebulma Zalebma daRestnuri tomebis Sekaveba da amitomac moaxerxes lekebma kaxeTis didi nawilis daWera - TviT kaxeTis samefos dedaqalaqebic ki - Zegami da bazar-qalaqi daRestnuri tomebis xelSi aRmoCnda (dRevandeli saingilo). Crdilokavkasiel tomTa afxazeTSi damkvidrebis Semdeg adgilobrivma qarTvelurma mosaxleobam (e. i. afxazebma) TandaTan asimilacia ganicada CerqezebTan (afsarebTan), miuxedavad amisa, am axal eTnojgufs qarTvelebma afxazuri uwodes, xolo TviT es xalxi ki Tavis Tavs arasodes ar uwodebda afxazebs, aramed afsuebs anda Cerqezebs. amJamadac ki Cerqezebad miiCneven TavianT Tavs afxazeTidan XIX s-Si gadasaxlebuli ,,afxazebi~. 1866 wlis ajanyebis Semdeg TurqeTsa da siriaSi gadasaxlebuli iqna im mosaxleobis mniSvnelovani nawili, romelTac Cven amJamad vuwodebT afxazebs. aRsaniSnavia, rom isini da maTi STamomavlebi TavianT Tavs ar uwodebdnen arc afxazebs da arc afsarebs, aramed Cerqezebs. isini arc arasdros miiCnevdnen TavianT Tavs afxazebad. erT periodSi rogorc CerqezeTi, ise afxazeTi TurqeTis imperiis SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda Savi da azovis zRvispireTTan erTad. Turqebs aq TavianTi warmomadgenlebi, samxedro nawilebi, navsadgurebi da qalaqebi hqondaT, swored Turqebma Seuwyves xeli Cerqezebis afxazeTSi Camosaxlebas. Turqebi afxazeTis im mosaxleobas, romelsac Cven amJamad afxazebs vuwodebT - Cerqezebs uwodebdnen. amitomac, TurqeTSi iqna gadasaxlebuli 1866 w. afxazeTidan Turqebis motrfiale antirusulad ganwyobili meamboxeni. TurqeTis oficialuri statistikiT isini aRiracxnen ara afxazebad, aramed Cerqezebad. moskovSi dabeWdili eTnodemografiuli cnobari ,,naselenie mira~ saerTod ar asaxelebs TurqeTSi amJamad mcxovreb 154

afxazur-adiReur xalxTa Soris afxazebs, samagierod asaxelebs Cerqezebsa da abazebs. TurqeTSi cxovrobs 150 000 Cerqezi da 100 000 abazi (,,abazini~), (s. bruk. ,,naselenie mira~ m. 1981, gv. 526). cnobilia, rom am 150 000 Cerqezidan 100 000 afxazeTidan gadasaxlebulTa STamomavalni arian. mxolod qarTvelebi uwodeben afxazeTidan TurqeTSi gadasaxlebulT - afxazebs. TurqeTSi mcxovreb am afxazebis ricxvs qarTuli enciklopedia 100 000-iT sazRvravs (qse t. 2, statia - afxazebi). maSin roca msoflios arc erTi qveynis statistikiT (maT Soris moskovSi dabeWdili ,,naselenie mira~) afxazeTidan TurqeTSi gadasaxlebuli mosaxleoba ,,afxazebad~ ar aRiricxeba, yvelgan maT namdvili satomo saxeli ,,Cerqezebi~ ewodebaT. msgavsad TurqeTisa, siriaSi afxazeTidan gadasaxlebul mosaxleobas ,,Cerqezebi~ ewodebaT. iq 35 000 Cerqezi cxovrobs. saerTod mravali gaugebrobisa da uxerxulobis wyaroa is, rom qarTvelebi afxazeTSi damkvidrebul mosaxleobas TavianT eTnosaxels afsuebs, afsarebs anda Cerqezebs ar uwodeben. am sakiTxs ki sicxadiT aRricxavs aziisa da msoflio sxva qveynebis eTnostatistika. ZvelqarTulad sityva ,,afxazi~ warmoadgenda maCvenebels mosaxleobis kuTvnilebisa gansazRvrul istoriul-geografiuli olqisadmi (e. i. afxazeTisadmi) da iseTive mniSvnelobiT gamoiyeneboda rogorc kaxeli, qarTleli, imereli, mesxi da sxv. amitom qarTvelebma qarTul istoriul-geografiul olqSi - afxazeTSi damkvidrebul Cerqezebs (afsarebs) ,,afxazebi~ uwodes. rogorc aRiniSna, dRevandeli afxazebic TavianT Tavs uwodeben ara ,,afxazebs~, aramed ,,afsuebs~, rasac Seesityveba qarTuli ,,afsari~. Tanamedrove ,,afxazebs~ (anu Cerqezafsarebs) araferi ara aqvT saerTo ZvelqarTul tom afxazebTan. ZvelqarTuli tomis afxazebis eTnosazRvari istoriulad anakofiasTan gadioda (axla gudauTis raionSi mdebareobs istoriuli anakofia). TviT leon - afxazTa mefis drosac ki VIII saukuneSi, afxazeTis saerisTavoSi ar Sedioda cxumi da bedia, maT TavianTi erisTavebi hyavdaT. ,,xolo dajda ra ese egrisi aw afxazeTi rva saerisTaod: dasva afxazTa da misca afxazeTi, jiqeTi... 2. dasva cxoms da misca egris-iqiTi anakofia alaniTurT. 3. dasva bedias da misca egrisis aRmosavleTi cxenis wylamde...~ (q. c. t. 4, gv. 796). vaxuStis drosac e. i. XVIII saukuneSi sazRvari odiSsa da afxazeTs Soris klisurasTan gadioda. ,,anakofia... sazRvari odiSisa da afxazeTisa. am anakofiis aRmosavleT zRvidan mTamde Seavlo zRude didi levan dadianman, afxazTa gamousvlelobisaTvis, garna aw uqm. ars. xolo sigrZe odiSisa ars kavkasiis Txemidan zRvadmdeve da meore - egrisis wylidam anakofiamde~ (iqve, gv. 782). aqedan Cans, rom odiSi viwro mniSvnelobiT ewodeboda teritorias egriswylidan axal aTonamde (Tanamedrove afxazeTis didi nawili istoriuli odiSia). farTo mniSvnelobiT ki odiSi ewodeboda teritorias anakofiidan cxeniswylamde. afxazeTi, rogorc vTqviT, anakofiis dasavleTiT moqceul teritorias erqva - ,,xolo anakofiis dasavleTi ars afxazeTi, pirvelad wodebuli egrisi, rameTu vinaiTgan wili egrisisa ars zRvamde, mis gamo ewoda egrive~ (iqve, gv. 784). maSasadame, anakofiisa da dasavleTiT moqceul teritorias afxazeTi ki ewodeba, magram is egrosis wilia egrisi anu egria. ras niSnavs es? ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ Tanaxmad, 155

qarTlosi, kaxosi, egrosi (da ase Semdeg) ewodebodaT qarTveluri tomebis eTnarqebs. ,,qarTlis cxovreba~ maT im teritoriebs usazRvravda, romelzec Sesabamisi tomebi iyvnen dasaxlebulni. maSasadame, egross mikuTvnebuli aqvs is teritoria, sadac megrelebis tomi iyo dasaxlebuli; da radganac egross aRniSnuli wyaros Tanaxmad, mikuTvnebuli aqvs teritoria anakofiis dasavleTiTac istoriulad es miwa-wyalic qarTvelTa (megrelTa) samkvidreblad miiCneva, anu ,,qarTlis cxovreba~ miiCnevs, rom istoriulad afxazTa tomi qarTveluri tomia is egrosis STamomavalia, egrosi maTi eTnarqia. rogorc Cans, TviT Tavad-aznaurebi uwyobdnen xels Cerqez-afsarebis TavianT mamulebSi Casaxlebas. cnobilia, rom XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi Sinauri aSlilobis dros qarTuli samefoebi, samTavroebi da saTavadoebi aqtiurad iyenebdnen ucxoelTa daqiravebul razmebs. mraval magaliTTa Soris erT-erTia Tavad CxeiZisa, romelmac osmalTa ZaliT qarTvelebs quTaisis cixe waarTva da Semdeg ki osmalebs gadasca. ,,moiyvana spani osmalTa, moipara cixe quTaisisa da Seayena osmalni 1666 wels~ (iqve, gv. 838). samegrelos mTavari mTiel tomTa Zalas iyenebda (levan dadiani): ,,emegobreboda afxazTa, jiqTa da svanTa... movida levan dadianica spiTa odiSar-afxaz jiqTa. iqmna brZola Zlieri. iZlia mefe giorgi~ (gv. 826. imereTis mefe, 1621 w.). Cerqezebis Camosaxlebas ar SeeZlo mTlianad Seecvala saxe afxazeTis eTnikisaTvis. aq mravlad darCnen adgilobrivi qarTvelebi, Tumca mravali Cerqezuli elementi SeiTvises. qarTuli saxe SerCa afxazeTis TavadaznaurTa ZiriTad nawils. pirvel rigSi es iyo maTi qristianoba, qarTuli enis codna da, rac mTavaria, TavianTi Tavis mikuTvneba qarTul kulturisa da eTnosisadmi, amis damamtkicebeli magaliTis motanamde, unda iTqvas, rom marTalia Cerqez-afsarebs uWirdaT TavianTi Tavadebis grZeli qarTuli gvarebis warmoTqma da TavianTi enis bunebis Sesabamisad amoklebdnen, magram Tavad-aznaurebma bolomde Semoinaxes TavianTi qarTuli gvarebi: ServaSiZe (afsarulad Semoklebuli - CaCba), marSania, anCabaZe (aCba), emuxvari (emxaa), Cxotua, marRania da sxva. Tavadobis institutis qarTveleobas afxazeTSi adasturebs isic, rom afxazurad (afsarulad) Tavads - aTaud-qarTuli sityva erqva. ara marto Tavad-aznaurobas, aramed afxazeTis warCinebulebsac didxans SeunarCunebiaT qarTuli enis codna. vaxuSti werda Tavisi drois afxazebis Sesaxeb: ,,ena sakuTari Tavisi aqvso, aramed uwyian warCinebulTa qarTuli~ (q. c. t. 4, gv. 786). rogorc Cans, afxazeTis Tavad-aznauroba sul bolo dromde (e. i. revoluciis mier maT ganadgurebamde) TavianT Tavs qarTvelebad miiCnevdnen. aseTi iyo magaliTad afxazeTis ukanaskneli mTavris Ze giorgi ServaSiZe. ar SeiZleba is miviCnioT gamonaklisad, radganac is iyo mTavris Ze da icoda, Tu ra sapasuxismgeblo iyo misi yoveli gamosvla, sityva Tu saqme. faqtiurad is gamoxatavda Tavis samTavro ojaxSi dacul saukunovan tradiciebs da agreTve afxazeTis warCinebulTa ideebsac. giorgi ServaSiZe saqarTvelos ,,Cvens samSoblos~ uwodebs (s. janaSia, t. VI, 1988, gv. 18), qarTul enas uwodebs ,,samSoblo enas~ (iqve, gv. 20), ,,Cvens enas~ (gv. 21), ,,qarTul musikalur enas~ (gv. 19), qarTul kulturas uwodebs ,,Cvens kulturas~ (gv. 18). is zrunavs ,,iverTa 156

dakuwuli xalxis~ erTobisaTvis, ,,ukuRmarTad datrialebuli eris arseba~ misi zrunvis sagania. ,,...ekamaTeba imaT, vinc ewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos avtonomiis ideas, ,,brwyinvale mzes eris ganTavisuflebisa, gamococxlebisa~. es Segneba aris giorgis moqalaqeobrivi pirovnebis saZirkveli~ (iqve, gv. 19). msgavsi ideebi gaaCndaT afxazeTis warCinebulebsac. swored amitom icodnen maT qarTuli ena, hqondaT qarTuli gvarebi, ufro metic, maT ara Tu icodnen qarTuli ena, aramed swored qarTuli ena iyo maTi mSobliuri ena, dedaena. isini dedis ZuZusTan erTad iTvisebdnen qarTul enas. TviT Cvens saukuneSic ki afxazi Tavadaznaurebis ojaxebSi bavSvi dedas qarTulad mimarTavda. rusi mkvlevari seleznevi, romelic 1841 w. iyo afxazeTSi, wers, rom am wris warmomadgenelma bevrma icis qarTuli da osmaluri wera-kiTxva. afxazeTi afsar-Cerqezuli tomebis Semosvlis Semdgom XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi kulturuli TvalsazrisiT daSorda qarTul kulturas, gauqmda qarTuli kulturis mZlavri kerebi - biWvinTis sakaTalikoso, drandisa da moqvis saepiskoposoebi, mravali sxva qarTuli eklesiamonasteri, qarTveli mosaxleoba afxazeTisa moeqca afsarul-Cerqezuli enobrivi dafenebis qveS. am drosac ki qarTuli enis codna SeinarCunes ara marto afxazeTis Tavadaznaurul ojaxebSi, aramed TviT afxazeTis (e. i. qarTveluri tomis) dabal fenebSic. amis magaliTi sulxan-saba orbelianma aRwera. man 1714 w. kunZul maltaze (xmelTaSua zRvaSi) saqarTvelodan didi xnis winaT gatacebul sxva tyveTa Soris afxazic naxa da gakvirvebiT aRniSna: ,,afxazma ratom icoda is gamikvirda qarTuli~ (iqve, gv. 27). s. janaSia wers ,,qarTuli enis codna, sCans saerTod gavrcelebuli yofila afxazeTSi...~ (iqve, gv. 27). male qarTuli enis adgili afxazeTSi ZiriTadad Cerqezul-adiReurma (afsarulma) enam da misma dialeqtma daiWires, magram am drosac qarTul enas Tavisi Rirseuli adgili ar daukargavs. ,,TviT XIX s-Si, rogorc es qvemoT ufro dawvrilebiT iqneba warmodgenili, afxazeTis mTavris kancelaria qarTulad muSaobs, rusuli oficialuri cnobebiTac, ukanaskneli mTavari mixeili kavkasiis mmarTvelobasa da mis warmomadgenlebs Cveulebrivad qarTulad mimarTavs (iqve, gv. 26). ,,...am periodSic qarTuli ena kulturis mTavari enaa, rogorc samTavrosaTvis, ise TviT mixeilisaTvis. amas mowmobs, magaliTad, sakmao raodenobiT moRweuli qarTuli memorialuri warwerebi... oficialuri miwer-mowera rusuli xelisuflebis organoebTan da mis warmomadgenlebTan qarTulad warmoebs... yuradRebas iqcevs is, rom mTavris samdivanmwignobros mier damzadebuli qarTuli dokumentebi marTlweris garkveul sistemas misdeven...~ (iqve, gv. 33). ,,mTavris ojaxis wevrebis miwer-moweris enac qarTulia~ (gv. 34). ase iyo ara marto XIX saukuneSi, aramed yovelTvis. ,,magaliTad, yvapu SarvaSiZisa da misi Zmis qereqemis dokumenti XVII s. meore naxevrisa... solomon, arzayan, saustan SarvaSiZeebis minawerebi biWvinTis erT xelnawerze da sxva. agreTve luxunis (lixnis) warwera mxedruli vercxlis feSxumze, romelic ixseniebs solomon SarvaSiZes da mis Svils arzayans~ (iqve, gv. 26, SeniSvna). aqedan Cans, rom, marTalia, afxazeTis qarTvel Tavad-aznaurTa mamulebSi maTive nebiT Casaxldnen Cerqez-afsarebi, romelTac iyenebdnen 157

rogorc meomrebs, magram amiT Tavad-aznaurebs ar daukargavT erovnulqarTuli TviTSemecneba da ar gauwyvetiaT kulturuli kavSiri qarTvelobasTan. Tumca revoluciis Semdeg yvelaferi Seicvala. swored amiT iyo gamowveuli is, rom jer kidev XVIII saukuneSi qarTveli sazogadoeba afxazebs erovnebiT qarTvelebad miiCnevda. anton kaTalikosi vaxuStize werda: ,,aman dawera qarTvelT istoria - kaxT, mesxT, afxazTa, megrelTa, svan, kavkasTa aRwera...~ (gv. 55). viTareba icvleba XIX s-is meore naxevarsa da XX saukuneSi. am dros afxazeTSi yalibdeba axali erTiani eTnikuri erToba - ,,afxazi xalxi~. axla ukve es xalxi aris ara qarTveluri tomi, aramed Cerqez-afsaruli tomi, radganac misi safuZveli gaxda aq XVI-XVIII saukuneSi Casaxlebuli Cerqez-afsarebi da gaafsarebuli adgilobrivi - qarTveluri mosaxleoba (rogorc Tavad-aznauroba, ise dabali fenebi). arsebobs mosazreba, TiTqosda dasavleT saqarTveloSi uxsovari droidan saxlobdnen Cerqezul-afsaruli tomebi. arsebobs Tu ara amis damamtkicebeli wyaroebi, an materialuri Zeglebi? Zvel avtorTa mier moxseniebuli afsilebi, abazgebi da sanigebi Cerqezuli tomebi iyvnen Tu qarTveluri? amJamad oficialuri wreebis mier miRebulia Tvalsazrisi, rom afSilebi iyvnen afxazuri (gulisxmoben Cerqezuls) tomi. gaaCndaT mxolod erTaderTi mamtkicebeli sabuTi, es iyo is, rom saxelwodeba ,,afSil~ da Tanamedrove afxazebis TviTsaxelwodeba ,,afsua~ TiTqmis identuria. ,,afSilisa~ da ,,afsua~ saxelebis garegnuli msgavsebis garda araviTari sxva sabuTi ar arsebobs am tomebis identurobisa. amis sapasuxod unda iTqvas, rom mraval, absoluturad sxvadasxva warmoSobis ers da toms msgavsi saxelebi hqondaT. magaliTad, ,,prusebi~ da ,,rusebi~ da a. S. saxelebis msgavseba damamtkicebeli sabuTi ar aris. ariane, romelic mogviTxrobs dasavleT saqarTveloSi mcxovreb lazebis, afsilebis, abazgebis Sesaxeb, afsilebs moixseniebs lazebTan kavSirSi, lazebis daqvemdebarebis qveS da, rac mTavaria, is ar wers, rom afsilebs sakuTari ena aqvTo, maSin roca laparakobs enebis Sesaxeb. is miiCnevda, rom afsilebis ena aris lazuri, mniSvnelovan mamtkicebel sabuTad miaCniaT is, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos mravali toponimis fuZeSi gvxvdeba Tanxmovnebi ,,fs~, ,,fS~. aRsaniSnavia, rom Cerqezul enas marTlac axasiaTebs am Tanxmovnebis siWarbe, magram isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom TviT Cerqezuli ena aris ara ganyenebuli ena, aramed Sedis iberiul-kavkasiuri enebis ojaxSi da ,,fs~, ,,fS~ Tanxmovnebi qarTveluri enebisTvisac aris damaxasiaTebeli. ufro metic, savaraudoa, rom fuZeqarTul enaSi (e. i. qarTul-lazur-svanur enobrivi erTobis dros) ,,Tanxmovan ,,fS~, ,,fs~-Ti, aRiniSneboda yoveli gamomdinare wyali, Waobi, am adgilebis RmerTebi da sulebi. axlac ki patara mdinares ,,fSa~ hqvia, gube (gur. dial.) - ,,fsori~, ,,fsl~ aRniSnavs disimilacias produqtTan dakavSirebuls da a. S. ,,afsaTi~ svanur miTologiaSi nadirTa da frinvelTa RvTaebaa. ,,fsitis cixe~ kaxeTSi mdinaris napirze mdgar erT cixes hqvia. ,,fSati~ mcenaris saxelia da a. S. berZnuli miTis gmiris medeas Zmas - afsirte erqva. ,,afsirte~ Rrma sulier kavSirs amyarebs svanur RvTaeba ,,afsarTTan~, xolo Cerqezul TanxmovnebTan ,,fs~, ,,fSa~158

sTan mxolod garegnuli msgavseba aqvs da a. S. qarTul eTnojguf ,,fSavlebis~ dakavSirebac SeiZleba ,,afSilebTan~. ase rom, dasavleT saqarTveloSi XVI saukunemde Cerqezuli tomebis cxovrebis araviTari damamtkicebeli sabuTi ar arsebobs. cnobilia, rom VIII saukunemde abazgiaSi berZnuli eklesia axorcielebda Tavis iurisdiqcias da aq berZnulenovani wirva-locva iyo. Tuki es mxareebi marTlac Cerqez-afsarebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, maT enaSi Warbad unda damkvidrebuliyo berZnuli qristianuli terminologia, rogorc, vTqvaT, megrulSi damkvidrda, magram araviTari msgavsi movlena Tanamedrove afxazurSi ar aRiniSneba. a. baqraZe wers: ,,voronovi, Tu igi WeSmariti mecnieria, movalea sabuTebis moSveliebiT logikurad auxsnas mkiTxvels rogor moxda, rom xalxma, romelmac me-6 saukuneSi biWvinTa aaSena, me-10-11 saukuneebSi moqvi, bedia da a. S. pirveli wigni mSobliur enaze mxolod XX s. dasawyisSi dawera? rogor moxda, rom biWvinTis kaTedralis Semqmnels mSobliur enaSi ar moepoveba mRvdlis Sesatyvisi da an qarTul ,,mamas~ (mamadan) xmarobs an - ,,a-paps~ berZnulidan megreul metyvelebaSi darCenili ,,pap~-dan? saerTo gavrcelebuli berZnuli warmomavlobis episkoposis magier megrul ,,Wyondars~ (Wyondidelidan) iyenebs, sakmevels eZaxis ,,a-sakumals~, bers, monazons - ,,a-bers~, zars ,,asarkials~ (sarekelidan), jvars - ,,a-jars~ da a. S. Zvelma qarTvelebma kargad icodnen, rom ,,afxazi~ qarTuli tomis saxeli iyo, xolo mis mezobel Cerqezul toms ,,afsarebi~ erqvaT. aRsaniSnavia, rom Cerqezuli tomebis TviT saxelwodebebi Zalze waagavdnen qarTveluri tomis ,,afxazis~ saxels. magaliTad - ,,abZax~, ,,abazxa~, erqva Cerqezuli tomis erT jgufs (abaZaxebs anu abZaxebs s. janaSia, dasax. naSr. gv. 277). uTuod saxelebis am msgavsebiT iyo gamowveuli is, rom afxazeTSi dasaxlebul Cerqezul tomebsac qarTvelebma afxazebi uwodes, magram saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi maT erTmaneTisagan kargad arCevdnen... mematianes dasWirda exmara eTnikuri termini, romelic sakuTriv ,,afxazur~ (am sityvis dRevandeli gagebiT) e. i. Cerqezul-adiRur toms aRniSnavs: mas dasWirda aesaxa, ras niSnavs Tamaris vaJis giorgis zedasaxeli ,,laSa~. ...avtori wers, rom es saxeli ...ganmanaTleblad soflisa iTargmneba afsarTa eniTa... ,,man ar dawera ,,afxazTa eniTa~, radgan maSindeli qarTveli mkiTxvelisaTvis eTnonimi ,,afxazi~ arsebiTad mainc ufro qarTvels niSnavda da gaugebari iqneboda ra enaze niSnavs sityva ,,laSa~ - ,,ganmanaTlebels soflisa~ (n. lomouri, ,,rogor unda gvesmodes eTnonimi afxazi~, gaz. ,,lit. saq.~). maSasadame, ,,afxazi~ sxvaa, ,,afsari~ sxva. afxazi - qarTvelis sinonimia, afsari ki Cerqez-adiReelis. swored amis gamo uwodebdnen Cveni mezobeli xalxebi Tavisi drois cnobil qarTvel mefeebsa da moRvaweebs ,,afxazs~, cxadia giorgi mTawmindelis ,,afxazoba~ ar niSnavs mis ,,afsarobas~, giorgi qarTvelia, qarTvels ki mis saukuneSi - ,,afxazsac~ uwodebdnen da a. S. afsarebi (Cerqezebi) Tamaris dros Crdilo kavkasiaSi cxovrobdnen osebis mezoblad, amitom, roca osTa mefes daviT soslans vaJi SeeZina giorgi Tamaris Ze, samefo karma Cans gadawyvita osTa mezoblad mcxovrebi Crdilo kavkasiis udidesi xalxi afsarebi daemoyvrebina da mefis Zis mamaZuZe afsar warCinebulTa Soris gamoerCiaT. Cans mamaZuZem

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uwoda kidec saxeli laSa Tamaris vaJs. qarTvelTa da Cerqez-afsarTa Soris amiT saukunovani siyvarulis xidi gaido.

,,jvari vazisa~, #4, 1989.

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JamTaaRmwerloba WeSmaritis metyveleba ars!


polemika

,,JamTaaRmwerloba WeSmaritis metyveleba ars da ara Tval-axma visTvisme~ - wers Cveni mematiane da aqve aRniSnavs ,,guliswyromaman kacisaman simarTle RmrTisa ara yvis~ (,,qarTlis cx.~ I, gv. 199). marTlac rom asea. vfiqrob es sityvebi exeba batonebs T. gvancelaZesa da m. Cuxuas, romelTac gazeT ,,saxalxo ganaTlebaSi~ guliswyromiT gasces pasuxi filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtors al. onians. batonma aleqsandrem gabeda da sajarod Tqva is simarTle, romelic, rac unda vmaloT, mainc iTqmeba xval Tu ara, aTeuli wlebis Semdeg. mainc ra simarTlea es? batonebo, cxonebuli da netarxsenebuli pavle ingoroyvas Tvalsazrisi axali afxazebisa da Zveli afxazebis sxvadasxva eTnikuri warmoSobis Sesaxeb, garkveuli mizezebis gamo oficialurma istoriografiam ganukiTxavad uaryo (50-ian 60-ian wlebSi). maSinve intensiurad daiwyo sapirispiro gamabaTilebeli ideebis wamoyeneba. zogierTi qarTveli istorikosi Tu enaTmecnieri aqveynebda Sromebs awindeli afxazebis dasavleT saqarTveloSi uxsovari droidan cxovrebis Sesaxeb. amJamad cnobilia, Tu rogor iyeneben am Sromebs. a. onians mohyavs qarTvel mecnierTa zogierTi debuleba: a. Ciqobava: arsebobs seriozuli safuZveli vivaraudoT, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze qarTvelur tomebs win uswrebden afxazur-adiReuri tomebi...~ q. lomTaTiZe: ,,afxazur enaze metyvel tomebs qarTvel tomebTan uZvelesi droidan hqondaT mtkice kavSiri, am urTierTobis Sedegia afxazuri enis udavo gavlena qarTulze da ara mxolod leqsikis sferoSi, aramed agreTve morfologiis garkveul sferoebSic...~ (ix. gaz. ,,sax. gan.~ 3. 1. 1990) da sxva. faqtobrivad swored msgavsi mosazrebani sxvadasxva qarTuli mecnierebisa gaimeora jorj hiuitma Tavis cnobil werilSi: - ,,unda vikiTxoT megrelebi ise kargad rodisRa flobdnen afxazurs, rom esesxaT afxazurisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli sintaqsi da (Tu janaSias azri sworia) morfologiac? Cemi azriT, istoriaSi unda veZeboT dro... aseTi dro xom ar iqneba zemoT xsenebuli ,,afxazeTis samefo~ (ix. gaz. ,,lit. saq.~ 21. VI). hiuits imis Tqma surs, rom awindeli afxazebi aramarto cxovrobdnen dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed ,,afxazTa samefoc~ Seqmnes, aqedan gamomdinare yvela SedegiT, anu dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba erT dros afxazurenovani iyo. aqedan SemorCa metyvelebaSi enobrivi naSTi, kultura das. saqarTvelosi warmoSobiT afxazuria da a. S. (e. i. SefarviT naTqvamia, rom bagratisa da martvilis taZrebi, ioane petriwi Tu sxva moRvaweni afxazuri kulturis sferos ganekuTvnebian). cnobilia Tu rogori mZafri kritikiT Sexvda qarTuli sazogadoeba hiuitis aramegobrul werils, magram man xom is azrebi gaimeora, rac p. ingoroyvas cnobili wignis ,,giorgi merCules~ gamosvlis Semdeg mis gansaqiqeblad gaismoda mecnierTa oficialur wreebSi, romelTa mowafec hiuiti iyo sakmao xnis manZilze?

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oficialuri istoriografebi ingoroyvas istorikos-specialistad ar Tvlidnen. dacinviTac ki iRebdnen mis didtanian istoriul Txzulebebs (samwuxarod, arc axla iswavleba universitetsa da institutebSi ingoroyvas Sromebi). T. gvancelaZesa da m. Cuxuas ar eparebaT eWvi awindeli afxazebis (afsuebis) dasavleT saqarTveloSi uxsovar droidan cxovrebaSi da afsuebsa da Zvel afxazebs erTmaneTTan aigiveben. kerZod, weren: vTqvaT saboloo WeSmaritebad miviReT a. onianis mier avtoris dausaxeleblad gameorebuli sxvisi Sexeduleba imis Sesaxeb, rom amJamindeli afxazebi XVIII saukuneSi arian mosulni maTi axlandeli gansaxlebis adgilas. nuTu onians hgonia, rom amiT dRevandel Tu Tavisufal saqarTvelos exsneba pasuxismgebloba Tavis moqalaqeTa winaSe!~ (gaz. ,,sax. gan.~ 8.III.90). ucnauri logikaa, ara Tu a. onianisaTvisac, aramed bavSvisTvisac cnobilia, rom aq saqme exeba qarTuli kulturisa da saqarTvelos teritoriis sxva eris mier miTviseba-mitacebis mcdelobas da ara ,,moqalaqeTa winaSe pasuxismgeblobas~. Semdeg weren a. onianis Sesaxeb ,,roca gadaWriT uaryofs eTnonim ,,afsuas~ kavSirs eTnonim ,,afxazTan~ icis ki, rom es eTnonimi erTmaneTs jer kidev 1912 wels daukavSira ukve mravalgzis naxsenebma marma?~ viTom am sakiTxSi niko mari avtoritetia? is, Tanaxmad ivane javaxiSvilisa, ara Tu afxazebs, megrelebs da svanebsac ki araqarTvelebad miiCnevda. mas vendoT? didi ivane werda - ,,akad. n. mari misayvedurebs, rom megrelebs, svanebs da afxazebs me qarTvelebs vuwodeb da pontosa da frigiis erebi TiTqos qarTvelebadac ki miqcevia. afxazebs me qarTvelTa monaTesaved vTvli, magram qarTvelebs ar vuwodeb, rac Seexeba megrelebs da svanebs da davumateb Wanebsac, maT marTlac qarTvel tomebad vTvli da vuwodeb...~ (iv. javaxiSvili, t. I, gv. 152). ,,svanuris narevobis Teoria n. maris Seqmnilia~ - weren T. gvancelaZe da m. Cuxua. xolo am Teoriis Sesaxeb oniani wers - ,,svanuris narevobis mcdari Tezisi afxazi mosaxleobis saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze (svaneTis mezoblad) `aTaswleulTa ganmavlobaSi~ cxovrebis sabuTad gadaiqcao~. ase aqcia n. marma dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTvelebi araqarTvelebad, magram misi yuradReba arc aRmosavleT saqarTvelos ascda. misi Teoriis Tanaxmad, fSav-xevsurebi CeCnuri tomebi yofilan Semdeg gaqarTvelebulni. am Teorias zogierTi qarTveli mkvlevari ara qarTul, aramed rusul enaze dabeWdil wignebSi amravlebs, magaliTad, 1983 wels z. anCabiZis redaqtorobiT dabeWdil wignSi ,, ~ naTqvamia n. maris Sesaxeb - ,, ~, : ,, , , , ~ (gv. 33). n. mars sxva SromaSic aseTive azri gamouTqvams, rom fSav-xevsurebi CeCeni xalxis tomebi arian - ,, ~ . , , , ~ (iqve, gv. 82). n. maris azriT, mxolod X saukunis Semdeg gaqarTvelebula CeCnebis erTi nawili (fSav-xevsurebi misi azriT), xolo meore nawili ki Crdilo kavkasiaSi gadasula (ix. z. didebuliZis dasax. naSr. gv. 34). maris es Teoria, 162

romelic SeiZleba imave epiTetiT SevamkoT, romliTac hiuitma p. ingoroyvas Sroma, cnobili mecnierebis mxardaWeriT sargeblobs. ra Sedegi SeiZleba mohyves aseTi absurduli Teoriis ukritikod miRebas da gaRrmavebas, gansakuTrebiT rusulad gamocemul wignebSi? savalalo! Tu raime didi politikuri katastrofis gamo Crdilo kavkasiidan CeCnebis tomi saqarTveloSi gadmosaxlda (axlac cxovrobs axmetis raionSi, qistebis erTi jgufi). isini n. maris Teoriaze dayrdnobiT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTs Tavis istoriul samSoblod gamoacxadeben. gana umagaliToa aseTi varaudi? aseve ar iqcevian afsuebi da sxvani? axla vnaxoT ras werda n. mari samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis Sesaxeb - ,,n. maris daskvniT, Tumca, klarjeTi, taosTan erTad SemoerTebul iqnao saqarTvelosTan me-8-9 saukuneebSi, magram mosaxleobis SemadgenlobiT igi, viTomc, amis Semdegac somxuri darCa. klarjeTi, ise rogorc tao, dasaxlebuli iyoo somxebiT, romlebic sarwmunoebiT qalkedonitebi (e. i. marTlmadideblebi) iyvneno. amrigad, n. maris mtkicebiT, klarjeTis da taos mosaxleoba TviT Semdgom xanaSic ki, es iyvnen ara qarTvelebi, aramed ZiriTadSi gaqarTvelebuli somxebi~ (p. ingoroyva, giorgi merCule, 1954, gv. 404). Sedegi samxreT saqarTvelos ,,mkvidri~ somxebis gaqarTvelebis Teoriisa? sxva ers (iseve rogorc afsuebs) uCndeba pretenziebi qarTul kulturaze, samxreT saqarTvelos materialur Tu sulier Zeglebze, miwa-wyalze. saqme iqamdec midis, rom araTu petriwonis maSenebeli Zmebi bakurianisZeni gamoacxades somxebad, aramed aTonis iverTa monastris berebic ki, da kidev ufro uaresia mosalodneli, rameTu somexTa ,,gaqalkedonitebis~ anu ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teorias Cvens ,,sabWoTa~ istoriografiaSi myari fesvebi aqvs gadgmuli. kidev ufro metic, Turme nu ityviT, da kaxeT-hereTic gaqarTvelebuli (!) mxareebi yofila - ,,am aTiode dRis winaT, rusul enaze gamovida kidev erTi wigni ,,azerbaijanis istoriuli geografia~, romelsac 1987 w. TariRi uzis... am wignSi gatarebulia azri, rom albanelebi azerbaijanelTa uSualo winaprebi arian, xolo ingiloebi gaqarTvelebuli albanelebi... aseve ,,gaqarTvelebulia~ kaxeTis didi nawili, hereTi da a. S. xom xedavT, sadamdis midis saqme?~ (r. miminoSvili, ,,dRes an arasodes~, ,,lit. saq.~ 24. VI. 1988). saca samarTalia, unda iTqvas, rom istoriuli geografia, rogorc samecniero dargi, azerbaijanSi axalfexadgmulia da aRniSnuli wigni pirveli nabijia, amitomac azerbaijanelma istorikosebma hereTis gaqarTvelebis Teoria sabWoTa qarTveli istorikosebisagan gadaiRes. Cveni mecnierebi, SeiZleba iTqvas, intensiurad weren hereTisa da albaneTis erTi nawilis ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Sesaxeb. ,,hereTi eTnikur-istoriuli mniSvnelobiT moicavda gviani xanis SigniT kaxeTsa da gaRmamxris teritorias (md. alaznis veli). saingilos CaTvliT~ (qse, t. II, gv. 628), amitomac hereTi Tu ,,gaqarTvelda~, kaxeTsac es saqme damarTnia da raRas verCiT azerbaijanel mecnierebs, romlebmac Cveni istorikosebisagan gadaiRes TavianTi azri? rogorc vxedavT, Turme nu ityviT da ,,gaqarTvelebula~ dasavleTi saqarTvelo, aRmosavleTis mTa-bari, samxreTi saqarTvelo, maS, sadRa iyo 163

saqarTvelo, sad cxovrobda qarTveli xalxi? Cveni mecnieri a. abdalaZec am kiTxvas svams somxur enciklopediaSi dabeWdil r. xonelias statiis ganxilvis Semdgom: ,,r. xonelias rom kacma yuri ugdos (vai, rom hyavs mas sakmaod mravalricxovani auditoria), qarTis elementi X saukuneSi, aramc Tu dasavleT, aRmosavleT saqarTveloSic ar yofila, Zalian mainteresebs r. xonelias azriT, rodis da saidan gaCndnen qarTvelebi?~ (a. abdalaZe ,,amierkavkasiis politikur erTeulTa...~ 1988, gv. 182). Tu vinme fiqrobs, rom gaqarTvelebis Teoria mxolod Cvens mezoblebs aZlevs uflebas pretenziebi ganacxadon qarTveli eris memkvidreobaze da TviT qarTvelebis erovnul TviTSegnebaze araviTar gavlenas ar axdens, vfiqrob, rom cdebian, swored am Teoriis wyalobiT qarTvelTa Soris gaCenila raRac eWvebi. ai ras wers mkvlevari: ,,kaci, romelsac erovnuli TviTSegneba ar gaaCnia, sacodavi kacia, araraoba da aseTi arsebisagan rodesac vismen: mesxebi da ingiloebi qarTvelebi ar arian da arc yofilano, guli mikvdeba, mecodeba amis mTqmeli da braziT vivsebi: ratom unda wasuliyo Cveni saqme amgvarad...? (t. futkaraZe ,,sawux ars ese~ ,,axalg. kom.~ 29.X.1988). mainc vin moifiqra es ucnauri gaqarTvelebis Teoria (modi da amis Semdeg gagikvirdes saqarTvelosaTvis ,,imperiis~ wodeba)? am Teorias safuZveli daudo n. marma da misma mimdevrebma gaaRrmaves: ,,qristianobis gavrceleba aRm. saqarTvelos mTianeTSi maT qarTizacias ganapirobebda, rac Seexeba das. saqarTvvelos... das. saqarTveloSi gabatonda qarTuli eklesia da mRvdelmsaxurebac qarTul enaze sruldeboda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli das. saqarTvelos qarTizaciis process~, - wers Cveni enciklopedia (ix. t. ,,saq. ssr~. gv. 61). marisgan momdinareobs idea aRm. saqarTvelos mTianeTis, hereTis, dasavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ,,qarTizaciis~ anu gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. xelovnuria termini da ideac aseTivea. sinamdvileSi ki Zveli qarTuli wyaroebis Tanaxmad, mTianeTis, kaxeT-hereTis, dasavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobas ,,qarTizacia~ ar esaWiroeboda, radganac ZvelTaganve (da farnavaz mefis drosac) aRniSnul kuTxeTa mcxovrebni, rogorc mTielebi, ise egriselebi (mesxebsa da her-kaxelebze rom araferi vTqvaT) qarTveli xalxis ZiriTad nawilad ganixilebodnen. es ase esmis ,,qarTlis cxovrebas~, Zvel qronikebsa da Zvel avtorebs. uZvelesi saistorio wyaro ,,moqcevai qarTlisaisas~ Tanaxmad, qristeSobamde saukuneebiT adre qarTveli xalxi gansaxlebuli iyo Semdeg sazRvrebSi dasavleTis sazRvars warmoadgenda mdinare egriswyali, xolo hereTi da mesxeTi mis sacxovris areals ganekuTvneboda. qarTuli ena am kuTxeebSi ,,qarTuli eklesiis gabatonebis~ gamo ki ar ,,gavrcelda~, da amis gamo, maTi ,,qarTizacia~ ki ar moxda, rogorc wers Cveni enciklopedia, aramed jer kidev qristianobamde, warmarTobis dros kultmsaxurebis ena qarTuli iyo, yvela aRniSnul kuTxeSi. didma ivane javaxiSvilma gamoikvlia, rom qristianobamde yvela qarTul tomTaTvis (samegrelosa da svaneTSic) kultmsaxurebis ena iyo qarTuli ena da arsebobda mTeli qarTveli xalxis momcveli saerTo sarwmunoeba (warmarTuli). ,,cxadi xdeba, rom aramcTu sazogadod yvela qarTvel tomTaTvis, maT Soris, megrelTa da svanTaTvis, saerTo

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warmarToba arsebobda, aramed, warmarTobis saerTo terminologiac, saerTo enac qarTuli hqonda~ (,,saq. istoriis narkvevebi~, t. I. gv. 662). qristeSobamde didi xniT adre, es yvela tomTaTvis saerTo qarTuli ena, mefe farnavazma daafiqsira sruliad saqarTveloSi, rogorc erTaderTi savaldebulo saxelmwifo ena, da saerTod, pirveli erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo warmoiqmna fuZe qarTuli (anu saerTo qarTuli) enis sxvadasxva dialeqtebad daSlis dawyebidan sul raRac 300-400 wlis Semdeg - ,,qarTul-zanuri enobrivi erTobis daSlis dasawyisi Zv. w. VIII saukuniT unda daTariRdes~ (iqve, gv. 338), xolo IV-III saukuneebSi ukve Seiqmna erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo savaldebulo qarTuli eniT. am dros megruli da qarTuli enebi Zlier axlos idgnen erTmaneTTan da erTmaneTis mimarT dialeqtebs warmoadgendnen, anu saxelmwifo qarTuli ena sruliad gasagebi iyo egrisis mosaxleobisaTvis, is mis dedaenas warmoadgenda, Tumca ki, TandaTan yalibdeboda da viTardeboda axali dialeqti, ,,ra Tqma unda, enobrivi da sxva saxis gansxvaveba am dros bevrad naklebi unda yofiliyo, vidre SemdegSi~ (iqve, gv. 442). es imas niSnavs, rom farnavazma yvela qarTul tomTaTvis gasagebi ena gamoacxada saxelmwifo enad. es ena qristianobis SemosvlisTanave iqca qarTul tomTaTvis erTaderT samwerlobo, kulturis enad, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSic megrelebsa da svanebsac TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili wers ivane javaxiSvili. ,,qarTvel ers Tavisi mravalsaukunovani saxelmwifoebrivi da samwerlo enac hqonda da abadia exlac, romelic, rogorc es TviT akad. n. marsac kargad moexseneba, da TviTonac ara erTxel daudasturebia, megrelebisa da svanebisTvisac erTaderTi samwerlo da kulturis ena iyo da aris exlac, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSic megrelebsac da svanebsac TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili~ (iv. javax. t. I, gv. 154). es is qarTuli enaa, romelic ara Tu qristianobis dros, aramed warmarTobis drosac saerTo enas warmoadgenda yvela qarTuli tomisaTvis, da saerTo warmarTul kultmsaxurebasac am enaze aRasrulebdnen (ix. iqve). Tuki es asea, maSin araa swori Cveni enciklopedia, romelic, rogorc aRiniSna, wers, rom - ,,das. saqarTveloSi gabatonda qarTuli eklesia da mRvdelmsaxurebac qarTul enaze sruldeboda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli das. saqarTvelos qarTizaciis process~. jer erTi, qarTuli eklesia dasavleT saqarTveloSi ar ,,gabatonebula~, aramed dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelom erTdroulad miiRo qristianoba I-IV saukuneebSi, rasac dabejiTebiT miuTiTeben ZvelqarTuli wyaroebi da daadastura arqeologiam (ix. p. zaqaraias ,,noqalaqevi-arqeopolisi~). meorec, qarTuli ena dasavleT saqarTveloSi qristianobis dros ki ar gavrcelda, aramed jer kidev warmarTuli RvTis msaxureba aq qarTulad aResruleboda qristianobis gavrcelebamde, ufro metic, literaturul anu saeklesio enis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSi TviTve hqondaT megrelebsa da svanebs uSualo monawileoba miRebuli - Tanaxmad i. javaxiSvilisa, maSasadame, araviTari ,,qarTizacia~ am tomebs ar esaWiroebodaT, ,,megrelebsa da svanebs da davumatebT Wanebsac, maT marTlac qarTvel tomebad vTvli da vuwodeb~ - ,,qarTvel tomebs~ ki ar uwodebda, aramed ,,qarTuls~. 165

amJamad arsebuli Tvalsazrisi qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis drois Sesaxeb faqtiurad n. maris ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teorias efuZneba, romelic daaxloebiT aseTia - erTiani qarTveli xalxi, rogorc eTnikuri erToba, mxolod IX-X saukuneebis Semdeg Camoyalibda, radganac am saukuneebSi ,,qarTebis~ tomma gaavrcela qarTulenovani mRvdelmsaxuroba hereTsa, mesxeTsa da das. saqarTveloSi, mTianeTSi, ris Semdegac gaqarTdnen aRniSnul kuTxeTa mcxovrebni - Camoyalibda qarTveli xalxi. amitomac saqarTvelo, rogorc kulturul-eTnikuri mTlianoba mxolod XI saukunisaTvis Camoyalibdao. es Teoria absoluturad ewinaaRmdegeba i. WavWavaZis da (n. maramdeli) qarTuli istoriografiis Sexedulebas qarTveli eris Camoyalibebis drois Sesaxeb. didi ilia marTali werda: ,,Cvens ers ori aTasi weliwadi ucxovria istoriulis cxovrebiT~ (,,eri da istoria~). ilia xSirad werda oriaTaswlovani erTiani qarTveli eris Sesaxeb. aseTive Tvalsazrisi gaaCndaT ilias garSemo Semokrebil didebul istorikosebs (amJamad miviwyebulia d. baqraZis, al. cagarelis, T. Jordanias, ilias sxva TanamosagreTa, aseve ZvelqarTvel istorikosTa, l. mrovelis, juanSerisa Tu vaxuStis mtkicebani). marTalia, ZvelTaganve arsebobda qarTveli xalxis sxvadasxva eTnojgufebi magram ilias TqmiT, isini warmoqmnilan erTiani oriaTaswlovani qarTveli xalxis wiaRSi saukuneTa manZilze - ,,is SemkreblobiTi, didebuli, erTiani azri, romelsac yoveli Cvengani qarTvelobaSi unda xedavdes, is saxeli, romelic yvelas gverqva, dairRva, Cvenis gonebidam amoSra, da qarTveli exla erTis kunWulis mcxovrebTa sakuTari saxeli, kerZoobiTi saxeliRa gaxda da ara saerTo, sayovelTao mTelis im xalxisa, romelic erTad tanjula... qarTveli Cvenis tomis saerTo saxeli aRar aris aRarc gareT, arc maxloblisaTvis da aRarc ucxosaTvis, imereli - imerelia, megreli megrelia, qarTleli - qarTlelia da sul yvelani ki erTad qarTvelebi ar arian... raki is didebuli qarTvelobis azri, is sayovelTao saxeli gonebidan gamogvecala, Cveni goneba daifuya, suliT da xorciT davkuwmawdiT...~ (t. III, gv. 77), Tumca, ki ,,ueWvelia, rom Cven xalxs ori aTasi weliwadi ucxovria Tavisi cxovrebiTa da TviTmoqmedebiTa~ (t. IV, gv. 176), maSasadame, oriaTaswlovani qarTveli eri SemdgomSi ,,dakuwmawda~ sxvadasva eTnikur jgufebad (e. w. qarTvelur tomebad da dialeqtmatareblebad), romelTa kvlav erTian erad SekavSirebisaTvisac iRvwoda ilia. misi rwmeniT, erTiani qarTveli xalxi ukve Camoyalibebuli iyo qristeSobamde didi xniT adre. mis wiaRSi arsebuli sxvadasxva eTnojgufebis arseboba Sedegia erTiani eris nawilobrivi daSlisa, radganac yoveli eri dapyrobisa da Tavisuflebis dakargvis dros ganicdis denacionalizacias, xolo xelsayreli momentis dadgomisTanave ki konsolidacias (gansakuTrebiT Tavisuflebis aRdgenis Semdeg). iliam im droisaTvis SesaZleblobis farglebSi garkveulwilad Seagnebina JamTa viTarebis gamo ,,dakuwmawebul~ qarTvelobas konsolidaciis aucilebloba. ZvelqarTul istoriografias qarTveli da somexi xalxebi erT dros Camoyalibebulad miaCnda (qarTlosisa da haosis Zmoba). Cveni enciklopedia wers - ,,somexi xalxis Camoyalibebis bolo etapi Tanxvdeba 166

Zv. w. VI s-Si somxeTis saxelmwifos Seqmnas. man urartus saxelmwifo daikava~ (qse, t. 9, gv. 463). aseTive azrisaa ,, ~, romelic wers: ,, . I . .. . . ~ (gv. 78). axla vnaxoT, ras wers igive enciklopedia qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis Sesaxeb es momxdara somexi xalxis Camoyalibebidan TiTqmis 1500 wlis Semdeg - ,, VI-X . . . ~ (iqve, gv. 349). axla ki vnaxoT imave wignis azri afxazi xalxis Camoyalibebis drois Sesaxeb: ,, VIII . . ~ (iqve, , 1980, gv. 11). mas bans aZlevs Cveni enciklopedia ,,...VIII s-Tvis ZiriTadad dasrulda afxazi xalxis Camoyalibeba~ (qse, t. 2, gv. 29). ra gamodis? qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibeba dasrulebula X-XI saukuneebisaTvis afxazi xalxis Camoyalibebidan 2-3 saukunis Semdeg! ra praqtikuli Sedegi SeiZleba mohyves amgvar Teorias, miT umetes, rom arsebobs Semxvedri Teoria IX-X saukuneebSi das. saqarTvelos ,,gaqarTebisa~? - ai, aseT ,,akademiur~ da mecnierul Tvalsazriss efuZneba j. hiuitisa da separatisTa rixi. sinamdvileSi ki aRniSnul saukuneebSi afxazebi warmoadgendnen qarTveli xalxis nawils. n. mari aigivebda afsuebsa da afxazebs: ,, , ~ (ix. S. xidaSelis statia, gaz. ,,sax. gan.~), maSin, roca, rogorc vaxuSti, ise evropeli misionerebi sruliad garkveulad weren Tanamedrove afxazebis winaprebis Crdilo kavkasiidan XVI-XVIII saukuneebSi Camosaxlebasa da istoriul afxazeTSi Casaxlebis Sesaxeb, romelsac Tan sdevda swored qristianuli (qarTulenovani!) kerebis ganadgureba. miuxedavad amisa, sabWoTa qarTulma istoriografiam miiRo da Semdeg sayovelTaod gaavrcela n. maris Tvalsazrisi afxazeTis Sesaxeb. aTaswlovani amoucnobic amoxsna, magaliTad, I saukuneSi pliniusis mier aRwerili afsilebi ,,erT-erT uZveles afxazur tomad~ gamoacxada, romelTa qveyana afsileTi ,,Tavdapirvelad moicavda axlandeli galis raions~ (qse, t. 2. gv. 28). Sedegi? cnobilia! n. maris ideebi sayovelTaod damkvidrda, radganac, misi kritika sastikad iyo akrZaluli sabWoTa xelisuflebis mier. ai ras gviambobs afxazologi, cnobili mecnieri akademikosi qeTevan lomTaTiZe - ,,me rom vswavlobdi, Tavidan yvelaferi rigianad midioda, magram ocdaaTian wlebSi intelegenciis darbeva daiwyo... vijeqi auditoriaSi da mesmoda: ,,gaeTrios es profesori~... ara, ver getyviT, ver aRvwer im scenebs. aspiranturaSi viyavi da ricxavdnen imaT, vinc niko maris Teoriebs ar iziarebda, momxreebs saqme kargad misdiodaT, Znelad gadavurCi am periods~ (gaz. ,,axalg. kom.~ N#124, 15. X. 1988). n. maris mowinaaRmdege istorikos-enaTmecnierebi gaaZeves, xolo momxreebma aRzardes axali Taoba n. maris Teoriebis erTgulni, cxadia, maT p. ingoroyvas Teoriebi aramecnierulad miiRes. rogorc aRiniSna, n. maris ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teoriis aRiarebam faqtiurad CixSi Seiyvana qarTuli istoriografia (qarTuli istoriografiis faqtiuri mdgomareobis Sesaxeb, ixileT prof. guram yoranaSvilis werilebi).

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am Teoriis gabatonebas xeli Seuwyo iman, rom revoluciamde saqarTveloSi ar arsebobda qarTvelTa istoriis Semswavleli arc erTi samecniero centri (universiteti, instituti). Cveni universitetis dafuZnebis Semdeg, mosalodneli iyo Cveni mecnierebi uaryofdnen e. w. ,,gaqarTvelebis~ (gaqarTebis) Teorias, magram moxda srulebiT moulodneli ram - n. maris Teoriebis kritika sastikad aikrZala, n. maris Teoriebis ubralo kritikisTvisac ki ara marto aZevebdnen universitetidan da sxva dawesebulebebidan, aramed sjidnen da asaxlebdnen kidec. am droisaTvis n. marma istorikos-filologma e. w. marqsistul enaTmecnierebas daudo safuZveli, is gaxda mTavrobisa da partiis umaRlesi organoebis wevri. maris Teoriebis sapirispiro msjeloba ganixileboda rogorc ,,burJuaziuli~, ,,mavne~, ,,aramarqsistuli~, ,,idealisturi~ - wers m. gorbanovski. ,, , , ( ?). ,,~ 1930 . XVI () . . ( ), - . 1931 ... ,,~, ,,~ ,,~, ,,~... ( ) ,,~ ...~ (. , ,, ~ ,, ~ 25 , 1988 . 21, . 12). am statiaSi naTqvamia, rom rogorc omamde, ise omis Semdeg, mravali WeSmariti, didi mecnieris sicocxle Seiwira ,,marizmma~ - ase uwodebs avtori n. maris samecniero mimdinareobas da mis skolas. safiqrebelia, rom stalinis yuradReba n. marma miipyro ara 1930 wels, rogorc wers m. gorbanovski, aramed adre, revoluciamde, roca orTave maT moZRvrebasa da Sexedulebebs sakadris pasuxs scemda ilia. n. Jordaniasadmi pasuxebma daarwmuna qarTveli social-demokratebi, rom maTeburi ,,marqsizmi~ saqarTveloSi ver gavrceldeboda, Tuki ilias avtoriteti didi iqneboda qarTvelTa Soris. axalgazrda stalini am mizezis gamo, uTuod apyrobda Tavis yuradRebas ilias yvela ideur mowinaaRmdeges, erT-erTi aseTi iyo n. mari, romelic gansakuTrebiT mtrulad ganewyo ilias mimarT, ,,qvaTa RaRadis~ gamoqveynebis Semdeg. n. mari, jer kidev adre iyo ilias mier sastikad gakritikebuli, xolo ,,qvaTa RaRadma~, romelic amxelda mikerZoebul mecnierTa ,,oinebs~, kidev ufro gazarda iliasadmi, SeiZleba iTqvas, siZulvili, radganac n. mari da misi moZRvreba qarcecxlSi iyvnen gatarebulni. ,,qvaTa RaRadi~ sensaciasaviT miiRo im drois sazogadoebam da ara marto samagido wignad iyo qceuli aTeuli wlis manZilze, aramed - didi mecnieruli avtoritetis mqone naSromadac. n. maris sapirispiro Teoriis gavrcelebamde (ilias TeoriiT, ara Tu samxreTi da dasavleT saqarTveloa uZvelesi droidanve qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli, aramed urartuelebi da aRmosavleTis sxva civilizaciaTa Semqmneli xalxebi qarTuli warmomavlobisani iyvnen, maris TeoriiT ki, ara Tu urartuelebi da sxva xalxebi iyvnen qarTuli warmomavlobisani, aramed 168

TviT aRmosavleT saqarTvelos zogierTi tomi, samxreT da dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleoba araqarTuli warmoSobisani iyvnen). axalgazrda stalini, albaT, yuradRebiT adevnebda Tvals iliasa da maris kamaTs. rogorc ticiani (tabiZe) ambobs ,,suli suls rogor daemalebao~, qarTvelTa sakiTxSic stalinisa da maris poziciebic erTmaneTs Tanxvdeboda. erTs politikuri mosazrebebiT, xolo meores, albaT, subieqturi (mars) mizezebiT qarTuli ,,nacionalizmisaTvis~ ideologiuri safuZvlis gamocvla ewadaT. stalinis cnobili Teoriac erebis Sesaxeb, sadac dasavlur-qarTul tomebs qarTvelebad ar moixseniebs, n. maris gavleniT unda iyos SemuSavebuli. stalins, Cans, adreve moswonda maris Teoriebi, TanaugrZnobda, xolo Zalauflebis xelSi aRebis Semdeg, mis Teoriebs dogmis mniSvneloba mianiWa. samxreT da dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis Sesaxeb ilia werda: ,,...qarTvelTa naTesaobas sWeria mTeli sivrce Ralisis mdinariTgan mcire aziaSi Savi zRvis piramde da mTeli aRmosavleTi mxare am zRvisa da agreTve igi adgilebi, romelnic mtkvarsa da araqss Sua mdebareoben. aSkaraa, visac am adgilebSi daCemeba ram unda, an qarTvelis kuTvnilebis gauqmeba moundeba, daamtkicos, rom zemo dasaxelebulni erni (gulisxmobs herodotes, strabonis da sxvaTa mier dasaxelebul bibliaSi moxsenebul qarTul tomebs, ep. a. j.) qarTvelTa naTesaobis arc iyvnen da arc arian. swored ase moiqca Cveni guladi profesori da gveficeba, rom ,,mosxebi da kolxebi~ qarTvelis naTesaobis ar ariano da araviTars sabuTs amisas ar iZleva es saocari ,,moficari~, ,,me patkanovis Segirdi varo, iZaxis TavmomwonebiT b-ni mari... b-ni mari, Tumca patkanovisaebr oinebSi jer Tavi ar uCenia... sxvafriv ki, imis gzaze damdgara~ (i. WavWavaZe, Txz. 1984, gv. 734, 735). ra surda n. maris maswavlebelsa da moZRvars patkanovs (patkanians), romelic cnobili mecnieri da kavkasiologi iyo peterburgSi? Tavisi erisaTvis daemkvidrebina samxreT saqarTvelo, amitomac werda ilia masze: ,,...xels iwvdis taoskarze, exlandel Woroxis xeobaze~ (iqve, gv. 734). patkanovis aRzrdil n. mars, marTalia ,,qvaTa RaRadis~ daweris dros patkanovisamebr oinebSi jer Tavi ar eCina, magram male, manac ,,xeli gaiwoda~ da Tavi gamoiCina. n. maris daskvniT, Tumca klarjeTi, taosTan erTad SemoerTebul iqnao saqarTvelosTan me-8-9 saukuneebSi, magram mosaxleobis SemadgenlobiT igi viTomc, amis Semdeg somxuri darCa~ - werda ilias WeSmariti Segirdi da amitomac mTavrobis mier devnili p. ingoroyva. saerTod, unda iTqvas, rom stalin-maris (da maTi moZRvrebis) antiqarTuli erovnuli ideebi gansazRvruli iyo ara marto piradi simpaTia-antipaTiebiT, aramed globaluri imperiuli politikiT (carizmic aseve iqceoda) ,,...rusifikatoruli politika sagangebod iTvaliswinebda ruseTis ganapira mxareebis erovnul-uflebrivi interesebis Selaxvas, aTanabrebda eTnografiul da erovnul niSnebs da am gziT cdilobda daenawevrebina erTiani erovnuli sxeuli, win aRdgomoda Cagruli xalxebis TviTSegnebis gamoRviZebas, yovelmxriv Seeferxebina eris konsolidacia~ (v. jaoSvili ,,saqarTvelos mosaxleoba...~, 1984, gv. 111).

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cxadia imperia mxars uWerda yvela Teorias, romelic qarTveli eris konsolidacias aferxebda. swored aseTi iyo maris ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teoria. rogorc iTqva, sabWoTa xelisuflebis dros, n. maris Teoriebis kritika sastikad aikrZala, SeiZleboda mxolod da mxolod gaRrmaveba am Teoriebisa, magaliTad, 1937 wels i. abulaZem sajaro sxdomaze waikiTxa moxseneba, romelSic gaaRrmava aRniSnuli Sexedulebani TiTqosda qarTuli eklesia SeiWra somxur miwa-wyalze tao-klarjeTSi da iq somxuri eklesiebis ngreviT, jvarTa dawviT miaRwia sawadels ,,gaaqarTvela~ es mxare - ,,eklesiaTa ngreva da jvarTa wva kidev imas unda moaswavebdes, rom erTi eklesia iWreba meoreSi da maT gverdiT da maT naamagarze Tavisas afuZnebs. esec araa ucxo ambavi im droisaTvis. somxeTis miwa-wyalze ara erTi da ori ,,qarTvelTa~ savane ixsneba am dros. termini ,,qarTveli~, rogorc akad. n. marma daamtkica, diofiziturs niSnavs am droisaTvis da iqmneba igi martoden qarTvelTa da somexTa elementebisagan~ (i. abulaZe, Sromebi, IV, 1985, gv. 10). es i. abulaZem sajarod warmoTqva 1937 wlis 17 dekembers. man, cxadia am wlis mware gakveTiliT icoda risi Tqma SeiZleboda am dros da risi ara. Tqva is, rac mosawoni iyo im droisaTvis, kerZod, gaaRrmava n. maris Teoria. taoklarjeTi ,,somxeTis miwa-wylad~ gamoacxada, xolo Turme nu ityviT da, ,,qarTveli eTnikurad qarTvels ki ar niSnavs, aramed iseT mosaxleobas, romelic ,,qarTvelTa da somexTa elementebisagan Sedgeba~. sinamdvileSi araviTari somxebis ,,gaqarTveleba~ ar xdeboda tao-klarjeTSi, es mxare qristeSobamdes qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli, magram VI-VII saukuneebSi, politikuri mizezebis gamo, moeqca somxuri eklesiis iurisdiqciis sferoSi, ramac aq xeli Seuwyo saeklesio somxurenovani wirva-locvis danergvas, magram VIII saukunis Semdeg tao-klarjeTi kvlav deda qarTuli eklesiis wiaRSi dabrunda, amitomac, cxadia, eklesiebSi kvlavindeburad aRsdga qarTulenovani msaxureba. esaa da es. aq moxda ara ,,somxebis gaqalkedoniteba~, aramed qarTveli mosaxleoba daubrunda deda eklesias. aseve iTqmis dasavleT saqarTvelos Sesaxebac. aqac qarTuli mosaxleobis erTi nawili, swored aRniSnul dros (ZiriTadad VII s. 20-iani wlebidan, erekle keisris laSqrobis Semdeg) moeqca berZnul saeklesio sferoSi da es mxarec TandaTan VIII-IX saukuneebSi daubrunda deda qarTul eklesias, romlis wiaRSic is Sedioda IV saukunidanve, rasac qarTul-ucxouri wyaroebi miuTiTeben. berZnullaTinur wyaroTa Tanaxmad, dasavleT saqarTvelos aRmosavleT saqarTvelosTan erTad miuRia qristianoba, wmida ninos qarTuli wyaroebi sruliad saqarTvelos ganmanaTlebels uwodeben. qarTlis cxovreba wers - mirian mefem naTeli sca yovelTa iverielTao, iverias ki Cveni wyaroebi saqarTvelos uwodebdnen. mirianis dros misi dasavleTi sazRvari Savi zRvis sanapirosa da mdinare egriswyalze gadioda. Tanaxmad Cveni mecnieris d. musxeliSvilisa, mexuTe saukuneSi dasavleT saqarTvelos mniSvnelovan nawilSi, mainc wirva-locvis ena qarTuli iyo. Tanaxmad vaxuStisa, xonis saepiskoposo aRniSnul dros mcxeTel mTavarepiskoposs eqvemdebareboda, somxur wyaroTa Tanaxmad mcxeTeli kaTalikosi kirioni ,,winandel wesTa Tanaxmad~ egrisis arqiepiskoposic iyo, noqalaqevisa da martvilis taZrebis arqiteqtura miuTiTebs am 170

mxaris qarTuli eklesiis sferoSi yofnis Sesaxeb, yovelive amis miuxedavad, g. merCules ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi~ arsebuli erTi qaragmis araswori gaxsnis wyalobiT, miRebulia iseTi kardinaluri daskvnebi, rogoricaa - ,,pirvelad IX-X saukuneebSi ewoda dasavleT saqarTvelos ,,qarTli~. aRniSnul TxzulebaSi arsebuli qaragma ,,a-sa~ gadamwers gauxsnia araswored, kerZod, unda gaxsniliyo rogorc ,,afxazeTisa~ da gaxsnilia ase - ,,aRmosavalisa~, aRmosavleTisa. winadadeba aseTia - ,,rameTu pirvelad a-sa kaTalikosTa (e. i. afxazeTis kaTalikosebs da ara aRmosavleTis kaTalikosebs - ep. a. jafariZe) mihroni ierusalimiT mohyvanda, xolo efrem qristesmieriTa brZanebiTa mihronis kurTxeva qarTls ganewesa ierusalimis patriarqis ganwesebiTa da wamebiTa sixaruliTa, aramed qarTlad friadi qveyanai aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locvai yoveli aResrulebis~ (Zv. qarT. agiogr. lit. Zegl. 1978, gv. 182). mTeli winadadeba naTeli da gasagebi gaxda qaragmis sworad gaxsnis Semdeg. afxazeTis sakaTalikoso, rogorc ZvelqarTul, ise ucxour wyaroTa (ix. mitr. maqsime ,,qarTuli eklesiis avtokefalia~, Teologia. aTeni, 1966), Tanaxmad, daarsda VIII saukunis I naxevarSi (ix. v. goilaZis Sromebi), daarsebisTanave is qarTulenovani iyo. aman moicva lazikisa da abazgiis yofili eklesiebi, romelnic aqamde konstantinepols eqvemdebarebodnen, amitomac, cxadia, mironi iqidan mohqondaT. am epoqaSi, konstantinepolSi mwvalebloba-xatmebrZoloba gavrcelda, amitomac axladSeqmnil afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mironis wamoReba ierusalimis sapatriarqodan dauwyia, aRsaniSnavia, rom msgavsadve aRniSnuli mizezebis gamo, goTeTis eklesia Camoscilda konstantinepols da daukavSirda ierusalims. IX saukuneSi efrem awyurelis mecadineobiT, ierusalimis sapatriarqos gadauwyvetia afxazeTis sakaTalikosos mironi mieRo ara ierusalimidan, aramed mcxeTidan (qarTlidan), ratom? imitom, rom ,,qarTlad friadi qveyanai aRiracxebis, romelsaca Sina qarTuliTa eniTa Jami Seiwirvis da locvai yoveli aResrulebis~. maSasadame, imis gamo, rom afxazeTSi wirva-locva qarTulia, es qveyana (eklesia) qarTlis qveynis (anu erTiani qarTuli eklesiis) nawilia. amitomac, mironi qarTlidan (e. i. mcxeTidan) unda miiRoso. ai, esaa azri g. merCules aRniSnuli winadadebisa. aq arsad ar weria - pirvelad am dros, IX saukuneSi ewoda afxazeTs qarTlio, aramed, axsnilia wmida saeklesio sakiTxi, araviTar eTnopolitikur sakiTxs ar gvixsnis giorgi merCule. amitomac, is ar aris raime winaaRmdegobaSi Zvel qarTul wyaroebTan (,,moqcevai qarTlisai~, ,,qarTlis cxovreba~ da sxva), romelnic dabejiTebiT amtkiceben dasavleT saqarTvelos qarTlis samefos SigniT arsebobas, es samefo ki, Tanaxmad wyaroebisa, qristeSobamde didi xniT adre Camoyalibda, mdgradi politikuri erTeuli iyo da misi dasavleTi sazRvari mdinare egriswyalisa da md. klisuraze (V s-dan) gadioda. ierusalimTan dakavSirebiT, es cnoba rom sworia, iqidanac Cans, rom imave IX saukuneSi ierusalimis sapatriarqos nebarTviT, ioane guTeli episkoposi qarTlSi akurTxes. maSasadame, am dros qarTlisa da ierusalimis eklesiebs Soris kargi urTierTobaa da konstantinepolma xatmebrZoluri mwvaleblobis gamo, konstantinepolis saeklesio sferoSi myofi zogierTi eklesia, qarTul eklesias gadaeca, amgvar 171

fonze gasagebia, Tu ratom darTo ierusalimma qarTulenovan afxazeTis sakaTalikosos neba, mironis mcxeTidan miRebisa. aRniSnuli winadadeba g. merCulisa, amJamad IX-X saukuneebSi das. saqarTvelos ,,gaqarTeba~ qarTvelebis momxreebs, did sayrdenad miaCniaT, magram aRniSnuli qaragmis sworad gaxsna, albaT, maT midgomas Secvlis. isic saTqmelia, rom ,,aRmosavalis~ - aRmosavleTis kaTalikosebs mironi ierusalimidan ar mihqondaT. jer kidev efrem mcirem ganacxada Tavis SromaSi, rom qalkedonis krebis Semdeg, yvela avtokefalur eklesias neba mieca, mironi TviTve ekurTxebina, aqedan gamomdinare, qarTul eklesiaSi mironis kurTxeva dawesda V saukuneSi, amas isic adasturebs, rom Cvens mezobel albaneTisa da somxeTis eklesiebSi VI-VII saukuneebSi mirons akurTxebdnen (uxtanesi, ,,istoria gamoyofisa qarTvelTa somexTagan~, gv. 361, gv. 187). VII saukuneSic, VI msoflio krebam, daadastura qarTuli eklesiis praqtika, mironis kurTxevis uflebisa - ,,xolo odesca enebos Semzadeba da kurTxeva mihronisa akurTxos Tvissa eklesiasa~ (qarT. cx. gv. 232). zemoT aRniSnulis gamo, Cven ar viziarebT azrs, qarTul eklesiaSi mironis kurTxevis IX saukunidan dawesebis Sesaxeb (Tumca es sxva sakiTxia). ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teoriis warmoSoba, Tavis droze gamoiwvia imperiis moTxovnilebaTa dakmayofilebis mcdelobam, amJamad, es Teoria, rogorc usafuZvlo, uaryofil unda iqnes. es miiRweva imiT, Tuki Cveni erovnuli istoriografia gahyveba ilia WavWavaZis gzas. ilia didebuli istorikosi iyo. is Rirsia imisa, rom misi istoriografiuli gamokvlevebi istoriis fakultetze (rogorc sagani) mainc iswavlebodes. ilia ZvelqarTul istoriografias aviTarebda, xolo n. mari - patkanovis skolis ideebs, anu, rogorc ivane javaxiSvilis mama aleqsandre ambobda, n. mari ,,yovelive qarTulis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebas~ aviTarebda (ix. s. jorbenaZe, ,,cxovreba da Rvawli ivane javaxiSvilisa~, 1984). udidesi Rvawli miuZRvis n. mars qarTvelologiis winaSe. am mecnierebis uRels sxva did mecnierebTan erTad ezideboda, amiT is ukvdavia, cocxali, mis azrs, ideas Tu nafiqrals mgznebareba ar daukargavs, marTalia, misi enaTmecnieruli ideebi faqtiurad uaryofilia (stalinma ,,Zveli gvardiis~ sxva wevrebis msgavsad, n. mari gaanadgura sikvdilidan TiTqmis 20 wlis Semdeg), magram mars, rogorc kavkasiologsa da qarTvelologs, aravin Sexebia, amitomac, misi ideebi, am sferoSi, kvlavac moqmedia. (sxvaTaSoris, TviT stalinmac ki aRiara, rom maristuli skola, mecnierebaSi amyarebda usastikes reJims mowinaaRmdegisadmi daundobeli mopyrobiT. stalini wers: ,,diskusiam gviCvena, rom enaTmecnierebis organoebSi, rogorc centrSi, ise respublikebSi, mefobda mecnierebisaTvis dauSvebeli reJimi... diskusia sasargeblo aRmoCnda. upirveles yovlisa imitom, rom man mzis sinaTleze gamoitana es arakCevuli reJimi da igi namsxvrevebad aqcia~ (ix. ,,ciskari~ 1990 w. 3, gv. 159). ismis kiTxva - aqvs Tu ara vinmes ufleba, eWvis TvaliT Sexedos n. mars, rogorc istorikoss? es CvenSi sruliad miuRebelia, mas cud dReSi Caagdeben. msgavsad prof. a. onianisa (romlis dasacavadac daiwera es werili) ukadriss akadreben. magram, ase mxolod saqarTveloSi 172

SeiZleba moxdes, Tavisufal qveyanaSi ki saqme piriqiTaa. iq saqme isea, rogorc j. eliaSvili wers - ,,Tavisufal adamians SeuZlia eWvi miitanos nebismier sayovelTaod aRiarebul koncefciaze da Seecados Secvalos igi~ (gaz. ,,sax. gan.~ 29. III. 1990) totalitarul sazogadoebaSi (e. i. CvenSi) ki isea, rogorc a. sulakauri wers: ,,...saqarTvelo aris is qveyana, sadac mecnieruli azri ar Zveldeba, miT umetes, Tu mas patroni hyavs. Cveni mecnierebi erTxel odesRac gamoTqmul azrs xSirad ver elevian, arada, wesiT yvela mecnieruli azri ar SeiZleba iyos maradiuli, zogi unda Zveldebodes, radgan azri Tu ar moZvelda, arc progresi iqneba. yovel SemTxvevaSi, gansxvavebul azrs mainc unda mivceT arsebobis ufleba~ (gaz. ,,komunisti~ 26. X. 1987 w.). ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teoriac moZvelebulia, magram, vai mas, vinc amis Tqmas gabedavs, arc me veli Seqebas am Teoriis ,,patronebisagan~, magram, RvTis imedi maqvs, romelmac adamiani Tavisufali nebisyofiT Seqmna, rogorc III msoflio saeklesio krebis mamebi amboben - Tavisufleba TvisiTa sisxliTa mogvaniWa Cven ieso qristeman (didi sjuliskanoni, 1975, gv. 267), rogorc Cveni uwmidesi patriarqi ilia II imeorebs saxarebis sityvebs - scaniT WeSmariteba da WeSmariteba gangaTavisuflebT Tqven. RmerTma daglocoT. gaz. ,,sax. gan.~ 17. V. 1990 w.

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,,rai ars WeSmariteba~


polemika

,,Svilo, rogorc mama girCev, Seni sakuTari da WeSmariti kritikulis TvaliT Sexedo yvelafers da ara miepyro maris qarTulis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebas~ - ase arigebda Svils mama gasuli saukunis miwuruls... Cvens sastik epoqaSi gazrdil Taobebs swored Cveni sakuTari da WeSmariti kritikuli TvaliT xedvis unari ar gagvaCnia. Cveni mxcovani moRvawe, batoni ioseb megreliZe, romelsac me udides pativs vcem, wers: ,,a. jafariZe acxadebs ivane javaxiSvilis mama aleqsandre ambobda n. mari ,,yovelive qarTulis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebas aviTarebda~. wigns, romelsac saZiebeli aqvs al. javaxiSvilis saxelTan eg sityvebi ar Cans~ (ix. ,,erTi werilis gamo~, gaz. ,,eri~, 7.11.91). Cems wina werilSi sididis gamo ar SemeZlo vrceli amonaweris motana, radganac saWiroeba iTxovs - inebeT: ,,...samRvdeloeba kidev aitanda am mkrexelur gamoTqmebs, magram maTTvis pirdapir aRmaSfoTebeli iyo is, rom mecnier-debiutanti saerTod uaryofda aTasi wlis xandazmulobis mqone saeklesio WeSmaritebad qceul movlenebs, mtkivneuli aforiaqebiT xvdebian amas iv. javaxiSvilis axloblebi. TviTon aleqsandre javaxiSvils arwmuneben, rom niko maris zegavleniT iv. javaxiSvili antipatriotul poziciebze dgas, 1898 wlis 22 oqtombers aforiaqebuli mama swerda ,,Svilo, rogorc mama girCev, Seni sakuTari da WeSmaritis kritikulis TvaliT Sexedo yvelafers da ara miepyro maris qarTulis sawinaaRmdego mimarTulebas~. 1898 wels deda swerda ,,am gazeTebma lamis gamagiJos, ras ar wereno~. TviTon ivane javaxiSvili grZnobda im uxerxulobas, rac mis mtkicebas axlda morwmuneTaTvis~ (s. jorbenaZe, cxovreba da Rvawli ivane javaxiSvilisa, 1984, gv. 48). ra SeiZleba aqedan davaskvnaT? gasuli saukunis miwurulsac ki qarTuli sazogadoeba n. maris patriotizms ara Tu eWvis TvaliT umzerda, aramed mis samecniero mimarTulebas yovelive qarTulis sawinaaRmdegod miiCnevda, rasac asaxva upovia qarTul presaSi da agreTve Cveni eris udidesi da usayvarlesi mecnieris ivane javaxiSvilis mSobelTa werilebSic. ra SuaSi varT aq Cven, an me an batoni mopasuxe? Cvens werilSi mxolod masala aisaxa. iqneb usafuZvlod ebrZoda Cveni didi ilia, qarTuli eris WeSmariti mama n. mars da mis ,,moZRvrebas~ (rogorc Tavad uwodebs)? ilia ebrZoda ara niko maris pirovnebas, aramed mis azrebs, Teoriebs, romelTaganac is moeloda raRac erovnul safrTxes. did ilias alRom ar umtyuna! is marTali iyo, rogorc yovelTvis. ai, TiTqmis asi wlis Semdeg, dRevandeli udidesi erovnuli gansacdelis Jams, roca yoveli kuTxidan sisxlisRvriTa da usastikesi gaborotebiT gvedavebian saqarTvelos miwa-wyals, Cveni mowinaaRmdege separatistebi TavianT pretenziebs xSirad da Zalze xSirad afuZneben n. maris Teoriebzec.

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romeli erTi magaliTi moviyvanoT. Cveni werili, romelsac pasuxi gasca batonma i. megreliZem, ZiriTadad xom am sakiTxs mieZRvna: ,,svanuris narevobis Teoria n. maris Seqmnilia~ - werdnen baton aleqsandre onianis oponentebi; am Teoriis Sesaxeb ki oniani werda: ,,svanuris narevobis Teoria afxazi mosaxleobis saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze (svanebis mezoblad) ,,aTaswleulTa ganmavlobaSi ,,cxovrebis sabuTad gadaiqca~ (ix. gaz. ,,sax. gan.~ 17. V. 90). es im Teoriis Semadgeneli nawilia, romlis Tanaxmadac ara marto afxazeTi, aramed dasavleT saqarTvelos vrceli teritoria ara qarTvelTa, aramed afxazTa pirvel samSoblod iTvleba, rac, Tavis mxriv, zogierT mecniers aRuZravs azrs, rom dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis nawili gaqarTvelebuli afxazebi arian, rom amis gamo darCa am kuTxis enebSi afxazuri enobrivi danaleqebi da rom afxazebi XVII saukuneSic ki (TiTqosda evlia Celebis cnobis Tanaxmad) mdinare rionTan cxovrobdnen. iqneb me movifiqre da ar arsebobs n. maris Teoria, romlis Tanaxmadac mTeli samxreTi saqarTvelo ara qarTvelebis, aramed somexTa miwa-wylad miiCneva, xolo iqauri qarTveloba - gaqarTvelebul somxebad?! ,,n. maris daskvniT, Tumca klarjeTi taosTan erTad SemoerTebuli iqnao saqarTvelosTan me-8-9 saukuneebSi, magram mosaxleobis SemadgenlobiT igi viTomc amis Semdegac somxuri darCa. klarjeTi, ise rogorc tao, dasaxlebuli iyoo somxebiT, romlebic sarwmunoebiT qalkedonitebi iyvneno. amrigad, n. maris mtkicebiT, klarjeTis da taos mosaxleoba TviT Semdgom xanaSic ki es iyvnen ara qarTvelebi, aramed ZiriTadSi gaqarTvelebuli somxebi~ - werda p. ingoroyva (ix. iqve, gv. 12). Sedegi, ra Sedegi SeiZleba mohyves mesxeTis ,,mkvidri~ somxebis gaqarTvelebis Teorias? wina werilSic aRiniSna, rom sxva ers uCndeba ara marto pretenziebi tao-klarjeTis did qarTul kulturaze, materialur da sulier Zeglebze, aramed miwa-wyalzec! es pretenziebi momismenia sakuTari yuriT da pretendentebi mixilavs sakuTari TvaliT. viTarca mesxeTis episkoposs mqonia maTTan Sexvedris saSualeba da yvelaze ganaTlebulni maT Soris, rogorc wesi, TavianTi pretenziebis safuZvlad acxadeben maris aRniSnul Teorias. iqneb me movigone da ar arsebobs n. maris Teoria aRm. saqarTvelos mTianeTis gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb, xevsurebi da TuSebi CeCnur-inguSur tomebad miiCneva: n. mars Tavis SromaSi ,,iafeturi xalxebis gadaadgilebis istoria~ dauweria Semdegi: ,,ar davfarav, rom qarTveli mTielebi, maT ricxvSi xevsurebi da fSavebi me axla warmomidgebian CeCeni xalxis gaqarTvelebul tomebad~ (iqve, gv. 12), xolo sxva SromaSi ,,kavkasiis tomobrivi Semadgenloba~ fSavebi, xevsurebi da wova TuSebi miakuTvna CeCnur-inguSur toms. ufro metic, sadavo gaxda ara marto WeSmariti qarTvelebis (TuSfSav-xevsurebis) eTnikuri kuTvnileba, aramed saqarTvelos miwa-wyalic. aRniSnuli Teoriis Tanaxmad, meaTe saukunemde aRm. saqarTvelos mTianeTSi mcxovrebi CeCnebis tomi Crdilo kavkasiaSi gadasaxlda, magram maTi erTi nawili gaqarTvelda da maT ewodaT fSavebi da xevsurebi. ra Sedegs unda velodoT am Teoriidan? jer erTi, es saSineli Teoria 175

safuZvels uTxris qarTveli eris eTnikur, politikur, kulturul erTobas, e. i. erovnuladaa saSiSi. meore mxriv, uflebas aZlevs Crdilo kavkasiel tomebs aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTi TavianT istoriul samSoblod gamoacxadon. veridebi mkiTxvelis gadaRlas, magram pat. oponents msurs vkiTxo, gana mari ar sayvedurobda ivane javaxiSvils, megrelebsa da svanebs qarTvelebs ratom uwodebo? gana megrelTa da svanTa araqarTvelebad gamocxadebiT safuZveli ar eTxreba qarTveli eris erTobas?! didi ivane iZulebuli iyo Tavi daecva akademikosis Semotevisagan: ,,akad. n. mari misayvedurebs, rom megrelebsa da svanebs da afxazebs me qarTvelebs vuwodeb da pontosa da frigiis erebi TiTqos qarTvelebadac ki miqcevia. afxazebs me qarTvelT monaTesaved vTvli, magram qarTvelebs ar vuwodeb, rac Seexeba megrelebsa da svanebs da davumateb Wanebsac, maT marTlac qarTul tomebad vTvli da vuwodeb~. me srulebiTac ar var ganwyobili n. maris pirovnebis winaaRmdeg; me kargad mesmis rom is iyo didi mecnieri, da vwerdi kidec mis Sesaxeb ,,udidesi Rvawli miuZRvis n. mars qarTvelologiis winaSe, amiT is ukvdavia, cocxali, mis azrs, ideas Tu nafiqrals mgznebareba ar daukargavs~, me mxiblavs misi pirovneba, magram maSfoTebs e. w. ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teoria, romelic udidesi safrTxis momtania qarTvelobisaTvis; sabednierod, is araa dogma da ar aris erTaderTi Teoria, aramed aris erT-erTi Teoria, romelic droTa viTarebaSi SeiZleba Seicvalos kidec, Tundac misi avtori ,,titani~ iyos. Tu ara SiSi aRZruli e. w. ,,gaqarTvelebis~ TeoriiT da dRevandeli separatistebis mier am Teoriis marjve gamoyenebiT, garwmunebT sityvasac arasodes davZravdi n. maris Sesaxeb. mainc raSi mdgomareobs gaqarTvelebis Teoria? Tumca jer ganvagrZoT gaqarTvelebis ambebi. swored amJamad osi separatistebi pretenzias acxadeben Sida qarTlis teritoriaze, im motiviT, rom is ZvelTaganve dvalebis osuri tomiT iyo dasaxlebuli. magram gana dvalebi eTnikuri warmomavlobiT osebi iyvnen? es kiTxva aseTi intonaciiT amJamad, gaWirvebis Jams ismeba, aqamde Cveni istoriografia mxolod da mxolod dvalebis ,,gaqarTvelebis~ mtkicebiT iyo dakavebuli, romelmac asaxva hpova Sesabamis SromebSi. Cveni enciklopediis Tanaxmad, qarTuli eklesiis moRvawe nikoloz dvali osi yofila erovnebiT: ,,nikolozi iyo dvali (osi), sofel waidan. 12 wlisa berad aRkvecila klarjeTSi, Semdeg ierusalimSi damkvidrebula. misi Rvawlis aRmweri Txzuleba cnobebs gvawvdis XIIIXIV ss-ebSi aRm. qveynebSi qarTvelTa mdgomareobisa da osebis gaqristianebis Sesaxeb (qse, VII, gv. 433). sinamdvileSi ki nikoloz dvalis aRmweri Txzuleba araviTar cnobebs ar Seicavs ,,osebis gaqristianebis istoriis Sesaxeb~. ai ras mogviTxrobs es Txzuleba nikolozis warmoSobis Sesaxeb - ,,ese sanatreli qristes mowame nikoloz iyo naTesavad dvali, soflisagan romelsa ewodebis wai, Svili morwmuneTa da mosavTa wmindisa naTlismcemelisaTa, romlisa saSoiTgan dedisaiT Seswires, da rai aTormetis wlisa iqmna, monazon iqmna...~ (Zv. qarT. qrest. I. 1946, gv. 255). maSasadame, wminda nikolozi iyo ara osi, aramed dvali. am droisaTvis dvalebi ar iyvnen gaosebulni, enciklopediis aRniSnuli 176

gancxadeba momdinareobs Cveni erTi mecnieris aseTi Tvalsazrisidan ,,nikolozis sofels erqva wai, marTalia, Tergis olqSi cnobilia zemo da qvemo wai, magram saeWvoa aq Tergis olqi igulisxmebodes, miT umetes, rom nikolozi iyo dvali, ese igi dvaleTidan. didi liaxvis xeobidan oseTidan, yovel SemTxvevaSi es Zegli sainteresoa imiT, rom cnobebs gvawvdis osebis qristianizaciis da qarTizaciis Sesaxeb~ (t. I. gv. 542. avtoris gvaris dasaxelebas veridebi, SesaZlo arasworad gaigon citireba). rogorc iTqva, nikolozis ,,cxovreba~ ar Seexeba osebis gaqristianebas, magram zogierTi mkvlevari gulisxmobs, rom didi liaxvis xeoba XIII-XIV saukuneebSi osebiT iyo dasaxlebuli da am osebs satomo saxeli dvalebi erqvaT da TiTqosda xdeboda maTi gaqristianeba. Cveni mecnieris azri mxolod maSin xdeba gasagebi, roca is laparakobs ,,osebis qristianizaciisa da qarTizaciis~ Sesaxeb, e. i. maSin, roca is iyenebs n. maris mier SemuSavebul sqemebs kavkasiis tomebis gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. am sqemiT ,,advili asaxsneli~ xdeba sxvadasxva problema. ase daemarTa nik. dvalsac. is mTieli iyo, maSasadame araqarTveli, qristiani iyo, maSasadame gaqarTvelebuli dvali iyo, maSasadame osi. Txzuleba dvalebs, anu osebs Seexeba, maSasadame aq gvaqvs cnoba osebis gaqristianebis Sesaxeb. es sqema mcdaria - sinamdvilis ukuRma warmomdgeni. sinamdvileSi dvalebi iyvnen ara osebi, aramed qarTul-qarTveluri tomi da, rac mTavaria, isini XIII saukuneSi Rrmadmorwmune qristianebi iyvnen. aRniSnuli ,,cxovrebis~ gamo weren ,,TxzulebaSi Semonaxuli cnobebidan mniSvnelovania isic, rom am dros mimdinareobs mTis erT-erTi tomis dvalebis qristianizaciaqarTvelizacia...~ (saq. ist. narkv. III. 1979, gv. 845). wminda nikolozis cxovrebaSi msgavsi araferi weria. wminda nikolozis mSoblebi Rrmadmorwmune qristianeni iyvnen, imdenad, rom Svili dedis wiaRSive RmerTs Seswires, 12 wlis asakSi berad aRkveces da eklesias miabares, Tavis mxriv Svilma Tavi gaswira qristes siyvarulisaTvis, xolo nikolozis mSobelTa garda arc erTi sxva ,,dvali~ personaJi TxzulebaSi ar gvxvdeba; ase, rom, am TxzulebaSi dvalebi arc qristiandebian da arc qarTveldebian, Tundac im mizezis gamo, rom isini aRniSnuli Txzulebis daweramde saukuneebiT adre ukve iyvnen qristianebi da wina saukuneebSi moRvawe mravali dvali qristianis saxelia cnobili. isini ierusalimSi, sinas mTaze, ucxoeTis sxvadasxva qarTul monastrebSic ki moRvaweobdnen (amierkavkasiaSi osebis gamoCenamde gacilebiT adre). magaliTad, ioane dvali (dvali aq gvari ki araa, aramed sadaurobis aRmniSvnelia) cxovrobda XI s-Si, mas Tveni gadauweria. 1055 wels ki - wminda basilis cxovreba. miqel dvals Jamni gadauweria, stefane dvals - Jamiswirvis krebuli, giorgi dvals labeWinis oTxTavi, romelsac XIII s. miakuTvneben (qse III gv. 490); saidan Cans, rom im toms, romelmac qarTul eklesias amdeni moRvawe misca (osebis Cvens mTebSi gamoCenamde) gaqarTveleba esaWiroeboda. dvalebs XIII-XIV saukuneebSi arc gaqristianeba esaWiroebodaT da arc gaqarTveleba. isini erTsac da meoresac warmoadgendnen, maSasadame arc ,,nikoloz dvalis cxovrebas~ SeuZlia dvalebis gaqristianebis cnobebi mogvawodos, miT umetes es Zegli ar gvawvdis cnobebs ,,osebis 177

qristianizaciis da qarTizaciis Sesaxeb~ - vinc aRniSnul ,,cxovrebas~ waikiTxavs amaSi darwmundeba, cxadia, Tuki n. maris Teoriebis tyveobaSi ar iqneba moqceuli. magram, umTavresia, ra zogadi daskvna keTdeba zemoT moyvanili Txzulebis analizidan - osebi anu dvalebi XIII-XIV saukuneebSi cxovroben Sida qarTlSi (kerZod liaxvis xeobaSi) da isini ganicdian gaqarTvelebis process! yvelaferi ukuRma! marTalia, Crdilo kavkasiis velebidan ltolvil os molaSqreebs mongolebi TavianTi saWiroebisaTvis iyenebdnen saqarTveloSi XIII-XIV saukuneebSi, magram isini dvaleTSi rodi cxovrobdnen. os molaSqreTa garnizonebi idga Cveni samefos sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi; xolo mongolTa damarcxebis Semdeg giorgi brwyinvalem isini gaaZeva saqarTvelodan, magram vaxuStis Tanaxmad, Semdeg, gansakuTrebiT ki Temur lengis dros, osTa meore talRa aRwevs kavkasiis mTebSi, kerZod ki dvaleTSi, romelic im dros nar-mamisonis qvabuls moicavda Crdilo kavkasiaSi. XV saukunis Semdgom TandaTan dvalebis qarTuli tomi iwyebs gaosebas, Semdgom dvalebi da gaosebuli dvalebi gadmodian aqeT, aRweven qarTlis mTianeTSi, Semdeg ki XVII s. bolos da XVIII s-Si TandaTan Camoyvnen liaxvisa da qsnis xeobebs, XIX s-Si uaxlovdebian Sida qarTlis vakes, romelsac iWeren kidec (e. i. cxinvalis sanaxebs) - XX saukuneSi. am dros mimdinareobda ara osebis ,,gaqarTveleba~, aramed, germaneli mecnierisa da aRmweris giuldenStedtis Tanaxmad qarTvelebi, osur garemoSi moqceulni, osdebodnen. is wers: - ,,gansakuTrebiT lekebsa da osebSi arian bevri qarTvelebi, romelTac religiasTan erTad, enac daiviwyes~ (,,giuldenStedti. ,,mogzauroba saqarTveloSi~ t. I. 1962, gv. 185). Tu yovelive zemoT naTqvams nawilobriv SevajamebT, aRmoCndeba, rom, gaqarTvelebis Teoriis Tanaxmad, gaqarTveldnen saqarTvelos mTianeTSi mcxovrebi TuSebi, xevsurebi, fSavlebi, dvalebi, svanebi, gaqarTvelda mTeli dasavleTi saqarTvelo, mTeli samxreTi saqarTvelo, iqneb aRmosavleT saqarTveloc gaqarTvelda? diax, arsebobs Teoria hereTisa da kaxeTis didi nawilis gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. yovel aRniSnul kuTxeTa gaqarTvelebis Teoria arsebobs viTarca ukanaskneli da Rrma mecnieruli sityva. maS sadRa iyo saqarTvelo, sad cxovrobda qarTveli xalxi? vsvamdi kiTxvas wina werilSi da ganvagrZobdi: ,,mainc vin moifiqra es ucnauri gaqarTvelebis Teoria (modi da amis Semdeg gagikvirdes saqarTvelosaTvis ,,imperiis~ wodeba)? am Teorias safuZveli daudo n. marma da misma mimdevrebma gaaRrmaves: ,,qristianobis gavrceleba aRm. saqarTvelos mTianeTSi maT qarTizacias ganapirobebda, rac Seexeba das. saqarTvelos... das. saqarTveloSi gabatonda qarTuli eklesia da mRvdelmsaxurebac qarTul enaze sruldeboda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli das. saqarTvelos qarTizaciis process~ - wers Cveni enciklopedia (ix. t. ,,saq. ssr~. gv. 61). marisagan momdinareobs idea aRm. saqarTvelos mTianeTis, hereTis, dasavleT da samxreT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ,,qarTizaciis~ anu gaqarTvelebis Sesaxeb. xelovnuria termini da ideac aseTivea~. Semdeg ganvagrZobdi, rom saqarTvelos arc erT dasaxlebul kuTxes araviTari ,,qarTizacia~ - gaqarTveleba ar esaWiroeboda, radganac isini qarTuli mxareebi iyvnen ZvelqarTul wyaroTa, Zveli 178

qarTuli istoriografiis Tanaxmad. uZvelesi wyaros ,,moqcevai qarTlisais~ mixedviT qristeSobamde saukuneebiT adre, TviT pirveli erTiani azon-farnavazis saxelmwifos Seqmnamde qarTveli xalxis gansaxlebis dasavleT sazRvars mdinare egris-wyali da Savi zRva warmoadgenda, xolo mesxeTi mis areals ganekuTvneboda. qarTuli ena am kuTxeebSi ,,qarTuli eklesiis gabatonebis gamo~ ki ar gavrcelda (es ,,qarTizaciis~ pirobad iTvleba), aramed qristianobamde didi xniT adre warmarTobis dros kultmsaxurebis enas qarTuli warmoadgenda saqarTvelos yovel kuTxeSi. didma ivane javaxiSvilma gamoikvlia, rom qristianobamde yvela qarTul tomTaTvis (samegrelosa da svaneTSic) kultmsaxurebis ena iyo qarTuli ena da arsebobda mTeli qarTveli xalxis momcveli saerTo sarwmunoeba (warmarTuli). ,,cxadi xdeba, rom aramcTu sazogado qarTuli yvela tomTaTvis, maT Soris megrelTa da svanTaTvis, saerTo warmarToba arsebobda, aramed, rom warmarTobis saerTo terminologiac, saerTo enac qarTuli hqonda~ (saq. istoriis narkvevebi, t. I. gv. 662) qristeSobamde didi xniT adre; es yvela tomTaTvis saerTo qarTuli ena, mefe farnavazma daafiqsira sruliad saqarTveloSi, rogorc erTaderTi savaldebulo saxelmwifo ena. es moxda fuZe qarTuli anu saerTo qarTuli enis sxvadasxva dialeqtebad daSlidan sul raRac 300-400 wlis Semdeg - ,,qarTul-zanuri enobrivi erTobis daSlis dasawyisi Zv. w. VIII saukuniT unda daTariRdes~ (iqve, gv. 338), xolo IV-III saukuneebSi ukve Seiqmna erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifo, savaldebulo qarTuli eniT. am dros megruli da qarTuli enebi Zlier axlos idgnen erTmaneTTan da erTmaneTis mimarT dialeqtebs warmoadgendnen, anu saxelmwifo qarTuli ena sruliad gasagebi iyo egrisis mosaxleobisaTvis, is mis dedaenas warmoadgenda, Tumca ki TandaTan viTardeboda da yalibdeboda axali dialeqti. ,,ra Tqma unda enobrivi da sxva saxis gansxvaveba am dros bevrad naklebi unda yofiliyo, vidre SemdegSi (iqve, gv. 442). es imas niSnavs, rom farnavazma yvela qarTuli tomisTvis gasagebi ena gamoacxada saxelmwifo enad. es ena qristianobis SemosvlisTanave iqca qarTul tomTaTvis erTaderTi samwerlobo, kulturis enad, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSic megrelebsa da svanebsac TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili, - wers ivane javaxiSvili.~ qarTvel ers Tavisi mravalsaukunovani saxelmwifoebrivi da samwerlo enac hqonda da abadia exlac, romelic rogorc es TviT akad. n. marsac kargad moexseneba, da TviTonac araerTxel daudasturebia megrelebsa da svanebisTvisac erTaderTi samwerlo da kulturis ena iyo da aris exlac, romlis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSic TavianTi wvlili aqvT Setanili (iv. javax. I. gv. 154). qarTuli ena, rogorc samwerlo ena, Camoyalibda rogorc miiCneven, qristianobis Semosvlis Semdgom, IV-V saukuneebSi, aseve cxadia kulturis enac. Tu am dros dasavleT saqarTvelo ar Sedioda qarTul erovnul orbitaSi, svanebi da megrelebi rogorRa Seitandnen wvils mis ,,Seqmna-SemuSavebaSi~? magram, radganac qristianobis Semosvlamdec ki saerTo qarTuli warmarTuli kultmsaxureba samegrelosa da svaneTSi Tanaxmad ivane javaxiSvilsa, ara sxva, aramed qarTul enaze aResruleboda, IV-V saukuneebSi dasavleT saqarTveloSi qristianobis SesvlisTanave qristianul kultmsaxurebis enad darCa ena Zveli warmarTuli sarwmunoebisa. mxolod am SemTxvevaSi 179

SeeZloT ,,samwerlo da kulturis enis Seqmna-SemuSavebaSi~ TavianTi wvlilis Setana dasavlel qarTvelebs. miT umetes, rom dasavleT da aRmosavleT saqarTvelom erTdroulad miiRo qristianoba I-IV saukuneebSi, rogorc es arqeologiam daadastura, da ara VI saukuneSi rogorc aqamde das. saqarTvelosTvis iyo miRebuli; aqedan gamomdinare, albaT gadasaxedia enciklopediis is daskvna, romlis Tanaxmadac IX-X saukuneebSi ,,das. saqarTveloSi gabatonda qarTuli eklesia da mRvdelmsaxurebac qarTul enaze sruldeboda, ramac didad Seuwyo xeli das. saqarTvelos qarTizaciis process~. rogorc iTqva, qarTuli ena dasavleT saqarTveloSi RvTismsaxurebis enas warmoadgenda ara Tu IX-X saukuneebSi, aramed aTasi wliT adre - warmarTobis drosac. da igive ena aq, amave dros, saxelmwifo enas warmoadgenda farnavazis kanonis ZaliT. amitomac qristianobamac iq SesvlisTanave I-IV saukuneebSi RvTis dideba xalxisaTvis saerTo-saxalxod qceul qarTul enaze daiwyo. aqaur tomebs IX-X saukuneebSi araviTari qarTizacia-gaqarTveleba ar esaWiroeboda, aq qarTuli suli trialebda da isini qarTvelebi iyvnen. sxva sakiTxia is, Tu dasavleT saqarTvelos erT nawilze rodis gaavrcela berZnulma eklesiam Tavisi iurisdiqcia - berZnuli saeklesio enis gamoyenebiT. safiqrebelia, rom es moxda VII saukunis dasawyisSi imperator herakles mier dasavleT saqarTvelos erTi nawilis aneqsiis Semdeg. IX-X saukuneebSi am miwebze qarTulma eklesiam aRadgina Tavisi Zveli uflebebi. rogorc aRniSnuli iyo, amJamad arsebuli Tvalsazrisi qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis drois Sesaxeb faqtiurad n. maris ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teorias efuZneba, romlis ZaliTac erTiani qarTveli xalxi, rogorc eTnikur-kulturuli erToba IX-X saukuneebis Semdeg Camoyalibda, radganac am saukuneebSi ,,qarTebis~ tomma gaavrcela qarTulenovani RvTismsaxureba dasavleT da samxreT saqarTveloSi, mTianeTsa Tu hereTSi, ris Semdegac gaqarTdnen anu gaqarTveldnen aRniSnul kuTxeTa mcxovrebni - ramac Camoayaliba qarTveli xalxi da XI saukunisaTvis ,,saqarTvelo~ rogorc kulturul-eTnikuri mTlianobao, aRniSnuli iyo isic, rom es Teoria absoluturad ewinaaRmdegeba i. WavWavaZisa da n. maramdeli qarTuli istoriografiis Sexedulebebs qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis drois Sesaxeb. vTqvaT, daveTanxmoT Cven enciklopedias, romlis Tanaxmadac ,,VIII sTvis ZiriTadad dasrulda afxazi xalxis Camoyalibeba~ (qse. II. gv. 29). amave dros, amave enciklopediis Tanaxmad, afxazebi cxovrobdnen dasavleT saqarTveloSi sxva jer kidev ,,gauqarTebel~ tomebTan erTad, rameTu mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos ,,afxazeTi~ ewodeboda. IX-X saukuneebSi mimdinareobs das. saqarTvelos mosaxleobis ,,qarTizacia~ da X-XI saukuneebisaTvis yalibdeba erTiani qarTuli erovneba, romelmac am droisaTvis ukve moicva adre afxazebiT ,,nawilobriv~ dasaxlebuli afxazeTis samefo, saxezea ra? asimilacia? erTi xalxis (afxazebis) meore xalxad qceva? maS rogoria WeSmariteba, rogor vixsnaT Tavi am absurdisagan? albaT imiT, rom Cveni istoriografia unda daubrundes ,,Zvel nadinebs~, anu aRdges ZvelqarTuli istoriografia axal, Tanamedrove miRwevaTa sakadrisad, xolo maris xeldebul axal sabWour (uRrmesad 180

viTxov sawyenad nu miiReben am sityvas, gvsurs Tu ara - esaa faqti) istoriografias mouwevs gadaxedos zogierT Tavis Teorias, kerZod, unda aRiaros, rom erTiani qarTveli xalxi pirveli erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Camoyalibebis epoqaSi ukve arsebobda, anu qristeSobamde 400-300 wliT adre. daaxloebiT am epoqiT TariRdeba somexi eris Camoyalibeba, rasac SeniSnavs Cveni enciklopedia - ,somexi xalxis Camoyalibebis bolo etapi Tanxvdeba Zv. w. VI s-Si somxeTis saxelmwifos Seqmnas, man urartus saxelmwifo daikava~ (qse, IX, gv. 463) (vaSa, Tqven, somexo istorikosebo!). qarTveli xalxis Camoyalibebis ,,bolo etapi~ ratom ar unda Tanxvdebodes erTiani azon-farnavazis qarTuli saxelmwifos Seqmnas? miT umetes, rom Zvel wyaroTa Tanaxmad, am dros qarTvel xalxs hqonia aramarto erTiani saxelmwifo, aramed erTiani saxelmwifo ena, erTiani warmarTuli sarwmunoeba, erTiani kultmsaxureba qarTuli eniT, rogorc ivane javaxiSvili aRniSnavda. vin icis, iqneb arc Rirda gamopasuxeba, da saTqmelic bevria, magram gasaTvaliswinebelia baton iosebis ramdenime SeniSvna. is ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebaSi~ savaraudo qaragma ,,a-sa~-s Sesaxeb ambobs: ,,werilis avtori ver dagvisaxelebs VIII-IX an Semdegdroindel Zvel xelnawers, sadac aseTi qaragma arsebobdes~ (ix. misi werili. 7. II. 91). marTlac, es SeuZlebelia, rameTu VIII-IX saukuneebSi ,,grigol xanZTelis cxovrebis~ xelnaweri ar arsebobda, is giorgi merCulem meaTe saukuneSi dawera, sadac aRiniSna, rom ,,a-sa~ anu afxazeTis kaTalikosebs mironi qarTlidan mihyvandaT IX saukunidan. amiT xazgasmulia qarTuli eklesiis erTianoba. rom axali sakaTalikosoc qarTul-erovnulia, radganac wirva-locva qarTulia, is erTiani qarTlis qveynis nawils warmoadgenso. aris sxva SeniSvnac, TiTqosda me erTi Cveni mecnieri ,,maristad~ gamovacxade, rac arasworia, me mxolod mivuTiTe citata misi naSromidan, sadac aRniSnuli mecnieri uTiTebs n. mars da asaxelebs mas. aRniSnulma werilma me ver damarwmuna, rom maris kritika akrZaluli ar iyo sabWoTa (bolSevikuri) xelisuflebis mier. amis Sesaxeb weren cnobili mecnierebi. Tu ,,gaqarTvelebis~ Teoria ar ekuTvnis n. mars, maSin Sendobas viTxov misi naTeli xsovnis winaSe, xolo Tu es Teoria maris dafuZnebulia, maSin sabodiSo araferia. imis gamo, rom rogorc bni iosebi wers, ,,n. mari TviTon iyo Tavisi naSromebis usastikesi kritikosi, da amitomac icvlida azrebs, arc sxvas uSlida mis gakritikebas... studenti vwerdi: ,,did adamianebs xSirad didi Secdoma mosdiT... n. marsac aqvs Secdomebi~. Tuki baton iosebs studentobis wlebSi hqonda n. maris Secdomebze weris ufleba, ratom gvekrZaleba es Cven siberis Jamsac ki? iqve batoni iosebi aRwers Tavis biografias, Tavis devnas; radganac sityva Camovarda, vityvi, rom ssrk-Si idevnebodnen ara marto maris mowafeni, aramed yoveli adamiani, mSvidad Tavs aravin grZnobda; xolo rac Seexeba eklesiisa da samRvdeloebis devnas - ara Tu Zvelad, ukanasknel aTwleulebSic ki piradad usastikesad videvnebodi... magram ra wuxili Seedreba samSoblos ubedurebis gancdas, romeli piradi gansacdeli agonebda am dros adamians. Cvens samSoblos nawilebad hglejen (n. maris Teoriebis moSveliebiTac), me ki vgodeb deda mtkvris piras, romlis marjvena 181

sanapiro aRniSnulma Teoriebma TiTqmis somxeTs miakuTvnes, xolo marcxena - oseTs... nu iyofin!!! wminda mefe daviTi ambobs: ,,yoveli Teslebi gare momadges me da saxeliTa uflisaTa vereodi maT~. es imas niSnavs, rom saqarTvelo uflis saxeliT sZlevs gare momdgar yovel mters. ufali ars mwe Cemda, ara SemeSinos, rai miyos me kacman?~ uflis marjvena aRamaRlebs saqarTvelos, amin.

,,eri~, 27. II. 1991.

182

megrelTa sisxli swyurodaT...

aw gardacvlili cxum-afxazeTis mitropoliti daviTi Tavisi eparqiis yovel morwmunes, gvar-tomebis miuxedavad, iRebda viTarca sulier Svils. afxazebs mometebuli yuradRebiT epyroboda, magram afxazafsuaTa mier gagra-leseliZis dalaSqvrisas qarTvelTa mimarT Cadenilma sisastikem sulierad SeZra meufe. amasTan dakavSirebiT sagangebod Sexvda ucxoel korespondentebs, Camovida TbilisSi da sajarod amxila faqtebi, kerZod isic, Tu rogor gadauxsnes ZarRvebi qarTvel Wabukebs afxaz-mTielebma, rogor aavses sisxliT Wiqa da dalies. gaognebis, eldisa da mometebuli mwuxarebisagan gardaicvala kidec am dReebSi mRvdelmTavari. WiqiT qarTvelTa sisxlis smis ambis mosmenisas uneblied gvaxsendeba besiki, Cveni mgosani, romelic aseve aRwerda afxazeTSi qarTvelTa sisxlis smas, oRond ara WiqiT, aramed gobiT, es ase yofila: afxazeTis mTavars qarTvelTa winaaRmdeg saomrad mouwvevia Crdilokavkasiuri tomebi, yirimeli TaTrebi, jiqelni, adiRebi, yivCaRebi (besikis dros ,,yivCaRebs~ uwodebdnen kavkasiur Turqulenovan tomebs), swored maT afxazebTan erTad gadauwyvetiaT qarTvelTa sisxlis sma, Tumca poets movusminoT: ,,yirimelT, jiqelT, alanelT, kermugelT amcnes cnobiTa, yivCaRTa Semoiwevdnen, indobdnen sjulis ZmobiTa, afxazni Seeficodnen qrTamiT da agrev ZRvnobiTa, da megrelTa sisxli swyurodaT, Tumca SeesvaT gobiTa~. nacnobi suraTia. afxazebi am Crdilokavkasiel tomebs maSinac, rogorc axla, iwvevdnen SepirebiTa da ficiT, rom omSi monawileobisaTvis miarTmevdnen ,,qrTams~ anu fulsa da ,,ZRvens~ (albaT qarTvelTa qonebasa da saxl-kars zRvis sanapiroze), ,,yivCaRebs~ ki (genetikurad aramonaTesaveT) iwvevdnen ,,sjulis ZmobiT~, anu viTarca mahmadian TanamoZmeebs qristianTa winaaRmdeg omSi. sruli Tanamedrove suraTia, oRond gadmocemuli XVIII saukunis poetis mier, rameTu im drosac afxazeTSi identuri procesi mimdinareobda (CrdilokavkasielTa Camosaxleba saqarTvelos mTiswineTSi), besiki iqve Tavis poema ,,ruxis omSi~ wers, rom Cvens miwa-wyals miseuli es interventebi iyvnen ,,eqvsni gvarisani~ da isini ,,eqvs eniTa erTxmaobdnen bevris bevrad~ (axlac TiTqmis ,,eqvsi gvaris~ tomebi esevian saqarTvelos - ruskazakebi, Turqi moqalaqeni, CeCnebi, adiRebi, yabardoelebi, osebi, Tu aras vityviT afxazebze). ase rom, istoria sruli saxiT meordeba, oRond jer-jerobiT, rogorc Cans, gobi ar uxmariaT qarTvelTa sisxlis sasmelad. Tu vinme ambobs, rom kavkasielTa da afxaz meTaurTa omi saqarTvelos winaaRmdeg 1992 wels daiwyo, vfiqrob cdeba. Tu asea, maSin rogor avxsnaT ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ mematianeebis, vaxuStisa da sxvaTa monacemebi imis Sesaxeb, rom dasavleT saqarTveloSi XVII saukunis 40-

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iani wlebidan, vidre XIX saukunis Sua wlebamde CrdilokavkasielTa ganuwyveteli omi warmoebda pirvel rigSi samegrelo-odiSis winaaRmdeg? istoriuli sazRvari afxazeTsa da odiSs Soris, Tanaxmad vaxuStisa, iwyeboda anakofiasTan (dRevandel axal aTonTan). am qalaqis Sesaxeb is werda XVIII s-Si ,,...aw oxer ars da sazRvari odiSisa da afxazeTisa. am anakofiis aRmosavleT zRvidam mTamde Sevlo zRude didi levan dadianman afxazTa gamousvlelobisaTvis~. cnobili ,,afxazeTis kedeli~ TviT ,,saxelovan~ i. voronovis TqmiTac ki samegrelos mTavars augia. is wers: ,,rogorc gamoirkva kelasuris kedlis Tavdacvis xazis saerTo sigrZe asi kilometria. mters Crdilo-dasavleTidan elodnen. nageboba mraval adgilas didi siswrafiTaa agebuli, zogjer koSkebs usaZirkvlod, pirdapir balaxze an naxevradgadamwvar buCqnarze dgamdnen. Tavisi mmarTvelobis bolo periodSi levani iZulebuli gaxda gadasuliyo Tavisi samflobelos organizebul Tavdacvaze, romelic gamoixata afxazeTis sazRvarTan safortifikacio nagebobebis agebiTa da gamagrebiT. arqanjelo lamberti iZleva cnobas, rom samegrelos mflobelebma ,,Zalze didi danaxarjebiT aages kedeli 60 aTasi nabijis sigrZisa~, xolo meore italieli misioneris kastelis rukaze kelasuris kedlis gamosaxulebas aqvs warwera - ,,kedeli 60 aTasi nabijia. gansazRvrulia afxazTa Sesakaveblad~. (i. voronovi; ,,v. mire arxitekturnix pamiatnikov abxazii~, 1978, gv. 104). XVII s. 40-50-ian wlebSi agebuli es kedeli icavda soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCiris, galisa da nawilobriv zugdidis raionebis zRvispira, uxvmosavlian, samiwaTmoqmedo mxareebs, romelsac maSin odiSi ewodeboda. ratom aigo aRniSnuli galavani, romelsac odiSis Tavadebis garda episkoposTa jarebic icavdnen? ratom iyo dainteresebuli TviT eklesiac ki am kedlis dacviT, vis elodnen Crdilo-dasavleTidan? am mxareSi XVII saukuneSi moxda gasaocari movlena, afxazeTis axladwarmoqmnilma patara samTavrom, oriode aTeul weliwadSi gacilebiT ufro Zlier da did samegrelos samTavros CamoaWra mniSvnelovani ayvavebuli teritoriebi ise, rom sazRvari anakofiidan gadatanil iqna qveynis SuagulSi, samTavros dedaqalaq zugdidamde. ekonomikurad, kulturulad da sazogadoebrivi yofiT afxazeTis samTavros mcxovrebni i. voronovis mier naxsenebi ucxoeli misionerebis aRweriT ukiduresad CamorCenilni iyvnen, miwaTmoqmedebasac ar eweodnen, ar hqondaT qalaqebi da soflebic ki Cveulebrivi gagebiT, am patara qveynis mosaxleobac mcirericxovani iyo, xolo samegrelo ganviTarebuli miwaTmoqmedebis, intensiuri soflis meurneobis qveyanas warmoadgenda, afxazeTTan SedarebiT mravalricxovans, rogorc SeiaraRebiT, aseve samxedro teqnikiT mowinaves. maS rogor moxda, rom patara samTavrom daamarcxa Seudareblad didi samTavro? ara afxazeTma daamarcxa odiSi da CamoaWra yvelaze ayvavebuli miwawyali kelasuridan enguramde, aramed Crdilokavkasiurma mravalricxovanma tomebma, romelTac win afxazeTis mTavrebi miuZRodnen. arc odiSsa da arc mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos Zala ar Seswevda win aRdgomodnen kavkasiaSi im droisaTvis yvelaze mravalricxovan eTnoss adiRe-Cerqezebs. XVII saukunis 40-ian wlebSi levan II dadianis dros 184

isini grigaliviT SeiWrnen samegreloSi afxazeTis gziT. mtris SeCereba ver SeZles saswafod agebuli ugrZesi e. w. ,,afxazeTis kedliT~ da 60-ian wlebSi maT ukve eWiraT samegrelos teritoria kodoridan egriswyalamde (RaliZgamde), xolo 80-ian wlebSi enguramde. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi aRniSnuli mdgomareobis gamo dapyrobil miwawyalze moxda didi eTnikuri cvlileba, gahqrnen Zveli afxazebi, qarTveluri tomi, istoriul-kulturuli saxiT qarTvelebi, maTi adgili TandaTanobiT daiWira axalma eTnosma, romelic XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi sakuTar tomobriv-eTnikuri saxiT Camoyalibda. is ukve ara qarTveluri, aramed adiRe-Cerqezuli warmomavlobisa da saxisa iyo. es sakiTxi gamowvlilviTa aqvs gamokvleuli niko berZeniSvils. samwuxaroa, rom misi mSvenieri wigni, romelmac rogorRac ixila mzis sinaTle 1990 wels, faqtobrivad miuwvdomelia mosaxleobisaTvis. n. berZeniSvilma mecnieruli siRrmiT uaryo mosazreba, rom Zveli da axali afxazebi erTi eTnikuri warmoSobis xalxia. is wers, rom Sua saukuneebSi afxazeTSi moxda ,,mTis Camowola~, anu mTis eTnosis Casaxleba afxazeTis barSi. afxazi Tavadaznauroba, romelmac bolo dromde SeinarCuna Tavisi qarTuli da qristianuli saxe, Seurigda momxvdurebs da molaSqreebad gamoiyena isini ganuwyvetel feodalur omebSi. samwuxarod, afxazeTis mkvidri mosaxleobis umetesi nawili dabali fenebi moispo, tyved daiyida an monebad aqcies. monebs ,,agirua~ erqvaT, rac guruls an megrels niSnavs. axlad Camosaxlebulebsac ,,afxazebi~ uwodes qarTvelebma istoriul-geografiuli kuTxis ,,afxazeTis~ saxelis mixedviT. n. berZeniSvili Zvel afxazebze werda ,,rogorc feodaluri qveyana, afxazeTi iseTive saqarTvelo iyo da afxazi iseTive qarTveli iyo, rogorc egrisi da megreli, rogorc hereTi da herni, rogorc qarTli da qarTleli~. axali afxazebi ki, rogorc iTqva, ukve araqarTuli tomebi iyo, afxazoba ukve araqarTvelobaa. gaafxazeba - erovnebis dakargvis tolfasia. mecnieri wers: ,,afxazi Tavad-aznauroba Seurigda Seqmnil viTarebas da daiwyo ,,gaafxazeba~ (dasax. naSr. gv. 610). afxazeTSi mTis tomis mier Semotanili primitiuli sazogadoebrivi yofa, axali afxazebis socialuri upiratesoba mimzidveli Canda batonymur uRelqveS myof saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeTa glexebisaTvis - ,,batonymobaSi sulamoxdili glexoba (ara marto zRvispireTis) mietana afxazobas, afxazeTi yvela batonymobis winaaRmdeg mebrZoli qarTveli glexebis TavSesafari gaxda. da Seiqmna axali afxazeTi~ (iqve, gv. 610). ,,afxazeTSi gabatonebuli axali yofa rom sasurveli iyo feodalur uRelSi Cabmul sazogadoebisaTvis, kargad Cans iqidan, rom XIX saukuneSi samegrelos mosaxleoba mniSvnelovani raodenobiT gadadis afxazeTSi da iq ,,afxazdeba~ mxolod imitom, rom mas es socialurad aTavisuflebs~ (gv. 616). damonebasa da datyvevebas gadarCenilma mkvidrebma imis Semdeg, rac qveyanas axali patroni moevlina, gaafxazeba daiwyo. erTi mizezi isic unda yofiliyo, rom CrdilokavkasielTa mier dapryobil vrcel teritoriaze mTebidan enguramde mcxovrebi mkvidrni uaRresad SeSinebuli da Tavzardacemulni iyvnen, momxdurTa gasaocari sisastikiT. maTgan Tavdacvis yvelaze ukeTesi gza - maT Tanametomed Tavis gamocxadeba, maTi enisa, religiisa da wes-Cveulebebis gaTaviseba iyo. 185

SemoseulTa sisastikes adastureben evropeli misionerebi da mogzaurebi. Jan Sardenis cnobiT, samegrelos 40 000-iani mosaxleoba 1640-iani wlebidan sul raRac 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi ganaxevrebula da oci aTasamde Semcirebula. vaxuSti wers - ,,iyo Wiri odiSs, viTarca aRvwereT umetes afxazTagan, rameTu movidodian navebiTa da xmeliT, styvevnidian, daipyres egrisis mdinaremde da daeSenebodnen TviT afxazni da arRara iyo drandas episkoposni~... ,,odiSis Wiri~ aranaklebi iyo ,,qarTlis Wirze~ - ,,kvliTa da yidviTa tyvisaTa umetes afxazTagan, rameTu movidodian laSqrad da aoxrebdian qveyanaTa avazakobiTa da cxadad~ (qarTlis cxovreba, t. IV, gv. 354). evropeli misioneri werda: ,,samegrelo samegrelo aRar aris, daqceuli da aoxrebulia, kacs aRar SeuZlia uSiSrad iyos, mudam afxazeTis SiSia~. odiSi gaudaburda. sakuTriv afxazebs adiRuri tomebi ufro adre Semoesivnen. 1533 wlis ianvarSi afxazeTSi SemoWril jiqebs SeebrZolnen mamia gurieli da mamia dadiani episkoposebTan erTad. samwuxarod, gagrasTan omSi 31 ianvars qarTvelebi damarcxdnen. gagris marcxis Semdeg mters gza gaexsna biWvinTisaken, romelic im droisaTvis dasavleT saqarTvelos saeklesio centrs warmoadgenda. aq ukve VIII saukunidan qarTuli wirva-locva iyo gaCaRebuli. Semosevis gamo sakaTalikoso taxti gelaTSi iqna gadatanili, xolo saeklesio ganZi, nagrovebi aTasi wlis manZilze, mTielebma daitaces. XVII saukuneSi SemoWrilma mTieli tomebis talRam umowyalod mospo qarTulenovani saepiskoposoebi drandisa, moqvisa, bediisa da sxva eklesia-monastrebi. ai, ras wers erTi Tanamedrove mkvlevari am mTieli tomebis eTnikuri kuTvnilebis Sesaxeb - ,,afxazebs SemorCaT bundovani warmodgenebi maTi winaprebis am miwaze saidanRac (etyoba dRevandeli adiRedan) mosvlis Sesaxeb... imaTi mniSvnelovani nawili, vinc Tavis Tavsa afxazebs uwodebs, unda miviCnioT am sul cota xnis winandeli Crdiloeli dampyroblebis STamomavlebad~ (r. evdokimovvolgaki ,,afxazeTis...~gaz. ,,sax. gan.~ 29. XI. 89). yvela ucxoeli mecnieri XIX s. miwurulamde im xalxs, romelsac qarTvelebi ,,afxazebad~ ixseneben - Cerqezebs anda abazebs uwodebs, mxolod qarTvelebi uwodebdnen mTebidan afxazeTSi Camosaxlebul sxvadasxva tomebs (jiqebs, Cerqezebs, abazebs, afsarebs anu afsuebs) afxazebs. magaliTad, qaTib Celebis cnobiT - ,,Cerqezebis sazRvari samegreloa~ misi azriT ,,abaza~ da ,,Cerqezi~ erTi xalxia. is wers `abaza araa qarTveli, megreli da dadiani ki namdvili qarTvelia~. mas gaugonia gadmocemebi abazebis ucxo mxridan mosvlis Sesaxeb, mohyavs Sesabamisi legenda da askvnis - ,,Cerqezebi da abazebi am sami tomidan gavrceldnen~ (,,cnobebi saqarTvelosa da kavkasiis Sesaxeb~, 1978, gv. 132). axali afxazebis eTnikuri kuTvnilebis Sesaxeb weren evropelebic: spanseri maT pirdapir ,,Cerqezebs~ uwodebs. mis dros biWvinTa ukve maT mier iyo daWerili. bambori - lixni, misi azriT, CerqezeTis Suagulia, ServaSiZe - Cerqezebis tomis mTavaria~. 1866 w. ajanyebis Semdeg ruseTis mTavrobam es axali afxazebi TurqeTSi gaasaxla. aRsaniSnavia, rom gasaxlebulni da maTi STamomavalni TavianT Tavs ara ,,afxazebs~, aramed ,,Cerqezebs~ uwodebdnen. TurqeTis oficialuri statistikiTac isini aRiricxnen ara afxazebad, aramed Cerqezebad. mxolod qarTvelebi uwodebdnen afxazeTis axal mosaxleT ,,afxazebs~, rogorc es ukve 186

aRiniSna, swored qarTvelebis gavleniT uwodes maT rusebma ,,afxazebi~, rusebis gavleniT ki evropelebmac. afxazebis namdvili eTnikuri kuTvnilebis Sesaxeb SesaniSnavad ician Crdilokavkasiurma tomebma. swored amitom exmarebian amJamad isini afxazebs, viTarca Tanametomeebsa da Tanamorwmuneebs, gamomdinare aqedan, afxazTa, anu afsua-afsarTa da CrdilokavkasielTa qmedeba afxazeTSi mizanmimarTulia, winaswardasaxuli da dagegmili. maTi Sorsgamiznuli strategia iTvaliswinebs im danaklisis anazRaurebas, romelic adiRur-Cerqezul tomebs kavkasiaSi rusebis damkvidrebis gamo mouvidaT. rogorc cnobilia, kavkasiis es udidesi tomi ruseTis imperiam TiTqmis ganadgurebamde miiyvana. amJamad CrdilokavkasiaSi, istoriul samSobloSi maTi ricxvi umniSvneloa da iq amJamad rus-kazakebi arian dasaxlebulni (krasnodarisa da stavropolis mxareebi). am mizezebis gamo Cerqezebis saxelmwifos aRdgena Crdilo kavkasiaSi jerjerobiT SeuZlebelia, samagierod saqarTvelos susti saxelmwifos nawil afxazeTSi maT es SesaZleblad miaCniaT. maTi azriT, saqarTvelo ver gauZlebs TurqeTSi mcxovrebi aseuli aTasi Cerqezis, maTi Crdilokavkasieli Tanametomeebis afxazeTSi Sesevas, maT kazakebic siamovnebiT dauWeren mxars, radganac afxazeTSi Cerqezuli saxelmwifos warmoqmnis Semdeg stavropolisa da krasnodaris mxareebSi mcxovrebi mcirericxovani adiRe-Cerqezebi afxazeTSi gadasaxldebian. es ki kazakebis ocnebaa. rac Seexeba afxazeTSi mcxovreb qarTvelebs, afxazTa meTaurebis fiqriT isini afxazebad Caewerebian, rogorc es procesi adrec moxda qarTvelTa gaafxazebis saxiT. zemoT moyvanilidan da afxazeTSi amJamad Seqmnili viTarebidan kargad Cans, Tu vin arian interventebi da qveynis dampyrobni, magram ucxoeTis masobrivi informaciis saSualebani sxvagvarad saxaven viTarebas. cxadia, amJamad araviTari mniSvneloba ara aqvs imas, afxazebis winaprebi mkvidrni arian Tu Camosaxlebulni, maT aqvT da yovelTvis eqnebaT yovelgvari samoqalaqo uflebebi, Tanabrad saqarTvelos am kuTxis sxva mosaxleebisa, magram maT swored es gaTanabreba ar surT. moskovis radio SarSan, 26 oqtombers ase gadmoscemda afxazeTSi arsebul viTarebas ,,marTalia, qarTvelebs aqvT ricxobrivi upiratesoba da teqnikis siWarbe, magram afxazTa mxaresaa moraluri upiratesoba Tavisi miwisaTvis mebrZoli jariskacisa, romelTac Crdilokavkasielebic eTanxmebian samarTlian omSi~. maSasadame, qarTvelebi arian sxvisi miwis dampyrobni, usamarTlo omis gamCaReblebi da amis gamo moraluradac dacemulni. am sakiTxSi, marTlac, saWiroa meti sicxadis Setana. omis samarTlianobis sakiTxSi jariskacs unda hqondes sruli sicxade. raime eWvi damRupvelia. araTu axla, aramed XII saukuneSic ki Tavisi saxelmwifos udidesi siZlieris dros qarTvel jariskacs xmali ar dauZravs sxvisi miwis dasapyrobad. asea axlac. xSirad gamouTqvamT wuxili imis Sesaxeb, rom informaciul omSi qarTuli mxare damarcxda, ruseTsa da ucxoeTSi sainformacio saSualebebi afxazebs uWeren mxars. amaSi brali ara aqvT qarTvel Jurnalistebs. informaciuli omi ara axla, SarSan da wels wavageT, aramed maSin, wina wlebSi, roca ar gaviziareT simarTle, gamoTqmuli 187

p. ingoroyvasa da n. berZeniSvilis mier afxazTa eTnikuri warmomavalobis Sesaxeb. ,,leonis ordeni~, romelic arZinbas dauwesebia, rogorc ,,afxazeTis saxelmwifos~ umaRlesi jildo, pirvel rigSi ekuTvniT im qarTvelT, romelnic weren VIII saukuneSi ,,afxazi erovnebis~ arsebobisa da misi araqarTvelobis Sesaxeb, cxadia, maTi azriT VIII saukuneSi moRvawe afxazTa mefeebi leon I da leon II araqarTvelebi iyvnen, swored amgvar mecnierul safuZvlebze dgas arZinbas ideologiuri sicruis manqana. gaz. ,,saqarTvelos respublika~, 17. III. 1992 w.

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episkopos anania jafariZis sityva warmoTqmuli samgloviaro mitingze q. borjomSi 1992 wlis 9 oqtombers

patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno, qristes mier sayvarelo Svilebo, Cveni samSoblos mTlianoba SebRalulia. saqarTvelo, marTalia, TavdacviT, magram mainc omSia CaTreuli. rogorc yovelTvis qarTveloba ibrZvis ara marto samSoblosaTvis, aramed qristianobisTvisac, rameTu mahmadianuri fundamentalizmisaTvis qristianuli sarwmunoebis wminda keris - saqarTvelos mTlianoba mouTmenelia. gagra, ganTiadi da leseliZe datoves Cvenma jarebma. qistebi, CeCnebi da sxva musulmanebi majebs uxsnian datyvevebul qarTvel ymawvilebs da maT sisxls svamen. televiziiT vixileT TaTrebis kavkasiuri cekva-TamaSi. vai, Cveni samSoblos uZlurebav. XV saukuneSi gamahmadianda CrdiloeTi kavkasia, amis Semdeg kavkasieli mTielebi nikofsiidan darubandamde ganuwyvetliv eomebodnen saqarTvelos. axlac kavkasiurma konfederaciam miiRo gadawyvetileba mahmadianuri saRvTo omisa. ra omia es? rogorc winaT, esaa kavkasiuri mahmadianuri tomebis omi qarTvelobis, qristianobis winaaRmdeg. es araa axali, axlad dawyebuli omi. esaa saukuneTa manZilze mimdinare omi, romelic droebiT Sewyda XIX saukunis meore naxevarsa da XX s-Si ruseTis mZlavri saxelmwifos gavleniT, magram am Semakavebeli uzarmazari Zalis Sesustebis Tanave mTielTa sayovelTao Semoteva saqarTveloze ganaxlda. es Seteva, rogorc aRiniSna, XV saukunidan daiwyo, gansakuTrebiT gamZafrda XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi, roca Cerqezulma tomebma (afsar-afsuebma) daipyres afxazeTi da odiSis nawili, walekes dasavleTi saqarTvelo... am dros imZlavres os-alanebma, Semovidnen Sida qarTlSi da masobrivi asimilacia moaxdines mTieli qarTvelebisa, xolo aRmosavleT kaxeTis yvelaze unayofieresi miwebi, dRes saingilod wodebuli, - daRestnelebma - lekebma - daipyres. maTve gaaveranes qvemo qarTli da mospes iq qarTvelTa gasagisi, da ai, TiTqmis erT saukunovani Sesvenebis Semdeg, kvlav daiwyo Crdilo kavkasieli tomebis Semoseva saqarTveloze. maT iseve, rogorc wina saukuneebSi, aerTianebT erTi sarwmunoeba - mahmadianoba. rogorc iTqva, dRevandeli omi ganaxlebuli, Zveli omia, omi, romelSic kavkasieli tomebi Zveladac mogebulni darCnen did islamur saxelmwifoTa xelSewyobiT. maT faqtiurad daiWires saqarTvelos zogierTi kuTxe, kavkasiis mTianeTis xriokebidan, unayofo adgilebidan Casaxldnen samaCabloSi, afxazeTsa da saingiloSi. dRes, qarTuli, erTiani saxelmwifos aRdgenam Zalze SeaSfoTa isini. igrZnes, rom mTavrdeba maTi batonoba qarTul miwebze, Tumca ki Cven srul Tanasworuflebianobas vTavazobT, amitomac saSvelad mouxmes Crdilokavkasiel TanamoZmeebs, Tanac Sepirdnen, rom Tuki erToblivi ZaliT kvlav, iseve rogorc saukuneTa win SeZleben erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos samTavroebad daSlas, aramarto SavizRvispireTSi, saqarTvelos mzian velebzec Caasaxleben Tanatomelebs. mTielebs saqarTvelo TavianT samosaxlod, TavianTi Svilebisa da STamomavlebisaTvis surT. 189

aseTia zogadi mdgomareoba. es yvelam icis. magram samwuxarod, yvelas ara aqvs gacnobierebuli. Cvenma veragma mterma droebiT, magram mainc moipova gamarjveba. miuxedavad amisa, Cveni xalxis TiToeul wevrs es ubedureba ver gauTavisebia, ver SeugrZnia, ver gaugia. Zvelad, yoveli ojaxi, yoveli qarTveli deda Svilebs mamulisaTvis zrdida. rogorc Cans, dRes, ojaxebis erTi nawili Svilebs saTavisod, piradi keTildReobisTvis zrdis. samwuxarod, mowmeni varT, rom deda, romelic ,,uwin mamulsa uzrdida Svilsa~, dRes mamulis gasaWiris Jams Svils malavs, ar uSvebs qarTul jarSi da es maSin, roca samSoblos mTlianoba darRveulia, mtrebi mSvidobian qarTvel moqalaqeebs xvreten da wvaven! yvelas kargad gvaxsovs oTxi-xuTi wlis win qarTveli dedebi uxmod, yovelgvari winaaRmdegobisa da protestis gareSe uSvebdnen Svilebs avRaneTis omSi, cimbiris yinuleTSi da sxvagan ,,samxedro savaldebulo samsaxurSi~ anu ,,samxedro begaris mosaxdelad~. ucxoelTa, Cveni bunebiTi mtrebis armiebSi erTgulad, da SeiZleba iTqvas, gmirulad ibrZodnen qarTvelebi. ,,Seni raa rom amSveneb Sens damRupvel CrdiloeTsao~ - ambobda ilia maT Sesaxeb. dRes, roca aRdgenilia qarTuli saxelmwifoebrioba, gana SeiZleba dedam Svili ar gauSvas samSoblos dasacavad, TviT dedisave dasacavad? miT umetes, SeiZleba TviT axalgazrdas mouvides fiqrad Tavis arideba deda-samSoblos dasacavad? nuTu monis suli Caudges qarTvel ymawvilebs? rogor unda Sefasdes amgvari qmedeba? imperiis monobaSi yofnisas qarTvelebi uxmod midiodnen mtris jarSi samsaxurisaTvis, ZiriTadad saxelmwifo sadamsjelo organoebis SiSis gamo, axla viTareba Seicvala, Cven gvaqvs Cveni erovnuli saxelmwifo, Cveni fsiqologia ki ar Secvlila. ar Segvwevs unari viqceT moqalaqeebad, SevimecnoT, rom es saxelmwifo Cvenia, rom yoveli moqalaqis, yoveli ojaxis Sinagani movaleobaa daicvas Tavisi qveyana, Tavisi saxelmwifo, es sakuTari Tavis, col-Svilis, sanaTesaos, Tvistomis dacvaa. es Rirsebis saqmea. marTalia, monas Rirsebis grZnoba ar gaaCnia, magram Cven monebi ara varT, Cven Cveni Tavisufali mamuli gvaqvs da varT misi mepatroneni - moqalaqeebi. CvenSi arsebuli fsiqologia sarkesaviTaa areklili Cvens armiaSi. me guSin Semxvda aqauri mebrZoli, romelic gagraSi ibrZoda. is monawilea Cveni droebiTi marcxisa CrdiloeTis WiSkarTan afxazeTSi. gadmogcemT mis sityvebs: Cvens sajariso danayofebSi faqtiurad dabalia sabrZolo suliskveTeba. igrZnoba usulguloba, zereloba. zogierTebis sxvis qonebaze daxarbebam dasca meomruli SemarTeba, amis Sedegia udisciplinoba. meomrebi bolomde ar arian Caxedulni saqmis arsSi. TiTqosda bolomde ver garkveulan samarTliania Tu ara maTi brZola (igulisxmeba 1992 wlis zafxuli), es maSin, roca gadamTieli kavkasielebi Sinaganad aRvsilni arian sabrZolo suliskveTebiT, TvalsazrisiT, rom isini icaven da eSvelebian Tvistoms, Tanamorwmunes, akeTeben keTil saqmes da arian gmirebi. azrovnebis gamrudebasa da miznis dausaxvelobaSi Tavisi wvlili miuZRvis sazogadoebas, romelic amtkicebs dRevandeli da Zveli afxazebis igiveobas. maSin roca Zveli afxazebi qarTuli warmoSobisani iyvnen, xolo awindeli afxazebi Cerqezul-adiReuri warmoSobisani arian. 190

rogorc yvelafridan Cans, es kargad ician Crdilokavkasielma adiRevelebma, Cerqezuli warmoSobis yabardoelebma da sxvebma, romlebic gverdiT udganan TavianT Tanametome dRevandel afxazebs, erTiani ZaliT ebrZvian qarTvelebs. yvela ucxoeli istoriuli mezobeli, qarTvelTa garda, afxazebs TavianT namdvil saxels Cerqezebs uwodebs, magaliTad, XIX saukuneSi muhajirobis dros afxazeTidan TurqeTSi gadasaxlebuli dRevandeli afxazebis Tanametomeni cnobilni arian ara afxazebis aramed Cerqezebis saxeliT. Cerqezebis, anu adiRevelebis nawilad miaCniaT TavianTi Tavi dRevandel afxazebsac, swored amitom ar aSinebT maT politikur meTaurebs maTi sikvdilsicocxlis sakiTxi, maTi TvalsazrisiT dRevandeli afxazebis raodenobrivi danaklisis anazRaureba advilad SeiZleba TurqeTSi mcxovrebi Tu Crdilo-kavkasieli CerqezebiT, amiT maTi tomobrivi saxe ar Seicvleba. aseve xedaven Crdilokavkasielebic Tanamedrove afxazebSi TavianT Tanametomeebs da ibrZvian ara sxvisTvis, aramed TavianTTvis. ara Tu Crdilokavkasielebi, verc erTi armia ver daamarcxebs Tavisi samSoblosaTvis mebrZol ers, iseve rogorc avRanelebi ver daamarcxes SeiaraRebulma rusebma, yoveli saxli cixe-simagred iqceva, yoveli ezo brZolis arenad. im droebiT marcxSi, romelic Cven viwvnieT mTiel mahmadianebTan omisas afxazeTSi, lomis wili miuZRvis CvenSi arsebul luarsabobis, gulgrilobis, uadgilo zviadobis sindroms. Tu Cveni eri Seimecnebs Tavis Tavs, Tavis samSoblos, Tavis saxelmwifoebriobas, win waimZRvarebs qristianobas, ara Tu kavkasiuri tomebi, armiebic veras daaklebs, miT umetes, rom mahmadianTa winaaRmdeg qarTvelTa winambrZoli wmida giorgia, zeciuri mfarveli ki - yovladwmida RvTismSobeli. SevTxovoT mas meoxeba. 9. X. 1992.

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afxazeTSi mimdinare e. w. ,,gamegrelebis~ iZulebiTi procesis namdvili arsi

Cveni eris usaSinelesi genocidis Semdeg afxazeTSi CarCenil qarTvelebs afxazi politikosebi megrelebad Caweras aiZulebdnen, ris Sesaxebc radioTi gadmocemuli gancxadebiT gvacnoba saqarTvelos respublikis vice-premierma batonma nadareiSvilma (6. VII. 94). cnobili afxazi mecnieri g. ZiZaria wignSi ,,1866 wlis ajanyeba afxazeTSi~ (1953 w. soxumi) miiCnevs, rom ,,saxalxo risxvis momentis damaCqarebels warmoadgenda afxazeTSi 1851 wlidan dawyebuli misioneruli moRvaweoba mosaxleobaSi qristianobis aRdgenis mizniT, eklesiis msaxurTa mier miRebulma iZulebiTma meTodebma iTamaSes katalizatoris roli~. afxazeTi Zvel qristianul qveyanas warmoadgenda, samwysos qarTuli eklesiisa, amitomac cxadia me-19 s-is 60-70-ian wlebSi aq kvlav Zlieri safuZveli gaaCnda qristianobas mkvidrTa Soris. SesaZloa rusul eklesias, romelic am droisaTvis aq qristianobis aRsadgenad iRvwoda, warmatebac hqonoda, rom ara cnobili ajanyeba. rac Seexeba qarTul eklesias, am droisaTvis mas ar SeeZlo monawileobis miReba aRniSnul procesSi, rameTu am droisaTvis damoukidebloba dakarguli hqonda. amJamad afxazeTis zogierT wreebSi miiCneven, rom 1866 wlis ajanyebamde da ruseT-osmaleTis omis (1877-1878 w.) dawyebamde, romelsac Sedegad rusuli administraciis CareviT mosaxleobis erTi nawilis osmaleTis imperiaSi gadasaxleba mohyva, afxazeTis eTnikuri Sedgeniloba erTgvarovani iyo da iq mxolod da mxolod afxazebi cxovrobdnen. TiTqosda, qarTuli mosaxleoba afxazeTSi me-19 saukunis bolos am ajanyebisa da omis Sedegad gaCnda. afxaz politikosebs, rogorc cnobilia, surT afxazebis XIX s. 70-ian wlebamde arsebuli demografiuli suraTi ,,aRadginon~, roca iq, maTi azriT, qarTvelebi ar cxovrobdnen da qveyana mxolod afxazebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. ramdenad Seesabameba es mosazreba gasuli saukunis 70-ian wlebamde arsebul viTarebas, marTla ar cxovrobdnen qarTvelebi afxazeTSi? qarTvelTa afxazeTSi cxovrebis Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs ara mxolod ucxouri wyaroebi da sxva zRva istoriuli masala, aramed TviT afxaz mecnierTa damuSavebuli Temebic. maTi naSromebidan Cans, rom afxazeTis mosaxleobis erT, Tanac arc Tu umniSvnelo nawils, 1866 wlis ajanyebamdec qarTvelebi Seadgendnen. glexoba afxazeTSi kategoriebad iyo dayofili, romelTa erTi mniSvnelovani fena, rogorc afxaz mecnierTa mtkicebiT, ise sxva mravali wyaros monacemebiT, qarTuli iyo. aqve unda iTqvas, rom Zveli afxazeTis Tavadaznaurobis umetesobas da samRvdeloebas, gamonaklisis gareSe, qarTuli erovnuli TviTSemecneba hqonda da Tavis Tavs qarTvelad miiCnevda, amis dasturia giorgi ServaSiZis avtobiografiuli Txzulebebi, sxvadasxva pirTa gancxadebebi da afxazeTis kaTolikosebisa da episkoposebis mier datovebuli sabuTebi da cnobebi. XVII s. Semdeg afxazeTSi glexoba sam umTavres kategoriad iyofoda anxaiu, axoiu da axaSvala. amaTgan ors axoius da axaSvalas kategoriis glexebs sxva saxelic hqondaT - ,,agirua~, rac afxazurad megrels 192

niSnavs. ,,axoiu~ anu ,,agirua~ afxazeTis mosaxleobis mniSvnelovan nawils Seadgenda. termini ,,axoiu~ saWmlis mommzadebels~ (mosamsaxures) ewodeba, am termins agreTve ,,muSis~ an ,,mzareulis~ mniSvnelobiTac Targmnian. masSi asaxulia misi Tavdapirveli da mTavari movaleoba, romelic Semdgom mniSnvelovnad gaizarda. axoius zogjer uwodeben ,,agiruas~ (megrels) an kidev ,,agurs~ (guruls) - (saq. istoriis narkvevebi, t. IV. gv. 200). rogorc misi naSromidan Cans, b-ni g. ZiZaria miiCnevs, rom axoius ,,agiruas~ (megrels) ara mxolod zogjer, aramed saerTod uwodebdnen. sityvebs ,,axoiusa~ da ,,agiruas~ sinonimuri mniSvnelobebic hqonda. f. tornaus Sromis ganxilvisas g. ZiZaria wers: ,,agirua~ am glexebis (,,axoiu~) meore saxelia (ix. g. ZiZaria ,,axaSvala - yvelaze dabali socialuri kategoria feodalur afxazeTSi XIX s-Si~, afxazeTis istoriis enisa da literaturis institutis Sromebi, XVIII, 1957, gv. 41). axoiu begaris gadamxdeli glexia, mebegrea, axoiu - mebegres piradi Tavisufleba dakarguli aqvs da ufro mZime uReli adevs, vidre amazurackus, maTi rigebis Sevseba xdeboda tyve da nayidi glexebis miwaze mimagrebiT (m. rexviaSvili. imereTis samefo, gv. 178). i. anTelava axoius namdvil yma-glexad miiCnevs (afxazeTis istoriisa da enis institutis dasax. Sromebi, gv. 477). ,,agirua~ afxazur azrovnebaSi ara mxolod mezobel eTnoss, aramed afxazuri sazogadoebis dabal, mSromel, daqvemdebarebul fenas ewodeboda, romelsac mravali ufleba hqonda CamorTmeuli. amJamad ,,gamegrelebis~ anu afxazeTis qarTuli mosaxleobis ,,agiruad~ Caweris procesi mraval siRrmiseul qvena mosazrebas Seicavs. es Tema ufro gamowvlilviT ganvixiloT. gviani drois, XVII-XVIII ss. afxazeTSi, am sityvis Cveulebrivi gagebiT, feodaluri sazogadoeba ar arsebobda. aq gvarovnul-patriarqaluri urTierToba iyo gabatonebuli. umaRles wodebasTan (,,aTavad~) erTad arsebobdnen Tavisufali meTemenic (,,anxaiu~) da monebic (,,axaSvala~); maT glexebs mxolod pirobiTad Tu vuwodebT, arsebobda aseve ,,axoiu~ - miwaze mimagrebuli yofili mona. anxaiuebs (e. i. Tavisufal meTemeebs) SeeZloT TavianTi uflebebis dacva sasamarTloSi, SeeZloT gaecaT an gaeyidaT miwa. axoiuebi ar iyvnen miwis mepatroneni, patroni maTi mebatone iyo, romelsac pirdapiri ufleba hqonda mis pirovnebaze, magram maT hqondaT memkvidreobiTi ufleba miwaze. ,,axaSvalebs~ - CamorTmeuli hqondaT yovelgvari qonebrivi da iuridiuli ufleba. maTi miwaze mimagrebiT ivseboda axoiuebis rigebi. g. ZiZaria wers, rom termini ,,axaSvala~ moiazreba rogorc ,,mogeba~, ,,is, rac Segxvda~ da a. S. mas uwodeben agreTve saxlis kacs anu monas. aRsaniSnavia, rom abazinebSi (e. i. qarTulad ,,abazebSi~) mona iwodeboda msgavsadve - ,,saxlis kaci~ - iunaiu (iqve, gv. 37) g. ZiZarias azriT, axaSvala monaa da misi gaTanabreba ymasTan (rusuli batonymoba) anda mojalabesTan (imereT-samegrelo) - arasworia. axaSvalas ufro adiReuri (Cerqezuli) - unauti, kerZod, yabardouli ,, ~ eTanadeba, romelTac yabardouli feodaluri adaTiT yovelgvari adamianuri ufleba warTmeuli hqondaT. msgavsi mdgomareoba hqondaT yubanSi unautebs (cxadia CerqezTa Soris) - maT daojaxeba ar SeeZloT (,, ~, 1867, 15 , . 45). 193

rogorc aRvniSneT, axaSvalebs umeteswilad tyveebi warmoadgendnen. monebs afxazeTSi simaRlis mixedviT yiddnen da yidulobdnen; bavSvebi da mozrdilebic izomebodnen da fasdebodnen. biWebi 30-40 Zroxad, 8-10 wlis gogonebi 25-60 Zroxad da a. S. (iqve, gv. 39-40). rogorc amas iv. averkievi da sxva saarqivo wyaroebi gvauwyeben (ix. gaz. ,,~, 1866 74, ,, - ~, . 416, 1876 . . 403 1. iqve g. ZiZarias miTiTeba, gv. 41), yvela kategoriis axaSvalebis meore saxeli - agirua iyo. g. ZiZaria nawilobriv ar eTanxmeba iv. averkievs, aseve sxva wyaroebs da miiCnevs, rom afxazeTSi ,,agirua~ ara yvela kategoriis axaSvalebs ewodeboda, aramed yma-glexTa erT-erT kategorias, kerZod, ,,axoius~ (gv. 41) da aseve axaSvalebis im jgufs, romelnic warmoSobiT samegrelodan da guriidan iyvnen (gv. 40). maSasadame, TviT g. ZiZarias TvalsazrisiT, afxazeTSi ,,agirua~ yvelaze dabal (magram mravalricxovan) socialur fenas, yma glexebisa da monebis erT udides nawils ewodeboda. ,,agiruas~ Sesaxeb zemoT visaubreT. am terminis gverdiT arsebobs da misi sinonimuri mniSvnelobiT ixmareba agreTve ,,agurua~, ,,agrua~. a. Cerepovi werda - ,,bzifelebi yvebian, rom warsul wlebSi maT hqondaT galerebi, romliTac dacuravdnen Savi zRvis sanapiroze da Tavs esxmodnen mezoblebs, umetesad megrelebs da gurulebs, romelTac afxazurad agirua da agurua ewodebaT. Zarcva-yaCaRobiT mopovebul tyveebs sakuTar saxelsac ar arqmevdnen, aramed samSoblos saxelis mixedviT satomo saxels agiruas da aguruas utovebdnen~ (iqve, gv. 40). ufro safiqrebelia, rom ,,afxazeTis ,,agiruebi~ ara mxolod omebSi datyvevebul da Zarcva-yaCaRobiT mopovebul adamianebs, aramed afxazeTis Zvel mkvidr mosaxleobas warmoadgendnen, romelnic XVII s-Si masobrivad Camosaxlebulma da gamravlebulma Crdilokavkasielma tomebma (adiReCerqez-abazebma) monebad aqcies. SemdgomSi isini garkveuli valdebulebebiT miamagres miwaze da monidan yma-glexebis kategoriaSi gadaiyvanes (sxvaTa Soris, msgavs process adgili hqonda aRmosavleT kaxeTSi (saingiloSi). am kuTxis sparsTa mier saqarTvelodan CamoSorebis Semdgom Camosaxlebulma Crdilo kavkasielebma (lekebma) mkvidri mosaxleobis erTi nawili ymebad da monebad aqcies). f. tornau XIX s. 30ian wlebSi aRniSnavda, rom afxazeTSi monebi ori saxisa iyvnen. maTgan pirvel jgufs Seadgenda ,,mkvidrni... dabadebulni am mxareSi~, xolo meores - ,,axalni, Zarcva-yaCaRobiT da omebSi mopovebulni~. pirvel jgufs, tornaus mixedviT, afxazebi ,,agiruas~, xolo meore jgufs ki ,,axaSvalas~ uwodebdnen (. . , , 1835 . . I , 1864, . 58, . 41). f. tornaus dakvirveba Cven gvimtkicebs Tvalsazriss, rom afxazeTSi ,,agiruebi~ adiRe-Cerqez-afsarebis mier XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi damonebul da datyvevebul afxazeTis mkvidr mosaxleobas - megrelebs ewodebodaT, xolo ,,axaSvalebi~ afxazTa mier mezobel mxareebSi warmoebuli Tavdasxmebisa da yaCaRobebis Semdeg mopovebul tyve-monebs. rogorc cnobilia, Zveli da axali afxazebi sxvadasxva eTnikuri warmoSobis xalxia. sazRvari saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos daSlis Semdgom warmoSobil afxazeTisa da samegrelos samTavroTa Soris axal aTonTan 194

da kelasurTan gadioda. vaxuSti axali aTonis samxreTiT mimdebare qveyanas vidre enguramde odiSs uwodebda. es teritoria e. i. Semdegdroindeli soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCiris da galis raionebis teritoriebi, TviT afxazeTis samTavros warmoqmnis drosac megrelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. mxolod imis Semdeg, rac levan II dadianisagan Seuracxyofilma afxazeTis mTavrebma da Tavadaznaurebma samegrelos samTavroSi salaSqrod Crdilo-kavkasieli meomari tomebi (afsua-afsarabazebi) moiwvies, afxazTa samTavro dapyrobili samegrelos teritoriis xarjze gafarTovda. kerZod, me-17 saukunis 40-80-ian wlebSi afxazeTma daipyro da samegrelom dakarga dRevandeli soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCiris da galis raionebi, ise rom, sazRvari TiTqmis samegrelos dedaqalaqamde zugdidamde iqna mitanili, rogorc ucxoeli misionerebis masalebi, ise qarTuli da sxva wyaroebi erTxmad gvidastureben, rom aRniSnuli raionebis mosaxleoba megrulenovani iyo. dampyrobelma afsua-abaz-adiRelebma (romelTac inerciiT saxelad kvlav - afxazebi miiRes) omebs gadarCenil mosaxleobas (anu odiSis mkvidr megrelebs) ,,agiruebi~ uwodes, romelnic Semdeg yma-glexebis kategoriaSi aRmoCndnen, rac afxazur enaSic aisaxa. rogorc aRiniSna, g. ZiZarias azriT, agirua ara mxolod datyvevebuli monebis nawils, aramed, upirveles yovlisa, yma-glexebis erT umTavres kategorias ewodeboda, zemoT moyvanili tornaus cnoba ki adasturebs im azrs, rom afxazeTSi socialurad yvelaze dabal, Tumca ki mravalricxovan fenas ,,megrelebs~ uwodebdnen (TiTqosda samurzayanos megruli naRvliani simRerebic amas mogviTxroben). ZiZarias azriT, tornaum zogierTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba axoiuebisa monebis pirvel kategorias, anu afxazeTis mkvidr da ara axaldatyvevebul nawils miawera. tornau pirvel kategorias (anu mkvidr monebs) monaagiruas (,,rab-agirua~) uwodebs. es agirua-monebi misi azriT valdebulni iyvnen kviraSi sami dRe patronis sasargeblod emuSavnaT, xolo danarCeni dro SeeZloT TavianT sasargeblod gamoeyenebinaT, maT ojaxebic hqondaT. meore kategoriis monebs ki sakuTriv axaSvala ewodebodaT da ucolSviloni, mxolod mflobels emsaxurebodnen. imaves werda afxazeTSi monaTa ori jgufis arsebobis Sesaxeb n. dubrovinic. g. ZiZarias TqmiT ki, sinamdvileSi isini, romelTac n. dubrovini da sxvebi monaTa I jgufs uwodebdnen, axoieuebi iyvnen, monaTa meore jgufi ki axaSvalebi. vin iyvnen eTnikurad afxazeTis socialurad yvelaze dabal safexurze mdgomni, SeiZleboda Tu ara eTnikuri warmomavlobiT afxazis damoneba? amis Sesaxeb vedenski werda - rom eTnikuri afxazis damoneba uZneles saqmes warmoadgenda da ver ikadrebda afxazeTis mTavaric ki, radgan ,,yvelaze Rataki glexic ki gauswordeboda mixail-beis (mixeil ServaSiZes), Tuki is misi maxloblis monad gayidvas gabedavda (iqve, gv. 42.). aqedanac Cans, rom afxazeTSi monebad ara afxazebi, aramed afxazeTis Zveli mkvidri mosaxleoba, ZiriTadad megrelebi iyidebodnen (Tumca SesaZloa aq gamonaklisic iyo). a. lavrentievic monebs or kategoriad yofda, romelTagan pirvel jgufs mflobelis sasargeblod sami dRe unda emuSavna, meore jgufs ki sruli monebi warmoadgendnen.

195

ruseTis mflobelobis damyarebis Semdeg e. i. XIX s. 60-80-iani wlebidan, afxazebs moespoT saSualeba samegrelosa da saqarTvelos sxva kuTxeebis Zarcva-glejisa, amitomac II jgufis monebis anu axaSvalebis wyaro Sewyda - qarTvelebs veRar atyvevebdnen. amis gamo axaSvalebis fenam daiwyo Semcireba, is wyvetda Tavis arsebobas, miT umetes, rom rusuli kanonebis Tanaxmad mahmadian mflobels ufleba ar eZleoda qristianebi monebad da ymebad hyoloda. amitom ruseTis saxelmwifoSi mcxovrebma afxazebma umjobesad miiCnies axaSvalebi axoius kategoriaSi gadaeyvanaT, e. i. monebs ufleba miecaT glexebad gadaqcevisa (es procesi ufro mdored adrec mimdinareobda), misces maT daojaxebis neba, aZlevdnen miwis nakveTs (erT Zroxad Sefasebuls), xbos anda xars da sxva wvrilmans, samagierod glexi ukve dainteresebuli iyo SromiT da mepatrones misgan meti mogeba rCeboda (gv. 47). am periodSi uxilavs d. baqraZes afxazeTSi qarTvelTa aseTi gausaZlisi yofa. axaSvalas igi mojalabes uwodebs. d. baqraZe werda: ,,mojalabe afxazeTSi aris arc meti arc naklebi mona... sakmarisia erTxel Seavlo Tvali mojalabes, rom darwmunde Tu ra tanjva daiTmina man, mas dakarguli aqvs adamianuri saxe, es namdvili idiotia am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT. mas dakarguli aqvs metyvelebis unari. raRac umniSvnelo SemTxvevis gamoc ki ubeduri SiSiT kankalebs, rom ar gaamaTraxon. saocari iqneboda, rom aseT mdgomareobamde misuls, romelime maTgans gaqceva ecada. me miTxres, rom eseTi ram iSviaTad Tu momxdara, memamulis saxlSi yvela Sav samuSaos mojalabe asrulebs. Tu Sin araferia gasakeTebeli, maT mindorSi erekebian. kacebi, qalebi, bavSvebic ki iZulebulni arian dilidan saRamomde imuSaon - SeuZliaT maT es Tu ara. maT kvebaven ise rogorc cxovelebs, umravlesobas Zlivs ufaravs sxeuls ZonZebi. am Savi muSa-xelis gasamravleblad maT usaTuod daaqorwineben, ra Tqma unda, mojalaburi warmoSobis qaliSvilze. yvelaze sawyali da gaRatakebuli pioSi anu pareSi ver gabedavs mojalabesTan damoyvrebas. es ukanaskneli sayovelTao siZulvilis sagans warmoadgens. aRarafers vambob imaze, rom mflobeli uflebamosilia gaaCuqos, gayidos da daagiravos mojalabe. es saqoneli aq Zalze Zvirad fasobs - orasidan samas maneTamde. axalgazrda mojalabe xnierze meti Rirs, vaWrobis dros mis Rirebulebas mojalabis simaRlis dadgenili norma ganapirobebs. TviTgamosyidvis SemTxvevebi mojalabis mxridan Zalze iSviaTia, radgan arc erT maTgans ar ZaluZs gadaixados Tundac kapiki sakuTari Tavis gamosasyidad~ (iqve, gv. 49). Zneli dasaSvebia, magram mainc safiqrebelia, afxazurma mxarem axlandel omSi ugzo-ukvlod dakarguli Cveni biWebi (daaxloebiT 1000mde kaci) axaSvala monebad xom ar aqcia? cxadia es kiTxva ar dagvebadeboda omis msvlelobisas meore mxares rom mSvidobiani mosaxleobis mimarT Sua saukuneebSic ki miuRebeli xerxebi - WiqiT sisxlis sma, yurebis daWra, moWrili TavebiT burTaoba, cecxlwakidebuli saburavebiT qalebisa da bavSvebis cocxlad dawva, bavSvebis sarebze Camocma da sxva ar gamoeyenebina. sxvaTa Soris qarTulma mxarem udrtvinvelad miiRo mis Tavze moweuli genocidi, xolo genocidis komisias, rogorc cnobilia, TiTqmis araferi gamouqveynebia. 196

sabolood unda iTqvas Semdegi: rogorc davinaxeT, XVII s-dan mTiel afsua-adiRelTa gabatonebis Semdeg, afxazur sazogadoebaSi dabali fenis warmomadgenlebs SeeZloT socialuri kibis ufro maRal safexurze asuliyvnen, magaliTad, axaSvalebi axoius kategoriaSi gadiodnen. rusTa mier gatarebuli saglexo reformis Semdeg, cxadia, axoiuebic - anxaiuebad e. i. Tavisufal miwaTmoqmedebad gadaiqcnen. revoluciis Semdeg ki meoce saukuneSi, yvelani gaTanabrdnen kolmeurne glexebad iqcnen. CvenTvis aq sainteresoa is, rom socialuri kibis erTi safexuridan meore, ufro maRal safexurze gadasvla faqtiurad erTi eTnikuri warmoSobis adamianebis sxva eTnojgufSi gadasvlas warmoadgenda. kerZod, afxazeTSi am socialuri saSualebiT qarTvelebis anu agiruebis gaafxazeba, anu afxazeTis sazogadoebis sruluflebian wevrad gadaqceva xdeboda. Tavisufal glexebad gadaqcevis Semdeg isini afxazdebodnen, rameTu am qveyanaSi agiruoba saTakilo iyo (viTarca sazogadoebis yvelaze dabal safexurze yofna), afsuoba ki sasaxelo. aq mxolod Tavisufal da sruluflebian adamians ewodeboda afxazi (afsua). yvela agiruas, anu dabali kastis warmomadgenels uflebaTa mopoveba, anu sazogadoebis ufro maRal safexurze asvla-gaafsueba da mopovebulis SenarCuneba-aRiareba surda. agiruebis gaafxazeba (gaafsueba) ZvelTaganve masiuri movlena yofila. CvenTvis gasaocari afxazuri TviTSemecneba afxazeTSi mcxovrebi WavWavaZeebisa, abaSiZeebisa da sxvaTa am garemoebiT unda iyos gamowveuli. maTi winaprebi albad tyveebad Cavardnili axaSvalebi iyvnen, romelnic droTa viTarebaSi gaafxazdnen, xolo iseTi cnobili gaafxazebuli gvarebis winaprebi, rogorebic arian koRoniebi, kviwiniebi, labaxuebi, papaskirebi, guliebi, jonuebi, faCaliebi, lasuriebi da sxvebi, albaT amJamad afxazeTis sazRvrebSi moqceuli odiSis mkvidri mosaxleoba iyo, romlebic Crdilo kavkasielma afsuebma XVII s-is Semdgom jer TavianT ymebad anu, axoiu-agiruebad aqcies, xolo Semdeg gaaafsues. afxazeTis aborigeni mosaxleobis - megrelebis gaafxazebam Tavisi kvali daamCnia afxazur enasac. amJamad saliteraturo afxazurs, romelic abJuur dialeqts efuZneba, gadaWarbebuli megrelizmebi, e. i. megruli warmoSobis sityvebis simravle axasiaTebs (. . , ,, ~, XVIII, 1957 . . 187). amJamadac, Cveni azriT, afxazeTSi darCenili qarTvelebis ,,megrelebad~ e. i. ,,agiruebad~ Cawera im mosazrebiT surT, rom droTa viTarebaSi, rogorc es istoriuladaa cnobili, agiruebi SeiTviseben ra batonebis enasa da zne-Cveulebebs, afxazebad gadaiqcevian. swored es unda iyos namdvili arsi am procesisa, amdenad ,,agiruad~ Cawera ara mxolod afxazuri sazogadoebis umdables socialur safexurze yofnas niSnavs, aramed qarTvelobis dakargvasac da gaafsuebasac. ,,madli~, 27. IX. 1994.

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naTliscemis ZvelqarTuli terminologia da wyalTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi toponimi


(afxazurad miCneul toponim ,,yvas~ Sesaxeb)

naTliscemis saidumlos aRsaniSnavad Zvel berZnul enaSi dakanonda terminebi, romelnic wyalTan, wyliT ganbanvasTan arian dakavSirebulni. maTgan mTavaria ,,baptisma~ - naTloba (,,baptiZo~ niSnavs wyalSi CaZirvas, wyalSi amovlebas). berZnulidan gadaRebuli es terminebi mraval enaSi an wyalTanaa dakavSirebuli (siriulSi, ebraulSi), an naTliscemis saidumlos wesis komponentebTan (magaliTad rusulSi - jvarTan da sxv.). rogorc prof. k. daneliam gaarkvia ,,naTeli~, mxolod qarTuli terminis safuZvelia, rasac paraleli ar eZebneba arcerT im xalxis enaSi, romlebTanac qarTvelebs politikur-kulturuli urTierToba hqonia I-IV saukuneebSi (igulisxmeba berZnuli, somxuri, siriuli enebi). ZvelqarTuli termini ,,naTliscema~ naTlobis saidumlos umTavres sulier arss gadmogvcems. es termini Targmania berZnuli sityvisa ,,fotisma~ - naTloba. ,,fotiZo~ Zvel berZnulSi niSnavs ,,vanaTeb~, ,,vabrwyineb~, gadataniT - ,,gonebis Tvals vuxsni~, ,,vaSuqeb~. momdinareobs sityvidan ,,fos~ - naTeli, dRis sinaTle, mzis Suqi. amave fuZiT nawarmoebi saxelebia - fotisma (to) - naTeba, brwyinva da imave mniSvnelobis fotismos (ho) - naTeba, naTeli. maSasadame, erTis mxriv, gvaqvs baptiZo, baptisma, baptismos da meore mxriv - fotiZo, fotisma, fotismos. orive rigi am terminebisa zogadi qristianuli arsiT naTliscemas gulisxmobs, magram amasTanave TiToeuls aqvs Tavisi viwro, konkretuli Sinaarsic~ (n. maxaraZe, termini ,,naTliscema~ da misi ,,berZnuli Sesatyvisi~, Tsu Sromebi, 1984, gv. 428). luka maxarebeli wers - ,,miugo yovelTa ioane da etyoda: me naTelgcem Tqven wyliTa, xolo movals uZlieresi Cemsa. man naTel-gces Tqven suliTa wmidiTa da cecxliTa~ (3,16), xolo suliwmidiTa da cecxliT naTels cems is, vinc - ,,iyo naTeli WeSmariti, romeli gananaTlebs yovelsa kacsa, momavalsa soflad~ (ioane, 1,9). maSasadame ioane naTlismcemlisagan naTels iRebdnen ,,wyliT~, xolo ieso qristesagan naTels iReben suliwmidiTa da cecxliT. es ki aucilebelia, radgan adamiani ori nawilisagan Sedgeba - sxeulisa da sulisagan, RmerTma orives ganwmenda mogvca - wyliTa da suliwmidiTa - ganmartavs ioane damaskeli. aqedan gamomdinare, mkvlevaris ganmartebiT, naTliscemis rituali safexurebrivia da TandaTan miemarTeba zemoT. ioaneseuli naTliscema aris erTgvari winasafexuri qristesmieri naTliscemisaTvis. man unda moamzados qristianobis gzaze Semdgari piri ufro maRali aqtis winaSe warsadgomad, gaxados SemZle qristesmieri naTlis miRebisa, suliwmidiT monaTlvisa. es safexurebi ramdenimea. mTel am sistemaSi yvelaze TvalnaTliv mainc I da II safexurebi gamoiyofa - ,,baptiZo~ da ,,fotiZo~. orive termini naTliscemas gulisxmobs, magram TiToeuls aqvs konkretuli Sinaarsi. ioane oqropiri wers, rom eretikosebs aqvT ganbanva (baptisma) da ara naTliscema (fotisma), ganibanebian sxeuliT, 198

suliT ki ar naTldebian. qristianobaSi ki isini erTdebian. naTlobis wesis aRsrulebis dros mRvdeli locvisas mravalgzis axsenebs erTad sityva ,,naTelsa~ da sityva ,,wyals~. magaliTad - ,,hsTquas mRudelman didiTa xmiTa ese locvai: did xar Sen ufalo... Sengan hsZrwian yovelni uxilavni Zalni naTlisani, Sen gigalobs mze... Sen gerCis naTeli... Sen daamtkice qveyana wyalTa zeda, Sen SezRude zRua... Sen iordanisa wyalni ganhswmiden, zeciT gardamoavline wmida suli Seni~. da Semdeg evedreba ,,mogvivline Cuen zegardmo Sobai wyliTa da suliTa~. gansakuTrebulia wylis sakurTxeveli locva, sadac sityva naTels xazi aqvs gasmuli ,,kurTxeul ars RmerTi, romeli gananaTlebs da wmida hyofs kacsa momavalsa soflad~. naTlobis Semdeg Semosvisas amboben: ,,momec me samoseli brwyinvale, romelman Seimose naTeli samoselad... ,,grigol nazianzelTan (IV s.) ,,fotizein~ gamoxatavs ,,naTliscemis wyliT gabrwyinebas~, aseve grigol noselTan - ,,to baptisma - ti fotizesTu~ niSnavs naTliscemiT (wyliT) naTelRebas (naTliT). miuxedavad aRniSnul terminTa TiTqosda erTi SexedviT dapirispirebisa, maTi diferencirebisaTvis, mkveTri safuZveli ar arsebobda, radganac erTi maTgani (baptiZo) ritualiT sayovelTaod xilul azrs gadmoscemda, xolo meore (fotiZo) - zogad, saidumlo, miRmier Sinaarss, magram TiToeuli calke aRebuli amave dros mTlianad moicavda qristianuli saidumlos mTel arss, amitom isini erTmaneTs xSirad enacvlebodnen (iqve, gv. 429), Semdgom ki berZnulSi xmarebidan amovarda meore da darCa mxolod pirveli, rogorc Cans qarTuli termini ,,naTliscema~ im dros damkvidrda, roca berZnulSi qristianuli naTlobis aRsaniSnavad gamoiyeneboda sityva ,,fotisma~. qarTul sinamdviles SeunarCunebia saxarebis qarTulad gadmoRebamde (IV-V ss.) gavrcelebuli qristianuli terminologia - ,,naTliscema~, ,,naTlisReba~, ,,naTlismcemeli~. maTi mimarTeba berZnulidan SesaZloa zepir tradiciazec iyos dafuZnebuli (iqve, gv. 435). aqedan Cans, rom qristianuli terminologia qarTulSi Semovida da safuZvlianad damkvidrda I-IV saukuneebSi (arsebobs sxva mamtkicebeli monacemebic), CvenSi qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamocxadebamde, rac kidev erTi miTiTebaa imisa, rom I-IV saukuneebSi saqarTveloSi arsebobda qristianuli Temebi, mravali qarTveli, rogorc arqeologiuri masalac uCvenebs, inaTleboda da qristianuli cxovrebiT cxovrobda. wmida andriasa da sxva mociqulebis qadagebas CvenSi unayofod ar Cauvlia. amiT kidev erTxel marTldeba Zvel wyaroTa da mamaTa Cvenebani, rom saqarTvelos marTlmadidebluri eklesia WeSmaritad samociquloa - TviT qristes mociqulTa mier daarsebuli da igi uwyvetad arsebobda mociqulebidan wmida mirian mefemde, romelmac wmida ninos RvawliT, qristianoba saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad gamoacxada. rogorc aRvniSneT, wyalTan dakavSirebuli berZnuli terminebi ,,baptiZo~ da ,,baptisma~ qarTulad gadmoRebuli ar yofila da Sesabamisi qarTuli termini dakavSirebulia ara wyalTan, aramed naTelTan. specialistebi aRniSnaven, rom ZvelqarTul teqstebSi wyalTan dakavSirebuli naTliscemis termini jerjerobiT aRmoCenili ar aris. am mxriv Cveni yuradReba XV saukunis erTma sabuTma miipyro, sadac naTliscemis aRsaniSnavad qarTuli sityva - ,,yurWumia~ gamoyenebuli. 199

rogorc aRiniSna, berZnuli ,,baptiZo~ niSnavs wyalSi flobas, wyalSi CaZirvas, wyliT gadafarvas. rogorc Cans, am process ZvelqarTulSi gadmocemdnen sityviT - ,,yurWumi~. es sityva gvxvdeba dokumentSi, romelic aSkarad berZnulidanaa Targmnili. saqme isaa, rom XV saukuneSi separatisti aTabagi mzeWabuki mesxeTisaTvis politikuri da eklesiuri Tavisuflebis mopovebas cdilobda. cxadia, rogorc saxelmwifoebrivad, ise eklesiurad mesxeTi saqarTvelos mefesa da patriarqs eqvemdebareboda. swored maTgan gaTavisufleba surda mzeWabuks, samwuxarod, am saqmeSi mas xels uwyobdnen mahmadianTa moZalebis gamo finansurad gaWirvebuli antioqiel-ierusalimel-konstantinepoleli ierarqebi. erTma aseTma berZenma ierarqma mzeWabuks misca dokumenti, romelSic aTabagi WeSmarit, rCeul qristianadaa moxseniebuli, kerZod, mis Sesaxeb naTqvamia: ,,rameTu maTgan oden iyurWuma WeSmaritad embazsa Sina naTlisRebisasa~ (qronikebi II, gv. 317). e. i. am dokumentis mixedviT mzeWabuki araTu gandgomili da eklesiaSi ganxeTqilebis Camomgdebia, aramed WeSmariti qristiania, ise, rom Tu am qveynad vinme naTelRebulia, eg maT Soris swored rom pirveliao - mxolod magan iyurWuma naTlisRebis embazSio. rogorc aqedan Cans, berZnuli sityva ,,baptisma~ qarTulad pirdapiri mniSvnelobiTaa Targmnili - wyalSi flobiT anu ,,yurWumiT~. maSasadame wyalSi floba da wyalSi CaZirva qarTulad gadmoicemoda, rogorc yurWumi, Cayuryumaleba (yuryumali). Cven, qarTulSi marTlac gvaqvs wyalTan dakavSirebuli gamonaTqvamebi, yurWva, yurWumali, yvinTva da sxva. ,,Wyurti~ xalxuri metyvelebiT wylis avadmyofobas - wyalmanks ewodeba. sabas ganmartebiT ,,wyurti sneulebaa - mraval wyals asmevs kacsa~. Wyurtva - dawafebiT sma (i. maisuraZe), Wyumpalaoba - bavSvebis banaoba, wkumpli - wveTia, kurcxali - cremli. aRniSnul sityvebSi fuZeebia: ,,yur~, ,,yvin~, ,,Wyur~, ,,wkur~, ,,wku~, ,,kur~. aqedan gamomdinare, safiqrebelia rom, aRniSnuli fuZeebi qarTulSi wyalTanaa dakavSirebuli. marTlac, ZvelqarTulSi gvaqvs - ,,m-wyur-is~, ,,wyur-ieli~, axalSi - ,,wyur-ia~, ,,wyur-vili~, ,,wyuroda~. e. i. gvaqvs fuZe - wyur, romlis gamartivebiT miiReba yur (yurWva, yuryumali), aRniSnuli fuZis saxecvlilebebia - Wyur, wyur, wku, yvin(Tva) da sxva. bayayis ZvelqarTuli saxeli - ,,m-yva-ric~, rogorc misi fuZe ,,yva~ miuTiTebs, aseve wyals ukavSirdeba. riTaa wylis aRmniSvneli fuZeebi ,,yur~, ,,yvi~, ,,yva~ CvenTvis saintereso? saqme isaa, rom swored aRniSnuli fuZe ,,yva~ istorikosTa mier ara qarTul, aramed Cerqezul (afxazur) samyaros daukavSirda. ,,s. janaSias mtkicebiT yva-ze (md. agidayva, md. aWyva, md. malTayva, boyva, abJyva da sxva) da fsa-ze (sufsa da sxva) daboloebuli geografiuli saxelebi Cerqezuli warmoSobisa arian~ (S. mesxia, ,,simon janaSia~, 1950, gv. 45). dasavleT saqarTveloSi mravali mdinaris saxeli bolovdeba ,,yva~-ze, rac erT-erT uZlieres damamtkicebel sabuTad miiCneva im Teoriisa, romlis Tanaxmadac dasavleT saqarTvelo uZveles dros ara qarTul, aramed Cerqezuli (afsaruli) tomebiT iyo dasaxlebuli da rom dasavleT saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi (aWara-guria-odiS-afxazeTamde) qarTvelebi mxolod Semdgom saukuneebSi damkvidrdnen. rogorc pavle 200

ingoroyvam daamtkica, fsa-ze daboloebuli geografiuli saxelebi qarTuli warmoSobisaa da am fuZiT wyali gadmoicema. ramdenadac CvenTvis cnobilia, s. janaSias mtkiceba, rom yva-ze daboloebuli geografiuli saxelebi Cerqezuli warmoSobisaa, Cvens mecnierebaSi jerjerobiT daZleuli ar aris. Cveni azriT, rogorc Cans, yva, iseve rogorc fsa uZveles qarTulSi (an fuZe qarTulSi) aRniSnavda wyals, mdinares, ufro zustad ,,yva~ warmoadgenda naSTs erTi fuZisas, romlis ganxilvamdec unda iTqvas, rom qarTvelur enebs axasiaTebs ,,o~ xmovnis gadasvla va-Si an u-Si, anda piriqiT, va-o-u. magaliTad ZvelqarTuli cxovari, megrulSi - Sxuri, dialeqt.-cxori, ZvelqarT.-juari, ix. qarT. jvari, dialeqt.-jori. mkvaxe - mkuxe (dialeqt), wvima-wuma (dialeqt), Tvali-Toli (dialeqt), yvavi - yovi da sxva. zemoaRniSnul fuZeebs - wyur(yur) SesaZloa mieRoT forma - wyorwyva-wyu, marTlac, megruli dialeqti ,,wyu~ - niSnavs wyals, wyaros (Cxorowyu-cxrawyaro, wyurgili - grili wyaro, wyuzamela - mdinaris saxelia) - fuZe sityva wyu - niSnavs wyals - wyaros - wers p. ingoroyva. fuZe yur (zogjer ,,w~ TavsarTi, zogjer umisod) wylis aRmniSvnelad gamoiyeneboda, zogjer mas bolosarTi ,,r~ Sordeboda. mesxeTSi bevri toponimi da hidronimi ukavSirdeba mas, mag.: wyurTi, awyuri, wyorZa, awyveta, yvibisi, tabawyuri da sxva. (yvela soflis saxelia). am fuZis ,,w~ TavsarTi zogjer gadadioda ,,s~-Si, xolo ,,y~ - ,,k~-Si. aqedan - wyur skur, saerTod y-s gadasvla k-Si qarTulSi SesaZlebelia (mag. ZvelqarTuli yurdgeli - axalSia kurdReli, yur-kur). sazogadod sityva skuri saqarTveloSi wyalTan yofila dakavSirebuli da mis mixedviT Seqmnilan toponimebi. arian soflebi saxelwodebiT - skuria, skuri, skurdidi, skurdi - xobis, walenjixis, baTumis, qobuleTis, senakis raionebSi. mdinare skurCa baTumsa da afxazeTis mxareebSi, mdinare wyuzamelas aseve rqmevia skurCac da aseve marmaris wyalic. TbilisTan arsebobs walaskuri. ,,quaskuri - oCamCiris raionis sofel aquaskes Zveli saxelwodebaa, sityvis mniSvnelobaa - qvis wyaro~. ,,qua~ Zv. qarT. qva. skurdidi mdinare aWaraSi, xelvaCauris raionSi. yurdidi - mdinare iqve, maWaxelas wylis Senakadi~ (g. fifia ,,afxazeTis toponimikis sakiTxebisaTvis~, gaz. ,,saxalxo ganaTleba~ 8. III. 1990 w.). zemoT aRniSnulidan Cans, rom wyur-wyar-skur-yur sinonimur mniSvnelobebs iZendnen da wyals aRniSnavdnen. yure - wyals, gubes aRniSnavda - ,,yua anu yure - navmisadgomis, navmisabmelis sinonimia~ (g. ruxaia, ori toponimi, gaz. ,,saxalxo ganaTleba~ X, 1989 w.). akua - soxumis saxeli aris igive ayua, rac qarTulad wylis yures niSnavs. amas amtkicebs me-18 s. soxumis ruka. masze naCvenebia ,,navsayudeli~, qalaqis cixeebi da sxva Senobebi. am cixis gegmaSi moTavsebulia ganmartebiTi saxis warwera - ,,cxumis cixe, qarTulad ayu hqvian, orTuRiani faSa zis 1723...~ (ix. a. jafariZe, ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria~, IV, gv. 32). e. i. qalaq cxumis erT-erT cixes da, Cans, ubansac qarTulad ,,ayu~ rqmevia. es sityva, rukis SemdgenelTa azriT - qarTulia. maSasadame, erTi mxriv, gvaqvs fuZeebis aseTi ganviTareba - wyur-yur-yu, wyur-wyu-wyva-yva, meore mxriv, wyur-syur-skur-kur, yvela isini wyals aRniSnaven. es bolo fuZe ,,kur~ aRsaniSnavia imiT, rom Cveni deda mdinarec swored sityva ,,kur~-iT moixsenieba ucxoelTa mier, rogorc Zvel, ise axal droSi da es fuZe 201

Tavisi warmoSobiT qarTulia. magaliTad, mdinare mtkvris ZvelberZnuli saxelia ,,kuros~, straboni wers: mdinare mtkvars (e. i. kuross) - ,,uwin ewodeboda korosi (,,koros~ straboni XI. III. 2). arabebi da saqarTvelos samxreTiT mcxovrebi mahmadianebi mdinare mtkvars uwodebdnen - ,,kur~, ,,kor~. am fuZiT ki, rogorc aRiniSna, qarTvelebi gadmoscemdnen wylis saxels. maSasadame, Zveli qarTvelebi TavianT deda mdinares ubralod ,,wyals~ uwodebdnen da fuZiT ,,kur~ da misgan miRebuli ,,kvar~-iT aRniSnavdnen, romelTac asaxva upovniaT sityvaSi - ,,mtkvari~. maSasadame, kvar-kva-yva~ fuZeebiT ara mxolod dasavleT saqarTveloSi iwodebodnen mdinareebi, wylebi, aramed sazogadod, qarTulSi da es fuZe wyalTan dakavSirebul mraval sityvaSi dResac ixmareba. unda davaskvnaT, rom sityvebi ,,yurWumi~, ,,yuryumali~ namdvilad dakavSirebulia wyalTan da maTi gamoyeneba SeiZleba Sesabamisi wesebis Sesrulebisas saeklesio msaxurebis drosac, magram am terminTa nacvlad RvTismsaxurebisas CvenSi dainerga sulieri SinaarsiT ufro metad datvirTuli sityva - naTliscema. ,,madli~ #5, 1994.

202

afxazebis sacxovrisi Crdilo kavkasiaSi

leningradeli profesori a. n. genko (1896-1941) wlebis manZilze ikvlevda afxazur da abazur enebs, avtoria mravali gamoqveynebuli naSromisa da iTvleba afxazur-abazuri enebis erT-erT yvelaze cnobil specialistad. is Tavis naSromSi ,,afxazuri da abazuri enebis fonetikuri urTierTdamokidebuleba~ exeba aRniSnuli enebis da kiloTqmebis gavrcelebis geografiul arealsac. kerZod a. genko aRniSnavs, rom Tanamedrove afxazuri ena gavrcelebulia ara mxolod saqarTveloSi (afxazeTis avtonomiur respublikaSi), aramed misgan Sors, Crdilo kavkasiis dablobebSi, CerqezeTisa da adiRes avtonomiur olqebsa da maT mimdebare teritoriaze. am teritoriaze erTmaneTis gverdiTaa gavrcelebuli 1. afxazuri ena. 2. abazuri ena. 3. yabardouli ena. 4. adiReuri ena. Crdilo kavkasiaSi gavrcelebuli afxazuri enis Sesaxeb a. genko wers: ,,Crdilo-afxazuri anu Skarava, Cvens mier saxeldebulia afxazuri enis zelenCukur kilod. mas miekuTvneba mosaxleoba sami aulisa: afsua (yof. Saxgirievskii), starokuvinski da novokuvinski (. . , . , . XVIII, 1957, . . 188). afxazuri enis zelenCukuri kilos gavrcelebis areals a. genko amatebs Crdilo kavkasiis ,,denacionalizebul~ aulebs - abazakatsa da iulabs (iqve gv. 189). sagangebod unda aRiniSnos, rom a. genko afxazur da abazur enebs ar urevs erTmaneTSi, Tumca ki cnobilia am enebisa da maTi kiloebis didi siaxlove. is exeba Crdilo kavkasiaSi rogorc afxazuri, ise abazuri enebis gavrcelebis arealebs. aRniSnul enaTa kilo-Tqmes is ase anawilebs:

afxazuri ena (afsua bizSva) 1. kodoris kilo (saqarTveloSi) a. abJivuri Tqma (abJiuaa. mas efuZneba afxazuri saliteraturo ena; b. samurzayanos Tqma 2. bzifuri kilo (abzipkva, saqarTveloSi) 3. zelenCukuri kilo (e. w. afsua bizSva, ruseTSi) a. Saxgirevskis Tqma (Cagriia) b. kuvuri Tqma (xviJvi) g. egibokovskis Tqma (gabakvai) d. uliaburi Tqma (uilab)

abazuri ena (tapanta bizSva) 1. dudaruko - biberdovskis Tqma. 2. kuba-zelenCuk-loovskis Tqma. 3. kumsko-loovskis Tqma (gv. 189). 203

a. genko wers, rom CrdilokavkasiaSi aRniSnulTa garda sxva mravali aulis mcxovrebni warmoSobiT afxazebi arian, garkveuli zomiT Senaxulica aqvT mSobliuri ena, magram TavianTi arCevaniT iyeneben yabardoul anda adiReur enebs. aseTi aulebia sauiCadSa (yof. kliCevski), abazakati (CerqezeTis avton. olqi), auli uilabi (adiRes avt. olqi), xumarinski, koSelabi da sxva aulebis mosaxleobis erTi nawili (iqve, gv. 188). a. genkom Tavisi naSromi dawera 1935-1940 wlebSi; pavle ingoroyvas cnobili Sromis gamoqveynebamde gacilebiT adre. rogorc cnobilia, p. ingoroyvam wamoayena Teoria, romlis mixedviTac Zveli da axali afxazebi sxvadasxva warmoSobis xalxia. pirvelni saqarTvelos mkvidri qarTvelebi arian, meoreni ki saqarTveloSi me-16-17 saukuneTa Semdgom Camosaxlebuli adiReur-Cerqezuli warmoSobis afsuebi (e. i. abazebi), romelTac afxazebi ewodaT saqarTvelos istoriul-eTnografiuli kuTxis - afxazeTis saxelis mixedviT. rogorc cnobilia, p. ingoroyvas es Teoria afxazi (afsua) mecnierebisaTvis sruliad miuRebeli aRmoCnda, amitomac maT saerTod uaryves Tvalsazrisi Crdilo kavkasiaSi afxazebis (e. i. afsuebis) cxovrebis Sesaxeb. a. genkosaTvis aRniSnuli dava ucnobi iyo. man keTilsindisierad gamoikvlia afxazuri enis gavrcelebis areali Crdilo kavkasiaSi, daasaxela raionebi da soflebi Crdilo kavkasiis mkvidri ,,afxazebisa~ (afsuebisa). afxazebis Crdilo kavkasiaSi cxovrebis Sesaxeb gamoCenili mecnierebic iZlevian cnobebs: klaporti wers: ,,afxazebi cxovroben ara mxolod zRvis sanapiroze, aramed maTi zogierTi tomi cxovrobs kavkasiis mTavari qedis CrdiloeTiT~ (iulius klaporti, mogzauroba kavkasiasa da saqarTveloSi, parizi, 1823, gv. 411. ix. afxazeTis enisa da istoriis institutis dasax. Sromebi, gv. 370). xolo l. i. liulie wers: ,,afxazur enaze (azega) laparakobs yvela afxazuri tomi kavkasiis qedis rogorc CrdiloeTiT, ise samxreT ferdobebze (iqve, gv. 373). Crdilo kavkasiis dablobebSi afxazTa garda cxovroben abazebi. mravali mecnieri orive am toms miiCnevs erTi warmoSobis xalxad. abazebi ZiriTadad CerqezeTis avtonomiur olqsa da mis momijnave mxareebSi cxovroben, mdinareebis - yubanis, yumis, didi da patara zelenCukis velebze. ,,Zvel dros afxazebi da abazebi Seadgendnen erT eTnikur jgufs, erTian koleqtivs, enobrivadac - erTian enaze molaparakeT, romelTac hqondaT dialeqturi sxvaoba... Cvens droSic afxazur-abazuri kiloebi rCebian axlomyofebad. maT SeinarCunes gramatikuli wyobisa da ZiriTadi sityvieri fondis erTianoba. am ori dialeqtis warmomadgenlebs erTmaneTisaTvis gagebineba SeuZliaT~ - wers x. bRaJba (ix. misi ,, ~, iqve, gv. 868) a. genkoc maT erTi warmoSobis xalxad miiCnevda (gv. 370). aRniSnulis gamoa albaT, rom TviT Cerqezebic ki, abaz-afxazebis saukeTeso mcodneni, im xalxs, romelsac Cven afxazebs vuwodebT, uwodeben abazebs, magram maTTan uSualo mezoblad mcxovrebi abazebisagan gansasxvaveblad uwodeben ,,piriqiTa abazebs~ - ,,kuS-kabisi abazi~ (e. i. ,,abazebi, romlebic cxovroben mTebis iqiT~ (iqve, gv. 370). cnobilia, rom im Crdilo kavkasiel mTiel xalxs, romelnic me-16-17 saukuneTa Semdgom SemoiWrnen saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTSi da 204

daipyres afxazeTi, qarTvelebma maT iq damkvidrebis gamo ,,afxazebi~ uwodes. rogorc Turqi, ise evropeli mogzaurebi da mecnierebi ki am tomebs ara afxazebs, aramed ,,abazebsa~ da ,,Cerqezebs~ uwodebdnen. afxazeTSi damkvidrebul Crdilo kavkasiur tomebs qarTvelTa gavleniT sxvebma afxazebi uwodes. rusebmac qarTvelebisagan SeiTvises es saxeli da afxazeTis abazur-adiReuri warmoSobis tomebs afxazebi uwodes (iseve, rogorc rusebma qarTvelebisagan SeiTvises iseTi saxelebi, rogoricaa ,,osetini~, ,,inguSeti~ da sxva). evlia Celebi afxazebs ,,abazebs~ uwodebs da ara afxazebs. ,,abazebs~ uwodebdnen Cvens mier afxazebad wodebul xalxs akademikosi giuldenStedti, palasi, klaporti (gv. 369); iakob reinegsic, qarTvelTa gavleniT, afxazeTSi Casaxlebul abazas tomebs ,,afxazebs uwodebs da, radganac abazebis didi raodenoba cxovrobda Crdilo kavkasiaSi, wers ori - didi da mcire afxazeTis arsebobis Sesaxeb. igi mcire afxazeTs uwodebs Crdilo kavkasiaSi afxaz-abazebis sacxovriss, did afxazeTs ki saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTSi mdebare istoriul afxazeTs. misi TqmiT, didi da mcire afxazeTis mosaxle mTieli tomebi laparakoben ,,erTi eniT da gansxvavdebian mxolod dialeqtiT, aqvT erTnairi zneCveulebebi~ (gv. 370). sxva wyaroebic adastureben, rom abazebi da Tanamedrove afxazebi erTi xalxia, ganekuTvnebian erT eTnikur jgufs - wers bRaJba (iqve, gv. 371). lavrovis azriT, me - 19 saukunemde abazebi iyvnen kavkasiis didi da Zlieri xalxi (iqve, gv. 372). rogorc vTqviT, abazebsa da Tanamedrove afxazebs ganixilaven erT eTnikur jgufad, amitomac Crdilo kavkasiaSi mcxovreb abazebs tapantelebsa da aSxaruelebs - afxazur tomebs miakuTvneben. isini warmoadgenen mcire tomebs, cxovroben Crdilo kavkasiis velebze. termini ,,tapanta~ a. genkos azriT, iranuli (osuri) warmoSobisaa da ,,dablobis mcxovrebs~ niSnavs. aSxarua niSnavs mTiels (iqve, gv. 374-375). miiCneva, rom aSxaruelebi Casaxlebulan Crdilo kavkasiis mTebidan velebze. Zvelad yvela afxazuri tomis dialeqtebi da samxreT-afxazuri dialeqtebi qmnidnen erT enas - wers genko. swored amitom, im xalxs, romelsac gvian saukuneebSi qarTvelebma afxazebi uwodes, yofen sam tomad: 1. afsuebi, 2. saZebi (jiqebi, ) da 3. abazebi (esaa dubrovinis Tvalsazrisi, gv. 374). afsuebi, anu afxazebi, rogorc aRvniSneT, cxovroben ara mxolod saqarTvelos Savi zRvis napirze, afxazeTSi, aramed Crdilo kavkasiaSic. saZebi, anu jiqebi gadaasaxles TurqeTSi me-19 s-Si, abazebi amJamad cxovroben Crdilo kavkasiaSi. rogorc vTqviT, yvela isini afxazur tomebad aRiricxebian. Tavis mxriv, rogorc Crdilokavkasiis, ise CvenSi damkvidrebuli afxazuri tomebi miekuTvnebian xalxTa ufro did ojaxs - qerqezuls anu adiRurs. diubuas azriT, Cerqezi xalxis tomebia: 1. adiRebi, 2. yabardoelebi, 3. abazebi, 4. afxazebi. ,,enebi, romliTac laparakoben xalxebi am oTxi mTavari ganStoebisa, met-naklebad erTmaneTis msgavsia, aqvT saerTo formebi da Zirebi. yabardouli ena Zalze mcired gansxvavdeba sakuTriv Cerqezulisagan, xolo abazursa da afxazurs

205

kidev ufro axlo msgavseba aqvT, magram afxazur-abazuri ki sakmaod gansxvavebulia sakuTriv Cerqezulisagan~ (iqve, gv. 371). rogorc Rrma SeswavliT irkveva, Tanamedrove afxazebi adiReCerqezuli tomia. adiRe-Cerqezi xalxis ZiriTadi da umTavresi masa mosaxleobda Crdilo kavkasiaSi da mis winamdebare velebze. bunebrivi iqneboda, Tuki mkvlevari mividoda daskvnamde, rom Cerqezi xalxis ZiriTad masas gamoeyvnen Tanamedrove afxazebis winaprebi da damkvidrdnen saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTSi. marTlac, mTielebi Tanamedrove afxazebs uwodeben ,,aZege~-s. termini aZege amodis adiReuri sityvidan ,,aZige~, rac SeiZleba gaiSifros rogorc ,,wasulni~, ,,Cvengan ganSorebulni~. adiRelebi dResac ki afxazebs uwodeben sityvas ,,aZige~, romelic, Tu misi etimologiiT vimsjelebT, ukavSirdeba afxazuradiReuri erTobis mogonebebs (iqve, gv. 374. bRaJbas SeniSvna 85). erT dros mTian afxazur-adiReur erTobas gamoyofian Tanamedrove afxazebis winaprebi da damkvidrebulan saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi. rodis SeiZleboda es momxdariyo? afxazTa gadasaxlebis Sesaxeb TviT Tanamedrove afxazi mecnierebic weren. isini Crdilo kavkasiaSi afxazurenovani tomebis cxovrebas xsnian imiT, TiTqosda isini SavizRvispireTidan gadasaxldnen CrdilokavkasiaSi daaxloebiT me-17 s-Si. swored me-17 da masTan axlo winamyofi saukuneebi unda iyos Crdilo kavkasiaSi arsebuli erTiani adiRe-Cerqezuli xalxis masidan afsuaabazebis gamoyofisa da saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi dasaxlebis xana. ramdenad realuria arseboba Teoriisa, romlis mixedviTac Crilo kavkasiaSi afxazuri tomebi me-17 s-is axlo xanaSi damkvidrdnen? saqme isaa, rom e. w. ,,afxazur-adiReuri~ erToba anu Tanamedrove afxazebis monaTesave xalxis umTavresi masa kompaqturad cxovrobs Crdilo kavkasiaSi. es mxare iTvleba adiRe-Cerqezuli tomebis samSoblod. maTi Tanamedrove romelime jgufis sxvagan cxovreba SeiZleba mxolod ZiriTadi masisagan mowyvetiT da gadasaxlebiT aixsnas da ara piriqiT. sxvagvarad axsna SeuZlebelia. saqarTvelos CrdiloeTiT, imierkavkasiis miwa-wyalze, rogorc Cans, Turquli da mongoluri tomebis (paWanikebis, yivCaRebis, oqros urdos Zalebis) gamoCenis Semdgom Seviwroebuli alanebis adgili daiWires Cerqezulma (adiRe-yabardo-abazurma) da Turqulma (yaraCaelebma, balyarelma) tomebma (rogorc miiCneven, me-13-14 saukuneebamde da Semdgom, Crdilo kavkasiaSi qarTvelebsa da qarTvelur tomebs mniSvnelovani raodenobrivi wili eWiraT). saqarTvelos saxelmwifos daSladaqucmacebis Semdgom (me-15-16 ss.) Crdilo kavkasiuri adiRe-Cerqezuli tomebi kidev ufro gaZlierdnen da Seudgnen jer saqarTvelos sazRvris miRma (Tanamedrove soWisa, tuafsisa) da CrdiloeTiT mdebare SavizRvispireTis dapyrobas (amas unda davukavSiroT SavizRvispireTSi adiRe-Cerqez-abazurad mosaubre tomebis - ubixebisa, saZebisa da sxvaTa gamoCena), xolo Semdgom TandaTan SeiWrnen saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze da gabatondnen istoriul afxazeTSi (istoriul afxazeTsa da odiSs Soris sazRvari gadioda axal aTonTan da kelasurTan, vaxuStis Tanaxmad), me-17 s-is Semdgom ki Seuties odiSs, daipyres samegrelos miwa-wyali (igulisxmeba Tanamedrove soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCirisa da galis raionebi) da mividnen mdinare enguramde. istoriuli faqtia is, rom 206

afxazeTis samTavro me-17 s-Si gafarTovda samegrelos teritoriis xarjze da mas CamoaWra zemoT aRniSnuli miwa-wyali. mxolod aseTi erTiani suraTis fonze SeiZleba aixsnas Crdilo kavkasiis velebze afxazeTidan, Zalze Sors, afxazurenovani tomebis arseboba da ara imiT, rom afxazebi zRvispireTidan asaxldnen da sacxovreblad gadavidnen Crdilo kavkasiaSi. aseTi mosazreba umotivo Teoriaa. zemoT moyvanil mosazrebas, Cveni azriT, aZlierebs is, rom rogorc Cans, jiqebi, romelnic istoriulad ZvelTaganve mkvidrni arian SavizRvispireTisa, dapyrobil da damorCilebul iqnen adiRe-afsarebis mier. amas miuTiTebs is, rom jiqebi gvian (me-18-19) saukuneebSic ki oficialurad da sajarod afxazur enaze saubrobdnen, xolo damalviTa da SiSiT - sakuTar enaze, romelsac afxazebi uwodeben ,,asaZipsuas~. rusi generali i. filipsoni, romelic didxans msaxurobda kavkasiis armiaSi da kargad icnobda jiqebs, wers - ,,am xalxs, romelic sufTa afxazur enaze laparakobs, aqvs Tavisi sakuTari ena - asaZipsua, romelic ar hgavs arc afxazurs da arc adiReurs, is TandaTan eZleva daviwyebas, imiT xandaxan mxolod dabali fenis warmomadgenlebi saubroben da isic TiTqosda moparviT, sxva xalxisgan damalulad~ (iqve, gv. 374). bRaJba varaudobs, rom asaZipsua TiTqosda afxazuri enis dialeqti iyo, magram TviT avtori cnobisa - filipsoni, kargi mcodne jiqebisa, garkveviT wers, rom asaZipsua ar waagavda arc afxazurs da arc adiReurs. jiqebis araafxazuri enis arseboba amtkicebs im azrs, rom es tomi ar iyo warmomavlobiT afxazuri da is aseTi gaxda mxolod adiReCerqezuli dapyrobis Sedegad. gaafxazebis Semdgom am toms ,,saZebi~ ewoda. jiqeTis dapyrobis Semdgom adiReurma tomebma daipyres sakuTriv afxazeTi, Semdgom ki Seuties odiSs, CamoaWres mas ayvavebuli miwa-wyali enguramde. am dapyrobis Sesaxeb uwyvetliv laparakobdnen mogzaurebi da misionerebi me-19 s-mde (lambertidan Sardenamde). abazebis Sesakaveblad levan II dadianma da episkoposebma aages didi kedeli (e. w. afxazeTisa), magram Cerqez-abazebis Semoteva ver SeaCeres. abazebis gabatonebis Semdgom axla ukve adgilobrivi megruli ena gaxda damalulad da dafarulad mosaxmari, rameTu qveynis mkvidri megrelebi ymebad da monebad aqcies da ,,agiruebi~ uwodes. me-19 s-is dasawyisSi mTel SavizRvispireTSi, Tanamedrove soWi-tuafsis raionebSic, axali omebisa da dapyrobebis kvali aSkara iyo. i. lukiiski werda - ,, ~ (iqve, gv. 374). afxazeTSi gabatonebis Semdgom, rogorc saerTod es xdeba, dapyrobaTa Semdgom warmoSobil axal mosaxleobasac ,,afxazebi~ uwodes (ise rogorc Zveli egviptelebis qveyanaSi mcxovreb arabebs amJamad ,,egviptelebi~ ewodebaT, xolo Zveli asirieli xalxis qveyanaSi mcxovreb arabebs ki - ,,sirielebi~ da a. S.), magram namdvili samSoblo axali e. w. ,,afxazebisa~, anu afsuebisa, Crdilo kavkasiis velebia, sadac amJamadac mcxovrebi afxazebis enas afsua bizSva ewodeba. ,,qarTvelologiuri simpoziumis biuleteni~, 1994.

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mebrZoli eklesia

(vuZRvni eklesiisaTvis Tavdadebuli dedis, afxazTa mier moklul Tamriko parunaSvil-gobeCias xsovnas).

,,Tqven ki xarT Cems gansacdelSi Cems gverdiT myofni~ (luka, 22,28).

RvTismetyvelTa ganmartebiT eklesia or nawilad ganiyofa: erTia qristes rwmeniT, urTierT siyvaruliT, saRvTo sjuliT, ierarqiiTa da wminda saidumloebiT Sekrul-gaerTianebul adamianTa erToba - xiluli (qveyniuri) anu mebrZoli eklesia, xolo meoreSi - micvalebulni da angelozebi imyofebian, mas zeciuri anu medResaswauleTa eklesia ewodeba. ganmartebaTa Tanaxmad, qveyniur eklesias mebrZoli im mizezis gamo ewodeba, rom daucxromlad ebrZvis sarwmunoebis mtrebs, iRvwis da Sromobs Tavis SvilTa aRsazrdelad. eklesia sarwmunoebis mtrebs mudam TavdadebiT ebrZoda, sityviTac da samxedro ZaliTac. IV saukunidan, qristianobis saxelmwifo sarwmunoebad aRiarebidan moyolebuli TiTqmis XIX saukunemde ar yofila arc erTi dRe sarwmunoebis mtrebTan ubrZolvelad. qristianuli bizantia, saqarTvelo da somxeTi dauRalavad icavdnen Tavs jer cecxlTayvanismcemluri sparseTis Semotevebisagan, Semdeg ki mxned igeriebdnen mahmadianebs. mahmadianur saxelmwifoebTan mravalsaukunovan omSi daemxnen bizantia da somxeTi, saqarTvelom ki bolomde gauZlo. sayovelTaod aris cnobili, rom konstantinepolis dacemis Semdeg, vidre XIX s-mde, aqeT qarTl-kaxeTis, iqiT ki imereTis samefoebi mahmadianur okeaneSi ara mxolod arsebobas inarCunebdnen, aramed medgrad ibrZodnen momxdur urjuloebis winaaRmdeg. qarTvelebi Zlierni iyvnen sarwmunoebiTac da xmliTac. qristianobis mtrebTan sastik omSi Tavis Zes, Tavdadebul meomars, mefe Teimuraz pirvels, simamaciT ar CamorCa misi deda, wminda didmowame qeTevani, romelmac urjuloni rwmeniT daamarcxa. arc XIX s-Si yofilan qarTvelebi uqmad, erTmorwmune ruseTTan erTad gaaTavisufles da deda-samSoblos sakuTari sicocxlis fasad SemouerTes dakarguli istoriuli miwa-wyali - aWara-klarjeTi, samcxejavaxeTi, zRvispireTi da saingilo. amave saukuneSi qarTvelebma erTmorwmune rusebTan erTad daamarcxes mZvinvared mRelvare mahmadianuri zRva Crdilo kavkasiasa da daRestanSi, romelic saqarTvelos walekviT emuqreboda. aseve netarxsenebuli uwmidesi patriarqis ambrosis dros qarTulma eklesiam pirvelma aRimaRla xma wiTeli ruseTis imperiis winaaRmdeg saqarTvelos gaTavisuflebis moTxovniT (rogorc viciT, am imperiam Tavisi mSobliuri eklesiaca da qristianobac uaryo). verc amJamad xvdeba eklesia gulmSvidad urjulo mtris mier afxazeTis dapyrobas, xalxis tanjvas, qalebis, bavSvebisa da moxucebis masobriv mkvlelobas, qarTvelTa genocids. 208

Crdilokavkasiuri tomebis mier afxazeTis dapyrobas Sedegad qveynis ara mxolod materialuri ganadgureba, aramed sulieri warwymedac mohyveba, radganac mteri qristianobis wil ucxo sarwmunoebas danergavs, riTac daRupavs cocxlad darCenil adamianTa sulebs, xolo qarTvelTa axal Taobas antiqarTuli, antierovnuli suliskveTebiT aRzrdis, gadaarjulebs da Cvengan ganaSorebs. qristiani movalea Tavisi suli dados megobrisaTvis, mokvdes, magram moyvasi ki gadaarCinos. moyvasi da megobari qristianisaTvis yvela qristiania, ganurCevlad warmoSobisa da erovnebisa, miT umetes, igi ormagad valdebulia TanamemamuleTa winaSe, rjulis mtrebs unda Seakvdes, saqristiano ki gadaarCinos. brZolis velze dacemul vaJkacs sasufeveli, qristeSi gansveneba, maradi netareba da samoTxeSi dResaswauli moelis, radganac Cveni macxovari ieso qriste brZanebs: - ,,Tqven ki xarT Cems gansacdelSi Cems gverdiT myofni da me aRgiTqvamT Tqven, rogorc me aRmiTqva mamam Cemma sasufeveli~! (luka, 22,29). qristianTa yvelaze didi gansacdeli urjuloTa mier samSoblos dapyrobaa. vinc qristes erTgulia, qristes gverdiT unda dadges qristianTa gansacdelis Jams, mis mters SeebrZolos da ar gaamarjvebinos. netaria mterTan brZolaSi mkvdari Svilis deda, radganac mas misi Ze samoTxis naTelSi Seegebeba da qristes winaSe dedis sulis saoxad iSuamdgomlebs, xolo gamarjvebiT dabrunebuli vaJkacis col-Svili bednieria, radganac ojaxis meTauri samSoblosa da qristes erTguli gmiria. afxazeTSi mzakvrulad SemoWril Crdilokavkasielebsa da urwmuno separatistebTan omSi daRupulma qristes erTgulebma aRTqmuli sasufeveli daimkvidres, xolo Cveni guli savsea cremliTa da mwuxarebiT, radganac urjulo mterma Cveni samSoblos umSvenieresi kuTxe daipyro, qarTvelTa SromiT, jafiTa da ofliT samoTxis baRiviT aSenebul-ayvavebuli saqristiano qveyana mospo, adamianebi, Cveni sisxli da xorci, Cveni debi da Zmebi umowyalod daxoca, cocxlad dawva, Tavebi daaWra, daundoblad tanja da gvema, sikvdils gadarCenilebi ki dResac mTebsa da xevebs, sakuTari xelebiT gaSenebul plantaciebs afareben Tavs. Cveni marcxi mxolod Cveni, mTeli xalxis gulgrilobisa da rwmenis dacemis Sedegia. samSoblos, saqristianos satanjveli ver gaiTavisa yovelma kacma. vaxtang gorgaslis bavSvobis dros, rogorc mematiane gadmogvcems, qarTuli saxelmwifos sisustis gamo saqarTvelos zRvispireTi mterma miitaca. samSoblos erTi kuTxis dakargvas didad auRelvebia yoveli ojaxi, yoveli qali da kaci, mwuxarebda da iglovda yoveli adamiani ara mxolod dasavleT saqarTveloSi, aramed aRmosavleTsa da samxreTSic. mematiane wers: ,,im dros Semovidnen berZnebi afxazeTidan, rameTu berZnebs eWiraT egriswyalis qvemo qveyana da daipyres berZnebma egriswylidan vidre cixe-gojamde. maSin Seiqmna glova da wuxili yovelTa qarTvelTa da ityodnen: ,,ganvamravleT codva RvTis mimarT da ara keTilad vipyariT sjuli qristesi. samarTlianad moawia RmerTma es risxva Cvenze, rameTu migvca Cven warsatyvevnelad ucxo ers da Cveni sazRvari miitaca... es ara Cveni mefeebis codvisagan iqmna, aramed eris 209

codvisagan~. vaxtang gorgaslis siymawvilis Jams, rogorc aRvniSneT afxazeTis mimdebare miwa-wylis dakargvas mTeli eri (,,yoveli qarTveli~) iglovda, amitomac Semdgom mTeli eri erT Zalad Seikra, Wabuk mefes mxarSi amoudga, Crdilo kavkasielebi daamarcxebina da afxazeTi dedasamSoblos daubruna. udidesi erovnuli danakargis dRevandeli saxalxo gancda da glova, xval ukanve dagvibrunebs da, piriqiT, warTmeulis arad Cagdeba saukunod dagvakargvinebs mas. adrec momxdara, gansakuTrebiT saqarTvelos saxelmwifos erTianobis moSlis (XVI s.) Semdeg, yoveli mxridan Semoseuli Crdilokavkasielebisa da mahmadianebis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi qarTvelebi daRlilan, dauZlurebulan, damarcxebulan da imdenad damfrTxalan, rom erTi TaTari mraval qarTvel vaJkacs amarcxebda, aTi - aTass, xolo aTasi mTel kuTxes ipyrobda. ukacobiT ki ara, silaCriT, sulieri siZabuniT iRupeboda saqarTvelo, e. i. saqristiano qveyana. es rom dainaxeso, wers vaxuSti, Sewuxdnen qarTveli episkoposebi, Tumca ki wesi ar iyo da arc ekadrebodaT - xelSi xmali aiRes, abjari aisxes, SeuZaxes qristianebs, samalavebidan gamoiyvanes vaJkacebi, sabrZolvelad gawvrTnes da gaamxneves sityvebiT - ,,nu moRafldebiT, nu mouRonovdebiT~ (nu moeSvebiT, Rones nu dakargavT), win gauZRvnen laSqars, mraval brZolaSi gaamarjvebines da mteri daamarcxebineso. kaxeTSi (romelic Crdilokavkasiel daRestneli lekebisagan iyo Sewuxebuli), mamulis dasacavad mebrZolebs episkoposebi meTaurobdnen; kerZod, rusTaveli episkoposi (rezidencia martyofSi hqonda) Tavis sadroSoSi mraval saTavadosa da saaznauros aerTianebda da Tavis jarSi iseTi mtkice wesrigi hqonda, rom mTeli sparseTis imperiaSi qarTvel laSqarze ufro darazmuli arcerTi jari ar ariso, - werdnen mogzaurebi. mematiane ityobineba, rom mwyobrSi dagvianebisaTvis didgvarovansac ki joxiT scemdnen, anda did gadasaxads adebdnen. rusTaveli episkoposis sabrZolo droSa WiWinaZeebis sagvareulos hqonda Cabarebuli. droSis gamosvenebis Semdeg, gansakuTrebiT ki brZolaSi, igi gvarSi uxucess eWira, xolo mTeli sagvareulo gundiviT gars exvia mas. droSis Zirs dasveneba ar SeiZleboda, medroSis daWris an mokvlis SemTxvevaSi igi xelidan xelSi unda gadasuliyo. mraval omSi gaimarjves qarTvelebma am droSiT... am bolo wlebSi aRarc ki viciT ra aris brZolis velze gamarjveba. istoria WeSmaritad meordeba. Zveleburad kvlav Semogvesivnen Crdilokavkasielebi, Cven kvlav vmarcxdebiT, vai, rom erTi TaTari Tu warmarTi aT qarTvels amarcxebs, aTasi ki mTeli raionis dasapyrobad sakmarisia. amis magaliTia bolo dReebSi galis raioni, sadac Tebervlis damdegs Sesulma aTasma afsuam da Crdilokavkasielma raionSi im droisaTvis darCenili 15-20 aTasamde adamiani awama, tanja, samalavebSi Sereka, saxl-kari gadauwva, cocxlad mravali dawva, 20-25 kaci erTmaneTze jaWvebiT gadabmuli ,,beteeriT~ aTria, Tovlsa da yinvaSi ltolvilebad aqcia. ramdenime xniT adre galis raioni, rogorc weren, sul 500 ,,boeviks~ auRia, Tundac sami aTasi yofiliyo, am raionSi am droisaTvis sul mcire 30-40 aTasi kaci mainc cxovrobda. jariskacebs aRar vangariSobT. soxumis umTavresi strategiuli simaRle Cvenebs ubrZolvelad miutovebiaT da sxva msgavs magaliTebsac hyvebian. 210

diax, uflis madliT iyo Tavdadeba, vaJkacoba da erTguleba Cveni eris yvelaze saukeTeso Svilebisa, magram rogorc Sedegi uCvenebs, ufro meti yofila SiSi, laCroba, udisciplinoba, Ralati, iaraRis xelSi Casagdebad TanamoZmeTa xocva da marodioroba. marodiorobis qveS am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba sakuTari xalxis Zarcva, sakuTaris!.. sanacvlod daikarga fasdaudebeli simdidre - samSoblos erTi nawili, SeibRala Cveni saxeli, prestiJi, dasacini da TiTiT saCvenebeli gavxdiT mezoblebisa da mtrebisaTvis. moyvareni ki sinanuliT Tavebs aqneven da duman. ufro didi ubedureba is aris, rom Cven xalxs msjelobac ki ar surs Tavisi damarcxebis Sesaxeb, gagonebac ar unda, ara Tu analizi da gamowvlilviTi Zieba sakuTari marcxis mizezebisa, TiTqosda es damarcxeba misi ki ar iyos. aramed viRac sxvisa, vinme mezoblisa, calkeuli pirovnebebisa, mTavrobisa, yvelasi, garda sakuTari Tavisa. istoriulad vin ar damarcxebula, magram Tu damarcxebuli Tavis damarcxebas ar ganicdis, ar grZnobs, wamodgomasa da welis wamowevas ar cdilobs da momavali brZolisaTvis ar emzadeba, cocxaliRa eTqmis aseT kacs, ers? Cven uTuod unda gavaanalizoT, gamovikvlioT Tu rogor moxda, rom raodenobrivad mcire 80-100 aTas kacs faqtobrivad iaraRis xelSi auReblad Cabarda 250-300 aTasi afxazeTSi mcxovrebi qarTveli da masTan erTad sastikad damarcxda mis ukan mdgomi sami milioni kaci. separpatistebi omisaTvis sagangebod emzadebodnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom maT ideologiuradac yovelmxriv daamarcxes qarTvelebi. Cveni mxridan akrZaluli iyo afxazeTis Sesaxeb simarTlis Tqma rogorc komunistebis, ise gamsaxurdias dros. omis dawyebis Semdeg ki sainformacio saSualebani sasxvaTaSorisod, usulgulod, naZaladevad, TiTqosda sxvisi davalebiT, mouwadineblad aSuqebdnen omis movlenebs, gamarjvebebsa da damarcxebebs. saerTod, es omi, romelic afxazebs saidumlod adreve dauwyiaT, CvenTvis didi moulodneloba aRmoCnda, gons gvian movediT da iZulebiT CavebiT masSi. sxva gamosavali aRar iyo, an Cveni jariskacebi unda Sesuliyvnen afxazeTSi, anda ubrZolvelad Cagvebarebina is mtrisaTvis. Sedegi ki uaresi iqneboda - afxazebi qarTvelebis umetes nawils ise mospobdnen, mcire nawils ki monebad aqcevdnen, msoflio verafers Seityobda. SemTxveviT ar vaxseneT aq sityva ,,mona~. tradiciulad XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi, da Semdgomac, qarTvelebi afxazeTSi afsuebis monebi iyvnen am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT, swored amitom aris saWiro istoriis gaanalizeba, rac CvenSi ugulebelyofili iyo. Tumc ki zogierTisaTvis daujerebelia, magram, rogorc cnobilia, qarTul qveyanas, saqarTvelos nawils, qarTvelebiT dasaxlebul afxazeTs XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi Crdilokavkasieli adiRe-Cerqezuli tomebi, maT Soris afsua-afsarebi, abazebi, abaZexebi da sxvebi Semoesivnen. am Cerqezulma tomebma daipyres afxazeTi vidre mdinare enguramde, mkvidri mosaxleoba mospes, monebad dayides, nawili ki monebad daitoves. afxazur enaSi dRemde SemorCa amis kvali, monas afxazurad ,,megreli~ (agirua), ,,guruli~ (aguri), saerTod qarTveli hqvia. 1870 wlis 23 marts afxazma Tavadebma general sviatopolk-mirskis saxelze gagzavnil moxsenebiT baraTSi aRniSnes, rom 211

afxazeTSi arsebobs Taviseburi klasi uuflebo monebisa saerTo saxelwodebiT ,,agirua~ (megreli). maTi movaleoba, upirveles yovlisa, afxazis ojaxisaTvis saWmlis momzadeba, saSinao da yovelgvar saqmeSi momsaxureba iyo. am monebs afxazebi TavianT mezoblad acxovrebdnen calke saxlebsa da samzadebSi. samurzayanoSi maT dolmaxare erqvaT, Cveulebriv isini afxazeTis ZvelqarTuli aborigenuli mosaxleobis naSTi anu megrelebi iyvnen. odiSi xom, rogorc vaxuSti gadmogvcems, vrcel teritorias erqva vidre axal aTonamde, sxvagvarad eqceodnen afxazebi samxedro tyveebs, zogadad maTac ,,megrels~ uwodebdnen, magram kerZo saxelic hqondaT - ,,axaSvala~. samxedro tyves gamravlebis, e. i. ojaxis Seqmnis uflebas ar aZlevdnen da yovelgvar saqmeSi iyenebdnen. axlaxan Sevxvdi Cems soxumel naTesavs, romelic ramdenime Tve dakarguli iyo da mkvdari gvegona. man miambo amJamad afxazeTSi darCenili mcirericxovani qarTvelebis mdgomareobis Sesaxeb - ,,Sedian afxazebi qarTvelis ojaxSi da eubnebian 15 wuTSi gamzadebuli saWmeli dagvaxvedreT, Torem amogxocavTo, amzadeben SeSinebulebi~. afxazebs surT aRadginon Zveli monaTmflobeluri sazogadoeba, roca erT gabatonebul fenas afsua molaSqreebi Seadgendnen, romelTa ZiriTadi saqmianoba mekobreoba da sxvisi Zarcva-gleja iyo, meore damorCilebul nawils ki megrelebi, romlebic amuSavebdnen miwas, mohyavdaT mosavali, batonebs sadilsac umzadebdnen. droTa ganmavlobaSi yofili monebi afxazebad iqcnen, maTi ena da zne-Cveuleba SeiTvises. Tuki mSvidad Seeguebian TavianT ,,tradiciul~ movaleobas, albaT, axlad damonebulebsac hpirdebian perspeqtivaSi gaafxazebas. Cvens ideologebs unda scodnodaT, rom afxazeTis ,,damoukidebeli~ saxelmwifos Seqmna warmoadgens erT nawils didi gegmisa, romelsac ,,didi CerqezeTis~ aRdgena ewodeba. afxazebi Cerqezi xalxis nawilia, amaze is faqtic metyvelebs, rom XIX s-Si TurqeTSi gadasaxlebul afxazebs amJamadac Cerqezebs uwodeben. am xalxs ,,afxazebi~ Cven SevarqviT da Cvens monaTesaveebad CavTvaleT, roca TviTon Zalian kargad ician TavianTi warmomavloba da erovnuli erToba adiReCerqezebTan. isini TavianT Tavs ara damoukidebel erad, aramed adiReCerqezebis nawilad miiCneven. amitomac arc omSi ,,genofondis~ mospobis SiSi aqvT, rameTu adiRe-Cerqezebis saerTo ricxvi, qarTvelTa saerTo ricxvs didad ar CamorCeba. Cven, Cveni bunebis Sesabamisad, afxazebs mxolod erT rames vevedrebodiT, CvenTan erTad ecxovraT Tanabari samoqalaqo uflebebiT, magram rogorc batoni ver Seegueba monasTan samoqalaqo uflebebis gaTanabrebas, ise afxazebi ver Seeguebian yofil monebTan uflebriv gaTanasworebas. es xom maTi parazituli cxovrebis fesvebs gaaxmobs, im fesvebs, romelnic qarTvelTa ofliTa da jafiT asazrdoeben afxazur maRal fenebs. samoqalaqo uflebaTa gaTanabreba ,,afxazobis~ rogorc socialuri movlenis mospobas niSnavs, radganac ara Tu adre, aramed komunistebis drosac, yoveli maRali Tu Semosavliani Tanamdeboba afxazi erovnebis adamianebs eWiraT; aseTi urTierTdamokidebulebis mospoba - tradiciuli yofis, Camoyalibebuli socialuri institutebis mospobas niSnavs, rac maTi erovnuli moSlis tolfasia. amJamad afxazebi kmayofili unda iyvnen, rom CaaxSes

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qarTvelTa, anu monaTa ajanyeba. isini, rogorc batonebi, daundobeli arian ajanyebuli monebis mimarT. qarTvelebi ki TamaSiT, silaRiT Sevidnen am sastik omSi da Zalze daibnen moulodnelobisagan. maT usaSinlesi siverage ixiles im mxarisa, romlis ,,genofondis~ dacvasac mTel gadacemebs uZRvnidnen Tbilisis sainformacio saSualebani. artistuli bunebis Cveni biWebis (rogorc saerTod yoveli qarTvelis) Tavdadeba satelevizio gadacemebSic ki ver asaxes ise, rogorc saWiroa. maTi gmiroba, vaJkacoba, SemarTeba da sikiskase Cvenma xalxma ver ixila, mxolod maTi fotosuraTebi gviCvenes. albaT, unda mivxvdeT, rom ar SeiZleba sarwmunoebis mtrebTan TamaSi. saqarTvelos saxelmwifo siZlieres Crdilokavkasielebma mouRes bolo, kavkasiis kedeli saqarTvelos Temur-lengma mourRvia, roca mTiel tomebs islami ZaliT miaRebina. manamde Cveni uerTgulesi megobrebi - uborotes mtrebad gadagveqcnen, saqarTvelosken daiZrnen da daipyres misi miwebi afxazeTSi, dvaleTSi, saingiloSi - kavkasiis mTel sigrZeze, Seekvrnen TavianT Tanamorwmuneebs osmal-sparselebs da saqarTvelo oTxsaukunovan alyaSi moaqcies. sityva ,,lekis~ gagonebisas caxcaxebdnen Cveni bavSvebi aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi, dasavleT saqarTveloSi ki - ,,afxazis~ gagonebisas. afxazeTis tragedia daiwyo ara Cveni saukunis 90-ian wlebSi, aramed XVII saukuneSi, roca afsuebma, abazebma da sxva tomebma, rogorc evropeli da Turqi istorikosebi weren, mospes da ,,udabnod aqcies~ im droisaTvis samegrelos kuTvnili miwa-wyali kelasuridan enguramde. XIX s-Sic, vidre 70-80-ian wlebamde, samurzayano Waobad da gauval tyed iyo qceuli afxazTa wyalobiT (afxazebi TareSobdnen, xalxs muSaobis saSualebas ar aZlevdnen, xocavdnen da atyvevebdnen), mxolod saukunis damlevsa da Cvens saukuneSi rusebis mier damyarebuli mSvidobis meoxebiT, mkvidri da samegrelodan gadasuli qarTvelebis wyalobiT, maTi jafiT, SromiTa da ofliT kvlav ayvavda, baRebiTa da plantaciebiT daifara samurzayano, soxumis, gagrisa da sxva raionebi. afxazeTi qarTvelTa Sromis nayofia, qarTvelebma aaSenes da aayvaves es mxare, am sityvis sruli gagebiT. XVII saukunemdec afxazeTi mxolod da mxolod qarTuli kulturis mxare iyo. koxis, spenseris, sxva mogzaurTa da mecnierTa miTiTebani ,,afxazebad~ saxeldebuli tomis (isini am toms Cerqezebs, abazebs da sxva saxelebs uwodebdnen) mier afxazeTis XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi mospobis Sesaxeb Cvens mier uyuradRebod aris datovebuli, maSin, roca afxazebma mTel msoflios, gansakuTrebiT ki ruseTis sazogadoebrivi azris damuSavebis mizniT, Seqmnes mZlavri ideologiuri sicruis manqana, moskovsa da sxva qalaqebSi antiqarTul wignebsa da broSurebs stambaven afxazeTis istoriisa da yofis Sesaxeb. Cven ki ara Tu ucxoelebi, Cveni eric ki ver dagvirwmunebia Cvens simarTleSi. swored amitom ar gaiTavisa Cvenma xalxma afxazeTis omi; ZiriTadad amitom davkargeT afxazeTi. ara Tu mTel saqarTvelos, samegrelosac ki SeeZlo afxazeTis gadarCena, magram samegreloc, iseve rogorc mTeli saqarTvelo, ideologiurad moumzadebeli iyo. aravin icoda simarTle arc warsulisa da arc awmyos Sesaxeb. Tu Cven axalgazrdebs ar davarwmunebT Cvens simarTleSi, samSoblos am kuTxis gaTavisufleba gaWirdeba.

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mahmadianTa batonobisagan afxazeTis gaTavisuflebas win unda uZRodes didi ideologiuri samzadisi, Cvenma xalxma unda uwyodes mtris siborotisa da sisastikis Sesaxeb. samwuxarod, afxazeTis tragedia Cveni xalxisaTvis ucnobia. marTalia, gvaqvs zogadi suraTi. magram gagrelTa, gulrifSelTa, soxumelTa, galelTa da sxvagan mcxovreb moqalaqeTa pirovnuli tragediis Sesaxeb araferi viciT. gazeTebSi ganuwyvetliv unda ibeWdebodes dazaralebulTa mier piradad gancdili, Tavisi TvaliT nanaxi, gagonili ubedurebis ambebi. televiziiT unda gadaicemodes ltolvilTa piradi tanjva, iqmnebodes filmebi, wignebi. TiToeulma dazaralebulma unda aRweros gancdil saSinelebaTa istoria, raTa maTma STamomavlebma iseve ar daiviwyon mtris sisastike, rogorc imave miwaze XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi daxocilTa STamomavlebma, ris gamoc ar gafrTxildnen da genocidis msxverplni gaxdnen. amisaTvis saWiroa, afxazeTidan gamosulma TiToeulma pirma aRweros Tavisi sakuTari naTesavebisa Tu mezoblebis Tavgadasavali. es aRweriloba Sin unda Seinaxon, ufro metic, STamomavlebs uanderZon, rom momavalSi, weliwadis erT romelime arCeul dRes gadmoiRon da xmamaRla waukiTxon ojaxis wevrebs winaparTa xsovnis aRsaniSnavad, Svilebis, SviliSvilebisa da STamomavlebis sajanmrTelod, raTa isini gafrTxildnen da axali genocidis msxverplni ar gaxdnen. afxazeTis tragediis erTi upirvelesi mizezia Cveni sazogadoebis pasiuroba, sasicocxlo pulsis moduneba, sazogadoebrivi interesebisadmi gulgriloba, sayovelTao inertuloba, saerTod, albaT, es aris ZiriTadi mizezi saqarTvelos amJamindeli savalalo mdgomareobisa, siRatakisa, SimSilisa da sicivisa. sazogadoeba garedan elis Svelas, roca sasicocxlo Zala TviT masSia, mxolod misi amoZraveba da amoqmedebaa saWiro, magram rogor? rogor avamoqmedoT CvenSi arsebuli sasicocxlo Zalebi? amis codna ara gvaqvs, codnis miRebas dro, mondomeba, Sroma da moTmineba esaWiroeba. Tu am gasaWirs moviTmenT da misgan Tavis daRwevas movindomebT, msoflio uTuod dagvexmareba. eklesia, rogorc warsulSi, mzad aris aqtiurad Caebas sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis yvela sferoSi, gadaaqcios yoveli adamiani sazogadoebis aqtiurad moRvawe muSakad, xeli Seuwyos sasicocxlo Zalebis amoqmedebas, rac upirvelesad moyvasisadmi siyvaruliT, mcnebaTa aRsrulebiT, rjulis kanonTa dacviT, erovnuli suliskveTebis aRorZinebiT, anu axali morwmune Taobis aRzrdiT, masSi sakuTari Rirsebisa da samSoblos winaSe movaleobis grZnobis CanergviT miiRweva. ,,nu moRafldebiT da nu mouRonovdebiT brZolad maTda da nu dautevebT sarwmunoebas, rjulsa da Cveulebas Tqvensa, da Cven viqmnebiT winambrZolni Tqveni~, - am sityvebiT amxnevebdnen erT dros sasicocxlo pulss moklebul qarTvelebs saeklesio moRvaweni da iqve amatebdnen: ,,dRes brZola aris sarwmunoebisa da qristes mcnebisa, imisTvis ara vyo uwinares Tqvensa ara davTxio sisxli Cemi maxvilis amRebman~. amin, RmerTma inebos! gaz. ,,madli~, 1994. #4. ufro adre daibeWda gaz. ,,saqarTvelos respublikaSi~. saTauriT - ,,rwmena unda ibrZodes~. 2. IV. 1994 w. #52.

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sabrZolo droSa

,,kurTxeul ars ufali, burji Cemi, romelmac aswavla Cems xelebs brZola da Cems TiTebs omi~ (fs. 143.1)

yoveli eri mtkivneulad ganicdis Tavis devnas, Zveli kulturosani erebisaTvis glova, mgloviare saxis Cveneba niSneulia, gansakuTrebiT im SemTxvevaSi, Tu genocidi aqvT gamovlili. ebraeli eri yvelgan da yovelTvis xazgasmiT aRniSnavs sakuTari eris genocids saukuneTa manZilze. aseve, Cveni mezobeli somexi eri mudmivad moixsenebs Tavis genocids XX saukunis dasawyisSi. erevanTan axlos erT mTaze genocidis memorial-muzeumi aqvT mowyobili, sadac erT sagangebo dRes aTeulaTasobiT somexi mwuxarebiTa da gloviT ixseniebs am Tavis erovnul ubedurebas. vis ar smenia ierusalimSi arsebuli ,,godebis kedlis~ Sesaxeb, sadac piriT qvisken miqceulebi mudmivad, yoveldRiurad, dReRamis yovel wuTs dganan mgloviare ebraeli mamakacebi, mgloviareni ara piradi anda ojaxuri ubedurebiT, aramed erovnuliT. isini am mizniT sagangebod Cadian ierusalimSi msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxidan. rogorc ebraelebi, ise somxebi da sxva Zveli erebi xazgasmiT, yvelgan, yvela qveynis presiT, radioTi Tu televiziiT mudam saubroben maT Zvel da axal devnaTa Sesaxeb, msoflios yvela xalxi maT amis gamo TanagrZnobiT uyurebs, xolo axali Taoba izrdeba erovnuli erTobis, mTlianobis, Tavis eris SvilTa mimarT TanagrZnobis, Tanalmobis suliskveTebiT, im mtkice rwmeniT, rom momavalSi Tavis eriskacebs aRaravis daaCagvrinebs. iSviaTad Tu romelime ers ganucdia iseTi saSineli genocidi, rogoric Tavs daatyda Cvens ers afxazeTSi. warmoudgeneli, eniT auwereli masobrivi mkvlelobebi qarTvelebisa, mSvidobiani moqalaqeebiT savse qalaqebis umowyalo dabombva, tyvedCavardnili qarTvelebis sisxlis sma WiqiT, Tavebis moWra da burTaoba, asoTa moWra, yurebis daTla cocxali ymawvilebisa, qalebis dawva avtomobilebis saburavebis cecxliT, bavSvebis sarebze Camocma, Cveni jaris afxazeTidan gamosvlis Semdeg iq darCenili mSvidobiani qarTveli mamakacebisaTvis yelebis gamoWra raRac gansakuTrebuli wesiT (e. w. ,,kolumbiuri galstuki~), sxva da sxva, eniT uTqmeli... aseul aTasobiT qarTvelis gamoqceva sakuTari saxl-karidan, miwa-wylidan, ded-mamis samSoblodan... vai Cvens moswrebas... amisda miuxedavad CvenSi aravin laparakobs (igulisxmeba ojaxebi, kerZo pirebis piraduli gancda). Cveni eris genocidis Sesaxeb, TiTqosda aseTi ram arc momxdariyos, mxolod oficialur wreebSi ismis Sesabamis dros erTi-ori sityva. ram Cakla ase erovnuli suliskveTeba, ram dabada nihilisturi suli, Zvelad rogor iyo? Cvens qristesmoyvare ers mravali mteri hyolia aTaswleulTa manZilze, magram RvTis SemweobiTa da daxmarebiT Cvens mama-papas mravlad daumarcxebia isini. saukeTeso mamuliSvilebi, eklesiis mamebi 215

win uZRodnen Cvens gulad vaJkacebs mterTan Serkinebis Jams, amxnevebdnen, brZolisken mouwodebdnen, xolo Tu mteri Zlierdeboda, Cvens armias ki Zala ar hyofnida, elodebodnen Sesaferis dros, laSqars ki wvrTnidnen, amzadebdnen brZolisaTvis, anTebdnen maTSi SurisZiebis wadils, Tavis droze utevdnen da imarjvebdnen. samSoblos sazRvrebis dacva Cvens mefeTa upirveles movaleobas Seadgenda. aRsaniSnavia, rom xalxi, ubralo adamianebi, ojaxebi Zalze mtkivneulad ganicdidnen qveynis mTlianobis yovelgvar SebRalvas, am mxriv aRsaniSnavia erTi momenti vaxtang gorgaslis cxovrebidan vaxtangis yrmobisas mezobelma qveyanam isargebla 10 wlis ufliswulis daoblebiT, Tavs daesxa saqarTvelos da miitaca afxazeTi. iqamde ki Crdilokavkasielma tomebma (os-alanebma) ilaSqres Sida qarTlSi da moitaces vaxtangis mcirewlovani da, Zalze niSandoblivad gadmogvcems mematiane xalxis damokidebulebas qveynis am ubedurebis mimarT, kerZod berZenTa mier afxazeTis teritoriis mitacebas ganicdida yoveli adamiani saqarTvelos yovel kuTxeSi. mwuxarebda da iglovdao yoveli qarTveli da ambobda: ,,es ubedureba Cvens qveyanas daemarTa ara mefeTa codvebis gamo, aramed eris, xalxis codvebis gamo, rameTu mtkiced ar gviWiravs rjuli qristesi. axla ki saWiroa dalodeba, raTa mefe wamoizardos, Cven ki movemzadoT, gaviwvrTnaT omisaTvis, SevideT kavkasiaSi, davamarcxoT alan-osebi da mere afxazeTi gavaTavisufloTo~. aqedan Cans, rom Zvel dros qveynis mTlianobis darRvevas pirad ubedurebad miiCnevda yoveli qarTveli da saqarTvelos yofili moqalaqe. Tu im momentSi ers Zala ar Seswevda mtris dasamarcxeblad, arCevdnen dalodebas, Sesaferisi momentis SerCevas, amasobaSi emzadebodnen, Zlierdebodnen Sinagani erTobiT, armias omisaTvis amzadebdnen, Semdgom ki aTavisuflebdnen qveyanas mtrisagan. maSasadame, qveynis ubedurebis Sinagani gancda da amave dros sulis simxneve damaxasiaTebeli iyo Zveli qarTvelebisaTvis da ara gulgriloba, TviTkmayofileba, udanaSaulobis gancda, omSi damarcxebis mTavrobisa da mxedrobisaTvis gadabraleba. sarwmunoebisa da qveynis dacva, mterTan brZolis win wvrTna da mzadeba, mtris damarcxeba - ai, upirvelesi saqme da movaleoba WeSmariti vaJkacisa da saerTod moqalaqisa. samwuxarod, dRes ucnauri damokidebuleba arsebobs CvenSi mtris mimarT. kiTxvebic ki gaismoda saqarTvelos wmida kuTxis afxazeTis dacvisaTvis omis dros - ,,viTomo Tu ara? omSi kacis kvla gana codva ar aris? Cems Svils omSi rad gavuSveb, sxvebma iomon~ da sxva msgavsi, maSin, roca ar darCa CrdilokavkasielTa rjuli da tomi, ucxo eris Svilebi, romelTac Cvens winaaRmdeg iaraRi ar aRemarToT afxazeTSi. Tu sakuTari miwis dacva CvenTvis codvaa, sxvisaTvis rad CaiTvala madlad Cvens miwa-wyalze Cvens winaaRmdeg omi?.. saqme isaa, rom, isini, mahmadianebi, qristianuli qveynis winaaRmdeg ibZrodnen, TavianTi sarwmunoebis ,,mtrebTan~ da ,,urjuloTa~ daxocva madlad miaCndaT, Cven ki Cveni erovnuli sarwmunoebisadmi gulgrilobis gamo, aRarc sarwmunoebis mtrebi miviCnieT namdvil mtrebad. Sedegi ki aseTia: Cveni qveynis erTi kuTxe okupirebuli da dapyrobilia Crdilokavkasieli tomebis mier. amis gancda ki CvenSi ar arsebobs. amiT Zveli da axali 216

qarTvelebi erTmaneTisagan ganvsxvavdebiT, rogorc vaxtang gorgaslis cxovreba gviCvenebs, rameTu vaxtangis siymawvilis dros mtrebma saqarTvelo daamarcxes, afxazeTi wagvarTves, magram xalxi ar gatyda, 5-6 wlis ganmavlobaSi iaraRdeboda, iwvrTneboda, armias ayalibebda, saomrad emzadeboda. amasobaSi vaxtangic wamoizarda, eri mxarSi amoudga, Sevida kavkasiaSi da rogorc xalxur leqsSia naTqvami: ,,ialubzze fexi Sedga, didma mTebma iwyes dreka~, daamarcxa osebi, Crdilokavkasiis gziT Sevida afxazeTSi, gaaTavisufla igi da gamarjvebuli Tbiliss dabrunda. rogor uyurebs wmida eklesia sarwmunoebisaTvis Tavdadebas, qristianuli qveynis dacvisaTvis oms? aseT omSi mowinaaRmdegis mokvla wmida eklesias ar miaCnia codvad, rameTu TviT macxovari brZanebs: ,,Tqven ki isini xarT, romelnic Cems gverdiT darCiT Cems gansacdelSi, mec aRgiTqvamT - sasufevels~. ar arsebobs ufro meti gansacdeli qristianuli erisaTvis, vidre qristianebis masobrivi daxocva, WeSmaritis nacvlad - urjuloTa sarwmunoebis gavrceleba. Tu saqarTvelo RvTismSoblis wilxvedri qveyanaa, gana RvTismSoblis qveynis dacva sarwmunoebis dacva araa TavisTavad? garda amisa, rogorc ufali brZanebs, moyvasis, sakuTari eris, sakuTari xalxis, saqristianos dacva igive ar aris, rasac megobrisaTvis Tavdadebas uwodebs wmida mociquli, roca gadmocems qristes sityvebs - ,,esaa Cemi mcneba: giyvardeT erTmaneTi, rogorc me SegiyvareT Tqven, imaze didi siyvaruli ar arsebobs, roca vinme Tavis suls swiravs Tavis megobrisaTvis~, maSasadame, is, vinc qveynisa da qristianobis dacvisaTvis Tavis suls gaswiravs, anu Tavis sicocxles daTmobs, saukunod iarsebebs qristes siyvarulSi - saukuno naTelSi. saqarTvelos wmida miwisTvis omSi Tavdadeba sasufevels daumkvidrebs adamianis suls. swored am suliskveTebiT ibrZodnen Cveni winaprebi. Cveni mebrZolebi brZolis win, rogorc wesi eziarebonen xolme. cnobilia, rom ziarebis Semdgom sikvdili, anu sikvdili codvebis gareSe sasufevels daumkvidrebs adamianis suls, amasTanave mebrZolebma icodnen, rom sarwmunoebis mtrebTan brZolac eklesiis mier kurTxeuli iyo. maSasadame, brZolaSi Sesuli naziarebi mebrZoli Tavis sakuTari sulis sacxovneblad ormag qristianul saqmes akeTebda: pirveli es iyo sikvdili qristesTvis, anu qristes mtrebis winaaRmdeg Tavdadeba da meore - sikvdili ziarebisTanave e. i. ucodvelad - eklesiis mier nakurTxi saqmis keTebisas. erTi aseTi Zveli ambavia SemorCenili - erTi brZolis win laSqars TviTon episkoposi aziarebda - molaSqreebma mas uTxres: ,,yovladusamRvdeloeso meufeo, Tu Sen dRes CvenTan erTad apireb qristes mtrebTan omSi Sesvlas da xmlis xelSi aRebas, maSin ubrZane, rom sxvam gvaziaros, xolo Tu Sen brZolas ar apireb, maSin gvaziareo~ - aqedan Cans, rom cxadia laSqars kacis kvla sazarel saqmed miaCnia, magram Tu sxva gza ar aris da laSqris ukan dgas samSoblo, mSvidobiani mosaxleoba, ojaxebi da bavSvebi, maSin xmliT xelSi wmida ziarebis Semdgom mzadaa qristes mamulisa da qristes rwmenisaTvis suli dados - anu ukvdaveba moipovos sasufevelSi. Cveni didi istorikosi vaxuSti bagrationi gadmogvcems, rom sanam saqarTvelo erTiani, ganuyofeli da mTliani iyo, Zlieri laSqaric 217

hyavda da qarTveli samRvdeloebac omSi monawileobas ar iRebda, magram saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebad dayofis Semdgom imdenad dauZlurda qarTveloba, rom erTi urjulo TaTari aT qarTvels hklava, xolo asi ki aTass, roca qarTvelTa aseTi uRonoba, qveynis uZlureba, mosaxleobis sulieri daZabuneba ixiles Cvenma episkoposebmao - wers vaxuSti, xalxs SeuZaxes: ,,nu moRafldebiT, nu mouRonovdebiT~ e. i. nu daZabundebiT, Rone ar dakargoTo, Seagulianes xalxi, SeaiaraRes, gawvrTnes axalgazrdebi Tu Warmagebi, TviTonve Caudgnen laSqars saTaveSi da TviTonve ibrZoles urjulo mtris winaaRmdeg. ase gadaarCina Cvenma wmida samRvdeloebam Cveni qveyana da saqristiano gaTaTrebas. Zveli saqarTvelo dayofili iyo samxedro olqebad anu sadroSoebad, romelTac evalebodaT mtris winaaRmdeg laSqris gamoyvana. saqarTvelos daSlis Semdgom kaxeTis samefoSi oTxi aseTi sadroSo arsebobda, romelTac saTaveSi edgnen ara didgvarovani feodalebi, aramed episkoposebi, romelTac emorCileboda Zlieri, gawvrTnili jari. SeiZleba amitomac iyo kaxeTis samefo sxva qarTul samefoebTan SedarebiT erT-erTi uZlieresi TviT XIX s. dasawyisamde. termini ,,sadroSo~ miuTiTebs, rom es samxedro olqi da masSi Semavali jariskacebi gaerTianebulni iyvnen sabZolo droSis irgvliv. sabrZolo droSas gaaCnda udidesi sulieri Zala. ,,droSis kurTxevis~ wesi gadmogvcems: sakurTxevlad gamzadebul droSas dadgamdnen eklesiaSi ambionze gaSlili saxiT, wmida trapezis win locvas aRavlenda mRvdelmTavari, romelic samRvdeloebasTan erTad evedreboda ufals - ,,raTa akurTxos droSa ese samxedro zecieriTa kurTxeviTa TvisiTa, saSinel da SesaZrwunebel yovelTa mterTa hyos ese~. ai, Turme ra Zala eniWeboda samxedro droSas kurTxevis Semdgom: Tu am droSas uyurebda morwmune mxedroba, mas eniWeboda simtkice da siTamame, raTa Seemusra da daeTrguna Tavisi mtrebi, Tu am droSas uyurebda mtris jari, maTi siTamame SiSad Seicvleboda, Zala ki uZlurebad, simxne - sulmokleobad. ZvelqarTuliT ase gadmoicema droSis kurTxevis locva: - ,,raTa yovelTa mterTa CvenTa zeda SiSiTa amaT zeda mzirTa Seucvalnes kadniereba - moSiSebad, Zali - uZlurebad, simxne sulmokleobad da ltolvad... mklavni maTni Semusrnes da qveSe ferxTa morwmuneTa TvisTa daamorCilnes. - raTa sircxviliTa da upatiobiTa aRivsnes pirni winaaRmdgomTa CvenTani, xolo guli maTi SiSiTa da ZrwoliTa da angelozi uflisa eqmnes mdevnel da damTrgunvel maTda. - raTa Cveni mwuxareba da urva Seicvalnes Svebad da sixarulad, mtkiced mSvidobad~. aseTi sulieri Zalis matarebeli iyo qarTuli sabrZolo droSa, romelic saukuneTa manZilze Tavis garSemo aerTianebda aseulobiT da aTaseulobiT qarTvel qristesmoyvare mxedars, icavda mamuls. akurTxevdnen aseve samxedro iaraRsac. saWurvels awyobdnen ambionis win mdgar magidaze da ambobdnen locvas: ,,uflo amaT zeda kurTxeva Seni zecieri gardamoavline da monasa amas zeda (saxeli) tvirTad amisa gansamtkicebelad da Sesawevnelad wmidisa eklesiisa qvrivTa da 218

obolTa, qveyanasa zeda myofTa, wmidisa samkvidrebelisa Senisa keTilmorwmuneTa Zali da Zliereba moaniWe, mterTa banakebisa mqadebel da maSinebel hqmen ese da maradis ZlevaSemosilad gamoaCine sadidebelad Senda~. Cveni mebrZolebi Cveni qveynis uZlurebisa, Cveni xalxis urwmunoebisa da Cven codvaTa gamo afxazeTSi damarcxdnen. qarTvelobam afsuaseparatistebisagan ganicada usaSinelesi genocidi, magram, rogorc aRvniSneT, es sastiki marcxi da erovnuli ubedureba Cveni sazogadoebis mier saTanadod ar analizdeba. sxvaTa Soris, aseve iyo warsulSic da Cveni arcTu Soreuli winaprebis miamitoba (,,eri litoni da gulmartivi~ - ambobda mematiane), albaT erT-erTi mizezi iyo Cveni dRevandeli ubedurebisa. kerZod, ai, ra: Crdilokavkasiuri Cerqezuli tomebi, maT Soris afsuebi, abazebi da sxva adiRevelebi saqarTvelos (kerZod, ki afxazeTs) Semoesivnen XVI-XVII saukuneebSi. rogorc evropeli misionerebi, mogzaurebi da Cveni Zveli istorikosebi weren - sastiki iyo afsua-abaz-Cerqezebis anu dRes ,,afxazebad~ saxeldebuli tomebis winaprebis Tavdasxmebi afxazeTSi. maT XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi afxazeTis samTavros miwa-wyalze daxoces, daatyveves, amoJlites mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba, anu ,,Zveli afxazebi~, daesaxlnen aoxrebul teritoriaze da TviTon miisakuTres ara mxolod teritoria, aramed saxelic Zveli afxazebisa. dampyroblebi afxazeTisa ,,afxazebad~ iwodnen, rameTu ukve TviTon gaxdnen batonebi axlad damorCilebuli kuTxisa. odiSis anu samegrelos samTavros sazRvari Zvelad iwyeboda anakofiasTan anu axal aTonTan (rogorc vaxuSti gvamcnobs). afsuebma axla ukve afxazebad saxeldebulma tomma XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi dRevandeli soxumis, gulrifSis, oCamCirisa da galis raionebSi (e. i. istoriuli odiSis miwaze) ganuwyvetliv laSqrobaTa Sedegad axla ukve aq mospes, daimones da tyveebad dayides mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba (odiSelebi anu megrelebi). levan II dadianma da episkoposebma am Semoseuli mTieli tomebis Sesakaveblad aages uzarmazari TavdacviTi nageboba, romelic gadaWimuli iyo kelasuridan vidre mdinare enguramde, TiTqmis 100 kilometris manZilze (e. w. afxazeTis didi kedeli) magram, maSin, rogorc aRiniSna, qarTvelebi damarcxdnen, ,,afxazebad~ saxeldebulma afsuebma gaimarjves, masobrivad daxoces mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba da erT dros ayvavebuli odiSis es dapyrobili mxare udabnod (upatrono, ukacod migdebul, dausaxlebel, gatyevebul adgilad) aqcies, rogorc amas weren ucxoeli mogzaurebi lambertidan vidre koxamde da spenseramde. wyaroTa Tanaxmad cnobilia, rom e. w. afxazebma gadarCenili mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba monebad gadaaqcies, am sityvis namdvili mniSvnelobiT, maT rigebs aseve avsebdnen saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxeSi datyvevebuli, afxazeTSi Cayvanili adamianebis damonebiT. saqme isaa, rom am axali afxazebis sazogadoebisaTvis ucnobi iyo feodaluri wyobileba da isini imyofebodnen TavianTi ganviTarebis patriarqalur-gvarovnul safexurze. am sazogadoebaSi arsebobda Semdegi fenebi: 1. ,,aTavad~ anu mmarTveli fena; 2. ,,anxaiu~ - sruliad Tavisufali fena; 3. ,,axoiu~ - monebi, romelnic SedarebiT Tavisuflad grZnobdnen Tavs imiT, rom ojaxis Seqmna SeeZloT da miwis nakveTsac aZlevdnen 219

droebiT sargeblobaSi dasamuSaveblad da 4. ,,axaSvalebi~ - sruli monebi. maT daojaxebis ufleba ar hqondaT, xSirad yofil tyveebs warmoadgendnen. es ori bolo fena asec iwodeboda - ,,agirua~, ,,agurua~ rac, saerTod, qarTvels niSnavs, kerZod ki megrels an guruls. ase rom, afxazeTisa da samegrelos erTi nawilis (odiSis) dapyrobis Semdeg XVIIXVIII saukuneebSi genocidgamovlili da SemTxveviT cocxlad gadarCenili mkvidri qarTuli mosaxleoba afxazebma TavianT monebad gaixades, - ,,agirua~ uwodes. ubedureba isaa rom TiTqmis ori saukunis Semdgom igive ganmeorda, imitom rom Tavis droze XVII-XVIII saukuneebis am genocids analizi ar gaukeTda, es imas niSnavs, rom es ubedureba ar iqna mitanili mTeli qarTveli eris gulamde, xalxis mexsierebam ki gamovlili genocidi advilad daiviwya (mxolod Crdilo-dasavleT samegrelos samurzayanos naRvlianma da gulsaklavma simRerebma Semogvinaxa igi). Zveli genocidi rom gaanalizebuliyo, XIX-XX saukuneebSi, imave ubedurebas afsua separatistebi Tavs veRar dagvatexavdnen, rameTu aRarc Cveni axalgazrdoba da xalxi dasvamda kiTxvas - ,,Rirs Tu ara afxazeTSi brZola, ratomaa afxazeTSi omi?~ istoria ganmeorda, radgan mteri saTanadod ver SevafaseT miuxedavad Zveli istoriuli gakveTilebisa. zemonaTqvamidan gamomdinare ra dReSi arian axla afxazeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi, rogor epyrobian maT afxazebi, iseve rogorc Zvel dros Tu ukeT? wmida mociquli petre brZanebs: - ,,romlisaganaca vin Zleul arn mizdaca damonebul arn~ (II. petre, 2,19), anu ,,vinc visganaa Zleuli, misive monaa. cxadia, gamarjvebuli araTu veluri da barbarosi, aramed kulturulic ki omSi damarcxebul mosaxleobas sastikad epyroba, miT umetes, ra iTqmis afxazTa Sesaxeb, isini aiZuleben afxazeTSi darCenil qarTvelebs Caeweron megrelebad anu ,,agiruebad~ am saxels ki istoriulad uwodebdnen monebs, romelTac ayenebdnen sazogadoebis yvelaze umdables safexurze, ar aniWebdnen araviTar samoqalaqo uflebebs, aramed amuSavebdnen TavianT sasargeblod. amitomac unda SevekiTxoT im qarTvelebs, romelnic unebarTvod gadadian mdinare engurze, guli miuwevT TavianTi yana-plantaciisaken, baR-venaxisaken, saxl-karisaken, guli miuwevT papispapeuli mamulis, mitovebuli saflavebis mosavlelad - sad midixar? ,,si qoul bata?~ - nu SecdebiT, iq Tqven geliT marTalTa Sroma, magram Sroma ara Tavisufali moqalaqisa, aramed monisa, msaxurad gadaqceva im droebiT gamarjvebulisa, romelsac male daamarcxebs RvTis samarTali, Sen ki im Seni mtris damarcxebis dros Seni batoni afxazi tyviis win safrad dagiyenebs. nu uRalateb rjuls, winaprebs, samSoblos, xalxs, droebiT gasaWirSi yofna sjobs moRalatis monur, xanmokle sicocxles. msoflio qristianobis burjis konstantinepolis dacemas (1453) Tan mohyva Cveni megobari, mokavSire, marTlmadidebeli bizantiis adgilze osmaleTis imperiis warmoSoba. saqarTvelo moeqca urjuloTa rkalSi. gansakuTrebiT saxifaTo da saSiSi gaxda CvenTvis Crdilo-kavkasiuri mahmadianuri tomebi, romlebic, islamis fanatizmiT aRtacebulni, Tavs esxmodnen im droisaTvis daSla-danawevrebis piras misul saqarTvelos 220

kuTxeebs, aoxrebnen maT, atyvevebdnen mosaxleobas - qristianebs. lekebma, qistebma, didoelebma, osebma mospes da aaoxres aRmosavleTi saqarTvelo, dasavleTi ki Cerqezul-afxazurma tomebma. rogorc warsulSi, ise axla, am tomebs surT (maTi es survili qvecnobierad devs mTel maT SegnebaSi), xelT igdon saqarTvelos mziani velebi, ayvavebuli miwa-wyali, amas bolo dros daemata survili, rogorme saqarTvelos gziT daukavSirdnen Sav zRvas, islamur samyarosa da msoflios. Cveni mefeebi ruseTis xelmwifeebs swerdnen, rom qarTvelebs SeeZloT pirdapir omSi sparseTisa da osmaleTis armiebis mogerieba, magram verafers uxerxebdnen Crdilo-kavkasiel moTareSe tomebs, romelTa mcirericxovani razmebi ganuwyvetliv, qurduli miparviT, weliwadSi mravalgzis Tavs esxmodnen saqarTvelos yvela kuTxes. lekebma daipyres aRmosavleTi kaxeTi, dRes saingilod wodebuli, romelic Tavis droze warmoadgenda kaxeTis samefos yvelaze uxvmosavlian miwa-wyals, romelzec mdebareobda am samefos deda-qalaqebi - Zegami da bazarqalaqi. Semdeg ki lekebma srulebiT aaoxres qvemoqarTli, amowyvites iqauri qarTuli mosaxleoba da amiT xeli Seuwyves dRevandeli bolnisis, dmanisis, marneulisa da gardabnis raionebSi araqarTuli mosaxleobis gamravlebas. qistebis anu CeCen-inguSebis Semotevebi xevsurebma SeaCeres, magram ver gauZlo mTieli qarTvelebis im tomma, romelsac - dvalebi erqva. dvalebi CrdiloeTidan Semosul osebTan omSi damarcxdnen da amis gamo dvalebis tomi TviTonve gaosda - dampyroblebma gaaoses, maTi sacxovrisi (Sida qarTlis mTianeTi) amis Semdgom osebiT dasaxlebuli aRmoCnda. svanebma da raWvelebma SeaCeres yabardouli da balyaruli tomebi, xolo Zvelafxazebis qarTuli tomi damarcxda Crdilo-kavkasiur adiRe-CerqezebTan omSi, ris gamoc, rogorc iTqva, afxazeTSi Camosaxldnen abazebi da afsuebi, romlebic amis Semdgom ukve afxazeTis mkvidrebad iqcnen, Seuties odiSs, daamarcxes da ayvavebuli miwa-wyali CamoaWres vidre enguramde. Crdilo-kavkasia istoriulad mudam saxifaTo mxares warmoadgenda ara mxolod saqarTvelosaTvis. romis imperiac ki, Tu aras vityviT sparseTsa da Semdegdroindel bizantiaze, mudam SiSiT uyurebda aTasgvari tomebiT dasaxlebul kavkasiis gadaRma mxares. saqarTvelom imis Semdgom moisvena, rac vaxtang gorgaslis mier damarcxebul am mxareSi qristianoba gavrcelda. qristes eklesiam es mxare wmida sarwmunoebis meSveobiT uxifaTo zonad aqcia saqarTvelos saxelmwifosaTvis, magram Temur lengis laSqrobaTa Semdgom, rac koWlma despotma iq mahmadianoba gaavrcela, saqarTvelom mosveneba dakarga. ara erTi da ori wlis, aramed istoriul sabuTTa Tanaxmad, saukuneTa manZilze qarTveli mefeebi cdilobdnen SeeCerebinaT CrdilokavkasielTa Tavdasxmebi saqarTveloze. Cveni winaprebi XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi, Txovdnen ruseTs iuridiulad ecno Tavisufali saqarTvelos saxelmwifo Tavis megobar, Tanasworuflebian da erTgul qveynad. saocaria, rom aseTi, Zvelad nanatri mdgomareoba Cvens saxelmwifoTa, anu ruseTsa da saqarTvelos Soris - dReisaTvis ukve arsebobs - risTvisac dideba unda aRvuvlinoT ufals, yvelaferi danarCeni - saqarTvelos gamTlianeba saxelmwifos

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gaZliereba da ayvaveba Cvens pirad Rvawlsa da TavdacviT brZolazea damokidebuli. unda CamovayaliboT maRali zneobrivi idealebis mqone armia (winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi, uzneo jari, ara mxolod ver gaimarjvebs mterze, aramed zians miayenebs sakuTar xalxsac). rogorc mefe daviTi brZanebs - raTa ,,ukuiqces mteri Cemi marTlukun, mouZlurden da warwymden pirisagan RvTisa~; raTa ,,mterisa maxvili moakldes sruliad da qalaqni aRaoxrdnen, warwymda saxsenebeli maTi RaRadebiTurT~ # (fs. 2-3,6), raTa ,,mteri Cemi momcen me meotad da moZuleni Cemni mosren~ (fs. 17,40) da ,,vdevno mteri Cemi, davewio maT da ara movaqcio, vidre ara moesrulen~ (17,17). rogorc qarTveli glexi kaci mReroda - ,,numca uxaris Cemzeda mtersa CemTa usamarTlod, romelTa momiZules me cudad~ (fs. 34,19), SevTxovoT ufals ,,wyalobiTa SeniTa mosrne mterni Cemi da warwymide yovelni maWirvebeli sulisa Cemisani, rameTu monai Seni var~ (142,12). viTarca ugalobda ufals mose Tavis eris egviptidan gamoyvanis Semdgom - ,,marjvene Seni ufalo didebul ars ZaliT SeniTa, marjveneman xelman Senman mosrna mterni da simravliTa miT didebisa SenisaTa Semusra mxdomni igi~ (galoba I mosesi). Cven ki davlocoT Cveni axladaRorZinebuli armia: ,,mxne iyavn da gaZlierdin guli Seni da sZlie mtersa Sensa da esevdi ufalsa saxeliTa mamisaTa da ZisaTa da wmidisa sulisaTa, amin~. 3. I. 95. manglisi. gaz. ,,madli~, III, 1995.

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saqarTvelos Svilebi

Cvengan gavaucxooT Cveni sisxli da xorci?

Cvens ufalsa da macxovars ieso qristes wmida saxarebaSi nabrZanebi aqvs igavi keTili mwyemsis Sesaxeb, romelsac Tavisi asi cxvridan erTi daekarga. mwyemsma miatova mindorze 99 cxvari da wavida erTaderTi cxvris saZebnelad. roca ipova, gaixara da SeuerTa mitovebulT. es igavi Cven dRevandel yofasac Seexeba. me vgulisxmob im damokidebulebas, romelic Seiqmna qarTvelTa da osTa Soris. patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno, gana dRemde Cveni sayvareli saqarTvelos qarTuli Tu osuri nawili Cvens saeklesio samwysoSi ar Semodioda da Semodis dResac? maS, rogor unda moiqces keTili mwyemsi, roca samwysos erTi nawili danarCenisagan CamorCenas apirebs, miatovos es da sxva cxvarni win gairekos? sad unda iyos keTili mwyemsi am dros? mcneba, siyvaruli qristesi, gvavalebs siyvaruliT, pativiscemiT da gagebiT movekidoT CvenSi mcxovreb osebs. mwyemsma keTilma isini Tavis samwysos unda daubrunos, mTeli Tavisi yuradReba im erTaderTs, samwysodan CamorCenils unda miapyros. amitomac unda iTqvas - osebi saqarTvelos Svilebi arian. ufro metic, isini ara formalurad Semodian Cveni eklesiis samwysoSi, aramed realurad. saerTod, saqarTvelos eklesiaSi Semodian ara marto qarTvelebi, aramed saqarTveloSi mcxovrebi yvela qristiani - rusebi iqnebian Tu ukrainelebi. osi qristianebi Cveni samwysos nawilia. da axla, am gasaWiris dros, Cven maTTan varT Cven maT gverdSi viqnebiT, ar davanebebT mgels anu saqarTvelos mters, wagvarTvas nawili Cveni samwysosi, sadac yvela daculi da kurTxeuli unda iyos. me mxedvelobaSi maqvs, pirvel rigSi, Cveni eparqia, romelSic Sedis borjomis raioni. aq mravali osi cxovrobs, keTili qristianebi, keTilmorwmuneni. Cven yovelTvis davicavT am qristianebis interesebs. da Tqven, Cveno sayvarelo saqarTvelos Svilebo - osebo, iyaviT guldinjni da gulmSvidni, erTi wuTiTac ar daeWvdeT Tqvens mimarT qarTvelebis Zmobasa da megobrobaSi. gana dRemde saukuneTa manZilze Cven erToba, siyvaruli, Zmoba, naTelmironoba, naTlimamoba ar gvqonda da gvaqvs erTmaneTSi, gana cotaa Cveni erT ojaxSi, erT WerqveS mcxovrebi qarTvelebi da osebi? Cven xom ara marto sulieri erToba gvakavSirebs, aramed erT sisxlad da xorcad varT qceulni. gana ase ar iyo saukuneTa manZilze? axla yvelam erTad vecadoT, cxvari mglad ar iqces, rogorc es alan CoCievs surs. me wavikiTxe osi moqalaqis werili respublikur gazeTSi, sadac is CoCievs pirad mters uwodebs da es asea marTlac, am kacs da mis jgufs Tavis xalxis daRupva surs. Cven Cvens samwysos marad davicavT, rogorc CoCievebis msgavsTagan, ise im qarTvelTaganac, romlebmac ar ician mtrobis gaRvivebiT ras umzadeben qarTvel xalxs. 223

qarTvelo qristiano, Sen uzarmazari politikuri kulturis memkvidre xar, rogor fiqrob, aseTi midgoma rom hqonoda Cvens ers sxva erovnebis SvilebTan, Cveni saxelmwifo iarsebebda oriaTas eqvsasi weli? Cven mudam gvqonda Cveni saxelmwifo, magram Cvens winaprebs, yvelaferTan erTad, qristianuli siyvaruli da politikuri moTmineba hqondaT. siyvaruli da ara ampartavnuli Tavis aRereba, moTmineba da ara mouTmenloba. ,,iyvarebodeT urTierTas~ - gvaswavlis ufali, ,,Seiyvare moyvasi Seni - viTarca Tavi Seni~ - ,,iyaviT sruli, viTarca mama RmerTi~ - imeorebs didi ilia marTali. nu gavxdiT ciliswamebas politikur iaraRad, ciliswameba simdablea, ciliswameba igmoba uflis im aT mcnebaSi, romelic mose winaswarmetyvels misca TviT RmerTma: - ,,ara cili swamo moyvassa Sensa wamebiTa cruiTa~. rogorc gairkva, qarTvelebis erT nawils araqarTvelebad miiCneven maTi ,,osuri~ gvarebis gamo. aseTi migoma arasworia da mcdari. arsebobs mecnieruli naSromebi, Zveli sabuTebi, saidanac naTlad mtkicdeba, rom am gvarebis nawili qarTuli warmoSobisaa. me aq Sevexebi mxolod ramdenime gvars, Cvens raionSi gavrcelebulT, magaliTad, TediaSvilebis gvari saerTod borjomuli warmoSobisaa. didi mecnieri vaxuSti bagrationi, romelic aseve cnobili geografi iyo, XVIII saukunis dasawyisSi, dRevandeli borjomis raionSi asaxelebs ,,TedianT-ubans~ anu TediaSvilebis sofels. es is droa, roca, imave vaxuStis gadmocemiT, Crdilo kavkasiidan qarTlis midamoebSi TandaTan esaxlebian os-dvalebi (ix. qarTlis cxovreba, t. 4, gv. 634-650). vaxuSti asaxelebs yovel xevs, yovel adgils, sadac ki os-dvalebi saxloben am dros. maTi dasaxlebis areali saqarTveloSi im dros mxolod qarTlis mTianeTs moicavda da araviTari osuri mosaxleoba an osuri gvari dRevandel borjomis raionSi vaxuStis dros ar cxovrobda. magram iq, rogorc aRvniSneT, TediaSvilebis sofeli iyo. TedianT-ubani, s. makalaTias mixedviT waRverTan mdebareboda (borjomis xeoba, 1957, gv. 26). TediaSvilebi im dros iyvnen avaliSvilebis ymebi. cnobilia, rom vaxuStis Semdeg meTvramete saukunis bolos avaliSvilebi TavianTi ymebiT borjomis xeobidan gadasaxldnen Sida qarTlSi. cxadia, maT Soris iyvnen, TediaSvilebic. aq isini mecxramete saukuneSi moeqcnen osur garemoSi da am gvaris zogierTi wevri gaosda. mecxramete saukunis dasawyisSi avaliSvilebi kvlav dabrundnen borjomis xeobaSi, maT Soris iyvnen TediaSvilebic. qarTvelebis gaosebis Sesaxeb Cven gvaqvs mecnier eTnografTa uamravi monacemebi. g. jiblaZe wers: ,,Tu qarTvelTa da gaqarTvelebul dvalTa gaoseba wina saukuneSi mxolod maRalmTian xeobas moicavda, meoce saukuneSi procesma gadmoinacvla dabalmTiani gardamavali zolisaken~ (eTnikuri procesebi Sida qarTlSi, krebuli Sida qarTli, 1987, gv. 17-18), xolo rac Seexeba qarTvelTa gaosebas maRal mTianeTSi, amis Sesaxeb werda meTvramete saukunis didi germaneli mecnieri giuldenStedtic. es mecnieri germaniidan kavkasiaSi, kerZod, saqarTveloSi mogzaurobda. is wers ,,kavkasiel mTielTa Soris, gansakuTrebiT lekebsa da osebSi, aris bevri qarTveli, romelTac religiasTan erTad enac daiviwyes~ (giuldenStedti, mogzauroba saqarTveloSi, t. I. gv. 185). misi

224

dakvirvebiT, qarTlis mTianeTSi osTa Soris mcxovrebi qarTvelebi kargavdnen qarTul enasa da sarwmunoebas, ris gamoc isini osdebodnen. vaxuStis dros qarTlis mTianeTSi os-dvalebi arcTu didi xnis Semosulebi iyvnen. amitomac maRran-dvaleTSi (saqarTveloSi osTa gansaxlebis ZiriTad teritoriaze, romelic moicavda dRevandeli javis raionis erT nawils), osebTan erTad jer kidev cxovrobda qarTuli mosaxleobis mniSvnelovani raodenoba (ix. dasax. naSr. t. I, gv. 101; t. II, gv. 91). swored isini ganicdidnen im dros gaosebas da es procesi Semdeg, mecxramete saukuneSi gavrcelda qarTlis barSi, mTielebis barSi xiznebad CamosaxlebasTan erTad. am process TviT xalxi ukvirdeboda da afiqsirebda Tavis maxsovrobaSi. ai, ras wers mecnieri: ,,sainteresoa eTnografiuli masala odiSvilebis Sesaxeb. Zir-gvari yofila cecxlaZe. Tavidan mejudis xeobis sofel sardisSi ucxovriaT. mand yofilan samni Zmani cecxlaZeebi (aRsaniSnavia, rom cecxlaZeebi 1744 wlis aRweris Tanaxmad, WurTis xevis mkvidrni arian, ix. javaxiSvili, gv. 184). erTs erqva bedo, meores - mela, mesames - odi. eseni Camosulan da daukargavT namdvili gvari cecxlaZe da gadakeTebulan sam gvarad - odiSvilad, bedoSvilad da melaZed. melaZis winapari dasaxlda WurTaSi, odiSvilisa - zodexSi, bedoSvilisa - safarSeTSi. melaZeebi da bedoSvilebi gaosdnen. xevSic arian odiSvilebi, papaCemis gadmocemiT isini godexSi midiodnen salocavad~ (r. TofCiSvili, qsnis xeobis zogierTi eTno-istoriuli sakiTxebi, macne, istoriis seria, 1987, N4, gv. 35). aris sxva sagvareulo dakvirvebac xarxelebis, jabaurebis da fsuturebis gaosebis Sesaxeb - ,,Cveni mogvareni yofilan agreTve qoloTSi mosaxle xarxelebi da fsuturebi, zogi naxidSi cxovroben. naxidSi bevri gaosda da fsuturebi TviTon ufro osurad laparakobdnen~ (iqve, gv. 39). aseve aris bitievebis Sesaxebac. ,,ZelyoraSvilebis Zirgvari guTniaSvili yofila, ZelyoraSvilebis gvars ki SedarebiT gvian (XIX s-is pirvel naxevarSi) gamoyofian bekaraSvilebi da bitiaSvilebis gvari~ (iqve, gv. 39). bitiaSvilebi anu bitiaanT rusuli administraciis gavleniT XIX saukuneSi TavianT gvars umateben gvarwarmomqmnel rusul sufiqss ,,ev~ da bitiaSvilebis nacvlad formdeba gvari bitievi. dasaxelebul naSromSi aRwerilia, agreTve, msgavsi procesebi magaliTad, Tu rogor Sevida iluriZeebis ojaxSi osuri ena da wesCveulebebi; isini osur garemoSi, erT-erTi mTis xeobaSi cxovrobdnen: ,,cnobilia, rom qali iSviaTad Txovdeboda baridan mTaSi, ZiriTadad piriqiT movlenas aqvs xolme adgili. aseT mdgomareobaSi aRmoCndnen iluriZeebic: maT qvemodan mosaxle qarTvelTagan zemoT aravin Txovdeboda. iluriZeebis zemoT ki osebi mkvidrobdnen. XIX s-Si iluriZeebma masobrivad daiwyes osis qalebTan daqorwineba. qalebma ki, romlebic iluriZeTa ojaxebis dedebi da rZlebi gaxdnen, gvarSi Semoitanes osuri ena, yofa da rigi wes-Cveulebebi. iluriZeebi dRes faqtiurad orenovanni arian. XVIII s-is aRweris masalebiT iluriZeebis qarTveloba araviTar eWvs ar iwvevs~ (iqve, gv. 35). aseve iTqmis gvar eloevis Sesaxeb. g. Ciqovanis mier Cawerili masaliT, qarCoxSi xevidan mosulan gigaurebi, romelTa memkvidreni arian qsnis xeveli 225

pavliaSvilebi. ,,pavliaSvilebis ganayrebad iTvlebian eloSvilebi. axali gvar-saxelis gamoyofa SedarebiT gvian, XVIII s-is meore naxevarSi momxdara. am gvarisaTvis safuZveli didi ojaxis ufross elo pavliaSvils miucia. 1774 wlis aRweris davTarSi aseTi pirovneba marTlac gvxvdeba~ (iqve, gv. 32). aseve iTqmis siukaevebis Sesaxebac, ,,1774 w. sof. ukana mxarSi, ZiriTadad mkvidroben SiukaSvilebi, oRaZeebi, 1873 wlis kameraluri aRweris mixedviT, aq Canan manjikaSvilebi, eTnografiuli masaliT oRaZeTa gvaridan arian gamosuli papiaSvilebi~ (iqve, gv. 33). jikaevebis (manjikaevi) da papiaevebis msgavsad, qoqoSvilebis anu qoqoevebis ganayofi yofilan kaWiaurebi. ,,gavazSi mkvidroben kaWiaurebic. maTi Ziri gvari qoqoSvili yofila~ (iqve, gv. 36). ,,WoWalebis (CoCelebi) Ziri gvaria qarumiZe~ (iqve, gv. 37). mTis gvar CoCelebisagan nawarmoebia gvari CoCiSvilebisa. qarTvelTa gaosebiT gansakuTrebiT dainteresebuli iyo gasul saukuneSi caristuli administracia. mefis Cinovnikebi aRweris masalebSi gangeb iqceodnen Semdegnairad: miuxedavad imisa, rom 1886 wlis saojaxo siebis aRweris masalebSi Trusos xeobis sofel oqroyanaSi, aRweris Tanaxmad, mkvidrobdnen erovnebiT qarTvelebi, aRmwerma isini rusuli sufiqsiT ,,ev~ Cawera: gudievebi, bibilovebi, arjinovebi, bidagovebi, zagalovebi, kakaevebi (r. TofCiSvili, XIX s-is mosaxleobis aRweris masalebi, mnaTobi, 1987, #12, gv. 160-161). miuxedavad imisa, rom sof. TolgoTis mkvidri fitarovebis da Tayaevebis saojaxo ena qarTuli iyo. aRmwerma isini osebad Cawera. arsebobs Zveli qarTuli masalebi, saidanac Cans, rom is gvarebi, romlebic dRes osurad miiCneva, Zvelad namdvilad qarTuls warmoadgenda. magaliTad, xarebaSvilebis anu dRevandeli xarebovebis winaprebs qarTuli samarTlis Zeglebi jer kidev meTvramete saukuneSi moixsenieben rogorc mRvdlebs. cnobilia, rom osebi im dros ara Tu mRvdlebad, aramed qristianebadac ki naklebad miiCneodnen, maT gaqristianebas Crdilo kavkasiaSi, anu osTa gansaxlebis ZiriTad teritoriaze eweoda rusuli xelisufleba. amitomac, Suagul saqarTveloSi, ruissa da SindisSi osi mRvdlad ver gamwesdeboda. qvemoT moyvanili dokumentidan Cans, aRniSnuli mRvdeli osi rom yofiliyo, amis Sesaxeb uTuod miuTiTebda misi momCivani episkoposi. 1793 wlis 16 Tebervals ruiseli episkoposi Civis vaxtang batoniSvilTan imis Sesaxeb, rom ,,xarebaSvils giorgi mRvdels abisi sofeli mivabare sanaxevrod, rac eSova Suaze unda gaeyo~ (qarT. samarT. Zeglebi, t. VIII, gv. 196), magram im mRvdel xarebaSvils ar gauyvia da SindisSi gadasula. aseve iTqmis margiSvilebis, axlandeli margievebis Sesaxeb. isini kidev ufro adre, XVIII saukunidan moixsenebian werilobiT sabuTebSi (iqve, t. VII, gv. 690-691). margiSvilebis erT Stos javaxeTTanac aqvs kavSiri. isini TumaniSvilebis ymebi yofilan (t. VIII, gv. 90). Sida qarTlSi ara marto yma glexebi (xiznebi) gaosebulan, aramed Tavadebis da aznaurebis nawilic ki. magaliTad, bortievebis winapari bortiSvilebi maCablebis erT-erT Stos warmoadgendnen. ,,maCablebis gvari Tavadur saxelebad daiyo: zaaliSvilebad, giorgiSvilebad, revaziSvilebad da bortiSvilebad~ (qse t. 6, gv. 509). revazovebic (revaziSvilebi) gaosdnen. axlandeli diakonovebis winapari diakvnisSvilebi XVI saukunidanve ixsenieba, ,,gorelma vaWarma 226

diakvnisSvilma stambolSi gardacvlili simon mefis neSti saqarTveloSi wamoasvena~ (istoriuli wyaroTmcodneobiTi narkvevebi, 1988, gv. 28). aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTvelTa gaosebis zemoT aRniSnul process gansakuTrebuli meTodebiT aviTarebda caristuli xelisufleba. magaliTad, saqarTveloSi batonymobis gauqmebamde rva wliT adre xelisuflebam qarTveli batonebisagan gaaTavisufla maTi ymebis osuri nawili. es moxda 1852 wlis 8 ivniss imperatoris rezoluciis Sedegad, romelic man daado mefisnacval voroncovis Sesabamis wardginebas. ruseTis senatis gadawyvetileba Seexeboda qarTvel mebatoneTagan ymebis osuri nawilis gaTavisuflebis moTxovnas. mefis nacvali iZulebuli gaxda axali gzebi eZia ymebis osuri nawilis gaTavisuflebisaTvis, kerZod, maCablebs dauniSna yovelwliuri pensia xuTi aTasi maneTis odenobiT: oRond maT unda gaeTavisuflebinaT TavianTi ymebis osuri nawili (samxreT oseTis istoriis narkvevebis, t. I, gv. 186, q. s. e. saq. ssr, 1981, gv. 338). amis gamo, batonymobis gadavardnamde didi xniT adre, 1852 wels osebi gamovidnen ymobis uRlisagan. isini iqcnen Tavisufal saxelmwifo glexebad da SeeZloT dasaxleba saxazino miwebze, agreTve, qarTvel memamuleTa miwebzec. oRond ara rogorc ymebs, aramed rogorc xiznebs - Tavisufal miwaTmoqmedebs, es iyo Zalzed didi privilegia, romelic mieniWa Sida qarTlis mosaxleobis mxolod osur nawils. amis gamo mravali qarTveli yma glexisaTvis ,,osoba~ sanatreli iyo da esenic cdilobdnen Caweriliyvnen osebad yoveli momdevno aRweris dros. xolo ufro adre, XIX saukunis dasawyisSi, qarTvelebis gaosebas gansakuTrebiT Seuwyo xeli saeklesio politikam, romelsac rusuli saegzarxoso ewoda, qarTuli eklesiis avtokefaliis gauqmebis Semdeg. am dros mravali qarTuli saepiskoposo gaauqmes da maT nacvlad daaarses sul sami eparqia: qarTlisa, oseTisa da siRnaRisa. e. w. ,,oseTis eparqiis~ SeqmniT rusulma saeklesio xelisuflebam gadawyvita ,,aRedgina~ qristianoba saqarTvelos mTianeTSi. am dros aRsdga oseTis sasuliero komisiac, romelic TiTqosda ,,aqristianebda~ qarTlis mTianeTis mosaxleobas, am dros aq moinaTla mosaxleobis didi raodenoba. ,,1815 wels ukve monaTluli iyo 11446 osi, xolo 1820 wlis pirveli ivlisisaTvis monaTluli osebis ricxvma 31997 kacs miaRwia~ (samxreT oseTis ist. narkvevebi, gv. 245). monaTlulTagan yvela osi ar iyo. qarTveli mTielebic inaTlebodnen, magram imis gamo, rom rusuli saeklesio xelisufleba monaTvlis safasurad mxolod osebs aTavisuflebda batonymuri urTierTobisagan da, agreTve, aZlevda fulad jildos, qarTleli mTielebic, saxazino glexebis kategoriaSi gadayvanis mizniT, osebad acxadebdnen Tavs da ,,inaTlebodnen~. xelisuflebam miznad daisaxa rogorme aRmoefxvra qarTlis mTianeTSi qarTuli saeklesio msaxureba, qarTuli wirva-locva, religiuri wesebis qarTuli rigiT aRsruleba. mTielebis qarTvelTagan gaucxoebis mizniT mravali RonisZieba gatarda. aRsaniSnavia, rom Crdilo kavkasiaSic mTeli tomebis gaqristianebul wevrebs ruseTis xelisufleba asaxlebda, dablobSi aZlevda miwas da garkveuli odenobiT Tanxas (m. gonikaSvili, saadgilmamulo reforma, 1984, gv. 72-74). garda politikuri, socialuri da religiuri mizezebisa, 227

arsebobda qarTvelTa gaosebis sxva mizezebic. upirveles yovlisa, es iyo qarTveli mosaxleobis eTnikuri TviTSemecnebis uaRresad dabali done, romelic gansakuTrebiT gaRrmavda XIX saukunis pirvel naxevarSi, qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis gauqmebis gamo. erovnuli TviTSemecneba imdenad dabal doneze idga, rom TviT ilia WavWavaZis figuraluri SefasebiT qarTvelad Tavis Tavs Tvlida ZiriTadad mxolod qarTleli, bareli da kaxeTis mosaxleobis Segnebuli nawili (ix. i. WavWavaZe. t. III, gv. 72-73). am dros TviTSemecnebis dabal dones religiuri momentic aRrmavebda, qarTvelad mxolod qarTvel marTlmadideblebs Tvlidnen, qarTvel kaTolikebs uwodebdnen frangebs, qarTvel grigorianebs somxebs, qarTvel mahmadianebs - TaTrebs. rogorc vTqviT, qarTveloba dakavSirebuli iyo mtkice marTlmadideblur sarwmunoebasTan, amitomac iyo tendenciebi imisa, rom barSi masobrivad Camosaxlebuli mTielebis mounaTlaobis gamo barelebi daeWvebuliyvnen mTielTa marTlmadideblobaSi, anu rac igivea maT ,,qarTvelobaSi~. arsebobs amis damamtkicebeli mravali faqti. magaliTad, bestavaSvilebi ZvelTaganve qarTvelebad miiCneodnen, jer kidev osebis saqarTvelos mTianeTSi Camosaxlebamde. miuxedavad amisa, qarTlis mTianeTis ,,bestavaanT soflidan~ barSi gadmosaxlebuli bestavaSvilebis nawili osebad miiCnies barelebma, maTi aramarTlmadideblobis anu araeklesiurobis gamo. magaliTad, XVIII saukunis samocdaaTiani wlebis aRweris masalebidan Cans, rom bestavaSvilebis sofelSi, anu ,,bestaavanT sofelSi~ sul oTxi komli osi cxovrobda (xelnawerTa instituti, f. hd. dok. 5421). TiTqmis erTi saukunis Semdeg, 1870 wels am sofelSi administraciam ,,gaxsna~ eklesia; es niSnavda qarTveli mTielebis osebad Caweras. qarTveli mTielebi (osebi) batonymuri uflisagan (maCablebisagan) gaTavisuflebis Semdeg (1852 wlidan) mravlad esaxlebian safalavandoSi anu dRevandel znauris raionSi. aq isini, rogorc Tavisufali glexebi, memamulisagan dasamuSaveblad iReben miwas 10 desetinamde. isini iyvnen ara ymebi, aramed xiznebi. male isini gamdidrdnen da qarTvel mosaxleobasac aRuZres survili msgavsi wesiT mieRoT miwa-wyali. magram am dros saqarTveloSi jer kidev arsebobda batonymoba, xolo ymobisgan mxolod osebi iyvnen gaTavisuflebulni. amitom ,,osoba~ iqca socialur kategoriad. ,,osobam~ Tavisufal miwaTmoqmedad aqcia yma-glexi da es did gavlenas axdenda qarTvelebze. ,,n. mari da Semdeg ufro safuZvlianad v. abaevi amtkicebs, rom osebi romeliRac mosuli iranuli tomis ubralo gagrZeleba ar arian. maT damxvduri mcxovrebni arc gauJletiaT da arc gawyvetilan, aramed Sexamebian, moxda asimilacia da amis Sedegad warmoiSva axlandeli osuri tipi~ (i. megreliZe, siZveleni liaxvis xeobaSi, 1984, gv. 7). marTalia, es Seexeba kavkasiis mTianeTs, sadac moxda mosuli iranuli tomisa da damxvduri iberiuli tomebis urTierTSereva ramac, abaevis Tanaxmad, xeli Seuwyo ,,axlandeli osuri tipis Camoyalibebas~. magram es xsnis qarTvelTa osebSi asimilaciis processac, radganac qarTvelebi iberiul-kavkasiuri tomia, msgavsad dvalebisa, romelnic, Tanaxmad vaxuStisa, safuZvlad udevs Tanamedrove samxreTeli osebis eTnoss. ,,swored amitom zogi avtori saeWvod miiCnevs Crdiloeli da samxreTeli osebis erTian warmomavlobas.~ (ioseb megreliZe, siZveleebi liaxvis 228

xeobaSi, 1984, gv. 10). xolo ,,enobrivi monacemebiT v. abaevi Tvlis, rom Crdiloosuri ena ukanakneli orasi wlis mixedviT ufro rusuli enis gavlenas gviCvenebs, xolo samxreT osuri - qarTuli enisa~ (iqve, gv. 11). Tumca isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom am sakiTxze sxvagvari Tvalsazrisic arsebobs. rogorc aRiniSna, safalavandosa (znauris raioni) da qsnis saerisTaoSi (leningoris raioni) mcxovreblebze qarTuli zegavlena sruliad aSkaraa. TviT samaCablosa da maRran dvaleTis (cxinvalisa da javis raionebis) epigrafikuli masala msgavs zegavlenaze gvaniSnebs. jer kidev giuldenStedti miuTiTebda, didi liaxvis xeobaSi da mis zemowelze mravali qarTuli sofeli arsebobda. XVIII saukunis bolos isini osur garemoSi moxvedrilan, anu rogorc mecnierebi uwodeben ,,osuri dafenebis~ qveS. arsebobs qarTvelTa gaosebis epigrafikuli suraTic, kerZod, aq igulisxmeba warwerebi saflavis qvebsa da sxv. aqedan Cans: Tuki mama-papa qarTuli gvaris matarebelia TviT XIX s. I naxevarSi, Svils ukve ,,osur~ yaidaze - rusuli daboloebiT mouwyvia Tavisi gvari. magaliTebi uamravia, maT moyvanamde unda iTqvas, rom gvarTan erTad aqauri qarTvelebi enasac kargavdnen, TviT XX s-is dasawyisSic ki, Tuki mama-papebma qarTuli ena icodnen, Svilebma ukve aRar ician, ,,adgilobriv osTa ufrosi Taobis didi umravlesoba orenovania, isini mSobliuri osuri enis garda qarTul enazec metyveleben~ (iqve, gv. 230). sof. gufTeli jioevebisa da TigiSvilebis winaprebis saflavis qvebs aweria: ,,jioSvili (,,tato jioSvili~, ,,qalamana~, ,,arjevana~, ,,sosiko jioSvilis meuRle~ da sxv.), xolo axal droSi - ,,jioevi~. aseve aweria Zveli drois saflavis qvebs mSvenieri qarTuli eniT dawerili leqsi - epitafiebi, warwerebi: ,,TigiSvili~, ,,gasiSvili~, ,,filiSvili~, axla - Tigievi, gasievi, plievi (iqve, gv. 234235). ,,filievebis zogi ojaxi biWikaSvilad ixsenieba. maSasadame, maT winapars biWika rqmevia~ (iqve, gv. 236). uZveles dros erTi jioSvili mRvdeli yofila da sionSic umsaxuria. ,,yofila morgoeli jivaSvili anu jioevi, romelic Semdeg TbilisSi sionSi msaxurobdao~ (iqve, gv. 237), sof. jriaSi aris qoTolaSvilebis epitafiebi da Semdeg qoTolovovebisa (gv. 238). sof. ninoSi 1894 w. qvaze aweria qarsanaSvili, ramdenime xnis Semdeg - qarsanovi (gv. 239). Tuki sof. msxlebSi 1880 wlis epitafiaze mSvenieri qarTuliT aris cxovrebaSvilis epitafia, ramdenime xnis Semdeg ukve Cndeba ,,cxovrebaevisa~ (gv. 242). sainteresoa cnoba cabaevis Sesaxeb: ,,vasil cabaevis metrikul amonawerSi CabaSvili weria. vasils vekiTxebi, Cabaevi da cabaevi gana erTi da igivea? misi pasuxia: ase iyo, CabaSvils gviwodebdnen, ager 50 weliwadia cabaevs (cabaTi) gveZaxiano~ (gv. 246). javaSi aris 1870 wels mSvenieri qarTuliT dawerili epitafia baTo sanayoSvilisa, ramdenime xnis Semdeg ki axali saflavis qvaze sanayoevi wauweriaT. Zvel warwerebSi ki yvelgan qarTuli formebia. erTi am gvarisa Tanamdebobis piri yofila. ,,Tanamdebobis pirebs ufro adre dauwyiaT gvarebis garusuleba~ (gv. 249). gvxvdeba gvarebi Tavdapirveli formiT: babaSvili, TandilaSvili TibilaSvili, qvabaZe, xarebaSvili, farastaSvili (Semdeg farastaevi), gaTokoSvili, Semdeg gaTokoevi, relguraZe, qoqoSvili, dedaSvili-valiSvili, baRaSvili da ara bagievi (ix. iqve, gv. 249-291). aqve, am mosaxleobaSi arsebobda mravali 229

qarTuli legenda, Tqmuleba, xat-jvrebisa Tu eklesiebis saxelebi da maTi sagvareulo Tayvaniscemis wes-Cveuleba. ,,samxreT-oseTis gansakuTrebiT javis raionis mcxovrebTa zepirsityvierebaSi vxvdebiT qarTulis msgavs Tqmulebebsa da legendebs~ (gv. 251). arsebobs aseve gvarebi toponimuri warmoSobisa, magaliTad ,,savaxtango~ ewodeboda erT vrcel kuTxes Sida qarTlSi, samaCablosa da qsnis xeobis sazRvarze. aqaurebis gvari - vaxtangiSvili, Semdeg vaxtangovebad gardaiqmna, Tumca imereTSi gvxvdeba gvari vaxtangaZe, aWaraSi - vaxtanguri, qarTlSi vaxtangiSvili. dvaleTSi iyo toponimi ,,bobaleTi~, amitomac am xeobis mkvidrT erqvaT - bibilurebi (Zegli erisTavTa, qarT. samarTlis Zegl. II, 1965, gv. 102). saerTod, zemoT moyvanilis gansamtkiceblad arsebobs uamravi uZvelesi werilobiTi wyaro: mosaxleobis aRwerebi, eTnografiuli Canawerebi, epigrafiuli masala Tu samarTlebrivi sabuTebi. saWiroa mxolod maTi Tavmoyra. yovelive zemoaRniSnuli srul uflebas iZleva iTqvas, rom qarTveli da osi xalxebis Zmobas ara mxolod sulieri, aramed xorcieli, eTnikuri safuZvelic gaaCnia. ganxeTqilebas am or moZme xalxs Soris ufali ar dauSvebs. aqve unda iTqvas, rom zemoT moyvanili masala Cven gadmoveciT ara visme erovnuli grZnobebis dasaTrgunad, aramed imis saCveneblad, rom erTi warmoSobis ori gvari erTmaneTs ar daupirispirdes. magaliTad, TibilaSvili, romelsac pasportSi qarTveli uweria, sisxlismieri naTesavia Tibilovisa, cxovrebaSvili - cxovrebovisa, baRaSvili bagaevisa da ase Semdeg. Cven yvelani saqarTvelos Svilebi varT, wevrebi uflis erTi samwysosi da Cvens Soris ganxeTqileba mxolod uflis mtrebs gaaxarebs. SevTxov ufal RmerTs, daamkvidros mSvidoba Tqvens gulebSi. nabrZanebia - dideba maRalTa Sina RmerTsa, qveyanasa zeda mSvidoba da kacTa Soris saTnoeba. iareT uflis gziT. ,,jvari vazisa~, #1, 1990.

230

,,saqarTvelo, Sen vin mogca Svili dasakargavi~

zogjer ismis kiTxva saWiroa Tu ara wera qarTvelTa gaosebis Sesaxeb da saerTod arsebobs Tu ara aseTi problema. qarTvelTa gaosebis sakiTxi Cven Zalze mniSvnelovnad migvaCnia da amasTanave saswrafod gadasaWrel problemad. rogorc cnobilia osebsa da qarTvelebs Zalze xSirad aqvT erTidaigive gvarebi. sxvadasxva kuTxis qarTul mosaxleobas sakiTxis arsSi gaurkvevlobis gamo ,,osuri~ gvaris matarebeli adamiani, rogorc wesi, osuri erovnebis mqoned miaCnia. es TaobaTa manZilze osur TviTSemecnebasac ki uyalibebs ,,osuri~ gvaris matarebel qarTvels, zogjer ki mZime fsiqologiur Sedegsac iwvevs. magaliTad, TbilisTan axlo sofel did liloSi cxovroben ,,osuri~ gvaris matarebeli qarTvelebi - cxovrebaSvilebi, TigiSvilebi da sxvani. isini Tavis droze samaCablodan gadasaxlebulan liloSi. isini ,,osuri~ gvaris matarebelni ki ar arian, aramed piriqiT, samaCabloSi darCenili maTi mogvareebi - gaosdnen, mTebidan osebis qarTlSi Camosaxlebis Semdgom, osur garemoSi moqcevis Sedegad. amitomac liloelTa problema (kerZod is, rom maT osebad miiCneven), gamowveulia sakiTxSi maTi mezoblebis gaucnobiereblobiT. gulnakluli r. TigiSvili, Cveni erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebeli moZraobis erT-erTi Tbiliseli moRvawe, wers - ,,winaparTa gadmocemiT didi liloelTa jilagi da modgma wmida qarTulia, aseTive azria damkvidrebuli samaCablos qarTul mosaxleobis nawilSi (e. i. maTSi, romelTac ,,osuri~ gvarebi aqvT)... bunebrivia, ibadeba kiTxva: mainc rodemde unda iyos didi lilos mkvidri mosaxleoba xalxSi gabatonebuli mcdari SexedulebiT monaTluli? Cven kargad gvesmis, rom yovelive amis gasarkvevad did liloelTa etimologiiT dainteresebul istorikosTa avtoritetuli daskvnebia saWiro, amitomac moTminebiT veliT imis sajarod gamocxadebas da aRiarebas, rac CvenTvis didi xania cxadze ucxadesia. sayuradReboa erTi garemoeba - Zveli gadmocemebis mixedviT, Taobidan Taobis xsovnas SemorCa liloelTaTvis ucilobeli WeSmariteba: Cveni winaprebi qarTvelebi iyvnen da samaCablos droSis qveS icavdnen samSoblos~ (r. TigiSvili, didi lilos WeSmariti suli, gaz. ,,mamuli~, #15, VIII, 1990 w.). miuxedavad did liloelTa aseTi erovnuli suliskveTebisa, mezoblebi maT TavdajerebiT - osebs uwodeben, amitomac kiTxulobs avtori - ,,aba maS ra gamarTleba unda movuZebnoT iseT absurdulobamde Tavdajerebuli adamianebis axirebas, romlebic sisxliT, suliTxorcamde qarTvelebs araqarTvelebad acxadeben?~ (iqve, gv. 4). marTlac, ucodinaroba da simarTlis gagebis usurveloba warmoSobiT qarTvels araqarTvelad acxadebs saqarTveloSive. madloba RmerTs, samaCablos zemoT aRniSnuli mkvidrni ar gaosebulan, magram maTi mogvareebis da Tanametomeebis nawili xom ,,osebad~ Caewera, sxva avtorebi weren - ,,mravali qarTveli, romelnic cxovrobdnen qsnis, liaxvis, mejudas, Warebudas da elturas xeobebSi, istoriul samaCablosa da qsnis saerisTaoSi - iluriZeebi, elbaqiZeebi, mariamiZeebi, SevardnaZeebi, jirkvaliZeebi da sxvebi, mTidan mowolili osuri mosaxleobis iseT izolaciaSi moxvdnen, rom nawilobriv dakarges 231

mSobliuri ena, TviTSemecneba da bevrjer Cven TviTon dagvidasturebia, roca erTi Zma qarTvelad iwereba, xolo meore osad~ (el. nadiraZe, n. SoSitaSvili ,,kvici gvarze xtis~ gaz. ,,ax. iverieli~, 26. VI. 1990 w.). warmoudgenelia eris ufro metad dacema, TviT samSobloSive denacionalizacia! da Tanac Tvalxilulad, imdenad, rom magaliTad qarTuli warmomavlobis ori Zmidan erTi osad iwereba da meore qarTvelad! ufro metic, Cans, erT-or ,,osad~ Caweril qarTvels mouwadinebia mamapapeuli erovnebis aRdgena, magram mas did winaaRmdegobas uweven, amitomac zemoT xsenebuli avtorebi ekiTxebian msgavs mowinaaRmdeges - ,,amx. bereliZev, rogor fiqrobT, aseT xalxs uari unda eTqvas Tavisi namdvili gvaris aRdgenaze Tu yvelaferi moskovs unda SevekiTxoT?~ (iqve, gv. 3). avtorTa mier naxseneb ,,amx. bereliZis~ msgavs adamianze ityvian xolme - ,,Tavisi Tavi romis papze ufro met kaToliked moaqvso~, gadaWarbebas, yalb Tu namdvil emociurobas sikeTe aravisTvis moutania, rameTu ,,romliTa sawyauliTa mouwyoT - mogewyoT Tqven~, - brZanebs Cveni ufali ieso qriste, romelsac ase vevedrebiT - ,,iseve mogviteve Cven Cveni codvebi, rogorc Cven mivutevebT Cvens mimarT SemcodeT~, miuteve da mogeteveba, Seunde da Segindoben, vinaa Seucdomeli? diax, Secdnen is qarTvelebi; vinc Tavis droze ,,osad~ Caewera, magram maT Svilebs da STamomavlebs ratom ar unda mieceT winaparTa Secdomis gamosworebis neba? uTuod gasaTvaliswinebelia is garemoeba, rom istoriul samaCabloSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi iZulebulni iyvnen osebad Caweriliyvnen XIX saukuneSi, rusTa mpyrobelobis dros, ruseTis xelisuflebis mier sagangebod gatarebuli da dagegmili politikis Sedegad, rusulma administraciam Seqmna iseTi socialuri garemo, rom qarTvelad yofna gausaZlisi gaxda Sida qarTlSi, xolo osebisa da ,,osebad~ Caweril qarTvelebs didi SeRavaTebi da upiratesobani eZleodaT, amis Sesaxeb arsebobs vrceli samecniero literatura. Sida qarTlSi msgavsi antiqarTuli politika tardeboda XX saukuneSic, e. i. XX saukuneSic qarTlSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi iZulebulni iyvnen osebad Caweriliyvnen. XX s. 20-30-ian wlebSi msgavsi iZulebis gamomwvevi pirobebi kargad aqvs gadmocemuli miudgomel mecnier-mkvlevars g. boWoriZes, romelic e. w. ,,samxreT oseTis ao~-Si moyolili 4129 qarTveli komlis anu 23460 qarTvelis Sesaxeb 20-ian wlebSi werda: ,,oseTSi moyolili qarTvelebi yovelmxriv saSinlad Seviwroebulni arian, isini aSkara tyveebad grZnoben Tavs... qarTuli ena idevneboda qarTul soflebSi. miwer-mowera da sxva jer rusulad swarmoebda, xolo axla osurad, qarTuli ki gandevnilia. samarTali midgomiTia. yvelaferSi aSkara gadaxra aris osebis mxares, TvalSi amoRebuli kacisaTvis samarTali ar arsebobs... adgil-mamulis mflobelobis saqmeSi upiratesoba osebs eZleva (ZiriTadad am mizezis gamo ewerebodnen qarTvelebi osebad - a. jafariZe). gadasaxads pirvel xanebSi marto qarTvelebs axdevinebdnen, xolo Semdeg aSkarad qarTvel glexebs stvirTavdnen. skolebs uxsnian osebs, qarTvelebs ki iSviaTad... ,,Tu gindaT osur skolaSi atareT Svilebi, Tu ara da TqvenTvis skolas ver gavxsniTo... mosamsaxureebad miliciidan dawyebuli sul osebs iReben. 232

somxebs ufro aZleven adgils vidre qarTvelebs~ (l. fruiZe, g. boWoriZe ,,mnaTobi~ #9, 1990, gv. 136). g. boWoriZis mier moyvanili faqtebi sxva masalebiTac dasturdeba. mag. 1923 wels ,,samxreT oseTis cakis~ dadgenilebiT saqarTvelos istoriul nawilSi - samaCabloSi, saerTod ukugdebuli iqna qarTuli ena da osuri savaldebulo enad iqca (a. ToTaZe, osebi qarTul miwaze, gaz. ,,sof. cxovreba~ 9. II, 1991 w.). samaCabloSi antiqarTuli isteria ufro adrec - 1917-1920 wlebSic mimdinareobda. 1918 wlis 29 marts gazeTi ,,alioni~ werda - ,,gabolSevikebulma jariskacebma uTxres glexebs: xom xedavT miwas ar gaZlevT gaswyviteT Tavadaznauroba da waiReT miwebio, glexebic ase moiqcnen. Tavadebsa da maT bavSvebs hxocda brbo Seubraleblad~ - qarTuli mosaxleobis sastiki devnis Sesaxeb wers levan ToiZe (macne, istoriis seria #3, 1990). saerTod unda iTqvas, rom revoluciamdec osi mosaxleoba, romelic maSin xiznebis saxeliT cxovrobda Sida qarTlSi, qarTvel mosaxleobaze meti upiratesobiTa da SeRavaTebiT sargeblobda socialur sferoebSi (iqve, gv. 33). osebs qarTvelebTan SedarebiT did upiratesobas aniWebda ruseTis xelisufleba XIX saukuneSi, rac winaswar iyo gamiznuli imperiis interesebidan gamomdinare. gansazRvruli iyo Sida qarTlSi uzarmazari samxedro poligonis mowyoba, iqedan qarTvelebis ayra da osebis Casaxleba, sabednierod imperia daemxo da gegma ganuxorcielebeli darCa. yovelive zemoT aRniSnuli iwvevda qarTvelebis socialur-erovnul SezRudvas os xalxTan SedarebiT, rac daedo kidec safuZvlad qarTvelebis gaosebas saqarTveloSive. am mizezis gamo Caewera ,,osad~ qarTveloba. ,,qarTvelTa istoriuli bedukuRmarTobis bralia yovelive es Torem Cvens qveyanaSi ratom unda gaosebuliyo, gasomxebuliyo, gaTaTrebuliyo, gafrangebuliyo, galekebuliyo, gaafxazebuliyo Cveni sisxli da xorci?~ - wers roland TofCiSvili (istoriis gamyalbeblebTan kamaTs azri aqvs? gaz. ,,lit. saq.~ 18. I. 1991 w.). diax, qarTvelebi gaosdnen. sabednierod xSirad gaoseba imiT gamoixateba, rom - ,,osad~ Caweril qarTvels uyalibdeba osuri TviTSemecneba (e. i. osad miiCnevs Tavis Tavs). sxva mxriv is absoluturad inarCunebs qarTul wes-Cveulebebs, qarTul enas, qarTul tradiciebsa da qarTul gvarsac ki. ,,gaosebulis~ qarTuli formis mqone gvari - ukve aRar miiCneva qarTulad. erovnuli TviTSemecneba sxva yvela Tvisebas faravs. ase iqceva xolme sisxl-xorciT, mama-papiT qarTveli osad. yovelive zemoT aRniSnuls dokumenturad adasturebs ivane javaxiSvilis saxelobis istoriis, arqeologiisa da eTnografiis instituti, romelic saqarTvelos respublikis mecnierebaTa akademiasTan arsebobs. magaliTad gvari Tomaevi, erTi SexedviT, osuria, magram sinamdvileSi es ase ar aris, ai, ras wers aRniSnuli instituti - ,,Tomaevebi warmoSobiT arian gujareTidan. aq gadmosaxlebuli arian Sida qarTlis mTianeTidan (soflebi qvemo kabueTi, roka). gvari nawarmoebia rusuli sufiqsiT da misi matarebelni mikuTvnebulni arian osuri erovnebisadmi, magram, rogorc saistorio sabuTebiTa da eTnografiuli monacemebiT 233

irkveva, Tomaevebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi da maTi adrindeli qarTuli gvari iyo TomaSvili. TomaSvilebis Tomaevebad da osad Cawera moxda imitom, rom gvian feodalur periodSi Sida qarTlSi gansaxlebulni moyvnen osur eTnikur garemoSi. Sida qarTlis mTianeTi (liaxvis, lexuras, mejudas xeobebis zemo weli) XVI saukunemde mTlianad qarTvelebiT iyo dasaxlebuli. qarTveli mTielebis barSi jgufurma gadmosaxlebam, Sida qarTlis mTianeTSi gamoiwvia Crdilo kavkasiis mTianeTidan osTa gadmosaxleba, romelTac aq daxvdaT mcire raodenobiT qarTuli mosaxleoba. umciresobaSi aRmoCenili qarTveli mTielebi, moxvdnen ra osur garemocvaSi, gaosdnen, maT Soris arian TomaSvilebi, sxvaTaSoris 1886 wlis saojaxo siebSi koSkebSi mcxovrebi TomaSvilebi qarTvelebad arian Cawerili (scssa f. 254 an. 3 saq. N#1682). aseve qarTvelebad arian Cawerili 1814 wlis aRweraSi (scssa. f. 254. an. I. saq. #367). amave aRweridan isic irkveva, rom ufro adre TomaSvilebs Tomauris gvari utarebiaT. TomaSvilebis Tomaevad Cawera moxda XX s-is dasawyisSi. amrigad Tomaevebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi. romelTa adrindeli qarTuli gvari iyo TomaSvili. TomaSvilebis osebad da Tomaevebad Cawera (gaoseba) moxda imitom, rom isini moxvdnen osur garemoSi. Tomaevebis mier Tavdapirveli qarTuli gvarisa (TomaSvili) da qarTuli erovnebis aRdgena mecnierulad gamarTlebuli da sasurvelia~. xels aweren - institutis direqtori akad. g. meliqiSvili, swavluli mdivani T. Todria, wamyvani mecnieri r. TofCiSvili. institutis mier sabuTi gacemulia 19. 04. 90 w. #06. 01662. vai sircxvilo Cveni eris dacemav da ganukiTxaobav, qarTveli Tavis samSobloSi - saqarTveloSive hkargavs erovnebas, gvars, TviTSemecnebas, xolo Cven garTuli varT wvrilmani ambiciuri sayofacxovrebo, saojaxo Tu samezoblo movlenebiT. Cvens gverdiT mcxovrebi qarTveli erovnebas hkargavs, Cvengan ucxovdeba, gveTiSeba. Tumca sityviT xSirad vambobT paTetikiT - ,,saqarTvelo, Sen vin mogca Svili dasakargavi!~, saqmiT? qarTveli gvekargeba, Cven ki mivZaxiT - gzac iqiT gqoniao! saiT? ar viciT, rom rac ar unda eweros pasportSi qarTvels, is mainc ukanve saqarTveloSi dabrundeba da dabrundeba ukve ara moyvared, aramed mtrad. ai, ras wers aRniSnuli instituti gvar Turmanovis Sesaxeb ,,gacnobebT Semdegs: Turmanovi warmoSobiT aris Sida qarTlis mTianeTidan, isini warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi, romlebic Sida qarTlis mTiswineTsa da baris sxvadasxva soflebSi iyvnen gansaxlebuli. gvari nawarmoebia rusuli sufiqsiT da misi matarebelni mikuTvnebulni arian osuri erovnebisadmi, magram rogorc saistorio sabuTebiTa da eTnografiuli monacemebiT irkveva, Turmanovebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi da maTi adrindeli qarTuli gvari iyo - TurmaniZe. TurmaniZeebis osebad da Turmanovebad Cawera moxda imitom, rom isini moxvdnen osur eTnikur garemoSi... Turmanovebis winapari TurmaniZeebi swored saqarTvelos erT-erTi istoriuli provinciidan dvaleTidan arian. TurmaniZeebis adrindeli qarTuli erovneba fiqsirebulia 1814 wlis aRweraSi (scssa f. 254. an. I, saq. #367)... Tavdapirveli qarTuli gvarisa (TurmaniZe) da qarTuli erovnebis aRdgena mecnierulad gamarTlebuli da sasurvelia. institutis 234

direqtori akad. g. meliqiSvili, swavluli mdivani T. Todria, wamyvani mecnieri r. TofCiSvili~ sabuTi gacemulia institutis mier 24. II. 1989 w. #0601662. xeTagurovi - cnobili gvaria. gvaris daboloeba ,,ov~ rusuli sufiqsia da rusma Cinovnikebma daumates CveneburTa gvarebs, rusuli sufiqsis Camoclis Semdeg darCenili ,,ur~ sufiqsi (xeTaguri) qarTulia da Cven mTielTa Soris gavrcelebuli (zviadauri, aludauri da sxva). ai, ras wers am gvaris Sesaxeb instituti - ,,...saintereso sabuTebiTa da eTnografiuli monacemebiT irkveva, xeTagurebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi... 1814 wlis aRweraSi xeTagurebi qarTvelebad arian Cawerili (scssa. f. 254, an. I, q. #367). gaosebul xeTagurTa zogierTi nawili xeTagurovebad Caweres. amrigad, xeTagurebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi, romelTa osebad Cawera moxda imitom, rom isini aRmoCndnen osur eTnikur - enobriv garemoSi. xeTagurebis mier qarTuli erovnebis aRdgena mecnierulad gamarTlebuli da sasurvelia~. sabuTi gacemulia institutis mier 27. 04. 1990, #0617007. buZiSvili - sakmaod gavrcelebuli gvaria (aqedanaa - buZievi). sul ramdenime aTeuli wlis buZiSvilebi - iwerebodnen rogorc bujiSvilebi (amas adasturebs giorgi aleqsis Ze bujiSvilis (dab. 1908 w.) qorwinebis mowmoba (gacemuli 31. X. 90 w. qorwineba 8. VII. 1926 misi STamomavlebi buZiSvilebad iwerebian amJamad). aRniSnuli instituti saistorio sabuTebze dayrdnobiT askvnis ,,...buZiSvilebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi da maTi adrindeli qarTuli gvari iyo - bujiaSvili... 1886 wlis saojaxo siebSi buZiSvilebi - bujiaSvilebad da qarTvelebad arian Cawerili (scssa, f. 254, an. I saq. #367). Sida qarTlis mTaSi gansaxlebuli buZiSvilebis (bujiaSvilebis) winaprebi bujiZis gvars atarebdnen, amrigad, buZiSvilebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi, maTi osebad Cawera (gaoseba) moxda imitom, rom isini moxvdnen osur eTnikur garemoSi. buZiSvilebis mier Tavdapirveli qarTuli gvarisa (bujiaSvili) da qarTuli erovnebis aRdgena mecnierulad gamarTlebuli da sasurvelia~. sabuTi gacemulia 15. 10. 1990, #0601662. qarTvelTa gaosebis Sesaxeb Cven gvaqvs mecnier eTnografTa uamravi monacemi. g. jalabaZe wers - rom qarTvelTa gaosebis procesi jer daiwyo qarTlis mTianeTSi da ,,mxolod maRalmTian xeobas moicavda, meoce saukuneSi procesma gadmoinacvla dabalmTiani gardamavali zolisaken~ (eTnikuri procesebi Sida qarTlSi 1987, gv. 17-18), e. i. Tu qarTvelebi XIX da wina saukuneebSi osdebodnen mxolod qarTlis mTianeTSi, XX saukuneSi, qarTvelebi ukve osdebodnen barSi - soflebsa da qalaqebSi. qarTvelTa gaosebis procesi SeumCneveli ar darCeniaT saqarTveloSi Semosul ucxoel mecnierebs. magaliTad XVIII s-is didi germaneli mecnieri giuldenStedti wers - ,,kavkasiel mTielTa Soris, gansakuTrebiT lekebsa da osebSi, aris bevri qarTveli, romelTac religiasTan erTad enac daiviwyes~ (giuldenStedti, mogzauroba saqarTveloSi, t. I, gv. 185). vaxuStis dros qarTlis mTianeTSi os-dvalebi arcTu didi xnis Semosulebi iyvnen, amitomac maRran-dvaleTSi (javis raionSi) osebTan erTad jer kidev cxovrobda qarTvelebis didi raodenoba, ris Sesaxebc 235

wers giuldenStedtic. male qarTvelebi - osur garemoSi moqceulni gaosdnen anda barSi Camosaxldnen. barelebi am mxareebidan Camosul qarTvelebs - osebs uwodebdnen. aRsaniSnavia, rom dvalebi - qarTvelebi iyvnen, romelnic kidev ufro adre gaosdnen, maTi gaosebis process gamowvlilviT aRwers vaxuSti. aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTvelTa gaosebis procesi arc ubralo xalxisaTvis yofila SeumCneveli. gaosebis Sesaxeb eTnografiuli masalebi mokrebilia mecnierTa mier. magaliTad bedoSvilebs, odiSvilebs da melaZeebs erTi winapari hyoliaT. gvarad cecxlaZe, mejudis xeobeli. am Zir gvar cecxlaZedan, sami Zmis gayofis Semdeg warmoSobilan aRniSnuli gvarebi. Semdeg gamravlebulan, barSi Camosulan ,,daukargavT namdvili gvari, cecxlaZe da gadakeTebulan sam gvarad - odiSvilad, bedoSvilad da melaZed. melaZeebi da bedoSvilebi gaosdnen~ (r. TofCiSvili, qsnis xeobis zogierTi eTno-istoriuli sakiTxebi, macne, istoriis seria, 1987, #4, gv. 35). xarxelebi, jabaurebi da fsuturebic gaosebuli qarTvelebi arian ,,Cveni mogvareebi yofilan agreTve qoloTSi mosaxle xarxelebi da fsuturebi, zogi naxidSi cxovrobda. naxidSi bevri gaosda da fsuturebi TviTon ufro osurad laparakoben~ (iqve, gv. 39). aseve iTqmis bitievebis anu pitievebis Sesaxeb. maTi winaprebi yofilan guTniaSvilebi, guTniaSvilebis erT-erT StosaTvis ZelyoraSvilebis gvari miuciaT. maTi namravli or Stod gayofila - bekaraSvilebad da bitiaSvilebad. bitiaSvilebi gaosebulan. ,,ZelyoraSvilebis Zirgvari guTniaSvili yofila. ZelyoraSvilebis gvars ki SedarebiT gvian - XIX s-is pirvel naxevarSi - gamoyofian bekaraSvilebisa da bitiaSvilebis gvari~ (iqve, gv. 39). bitiaSvilebi anu bitiaanTi rusuli administraciis gavleniT gvars umateben gvarwarmomqmnel rusul sufiqss ,,ev~ da bitiaSvilebis nacvlad formirdeba gvari - bitievi. qarTvelebi arian agreTve iluriZeebi, Tumca maT pasportSi erovneba - osi aqvT Cawerili da osuric ician. iluriZeebis gaosebis mecnieruli suraTi iqvea mocemuli. warmoSoiT qarTvelebia eloevebi. maTi winapari moxeve gigauri yofila, romelic qarCoxSi dasaxlebula, maTi memkvidreni arian qsnis xeobeli pavliaSvilebi - ,,pavliaSvilebis ganayrebad iTvlebian eloSvilebi. am gvarisaTvis safuZveli didi ojaxis ufross elo pavliaSvils miucia. 1774 wlis aRweris davTarSi aseTi pirovneba marTlac gvxvdeba~ (iqve, gv. 32). siukaevebis anu Siukaevebis winaprebi yofilan - SiukaSvilebi aRweris masalebidan Cans, rom jikaevebis anu manjikaevebis winaprebi manjikaSvilebi yofilan, ara uxsovar dros, aramed am asiode wlis win, maSasadame, isini ukanasknel aTwleulebSi gaosdnen. kaWiuri - sufTad qarTuli gvaria magram is ganayofia qoqiaSvilebisa anu qoqoevebisa, maSasadame, ori Zmidan erTi - qarTvelia (kaWiuri), meore ki ,,osi~ qoqoevi. TviTon CoCievebic ki qarTuli warmoSobisani arian, maTi Zir gvari - qarumiZe yofila. ,,1774 w. sof. ukana mxarSi ZiriTadad mkvidroben SiukaSvilebi, oRaZeebi. 1873 wlis kameraluri aRweris mixedviT aq Canan manjikaSvilebi, eTnografiuli masaliT oRaZeTa gvaridan arian gamosuli papiaSvilebi... gavazSi mkvidroben kaWiurebic, maTi Ziri gvari

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qoqoSvili yofila... WoWalebis (CoCelebi) Ziri gvari qarumiZe (iqve, gv. 33, 36, 37). mTis gvar CoCelebisagan nawarmoebia gvari CoCiSvilebisa. ai, ras wers ikoSvilebis gvaris Sesaxeb saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis istoriis instituti - ,,ikoSvili warmoSobiT aris Sida qarTlis mTianeTidan. isini warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi... gvari nawarmoebia qarTuli sufiqsiT da misi matareblebi mikuTvnebuli arian osuri erovnebisadmi, magram, rogorc saistorio sabuTebiTa da eTnografiuli monacemebiT irkveva, ikoSvilebi warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi. ikoSvilebis osebad Cawera moxda imitom, rom isini moxvdnen osur eTnikur garemoSi. XVI saukunidan Sida qarTlis mTianeTidan qarTveli glexebi masiurad aiyarnen da mtrisagan gaveranebul barSi dasaxldnen, qarTvelTa nasoflarebze ki CrdiloeT kavkasiis mTianeTidan gadmosaxlebuli osebi dafuZndnen. osTa mravalricxovan garemocvaSi mcirericxovani qarTveli mTielebi gaosdnen... ikoSvilebis qarTveloba fiqsirebulia 1814 wlis aRweraSi, sadac qarTvelebad arian Cawerili (scssa f. 254, an. I, saq. #369). qarTvelebad arian Cawerili ikoSvilebi 1873 wlis aRweraSi qarTlis kameralur aRweraSic (scssa. f. 254, an. 3, saq. #146, gv. 211). amrigad, ikoSvilebi, warmomavlobiT arian qarTvelebi, romelTa osebad Cawera moxda imitom, rom isini aRmoCndnen osur erovnul garemoSi. ikoSvilebis mier qarTuli erovnebis aRdgena mecnierulad gamarTlebulia da sasurvelia~. sabuTi gacemulia institutis mier 27. 11. 1990, #06. 01. 622. Cveni akademiis istoriis instituti mravalgzis aRniSnavs, qarTlis mTianeTSi qarTvelTa gaosebis xelSemwyob mTavar mizezs, kerZod, XVIXVII saukuneebSi qarTveli mTielebis erTi nawili Camosaxlda qarTlis barSi, xolo mTianeTSi kavkasiidan Semosuli osebi damkvidrdnen. isini ufro metni iyvnen, vidre mTis soflebSi darCenili mkvidri qarTveloba. amitomac qarTvelebi mohyvnen osur garemocvaSi da TandaTan gaosdnen, xolo barelebma am gaosebulTa ukve barSi mcxovrebi mogvareebi da naTesavebic osebad miiCnies. magaliTad ZvelTaganve cnobili qarTuli gvaria bestavaSvili. isini saqarTvelos mTianeTSi cxovrobdnen jer kidev saqarTvelos mTebSi osebis Semosvlamde. arsebobda kidec sofeli saxelwodebiT ,,bestaavaanT sofeli~, male aqedan da mTis sofel gudisidan bestavaSvilebi TandaTan barSi Camosaxldnen. xolo maT soflebSi TandaTanobiT Casaxldnen osebi, magaliTad XVIII saukunis samocdaaTian wlebSi ,,bestavaanT sofelSi~ sul oTxi komli osi cxovrobda (xelnawerTa instituti f. ,,haS. de~ dok. 5421). male osebis ricxvi gamravlda, bestavaSvilebi ki osur garemoSi moeqcnen, marTalia maSin maT miiRes zogierTi osuri Cveuleba, magram rogorc eTnografiuli masala uCvenebs - ar gaosebulan. bestavaSvilebis erTi nawili gaosda ara mTaSi, aramed ukve qarTlis barSi. eTnografiuli masalidan Cans, rom mTidan Camosaxlebuli bestavaSvilebi qarTvelobdnen da dasaxlebulan Zamis xeobaSi (axlandeli qarelis raioni), zRuderSi (fanaskertelebis mamulSi), osuri arc codniaT, da gvarSi erTi cnobili mRvdelic hyoliaT (cnobilia im droisaTvis osebi warmarTebi iyvnen da maTgan mRvdlad aravis akurTxebdnen). aqedan isini gayofilan da sxvadasxva kuTxeebSi gadasaxlebulan. magaliTad gorSi, atenSi, gorsa da sxvagan damkvidrebuli bestavaSvilebi qarTvelebi 237

arian, maTganaa gamosuli inglisSi gadasaxlebuli cnobili mecnieri seleqcioneri bestavaSvili, sofel tyemlanaSi gadasaxlebul bestavaSvilebs osuri SeuswavliaT, xolo aqedan afnisSi gadasaxlebis Semdeg ukve ,,osebad~ Cawerilan. ase rom, bestavaSvilebis did nawils pasportSi ,,qarTveli~ uweria, Tavisi namdvili erovneba, xolo mcire nawils - ,,osi~. asevea gikaSvilebic. gikaSvilebis did nawils pasportSi ,,qarTveli~ uweria da warmoSobiTac qarTvelebi arian, qarTveli gikaSvilebi cxovroben qarelis raionis sof. zemo da qvemo SaqSaqeTSi, aradeTSi, agaraSi, xolo maTi ganayofebis anu rogorc uwodeben ,,erTi Zmis Svilebis~, afnisSi da leqeTSi mcxovrebi gikaSvilebis erovneba ,,osia~. erTi Zma qarTvelia, meore osi, oriveni ki warmoSobiT Cveni sisxli da xorcia. Cveni daudevrobis gamo ukve sadavodaa qceuli TayaiSvilebis, baraTaSvilebis, saakaZeebis, erisTavebis, xerxeuliZeebis, gudiaSvilebis, TarxniSvilebis da sxvaTa erovneba, isini osebad cxaddebian. rogor moewoneboda eqvTime TayaiSvils, miqel TarxniSvils, nikoloz baraTaSvils, giorgi saakaZes, Tornike erisTavs, cxra Zma xerxeuliZes, lado gudiaSvils da sxvebs maTi da maTi mogvareebis osebad gamocxadeba, arada maTi mogvareebis erTi nawili marTlac Caewera osad, zemoaRniSnuli iZulebis gamo, ara isini arian ,,gaqarTvelebulni~, aramed WeSmariti maTi mogvareebi ,,osebad~ iqcnen (b. jorbenaZe, ,,ax. kom.~ 10. X. 1989 w.). Cvens SromaSi ,,Cvengan gavaucxovoT Cveni sisxli da xorci~ (ix. ,,jvari vazisa~, 1990, #1, gv. 54), gadmocemuli gvqonda Tu rogor Cawera 1886 wels rusma aRmwerma Trusos xeobis sofel oqroyanaSi mcxovrebi qarTveli gudiaSvilebi, bibilurebi, arjinaSvilebi, bidagiSvilebi, zagaliSvilebi, kakaSvilebi - gudievebad, bibilovebad, arjinovebad, bidagovebad, zagilovebad, kakaevebad, miuxedavad imisa, rom sof. TolgoTis mkvidri TayaiSvilebisa da fitariSvilebis saojaxo ena qarTuli iyo, aRmwerma isini osebad ,,fitarovebad~ da ,,Tayaevebad~ Cawera. iqve gvqonda gadmocemuli Tu rogor ikargeba qarTveli gvarebi TandaTan, Tanaxmad moRweuli epigrafikuli masalisa. rogor icvleba qarTuli mama-papeuli gvarebi rusuli ,,ev~ sufiqsis darTviT - ,,osurad~. ase iqcnen TandaTan gufTeli jioSvilebi da TigiSvilebi - jioevebad da tigievebad (ix. iqve, gv. 56). filiSvilebi da gasiSvilebi. filievebad, plievebad, gasievebad. ,,filievebis zogi ojaxi biWikaSvilebad ixsenieba~ (ix. iqve, gv. 56). jioSvili mRvdeli yofila da sionSi umsaxuria, im dros os-warmarTs mRvdlad aravin akurTxebda. sofel jrieli qoTolaSvilebi - qoTolovebad iqcnen, sof. ninoeli qarsanaSvilebi - qarsanovebi, sof. msxlebeli cxovrebaSvilebi - cxovrebovebad (e. i. epigrafikuli masalidan qvaze warwerebidan) Cans, rom Zveli Zir gvaria - qarTuli daboloebis mqone, xolo axalia rusuli ,,ev~ daboloebis mqone. amasve uCvenebs warwera - Zveli - sanayoSvilebisa, Semdeg iqcnen - sanakoevebad (gv. 56). ZvelqarTuli gvarebia samaCablos mTianeTsa - babaSvili, TandilaSvili, TibilaSvili (da ara Tibilovi), qvabaZe, xarebaSvili, farastaSvili (da ara farastaevi), gaTokaSvili, relguriZe, qoqoSvili, dedaSvili-valiSvili, baliaSvili da ara bagievi (iqve, gv. 57). vaxtangaZe an vaxtanguri da ara vaxtangovi, CabaSvili da ara cabaevi (gv. 56). 238

xarebaSvilebi saerTod osebis Cvens mTebSi Semosvlamde moRvawe qarTveli mRvdlebi iyvnen (qarT. samarTlis Zegl. t. VII, gv. 196). aseve osebis CvenSi Semosvlamde margiSvilebi (marRiSvilebi) - javaxeTSic ki cxovrobdnen (iqve, gv. 90). aRsaniSnavia, rom gaosebulan ara marto qarTveli yma-glexebi, aramed aznaurebi da Tavadebic ki. magaliTad, bortievebis winapari bortiSvilebi maCablebis erT-erT Stos warmoadgendnen. ,,maCablebis gvari Tavadur saxlebad daiyo: zaaliSvilebad, giorgiSvilebad, revaziSvilebad da bortiSvilebad~. revaziSvilebi - revazovebad iqcnen da gaosdnen. gaosdnen qarTveli vaWrebi - diakvnisSvilebi (diakonovebad Caewernen). gaosebul qarTvelTa ricxvi sakmaod didia, aRsaniSnavia, rom maT faqtiurad ar ician osuri ena, ara aqvT osuri wes-Cveulebebi, isini qarTul enaze zrdian Svilebs, qarTul skolebSi qarTuli adaT-wesebiTa da CveulebiT, maTi ,,osoba~ mxolod imiT gamoixateba, rom pasportSi rusul-bolSevikuri xelisuflebis wyalobiT ,,osi~ uweriaT, sxva mxriv, rogorc warmoSobiT, ise TviTSemecnebiT isini qarTvelebi arian. Tumca SeiZleba iyos gamonaklisi. maT erTmaneTs Soris siyvaruli da pativiscema unda hqondeT, xolo Cven vilocoT yvela qristianisaTvis.

gaz. ,,eri~. 4. V. 1991 weli.

239

axali Taobis aRsazrdelad

episkopos anania jafariZis qadageba axalcixis sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsnisas

bolo wlebamde saqarTveloSi erTaderTi sasuliero seminaria arsebobda mcxeTaSi, romelic Semdgom TbilisSi iqna gadatanili da gafarToebuli. dedaqalaqis gareT, saqarTvelos kuTxeTa Soris, mesxeTi iyo pirveli, sadac 1990 wels daarsda sasuliero saswavlebeli. esaa udidesi mniSvnelobis movlena samcxe-javaxeTis eparqiisaTvis. saqarTvelos TiTqmis yvela kuTxidan - imereTidan, qarTl-kaxeTidan da Tbilisidanac ki aq Semokrebili studentebi unda aRizardnon saeklesio moRvaweebad, romelTac sulierad unda gaaZlieron Cveni mamuli. RvTis am didi mowyalebis samadlobeli sazeimo wirvis Semdeg 1990 w. 30 seqtembers samcxe-javaxeTis episkoposma anania jafariZem saswavleblis pirvelma reqtorma, sityviT mimarTa morwmuneebsa da sazogadoebas. patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno! upirvelesad yovlisa, vmadlobdeT ufal RmerTs, romelmac Tavisi didi mowyalebiT moxeda Cvens davrdomil kuTxes - mesxeTs da ineba aq daarseba sasuliero saswavleblisa. RvTivkurTxeul saqarTveloSi swavlisa da codnis moyvarul qarTvel ers mravali sxvadasxva tipis saswavlebeli gaaCnia, miuxedavad amisa, axlis gaxsna yovelTvis sixarulis momtania sazogadoebisaTvis, miT umetes, gansakuTrebulad mniSvnelovan movlenad unda CaiTvalos sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsna, rameTu CvenSi sul ramdenime sasuliero skola arsebobs. sasuliero saswavleblis daniSnulebaa aRzardos saeklesio moRvaweni, romelTac sulierad unda gaaZlieron saqarTvelo, mxolod sulierad Zlier ers SeuZlia zneobrivi gawmenda da amaRleba, Tavisuflebis mopoveba da misi dacva. qarTveli eris sulieri gaZliereba yovelTvis aSinebda Cvens dampyroblebs, amitomac mecxramete saukunis dasawyisSive caristulma xelisuflebam mospo qarTuli sasuliero seminariebi, romelnic arsebobdnen Telavsa da TbilisSi, maT nacvlad mogvianebiT daaarses rusulenovani seminariebi. aman didad avno sarwmunoebis saqmes saqarTveloSi. qarTvelTa saxelganTqmuli qristianuli rwmena TandaTan minelda. TandaTan qarTveloba sarwmunoebis mimarT gagulgrilda. faqtiurad swored rusulenovan seminariebSi aRizardnen saqarTvelos istoriisa da qarTuli kulturis mimarT nihilisturad ganwyobili axalgazrdebi, romelTa mniSvnelovanma nawilma Semdgom saerTod uaryo sarwmunoeba da aTeist revolucionerebad moevlinnen saqarTvelos. maT kidev ufro gaacives xalxis guli qristianobis mimarT. 1921 wels 240

saqarTvvelos aneqsiis Semdeg ZiriTadad rusulenovani ganaTlebis mqone mama-papuri zne-Cveulebebis uarmyofeli qarTveli aTeistebi Caudgnen saTaveSi qarTuli eklesia-monastrebis dangreva-gauqmebis saSinel saqmes. dabades uRmerToeba, aRzardes Tavisi msgavsi Taoba. daeca zneoba, gadagvarda xalxi, ubedureba is ki araa, rom aTeistebis mier aRzrdili Cveni xalxi zneobrivadaa dacemuli, aramed is, rom man ar icis amis Sesaxeb, ver grZnobs Tavis sulier daqveiTebas, dacemas. Cvens ers sWirdeba moZRvrebi, zneobisa da sulierebis maswavleblebi, maT wminda werilis uwmindes sarkeSi unda Caaxedon Cveni xalxi, eri, daanaxon Tavisi sulieri saxe. wmida werili, sityva RvTisa, kvlav Zveleburadve aRadgens Cvens ers, aaRorZinebs mas, daubrunebs Zvel didebas, mianiWebs sulier simaRles, gaaTavisuflebs, ganuaxlebs erovnul saxls - saxelmwifos. mxolod zneobrivad amaRlebuli eri gaimarjvebs. zneoba ki Rrma qristianobiT moipoveba, da rogorc iTqva, swored amitom aSinebda eris sulieri gaZliereba Cvens dampyroblebs. aRniSnul mizezTa gamo Cvens ers bolo ori saukunis manZilze qarTulenovani sasuliero saswavlebeli TiTqmis ar hqonia, rogorc iTqva, mecxramete saukuneSi isini carizmma gaauqma, xolo meoce saukuneSi - aTeistebma. mxolod Cveni saukunis 60-ian wlebSi aRsdga mTel saqarTveloSi erTaderTi sasuliero seminaria, amJamad ki Cveni uwmindesi patriarqis ilia meoris RvawliT akademiac gaixsna. mniSvnelovani saqmea mesxeTSi sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsna. mogexsenebaT, mesxeTSi uWirs qarTvelobasa da, cxadia, qarTul qristianobas - marTlmadideblobas. Cveni kuTxe, istoriuli taoklarjeTi, samcxe-javaxeTi, warmoadgenda akvans qarTuli qristianobisa, amitomac aqaur soflebSi mravladaa SemorCenili eklesia-monastrebi, amJamad gauqmebul-dadumebuli. RvTis SewevniT Cven mravlad gadmogveca aseTi eklesiebi, axla neba gvaqvs aq wirva-locvisa, magram yvelafris axlidan dawyebaa saWiro. soflelebma ZiriTadad aRar ician raa wirva, locva, aRsareba, ziareba, sinanuli, xalxi warmarTobis gzazea damdgari, amasTanave ara gvyavs moZRvrebi soflebSi gasagzavnad, amitomac Cven mravlad gvesaWiroeba mRvdlebi, diakvnebi, medaviTneebi, mgaloblebi, eklesiuri adamianebi, morwmuneebi, morCilebi, gvesaWiroeba mqadageblebi, RvTis sityvis gamavrceleblebi, qristesaTvis Tavdadebulni moRvaweni. Tu RmerTi inebebs, da Cvenc vloculobT amisaTvis, Cveni saswavleblis daniSnulebac esaa - aRzardos saeklesio moRvaweni. locviTa da mondomebiT SesaZlebelia yovelives miRweva. ,,irekdeT da gangeRoT Tqven, eZiebdeT da hpovoT~ - nabrZanebia wminda saxarebaSi. rwmeniT kldesac ki gadaabrunebT. codnis SeZena moiTxovs uzomo Sromismoyvareobas, mondomebasa da saqmis siyvaruls. moswavle unda gaufrTxildes dros da yoveli wuTi codnis SeZenas moaxmaros. ufalma RmerTma samyarosTan erTad Seqmna dro. qveyniereba marad axldeba, amitomac dro marad win midis da aravis SeuZlia misi SeCereba, anda ukan dabruneba. amis gamocaa yvelaferi warmavali amqveynad, yvelaferi droebiTia. es ki adamians avalebs dro uqmad ar dakargos, droze gaakeTos keTili saqme. maqsimalurad isargeblos sicocxlis im momentiT, romelic drois garkveul CarCoebSia moqceuli, magram 241

romelia yvelaze sasikeTo, yvelaze maradiuli da waruSleli saqme? simdidris dagroveba, qveynebis dapyroba, qalaqebisa da soflebis gaSeneba, gancxromiTa da mosvenebiT cxovreba? - arc erTi amaTgani ar iZleva maradiul nayofs, yvelaferi es ,,warvals da ara daadgrebis erTsa saukunisad~. mxolod swavla, mxolod codna aris ,,nayofi keTili~, romelsac udidesi sikeTe moaqvs. vaxuSti bagrationi, Cveni didi istorikosi wers ,,swavla ganabrZnobs, Tavisufal hyofs, acnobebs RmerTsa da SiSsa missa danergavs. gandevnis borotsa, Seayvarebs moyvassa, Semoiyvans keTilsa, matebs qveyanasa, aRaSenebs da daamSvenebs, mterTa daamdablebs, TavisTa aamaRlebs da akadnierebs~. swavla da codna yovelgvari amqveynieri sikeTis fuZe yofila, amitomac uTqvams brZens - ,,yoveli Jami Caivlis fuWad, romelsac codnis SesaZenad ar gamoviyenebT~, swavla da codna ara marto samyaros SecnobisaTvis yofila saWiro, aramed sibrZnisa da Tavisuflebis mopovebisaTvis, zneobrivi ganwmedisaTvis, sulgrZelobisa da urTierTpativiscemis danergvisaTvis. magram Tanaxmad vaxuStisa, codna warmavali yofila, adamianTa mexsierebas mxolod sami-oTxi Taobis manZilze SesZlebia dagrovili codnis Senaxva, Semdeg igi qreba. ra gza, ra saSualeba arsebobs amis Tavidan asacileblad? erTaderTi saSualeba codnisa da sibrZnis Sesanaxad da mis dasaunjeblad yofila Canaweri, romelic ,,ara warwymedis, aramed hgies ukunisamde~. wigni uzrunvelyofs codnasa da sibrZnis Senaxvas, mis maradiulobas. vaxuSti imowmebs wmida ioane damaskelis naTqvams, rom sasargebloa nebismieri saxis wigni, pirvel rigSi ki sasuliero wignebi. kargi mkiTxvelisaTvis usargeblo wigni ar arsebobs. axalgazrdam unda Seiyvaros wigni, masSi daunjebuli codna. codniT ki, rogorc iTqva, miviRebT sibrZnesa da Tavisuflebas, ganviwmindebiT zneobrivad, viswavliT sikeTis qmnas, Cagvenergeba suli Semoqmedebisa, mSvidobismoyvareobisa da siyvarulisa. swored amitomaa qristianobis upirvelesi ganZi wigni, romelsac ewodeba wminda saxareba, anu wminda oTxTavi. Cvens saswavlebelSi upirveles yovlisa es wigni - sibrZnis okeane unda SeiswavloT. ori didi wignis, wminda werilisa da ,,qarTlis cxovrebis~ - anu erovnuli istoriis Seswavla, Cvens winaprebs udides saqmed miaCniaT. es wminda wignebi maT exmarebodaT ganesxvavebinaT keTili borotisagan. Cveni winaparni istorias patriotul mecnierebad miiCnevdnen, ramdenadac is adamians acnobda vinaobas, warmomavlobas, ayvarebda Tavis Tvistoms, Tavis mama-papaTa sarwmunoebas anu qristianobas, uerTgulebda Tavis qveyanas. es asea axlac. amitomac Cvens saswavlebelSi wminda werilis gverdiT unda idos ,,qarTlis cxovreba~ da Cveni eklesiis istoriisadmi miZRvnili wignebi. mesxeTi saqarTvelos gansakuTrebuli istoriuli mxarea. aq Semodges fexi pirvelad wmida andria pirvelwodebulma da wminda ninom. aqedan ganaTlda saqarTvelo, mravali saukunis Semdgomac arabTagan ganadgurebuli saqarTvelos aRdgenac aqedan daiwyo, kerZod, Cveni didi Rirsi mama grigol xanZTeli qarTlidan gadavida mesxeTSi, aaRorZina aq 242

samonastro cxovreba, mesxeTSi aRorZinebuli suliereba ki safuZvlad daedo saqarTvelos ganaxlebas. vilocoT imisaTvis, raTa Tqven, Cveni saswavleblis studentebi, axali Taoba, qalebi da vaJebi momavalSi gadaiqceT mama grigolisa da deda Tebronias Rvawlis memkvidreebad. Tqven unda aRadginoT dacemuli saqarTvelo, Tqven unda gaxdeT dvrita mesxeTis sulieri cxovrebisa, Cveni mamulis aRorZinebisa, SevTxovoT ufal RmerTs da vilocoT amisaTvis. ara urTierTqiSpi da gautanloba, aramed simSvide, siyvaruli, codnis miRebis wyurvili unda iyos Tqveni mamoZravebeli. Tqven mudam unda imeorebdeT efrem asuris sityvebs - ,,ufalo da meufeo cxovrebisa Cemisa, sulsa uqmobisasa da cudadmetyvelebisasa nu momcem me, xolo suli siwmidisa, simSvidisa, moTminebisa, da siyvarulisa mommadle me monasa Sensa, momaniWe me gancda TvisTa codvaTa da ara gankiTxva Zmisa Cemisa~, amave locvaSi ixsenieba agreTve sityvebi - ,,mimomwvlilveloba~ rac wvrilmani, aramTavari saqmeebis moyvarulobas niSnavs da ,,mTavrobismoyvareoba~, rac ufrosobis, gandidebis mosurneobas niSnavs, rac dagmobilia. usaqmuroba, cudadmetyveleba, gandidebisa da ufrosobis survili Sors unda iyos Cveni saswavleblis moswavleebisagan, aq unda mefobdes simSvide, siyvaruli, simdable, kidev erTxel gilocavT, SevTxov ufal RmerTs Tqvensa da sruliad saqarTvelos gaZlierebas. RmerTma daglocoT. gaz. ,,mesxeTi~, 27. IV. 1992.

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vaswavloT Tu ara saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria skolaSi

ucxoeTSi gasuli qarTveloba xdeba mrevli araqarTuli eklesiebisa. qarTveloba ar qmnis erovnul-sarwmunoebriv samrevloebs, erovnul eklesiebs, es maSin, roca TiTqmis yvela marTlmadidebel ers ucxoeTSi saepiskoposoebic gaaCniaT msoflios TiTqmis yvela did qalaqSi. magaliTad, niu-iorkSi rezidencia aqvs marTlmadidebeli da ,,aRmosavluri~ eklesiebis aT episkoposs, maT Soris konstantinepolis sapatriarqos hyavs - 4 episkoposi, rusul eklesias - 2, somxebs - 4 episkoposi. parizSi zis ruminuli eklesiis 2 episkoposi, konstantinepolis sapatriarqos - 3 episkoposi, somxuri eklesiis - 2 episkoposi. londonSi rusul eklesias hyavs erTi episkoposi, konstantinepols - 5, somxebs erTi episkoposi. ierusalimSia kopturi eklesiis erTi episkoposi, somxuri eklesiis 6 episkoposi, eTiopiis - 2, siriis eklesiis erTi episkoposi, beiruTSi somxebs hyavT 5 episkoposi, antioqiis sapatriarqos - 3, siriis eklesias erTi (cnobebi amoRebulia wignidan ,,ORTHODOXIA, 1982, ostkirchliches Institut, Regensburg, gv. 134, 135, 137, 138, 139). es maSin, roca ara Tu saepiskoposoebi, qarTvelebs ucxoeTSi damoukidebeli eklesiebic ki ar gaaCniaT (parizis wm. ninos eklesia ara qarTul saeklesio centrs, aramed konstantinepolis sapatriarqos eqvemdebareba). mainc raa mizezi qarTvelebis saocari sulier-saeklesio naklovanebisa saerTaSoriso asparezze? mizezi albaT aris Semdegi: - yvela Cvens mezobel marTlmadidebel ers aqvs nacionalur-eklesiuri TviTSemecneba. raoden ucnauradac ar unda mogveCvenos, es Tviseba dRevandel qarTvelobas TiTqmis ar gaaCnia. ucxoeTSi gasuli qarTveli, rogorc wesi, xdeba mrevli sxva romelime, ufro xSirad rusuli, anda berZnuli eklesiisa, maSin, roca rumineli, serbi, rusi Tu berZeni marTlmadidebeli qristianebi ucxoeTSi ar iqcevian mrevlad sxva eris marTlmadidebluri eklesiisa. isini mxolod erovnul-marTlmadideblur eklesiebs ayalibeben ucxoeTSive (e. i. ucxoeTSi qristianebi qmnian saeklesio samrevloebs erovnuli niSnis mixedviT, xsnian erovnul eklesiebs, xolo Semdeg ki saepiskoposoebsac). revoluciis Semdeg ucxoeTSi gasulma rusma mosaxleobam Seqmna rusuli samrevloebi, ris safuZvelzec Seiqmna ucxoeTis rusuli saepiskoposoebi. magaliTad, moskovis sapatriarqos ucxoeTSi aqvs eparqiebi da hyavs episkoposebi - samxreT amerikaSi (argentinaSi), germaniaSi (bavariasa da berlinSi), belgiaSi, avstriaSi, niderlandebSi da sxvagan (ix. , 1991). xolo e. w. ,,sinodalur~ rusul eklesias, romelic moskovis sapatriarqosgan damoukideblad arsebobs, saepiskoposo eparqiebi aqvs aSS-Si (niu-iorkSi, bostonSi, CikagoSi, san-franciskoSi - 2), kanadaSi, argentinaSi, venesuelaSi, braziliaSi, germaniaSi (miunxenSi - 2),

244

avstraliaSi. ucxoeTSive aqvs monastrebic. (ix. Russich-Octhoxe im Ecxil~. ORTHODOXIA. gv. 90-92). Cvenma mezobelma somxebma ucxoeTSi mravali eparqia da saepiskoposo daaarses, maT Soris, rogorc aRiniSna, parizSi, marselSi, londonSi, buqarestSi, niu-iorkSi, los-anJelesSi, monrealSi, buenos-airesSi, ierusalimSi, kairoSi, beiruTSi, stambulSi, siriaSi, aTenSi, niqoziaSi, TeiranSi, julfaSi, san-franciskoSi (ix. ORTHODOXIA. gv. 13-17). bulgarelma mosaxleobam ori saepiskoposo daaarsa amerikaSi dasavleT evropaSi. iugoslaviis serbielma mosaxleobam sami saepiskoposo daaarsa amerikaSi, erTi avstraliaSi, erTi das. evropaSi, xolo makedonielebma erovnuli saepiskoposoebi daaarses kanadasa da avstraliaSi (ix. iqve, gv. 70, gv. 96). ucxoeTSi gasulma ruminelebma saepiskoposoebi daaarses amerikasa da safrangeTSi (ix. iqve, gv. 79). cnobilia, rom berZnulenovan marTlmadideblebs msoflioSi ramdenime erTmaneTisagan damoukidebeli eklesia gaaCniaT (konstantinepolis, aleqsandriis, ierusalimis sapatriarqoebi, eladisa da kviprosis eklesiebi) da erT maTgans ,,msoflio~ (ekumenuri) sapatriarqoc ki ewoda da mainc maT TavianTi eklesiebis farglebs gareT samrevloebi da saepiskoposoebi aqvT. antioqiis sapatriarqos saepiskoposoebi aqvs argentinaSi, CrdiloeT amerikaSi, meqsikaSi, avstraliaSi, braziliaSi (ix. iqve, gv. 10-11) eladis eklesias - amerikaSi. TviT ucxoeTSi mcxovrebma ukrainelebma daaarses damoukidebeli eklesia saepiskoposoebiT aSS, das. evropasa da kanadaSi (Ukrainion Autocephalous ortodox church im Exile). maSasadame, ucxoeTSi mcxovrebi marTlmadideblebi ar xdebian mrevli sxva eris Tundac marTlmadidebluri eklesiisa. isini TavianT erovnul eklesiebs aarseben. Cveni qarTvelebi ki, ara Tu ucxoeTSi gasulni, TviT saqarTveloSivec ki gaucnobierebelni arian, ar ician, aris Tu ara saWiro eklesiaTa msgavsi SerCeva, ufro metic, metma nawilma ar icis, ras warmoadgens eparqia, saepiskoposo, samrevlo da TviT sapatriarqoc ki, aqedan gamomdinare, arc is icis, saerTod saWiroa Tu ara erTguleba nacionaluri eklesiisa. e. i. ara aqvs eklesiuri TviTSemecneba. es rom ar hqondes Cvens mezobel erebs, cxadia, isini ucxoeTSi saepiskoposoebs ver daaarsebdnen. rogor inergeba maTSi nacionalur-eklesiuri TviTSegneba? cxadia ojaxis, skolis meSveobiT, eklesiuri aRzrdiT. skolis roli am sferoSi warmmarTvelia. skolas ki mxolod mSobliuri eklesiis istoriis SeswavliT Tu SeuZlia ymawvilSi aRZras nacionaluri eklesiisadmi erTguleba. da mainc, ra saWiroa nacionaluri eklesiisadmi erTguleba? xSirad vxedavT Cveni TvaliT: ara Tu ucxoeTSi, ruseTSi gasuli qarTveli xSirad ukve mesame - meoTxe Taobis Semdeg kargavs qarTvelobas da rusdeba. XVIII saukuneSi vaxtang VI-s mravalricxovani inteligenciisa da didebulebis naRebi gahyva ruseTSi. ara Tu dRes, erTi saukunis winaTac ki maTi STamomavlebi garusebulni iyvnen. XIX da XX saukuneebSi mravali qarTveli gadasaxlda ruseTSi. dRes ZiriTadad isini ganSorebulni arian Cveni erisagan. ucxoeTSi gasuli sxva eris adamianebi aTasi wlobiTac ki inarCunebdnen erovnebas, magaliTad, arc Tu didi xnis win aRiniSna balkaneTSi (rumineTsa Tu bulgareTSi) somexTa dasaxlebis aTasi wlisTavi. cnobilia, rom iq mcxovrebma 245

somxebma am aTasi wlis manZilze SeZles erovnebis SenarCuneba, asevea sxva erebic. mainc rogor xdeba es? rogorc aRiniSna erovnul-eklesiuri Temebis SeqmniT, erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi samrevloebis daarsebiT. magaliTad, baqoSi, TbilisSi, moskovSi, rostovSi Tu sxva qalaqebSi mcxovreb somxebs aqvT sakuTari eklesiebi, skolebi, sazogadoebani da erovnuli sasaflaoebic. es imiT miiRweva, rom am ucxo qalaqebSi maT erovnul-sarwmunoebrivi samrevloebi Seqmnes. mis garSemo gaerTiandnen ara formalurad, aramed mTeli arsebiT. swored iq gamoxataven RvTisadmi TavianT siyvaruls. eklesia maTi nacionaluri siwmindec da sayrdenic aris. Tavis mxriv nacionalurma eklesiam mravalricxovani saSualebebiT daicva Tavisi eri. msgavsadve iyo Zvel saqarTveloSic, erTiani saqarTvelos saxelmwifos arsebobisas (XV-XVI saukuneebamde). Zalzed maRali iyo maSin nacionalur-eklesiuri TviTSemecneba, romelic gansakuTrebiT dakninda XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi, xolo XIX saukuneSi qarTuli eklesiis TavisTavadobis gauqmebam da qarTvel qristianTa sulebze rusuli eklesiis gabatonebam sastikad dasca qarTvelTa nacionalur-eklesiuri TviTSemecneba. ara Tu ucxoeTSi, TviT saqarTveloSive qarTvelebi gauucxovdnen mSobliur eklesias, xolo rusul-bolSevikuri batonobisas am bolo 70 wlis manZilze Cveni erovnul-eklesiuri TviTSemecnebis done Semzaravia. ara da istoriulad, bolo saukuneTa manZilze, ,,qarTvels~ swored saqarTvelos samociqulo (marTmalidebluri) eklesiis wevrs uwodebdnen. XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi, erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos daSlis, saqarTvelos sparseTisa da osmaleTis gavlenis sferoSi moqcevis Semdgom, qarTvelTa Soris gavrceleba daiwyo araerovnulma sarwmunoebebma. qarTveli marTlmadideblebi iZulebuli gaxdnen mieRoT mahmadianoba, grigorianoba, kaTolikoba. xalxSi am sarwmunoebaTa miRebis Semdgom mxolod da mxolod qarTvel marTlmadideblebs uwodebdnen ,,qarTvels~, qarTvel mahmadianebs - ,,musulmanebs~, qarTvel kaTolikeebs - ,,frangebs~, qarTvel grigorianebs ki - ,,somxebs~. ucxo eklesiaTa mrevlad gadaqcevisa da erovnul-qarTuli eklesiisagan gandgomis Semdgom mravali qarTveli ganSorda Cvens ers, dakarges erovnuli TviTSemecneba, Seematnen ,,TaTrebsa~ Tu ,,somxebs~ (qarTveli kaTolikebic mravlad gasomxdnen), ufro metic, saqarTvelos mTiani kuTxeebis qarTvelebi (aRmosavleT kaxeTSi (dRevandel saingiloSi), Sida qarTlis mTianeTsa da afxazeTSi) Crdilo kavkasieli tomebis - lekebis, osebisa da afsarebis Camosaxlebis Semdgom mowydnen qarTul eklesias, gawarmarTdnen an gamahmadiandnen, amis Sedegad ki erovnuladac gadagvardnen, nawilobriv aRniSnuli sarwmunoebrivi momentiTac aixsneba mecnierTa mier dadasturebuli qarTvelTa gaosebis, gaafxazebisa da galekebis procesi. aseve aRsaniSnavia isic, rom samxreT saqarTvelos osmalTa mier dapyrobis Semdeg basianis, TorTumis xeobebSi, giumiSxanesa, lazeTsa Tu arzrumSi darCenili mravalricxovani qarTveli marTlmadideblebi iqcnen mrevlad berZnuli eklesiisa, rameTu osmalo xelisuflebis mier osmaleTis imperiaSi berZnuli eklesia oficialurad iyo aRiarebuli, xolo qarTuli eklesia devnili. berZnuli eklesiis mrevlad gadaqcevis Semdeg mravali qarTveli gaberZnda. 246

sparseT-osmaleTi ebrZoda ara zogad qristianobas, aramed ZiriTadad qarTul eklesias, am eklesiis wevr qristianebs. am azrs adasturebs uamravi magaliTi. osmaleTsa da sparseTis mtroba qarTuli eklesiisadmi gamowveuli iyo ruseTis marTlmadidebeli saxelmwifos siZlieriT, romelic aRniSnuli saukuneebisaTvis zedized ipyrobda teritoriebs, uaxlovdeboda kavkasias, ganadgurebiT emuqreboda mahmadianur samTavroebsa da osmaleT-sparseTis saxelmwifoebs. aseT viTarebaSi mahmadianTa azriT qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesia da samefosamTavroebi placdarms uqmnidnen ruseTis agresiul saxelmwifos maxlobeli aRmosavleTis dasapyrobad. amitomac samxreT saqarTvelos (mesxeTis) dapyrobis Semdeg ,,...qarTvelobas Seurigebeli brZola gamoecxada. mtris pirveli dartymebi pirvel rigSi qarTuli eklesiis zurgs xvdeboda. osmalebma kargad icodnen, rom qarTuli marTlmadidebluri eklesiis daTrgunvis gareSe maT mier dawyebuli saqme SeiZleboda warmatebiT ver dagvirgvinebuliyo~ (S. lomsaZe, gviani Suasaukuneebis saqarTvelos istoriidan, 1979 w. gv. 35). ,,aRniSnul saukuneebSi osmalebi da sparselebi qristian grigorianebsa da qristian kaTolikebs ar ebrZodnen, piriqiT maT saeklesio centrebs SeRavaTebsa da upiratesobas aniWebdnen, xolo qarTuli eklesiis wevrebs ki yovelgvar pirobebs uqmnidnen, raTa maT uareyoT ,,qarTveloba~ (anu qarTuli marTlmadidebloba) samagierod ki qarTuli eklesiis yofil wevrebs aiZulebdnen mieRoT grigorianuli anda kaTolikuri aRmsareblobani, ufro xSirad ki aiZulebdnen mieRoT mahmadianoba. isicaa aRsaniSnavi, rom osmaleTi saerTod marTlmadideblobas ki ar ebrZoda, aramed mxolod qarTul eklesias da qarTul marTlmadideblobas, osmaleTSi sarwmunoebrivi avtonomia hqondaT im marTlmadideblebs, romlebic konstantinepolis patriarqs eqvemdebarebodnen, maT ganurCevlad erovnebisa ,,berZnebs~ uwodebdnen (ix. a. jafariZe, ,,saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria~, t. III, gv. 351). qarTvel marTlmadideblebs, rogorc zemoT iyo aRniSnuli, XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi garkveul mizezTa gamo uwodebdnen ,,qarTvels~ radganac isini saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis mrevls Seadgendnen. xolo im qarTvelebs, romelnic ganSordnen qarTul eklesias da aRiares ucxo sarwmunoeba ,,qarTvelebad~ ar miiCnevdnen, magaliTad qarTvel grigorianebs, qarTvel mahmadianebs da ase Semdeg. mahmadian saxelmwifoTa mier Seqmnili mizezebis gamo ,,qarTvelad yofna gausaZlisi gaxda... glexkacobac avbeds daemorCila... mesxTa nawili piligrimuli sijiutiT mainc ar tovebda qristianobas da zogjer kaTolikobasa da grigorianobas Rebulobda, umetes SemTxvevaSi Tavis ers mainc ekargeboda, mesxTa Soris metad umciresma nawilma SeinarCuna marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoeba, rogorc zemoT vTqviT, yarsis, arzrumis, valaSkertis da nawilobriv artaanis mxaris qarTvelobis didi nawili gagrigorianda, rogorc Cans, maTi gagrigorianeba XVII s. bolosa da XVIII s. dasawyisSi unda momxdariyo~ (S. lomsaZe, dasax. naSr. gv. 46). osmaleTSi istoriul miwa-wyalze mcxovrebi da aseve sparseTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi masobrivad kargavdnen erovnebas saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiasTan kavSiris gawyvetis gamo, anu rac igivea, maT 247

adgilebze ver SeZles nacionaluri samrevloebisa da saepiskoposoebis Seqmna, xolo msgavs (mahmadianur) garemoSi mcxovrebma sxva qristianma erebma, magaliTad, somxebma da berZnebma, SeZles nacionaluri sarwmunoebrivi Temebis, samrevloebisa da saepiskoposo centrebis daarseba, rac maT erovnebas anarCunebinebda mahmadianur okeaneSi. CvenSi ratomRac miCneulia, rom qarTvelebi saqarTvelos ar tovebdnen da naklebad gadiodnen ucxoeTSi, maSin, roca aseul aTasobiT qarTvelma datova saqarTvelo XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi (saqarTvelos mTeli mxareebi, Cveni samSoblos TiTqmis erTi mesamedi - mesxeTi, kaxeTis TiTqmis naxevari (War-belaqani), qvemo qarTlisa da dasavleT saqarTvelos mTeli mxareebi ucxo saxelmwifoTa nawilebad iqcnen mravalricxovani qarTuli mosaxleobiT). XIX saukuneSic qarTvelebis aramciredi nawili gadasaxlda ruseTsa da ucxoeTSi, sad gaqrnen isini? vin arian maTi STamomavalni? TiTqmis yvelani asimilirdnen ucxo tomebsa da erebSi, daekargnen saqarTvelos, kidev erTxel unda iTqvas, rom maT ver SeZles ucxoeTSi erovnuli eklesiebis daarseba, rameTu maT ar gaaCndaT nacionalur-eklesiuri TviTSemecneba. iqcnen ucxo eklesiaTa mrevlad, ris Sedegadac swored im erebs Seematnen, romelTa eklesiaTa wevrebadac iqcnen (arsebobda umniSvnelo gamonaklisi). evropel misionerTa, aseve Turqul-sparsul wyaroebSi arsebuli cnobebis Tanaxmad XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi qarTvelebis kolosalurma raodenobam datova saqarTvelos qristianuli nawili. pietro dela vales gadmocemiT - ,,ara ipoveba arc erTi saxli mTel sparseTSi, romelic savse ar iyos qarTveli dedakacebiT da mamakacebiT~ (m. rexviaSvili ,,dasavleT saqarTvelo XVII saukuneSi~. 1976 w. gv. 14). aseve qarTvelebi didi raodenobiT imyofebodnen osmaleTis imperiaSi. XV saukunis erTi italiuri qronikis Tanaxmad saqarTvelo im droisaTvis warmoadgenda ,,vrcel qveyanas mravalricxovani mosaxleobiT~, am cnobis siswore iqidanac dasturdeba, rom TviT XIX saukunis dasawyisSic ki qarTvelebi amierkavkasiis mosaxleobis umravlesobas - 44% Seadgendnen. saqarTvelo daicala mosaxleobisagan XVII-XVIII saukuneebSi. ,,rogorc don justi prato, aseve sxva kaTolike misionerebi aRniSnavdnen, sparselebi da Turqebi yvela saSualebas mimarTavdnen, raTa saqarTvelodan waeyvanaT axalgazrdebi. isini maT iyenebdnen pirvel rigSi TavianTi laSqris gasaZliereblad da aseve amiT did zians ayenebdnen saqarTvelos... ris gamoc saqarTvelo ganuwyvetliv icleboda da nadgurdeboda~ (i. tabaRua, saqarTvelo evropis arqivebsa da wignsacavebSi, III, 1987, gv. 191). misionerebis dakvirvebidan Cans, rom Cveni qveynidan mosaxleoba masobrivad gahyavdaT qristianobisa da qarTvelobis aRmofxvris mizniT. TurqeTisa da sparseTis ara marto centraluri olqebi, aramed provinciebic (egvipte, erayi da sxv.) mravalricxovani qarTvelebis sacxovrisi iyo. qalaqebSi qarTveloba vaWrobis obieqts warmoadgenda. magaliTad, evli Celebs qarTveli tyveebi SeuZenia Tavis mogzaurobisas: TavrizSi, axalcixeSi, yarsSi, arzrumSi, baqoSi, erevanSi da sxvagan. yvelgan, ara marto ucxoeTSi, aramed TviT saqarTveloSic ki am periodSi qarTvelebi erovnebas kargavdnen qarTul eklesiasTan kavSiris 248

gawyvetisTanave, magaliTad, 1628 wels gorSi misulma avgustinelma berma patri ambrozim 1640 wels romSi gagzavna moxseneba, romelSic kerZod wers: ,,am qristianebis qveyanaSi kvalad SeiZleba bevri keTilis qmna ramdenime mamul-soflebis yidviT, rogoradac Svrebian somxebi, romlebisac Tumca didi simZulvare aqvT qarTvelebs sarwmunoebis saqmeSi, magram raki maTi xelqveiTi gaxdebian, bevri maTgani gadadis somxebis weszec. amaze uaresic vnaxeT - zogierTma saqarTveloSi mcxovrebma mdidarma uriebma gaauriaves ramdenime TavianTi yma da mosamsaxure~ (m. TamaraSvili, pasuxi somxis mwerlebs, gv. 237). rogorc evropeli misionerebis dakvirveba uCvenebs, qarTvelebi erovnuli gadagvarebisagan daculni ar iyvnen TviT saqarTveloSi, miT ufro ucxoeTSi. ,,gansakuTrebiT sparseTSi bevri iyo qarTveli: ,,dRes mTeli sparseTi savsea qarTvelebiT, rjulgandgomilebiT - wers don justi prato - maT xelSia yvela didi Tanamdebobac ki saxelmwifoSi~ (i. tabaRua, gv. 111). ,,sparselTa sisxli gakeTilSobilebulia ori erovnebis qarTvelebisa da Cerqezebis sisxliT, romlebic yvela sxva xalxze lamazebi arian. sparseTSi TiTqmis ar aris arc erTi warCinebuli, romlis deda qarTvelebis an Cerqezebis STamomavali ar iyos (iqve). saqarTveloSi tyveTa yidva Cveulebrivi movlena gaxda, ris gamoc, Jar Sardenis cnobiT, samegrelos 40000-iani mosaxleoba 1640-iani wlebidan moyolebuli sul raRac 30 wlis ganmavlobaSi 20000-mde Semcirda. ucxoeTSi qarTvelebis tyveTa saxiT gasvlis garda, saqarTvelos mosaxleobas Zalze amcirebda qarTvelebis gadasaxlebac. Sah-abas I-ma saqarTveloSi zedized sami laSqrobis Sedegad aseul-aTasobiT kaci gadaasaxla ucxoeTSi. qarTvelebis erovnuli cnobiereba iryeoda TviT saqarTveloSive. makari antioqieli asaxavs XVII saukunis 60-ian wlebSi arsebul viTarebas dasavleT saqarTveloSi: ,,mTeli vaWroba qarTvelTa xelqveiTi somxebis, ebraelebisa da zogierTi berZnis xelTaa... es somxebi da ebraelebi warmoadgendnen mdidarTa klass saqarTveloSi da maT winaSe yvela qarTveli davalebulia ganurCevlad warCinebulobisa da mmarTvelobisa. yovel am vaWarTagans ojaxSi hyavs qarTveli gogobiWebi msaxurad, romelTac rogorc undaT ise eqcevian~ (S. mesxia, saistorio Ziebani, t. II, 1983 w. gv. 316). swored msgavs aramarTlmadidebel (,,araqarTvel~) mebatoneTa xelSi moxvedrili qarTvelebi kargavdnen erovnebas. ase rom, CvenSi miRebuli Tvalsazrisi, TiTqos da qarTvelebma istoriulad naklebad datoves samSoblo, arasworia, sworia is, rom isini asimilirdnen. CvenSi axlaxan gamoqveynda evgeni dalejio d, alesios wigni ,,qarTvelebi konstantinepolSi~. am evropelsac SeumCnevia, rom qarTvelebi ucxoeTSi ganicdian denacionalizacias da ekargebian Cvens ers. is wers ucxoeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebis Sesaxeb: ,,samwuxarod, bevrma qarTvelma da maTma ojaxma daiviwyes TavianTi mSobliuri ena da uaryves TviT qarTvelobac~, avtori daaskvnis ,,qarTveli eris istoriaSi es xSiri da dasagmobi movlenaa~.

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dalejio wers: ,,Cven kidev gvesmis, rodesac romelime qarTveli musulmani iviwyebs Tavis enas da erovnebas, radganac misi rjuli Turqul-politikuria da ase Tu ise, gareSe pirobebic iZulebuls hyofs mas gadagvardes. magram Cven jer kidev ver gamogvikvlevia ram aiZula konstantinepolis qristiani qarTvelebis nawili, romelTac uaryves qarTveloba. maT Soris umravlesobam somxebad aRiares Tavi da TviT TavianTi gvarovnobis saxelwodebac daiviwyes. am gadagvarebulTa Soris SedarebiT cotani arian, romelTac TavianTi gvari kidev axsovT. sxvaTa Soris davasaxeleb likontas (cxadaias), gurjianebis (qarTveliSvilebis), azizianebis, Tumanianebis, zurabianebis ojaxebs, romlebic, Tumca uars ar yofen, rom qarTvelebis STamomavalni arian, magram dRes TavianT Tavs qarTvelebad aRar aRiareben. sasurvelia, qarTvelma sazogadoebam praqtikuli yuradReba miapyros ara marto osmaleTis da konstantinepolis qarTvel musulmanebs, aramed TviT qarTvel qristianebsac, romelTac kulturuli dawesebulebac ki ara aqvT, sadac yvela rwmenisa da miswrafebis qarTvelsac Tavisuflad SeeZleba misvla da praqtikulad muSaoba, rogorc es aqvT sxva xalxTa axalSenebs~ (,,qarTvelebi konstantinepolSi da sparseTSi~ Tb. 1990 w. gv. 20). am 70-de wlis win dawerili evropelis es sityvebi ise JRers, TiTqos dRes iyos naTqvami. faqtiurad qarTvelma sazogadoebam ver SeZlo ucxoeTSi erovnul-kulturul sarwmunoebrivi dawesebulebebis Seqmna da amis gamo ucxoeTSi mcxovrebi qarTvelebi denacionalizacias ganicdian. rogorc cnobilia, ukve miRebulia da ramdenime welSi moqmedebas Seudgeba kanoni, romlis ZaliTac moqalaqeebs ufleba miecemaT ucxoeTSi gasvlisa. am kanonis ZaliT, albaT, qarTveloba, rogorc sxva qveynebis Sromisunariani mosaxleoba, masobrivad gava ucxoeTSi samuSaod, saswavleblad Tu sacxovreblad. magram, rogorc zemoT aRniSnulidan Cans, Cven viciT, rom ucxoeTSi gasuli qarTvelebi samioTxi Taobis Semdeg ukve denacionalizacias ganicdian, imis gamo, rom maT ara aqvT erovnul-kulturul-sarwmunoebrivi dawesebulebebi. rogorc aRiniSna, Cveni mezobeli erebi ucxoeTSi gasvlisTanave qmnian erovnul samrevloebs, eklesiebs da saepiskoposoebsac ki, romlebic iqcevian xolme centrebad maTi erovnul-kulturuli dawesebulebebisa. amis miRweva maT SeaZlebina iman, rom samSobloSive ukve gamomuSavebuli hqondaT nacionalur-eklesiuri TviTSemecneba: ucxoeTSi gasvlisTanave isini mxolod erovnuli eklesiis mrevlad iqcevian xolme, rac xels uwyobs maT erovnebis SenarCunebaSi ara aseuli, aramed aTaseuli wlebis manZilzec ki. maSasadame, imisaTvis, raTa qarTveli adamiani yovelTvis da yvela pirobebSi Tavis Tavs Tvlides qarTuli eklesiis wevrad, saWiro aris qarTvel ymawvilSi skolis asakidanve Cainergos nacionalur-eklesiuri TviTSemecneba, anu Sviluri erTguleba mxolod da mxolod qarTuli eklesiisadmi. amisaTvis ki saWiroa skolebSi iswavlebodes qarTuli eklesiis istoria. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom Zvel saqarTveloSic wigni, romliTac ymawvili izrdeboda - ,,qarTlis cxovreba~, uxvad Seicavda cnobebs qarTuli eklesiis istoriidan. wm. saxareba ,,qarTlis cxovrebasTan~ erTad 250

ymawvilis umTavres saxelmZRvanelos warmoadgenda. pirveli masSi nergavda sarwmunoebisa da RvTisadmi siyvaruls, xolo meore ki siyvaruls mSobliuri erisa da eklesiisadmi. swored mSobliuri eklesiis istoriis meoxebiT qarTveli ymawvili igebda, Tu rogor iqca misi samSoblo yovladwmida RvTismSoblis wilxvedr qveyanad, xolo ufali da macxovari Cveni ieso qriste ki mudmiv mfarvelad da patronad qarTveli ,,sazepuro~ erisa. amJamad Tuki Cven gvsurs, rom qarTveli sazogadoeba daubrundes Tavis ukvdav sawyisebs, uTuod saWiro aris skolebSi iswavlebodes saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria. saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis istoria unda iswavlebodes rogorc disciplinis erTi dargi, miuxedavad ymawvilis mSobelTa sarwmunoebrivi aRmsareblobisa. saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria iseTive ganyenebuli da savaldebulo Seswavlis sagani unda iyos rogorc, vTqvaT, saqarTvelos geografia an saqarTvelos istoria. Jurn. ,,religia~, 9, 1992.

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episkopos anania jafariZis qadageba universitetis axalcixis filialSi

1991 wlis 25 marts q. axalcixeSi daarsebuli Tbilisis universitetis filialSi saqarTvelos eklesiis avtokefaliis aRdgenis samadlobeli paraklisi gadaixada samcxe-javaxeTis episkoposma anania jafariZem. paraklisis Semdeg man sityviT mimarTa studentebs: patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno, qristes mier sayvarelno Svilebo, dRes Cveni morwmune qarTveli eri dResaswaulobs saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesiis avtokefaliis aRdgenis wlisTavs. 1917 wlis 25 marti marad mosagonebeli TariRia aTaswlovani qarTuli eklesiisaTvis. dRevandeli samadlobeli paraklisi gadavixadeT uflis sadideblad, romelmac saRmrTo wyalobiT ineba ganTavisufleba Cveni deda eklesiisa ucxo TeslTa batonobisagan. amasTanave samadlobeli paraklisis Jams vmadlobdiT da vadidebdiT ufals dRevandeli dRisaTvis, Cveni xalxis, qristesmoyvare eris azrisa da gonebis ganTavisuflebisaTvis, aTeizmis artaxebisagan daxsnisa da sindisis Tavisuflebis moniWebisaTvis. sul axlaxan, erTi-ori wlis win Cvens sagangebod gamocemuli da mtkiced damkvidrebuli kanonebis ZaliT mkacrad gvekrZaleboda Sexvedra Cvens axalgazrdebTan, Sesvla skolebSi, saswavleblebSi, saubari ymawvilebTan Tu maT aRmzrdelebTan. mizani amisa iyo daTrgunva qristianuli zneobisa da moralisa, erovnuli tradiciebis mospoba. amJamad, faqtiurad, pirvelad mogveca saSualeba da ufleba daubrkoleblad SevsuliyaviT skolebSi, SevxvedrodiT Cvens mozard Taobas da erTad gveloca erisaTvis paraklisebis gadaxdisas. mesxeTis samRvdeloebasa da axalcixis sasuliero saswavleblis studentebTan erTad moviareT Cveni eparqiis mravali sofeli, skola, eklesia. swored amitom vmadlobT da vadidebT ufals. moxda gasaocari cvlileba. aTeistur xelisuflebas Zala gamoecala. daemxo Zala, romelic Cvens xalxs aucxoebda eklesiisagan. RvTis mgmobelTa da uarmyofelTa gza mokle aRmoCnda. boroti damarcxda da gamoCnda keTili - mZlavri aqamde Cvens xalxSi mimaluli fesvebi sarwmunoebrivi siyvarulisa. RvTivkurTxeuli qarTveli eri miiswrafis WeSmaritebisa da Tavisuflebisaken. me var gza da me var WeSmariteba, romelic me miwamebs, is marad icocxlebs - brZanebs Cveni ufali. kidev erTxel dideba da madloba ufals Cveni sarwmunoebrivi gadarCenisa da gaTavisuflebisaTvis. SemCneulia, rom sarwmunoebrivi ganTavisufleba marad win uZRoda Cven erovnul Tavisuflebas, ase iyo am aTasi wlis winac, roca jer sarwmunoebrivad da eklesiurad gaerTianda saqarTvelo, xolo Semdeg ki saqarTvelos sxvadasxva samefoebic gaerTiandnen da Seiqmna erTiani centralizebuli qristianuli saqarTvelos saxelmwifo nikofsiidan darubandamde. TviT 1917 wels Cveni eklesiuri ganTavisufleba, romelic gamocxadda swored dRevandel dRes 25 marts - win uZRoda saqarTvelos 252

ganTavisuflebas ruseTis imperiisagan - anu 1918 wlis 26 maiss. SevTxovT ufal RmerTs, vilocoT, raTa amJamindeli sarwmunoebrivi ganTavisufleba da aTeizmis damarcxeba win uZRodes saqarTvelos WeSmarit ganTavisuflebas da erovnuli saxelmwifos aRdgenas. Tavisufleba yovel CvenTagans uflisgana gvaqvs naboZebi, rameTu adamiani Tavisufali nebisyofiT dahbada, xolo Cvenma macxovarma ieso qristem Tavisi wmida sisxliT monobisagan ganaTavisufla kacobrioba, amitomac Cveni sarwmunoeba, qristianoba dainteresebulia, raTa adamiani, sazogadoeba, eri ar iyos damonebuli, xolo damonebulni ganTavisufldnen. araa SemTxveviTi, rom qarTvelTa mfarveli wmidanis wmida giorgis erT-erTi epiTetia - ,,tyveTa ganmaTavisuflebeli~, xolo ZvelqarTul sazogadoebas Tanaxmad rusTavelisa, udides siqveled miaCnda Tavisufleba da hqonda kidec lozungi-mowodeba - ,,aTavisufle monebi~. yovelgvari SezRudva da monoba - qristianobis mier dagmobilia, xolo pirovnebisa da eris swrafva sulieri da politikuri Tavisuflebisaken - kurTxeulia. amitomac, axla, roca Cveni eri emzadeba Zalze mniSvnelovani 31 martis referendumisaTvis - uTuod yvela qristianma xma unda misces erovnul Tavisuflebasa da damoukideblobas. es pirveli SemTxvevaa imperiis mier damonebul ers rom mieca SesaZlebloba daubrkoleblad gamoxatos Tavisi azri: ra urCevnia Tavisufleba Tu monoba, sarwmunoeba Tu aTeizmi. Tqven mogexsenebaT, rom qarTuli qristianobis uZvelesi kera, mesxeTi Cvenma dampyroblebma ganadgurebis piras miiyvanes, yvelas mogexsenebaT mesxeTis savalalo istoriuli bedi. sarwmunoebrivad mas arc am bolo 70 wlis manZilze gaumarTla, aq aTeizmis mZlavrobis Jams ar arsebobda arc erTi qarTul-marTlmadidebluri eklesia, ar iyo arc erTi qarTveli mRvdeli, maSin roca aq faqtiurad uwyvetad funqcionirebda grigorianuli ramdenime eklesia, sinagoga da kaTolikuri eklesia. pirvelad am aTiode wlis win gaixsna qarTuli eklesia, romelmac, TiTqosda, Tavisi madli mohfina samcxe-javaxeTs, RvTis SewevniTa da uflis sadideblad, sul axlaxan, am bolo or weliwadSi mravali eklesia axlad vakurTxeT da pirveli saRmrTo liturgiebic aRvasruleT aTeulobiT wlebis iZulebiTi uqmobis Semdeg, Cvens didebul zarzmasa da varZiaSi, safarasa Tu borjomSi, samwuxarod, ar gvyofnis sasuliero kadrebi, amitomac davaarseT mesxeTSi sasuliero saswavlebeli, magram ratomRac aq swavlas mesxi vaJebi Tavs arideben, maSin roca Cvens saswavlebelSi swavloben Tbilisidan, qarTlidan, imereTidan Tu samegrelodan Camosuli axalgazrdebi, maT Soris ramdenime gogona umaRlesi ganaTlebiTac ki. Cven axal saswavlo wels imedi gvaqvs mesxeTis mkvidrnic SeaReben Cveni saswavleblis kars. imedi gvaqvs, rom TandaTan mesxeTSi sarwmunoeba aRorZindeba, mesxeTi xom akvania Zveli qarTuli kulturisa, sarwmunoebisa, aq iqadaga Cveni macxovris upirvelesma mowafem andria mociqulma, swored mesxeTSi ganucxada man qarTvelobas, rom saqarTvelo deda RvTismSoblis qveyanaa, xolo qarTveli eri RvTis mier gamorCeuli ,,sazepuro~ eri. SevTxov ufals, RvTis madli da wyaloba ar moklebodes Cvens ers, yvela TqvenTagans. 25. III. 1991. 253

axali eri

Cven Tanamonawileni varT qarTvelTa mravalaTaswlovani arsebobis manZilze iSviaTi warmatebisa - qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobis aRdgenisa, rac mTelma msofliom daadastura, magram amave dros Cven momswreni varT agreTve Cveni mSobeli xalxis ubedurebisac, romlis mizezic bolo wlebSi Cvens mier gamomJRavnebuli uzneoba da ugunurebaa. Tu ucxoTa zedamxedvelobis qveS, ase Tu ise kanonis morCilebas viCendiT, Tavisuflebis mopovebis Semdgom, qveyana urTierTkinklaobiT, qiSpobiT, SinabrZolebiTa da qurdoba-yaCaRobiT gavaCanageT. raa mizezi Cveni xalxis dRevandeli savalalo sulieri mdgomareobisa? erTi gavrcelebuli TvalsazrisiT, mizezi qarTveli eris ,,daberebaa~, sxvebis azriT ,,mudam damonebul~ xalxs Tavisufali qveynis patronoba gauWirda, mesameni fiqroben, rom Cveni eri ,,avadmyofia~ da a. S. yvela amgvari Sexeduleba qarTveli eris dRevandeli mdgomareobis mizezebze principulad arasworia da Seuwynarebeli. iyo mcdeloba, rom yovelgvari ubedurebis mizezad ,,mesame Zala~ dagvesaxa, magram albaT mizezebi mainc Cvensave TavSi - eris Semadgenel calkeul pirovnebaTa sulSi unda veZioT, rameTu sulidan anu gulidan gamovlen boroti zraxvani, mkvlelobani, mruSobani, qurdobani, sicrueni, ciliswamebani, gmobani (ix. maTe, 15,19). swored es codvebia safuZveli Cveni amJamindeli erovnuli ubedurebisa, rameTu boroti uzneoba ara erTi da ori kacis, aramed mravalTa sulSia dabudebuli. dabadebisas adamiani araa uzneo arseba, mis pirovnebas sulieri aRzrda ayalibebs, maSasadame, axali Taobis sulieri aRzrdiT SesaZlebelia momavalSi did erovnul bednierebas mivaRwioT. aRzrdis sistemas, aRmzrdels, ojaxsa da dedas udidesi erovnuli misia akisriaT - ,,dedav ismine qarTvlis vedreba, ise aRzarde Sen Svilis suli, rom, win waruZRves WeSmariteba, ukan rCes kvali ganaTlebuli~ - ambobda Cveni eklesiis wmindani ilia marTali. igi ver warmoidgenda, rom mis Semdeg movidoda Taoba, romelic TiTqmis mTeli saukunis manZilze bavSvis aRzrdis sistemidan saerTod gamoricxavda sikeTisa da zneobis erTaderT wyaros - RmerTs. ilia mTel qarTvel ers avedrebda dedas da misi saxeliT sTxovda aRezarda adamiani, romelsac cxovrebis saval gzebze, orientirad WeSmariteba eqneboda. ra aris WeSmariteba? - am saxarebiseul kiTxvas udidesi mniSvneloba aqvs. ,,me var gza WeSmariteba da sicocxle~ - brZanebs ufali. WeSmariteba RmerTia. maSasadame, ilias azriT aRmzrdels RvTis moSiSi, RvTis moyvare, anu morwmune adamianis, aRzrda evaleba. amgvar adamians win WeSmariteba gauZRveba, xolo cxovrebis ganvlil gzaze ara codvian, aramed madliT ganaTlebul kvals datovebs. episkoposi gabrielis azriT (romelsac wminda ilia marTali udides pativs scemda), aRzrdas udidesi gavlena aqvs xasiaTis Camoyalibebaze. ,,aRzrda imisTvisaa swored mowodebuli, rom Secvalos da mdgradoba 254

mianiWos adamianis zneobas, gaunaTlebel adamianTa vneba mouTokavia, ganaTlebuli kaci ki - piriqiT, moqmedebs gonebis, vidre vnebaTa karnaxiT, vnebani masSi gamovlindebian sul sxvagvarad, vidre gaunaTlebelTan. isini masTan Serbilebuli, gansjas daqvemdebarebulia. ganaTlebulma unda gaanelos bunebrivi grZnobis siuxeSe~. vinc bolo wlebSi qarTvelTa qmedebebs gaaanalizebs, albaT ityvis, rom Cveni xalxis umravlesoba mouTokavi vnebebiT, gonebiT gaukontrolebeli, uxeSi bunebrivi grZnobebiT moqmedebda. es ki Tanaxmad episkoposi gabrielis Tvalsazrisisa, Sedegia cudi aRzrdisa da gaunaTleblobisa. Cvens xalxSi marTalia didia ricxvi imaTi, romelTac saSualo da umaRlesi ganaTlebis diplomebi aqvT, magram sulieri aRzrda da saerTod - ganaTleba, am sityvis WeSmariti mniSvnelobiT, akliaT. mxolod vnebebs ayolil, analizisa da gonieri Sefasebis unarmoklebul anu aRuzrdel adamians SeuZlia aafeTqos sakuTari qveynis xidebi, gvirabebi da rkinigzebi, dawvas da daangrios dedaqalaqi, sxva mTavari qalaqebi, mokidos iaraRs xeli da raRac warmaval politikur wyenaTa gamo TavgametebiT ibrZolos maradiulis samSoblos daSla-danewevrebisaTvis, daundoblad xocos, Zarcvos Tvistomi da yovelive es egzaltirebul demonstracia-mitingebze Seamzados da gaamarTlos. nuTu momavalSic gagrZeldeba dRevandeli ubedureba. ra Secvlis qarTveli kacis xasiaTs, zneobas? - aRzrda! oRond ara ubralo, CvenSi tradiciulad qceuli sistemiT, aramed religiuri aRzrda! evropasa, amerikasa da mTel civilizebul msoflioSi aRzrdis sistema religiuria, Tumca ki religiuri codna - mcnebebi, mozard Taobas garkveuli xerxebiT, gansxvavebuli xarisxiT da sxvadasxva dozebiT miewodeba. Tu ratom aris saWiro ymawvilebis religiuri codniT aRzrda, am kiTxvaze wmida episkoposi gvpasuxobs: ,,zneobasa da xasiaTze religiis gavlena yvelaze Rrma da ucilobelia. es dasturdeba istoriiTac da im xalxTa xasiaTebis sxvadasxvaobiTac, romlebic sxvadasxva sarwmunoebas aRiareben~. sakmarisia, ubralod gaviazroT, Tu ra cvlilebebi gamoiwvia erebis azrovnebasa da saqmianobaSi qristianulma sarwmunoebam, rom aRniSnuli debuleba WeSmaritebad miviCnioT. qristianulma rwmenam gardaqmna adamianis azrebi, gamocvala misi grZnobebi da saTnoebebad aqcia isini. sxva mimarTulebiT warmarTa neba da axali miznebis miniSnebiT, siyvarulisa da Zmobis, rogorc sazogadoebrivi keTildReobis safuZvlebis warmoCeniT adamianTa Soris axali urTierTobani daamyara. mokled, man mTlianad gardaqmna adamiani yoveli mimarTulebiT. samwuxarod, dRes qarTveli xalxis umetesi nawili mxolod saxeliTaa qristiani, mas ar miuRia qristianuli aRzrda da Sesisxlxorcebuli ara aqvs qristianuli zneoba, misi mcnebebi. marTalia, ojaxebSi daculia qristianuli wes-Cveulebani da adamianuri urTierTobani, magram es sikeTe daTrguna aTeisturi totaluri aRzrdis arahumanuri araadamianuri sistemis Sedegma, romelic TaobaTa manZilze ileqeboda CvenSi. rogorc skolebSi, ise sazogadoebaSi. qristianuli sarwmunoebis faqtiurma dakargvam Tavisi Sedegi gamoiRo, magram momavalSi uTuod 255

udides cvlilebebs gamoiwvevs da yoveli mimarTulebiT gardaqmnis adamians qristianuli aRzrda. movaleobis moxdisa da sarwmunoebriv Temebze teleradiogadacemebsa da presaSi gamoqveynebul calkeul masalebs saerTo araferi aqvT religiur aRzrdasTan. mozardi Taobis religiuri aRzrda saSualo skolebSi unda moxdes, pirvelidan ukanaskneli klasis CaTvliT. isic unda aRiniSnos, rom iseTi sagangebo sarwmunoebrivi sagnebis SemoReba, rogoricaa saRmrTo sjuli (saqristiano moZRvreba), religiis istoria da sxva, ver moicavs religiuri aRzrdis sisrules; sakmarisi araa calkeuli sagnebis Setana saSualo skolis programaSi, aramed saWiroa saswavlo programis mTlianad Secvla-ganaxleba, misi miaxloeba saerTaSoriso standartebTan. uwmindesma da unetaresma, sruliad saqarTvelos kaTolikospatriarqma ilia II RvTismSoblis taZrad miyvanebis dRes ganacxada ,,saqarTveloSi dRes Seqmnili mZime viTareba ar Seicvleba, Tu ar Seicvala guli adamianisa~ da Semdeg: ,,adamiani unda aRizardos skolaSi da eklesiam unda ikisros eris aRzrdis funqcia~, aseve - ,,Tu ar Seicvala saswavlo programa, araferi ar Seicvleba~. evropis skolebSi eklesiisa da skolis kavSiri Zalze mWidroa. saswavlo procesi, programebi religiur-zneobrivia. ungreTSi mosaxleobisaTvis mZime 1950-55 wlebSic ki komunistebma ver SeZles skolasa da eklesias Soris kavSiris gawyveta. rogorc es axlaxan ungrelma stumrebma ganacxades, amJamad eklesias ubrundeba is Zveli skolebi, romelnic mas adre ekuTvnoda. saeklesio skolebis garda ungreTSi sxvadasxva tipis skolebic arseboben, romlebSic pirveli klasidanve SemoRebulia religiuri sagnebis swavleba. ungreTis saxelmwifo eklesias, rogorc wesi, yovelwliurad aZlevs dotacias, romliTac mas SeuZlia ganaTlebis sistemaSi aqtiuri moqmedeba, zrunva axali Taobis aRsazrdelad. asevea evropis yvela qveyanaSi. CvenSi albaT iseve, rogorc ucxoeTSi I-IV dawyebiTi, anu fundamenturi oTxwledis Semdgom, mozardi Taoba midrekilebaTa mixedviT sasoflo-sameurneo, humanitarul Tu teqnikur rvawledebSi gaagrZelebs swavlas da Semdgom survilis Sesabamisad maRal klasebSic, magram yvelgan yoveli mimarTulebis saswavlebelSi mtkiced gansazRvruli programiT, kuTvnili adgili unda daiWiros religiurma aRzrdam. Cveni eklesiis meTauris am mosazrebam saTanado praqtikuli asaxva unda moipovos, rameTu Zvelad yoveli msgavsi sulieri krizisis dros Cveni xalxisa da qveynis meTaurebi, rCevasa da sulier Semweobas saqarTvelos patriarqebs sTxovdnen da maTi miTiTebiTa da locva-kurTxeviT Zlevdnen eris sulier gasaWirs. unda daibados, unda iSvas axali qarTveli eri. eri mtkice, Zlieri, uZleveli, RvTismoyvare da RvTismoSiSi, rac SesaZlebelia aTeistebis mier aTwleulTa manZilze gulebSi danergili siZulvilis aRmofxvriTa da Zveli qarTuli zneobriobis aRorZinebiT. es ki moxdeba mxolod da mxolod saSualo skolebSi I klasidanve religiuri aRzrdis yoveldRiuri danergviT. SevTxovoT ufal RmerTs mravalJamieri, saukunovani sulieri Zliereba axali, momavali qarTveli erisa. ,,madli~ #18, 1993.

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erovnuli eklesia

,,qedmodrekila naRvliT sawyali, rom misi trfoba TqvenSi Semwydara~ ilia marTali. ,,aCrdili~

Cvens ers aqvs Sinagani, Rrma, gulisgulSi dafaruli siyvaruli deda-eklesiisadmi, magram es trfoba Cvens arsSi qvecnobierad devs, is winaparTaganaa naanderZevi, ZvelTagan gadmocemuli, amdenad milevadia da mimqrali, rameTu araa ganmtkicebuli axali codniT, swavlebiT, sazogadoebrivi damokidebulebiT, avtoritetiT, mibaZviT, magaliTiT. ufro metic, araiSviaTad Cveni xalxisagan ismis sayvedurebi, gansakuTrebiT maTgan, romelTac ukve gaicnes seqtanturi mimdinareobebi da uCndebaT kiTxvebi eklesiisadmi TavianTi gulgrilobis gasamarTleblad: ratom iyideba sanTeli eklesiaSi? ratomaa Zviri? ratom iRebs mRvdeli fuls naTlobasa da sxva wesebis SesrulebaSi? ratom araa mudmivi, uwyveti qadageba eklesiebSi, roca iq Sesul Tundac erTaderT adamians mRvdeli xvdeba da esaubreba? ratom ara gaqvT sasuliero literatura, raca gaqvT, ratom yidiT mas da ar arigebT ufasod, rogorc sxvebi? yvelafriT vaWroba da gayidva SeiZleba? saxarebisac? ratom ar aris eklesiebSi iseTive sisufTave, rogoricaa vTqvaT araqarTul eklesiebSi, miT umetes ucxoeTSi? ratomaa momsaxureoba TqvenTan dabali donisa?.. da sxva mravali. gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa simarTliTa da zrunviT gamoTqmuli gulistkivili: Cvens sofelSi eklesiaa, mRvdels viTxovT wlebis manZilzed, ar gvigzavnian, mTel raionSi erTi RvTismsaxuric ara gvyavs, uyuradRebobis gamo sarwmunoebrivad ucodinar Cvens xalxs seqtantebi ibireben Tavisken... axlaxan saberZneTidan Camosuli erTi adamiani aRtacebiT laparakobda berZnul eklesiebSi mrevlisadmi yuradRebis Sesaxeb, rom iq sanTeli ar iyideba, sufTaa da ara iseTi, rogoric CvenTan (Zviri da uxarisxo), rom berZeni mRvdlebi piradad icnoben mrevlis ojaxis TiToeul wevrs, warmoadgenen ojaxis udides mrCevels da Tanamdgoms Wirsa Tu lxinSi, rom bavSvobidan vidre siberemde iqauri adamianebi samRvdeloebis sulieri mzrunvelobiT arian garemoculni. msgavsadve laparakoben ucxoeTidan Camosuli sxva adamianebic. diax, ra Tqma unda, ase unda iyos - samRvdeloeba da misi samwyso erT mTlianobas, erTian sulier organizms unda warmoadgendes, romelsac ewodeba kidec eklesia. vinc saqarTvelos warsul saeklesio cxovrebas icnobs, dagveTanxmeba, rom CvenSic aseve iyo Zvelad. ra vupasuxoT zemoT moyvanil kiTxvebs, maT pasuxi unda gaeceT, rogori mwarec ar unda iyos is. sabednierod, vinc Cveni eklesiis Sinagan cxovrebas icnobs, dagveTanxmeba, rom Cveni samRvdeloeba, SeiZleba iTqvas, gmiruli TavdadebiT asrulebs masze dakisrebul uzenaes valdebulebas, esaa - msaxureba RvTisa da erisa. rogor? - ikiTxavs mkiTxveli, maS vis exeba gamoTqmuli sayvedurebi? isini bumerangiviTaa. 257

saqme isaa, rom Cveni deda saqarTvelos samociqulo (marTlmadidebluri) eklesia - marTalia, erT-erTi uZvelesia msoflioSi, magram, samwuxarod, erT-erTi uRaribesicaa. araviTari mudmivi Semosavali, ucvleli saarsebo wyaro arc samRvdeloebasa da arc eklesias ar gaaCnia. aq igulisxmeba is, rom arc Cveni samRvdeloeba da arc eklesia ar iRebs sazogadoebisagan - saxelmwifosagan dotacias, saarsebo saxsrebs, ar arsebobs xelfasebi, socialuri daxmareba. samRvdeloeba arsebobs SemTxvevidan-SemTxvevamde, maTi ojaxebis keTildReoba, socialuri yofa damokidebulia im adamianebze, romelTac emsaxurebian naTlobiTa da sxva wesebis SesrulebiT, maTTvis ucnobia saxelmwifos mier gacemuli binebi, pensiebi, sxva SeRavaTebi, riTac arseboben saqarTvelos moqalaqeni, samRvdeloebis gamoklebiT. xolo Cveni eklesiebis SekeTebis, gundebis, momsaxure personalis, diakvnebis, medaviTneebis, sasulieri saswavleblebis studentebis, pedagogebisa da sxvaTa xelfasebi da stipendiebi gaicema eklesiebSi sanTlis gayidviT Semosuli Tanxisagan. saocari isaa, kidev rogor axerxebs Cveni eklesia fexze dgomas da Tavisi Tavis Rirseulad warmoCenas msofliosa da mravali Camosuli stumris winaSe. Tu rogori iyo Cveni eklesiis yofa Zvelad, amas qvemoT SevexebiT, manamde ki ganvixiloT ucxoeTis qveynebSi eklesiaTa Tanamedrove yofa, ra warmoadgens maT saarsebo wyaros - eklesiaSi sanTlis gayidviT, naTlobiTa da sxva wesebis SesrulebiT miRebuli Tanxebi?! msoflios uZveles marTlmadidebel eklesiaTa Soris saberZneTis eklesia erT-erTi uZvelesia da dRiTi dRe ufro Zlierdeba, TandaTanobiT iWers Tavis kuTvnil, wamyvan adgils saerTaSoriso asparezze. amis mizezi gaxlavT saberZneTis saxelmwifosa da xalxis damokidebuleba Tavisi eklesiisadmi. konstantinepolis dacemis (1453) Semdgom elada osmalebma daipyres. berZnebma erovnuli saxelmwifoebrioba arc Tu didi xnis win, XIX s-is II naxevarSi aRidgines. osmalebisagan saberZneTis ganTavisuflebas xels uwyobda maSindeli mTeli kulturuli msoflio, gamoCenili adamianebi piradad monawileobdnen (baironma sicocxlec ar daiSura) am saqmeSi, magram mraval pirovnebas eeWveboda, rom TiTqmis 400 wlovani monobis Semdgom berZnebi SeZlebdnen erovnuli TavisTavadobis anu im Zveli ,,berZnobis~ dabrunebas, romelsac ase scemda Tayvans kacobrioba. sabednierod, berZnebma SeZles erovnuli xasiaTis, erovnul CveulebaTa aRdgena. maT icodnen, rom nacionalur TvisebaTa dvritas berZnuli eklesia warmoadgenda. saukuneTa manZilze berZnoba da qristianoba, berZnoba da marTlmadidebloba, berZnoba da eklesia gaerTmniSvnelovanda. visac ,,berZnobis~ aRorZineba surda, mas unda ezruna kidec erovnuli eklesiis aRorZinebisaTvis, da, marTlac, XIX s-is II naxevarSive, axlad warmoqmnilma saberZneTis saxelmwifom berZnuli eklesia gamoacxada erovnul eklesiad. es imas niSnavs, rom saxelmwifom Tavis Tavze aiRo berZnuli eklesiis yovelgvari socialur-ekonomikuri sakiTxis gadaWra, samRvdeloebas daeniSna xelfasebi I kategoriis saxelmwifo moxeleTa Tanabrad, biujeti iTvaliswinebs saxsrebs samRvdeloebis pensiebis, socuzrunvelyofis, binebis, komunaluri momsaxurebisa da sxva saWiroebisaTvis, mxolod erTi movaleoba daekisra samRvdeloebas 258

Seasrulos Tavisi sulieri valdebuleba - aRzardos axali Taoba, zneobrivad ganamtkicos da gaajansaRos eri. Cven xazgasmiT unda aRvniSnoT, rom saberZneTSi marTlmadidebluri sarwmunoeba aris saxelmwifo religia, ufro metic, saxelmwifo kanonmdeblobis zogierTi nawili dafuZnebulia saeklesio samarTlis principebze. vinc Zveli saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriv cxovrebasaa gacnobili, damemowmeba, rom CvenSic Cveni erovnuli eklesia warmoadgenda saxelmwifo eklesias. saxelmwifosa da eklesiis mWidro urTierTobis Zveleburi saxe ucvleladaa Semonaxuli evropisa da msoflios mraval qveyanaSi. msoflios umravles qveynebSi romelime qristianuli mimdinareoba warmoadgens an saxelmwifo an oficialur religias (erovnul, gabatonebul, privilegirebul), saxelmwifos gansakuTrebuli mfarvelobis qveS myof eklesiebs. maTi aseTi mdgomareoba aranairad ar arRvevs demokratiis principebs da aRmsareblobis (sindisis) Tavisuflebas. magaliTad, demokratiis iseT burjSi, rogoricaa didi britaneTi, aris ori saxelmwifo eklesia. inglisSi anglikanuri eklesiaa, xolo SotlandiaSi 1952 wlidan - presviterianuli. anglikanuri eklesiis mRvdelmTavrebis (episkoposebisa da mTavarepiskoposebis) didi nawili lordTa palatis wevria. samRvdeloeba srulebiT aris uzrunvelyofili saxelmwifos mier, anu samRvdeloebis xelfasebs, pensiebs, socdaxmarebebs da sxva saeklesio gasaval Tanxebs sruliad iZleva saxelmwifo. aseve SveicariaSi, evangelikur-luTeranuli eklesia Tavisi statusiT aris saxelmwifo eklesia. gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovani aris CvenTvis eklesiis mimarT italiis saxelmwifos damokidebuleba. 1947 wlis italiis konstituciam gamoacxada sindisis (aRmsareblobis) Tavisufleba, magram kaTolikoba gamoacxada saxelmwifo religiad. samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis fundamentad gamoyenebulia kanonikuri samarTali. CvenTvis uaRresad sayuradReboa, rom kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad saxelmwifo da kerZo saswavleblebSi savaldebuloa saRmrTo rjulisa da Teologiuri sagnebis swavleba. kaTolikuri eklesia ganTavisuflebulia gadasaxadebisagan. irlandiaSi kaTolikur eklesias gansakuTrebiT privilegirebuli mdgomareoba ukavia, mas didi avtoriteti gaaCnia sazogadoebaSi. 1937 wlis konstituciam kaTolikur eklesias gansakuTrebuli statusi mianiWa. CvenTvis sayuradReboa, rom evropis am qveyanaSi eklesia akontrolebs ganaTlebisa da janmrTelobis dacvis sistemas; didi gavlena aqvs politikur struqturebze, akrZalulia ganqorwinebani, abortebi da kontraceptiuri saSualebebis gayidva, Tanaxmad kanonisa. belgiaSi kaTolikur eklesias gabatonebuli mdgomareoba ukavia. 1831 wlis konstituciiT mas aqvs farTo religiuri propagandis ufleba. kaTolikurad aris Camoyalibebuli ganaTlebis yvela safexuri. cnobilia luvenis kaTolikuri universiteti, romelic ramdenime romis papma daamTavra. 259

avstriaSi kaTolikoba aris gabatonebuli konfesia da is dafiqsirebulia Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobiT. kerZod, konkordatiT avstriasa da vatikans Soris, romelic 1933 wels daido da 1957 wels ganaxlda. portugaliaSi kaTolikuri eklesia privilegirebuli konfesiaa. 1940 wels dadebulma konkordatma vatikansa da portugalias Soris kaTolikur eklesias farTo uflebebi mianiWa. germaniaSi ori mimdinareoba aris gabatonebuli da es privilegirebuli mdgomareoba dafiqsirebulia Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobiT. es konfesiebia kaTolicizmi da luTeranoba (evangelikuri eklesia). daniaSi kanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad arsebobs saxelmwifo religia, romelsac ewodeba ,,daniis saxalxo eklesia~ (evangelikur-luTeranuli), misi formaluri meTauri aris mefe. islandiaSi, aseve kanonmdeblobis Tanaxmad saxelmwifo religias warmoadgens - ,,islandiis saxalxo eklesia~ (dgas evangelikurluTeranul poziciebze), saxelmwifo mxars uWers da ekonomikurad exmareba mas. norvegiaSi saxelmwifo religia aris evangelikur-luTeranuli eklesia. misi formaluri meTauri aris mefe. fineTSi saxelmwifo eklesiis statusi aqvs evangelikur-luTeranul eklesias. eklesiis Sesaxeb kanonebis miReba xdeba erToblivad eklesiisa da saxelmwifos mier. sakanonmdeblo iniciativis ufleba saeklesio krebas ekuTvnis. espaneTSi saxelmwifo religia aris kaTolicizmi. evropis im qveynebSi, romlebic bolo wlebSi ganTavisufldnen komunizmisagan, miRebulia axali kanonmdeblobani eklesiis mimarT. CexeTad da slovakeTad gayofamde Cexoslovakiis konstituciis Tanaxmadac arc marTlmadidebeli da arc kaTolikuri eklesiebi ar iyvnen gamoyofili saxelmwifosagan. saxelmwifo ekonomikurad exmareboda maT. ungreTSi ori gavleniani konfesiaa, rac dafiqsirebulia Sesabamisi kanonmdeblobiT - kaTolikoba da ungreTis evangelikur-reformatuli eklesia. poloneTSi miiRes calke kanonmdebloba kaTolikuri eklesiis Sesaxeb. aseTia saxelmwifoebrivi damokidebuleba eklesiisadmi evropul qveynebSi, romelnic miiCnevian msoflio demokratiis udides burjebad, magram ufro Rrmaa es damokidebuleba saxelmwifosa da eklesias Soris laTinur amerikasa da sxva qveynebSi. boliviaSi kaTolicizmi saxelmwifo sarwmunoebas warmoadgens, saerTod, laTinuri amerikis qveynebSi saxelmwifo gansakuTrebiT mfarvelobs kaTolikur eklesias (patronatis ufleba). aseTi qveynebia argentina, venesuela, haiti, dominikanuri respublika, kolumbia, kosta-rika, paragvai, peru. am qveynebSi kaTolikur eklesias ewodeba - ,,erovnuli eklesia~. kolumbiaSi kaTolikur eklesias aqvs farTo iuridiuli da samoqalaqo uflebebi. gamocxadebulia sindisis (aRmsareblobis) Tavisufleba, magram kaTolikoba aRiarebulia eris (naciis) religiad da 260

,,qveyanaSi erTianobisa da sazogadoebrivi mowesrigebis erT-erT fundamentad~, rac CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa. braziliaSi kaTolikur eklesias privilegirebuli mdgomareoba ukavia, is iZleva erovnul programebs ekonomikuri ganviTarebisa, agraruli reformebisa, ganaTlebisa da sxvadasxva kanonmdeblobebisa. sabolood unda iTqvas, rom msoflioSi saxelmwifo religia Setanilia 43 qveynis konstituciaSi, Tu aras vityviT islamur da sxva qveynebze. zemoT moyvanili magaliTebi cxadyofs, rom eklesiisa da saxelmwifos mWidro urTierToba, mosaxleobis umravlesobis sarwmunoebis erovnulad aRiareba da erovnuli eklesiis saxelmwifoebrivi statusi ar arRvevs demokratiis principebs, aRmsareblobis Tavisuflebas. SevadaroT ucxoeTis eklesiaTa da samRvdeloebis yofa Cvensas, iq saxelmwifo uvlis, aSenebs, patronobs moqmed eklesiaTa Senobanagebobebs, samRvdeloebas uxdis xelfass, pensiebs, ganaTlebisa da janmrTelobis sistemebi eklesiis kontrolis qveSaa, sasuliero wodebas Rirseuli adgili uWiravs sazogadoebaSi, Cveni samRvdeloeba ki, miuxedavad komunisturi wyobis daSlisa, faqtiurad yovelgvar samoqalaqo uflebasaa moklebuli, Tundac is rad Rirs, rom mTeli sicocxlis manZilze Sromis Semdeg saxelmwifo RvTismsaxurs ar aZlevs pensias, Tu aras vityviT binasa da socialur daxmarebebze, amJamadac saxelmwifo qonebis privatizirebisas samRvdeloebas ar Sexvda qonebis araviTari nawili, rameTu fabrika-qarxnebisa da msgavsTa gansaxelmwifoebriobaSi eklesias ar udevs araviTari wili, Tumca yovelive zemoT Tqmuli warmoudgenel fufunebad Cans im fonze, rom samRvdeloeba saxelmwifosagan ar iRebs xelfass, maSin roca Cveni sazogadoebis yovel fenas saxelmwifo uxdis xelfass, miuxedavad imisa, adamianebi samsaxurSi dadian Tu ara. Cveni samRvdeloeba yoveldRiur zrunvasa da jafaSia, rom rogorme moipovos saarsebo saxsari ojaxis gamosakvebad, qveli saqmis aRsasruleblad, sxvaTa dasaxmareblad, am saxsrebs ki Tavisi piradi SromiT moipovebs - naTlobiTa da sxva wesebis SesrulebiT; sabednierod, miuxedavad aseTi jafisa, Cvens samRvdeloebas kidev yofnis energia, rom aqtiuri monawileoba miiRos mrevlis sulieri aRzrdisa da ucxo seqtebis sawinaaRmdego RvawlSi. xolo saeklesio Senoba-nagebobaTa, gundebis, momsaxure personalisa da sxvaTa Sesanaxi saxsrebi, rogorc aRiniSna, miiReba im mcireodeni Tanxebis SegrovebiT, romlebic sanTlis gayidvisagan Semodis, WeSmaritad, rom saxelmwifos zurgi aqvs Seqceuli Cveni eklesiis mimarT da mere romlisa, im eklesiisa, romelmac avad Tu kargad Cvens ers - eroba SeunarCuna, Cvens xalxs - qarTveloba. Cvens samSoblos ki - qristianuli qveynis saxeli. Zveli qarTuli kultura, xelovneba, literatura, musika, mxatvroba da umetesi imisa, riTac Cveni eri amayobs, naRvawia Cvens eklesia-monastrebSi, ufro metic, saukuneTa manZilze Cvens erovnul TvalTaxedvaSi qristianoba da qarTveloba gaerTmniSvnelovanda, sinonimebad iqca, amitomac iyo, rom Tu, raRac mizezebis gamo, qarTveli marTmadideblobas uaryofda da grigorianobas miiRebda, mas qarTvels ki aRar uwodebdnen, aramed ,,somexs~, Tu 261

qarTveli kaTolikobas miiRebda - ,,frangs~ uwodebdnen, mahmadians ,,TaTars~ an ,,Turqs~, xolo berZnul eklesias mikedlebul qarTvels ,,berZens~, e. i. ,,qarTveli~ mxolod saqarTvelos marTlmadidebeli eklesiis wevrs ewodeboda. Cveni qarTveloba - Cvenma deda eklesiam SegvinarCuna, amitomac iyo, rom Cveni Zveli saxelmwifo meTaurebi, mefeebi, politikuri moRvaweebi, mTavrebi gansakuTrebul privilegiebs aniWebdnen saqarTvelos eklesias, aZlevdnen qonebas, mamulebs, SeRavaTebs, saxsrebs, Sewirulobebs, soflebs, Cveni eklesia monawileobda qveynis marTva-gamgeobaSi, xelmwifis karze (Cveni qveynis erTianobisas) imyofeboda upirvelesi veziri anu premier-ministri Wyondideli mTavarepiskoposis wodebiT, iqve imyofebodnen sxva episkoposebi, moZRvarTmoZRvari, kaTalikosebi. maT xelSi iyo ara mxolod saeklesio da saxelmwifo dawesebulebebis (magaliTad - ,,saajo karis~ - uzenaesi sasamarTlos) marTva, aramed zogjer laSqris xelmZRvanelobac ki. saqarTvelos dasusteba-daSlisas sadroSoebs, anu samxedro olqebs (magaliTad kaxeTSi), episkoposebi meTaurobdnen. eklesias yovelTvis didi qoneba hqonda, amitomac samRvdeloeba daubrkoleblad aRasrulebda Tavis uSualo movaleobas - eris zneobriv aRzrdas. qarTuli eklesiis dRevandel savalalo yofas safuZveli Caeyara XIX saukuneSi. saerTod erisaTvis yvelaze didi ubedurebaa erovnuli saxelmwifoebriobis moSla. qarTuli saxelmwifo erTeulebis gauqmebas Tan mohyva erovnuli eklesiis gaqrobac. ruseTis administraciam da imperiam qarTul eklesias CamoarTva uzarmazari qoneba - Sefasebuli 150 milion oqros maneTad, amaSi Sedioda mamulebi, soflebi, fabrikaqarxnebi, samRebroebi, wisqvilebi, baRebi, sarewao da Semosavliani adgilebi da sxva mravali, aras vityviT Senoba-nagebobebze da im saeklesio gadasaxadebze, romliTac dabegrili iyo mTeli mosaxleoba. am 150 milioni maneTis yovelwliuri mogebis 1-3%-s mTavroba xelfasebis saxiT aZlevda marTlmadidebel samRvdeloebas, ara mxolod saqarTvelosas, aramed mTeli amierkavkasiisas (baqosa, dRevandel ganjasa da sxvagan gaixsna marTlmadidebluri eklesiebi). ase rom, saqarTvelos eklesiis qonebis procentebiT gasuli saukunis manZilze arsebobda amierkavkasiis rusul-berZnul-qarTuli samRvdeloeba. XX saukuneSi ki axlad aRorZinebul qarTul eklesias aTeisturkomunisturma saxelmwifom CamoarTva rogorc amboben 20.000 moqmedi eklesia-monasteri, Tu aras vityviT saeklesio ganZsa, mamulebsa da sxva udides danaklisze. saerTod, qarTuli aTaswlobiT nagrovebi erovnuli ganZi eklesia-monastrebSi iyo daculi uZvirfasesi xatebis, jvrebisa da sxva nivTebis saxiT. yvela isini saxelmwifom moixmara. ra darCa dRes saxelmwifos mier qonebaCamorTmeul qarTul eklesias? imedi imisa, rom axali qarTuli saxelmwifo Tavis WeSmarit erovnulobas safuZvels Cauyrida qarTuli eklesiis ganmtkicebiTa da aRorZinebisaTvis zrunviT, jerjerobiT gacruebulia. CvenTvis gansakuTrebiT aunazRaurebelia is moralur-zneobrivi danaklisi, romelic ganvicadeT aTeistebis batonobisas, maT ganuwyveteli, mudmivi da yoveldRiuri propagandiT, presiT, radio262

televiziiT, literaturiT moaxerxes samRvdeloebis, deda-eklesiisa da erovnuli sarwmunoebis saxelis SebRalva. marTalia, xalxs ar swamda komunistebisa, magram aTeisturma, antieklesiurma aRzrdam, bavSvobidan vidre siberemde, daRi daasva adamianTa Sexedulebebs, romelic TandaTan daileqa adamianTa Semecnebasa da gulebSi. swored amitom eklesias unda mieces ufleba aqtiuri propagandisa, ise rogorc belgiis kanonmdeblobiTaa gaTvaliswinebuli, e. i. mieces radio da tele qadagebebisa da swavlebisaTvis didi dro, presaSi daeTmos mniSvnelovani adgili, gadaeces gamomcemloba, gadaiRos filmebi da msgavsi, yovelive es unda dafinansdes saxelmwifos mier, iseve, rogorc saxelmwifo afinansebda msgavsi saSualebebiT aTeistur propagandas. es Cveni moralur-zneobrivi danakargebis kompensaciac iqneboda. Cvenma winaprebma kargad icodnen, rom qarTveli xalxisa da saqarTvelos mosaxleobis erovnuli erTobis saZirkvels sarwmunoebrivi erToba warmoadgenda, axlac sasurvelia Tu xalxi erT religias aRiarebs, eqneba erTi eklesia. esaa safuZveli saxelmwifos simtkicisa; aseve esmiT es sakiTxi ucxoeTSic, amitomacaa, rom, magaliTad, kolumbiaSi, rogorc aRiniSna, kaTolikoba aRiarebulia eris (naciis) religiad da ,,qveyanaSi erTianobisa da sazogadoebrivi mowesrigebis erT-erT fundamentad~. sabednierod, Cven am mxriv ar gvesaWiroeba raime xelovnuri qmedebis ganxorcieleba, ZvelTaganve mociqulTa mier naanderZevi marTlmadidebloba Cveni eris (naciis) religias warmoadgens, amasTanave es sarwmunoeba iyo da aris Cveni qveynis mosaxleobis umravlesobis sarwmunoeba, amitomac Tamamad SeuZliaT Cvens kanonmdeblebs ganacxadon, rom saqarTveloSi marTlmadidebloba warmoadgens qveynis erTianobisa da sazogadoebrivi mowesrigebis erTerT fundaments. marTlac, Cvenive istoriuli gamocdilebiT viciT, rom mTeli jgufebi Cveni erisa, mTeli nawilebi CamoSorda qarTvel xalxsa da saqarTvelos marTlmadideblobisa da erovnuli eklesiis uaryofis Semdeg. rogorc aRiniSna, qarTveli mosaxleobis sakmao nawilis armenizacia, gaTaTreba, gafrangeba, gaberZneba da msgavsi, Sedegi iyo Cveni erovnuli sarwmunoebis uaryofisa, ucxo aRmsareblobis aRiarebisa, msgavsadve CamoSordeba qarTvel ers (Tumca Cven ar visurvebdiT amas) dRevandeli qarTveli ieRovelebis, baptistebis, ormocdaaTianelebisa da sxva seqtantebis STamomavlebi, yovelive es ki safrTxes Seuqmnis saqarTvelos saxelmwifos erTianoba-mTlianobas, daSlis Cvens sazogadoebas, Cvenma kanonmdeblebma es unda gaiTvaliswinon. XVII saukuneSi, roca Cvenma mtrebma moSales erovnul-qristianuli saxelmwifoebrioba da saqarTvelos mahmadiani mefe-xanebi marTavdnen, daeca erovnuli zneoba, moiSala erovnuli saZirkvlebi. amis gamosasworeblad vaxtang VI-m didad iRvawa, didi muSaoba gaswia samarTlisa da saxelmwifo wes-wyobilebis mosawesrigeblad, Seqmna saxelmwifo kanonebis saxelmZRvanelo wigni - dasturlamali, romelSic sapatio adgili uWiravs saeklesio samarTals. amJamadac Cvenma kanonmdeblebma unda izrunon, raTa samoqalaqo kanonmdeblobis fundamentad gamoyenebul iqnes kanonikuri samarTali, rogorc esaa evropasa da msoflios mraval qveyanaSi. CvenSic eklesias unda daekisros ganaTlebis sistemis kontroli evropis mraval saxelmwifoTa darad. yvela is ubedureba, rac Tavs daatyda saqarTvelos bolo wlebSi - ZmaTa mkvleli samoqalaqo omi 263

uTuod Sedegia xalxis aTeisturi aRzrdisa, anu masobrivad dacemuli zneobisa. saqarTveloSi moxda samoqalaqo omi, omi, romelic Cveni xalxisaTvis ucnobi iyo aTaswleulTa manZilze, qarTvelebma daxoces qarTvelebi, gadawves sakuTari dedaqalaqi, gamodiodnen quCebSi aRgznebuli adamianebi absurduli da yovlad warmoudgeneli lozungebiT - sakuTari qveynis ekonomikis mospoba da sakuTari saxelmwifos dasusteba Tu moyveboda am moTxovnebs Sedegad da ara sxva raime. afeTqebdnen sakuTari qveynis xidebs, gvirabebs, rkinigzebs, sasicocxlo magistralebs, eleqtro-gadamcem xazebs, anadgurebdnen da Zarcvavdnen keTilmowyobil Senobebs, sastumroebs, centrebs, fabrika-qarxnebs, milionobiT maneTad Rirebul dazga-danadgarebidan iRebdnen da axlac iReben spilenZsa da Zvirfas Senadnobebs, gaaqvT sazRvargareT da kapikebze yidian, zogierTi qali nebayoflobiT gadioda ucxoeTSi amoraluri saqcieliT kapikebis mosaxveWad, maSin, roca amis iZuleba ar iyo da umravlesobas hqonda sakuTari keTilmowyobili ojaxi, saxl-kari, manqanebi da fufunebac ki, magram, radganac SemTxveva miecaT, ar dazoges samSoblo, erovnuli qoneba da yovlad uzneod gaaniaves. yovelive es Sedegia masobrivi sulieri gaunaTleblobisa - uRmerTobisa. uzneoba sufevs Cvens sazogadoebaSi. swored amitomaa saWiro, rom ganaTlebis sistema imyofebodes eklesiis meTvalyureobisa da zedamxedvelobis qveS, rogorc esaa msoflios mraval qveyanaSi, saskolo sistemam eklesiis uSualo monawileobiT unda aRzardos axali qarTveli eri, zneobrivi, RmerTisa, samSoblosa da eris WeSmaritad da ara yalbad, zedapirulad moyvaruli. albaT male gansaxilvelad gamoitanen axal qarTul konstitucias, romelSic Cvenma kanonmdeblebma sasurvelia gaiTvaliswinon Cveni fundamenturi mizani: - saqarTvelos samociqulo (marTlmadidebeli) eklesia aRiarebuli unda iqnes erovnul eklesiad saqarTvelos respublikaSi. es imas niSnavs, rom saqarTvelos eklesias mieniWeba statusi saxelmwifo eklesiisa (saxelmwifo eklesiad saqarTvelos respublikaSi aRiarebuli iqneba saqarTvelos samociqulo eklesia). am statusidan gamomdinare, yvela Tavisi SedegiT, rac zemoT iyo CamoTvlili, magaliTad, saxelmwifo biujetidan saxsrebis gaReba Cveni eklesiis xarjebis dasafaravad (esaa pirvel rigSi xelfasebi, soc. uzrunvelyofa, pensiebi). erovnul eklesiad qarTuli eklesiis gamocxadeba ar SezRudavs saqarTvelos respublikaSi sindisis (aRmsareblobis) Tavisuflebas, rac aRiarebuli iqneba kanoniT. saqarTvelos avtonomiur respublikebs, TavianTi konstituciis Sesabamisad, cxadia SeuzRudvelad SeeZlebaT zemoT aRniSnuli kanonis ganvrcoba. deda - qarTuli eklesiis erovnul eklesiad gamocxadeba ganamtkicebs Cveni saxelmwifos saZirkvlebs, WeSmaritad rom momavalSi ganabrwyinebs saqarTvelos. manglisi, 12 ianvari, 1995 w. gaz. ,,madli~, #2, 1995.

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Sinaarsi deda eklesia winasityvaobis magier .............................................................................................. gv. 1 patiosanno da didebulno qarTvelno!.................................................... gv. 4 qarTvelebis gaberZneba............................................................................................ gv. 8 qarTvelTa gamahmadianeba....................................................................................... gv. 14 qarTvelebis galekeba.............................................................................................. gv. 22 qarTvelTa gaoseba........................................................................................................ gv. 29 qarTvelebis armenizacia........................................................................................ gv. 39 qarTvelebis gaafxazeba.......................................................................................... gv. 46 saeklesio cxovreba sityva warmoTqmuli axalcixis eklesiaSi 1981 wlis seqtemberSi.......................................................................................................................... gv. 55 mogzauroba aTonze..................................................................................................... gv. 57 qarTlis cxovrebis furclebi. mesxeTis warsulidan........... gv. 65 pirveli wirva udes taZarSi............................................................................... gv. 78 pirveli wirva safaraSi........................................................................................... gv. 83 wirva vales eklesiaSi.............................................................................................. gv. 88 mesxeTis Sesaxeb (polemika) ....................................................................................... gv. 93 enkenia abasTumnis eklesiisa....................................................................................... gv. 97 pirveli wirva kimoTesubanSi....................................................................................... gv. 99 episkopos anania jafariZis sityva warmoTqmuli panaSvidisas eklesiaSi mefe solomon II-is neStis axalcixidan gadasvenebis Semdeg........................................................ gv. 103 nu daanawevrebT......................................................................................................................... gv. 105 eklesiis istoria mociqulTa gza.......................................................................................................................... gv. 110 qristianoba andria mociqulidan wmida ninomde.................................. gv. 116 wmida ninos tropari.......................................................................................................... gv. 123 mironis kurTxevis Sesaxeb.......................................................................................... gv. 129 saqarTvelos sapatriarqos adgili marTlmadideblur diptixSi............................................................................................................................................ gv. 137 muxranel bagrationTa didi ojaxis mamuliSviloba....................... gv. 145 afxazeTis Ria Wriloba Tamar dedoflis vaJis saxeli................................................................................... gv. 152 JamTaaRmwerloba WeSmaritis metyveleba ars ............................................ gv. 161 ,,rai ars WeSmariteba?~ .......................................................................................... gv. 174 megrelTa sisxli swyurodaT....................................................................................... gv. 183 episkopos anania jafariZis sityva warmoTqmuli samgloviaro mitingze q. borjomSi 1992 wlis 9 oqtombers.................................................................................................................................. gv. 189 afxazeTSi mimdinare e. w. ,,gamegrelebis~ iZulebiTi procesis namdvili arsi.......................................................................... gv. 192 naTliscemis ZvelqarTuli terminologia da wyalTan dakavSirebuli zogierTi toponimi................................................. gv. 198 265

afxazebis sacxovrisi Crdilo kavkasiaSi ....................................................... gv. 203 mebrZoli eklesia....................................................................................................................... gv. 208 sabrZolo droSa........................................................................................................................ gv. 215 saqarTvelos Svilebi Cvengan gavaucxovoT Cveni sisxli da xorci? ............................................ gv. 223 ,,saqarTvelo Sen vin mogca Svili dasakargavi~......................................... gv. 231 axali Taobis aRsazrdelad episkopos ananias qadageba axalcixis sasuliero saswavleblis gaxsnisas........................................................................................................ gv. 240 vaswavloT Tu ara saqarTvelos eklesiis istoria skolaSi........ gv. 244 episkopos anania jafariZis qadageba universitetis axalcixis filialSi............................................................................................................. gv. 252 axali eri........................................................................................................................................... gv. 254 erovnuli eklesia .................................................................................................................. gv. 257

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redaqtori samxatvro redaqtori teqnikuri redaqtori koreqtorebi operatorebi programisti

n. g. m. n. i. n. n.

suxitaSvili zakalaSvili asaTiani qafianiZe, e. babalaSvili CalaTaSvili, n. masxulia, m. kapanaZe, burxraZe, n. papiaSvili fofxaZe

aiwyo da momzadda dasabeWdad gamomcemlobaSi kompiuterul teqnologiiT sb N5284 xelmowerilia dasabeWdad 16.10.96. qaRaldis zoma 60X84. sabeWdi qaRali ofsetis. nabeWdi Tabaxi 20. pir. nabeWdi Tabaxi 18,6. pir. saRebavgatareba 19,07. saaRr. sagamomc. Tabaxi 20,28. Sekv. 172

fasi saxelSekruleblo

gamomcemloba ,,ganaTleba~, Tbilisi, g. CubinaSvilis q. N50 1996

saaqcio sazogadoeba ,,pirveli stamba~

q. Tbilisi, CubinaSvilis q. N50

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