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VIRONMENT

URAL GEOGRAPHY
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G.R. SWA IN E

HERBERT RUSSELL

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ENVIRONMENT.
A
Natural Geography.

BY

G. R.

SWAINE,

F.R.MET.S.,

Associate of the College of Preceptors.
Victorian Lecturer of the Manchester Geographical Society.

Geography Master

at the

Manchester Warehousemen and Clerks' Schooli

ttoiiu-cn:

HERBERT RUSSELL,
TEMPLE CHAMBERS,
I

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4.

PREFACE.
been a revolution in the methods of teaching Geography. The antiquated memorising of names of Capes, Bays, Rivers and Towns lias given place to a more rational and scientific
recent

Within

years there

has

Geography

;

for

questions of
political or

it has come to be recognised that Geography have strongly influenced and

are interwoven with almost every matter of historical,

economic importance. With this fact in view, I have taken as the theme of the present work, " The Influence ot Environment on Man " and this in my opinion, is the fundamental principle in the teaching of Geography. I must acknowlelge, witii gratitude, the profound impression made upon me by the lectures of Processor Herbortson an Miss Semple, at Oxford Their teaching ed the train of thought of which the present volume is the outcome. The sketches have been pre: I
,

by

my
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colleague,

M

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B.

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Fitchew, for whose

am

graii 'tul.

Finally, I

am

greatly indebted
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to

my

tnend,

Mr.

B.

Parley,

B.A.,

F.R.G.S

of

Manon
S.

ner, for consi lerable assistance in the section-

Animal Geography.

G. R.

PUBLISHERS'
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Publishers beg to tt-inler their grateful acknowledges
.Mr.

aa under, for permission to use various photographs
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Bernaoohi (Physicist to the Scott Antarctic Expedition) for " Antarol ic Ec< TiiHigh Commissioner, Union of South Africa, fur
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The Warm Temperate Regions 81-163 82 127-154 155-158 Chap. 20 21-80 22-56 Section II. Section IV....— Equable Hot Lowlands Chap. —The Equable Lands — Lands with Cold Winters . PAGES. — — Ocean Appendix.. Low Rainfall ..— The Extreme Lowlands . 202-210 Chap. . Chap. Chap... —The Equable Lands ... i . Chap... Chap.. ment Globsabi Indi \ Towns 216-219 220-221 . 164-215 — Rainless Deserts — The Tropical Monsoon 161-173 Lands of Asia 17! . . . Chap. Chap..— The North Polar Region II. V.. II. I.. IV...CONTENTS. Tropical and Semi ... . Introduction Section I.. .. III. I.....Tropical Bighlanda 211-213 The [glands of the Pacific Chap. Chap... II.. The Elevated Lands of the Temperate Zone 57-65 66-78 79-80 — Section III. The Hot Regions I.— The South Polar Region 11-20 12-19 . 9-10 . Cnap. Chap.. The Cool Temperate Regions I. IV.. I II.— The Extreme Lands I.... The Polar Regions . . -C »f 2] 1-216 : the of ( I .— Extreme Tablelands r L59-163 . III.. . Chap. p. and . ..— Extreme Interior Lowlands IV. Chap..

.

•:• 1. Eskimo Winter Hut Norwegian Fiord and Seater or Mountain Hut 15 28 31 A Sussex Village Street in Scotland 4. showing Shane Style of Hair nnd 140 166 13. South African 1 ( >x- Waggon ( erossinj Spruit 1-7 20 [oub< New tainea . 12. OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Bay 11. 2. 3. Indian Chief of An Indian Encampment A Maori Village Wigwams 44 50 A Clearing in the Canadian Forest Belt o the North 71 A Canadian Wheat Field 76 . 139 of T. L68 17.. The Desert 165 the Nile in the I A Scene on L66 A Pastoral Scene li Holy I. African N tutl L69 L81 A Siamese River Scene 19.. of Naples and Vesuvius Japanese House and Garden . A Mountain Scene 34 43 A Red 6.. 3. 7. L5.)cr Japanese Lady.LIST KIG. L6. The Steppe Region 14..

To face 40 128 160 184 192 Natural Eegions of Europe Natural Regions of .. .. Natural Regions of Asia • • 200 i) 208 N.. .......LIST Antarctic Iceberg OF PLATES.. Nagasaki Sugar-cane in Natal.. Natural Regions of Australia. 136 149 Bio de Janeiro and the Harbour 199 LIST The The The The The The The The British Isles OF MAPS. * PAGE. — The Maps in the latter part of the book are to facilitate reference.. Natural Regions of South America ..B.. . i Natural Regions of North America Natural Regions of Africa . . — Scott Expedition To face 20 49 79 Mustering Sheep —New Zealand Corral of Horses near Calgary Japanese Temple. placed there ..... . . New Zealand .

S. such as number of England. The boundaries however. men have recently i m i to divide tiie earth into truer | i plural regions. the other hand. Natural Regions. or The inhabitants of each of these countries are looked upon as united peoples. is divided into a divisions called countries.A. man's and daily nat ure Buch he as din Boil. where the climatic conditions. Thus. as regards bears more iblanoe to il raphical conditions. As you know. For example. the world France. is not a natural or true geographical boundary of these countries.INTRODUCTION. because the Wheatlands of Manitoba in Canada stretch across the political border into Minnesota and at all. Germany. that is to they do not always separate lands differing to any considerable extent in such outstanding features as Clin: Natural Productions or Formation of the Surface.S. we find that the boundary between Canada and •die U. Within of these natural regions afl ' we find life. Western Germany almost exactly the same Belgium or Holland. B . or. and the general Level of the BUI So too.A. for they usually speak a common tongue and are governed by the same laws. the Mature of the soil. <>!' t ti conditions be land. as we will now rail them. for geographical purposes. are not always true geographical boundaries. is not naturally divided from Dakota in the U.. I it tuntries than it d to the south-eastern portion oi Germany itself.

we shall see that his industries. usually attract population. clothing man himself — in and daily labours. there are parts of the earth so cold or so arid that human habitation is almost impossible. and the purpose of this book to show how. from those Now to climate and the surface of the earth affect man an enormous extent. All those powerful agents that called his is man's life are Environment. in the main. whilst other parts produce with little labour materials for food and clothing in abundance. therefore. the chief interests of it. mountains have ever been such barriers to human intercourse as to hinder trade. recreations his thoughts are affected and even greatly by these and kindred affect causes. man have been largely determined by . Varieties climate and surface. whereas plains. For instance. obviously cause great differences in his foods. whilst they are different. Again. customs. in the different Natural Eegions of the world. being easy of access and favourable of to means land of transport. Later.10 Environment : similar. of all other natural regions.

such as clothes the soil. June and July. and in ice becomes thicker ami thousand parts is actually uio . in our islands. each season is well marked both by its particular type of weather and by the character of the vegetation which In other parts of the world. as for example. Lands It is of this latter type are called of the Polar Regions. there are tracts of earth and sea which experience long and severe winters and little or no summer. In <u)ite of the long period of sunshine however. while of In. well-known that our earth is nearly spherical in shape and that owing to its annual journey round the sun through space. these conditions m -1 al the time of the northern winter. the >un's heat is too weak to impression on th< p which ha in make much the the win! ' r the land. or receive them Northern Hen. the boo never sets in the Arctic Region daring the part of May. of the In the summer and thus.SECTION # I. coincides with the time of the southern wi obliquely. the varying seasons come and go. while the Arctic Region is enjoying its long Iod of eontinuous daylight the Antarctic is wrapped the darkness of winter. earth which are situated at the furthest distance from the Equatorial belt either do not receive the sun's rays at all. the hot months of summer and the cold months winter are separated by only a tew short days. In parts of the world. The time of the northern Bummer however. THE POLAR REGIONS. Ob viously. sia. aim at the actual :h Pole there is no darkness tor the six months from March to September.

has a circumference of over eight thousand miles and of this. It is only within very recent times that Greenland was shown an island. The eastern coast is constantly . the most typical of the lands within this region. Greenland has the sea Along the on both its western and eastern shores. greater part of this region lies within the Arctic but portions of land which show similar features and are over fifteen hundred The Arctic Circle itself miles from the North Pole. broken from the ends of the glaciers which reach the sea from the high interior of Greenland. and its northern edge is still unexplored. Greenland of to the temperate regions inhabited became known because it lay nearest by the exploring races Europe. The North The lie Polar Region. indeed. selves. outside this latitude the ocean currents and of ice-masses these in their turn have much effect on the climate of the land areas them. western coast flows an ice-cold current from the north through Davis Strait between Labrador and Greenland. Greenland. As may be seen from the map.CHAPTEK I. This current bears great icebergs. Greenland is perhaps. The remaining land influences very greatly the movements of Circle. and consequently the western coast has a to be very severe climate. traces have been found of visits of first the Norsemen as early as the thirteenth century. only nine hundred miles are water.

blowing down the lee slope of a ridge and thus heating itself by compression at the rate of 06° F. while in the drier north there The pressure of the ice in is no widespread layer of ice. forming great glaciers. It will be seen then. a warm wind. and is the result of a heavy and abundant snowfall.i on the mainland of Ameri Id in character an colder . there is a widespread. If winds blow from any direction between south and north-west they will pass over a wide stretch of cold water and will therefore bring very cold weather. even depth of snow. The interior of Greenland is a lofty plateau. accumulating faster in the intense cold of winter than it can disappear in the short Bummer. 13 fringed with pack-ice brought by an arctic drift of water from the open sea on the north. Tho cold r the Labrador Current. Winds blowing from the east and southeast will bring warmer weather since they cross a warmer Occasionally the valleys between the ridges receive sea. this wind is also found in for every 100 feet of descent tzerland. and are either extended under water for some distance before they melt. where it is known as the Fohn Wind. buried under a great depth of ice. To the south and south-east of Greenland pass the diffused waters of the Gulf Drift. or are broken into great 1" tried southward by the current. continual causes a movement seaward of the interior under layers of ice. where the oceanic winds meet the high lands. 1 i : 1 . that the weather on the coasts of Greenland is almost entirely dependent on the direction of the wind. 1 is interesting to note that in south Greenland.A Natural Geogravhy. These flow from a height of over six thousand feet to the Labrador rent. This ice-cap is some thou. which have lost mucli of their heat in their journey across the North Atlantic. ds of feet thick. but are still considerably warmer than the Arctic currents. thus » make the climate of southern Greenland and of Lahr. or Cold \\'<dl.

whilst the These are the sea assume a glow and sparkle. hawk-owl and ptarmigan. low birches* tation is of a very poor type. green and gold coloured rays shoot outwards along the sky in a fan-shape. the polar bear affords the most familiar example. raven. whilst — Of this Protective Coloration as it is called. Mosses and lichen grow where other vegeta- snow and — tion fails. than that which is lie nearer to the North Pole. but further north the only woody plant found is the creeping willow. Vegetation and Animal Life. red. The whale is found a few birds are able to the western shores. resembling the snow. and when this animal is at rest. . to be witnessed within these Polar regions at times. and in the imposing silence of the night their effect is most mysterious and charming. the animals. until they are lost in the darkness.14 Environment of Iceland or Spitzbergen. even is when quite near- Stranger however. All Arctic seas teem with the lower forms of animal life. Naturally the vegeIn the south. that by region. willows and shrubs bearing berries may be found. Northern Lights or Aurora Borealis. Eskimo dog and white and blue live in the foxes. the difficulty of distinguishing it from a heap of snow still is truly remarkable. It is interesting to observe how their environment has affected the coloration of many of the animals of this Their thick fur is often white in colour. arctic hare. off seal. ermine. sufficient to the fact that on the southern where the summer's heat is produce a scanty vegetation. south such as the eider duck. they may either escape detection by their enemies or creep near to their prey unobserved. whilst the following larger animals are to be found in Greenland — 'the white bear. from a golden band of light on the northern horizon. A * magnificent and beautiful sight . walrus. fringe of the Arctic Circle.

15 in order harmonise with their surroundi onetimes change their colours with the seasons. plank . and coarse black fe small. ire-blooded Eskimos. is rarely under five feet in height. low forehead.. about hi akin boats and when on land.I Natural Geography. 1. narrow slan whilst the hands and flat nose. for inter-marriage with tiers Greenland now contains few Danish . to Owing i in the interior and the the only settlements u on >und In summer the Eskimos on the western Bhorelands. Eskimo WlMTBB Ell i. The I striking resemblai hat of the Japan* i The habits and general show very clearly th< the I i >f life of the Eskimos of environment..'t The Eskimo is has taken place freely. they live in ii houses buill of turf. becomes in winter almost as white as snow. 10 The Inhabitants. shor: hair. which in summer is black and grey. —The native inhabitants it of land are the Eskimos and is fairly certain that Greenthey crossed over from the American mainland on the icetioes . the face broad and flat.>: - some centuries ago. when . Tims the plumage of the ptarmigan. i-'it. with high check bones.

A team of dogs consists of from eight . All the weapons of the Eskimos are simple but very artistic and clever. half underground passage as the entrance. This garment is also worn on the coast of Siberia in Asia. no reins are used.16 Environment: these materials are not so easily obtained. As is the custom amongst many half civilised peoples. as they are called. Travelling is done by means of sledges drawn by Eskimo dogs. oil and dried moss are used in bone vessels. All the household implements are made of bone. is a device to guard against the possible loss often of the whilst the women weapon if it should fail to strike. like the renowned Australian boomerang. are rarely fed and so their faculties They are trained to obey the voice and are sharpened. the women carry children on their backs in large hoods of fur attached to the clothes thus the children are kept warm and do not interfere with the use of the mother's arms. Since the land produces almost nothing. The dress is formed of trousers and a close fitting coat. like bee-hives. whilst oil and seal blood are drunk. The harpoon and bladder. with a hood to cover the head and it is practically alike for men and women. nor are so useful for protection. Their clothes are made of skins and furs of animals. In the summer time these huskies. This passage serves the double purpose of keeping out the biting winds and the hungry Polar bears. the bladder also impedes a wounded animal in its efforts to escape. Blubber is got from the is whale and both eaten and rubbed on the body. such as bone-tipped arrows and javelins and the famous harpoon with its bladder. wear birdskin garments with the plumage outwards. most of the food is obtained from the sea and it is chiefly of a fatty nature to produce warmth. they erect snow houses shaped with a funnel-shaped. and the men are very skilful in using them. and for lamps.

to some similar in I I to that of the Eskimos. race people different Their environment is. The Eskimo tribes are the most widely spread of all primitive peoples. but small numbers are found in Asia Dear Behring Strait Eskimo is . however. 17 to thirteen. They never go far from the c<' probably on account of their need of seal-hunting and also of their fear of the warlike Indians. the lips thick.m<l along all the arctic shores of America from Green- Land to Alaska. For seven or eighl *«'. the Lapp is usually from four to live feet in height. The mouth is large. and the eyes small an ring but not oblique. The northern people who. and this I tempera! ure a little The Bumc i .A Xatural Geography. bristly hair and little heard. because they are fretful often suffer from disease. and quarrelsome and they The position and rank of an reckoned by the number of dogs that lie possesses and not by money. They are entirely unknown in Europe. fastened by one leading rope of hide and they can travel forty miles a day at seven miles an hour. with dark. A striking proof of the influence of their environment is found in their belief that the place of punishment in after-life is a region of bitter cold and hunger. Obviously they are an entirely of from the Eskimos in origin. hut the air is DO -'in in winter and the cold IS the unpleasantness of the still. although the climate is - qoI there continuously severe. whilst their idea of heaven is a place of warmth and abundance. They are not so useful as the reindeer which the Lapps use. in fringe of the northern fringe of Europe and the Asia are peopled by g part of tribes of An appearance. The Northern Fringe of Eurasia. arc quite different irom the Bskimt Lappland. for money is of little or no value in that ice-bound desert land.

the Lapps are able to retire inland when the winter season comes on. but he is very good-natured. The Samoyeddes live chiefly near the Kara Sea and in the Yalmal Peninsula. selfish and nob very trustworthy. The reindeer supplies nearly all their wants meat. Their robes. there are different is shown no less than eleven foreign words to describe the colour of the reindeer. . having been driven there from the Altai Mountains by the more powerful Tartar races. whilst the Eskimo is bounded on the south by frozen seas. milk. their beds and all their homely wealth Supply. but within his — is own community he is very honest. and the hardness of their lives makes them very wiry. whilst the words of the language contain many elements introduced through his connection with the peoples of Norway. This tundra region is a dreary swamp in summer and a frozen waste in winter. The Lapp is unclean in habits. and this is. their wholesome fare and cheerful cups. The poet Thompson describes their simple life as "The reindeer form their riches: these their tents.partly due to their overusing them in early childhood on the barren uplands and waste plains. and clothing and it is their chief means of transport. for example. the Lapps are capable of great exertion. Their legs are short and bandy.18 Environment '. Many tribes of Lapps are spread over the tundra region of Russia and here also are tribes of Samoyeddes. because of its close connection with the great land mass of Eurasia. as are those of the Eskimo. follows Sweden and Eussia." Unlike the Eskimos.) The influence of the Lapp's environment in his language. warmer than the Greenland summer. because their retreat is southward to a warmer district. (The Eskimo also very ready to cheat strangers. Like the Eskimos.

). but bis success was very largely due L9 )'. nt from the pioneers of An t ploration rang through tli his in . and Ashing in the rivi their implements are made of bone and their huts resemble the stone huts of the Eskimos.4 Natural Geography. The Arctic region extends further to the south ov is r the great land masses. Hansen.. Not only are they rapidly diminishing in numbers largely owing to the use of spirits and to the swarms of mosquitos which bring small-pox. Amund Baffin. led in reaching the North Pole on April 6th. the names of Hudson. Ann « famous Arctic explorers. 2. an American. and 1'known. 19 by bunting. Franklin. EProbisher. in spite of their intercourse with Russians. where marine influence lacking. of daring adventurers for many centuries. we may note the following: 1. In summarising the chief characteristics of this Northern Polar Region then. ('apt. who do not scruple to do these things. whilst the is summers fit are short. whilst insular districts like Iceland do not exhibit such Arctic characteristics in spite of their high latitude. They show very strong or traits of never marauding thieving from either hones neighbours or strangers. The North Pole has been the Arctic Exploration. Davis. greal order to attain Much but the Buffering zest for and even adventure loss lite bave resulted. still draws many to further attempt s. Throughout the region the winters are long and •re. The land people. and men 1 — of many in nationalities in risks of in Europe and America bave underit. Peary. barely for human life habitation and the 'ion and animal show very si^ns of the influence of the frigid and desolate nature of the environment. but they have lost much of their earlier live chiefly They civilisation.

the land near it being in parts over ten thousand feet high. of any settlers. to reach the South Pole on December 14th. it Scott. this was verified by Captain Owing to the rigours of the climate. 1911. Very little else is known of the whole region. up to the present. was the first party. for it is only within recent years that exploration has taken place. including a few varieties of seal. and the sad disaster which overtook Captain Scott and four comrades on their return journey from the Pole in January. The productions are very meagre. and is separated from Australasia. some whales and penguins. with mosses and lichen growing in scattered patches. with several seams outcropping from the cliff face. It lies within the Antarctic Circle. no matter how hardy. coal measures at least fifteen hundred feet thick existed. 1912. caused widespread sorrow and a universal outburst of admiration for the courage and endurance of the whole Captain Amundsen. South Africa and South America by a vast ocean this in itself being sufficient to prevent the advent. is very unlikely that this store of mineral wealth will ever prove of advantage to the human race. Amongst the most noted explorers of the Antarctic are Ross. followed a month later by Captain Scott of the British Royal Navy. a Norwegian. S: Unlike the North Polar Region. Scott and Amundsen. An interesting discovery was made by Shackleton. this great region of ice and snow is entirely uninhabited. however. Recent exploration has shown that whereas the North Pole is in a depression or basin which is an unfathomed sea. Shackleton. — . The South Polar Region. the South Pole is very elevated. who found that in 85 degrees south.CHAPTER II.

c - W H H O 'J GO H a: < H 55 .a .

.

The cool temperate regions lie immediately to the south in of the Arctic Region in the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere they include the southern end of Argentina and Chili in America. and Tasmania and part of New Zealand in Australasia. •rienced and.SECTION II. . Many parts of these regions have cool and equable climates. but in many districts far removed from oceanic are the influence. or at a high altitude. as will be seen from this chief factors of climate have all some influence in modih the climate of the different parts ut these regions. THE COOL TEMPERATE REGIONS. greater extremes .

another new country. South. . It is interesting to note that almost all these lands are amongst the most powerful and important trading nations of the world. the Low Countries. impeding communication. because of its dense forests and high mountains which. and it is largely owing to the abundant rainfall that the climates are so equable. These are well supplied with rain by the south-westerly or westerly anti-trade winds. British Columbia. The Equable The Lands.We-. while Xew Zealand. Consequently. is gradually developing its mineral resources are being opened up and the difficulties of access and egress are being overcome. Tasmania and Xew Zealand. which is practically a -new country to civilised people is rapidly becoming Chili is undeveloped so far commercially important. the Western half rermany and Western Scandinavia).CHAPTER I. the Pacific border of Canada. best examples of lands with equable climates within North-West Europe (including the British Xorth France. t Chili. for neither Arctic cold nor tropical heat are suitable for work of the best kind. this region are Isles. the most industrious races of the world are to be found here and perhaps also in the equable portion he warm temperate region. The absence of extremes in temperature is a very important factor in the life of the peoples occupying tl parts of the world. hinder ac:ivity.

and while in one part one race strain appeal's to be dominant. — Much of the north-west of Europe * and this may still be found on the In the north 9 . Mediterranean races and Keltic races of alpine Em-ope. flax. firs and silver birches. :ees of this region are markedly different from those Mediterranean region: very many deciduous. on of the . with the oak. beech and ash on the lower hills and further to the south. they are clothed with rich foliage in summer.andinavia and other high lands. Certain fruits such as apples. barley for the more valuable cereal and root crops and rye. The people - Vegetation. of North. plums and pears are grown extensively in many places. many oi the original race features have become merged in each other for example. in another a different strain is uppermost. and yet throughout the whole region many common characteristics may be noted. brought about by the various conquests of the British Islands.Western Europe belong to various once entirely distinctive. while in the middle and Biscay border of France the vine is considerably vated. 23. potatoes.A Natural Geography. other parts of North-West Europe are peopled by what we may call mixed European peoples. damp climate. s. The plain lands have been largely cleared of trees to make way oats. . North-Western Europe. thai is to say. we find pines. the present British : product of the union of early Teutonic tribes of the North Sea coast. but cast their leaves in winter. but by inter-conquest and -equent mingling of races. In like manner. clover and turnips flourish in the originally forest land — equable. while very large stretches of moor and poor grass land are to be found at the foot of the hills and in the chalk and limestone districts where the moisture is quickly absorbed.

rabbits in great numbers. The land animals of this region are very similar to those of the whole land mass of Eurasia. such as the Yorkshire The wild flesh-eating moors. but the . many of the birds are songsters and their plumage is not generally so brilliant as those of sunnier regions. Columbia. agriculture was the chief occupation of the inhabitants. and the wolf has completely disvery rich in bird life at all seasons. is The region Until within the last hundred and fifty years. the sea areas close to the coasts of North-West Europe the Continental Shelf as it called are very rich in fish. Thus. Animal Life. and this is largely the animals' food great. those of southern Europe are evergreen in type. etc. stoat and weasel are rapidly diminishing. like the fox. polecat. but these cannot compare with the enormous quantities in the rivers of British fish. animals. wild supply. life Where human population is becomes less. because there are few impassable barriers separating the regions and animal lfe is less directly dependent than plant life on Climate certainly influences the character climate. but that the waters surrounding coasts are more abundant in their supply than deeper waters — — this being rivers bring food supply due to the fact that from the land to the sea. — where the Dogger Bank breeds enormous quantities of The rivers of Scotland and Scandinavia breed very valuable supplies of salmon.24 Environment the other hand. large numbers of rodents and in the less populated districts. because of the mildness of the climate. appeared. This is particularly the case in the shallow North Sea. of the vegetation. The chief animals animal of this region are the domesticated animals. Eecent observations have shown that not only are there larger quantities of fish and marine animals in the colder waters.

peaty marsh but the latter is now one of the most important cen of trade in the world and Liverpool is its great port.1 Natural Geography. may be wise to study such instai Liverpool before the eighteenth century was a small village. gium. the British Isles. Birmingham. which lies This district. and Lancashire was an ill-drained. and how preparation of el thickly-populated region Bprang up. it is often it German Rhineland clear why these great it centres of population have so developed. has been easily outdistanced in the t \ From the map it will be seen on the sea coast of Lancashire. I -'> development of the mineral resources of Britain.. windward side of the hills. I county ringed with < coalfields. being on the of the Pennine Range. This caused the growth of huge centres of population such as Manchester. o . the hub of the cotton trade . the great banking centre the caused also the rise of new and greater ports to cope with increased shipping traffic. and Germany. together with the invention of new machinery and more rapid means of transport. . these is rivers — the M—\ Qpon one south. the heart of the iron industry of : Frankfort-on-Main. and the decline of others that were at one time p of some importance. 1 of salt. at one time the equal of any port in . however. These facts will l show how admirably in suited the dis- the manufacture of COttOD goods and to the -. receives the rains brought Mti-trade winds. Bristol. was followed by a corresponding development of manufactures and commerce. the Liverpool authorities For this deepened the channel . From a careful examination of the map. Liverpool • is h humid and of it is well supplied with rivers. and at this point. hence its climate by the southrace for supremacy. while in Che-hire. Liverpool Btands.

. however. . to its . Take a map and study the position of the following towns and the reason for their importance will be clear. hence the town has failed to compete with Liverpool as a port and as a centre of population. and her river estuary is only suitable for admitting vessels of small draught. chemicals and the numberless products of other industries which also sprang up in the Lancashire-Cheshire area. to Southampton as an ocean liner port owing to its unsuitable situation. and has become a naval centre and dockyard. iron and limestone. some distance from London and the It has therefore had to give place centre of England. Leeds. Birmingham. — Owes its importance as the iron metro- polis to its situation near coal. Is situated on the River Aire (navigable from by small boats only. near one coalfield only. on a good natural harbour not near any large manufacturing area. Bristol. and so it is with all our great centres of population. — . It will be seen therefore. — . and make provision for exporting cotton goods. Hence it became surrounded by woollen manufactories and varied industries and developed as an important railway centre. .26 of Environment the Mersey estuary in order to admit the ever- increasing supplies of to raw cotton and of food-stuffs. but once useful as Sea North the a power to work mills) at the foot of a valley leading to the Aire Gap one of the only two good routes across the Pennine Range on a large coal and iron field near to the sheep-rearing moors of Yorkshire. England sheltered by Walney Island near the Lancashire and Cumberland coalfields near an iron-ore disHence it became a shipbuilding port. trict. that ths On the north-west coast of Barrow-in-Furness. is fairly importance of Liverpool is due to her geographic environment. —In the south-west corner of England . Plymouth. — .

• hindered capital of the rise of great industries. tennis m this part their influence times. stands which on the North Sea. but only by hard work. many tributaries convi on the Paris area. rheir environment. Although the lack of coal has i.. show many si^ns of is —The inhabitants of this re^ r i m The clim healthy and temperate. It navigable throughout Germany. though not of a very sunny nature. is — Is at the mouth of the River Elbe. Even the games show evidence of climatic influence cricket.1 Natural Geography. 27 central position and the ease with which railways and other means of transport could be designed on the surrounding plain. and it was originally situated on a small islau very easy of defence. and and football in producing such qualities as patiei Bnglishm lurance is -mown by lb kl .i<ls. 1 inThese things do not tend to make people lazy an hot la. tic and hardworking. it is surrounded by a very fertile across which pass all the great trade routes France.is m the \ childhood upwards are. it became the i France and the largest town on the mainlan It is situated in the heart of industrial of Europe. Hamburg. stunt the growth aid nor do they ks in make the preservation of :i life . opp. it is at the head of navigation for oceanto going steamers. — Is on the River Seine and at the head of navigation for small vessels. Hull and is therefore open to English coal supplies. Paris.> burden . their bread -it is there to be that obtained. and it is subject to many and frequent chan. 1'ra The Inhabitants. which is ice-free ail the year round. is in general. Its constant freedom from ice makes it the outlet for the produce of the rich and fertile northern plain of Germany.

each borders the North Atlantic ocean. naturally depends largely upon the mineral productions or on the structure of the surface. their ships are constantly exchanging goods and passengers also keen competition between ports and business. being short of minerals. the people of Norway have led and are still following a sea-faring or pastoral life owing to the mountainous character of the France. 2. Saxony and Silesia in Germany. there firms is of and these things have social connections. Germans. the work engaged upon in any part. almost the whole of the north and the middle of England. Dutch and Norwegians are and have been the leaders of enterprise and adventure all over the world.28 Environment Frenchmen. Norwegian Fiord and S^eter or Mountain Hut. and the country of Belgium are employed The special character of the other hand. On . between the created different parts of the region. in manufacture. . For instance. There is a great common bond between the various Since nations of this region in their trading relations. is still land surface. the lower Ehine basin. Fig. as well as numberless trading.

and is the cause of the present constant stream of emigrants from the — — Norwegian shores. is more indusAnother n trial than the Mediterranean coastal belt. swampy which seemed but besman. of Norway is agricultural land. and thus. the increasing of population and in insufficiency of food supply. ipulated unce. which lies on the south-east border of this natural region. at it may frequently he found as underlying The province land. all It is quite certain that very to n- attempts at colonisation have been due . the great German military it. mountainous and covered with extinct volcan wh. the distinction between the two being well marked b\ their physical features. This led to the historic raids of the Vikings of Norway. to safeguard the Kiel Canal. BX Auvergne IS largely leri lie and well v violent < Idle . wanted Bismarck. so as to obtain the mouth of the Elbe River. that water-power the WJiite Coal of is used to generate electricity and thus to France Only remedy the deficiency in the supply of coal. Thus he added by giving additional providing a sa: territory. Upper Auvergm rugged. worthy fact is. the Lower and the Dpper. in very early times the people rapidly began to outgrow their food supply. three per cent. Hamburg and to construct to Germau prosperity importance to Hamburg and by from the Baltic across German to A striking instance of the power of environment affect the movements and the lives of people is to be found in the Auvergne Province of France. The Auvergne is divided into two portions. 29 mainly agricultural. motive. Even cases where this of cause the -pai is not so evident. although the part within this region. a similar tlie cause that is. Schleswigof little Ifolstein the foot of the Jutland Peninsula w. having the best access to mineral supplies.A Natural Geography.

the north of this The region Ice Age. Influences of Environment within the British Isles. . the men averaging one inch and the is about five feet women about four feet ten inches. Thus. and marls. the Seine and other river valleys. have remained this practically unaltered for some hundreds of years is because the boundaries are natural or geographic and The boundary between England not merely political. as they are marked to-day. the remaining inhabitants are somewhat undersized. On the plateau. and in conse- quence the strongest and best of the inhabitants migrate down the Loire. and a very evident sign of the nature of the soil is to be seen in the large Among number of buildings made of brick. —are a hundred miles in length. (Some of these in outside this region Finland — which however. the peculiar scratchings due to this. Some — The British Islands are divided into four chief political sections— England. the food supply is naturally inadequate. let us consider. settling in Paris and other French towns. Wales. These divisions.30 that of the second is Environment mild and equable.) Large is. when warmer temperatures began stretches of plain-lands are covered with glacial deposits in the shape of clays rich pastures for districts. first. . while large moraines presents are to be found where the glacier has halted for a space in its gradual retreat to prevail. There is no better illustration of the influence of environment than that of our own islands.- — A very large part of very clearly the results of previous An examination of the rocks will show glacial action. Scotland and Ireland. and these provide very cattle and are therefore dairy-farming such districts are the Cheshire plain and the North German plain. and the race gradually becoming weaker. and with the map before us. its physical structure and afterwards the effect of this upon the inhabitants and their lives.

. hut it separates the manufacturing from the agricultural districts. -A Sussei Village Street. while to the south-east arc plains and undulating This division not only divides the country downs. and Scotland .A Natural Geography.rate 31 is the Cheviot Hills. uplands of this Fi. England may be divided into two great sections by a line drawn from Flaiuborough J lead to North-west of this line lie all the great Portland Bill. ::. Shropshire. Hence find the cultivation of wheat in Lincolnshire and Norfolk is more important than in other parts oi the country. On the plains and lowlands agriculture is naturally more easily followed than the more barren and rugged uplands. uplands and Lowlands. and this southern uplands of Scotland from the The Welsh boundary northern counties of England. country. onfall and isure . while Ireland is entirely cut off from Great Britain by its the Irish Sea and narrow channels. eta. the separates the ancient mountainous mass of Wales from the lower glacial plains of Cheshire.. England.

swampy marsh. and the town of Norwich was flooded so that much property was damaged or destroyed. In 1912. and considerable damage to crops is done. manufactures has congregation of people into towns. the steel trade of Sheffield and the pottery trade of North Staffordshire.32 Environment with alluvial soil of sunshine. while the land is covered deposited by the overflowing of the rivers. Norfolk. the woollen industry of the West Hiding of Yorkshire. and it is this fact which has caused . Another factor of great importance to our manufactures is the presence of iron in close proximity to the coal. the east of England was visited in the summer by a most unusual sequence of heavy rains. suffered considerably. and thus sheep are reared in large flocks here. caused an enormous and some of these have become so large that many have effect The of this distribution of . and is thus very fertile. on the chalk downs. too. In Kent. both being frequently situated near to waterways of some usefulness Thus we have the great cotton for navigation purposes. Much of this district has been reclaimed from the sea or was once a dreary. the land to the north-west of the line to be chiefly devoted to manufacturing purposes. The Fens produce potatoes and strawberries abundantly in the rich soil. while vegetables of every kind flourish and give heavy crops. Occasionally the floods are more extensive than usual. and in the winter season the rivers frequently flood the low-lying fields. industry of Lancashire. too. the salt mining of Cheshire. the grass is plentiful but of a somewhat poor quality. the coal trade of Newcastle. The rivers overflowed their banks far beyond their usual limits. The mineral wealth of England is almost entirely in the upland portion of the country. we find hops growing on the sunny slopes. the iron industries of Cleveland and the Black Country. and scores of acres in Huntingdonshire and Lincolnshire were inundated.

Norwich and Lincoln. A striking example of the uneven distribution of population will be noticed from the tollowing statement :— The average number of people per square mile in England is about 670. Huh . the Rhine. the largest being: to The Ports. local facilities for industry or the ruction of railwa (3) in London. early time the part part most thickly mo I . the invading races of Europe. . the Metropolis the world. in The bhe soutl !i portion of England. (2) A few towns such as Peterborough.Inch gave it much rial ha advanl very early in the history of our coup tr to the mouth of a navigable r which enters the North Sea opposite the mouth of the continental waterway.A Xataral Geography. merged into each other. while the avei per square mile in several large areas of Lancashin over 2. which serve as gateways for produce and from the Continent.000. don ini}) of England and the larg< Although not a manufacturing city. and it was paratively easy to construct inland lines of communication.' mdon coupled with - msiderable The discovery to of America ad it the importance of fch placed the\ Enmercial world of the — it London became o at . which ewe much of their importance eithei (1) religious li iations. facture. such as Hull. Manchester alone distributes to nearly nine for millions of people foodstuffs and raw material manu- In the south -eastern portion there are few towns of great population.. peopled. and thus the traffic from the heart of Europe converges upon The surrounding country was Thames mouth. and th other adv. for cially suitable building purposes. Grimsby or Boston.

great rift known as the and iron are As would naturally be expected. were more self-reliant and .34 Environment Scotland. lofty and barren. and on this mined to a considerable extent. —A Mountain Scene of Note the dry walls due to lack in Scotland. munication with the English. whilst even to-day the inhabitants retain many Fig. while the southern uplands also possess few minerals. 4. too. distinctive traits Gaelic is still and in and characteristics. are somewhat sparsely inplain coal Between these. retained their native more rapidly because of the greater ease of inter-com- The Highlanders. who assimilated English customs and accepted English laws worn. The Highlands of Scotland. some instances the Their speech is old national dress History tells us that the Highlanders independence much longer than did the people south of the Grampian mountains. however. lying north of a line be- tween the Firth of Tay and Bothesay in the Isle of Bute are plateau-like in character and are remarkably poor in mineral resources. habited. the Highlands. beingrugged. because of their surroundings. is a Lowland plain. mortar and the thatched roof of the cottage.

deeply indented and broken into rifts. deeply indented on the east and the west by the r/s-d-v/s the Clyde and the Forth and it is very rich in coal and iron. for the re iring of The (b) (c) she Plentiful war ol : . viz. in reality. hills are amongst the oldest of the Continent and are of the same age and structure as the Scandinavian mounthey are extremely picturesque and are much tains : frequented by tourists in the summer months. they are but the southern fringe of a great These eau. jofcoal. . developed strong clan feelings. The Grampians. when ed from the plain of Strathmore. b for Berwick is some centuries oi interesting it and was sub her to law d. very vigorously. In addition to coal mining the ? und the iron industry.>ly. England 1>_\ . present the appearance of a magnificent range of lofty weather-beaten hills. as the climate is damp and very suitable. and it lias make it a town dvantage in its environ.A Natural Geography. Eence it is the centre of all manufactures. to three things. In the Southern uplands the Tweed : i industry . The Lowlands of Scotland include the Lowland Plain in and the Southern Uplands. 'i > nee. I to laws affecting in unless the town I Berwick wi included Act ol by name. Glasgow is the urea industrial city. rference . Parliament in L885. cotton manufacturing is extensively carried on. mainly.ii i Tied on in the valley of the River LS this ]» our. liiciii ally since the develop- railwa n The bordi of iliar. and they have more points common with the northern counties of England than The Lowland Plain is with the Highlands of Scotland. so that 3o they reset.

and in many cases broaden out into big lakes the Shannon. the wildness of the land. which is exposed to the full force of the Atlantic storms. . enters the sea by a broad estuary. as a general rule. and the inhabitants make use of the peat as . follow agricultural or pastoral callings. Ireland has very little coal and thus The its manufacturing development has been hindered. passing through bog lands and a chain of lakes.be found. in Galway. but at the same time has retarded the development of culture and intelligence moreover their livelihood is only obtained after hard toil on land and sea. with The highest of these mountains are fringing the coast. The rivers are slowflowin^ for the most part. Ireland's longest river. and the county of Kerry is most beautiful on account of its lake and mountain scenery.36 Environment Ireland. town the round chief industrial area is Ulster. like that of Scotland. meanders for over two hundred miles across the central plain. and in the extreme west. has developed hardiness and endurance in the inhabitants. The population of Ireland is somewhat scanty. In the latter part of each summer large numbers of Irishmen cross over to England to seek employment in the harvest fields and in late years many have crossed the Atlantic in order to seek prosperity in the United States and Canada. large patches of the surface are covered with stagnant Near these. The country of Ireland is somewhat saucer-like in and mountains formation. in the south-west corner of Munster. beds of peat are to bogs and marshy lakes. and. for this region can obtain coal supplies from a large central plain the English and Scottish coalfields. The inhabitants. and the sea runs far inland at one or of the Irish two points on the north and south. especially of Belfast. The west coast of Ireland. for . is deeply indented.

Not only do these man interfere with the spread of cultivation. a in the 1 wilder parts of Ireland are often built in a e\lm<l Bhape on account of the weather. OB the whole. Aberdeen and Cornwall produce granite. who are. and this settlement of manufacturing of the native Irish is industries in the province of Ulster alone. —Throughout may | the British Isles the influence of environment be on house structure.g. however. than and dv\ stone walls show the Blatea and mortal-. like nihility of The animals i h< i the parts of the mainland of Europe haying a similar climate. and we find tins material dominating in the villages an towns of the neighbourhood. House Structure • in the British Isles. roofs difficulty of obtaining The Animals bish in ] of the are. a kindred tongue to that spoken in the Highla of Scotland and the wilder parts of Wales.. and both in the Highlands of Scotland and the mountains of In 'land. Many localities product building material. 'M fuel in the place of coal. The religion still of the great majority of the people is Roman Catholicism. e. dee British Isles. Indeed th< animal lit- | . Ivnt Btill has many wood houses built of the tin rowing heavily on the Weald of K rborough Cathedral is built of a white stone found The at Barnac in the neighbourhood. but they very decided barriers to another reason for the form communication. and the houses in those districts are built mainly of granite. although there are a considerable number of Pro:in ihe province of Ulster. mainly of English or Scottish extraction. The language spoken by many Erse.1 Natural Geograpluj.. and its preservation is largely due to its separation from England and to the fact that many parts of the countr\ are isolated by bog-lands and mountains.

will be much keener in small areas like islands. Thus the bear and the tence. but that distinction. It is since the time of that man inhabited this region of the earth that Britain was severed from the continent. the keenness of the struggle has developed some entirely new species of animals especially capable of surviving in the conditions which prevail in these islands. however. by virtue of longer separation from the continent. The Eed Grouse. Everyone knows that since animals constantly prey upon each other. and where it is impossible for the weakest to migrate to new homes away from their enemies. result of our insularity has been that many to the keenness of the struggle for exisunequal species. as the shallowness the German Ocean and many other facts testify. common beaver. quite recent.38 Environment : the North Temperate Zone right across the Old World of the to the shores of the Pacific. The second . but the animal life United Kingdom has been greatly modified by the fact that it consists chiefly of two large islands. Ireland the effect has been two-fold. the British Islands. once found in Britain. The small number of peculiar forms is fully accounted for by the fact that our separation from the continent is. those which are not possessed of adequate means of defence are in constant danger of extinction. though on the continent they still Still more noticeable is survive in considerable numbers. in which the weakest animals are killed off. exists nowhere in the world outside it is the only bird possessing There are. geologically speaking. and it is quite clear that the struggle for existence. have become extinct. there are no representatives of over twenty In that species of animals still found in this country. a shrew (like a mouse) and a few insects peculiar to the same area. for example. this in Ireland where. are now no longer to be enough. where the animals are constantly coming into contact with each other. In Great Britain and In the first place.

polecats. thanks to a pretty story of St. has increased alarmingly. in some d cases. q our coal supply. Isles. :V. as in the Macclesfield to the I merely I a name remains. i. of Britain in ways.-1 Natural Geography.n animal life. Plant Life in the British portant The most im- cultivated United Kingdom. sant war against the polecat. as the following instance will be On the approach of winter in S sufficient to prove. Patrick. and Gamekeepers wage incesstoat. weasel and the birds fr that the rat. where lie mild snow to remain for more than a few id. Tin' wholesale destruction of our due n<>t ships need of timber bo much that until about one hundi alised for the immense vain. of winch to-day only e small renin plant lite of the plants. it would. weasels or m and the fact that there are no snakes in Ireland. that by matching the snow. being thus from his natural enemies. namely the having been deal: with previon little more remains to Ik. witli the result man himself. may be less t c wink - 'ids the on the hut in Ireland. the} were consumed nelt iron. said. m . and had the fox not been preserved for purposes of sport. wild cat have disappeared long ago. has become a proverb.) country there are no roe-deer. of prey. many the mountain hare change -.) own it coat of fa whit-'. Tinis now so rare in England that any specimen now killed may well be the last of its race. or. no such change of colour occurs. from the of our insular part general V <. The natural extinction Ix'. their environment affects individual animals like its cousin the wolf.-n of many kinds of animals has greatly helped in this country by sometimes to his great cost. The greater pari of the country was formerly c with large forests.

are so well able to resist the winter's cold. In addition to this r it strikes the British Columbia is in the belt of the south-west anti- . is very surface the land as picturesque.4:0 Environment : The forests consisted mainly of deciduous trees. form a most con- spicuous feature of Scottish scenery.Western of Europe. there still remain large forests of pine. running from north to south. Our maritime climate. but gradually diminishes towards the interior. which is so equable as to enable us to grow roses out of doors in December. These trees. which is excessive near the coast. ash and oak. needle-like leaves. fir and other cone-bearing trees. British Columbia The western sea-board very similar in Canada possesses a climate many respects to that of North. which by virtue of their small. especially in Scotland. whose native home is near the Mediterranean Sea. tough. and this is because it is subject to many geographic conditions like those which prevail in the latter. and thus the Japan Current retains part of its warmth until Canadian shores. The whole fed by the snows and glaciers of the hills. however. Three distinct ranges are evident. when even the holly and gorse are being killed in the east of France by the severity of winter. for Behring Strait is too shallow and narrow to admit of a great inflow of icy water from the Arctic Ocean. province is most varied in appearance and is thickly clothed with forests. The richness of the vegetation is due to the abundance of the rainfall. The Pacific Ocean is not easily affected by icebergs as is the Atlantic. such as In some parts. . is responsible for the presence in our parks and gardens of many evergreens like the laurel. and these are intersected by numerous valleys enclosing big streams. and the beech. It is formed of a stretch of country averaging four hundred miles in width from the summit of the Eocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.

4ii.The British Isle* [To face p. .

.

and the highlands immediately cause condensation into a rainfall Isles. whilst fish. -il trade winds. is may with a rainfall at all seasons. The livers that -warms reaching three hundred feet in straight trunk-. and this served bo tli- An immediate rush helped to open out itfl natural resources. Rivers. Since the mountains are so near the co. aw in Large quantities in the bed of the l-'i and of pn rs look place. yield such enormous quantities of salmon. especially copious the coast and on the western slopes of the hill-. Very little was known of this attractive land until the year L856. the seas are rich in cod. the rivers as may be expected are. imperfectly developed. too swilt for navigation purposes. but they are known to be of incalculable value.1 Natural Geography. when n was discovered bfa ir existed r. which runs between the ranges. halibut and other Minerals. The : climate. such as the Douglas fir. of gold alone lias The value of the annual output more than a million pounds and coal and iron beds are found extenin recent year-. like the mainland.. This island. follows A warm double that of the Bn be briefly described as summer. is densely forested and some of the trees. reaches seven hundred miles in — length before it enters the sea opposite the southern extremity of Vancouver Island. which then. Thus the prevailing winds of Bri Columbia are saturated with moisture when they reach the coast. but the Fraser. the pine and tlr ss are gigai in -ize. at the same . as a rule. !y throughout the province and on the [aland of Vancouver. population rapidly began to inc Uthough attention to the province. yet —The mineral resources of the region . a mild and genial winter. are taken daily in great wire nets. which blow over the fairly warm waters of the mid-Pacific.

is The aboriginal inhabiInhabitants. and quickly became necessary to create a strongly organised of system government to safeguard the interests of the settlers. it has . yet it cannot be regarded as altogether beneficial. including timber. differing widely in language and even in colour. and law and order were enforced. immense fruit stores of . Aboriginal and altitude. agricultural labourers quickly found that they could secure prosperity them- by providing for the miners the fruits of the soil and so the discovery of gold led not only to a development of the mining industry. but to a vast increase in agricultural and general trade and to the growth of selves towns. The immigrants included bands of lawless adventurers it from all parts of the world. and still yields considerable wealth. tants of British Columbia are the Indians. Although gold-mining proved a prosperous industry.' time causing the development of railways. although the prevailing colour is a coppery brown. One of the chief factors in making a language permanent and widespread is writing. fish. owing bracing and healthy. raw material. . have written very little Consequently the language has literature of any kind.42 Environment . British Columbia they are composed of a great number of small tribes. like many other savage races. and the Indians. and metals it has plentiful supplies of fresh water. The province obviously has a great future . in com- merce it is never ice-bound it is well supplied with it has at least three splendid harbours coal and iron in Victoria. — . as is the In case in most parts of the American continent. better class of industrious The region was the Dominion of therefore constituted a province of Canada. Vancouver and Prince Rupert. to the position and the climate. roads and permanent settlements.

" re Boown. like and thought. because of their mountain and forest environment. 5. and they are better fishermen than most of their brethren on the continent. hue bas been broken up into dialects. Thev ! ic. They expert hunters and trackers.i. the who) trouble to the white man of 1 fe thi . especially in wood and hone carvings. which are in many The s almost totally different from each other. •• War -Pain r. b r. thai in spite of their long oonwith Europeans. they are Rtrangely unable to adapt bo civilised modes Le Indians of this region. wh< the I'll war was waged D and tii. not become a fixed one throughout the territory. Am Indus ChT£I in Fri. Indians are intelligent and possess considerable arti skill.A Xatural Geography." native hid .

and in addition. up to the present. the first settlers were homes. the natives are better housed. original Fig. from the coming considerably the Indians have gained the cruel inter-tribal wars have of the white man so. . . An Indian Encampment of Wigwams. better clothed and fed.44 Environment and instructive. the fish and food supIndians. the Indians retreat the pressure of the white man and had away from their In Canada. no pressure has been made on the In British Columbia. the food area is large and very productive in Canada. ill-feeling displayed by the natives. 6. being amply sufficient for both whites and red men and gradually towards the west. of this are interesting of From the time to the earliest felt settlements in the United States. their sick people receive the benefit of medical attendance. ceased. plies are very abundant. French and these often inter-married with the natives and were able to settle without resort to fighting. and so there has been little Cn the other hand. too. Then.

while their dress. things have influen liderablj the a whole of lives of the inhabitants mui high i civilisation throughout the land.illel of latitude. western slopes he Andes Mountains. . hut in the end the more civilised power A revolt of the Spanish settle. with less cold weather. I whom are highly cultivated. Highlands of Scotland. while in the is a greater rainfall. man.-i Natural Geography. and they met with a long and 'horn resistance from the warlike tribes of Indians Living there. in common witli those oi Pram p Sunday as a holiday. Tl' were the li 31 Europeans to attempt S a settlement in Chili. the country has a climate not unlike is that of Britain. holding festivals. In the north. the climate more genial than in the most favoured parts of Britain. balls. parched deserts about extends the Tropic of Capricorn to a boisterous. 4& South-West Chili Chili. In South-West Chili. that is. from the hot. theatricals and concei Compared with seaboard.-. and this ii> not inhabitants to oi foreign large baa a only encourages lands. there in the republic The present inhabitants of the repnbl c are il Btyle of •ically Spanish in language and life. similar to of the American colon ins! England. amusements and religion have much Igium and Spain. . whose branches reach to the is The country made up of the and the useful agricultural soil is almost confined to the bottoms of the valle\ -. severing connection the of and Chili b Spain in in its old form and in the setting up of an independent south. south of the fortieth Pacific shore. cold and rainy country within eight hundred miles of the Antarctic Circle. but it has Chili of length of visits of the induced the immigration numbers I foreigners.

Two kinds of wild animals of the camel family are found in the lower hills the guanaco. while in Patagonia the Indians hunt the rhea. but they possess far greater powers of endurance. otter. in even smaller numbers. in small and the vicuna. which in this country repre- . to the mountainous nature all of the surface. very good railways have been constructed. fox and chinchilla are found in most of herds. the fur. it is practically impossible to play such games as cricket is and are. both The these are hunted by the Indians for their wool. white eagle. etc. grey The horses of Chili are not so strong nor so big as those of Britain. because the suitable ground utilised for agricultural purposes. Mountainous land always tends to produce greater powers of endurance in both human beings and animals. In later is years. Animal and Bird in Chili is Life. It is Chilian birds. in spite of the great difficulties in the way. Most of the inhabitants is however. the condor is the most remarkable. Road-making transport is is exceedingly difficult. it quite a possibility that Chili. soft. —The most dangerous animal — the puma. which is hunted with dogs or caught by the lasso. the latter being a rodent with very much valued for the making of muffs. excellent horsemen. has of retarded the rise of manufactures the chief means the sure-footed mountain mule. the hawk and the owl. and is a flesh eater which can scent Other birds are the a dead carcase at a great distance. and ticularly coal. with its wealth of minerals which is abundant in the par— south — may develop into a prosperous trading nation. and in this respect they are not unlike the ponies of the Shetland Isles. hills. . whilst the lack of strength and size is proOf the bably due to the inferiority of the food supply. wild cat. a bird of great size.46 Environment Owing football. and it even ladies and children to ride quite common and this for well.

and a third and much smaller a South called Stewart [aland. The mountain barrier between Chili and the Argentine Republic the former from the swarms of locusts which was plains of the latter. however. marrow. ostrich of South Africa. lying nearer lie Bqu The Dominion \ t is not included in this region and will he dealt with later. The fori are almost as Luxuriant as in the tropics. and entry hinder communication on Lse account of the creepers ami It is interesting to note that the undergrowth.which are also inclu knds in the surroundiE h Nori in the Dominion. dand consists of two long. Island.-4 Natural Geography. all kind crops are grown with fruit in plentiful quantities. which is dividi Island h\ Foveaux Strait. celery and >ts are readily grown. '1'!)"-. are a pest in Chili. There reral very small . and many magnificenl to he found. for they enter the houses and frequently spoil food materials. the rainfall is too heavy for wheat-growing. besides shellfish on the rocks of the shore in gn mtities. larger islands called North and South Lslai ed by Cook Strait. while the strawberry growth is almost unrivalled. sents the There are several varieties of tisli off the coast. - Til most abundant throughout the i region. small ants. Vegetation. but potatoc hages.' islands Lie in the 1 acifio Ocean Burroum Ian i all sides by . In fcbe south. Further north. while — the huge crops of kidney beans la a id peas make tl a national dish. Inlians utilise one of these ci of ro] make the shafts of their lances from a whil i I which grows to a height of thirty feet in the fores New Zealand (South ol Island).

. In South Island. and in this the presence of latter point also it will be seen that South Island re- sembles the two parts of this region already taken. produces abundant pastures. however.Western Europe. and was once clothed with evergreen forests. very well suited to the rearing of . Oceanic influence is thus felt very strongly. receives the This is greatly encouraged by the greatest rainfall. This potash soil. more or less equable because of the presence of so great a body of water on every side the general elevation of the land too. mountains in the west. — The land is splendidly adapted for pastoral and agricultural pursuits.48 Environment being Australia. reaching in many places to a height of ten thousand feet they are snowcapped and have great glaciers. beeches and a wealth of ferns. of which the largest is . The Southern Alps are very lofty. the Southern Alps lie nearer to the west than to the east. as in British Columbia and North. and in consequence the west coast. Agriculture. but in the east the land forms a big stretch of even surface known as the Canterbury Plain. The whole island is. and in some parts actually overlook the coast. Through both the larger islands a range of mountains runs parallel with the coast. and so the plains have become deeply impregnated with potash. which is twelve hundred miles to the north-west. broken by Cook Strait and branching into side ranges. This part of New Zealand is situated in the northwest anti-trades. the Tasman Glacier. together with the plentiful water supply. for no part of the whole group of islands is more than seventy miles from the sea. culture by These have been gradually cleared for purposes of agrimeans of burning. helps to lower the temperature to some extent. which pass over a wide stretch of ocean.

.

pT w w w go o w H pq .OS £ A < < N jz.

broad streets. Chalmers Lower down being well 10 the the has an outport called Port harbour. Geograplu/. Comparison with Britain. in the last thirty years Agriculture has developed very rapidly and all kinds of crops similar to those of Britain are produced. it having an been originally planned by the Archbishop of Canterbury and other English churchmen. either by such Bigns as namestreets or by actual resemblance to British cities. has its cathedral of the Towns. grey stone buildings on its the steep hillsides and streets bearing BUch n Q ae m's Drive. t favourite pasi nne. The river upon which after the Hampshire Avon. but watered by many streams. flat stretch of land with a dry climate. Zealand towns show the relationship which they have with the homeland or with the original founders. that this district. but on !> in lies island somewhat nearer the Bq a man] than do our ats teal . henoe the wii sports are naturally similar to those of Scotland. has a climate more akin to that of the Scottish L lands than most parts of the plains. Christchurch. the grandeur and the beauty of the mountain magnificent. although having wooden houses and regular. is a town which reminds 01 >ngly of 1 I Edinburgh. it Btands is also nun" Dunedin. it is and especially suitable for the It lacks districts. cur being . spoken reality of it New Zealand is usually as the Antipodes of the British [sles. for instance. but it which are indeed truly is the source of much prosperity to the population. — Many New streets named after English bishoprics. 49 The Canterbury Plain is an open. growing of corn and the rearing of sheep. parison is A point that still further marks the comsouth. the capital of the Canterbury Plain.A Natural sheep. very unlike an English town. with Princes' Street or it its handsome. like Edinburgh's Leith.

When the English first began to colonise the country. only somewhat grander and more varied. - ""V'„ni': - —A Maori Village. then a great improvement in physical fitness takes place. The native inhabitants of New Zealand are the Maoris. If that is skill and hunting are easily accounted for. or from a land where life is easy to one where exertion is a necessity to existence.50 Environment : both climate and scenery not unlike those of Britain. but with less misery. with strength and in industry . Anthony Trollope sums up very aptly an appreciation " The New of New Zealand in the following passage Zealander tells you that he has the same climate as that he grows the Britain. Aboriginal Inhabitants. the case. same produce. 7. because ivhe. their splendid fitness r New Zealand. ever a people spreads from a narrower to a wider sphere. only with somewhat heavier crops that he has the same beautiful scenery. that he follows the same pursuits and after the same fashion." . and it is thought that they came from a warmer and more productive climate than — *:^^: Fig. only somewhat improved : . less of want and a more general share in the gifts which God has given to the country. they found the Maoris formed into well-organise i clans.

it has become bch of sea ISO of nuisance which isolates many districts. The fauna and and is flora of the country are both • ilar 11 kinds of and the fauna animals. and huge forests ion. they were cannibals and of society strongly made their captives into slaves.. and are able stockades with considerable skill. ily flowering plants N haw been a character] but the arc of t diminishing oil her b are hard and very useful Many in of the building purposes. and smail bird-. but the first man to land there was Captain Cook. almost solely made up of impo off some parts of the c interesting. -man. and owing to these quarrels the people were vindictive.. from The I i it has multiplied to such an in I that T. in the reign of George III. obviously in the scarcity of native animal of There are many va . The discoverer of New Zealand Flora. and g world. Of the imported animals. and each triba had unwritten laws Tribes were constantly ch were strictly enforced. . nn With the exc d of bat no native land mammals. He introduced several lish animals and plants and these increased and multi- Fauna and — . "JI ranks marked. the dog and the pig were introduced by Gaptai] all kinds of domesticated animals by colonists. like the Indians they show great aptitude for Europ fortify and habits.1 Natural Geography. i - iples of wi: irds and blood-sucking sandflies. thus explaining the number 01 »den Buch a town as Christchurch. plied rapidly. ting with each other. The Maoris have great genius build in war. They followed agritnral pursuits. New Zealand is life.md.

are from the western ocean. the capital. and these bring The climate . where the town of Hobart. with their blue. making a great plateau with On the plateau bold fronts on the north-east and west. on is the south. but strong efforts have been made. with its open plains fringed by rocky mountain ridges and occasional outstanding peaks. This island lies to the south of the Province of Victoria. The island is wonderfully beautiful. its fine rivers and its extensive lakes. and is a federal state of the Commonwealth of Australia. its forested hills. safe The deep indentations of the coast afford anchorage for ships. and this chain branches out in the island of Tasmania. as for instance. kauri Tasmania. The lakes. of the island is remarkably healthy and winds. and lies wholly between 40° and 44° south latitude. plateau at water fresh beautiful many are its greatest height is fairly level. The rivers contain few native breeds of fish. from the mainland by Bass Strait. white and pinkish peaks rising from somewhat narrow coast strips to nearly three thousand feet. sometimes closely It is separated and sometimes leaving a broader. as in the case of New prevailing Its equable. Zealand.52 Environment bark which is useful for tanning purposes. whilst the pine produces valuable gum at its base. low-lying tract of land. This plateau rests upon a lower tableland which averages about fifteen hundred feet high and which skirts the coast. situated. with some success. and on the extreme west and south the rocks bear a strong resemblance to those of Scotland. The mountain chain along the east coast of Australia appears to be continued across Bass Strait in the chain of islands which almost link up Tasmania with the most southerly point of Victoria. to introduce European and American edible fish.

is on the western half The plateau. largely deposited the rain which of the island.rtur. The named - island it was discovered by Tasman Van Dieman's Land after his in 1642. the natives of Tasmania rapidly diminished in QUml from five thousand to two hundred • I lej I finally took refuge in Plinder's [eland. caused to settlor >lish English there several of authorities a convict settlement -ice was for give] convicts. to th of independence which mountain* Whenever a primitt usually encourages. that colonisation was attempted. show : The general average That for the for the eastern district was 22-07 in. \\. opposition was experienced from the native blacks who. thrr tiic TQ ti)ujitr or has to form an entirely new settlement elsewl bility. able race intcrmi. Inhabitants. ' i hibii traits it ition to civilised pressure. hut not until ahout 1800 a.. naturally rohs the east of ires.i- abolished.i . on* . western district during the same period was 37-55 in. as the following average taken for a nurnher of years. with its elevation of over three thousand feet running north and south. much rainfall.. tiro tilings dlir. and This was practically akin to slavery. the fact that of little first The great distance of Tasmania from England. who it patron.d.1 Natural Geography. and which he had to feed itually the practice of transportation . te in return them. it was apparently a mountainous island i commercial importance. although of the same race as me Australian oath much more ferocious and warlike. by their lab much to the prosperity of the community. B . probably ov.-From the fir-.

in each is plentiful. and when these mineral supplies were found to be of considerable value.54 Environment : There are now no pure-blooded Tasmanians. last An other event which affected Tasmania more than any was the discovery of gold in the neighbouring All the able-bodied popu- province of Victoria in 1851. . which is free from overcrowding and from the intense keenness of competition in the struggle to earn the "daily bread. The rivers contain plentiful supplies of salmon and trout and deep sea fishing industry. the other sources of wealth — were almost neglected. but not so excessive hinder activity or to cause considerable discomfort. the dying in 1875. Natural Resources. although modified by the wider and broader nature of Colonial life. 2. lation of the island left for the goldfields. Fruit growing is extensively carried on. The forests are magnificent and in late years large quantities of blackwood. wmile the food produce of Tasmania was sold for almost fabulous prices and exported to Victoria. It was not until nearly twenty years after this that the discovery of the Tasmanian mineral resources began to attract a fresh inflow of settlers. The climate The rainfall as to is cool. — The habits and customs of the present inhabitants are very much like those of their neighbours on the continent and are very much akin to those of the motherland. very productive. temperate and equable. while sheep breeding is an important is Habits and Customs." In concluding this chapter the following points may be noted in connection with the Equable Lands of this Cool Temperate Zone 1. wharf and jetty construction. pine and gum trees have been exported to Australia for purposes of house.

fitted they are people well 4. 55 The peoples are active. Very many historical events ma) be -v/. The presence congregation of people into great centres of industry. Mountains and forests interfere with the develop- ment 3. of trade. the gradual development of the country appears to be leading to a similar result. influences of environment wit of minerals causes the lin t! may also be noted. to govern and they form excellent colonist- The animal and vegetable productions include those best fitted to supply man's needs. and trade.. Physical and moral OOUrage is dew that live in countries where the ince is :n Btruggle uai s and hunter-. whilst in other parts. This its not necessarily due to the suitability of climate. and the former serve him also as a means of transport. They both provide man with food. produces in the colonial people for i ity is activity and manual labour. 5. and this is dry the case where they are crossed by navigable riv< ng of from a narrow to a wi The from an overcrowded country to a as ture i | colony. . energetic and industrious.A Natural Geography. 3. The general areas 1. I geographical cause. the dangerous animals have been practically exterminated. stein in the German oi si Bismark obtained the province i Schle 3ol« . but to the abundance of opportunity in new and peoplefor uncrowded countries. Plains are mi it able for the development of agricul- 1. 2. control the inuuth of the Elbe. 6. In the more thickly populated parts. such as South-West Chili.

g.. 7. Britain's acquisition of colonies to a need for was largely due new of spheres of activity for the more enterprising her growing population. When the original inhabitants leave the land to the it is an acknowledgement of defeat and a sign of racial decay. in spite of conquest.animals have become extinct.g.. decline is on that account slow.•56 Environment safeguard Canal. The Indians survive in Canada. the Anglo-Saxons after the Norman Conquest and the Indians of North America. Tasmanians and AustraIn large areas like Australia the lian Blacks. because the Indian hunter has a considerable commercial value until the fur-bearing . the natives hold to the soil. e. e. newcomers . it gives a promise of survival. Hamburg and to construct the Kiel Again. When on the other hand.

slop towards the shallow Hudson Bay on the one side and to the St. for other useful purposes Buch as the working oi mills. Lands with Cold Winters and Low Eastern Canada.CHAPTER II. is ailing is This he rainfall winds are land bn id for trading purj counterbalanced small. into the rivers and carried . The most Rainfall. especially The forests of this region are ive. much breme than though The St. behind for the purpose of extricating any pieces of timber that have been a on the downward journey. . the . The northern part is plateau-like. or the generating of electri< lopment and it is playing a considerable pari in 1 t of 1 I knada. belt. Lawrence plain on the other thus forming a watershed (or two great drainage areas. easterly natural region of Canada is the area immediately surrounding the St. Lawrence Eiver and the Great Lakes. on the plateau and the trees are cut down. the interior. uid. Lawrence System. more and more. The water power i^ now Lg used. c down stream to such centres wa and Three Bi Usually a rait is guided floating the mass of logs. hus rath it ' low wi] margin. in Mnce lies the south-west anti-trade t on wind . These drainareas are well supplied with which are extremely useful as means of carriage lor the Lumbering — I industry. —This portion of Canada.

made from the birch tree. . Many are of necessity idle at Some — this time. Lawrence system is one of the most peculiar river systems in the world. the people indulge freely in such pastimes as skating. Ice palaces are built and animated scenes may be The national game of Canada witnessed on every side. Lawrence. Lawrence and the general ice-bound character of Eastern and Central Canada causes the winter to be the holiday season of the Canadians. for it contains the largest area of fresh water lakes in the world. such as the Welland and the Sault The Appalachian mountain system Ste. which in summer can reach Montreal nearly a thousand miles up-stream have to make the town of Halifax. Marie canals. being racquets the lacrosse. Lawrence proved an easy path to the interior of Canada for the earlier French settlers and it has proved of very great value as a — — natural highway for commerce in later times. their terminus.•58 Environment : immense outflow river St. of the United States barred the westward movement of the early settlers there. tobo^anning and ice-yachting. The St. with here and there rapids and cataracts which once hindered navigation considerThis hindrance has been overcome by the ably. The river estuary is then frozen and vessels. Effects of Climate. is which grows so plentifully in this part of the country. The coldness of the winter is intensified by the effect of the icy-cold stream. of water from the Great Lakes by the Lawrence. and since the cold. the famous falls of Niagara and innumerable islands of varying size. in Nova Scotia. The Cold Wall. though intense. At all times the estuary is somewhat difficult of approach on account of numerous islands and of the prevalence of fogs and of irregular currents. but the St. The freezing of the St. which flows past the coast of Labrador and the mouth of the St. construction of canals. is dry and not altogether unpleasant.

while the climate of the lake is Ontario Quebec. is 59 favourable to work of the best type in summer and autumn. Prince Edward [si and and part . The winter is so cheery and dry as to need no stimulating influence of bright firesides as in damper and the use of stoves climates. north quantities of ue big lake. of land enclosed by the Lakes Huron. Nova Scotia. Erie and Ontario. peaches. such as the steep roofs of hoi. Tobacco and maize are grown in N Scotia. Other provinces where the soil is productive eu iswick. and especially in the tor. Of the towns in B item Canada many are Halifax. this district is known of ( as the The mineral product- growing importance. — On the mainland the fertile land 1 Lawrence. i. and in er fruits in I abundance.W< ritory of Canada. although the plague of poisonous insects in the hot summer months is somewhat of a hindrance. is an important naval bI used by liners in the winter harbour Towns. Ontario produce. while nickel ' is extensively obtained at Sudbury. of I vince of (Quebec. to the St. Many minor effects of the climate are noticeable. and apples tongue so genial as to produce grapes.-^ . and the eastern division is well supplied with them. obtained in Ca [sland._med as to allow the snow to fall clear of the pavements into the gutter the absence of proper : 1: - grates and pipes for heating purposes. is Quebec and able quantity of iron and also Scotia pro-luce a considercoal. d important. The climate the spring. Th( mnot compare. and are still developing.L on of iron ore the Superior Plateau. while the latter mini . . however. Productions.A Natural Geography. with the quanti known I in the North.

Lawrence and the River Ottawa. Ottawa. John. of the Rivers capital of the U. and its population is more mixed than that of any other Canadian city.A. overlooking the St. . contains the magnificent group of Parliament buildings and is the centre of a great lumber trade with saw-mills and paper-mills. Quebec. John. has an excellent harbour. was selected because of the it jealousies of older cities. It is the most French of all the Canadian towns. and in this respect is like Washington. This city is the largest of Canada. encouraged by the near presence of a cattle-rearing area which produces hides. the capital city. and it is the great railway centre of Canada. navigation. probably because of its position at the head of many evidences of It in the streets. it is the chief commercial city and port. which gave rise to the industry of wooden ship-building in earlier days. Lawrence. Canadian Pacific St. Lawrence. known as Mount Boyal. It is at the junction Ottawa and Rideau. on the Heights of Abraham. and Boman Catholicism may be noted has a great boot and shoe industry. It is surrounded on all sides by the timber-covered hills of New Brunswick. The island is connected with the mainland by two fine railway bridges. gives the town its name. Montreal is situated on an island in the St. Paper is made extensively from wood-pulp in Canada. and of a timber region where bark may be obtained for tanning purposes. at the mouth of the Eiver St. well served by the noted high tides of the Bay of Fundy. has often been called the Key to Canada. at the head of navigation for ocean liners and at the confluence of the St. A hill behind the city.S. and the mills are here worked by water power from two fine water-falls.60 Environment of the has been made a terminal port Railway.

Lawrence. This strait ie summer shipping route to the St. such as iron work Since 1906. Fo mg and winter are very damp frequent and many long is a plateau. 1« of I raw. cod. meat packing. pe-like plains. x . Lawrence. B Ball nature and I | . and is separated from Labrador by the it of Belle Isle (eleven miles in width). often of 88. The interior and the climate is reme than that mainland because of oceanic influence. The capital of the is St.A Natural Geography. the Falls brewing. is for the It rises most part a region from the coasl in high at at ime. Southern Argentina. but i part of cea fisheries barren. 1" Forests and mineral seal are are md it herring and valuable industries on the Newfoundland banks. have been utilised to supply energy and the whole town is lighted by this means. The shores of the island are rugged and rock-bound. electrical of Niagara. 61 in Toronto is the second city of Canada and is built It is situated on a bay of L quite a modern style. which forbids the growth of anything thorny brush-wood and -canty herbage. Ontario and lias many industries. • lently I lakes or ponds. it is the Larg Hollows in the plain tract of shingle in the world. eighty miles away. Gulf of St. etc. Southern Argentina. them can be obtained medicinal purpo quantities of I -alts for r the : . and it is covered with terraces. intelliisl The is midland dog it widely known for its endurance. the part of Argentina mia (Western P kg >nia is the Forming Eastern I I part of Chili). three hundred feel ihingle. that is. but have is Newfoundland situated at the mouth of the inlets and safe harbours. island The is a are fertile. Johns. The buildings possess much architectural beauty.

the opening is. A Qotable feature of the vegetation is the vast areas of fruit orchards near to the hills. the great land mass becomes hotter and hotter as June approaches. that is. and this causes a great inrush of air to the south-east and east. across the Equator. unlike that of Chili. This however is not the case. These have spread from the lew plantations made by Jesuit priests about the year 1700. the southern extremity of the Continent.62 the hills. of lies Amuria and almost wholly between latitudes part of Manchuria 40° and 60° north. bringing with from the cooler ocean it heavy torren- . In the summer. Environment: however. Manchuria and South-East Russia. contains large gulfs practically no islands. are very fertile and the hills themselves are densely clad in forests of fine timber. for the theoretical circulation of winds and distribution of wind belts is here the vastinterfered with by two all-important factors — ness of the Eurasian land mass and the equaily huge area of the adjacent Pacific Ocean stretching. Naturally. strong tides and it currents combine to colonisation make perilous. when the sun is more over the northern hemisphere that at other times. The two coast. in the area over which southwest anti-trade winds might be expected to prevail. the in- hospitable nature of the coast has done much to hinder and in spite of the great fertility of the western valleys. as most ships will then avoid the long and difficult route round Cape Horn. for and more than one or submerged reefs. of the Panama Canal as this region will tend to make it of still less importance. but there are not safe harbours. so that its chief inhabitants Commercially unimportant are the Araucanian Indians. as it does. The far eastern belt of Asia made up of the broad of the greater eastern margin of Siberia. the difficulties of approach have greatly retarded its development.

A Natural
tial rains in

Geography.

July and August.

The winter months 00

the other hand receive cold, dry winds from the north-

and thus, as in Eastern Canada, the rivers are frozen and the temperature is very low. Manchuria was little known until comparativeh
•,

times, but

it

has lately attracted the attention of the

whole world by the disturbances of the Boxer rebellion and of the great Chinese revolution which transformed one of the world's largest empires into a republic. Two
large rivers cross the country, while the nature of the

land

is

greatly varied, containing mountain, valley, plain,

desert and

swamp.

This
of

great

variety

naturally

has

led to considerable versatility in
l

varied

number

the occupations

inhabitants

and

and consequent

productions.

Productions.
•.

—W

eat

might be conlargely cultivated

>ly

the chief grain productions are millet
the bean
is

grown, and
its
oil.

for

iwn and fruits of all kinds flourish, while Canada, Lumbering can be developed into a very Coal is found abundantly, and other valuable industry.
i

metals,

it

is

thought, are

to

be had for
future
the

the

seeking.
to
this

Without a doubt, land, more
-

a promising
!,

belongs
useful

since
<>f

revolution,
\

China

to

b-

desirous

acquiring
eastern

and discarding smoking. opium
habits

many

ones,

such

Some

Effects of Environment.

—The
tiger
it,

coldness of

[he winter naturally has

much

effect

on the OCCUpa

human and
thicker

animal.
in

Animals have, in n. winter, and their furs and -kin-

much
•i\

sougb.1

by the large and for

p
ils

i

The

in

particular
a

winter coat
its

develops

thick

ring,

unknown
>le

t;>

mon
B

them

relations

India.

naturally

thick clothing

64
fur

Environment

and to guard against the intense cold of the ground they sleep on boards placed over heated stoves and ovens. Like the Chinese and
in the winter,

and wool

Japanese, they store most of their valuables in cellars, often very well hidden, but the reason in this case is
quite different from that of the Chinese people.

The

mountains of the north are occupied by bands of brigands and outlaws, who are such a danger to life and property that there is no doubt that their presence alone has greatly hindered the settlement of good colonists.

Amuria, separated from Manchuria by
Amur, was once part
fallen a
of

the River

that

province,

prey to Russian covetousness.

but it has Russia has for

a long time been extremely eager to obtain
ful coast strips to

some

use-

her vast continental possessions and, too far north to be of very great value, nevertheless, every particle of coast that is at all usable is of service to Russia. She therefore gained

although Amuria

is

Amuria and established Manchuria as a Russian Protectorate, no doubt hoping by this means to gain eventually the whole coast from Korea to the north. This design, however, was effectually spoilt by the intervention of the Japanese, who totally broke the power of Russia
in a short but very calamitous war.

The

capital

a lesser

and chief town of Manchuria is Mukden — Pekin surrounded by a great brick wall. It is

the headquarters of the

Manchu

dynasty, lately ruling
is

over China, and

it

contains the tombs of various emperors.

Considerable commercial importance

by

its

given to the town trade in the furs of the surrounding province.

Yladivostock is Russia's chief naval port on the Pacific, and it is situated on a most beautiful harbour. It suffers extremes of climate, which somewhat neutralise its value.

The imports
cotton goods,

are varied, including tea, rice, machinery,
etc.,

while

it

exports the well-known Soya.

.1

Natural Geography.

Beans, used for making Soya Sauce

—a

much

reli-

Japanese Luxury.
Since
forest
fertile

the

greater part of

lands,

while

Amuria is mountain and Manchuria has a fair amount of
of

land, the respective occupations
will

the
are

inhabiforest

tants

naturally

differ.

The Amurians

hunters, while the

Manchus, strengthened by Chinese

farmers, are tillers of the soil and agriculturalists.

A great factor in the future development of Manchuria and the whole of this area will undoubtedly be the Tr rian Railw ;/, whose branches end at Yladivostock and Port Arthur.
i

CHAPTER

III.

The Extreme Lowlands,
The
Interior
lowland

Lowlands of Eurasia.
of

That natural region
interior
is

Eurasia which
extent,

may

be termed

of

vast

stretching

almost

two continents through no less than 130° of longitude, or at this distance from the Equator, almost It includes by far one-third the way round the world. the larger part of the Great Lowland Plain of Europe and also the Great Siberian Plain from which it is separated only in name by the Ural Mountains. Commencing in Asia just beyond the tempering influence of the Sea of Okhotsk it stretches across the continent in a broad band, bordered by tundra on the north and high plateaux on the south until its southern boundary rests upon the northern shore of the Black Sea. On crossing into Europe its width greatly increases so as to include almost the whole of Sweden, but then narrows so rapidly that its terminus lies in Switzerland. The political areas thus included are by far the largest parts of Sweden and Eussia, the eastern part of Germany and a broad band
across
stretching through the heart of Asiatic Russia.

Climate.

— Strange

as

it

may

seem, the whole of this

vast area enjoys, or rather endures a similarity of climate which at times apparently defies the influence of latitude.

Thus

in winter

Odessa

is

only as

warm

as

Konigsburg

though the former stands on the Black Sea and the latter Nowhere except in Switzerland on the Baltic Sea.

A Natural Geography.
onfall

67

heavy for it is clear that there is no direction from which rain may come, for high mountains shut out the water laden winds from the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, Leaving the area exposed only to the
cold north.

In spring therefore the rivers are fed by the melting snows and become very shallow as the summer wears on.
Sens and oceans by absorbing the sun's heat less quickly uning it longer than the land, reduce the sumn. and temper the winter's cold of the countries which

border upon them, and so lands which are subjected
of the

to

the

ocean have temperate or maritime or influence equable climates, while those cut off from its influt

have continental or extreme climates. This interior lowland region of vast size and generally shut off from the influences of all the D extreme instance of a continental climate to be found in the world, although Central Canada presents something True, two large seas penetrate it and somesimilar. what modify the extremity of temperature, but as the Black Sea is almost entirely landlocked and the warm moisture-laden winds from the south are first chilled the Plateau of Asia Minor and by their jourir
then robbed of the greater part of their moisture by the intains thai border the northern shore of the Black is found that the port ol Odessa, more than it hundred miles nearer the equator than the D bherly cape in England is blocked by ice for m
.

than two months
[so

of the year.

Similarly, the Baltic 8

landlocked and the range of mountains which high and wi<3 .ay an
I

shut out entirely

the

inflc

>f

the

Atlantic, thus

:nu the climate of
r

Sweden,

in all

but the south-'.

p

•].

Bence

all
kt

the Baltic

ire

Riga.

four

impeded with months in
t

and also the fact that they are tideless. extremely easy. . increases greatly their liability to be frozen. of the water in the Black and Baltic Seas. Tomsk and Irkutsk. and in these cases. but few places where the land rises to a greater altitude than six hundred feet. passing through Omsk. it may in the main. however. and extremely hot summers alternate with very cold winters. Incredible as Magnificent though the artificial means of communication may be. —In the first place. where it leaves the lowland to reach YladiYOStock. south direction. is the Trans-Siberian Railway followicg. Pacific is traversed by the Great Postal Bead. generally the Volga. : be shown how profound an influence this extreme climate and the generally low altitude of the country have exercised upon the daily lives of its It now remains to inhabitants. the Vistula. Don. the capital of Western Siberia. by the A . There are either by land or by water. Communications. Japan the distance from the Baltic to course. Much more important than the Great Road. make the rivers long their great distance from the sea r IV ers. and navigable. it is possible to traverse in a fortnight the Sea.68 while the ports of Environment : Norway as far north as Hammerfest The freshness are free irom ice the whole year round. glance at the map will serve to show in a north and that the region is crossed. To summarise then throughout the whole of the interior lowland of Eurasia the rainfall is deficient. the natural highways are The lowness of the hills and scarcely less remarkable. the same whole seem. such as the Valdai Hills and the Ural Mountains. the approach is so gradual that little obstruction to communication is The whole distance from the Urals to the offered. the low alti- tude of the region has made communication in summer.

Some : Effects of Climate and Location. for instance. ^e them to overflow their banks and flood the surrounding coun: in autumn the scanty rainfall leaves their volume much diminished.A the Obi. as are the seas into which . Communication being so easy. it is possible for goods to be carried up one stream. nor can in the san. barriers into smaller kingdoms as the British Isles have been. :. Thus it is possible to travel from Yakutsk to the Urals. how infinitely vast would the trade of Russia be But the climate is cruel. and as the Balkan States still are. one may count St. In Europe it the Yenesei tributaries will be many observed that as some of the rivers flow with meanderings toward the north-west and others toward the south-east. With a climate none of these lowland conntrieG to rival the — hope more i maritii bions in manufac- turing industry. i \or\va\ compare with ct. If only it were always summer. Russia is to-day the greatest undivided area in the world owning allegiance to one flag. Natural Geograj^Juj.tnufactu among not hop country. transported over the marshes and carried down another to a different ocean. a distance of about six thousand miles. Petersburg as the real mouth of the Volga basin. flow. Canals make the journey still easier from this. entirely by water save only for two short breaks amounting to less than twenty miles. ! . 69 countless and the Lena. in spring the melting snov. together v which link together the larger ams. In winter the rivers are frozen.i. but they will of raw the chief ten. it is not to be wondered at that the Russian people have combined themNot split up by mountain selves into one great nation. .

together with the fact that Russia has always had to contend with trouble from the east and has thus been unable to face western civilisation and to keep in line with it. tar and resin form lesser industries at the same place. — Forests and Dependent Industries. The German city to forests of oak. Kronstadt. Now dense populations mean as a rule interchange of ideas and rapid progress. The wild animals of above. naturally takes place from Riga. as well an of bark for tanning. the saw mills of Gefle are the forests formerly yielded valuable supplies of fur . Libau and Revel. A great deal of the wealth of these countries consists in their huge They forests and many industries nourish beside them. It is interesting to observe that. of Danzig owes much of its importance to the export of timber grown along the banks of the Vistula. from Sweden the wood is exported under the familiar name of deal and at Gefle large quantities of wood are pounded The making of into pulp for the manufacture of paper. for it is only in manufacturing districts that dense pipulations as a rule congregate. The hostility of theclimate to manufactures is a great drawback to a country's progress. pitch.. whereas scant]. on account of the absence of coal and the abundant supply of water brought down by the melting snow from the heights worked by water power. In Russia the export of timber and resin. exist over the whole of the north of Sweden and also^ extend northward to the tundra from a line drawn between Warsaw and Perm. accounts in some degree for her comparatively small contribution to the progress of civilisation./ populations foster stagnation. birch and beech. This. As one would expect they consist chiefly of pine and fir whose tough needlelike — evergreen leaves enable them to resist the rigours of South of this line the evergreens give way the climate.70 Environment Russia's Slow Development.

for the -p and summer. that Russia is the world's greatest producer of that commodity. the ag icultural of eggs. also where the well-known sian drink vodka is made from rye and the crops of potatoes are utilised in the making of brandy. where methods produce huge crops of wheat. barley and on in the Baltic Provinces. — 1. Odessr.rearing of of the winter not only ro to I continental climaU the a The i aalfl of their food their being housed indoors during the jn. the herds of Agriculture and Dependent Industries. wheat may he grown. In eastern Germany not only is it used for the manufacture of rye . The brandy and vodka that are not used for home consumption both rind their way to ReYel and Riga to be shipped abroad. — < bread. value of this export steadily enormous trees. produce is much more varied in the Black Earth imitive south of the forest belt of Russia. i This naturally goes to the Black Sea ports. In Swed. On this account the . Wherever the rich black earth found in Siberia. is 71 decreasing. the latter port also exports enormous quant As is only to be expected. Rostov and Kherson. are warm and bright. though short. n it is used for home consumption. In the clearings of the forests and oats are grown. on account of its great hardiness rye is grown over the whole region. but in the district surrounding Posen both rye Distilling is potatoes are used in the ied distilleries. deciduous forests are now the home of swine which find an abundance of food in the acorns and beech nuts which fall from the Instead.' > . in order that the grown in the south may be wholly exported. The fallen es of the forest have formed a soil so suitable to the growth of hemp.A Natural but the Geography. Indeed.. Domestic Animals.

though the supply of wool is decreasing. all kinds. as it is found cheaper to import. textile manufacture tends districts round the Baltic Sea. Manufactures and Minerals. In Russia textiles are manufactured under several parts of these difficult conditions woollens and linens are manu. Tver and Kostroma where of coal is found. lie what are believed to be the greatest zinc deposits in the cities is Almost inexhaustible also are the deposits of copper and iron in Svealand or Sweden proper. . almost on the borders of Poland. is —A continental climate also a great hindrance to textile manufacture. factured at Moscow. the along the river devote their attention to the manuThe chief of these facture of hardware and chemicals. Tammerfors in Finland. as at KieY and Kazan. but as the making cities impeded by the dry atmosphere. Elsewhere the cattle give rise to the tallow industry. Mineral wealth of St. Norkoping in Sweden and Petersburg. In consequence the difficulties presented by the continental to occur in the damper as at climate. of textiles artificially making can be The demands a humid atmosphere which produced only at great expense. a leather indus- an try naturally arises. : In eastern Germany the dry sandy plain is suited to the rearing of sheep. Breslau. coalfield lies along the river of textiles is so Oder. but wherever the cattle are kept near to the forests where birch bark may be obtained for tanning.72 Environment inferior quality. Konigshutte. These metals are found near Fahlun and Gene and as the world. though abundant over the greater part of the region. that is the manufacture of soap and candles. has not yet received the In eastern Germany the chief attention it deserves. which from its frontier position serves as a market where the manufactures of the west may At be exchanged for the raw materials of the east.

both precious and common. The land heats is the south. and in south aroun Ekaterinoslay. . More attention. i I ! i the precious metals thi - carcity. on the whole. aim Bommi warm winds from Of rain.iid to the ral Mountains. dense populations have sprung up. n Highlands x he Atlantic influence t id < »rth and south he land lies open. which are rich in platinum. am the The Prairies of Canada. i: irals : I this distric be gal I from the fact that nine- tenths of the world's output of platinum a Ekaterinburg and Perm. although where minerals (especially c Her are extracted.A Sat urn proximity of the forests I (• hy. bringing local Bho? rapidly m siiiiiiiht. as ad iron. The climate win is distinctly continental in eha rainfall. '> i bles - e iron to he suit >] with charcoal. North American middle form the portion of t] Continent an and the Golf of in the An itching 'The interior lowlands or prairies of the M-\ico. has been p. a tributary of the Volga. and in the bh the daylight long and Vt i ting . Russia has not yet taken full advantage of her vast mineral wealth. n Europe. and copper. however. hut the rigour of the climate has hitherto prevented their being worked to am int. and the I. ir . a low l The wet 1 acifio Etockj • unable to affect the region becaus Mountains. gold is abundant throughout Siberia. where howon account of the latitude only iron is extracted. and lie chiefly in the _ coalfields are the Q8 of the Donetz and Vistula and around Tula. a high price wh< Other deposits of metal. gold and precious stones. are to be found in Norrland. steel is required. is mined chiefly in the basin of the Kama.

\*. —A Clearing in the Canadian Forest Belt of a great part the year. but the thaws of spring supply abundant moisture rainless. '"'^C"^C.. such as the Mackenzie. . although wheat growing is possible after the chief occupation is of a pastoral nature.^^:55iSg^ of the North. and agriculture gives place to cattle-ranching.. the of the Prairie region is The extreme west Churchill and the Nelson but all these regions are economically spoiled by their frozen condition during . 8. for the tilling of the ground. The forest belt stretches north of the great lakes. developed greatly in this but trappers gain considerable profit from the skins Lumbering has not been somewhat forbidding area. and west of it. and is crossed by many rivers. while the north is a land of forest and fur-bearing animals. for east of this is the greatest wheat region of the world. and furs of the animals.. The region may be divided from north to south by the 100° west line of longitude..74 Environment the huge areas of ivheat. very dry. and almost The winters are very cold and the ground is frozen deep and hard. ^ Fig. irrigation.-..

with splendid \. 9.1 ^d&*&^k^ji J /'£> 1'. railway line only so thai i I: \ could adequately Bupply their growing t n<l relieve the their product i oid small settlements.'.A Natural Geography. Tin. situated near the southern end is i Winnipeg Winnipeg. at the confluence of the Assiniboine It and I has grown with astonishing rapidity. Minnesota and part of Saskatchewan are included in this belt. and .most important towns ol this aaturally Bprang ap on or near the firsl . ah of ii"\i impo is Brandon. and they are succeeded by warm. another wheat town. and ripen the wheat. —The provinces Manitoba. tie of many railways. 75 of I The Wheat Area.\ VIDIAN Will \ I I'll II'. thus it is possible for the best labour-saving appiiai to be widely employed. North and South Dakota. rising and public build ii the hich Seem8 :•: :t. >rs. however. the great market and central town of the wheat area. . sunny days which >• The land is generally level. The early summer rains come at the most suitahle time. A ( \.

but is or has been connected by narrow isthmuses with two great land masses whose With South animal life present many differences. and the lands to the north and west differ from it only in unimportant details. Medicine Hat. the mounted police headquarters. by hard toil and frequent disappointments. and sheep and cattle rearing. Here one can find the cowboy of the story-books. it pervades the will be advisable this region typifies juncture. in his picturesque costume and broad sun-hat. as this it at to describe the whole. riding his half-broken broncho horse with skill and daring. the present connection has lasted sufficiently long to admit America it is . It is readily observable that North America is not completely isolated. — — Prince Albert. together with wheat growing are the chief occupations. and around these have sprung up such towns as Regina. Thousands of emigrants are adding yearly to the population of Alberta and Saskatchewan. life connected by the well-known Isthmus of Panama. The lesser wants of the communities are also being partially supplied by the growth of many small industries made possible by the opening up in a small way of the coal seams known to exist in rich deposits in these north-west provinces. Hardy colonists. all great ranching and farming centres. The Animal Life op North America. an important junction. Already there are four railways crossing the Dominion. As a general similarity of animal whole continent north of Mexico. Saskatoon and Edmonton.76 the wheat Environment belt. and although this narrow neck of land has many times been submerged beneath the waves. paved the way for what has become in many cases a rapidly developing town and the village of to-day may be the this still goes on prosperous city of to-morrow.

it will perhaps be best to show one or two of the ways in which they have affei men.BS D . himself.d> are considerably smaller much more cunning. hunting them. herds to his white man proved much . comparatively » i( found their chief in support. will be doubt!. 77 the immigration of racoons. As a consequence of the droughts which have so many times forced the From animals of Central Asia to seek another home. be these anim. as well as their chief amusement. but as it is impossible to describe them all. man has found it necessary first greatly bheir rn cumbers. hears.A of Natural Geography.bisOO has man any kindly puma ami tic wolf. The rats which store of their cheeks. they found the plains inhabi thouliana by herds of bison to be Cumbered only iii ds. he drove I the lyn animals further and tin wild animal tin. there have migrated into North America a Large number of forms such as the lynxes. When Europeans read of Continent. and the rattlesnake which signifies its •r in the peculiar manner to which it owes its name. their food like but a few of the features of interest attaching North America. animal life in In the first place. we now regard as typical of the New. and a few forms such as opossums from the southern continent to which they properly belong. by the narrow Behring Asia it is now severed Strait. which although coming originally from the Old World.an But the coming of the w hen he brought i new colonies. the passenger-pigeons some monkeys in the pouches whose migrations darken the sky. elks and bisons. but the time has been when a dry land connection existed.unl ital. which cot f< I >me c ding In- imea attack it man . wolves. hardly reduced by tin.

but only one. and constructs huge dams. which for its value as a table delicacy has been introduced in many other lands.78 Environment : years before they suffer the same fate. This is One. they have served But although man has been unkind to the native him well in various ways. the larger animals for their fur. . like the moose. however. To give it it the plentiful supply of water in which it delights. man has seen the wisdom of making his roads to follow them. men have destroyed the numbers and in populous districts they have become extinct. others like the silver fox and marten are still captured by trappers and hunters Best of all. Some. beavers in large gnaws down the trees of the river-side To preserve the timber as well as to procure their fur. The beaver has incurred man's displeasure for a very different reason. has become domesticated. like the bear have shown him the direction in which to build his roads. for as their runways usually cross the country by the safest and smoothest path. the turkey. animals. afford him exciting sport.

.

3 S? £ 05 < J < o PS < w t» O w O hJ -*! 03 03 o O .

Lofty highlands occur in both the western and eastern hemispheres. two main rii chief settlement. with Dawson City as field in the Klondyk Further south. mountains lie near to the Pacific coast and form the northern part of a vast drain running throughout the American c 'it. broken and extending their length ranges run. . snow crowned and have many Bumn The olio cold and forbids settlement. > . The western slopes are heavily . on the ranching plain to the tar to which the and the Crou British Columbian coalfields lie. containing considerably. but in the southern half oi the world they are confined narrow Andean Ridge beta Southern Chili and Southern Argentina. while the glaciers. which contains a rich goldB on.CHAPTER IV. Between th reral parallel. The Elevated Lands of the Temperate Zone.. the Cascade Range bounding the Bril are found Columbian area and th< Rocky Mountains forming the bo the — bern limit of the plateau.mis chief are now c I by railways. the Kicking I H i Pass. as it is here that the rainfall is from the wet south-west anti-trades. This mountain mas in Alaska and runs in Plateau through Yukon. In North America. through which nadiaii PaciJ passes from Calgary.

but exposed The summits to very great variations in temperature. but the valleys in summer become Siberia is The Siberian and — almost unbearably hot. Many long rivers rise here. minerals to commerce.80 Environment : Southern Altai Highlands. such as the Lena. but the climate and difficulties of communication and access have made them not easily obtainable. the Yenesei and the Amur. composed of very high detached mountain chains cut by long river valleys and fairly well watered by rain-bearing winds from the Pacific. are found plentifully. are always cold. . but as they mostly flow to the frozen seas they are of little value As in other mountain regions.

their winters are The rainfall in throughout winter in tfa one. except on highlands mild. and nental interiors. of with the a small part included tip of the Siberian and of the northern the Mediterrai (See map. small indeed in the in areas and summer the east of the continents.) T1k >ns have conti- warm summers and. of being most heavy very Q the west interior each continent. THE WARM TEMPERATE REGIONS.SECTION III. in lie nearer to the Equator than exception interior area. . in to both hemispheres. the Poles. •:• The warm temperate lands. opposite page 33.

(2) The Cape Corner of West Australia. From east to west the ssa It is is two thousand one hundred miles in length. and this importance has been due almost entirely to its Thus a study of the geographic geographical situation. (3) The Cape Town corner of Caps Colony.CHAPTEK I. the Straits of nine miles in breadth. being the only natural entrance by For centuries. south of The Mediterranean Lands. and productions to the Mediterranean lands we find (1) California and Central Chili in America. the Mediterranean was of the water. greatest importance. landlocked sea in the world. The Equable Lands. All these lands have equable warm climates with the Similar in climate rainfall chiefly in the winter months. sharply divided into two . * The lands which border the Mediterranean Sea on all sides possess well marked common traits is and it is quite true to say that the north of Africa more like the France than the latter is to the north of France. the Gulf Border of South Australia. The Mediterranean or "Mid-Land " Sea is the largest Gibraltar. this great inland basin surrounding features of the lands will probably supply us with a key to the reasons for its importance. politically and commercially. Victoria and the North Island of New Zealand in Australasia.

but the sinking of the Level of the the Mediterranean area. the sun belt lies the M the northern tropic. The eastern basin stretches from ( Bon in Tunis to the coast of Syria. France and Italy and the northern shores of Sicily and of Africa. the whole trade wind north than in the winter and thus the dry north-east mean l l wind wind at that season. • j) t i by the Inflow of water lioin the 0! is < All. 3 boundaries are the coasts of Spain. belt begins to As winter approaches.. and its southern ma ubject to much g than are any other I portions of the basin is M ih mean mated as year. region. t! move southwards and the M under the influence of the south-. in hemmed by natural boundari ips mountain raogi form vrry well marked barriers. The « (applied only half form of rain is of the amount taken ion.A distinct basins. such as the Adriatic and J^gean Seas. and p \ bj . The bulk of the eastern nearer the Kquator than the most BOUthi basin lies bo point of the western basin. through The whole ( ribraltar. The western basin is connected with the Atlantic by the Straits of Gibraltar and it has cornet ively smooth and unindented coast-. It is much la than the western basin and has important branches which have long borne separate names. It contains small islands. -trades or is within the calms. and thus the winter is the rainy within in tin* ranean comes by IS <•. known as the " H Latitudes" which are experienced at the parting of In either ease a rainfall and amithe is produced. but has some of the larger and more important ones. broken )n irth. the Natural Geography. S3 western basin and the eastern or Levant basin. to receive two sets of prevailing win further In the summer.

C. and the Romans passed into Erance. to . who lived on the northern coast strip of and who had colonies and settlements all along the Mediterranean. The Early Importance of the Mediterranean Countries. Their ships actually passed into the Atlantic and are supposed have called ior the tin of the Cornish mines." as Amongst these were the it was called in early times. One used frequently in these later times is that between the Mediterranean and the Garonne river. then known as Gaul. On the^ south. this spreading into North Europe was only possible over the lower passes of the Rhone valley. Phoenicians. Syria. spread in thin streams round the eastern end of the mountain barrier and up the Danube valley. have been found. is also flanked by desert and These natural barriers to race movements serve to confine the Mediterranean races to the lands adjoining The Greeks certainly the basin for a very long period. Traces of Phoenician civilisation dating This race further back than 2000 B. with the exception of the fertile strip between the Atlas Kange and the coast. They traded in glass and tin. for the Canal du Midi now links the Bay of Biscay with the Mediterranean Sea. but both these expansions were for a long time indefinite. and. — Some of the greatest races the world has yet seen were reared in the basin of the " Great Sea.84 Environment the only two of importance being the the west Ehone valley in and the Danube valley in the east. and manufactured a fine purple dye of which they alone held the secret. The of the routes eastern fringe of the basin plateau. The Romans did not cross into the Rhine valley and North Europe until the Roman expansion into Gaul had become very marked. then. the great Sahara Desert stretches to the very shores of the sea and forms an impassable barrier.

with a j> >werful of merchant >hij>-. The two great exchange routes to the north and e ^ed through the city of Troy.i>. i > . and then their sway was challenged by the Persians. Greece. navy and to India. finally colonies of their — possesses also two other cities whose situation ca tliem to . on the coast of Asi Minor one from Cyprus across Asia Minor to Troy. lying as it cd<J at the threshold of Asia and near a great trade route to the east. and this influence is it clearly shown in the Greek literature. until at length she 9ed under the rule of the Turks in the 15th cent ury \. . historically and c Yenice.power lementa in the Lei mt. mercially. each of which rao . and hi tipI i by it rival Venice.A Natural - Geography. affects the life and thought of a race. via the Danube Valley into Bohemia. [taly.c. With the fall of Koine. overthrown by the Greek races who planted own on the Mediterranean shores. was under strong Asiatic influence. as it is called. Thus Troy became the chief city of the then known world. the importance of Greece also diminished. ol ( - ind on what is qow called I was originally the terminus of the md route t<> In lia. ]» maritime city of the first importance.. Genoa. at the north end of the Adrial bed at the end of the great trade route overland another route passed up the \: atic to through Venice.vr\ powerful and highly civilised.i i on the Gull Riviera. become very prominent. which was once the seat of the Roman Empire. and hence. The Greeks extended their s\ Mem of commerce all ovt r the Mediterranean in the 8th and 7th centuries b. and one lrom C through the Black Sea. where copper and tin were to be found. the Carthaginians and the Romans. The stories of Greece are full of a mixed Asiatic and European influence and they form a good example of how situation or location. [t grevt maritime I' . and Venice became B >hemia.

4. in fact as one writer says. 3. Mediterranean and the inhabitants are also of the Mediterranean type in these particulars it is very much akin to the north-west corner of Africa and this connection has also been strongly marked in the history of Spain. Spain and Portugal lie entirely within the Mediterranean of a The Iberian Peninsula. the lack of such was not any drawback to the development of these lands. "Africa begins at the Pyrenees. Since the days of Eome." The climate of Iberia. — With region. The 5. by the Pyrenees which form an even greater barrier The flora and fauna are distinctly than the Alps. They were thus well supplied with natural : harbours. The great routes of mercial portions of exchange between the comthe Old World pass through the Mediterranean. although of a Climate. All the countries have long coastlines. with north Africa. not having been discovered. often much indented. consists to lowlands along the Guadalquivir in the south-west and along the Bbro It is cut off from the rest of Europe in the north-east.86 Environment : The chief reasons Jbr the early importance of these Mediterranean Countries may be summed up as follows 1. value of minerals. Mediterranean type with its rains chiefly in the winter. The Atlantic coast yet shows considerable variation. — . Spain has been politically linked . The climate is mild and^ the soil is naturally productive. as it high plateau which falls rapidly is called. 2. A brief survey of the political countries in this region will here be useful. Spain and Portugal. The sea is safe for shipping. the exception of the shorelands north of the Cantabrian Mountains.

The climate most fertile The rainfall is distinctly equable and Portugal is and best watered portion of the peninsula. in 1912. near the in mouth lowlan the Ebro. and the ruins almost the coast of solely the winter month Certain lly parts of i malaria. it has its drawbacks. rain. sheltered are for by the mountains from the cooling breezes. is it dry and infertile and the three which cross do so in deep gorges and are of little use until they reach the lowlands of Portugal. hot. rim of SI lowlands is the summers are much under the influence of the oc warm while the winters are genm 1 . The land.which border the Me Iv the y. the rivi I 'he fierce b wind which blows from the Sahara -able d wmd which in the . the w:. very while the higher lands are very cold many months. although there particularly heavy rainy season for a short time in the Although this rainfall ma early part of each year. is naturally very heavy in this part and it is i fairly spread throughout the year. the soil rich. for the deeper valli shipping.got into difficulties. for it produces heavy fogs which render the Portuguese coast dangerous for for example. tremes in temperature and receives rain clouds are all con lensed on The beau. only portion- of the peninsula which are are in cally summers mild. the the mouth Q ladiana and Guadalquivir and round the mouth This is partly due to the flooding jus. The charming and equable temperature is not perienced very far from the coast.A Natural Geography. to the south 'i of Valencia. for the the of is This i '. several ship. interior plateau has gi little . as the plateau rivers called. and one or two were completely v.

strong paper made from Esparto grass. round the town factures are cotton goods. lead ore. are much more indus- south and east. because the Government. has been comit pelled to surrender one mine life of after another. but special mention made of of the cork oak trees must be the lower hills and beans and olives which supply the with their chief foods. woollen has also great stores of coal. The peasant of the north not only tends his vines.88 east coastal region Environment is : the Solano —a moist heated wind from the east. while the south-east is well-known for its ropes. corner. — The of Iberia are not very important. however. such as coppei ore. baskets and thick. the inhabitants of the north and especially of the coast districts. silver ore and many others. but in many cases rears silkworms and grows olive trees. while the southern peasant is content to live upon chestnuts and to tend his pigs and goats. salt. in order to raise money. where the chief manuand lace The Biscay sea border is also the centre of goods. a linen industry. largely undeveloped and many of the mines are owned by foreign (principally English) companies. trious of the and energetic than those Manufactures and manufactures greatest in Natural Productions. linen goods. Generally speaking. Spain is exceptionally rich in minerals. carpets. which are. being especially the extreme of north-east Barcelona. quicksilver. The noted merino sheep reared in Spain is of great value. the crops of villages . probably because the north is more temperate and equable than the south. It will be seen that the maritime districts are the chief centres of manufactures because they are most favourably situated for the import of coal and raw material. The plant and animal the peninsula of is distinctly of a Mediterranean type.

and one of the principal factors of this rise was the Moorish conquest of Spain. - s l> intense poverty of many of the people of leads this to a great is amount of smuggling. r navigation. coupled with the enterprise of the huge numbers of Jews then resident in the Peninsula. Geography. i climafc The national resources have been Bapped it of both men and money in bj expensive. France Portugal. and the barren nature of Ai. — summary of the causes : — The expulsion of the Moors and the Jews and the growth of the power of the Inquisition. and because impossible to estimate accurately the trading re- lations between Spain and its neighbours. Spain has few harbours Buitable . for big ships. raised Spain to its prominent position in Europe. Spain's Decline. In the fifteenth century Spain rose to a supreme place among the nations. forbade the construction of good means of communication and has hindered the production of Railway and canal construction mineral supplies. The elevation ople are naturally indolent"! not suitable for hard physical labour. profitless wars and (Mill g ill her besl colonies of I hi mconr 6. but it will be well to indicate here a brief 1. ings and the riwrs are swift and u2. with her immense mineral resources not now occupy a leading place amongst the traders of the world'. and why does she. did Spain decline. which hindered is and freedom natural oi .A Natural The i. Roads are necessarily lengthened by windis difficult. rade.' Many of the reasons have already been noted above. The Moors were a very industrious race and their energies. Why then. was the first cause of decline.

— Some of the chief towns on the Peninsula : are splendid examples of environment Lisbon. The river is bridge in one arch which carries of flood. whilst in earlier days. Oporto stands cultivated at the mouth of the Douro and is the second city of Portugal. 160 feet above the lower. and has a fine. All these things its harbour is large and easy of access. the uppej of the one. Madrid stands on a climate the a bleak treeless tableland which has of extremes. the capital of Portugal. being necessary in times The bar at the mouth Douro has made necessary the construction of a small town as an Atlantic harbour. of almost equidistant from the Mediterranean. Barcelona is situated on a fertile coast plain of the is one of the most productive areas on the peninsula. while to-day it is the chief industrial and commercial port and city of Spain. it is nearly in the centre. at the mouth of the river Tagus. The mountainous province behind is Its climate is genial and pleasant and rich in minerals. almost land-locked harbour. has made it the focus of the railways of the peninsula in modern times. it became the capital of Spain on account of this Its central position central position. and Kingdom of Spain. spanned by a fine two roadways. the Atlantic and the Bay of Biscay. have combined to give the town much importance from the time of the Eomans. four miles to the north. stands on a promontory. It is thus the chief port of Portugal and is a port of call for many southward and eastward bound vessels.90 Environment : Towns. Mediterranean which Gibraltar. One could not leave the Iberian Peninsula without glancing at its most noted military stronghold . It is the centre of the best and most prosperous district in the country not only as the centre of the port wine trade but as the seat of many busy industries.

Rhone and . which.'ii the Ail . E3 nouth. ' 1 of pro luctive. lome ill-health and occasional damage to the produce of the soil. whicli are found nowhere else in ope. partly owing r the . 91 hands of the British. The coastal provinces are Bubject to rather excessive summer. but suffer from a cold wind at times from the north-north-W68t known the Mistral. but are of the same family as those of Africa.A Natural Gibraltar. ho w towns » Cannes and families in the winter. or hot southern This variety of winds is tl winds. Nice. li\ res nail number of apes. At the very summit of the rock. and to the northof of i' across the Khone Valley the Jura Mountains begin. in width. Geography. or from Alpine winds. sides of the rock cannot be climbed and the fourth bristles with £uns. The Cevennes form the south-east of the Auver^ne Plateau. but are mild and genial in winl je are the only provinces which do not rec Atlantic prevailing winds. it is Thus entrance to the Southern France. It is situated at the extreme south end of the peninsula on a rocky promontory overlooking a strait only thirteen miles is which now in the in a position to control the western Mediterranean Sea and is probably Three the most important strategic town in the world. partly to I .: from the Atlantic provinces by the chief mountain ridges and groups of the country. — The south-eastern provin France are in the Mediterranean area and are separ. owii i- sunny winter climate are mucl This distrid t known >>f th | Riviera.

finely situated on the — Gulf of Lions. are produced. and although the river is navigable up to Lyons. has a splendid harbour. emerges as a clear blue stream and rushes rapidly on until joined by the Saone. is within easy reach of one of the chief manufacturing districts where coal. silk-goods. — The people of the . where the town of Lyons has sprung up. have naturally combined to make Marseilles the principal seaport of France from very early times.. where it deposits much of its mud and mountain debris. Vegetable Productions. From this point the Ehone takes a direct southerly course and enters the almost tideless Mediterranean Sea in a delta. —The vegetable productions olives. including vines. are distinctly Mediterranean in type. is Marseilles. Since the construction of the railway between Lyons and Marseilles the river traffic has rapidly declined. etc. mulberries (whose leaves provide food for the silkworms necessary to the Lyons silk trade) and other southern fruits. rising in the Swiss Alps and passing through Lake Geneva in Switzerland. steel-goods. A little to the east of the Ehone delta situated the town of Marseilles. natural routes to the north of Europe.92 Environment The Ehone. not far from a coalfield (St. the difficulties are great. south of France are naturally like their brethren throughout the country since they are subject to the same mode of government The People.'. So much debris is brought by this rapidly flowing stream that sandbanks and shoals are constantly forming and shifting in the lower regions of the stream. Etienne). is a convenient port of call for eastward bound vessels from the Straits of Gibraltar and is at the southern terminus These facts of an overland railroute from the north. so called because of the storms which It is at the foot of one of the few often roar in it.

crowds throng the open air cafes and gardens. The French race however. They are quick and clever and renowned for their politeness of manner. is know . For in the France his been a dominant race id | world and one to lias only to think of the time of Napoleon. ie has already l» Riviera of the French coast and the towns slight —A refereno i fcrict are very beautiful. and belong 03 to the same race. In almost every French town. especially in the sunny Riviera of the south. that the Frenchman not only a gay pleasure i but one who can endure excitable long and hardships in the the Yet with all their bravi and easily BWayed by the -ions of the moment. The French people have been called the liveliest people in the world. and play-going. which makes the people of France more steady in their industrial and agricultural life and gives them the power to enter much more like French are much successfully into competition with the northern trading nations than can their neighbours of Spain and Italy. being very fond of music. Tn the ire cloudy and our weather often Nice i when damp f and i- Rivi the : 'is. most of their southern neighbours who.or. are French I The Riviera. of the Mediterranean. dancing. They are very volatile or changeable in their moods. like themselves are passionate. has is a very courageous one. The French alwa buries. also shows the influence of the more sober northern races of Europe. and they are accustomed to frivolity and gaiety.A Natural Geography. night and In this liveliness of manner and disposition the day. where winds warm and I lie ski pie . their ueral good feast cause of patriotism. and renowned for its warlike character. lively and of a changeable nature.

At its extreme southern end is the island of Sicily. the peninsula of Italy projects into the Mediterranean from the mass of Central Europe. the Alps. but man)'. On the north there its many the great Alpine barrier. much more real in From the early days of navigation than it is to-day. As may be expected. while on every other side the sea pro- vided a natural barrier to invasion. The reason for this is that all the Government expenses are easily covered by the profits made the out of the gambling rooms of the Monte Carlo Casino. the Apennines . Prince and having its own small This small army is responsible for the defence of the rocky promontory of Monaco. Italy. many people are utterly ruined every year in this most beautiful city of the Riviera. which sweeps round in a great semi-circle from the head of the Adriatic Sea to the principality of Monaco. eight square miles in area its and ruled by own army Rock 130 men. which is obviously a continuation of the mountains of the peninsula itself.are employed in the gambling rooms. and there is no doubt that this vinces of south-east France fact contributed much to its early importance. long presented a great obstacle to the is invasion of Italy. situated in beautiful grounds in one section of little state.94 of Environment Nice of is a small principality. where people of every nationality assemble to risk their wealth in the hope of making large fortunes. which. The country of Italy is one of the best examples in the world of a land whose natural boundaries are marked with great distinctness. between Nice and Genoa. South of this. The is crowded with buildings and the people are required to pay no taxes. The inhabitants themselves are not allowed to play. The north of Italy is divided from the coastal pro- and from Switzerland by the mighty chain of the Alps. despite passes.

has been o! . which form a broad and fertile plain. mutton and in the shape ol silk from the silkworms reared on the ae land Burl mulberry leaves all produced from The Lombardy Plain is remarkably level. Italy. This plain receives the waters from the snows on the southern slopes of the Alps and from the northern slopes of the Apennines. extending without a rise or depression to the very foot of the mountains on all sides. Its great fertility allows it to produc vines. then turn more to the south that the northern plain between the Apennines and the Alps is sharply divided from the rest of the peninsula. .treine Lombard Plain thus due to the heat with its the soil and to the rainfall. and cattle. fifty i miles across the plain.A Natural stretch in an Geography. As an illustration of this. we find food in the form of rice. preserving an unbroken straight line for more than a hundred while alluvial soil is also ) much — . although included for convenience in the Mediterranean region. 95 country to the and along the whole country. forming as it were the backbone. g itest high- Northern Italy from the time of the Romans our own. mulberries and most excellent pasturage for sheep Thus. The climate of Northern Italy. one only to instance the Emelian Way which. drink from the vines. brought down and spread over the plain. and rain of the at al. One important result of this position of the Apennines is line across the unbroken Adriatic Sea. Northern . pari summer abund dill Ol riwbaek to the summer the thunder . — Northern Italy consists chiefly of the basins of the rivers Po and Adige. and clothing cheese. is really b >me- what continental j in character. having extremes is in summer producfertility and winter. until they reach the very toe of the peninsula.

as if the winepress of the wrath of God had stained their mountain raiment I have seen . especially in summer. — . to counteract the intense cold of the winter. and this causes considerable ill-health. rugs. olives and other southern fruits flourish on the low-lying hills. One interesting result of this variation in the summer climates is the structure of many of the houses of North Italy. This sirocco Very little green is very like the Leveche wind of Spain. Many parts of the land are infested by mosquitoes and other insects which spread malarial fevers. with fire- place. description can be given than the words of No better John Ruskin. The west is naturally protected from the cooler north-east winds by the mountain barrier and it also receives rather more rain in the winter than does the eastern or leeward side. stone or marble floors and the winter one on the upper story having comfortable warm appointments. — Since the Apennines it traverse the whole length of the peninsula. the heat of the day is usually followed by rapid cooling at night. In summer time. which are often truly terrible. In the south the rainfall is very slight. " who says.. will readily be seen that they will have considerable effect on the climate and hence on the lives of the inhabitants. carpets." House Structure. etc. They are often divided into what may be called summer and winter quarters the summer one being on the lower story with . I have seen the thunderclouds come down on those Italian hills and all their crags dipped in the dark terrible purple. grass is to be seen. the hail fall in Italy if till the forest branches stood stiff and bare as blasted by the locust. when at times a hot scorching wind called the Sirocco blows from Africa. Central and Southern Italy. although vines. .96 Environment hailstorms. oranges.

such as the densely populated province of Campania.. The city of Rome was built in the very centre ol the Italian v. but ledingly slippery for the anio North of Campania lies the province of Rome.d. 97 Some provinces of the west are exceptionally fertile. 10. Bay of Naflbs am. up to a short time ago. for the complete destruction of two Roman cities. Behind Naples rises the cone of Vesuvius. a volcano which is still frequently in eruption and which was responsible in 74 a. Vesuvius.A Natural Geography. The streets of these cities have recently been brought to light again. cannot help but notice the noise made by the vehicles and horses in the streets and this is due to the fact the streets are paved with lava and hard volcanic The material is easily obtained from Vesuvine. city of Naples. containing the capital eitj of une name. which contains the largest and most beautifully situated city of Italy. but sanitary ohanges have been made which have Visitors to Na] done much to transform the city. far from being clean and healthy. . Naples. i i I . after being covered for centuries by the debris thrown out from the volcano. and is durable. the far-famed recent beauty was.

cereals (including especially wheat and rice). and the far world and pilgrims from great Eoman Catholic cathedral of St. The district round the city was once well drained It and cultivated. olives (both for food and for olive oil). but the population is now very scanty owing to the prevalence of malaria. as the Abruzzi The province known of was once the scene Brigands infested the mountains travellers. flax." as she once could boast. . the foot of the carried on at chiefly are industries hills. Occupations and Productions. — This has been especially the case since the discovery of the value of water-power as a means of producing electricity. much and extorted heavy ransoms from on natives still occur at times. although manufactures have developed considerably in recent years. tobacco. but attacks lawlessness. was thus healthy and easy of defence at a time when this was a very important factor in a city's growth. the palace of the Pope. chestnuts and Mediterranean fruits. streams. if not voluminous. Although Borne is not now the "mistress of the world. for Italy's mountainous core gives it a plentiful supply of Hence. The Lombardy Plain produces the well-known Gorgonzola and Parmesan cheeses.98 coast. Of the products of the soil. she is still the headquarters of the greatest religious sect in the and wide have journeyed to Home for centuries. Peter. Here is situated the Vatican. and it was in close proximity to the sea. In the middle of the river is an island which made bridge-building easy. probably because of the fear of consequent severe punishment. the textile rapid. and many Of late years no violent outrages frequently occurred. hemp. hunting and fishing.attacks on foreigners have been made. the chief are vines. Environment : on seven hills on the left bank of the river Tiber. By far the larger number of the people of Italy are employed in agriculture. .

A railway connects Italy with Austria. [1 i the . especially in the towns near the source of supply Milan. with Milan in Italy. and a •'. • and l at high and ! irope.4s0 ft. bringing the Italian railroads into tion with those of Northern Europe.A Natural while cattle. Alpine Passes. -• strile. enough is retained to create a good silk industry in Italy. with Turin the large town at the Italian end the St. i the it has alwa subject In no other part oi and Inter-racial troubles. deal of this ei '. sheep. Gotthard Tunnel to Switzerland. id i> there so i^ much lion be! unrest and r. silk of B logna. Genoa. passing from Yerona into the Alps and over the lowest of the alpine passes the Brenner Pass (4. as such. The conof struction of the alpine railway tunnels Cc 1 1 and the cutting have greatly expanded Italian trade. and. and although much of this is exported to France for the Lyons bilk industry. are the Mont Ccnis Tunnel to France. and it is e id from the mainland by the deep and rapid river Danube and its th< long tributary a The peninsula distil] is essentially ing i mountain land.it \\ - both SO and re! in the Balkans. and the Sinqjlon in 1906.). the most . —The Alps are now pierced by several communicachief tunnels tunnels. The Balkan Peninsula kl is the most easterly of the tli peninsulas M ol idite I. southwards into which >h ranean Sea.an range. also leading from on the north. Geography. opened Milan into Switzerland — Roman the Sin high road to Augsburg in Bavaria. 99 goats and pigs are very numerous The silkworms of the in many pails of the country. The Balkan Peninsula. Along this pass lies also the Tunnel. three-fourths of the rawLomhardy Plain supply nearly Europe. gre. The .

the states of the peninsula are thinly peopled. settled along the basin of the Danube. as we may call them. tribes of Serbs. The land is in great part barren. by the nature of the land. struck the great barrier of the Carpathian — the representatives of the Slav races. took the town of Adrianople seven hundred years ago. Mohammedan and the Christian. wandering Asia. bands of Mohammedan Turks passed into the peninsula from Asia Minor and at last in such First. which in spite of constant inter-tribal feuds have . only to be regained a few weeks later by the Turks. and. at many peninsulas and numerous fringing islands. and these natural are intensified of is differences which composed uplands. the capital of what was so recently as 1912. if not from extinction. Slavs. and stony points deeply cut by the sea into centuries ago. reaching as far as the Swiss Alps and in time spreading throughout the From time northern half of the Balkan Peninsula. as a consequence. but misgovernment and neglect have not made the most of what little fertility there is. of the Danube. Turks the have been guilty of constant day present oppression and cruelty to their Christian subjects. People. and although the mountainous nature of the land probably saved the conquered races from complete subjection. but with hardy. to time.100 Environment : the common meeting ground of the Asiatic and the European. and afterwards Constantinople. —Many etc. crossing from north of the Black Mountains and were divided into two thin main streams one passing northwards into Poland and West Germany and the other following the natural highway These Slav races.. they numbers as to overcome the inhabitants. the town which so lately fell once more into the hands of Sea. mountains. valleys. determined fighting races. From the first conquest to the European Turkey. it also served to cover much of the wrong and cruel misdeeds of the conquerors.

agriculture is a \ bad ma. :. it will be well to note that the power of Turkey in Europe would probably have been broken 1<> _ go. 101 retained sufficient power gradually to win back their independence. The other European Powers recognised Turkey's usefulness to themselves as a means of blocking Eussia's outlet to the sea. nourished from the earliest times a hardy The mountains served the double purpose of limiting the area of arable land (one-fifth of the whole country) and of protecting the race from outside encroachment. roads. while encouraging the keeping alive of clan lighting instil type of conditions forms the best " nursery " for the growth of a civilised race and is also to be found in such examples as Japan and the British Ules. an area with well marked natural mountain and sea boundaries. Lack of st misation. 1. being i Greece. Much more could be said of the feuds.. i Occupations and Agriculture. the race differences and religions of this rugged peninsula. and with a limited food supply. : usury. !. The Bad fact that owners frequently n out oi the country altogether.1 Natural Geography. had she not held Constantinople. . state.. In this connection. 1. In spite of this. the plains and valleys ii whei in supplied with water being very rich and producing tnagnicrops. Thin population. and for this reason her iniquities were overlooked and her power bolstered up. and little attempt has been made >f to impi The ch Antiquated metho this are : cultivation. — Greece is essentially an agricultural country. but it will be best for our purpose to take a glimpse at each political area in turn.

and before actually transto the east coasts many traders by land from the west The irregular range of hills which spread throughout the kingdom are crowned by the glorious summit of Parnassus. and other metals are produced. of islands. for if the cultivation of crops is impossible. Towns. such as India.000 feet one can understand it why the Greek poets of old represented as the abode of gods. either through long neglect or by . which is now* cut by the Corinth Canal. sheep and goats. In many countries dependent largely on agriculture. ( suited to horses. The chief product is the currant. olives. and they take a large share in the fisheries and general trade of the Levant. —Many of the glories of the ancient towns of Greece have departed. for the roads are not well . almost wdd. is interesting to note that even as early as the Roman period a canal was thought of. iron ore. ferred their goods very bad. and a growing industry is the culture of the silkworm on the leaves of mulberry trees. that should one fail the loss is often compensated by greater abundance in another crop. little of the land is waste. cereals and tobacco yield excellent The long coast-line of Greece. ficent peak of 10.102 7. but figs. silver. are reared bn the scanty pastures. for the sea passage round is the south end of the archipelago the construction of the canal. prosperity is not always reliable but in Greece there is such a variety of crops. has made the Greeks into a nation of sailors and traders. Considerable quantities of marble. Environment : The growing distaste for rural life and the increasing movement to towns owing to the spread of education. with its fringe crops. and seeing this magnirather than risk the voyage. The kingdom is divided almost equally by the Isthmus It of Corinth. Much of the inland transport is done by the sure-footed mule. vines. Though the country is almost everywhere mountainous.

in marked cont lose of such lac our own. • n eastward to the lilaek Sea. ranning southward from . sports. which is the largest of the Greek ports. has retained its ancient greatness. as for example. the Piraeus. charged with 1 and religious strife. named after the ancient commercial city of Corinth. however. One town. in most Mediterranean lands. where winter and Bummer usually produce differences in clothing. Athens. the habits of the people vary but little throughout the year. t Tins part of the peninsula contains tilt mountains—the Balkans. and the Pindus Range in the south. natural means 103 earthquake and storm. and often in many kinds of labour. S: 30 Lately plunged to in a war which threatened more than once draw in the whole of have been the centre of much unrest for rations.A Natural Geography. known as the Dinario Alps in the north. leisure pursuits. Habits. Much of the city is modern. but the ruins ot its classic structures have been well pre•d and lend to the modern Athens the mantle of its ancient glory. lias often been likened to the city of Edin- and like Edinburgh its trade is carried on through an out-port. ithward B Jkans is wild and dillicult Lstern portion ha I hern s] . and is still the capital of Greece. the once-famed town of Corinth. which exports currants. These Europe. — through Athens gh. The second port is Patras. of ranges parallel tothewesl coast. on the Gulf of Corinth. and the war oi L912 was hut the clin <>i tenturies Beething disturbance. sue: and other open-air industri — Turkey and the Balkan States. and . It is interesting to note that in Greece.

on effect natural has a lemons. A second depression is formed by the Eiver Vardar. for Bulgars. from the Gulf of Salonica to the Dinaric Alps in Albania. but the southern many in slopes are quite bare because of their precipitous character. but the interior lowlands of Central Europe or This variety of climate the highlands of Scandinavia. there are no definite race boun- daries. Turks. —Although this district is included in the Mediterranean area. : which forbids transport crossing this section is The only means of by narrow tracks which are even for mules. while in the interior the vegetation is of a more northerly The northern slopes of the Balkans are clothed type. very difficult Vegetable Productions. and in some cases even cultivate the vine. old river courses formed the depression of these two high road and is now the track of the railway from Constantinople to Central Europe. and thus a great source of wealth has been wantonly lost by Turkish is more like the indifference. the . the products. In all of the States. In the maritime towns. Albanians. and others are to be found throughout. west coast district is typically Mediterranean. for in the west. the diverse nature The of its surface gives it many varieties of climate. the Morava to the north into the Danube and The the Maritza to the south into the iEgean Sea. where the mountain hamlets villages and peasants tend their herds of goats and half -wild sheep. and along these two high roads are the most important towns and trade routes. On the northern slopes are scattered.10i Environment of goods. places with fine beech forests. figs and other southern fruits are to be found. Many of the huge forests of Bulgaria have been destroyed in order to deprive brigands of shelter. From between the Balkans and the western ranges flow two rivers. Serbs.

105 natural aptitude of the Greek for navigation and com- merce has caused a strong Greek element to gather th< while the Turkish population is very thin in most p and in late years has shown a strong tendency to 36 by emigration. yet. it ha mo ol I i u . h is Bituated :id at t he junction of two big | the the Danube. 11 mmand of all the Danubian traffic. one of the require. environment is reared the Montenegrin race. In these plains are scattered a lew houses some distance apart each is usually a small hut of one story. cut up I liver defiles - most mountainous countries and rushing w in No manufi this 3lble in yet been found to be land of mountain and valley. most important towns of the peninsula. the reasons for importance will be gathered from an analysis of its sitdon. - — manliness or physical fi1 Servia compie -. and the consequently rear cattle and attempt to follow for cultivation. and thus itiervia and held the key to Hungary. for the alar ridg I n the base of a of mountain.1 Natural Geography. wl women do the manual labour and \\ ten are trai a race which is nowhere in Europe excelled in to war . The smallest of these most interesting states is Montenegro. primitive fashion. in spite of the small . that little is is culture in a simple..• so fertile that more corn produced than the Servians themselves The capital of Servia is Belgrade. has always considered great political and commercial importance. an l» is i ce. with walls made from the stones of the surroundIn this uninviting ing hills and with one small window. occx] It The third side. . is one of the world. strategical. and these rivers practically bound I town. a stony district with few fertile stretches oil.

It is possible that in a for little while manufactures possesses valuable may be developed. The Turk's . These mountains are occupied by a peculiar tribe of people known as Shops. Many Turks are still eastern in dress and habits. Bulgaria capital is mineral The Sofia. from the beginning of the eighteenth century. by reason of the protective environment. she took the lead in the alliance formed oi: Bulgaria. have been able to retain their distinctive customs. The Turk is essentially an eastern man. which at the present time seems about to be taken in great part from the Turks. all — against her oppressors. clothing and language. standing at the meeting place of roads in a basin of the mountains. Turkey in Europe. and has gradually dwindled in size and in commercial imporThe roads are bad and the local government in tance.106 Environment This country has probably suffered most from the Turks. supplies. in many cases. and with the appointment of a German Prince to the Kingship of Bulgaria. composed of wide. there seems every possibility of a bright future for the country once she recovers from the effects of the late war. while the interiors of their houses bear a stronglv eastern appearance. and who. The people are a fine race and very industrious. baggy trousers. and he has harmonised badly with his European surroundings and associates. so that the cultivation of crops lias not been encouraged and the general life of the people has been. and the consequent closer connection of the land with western powers. a wretched condition. lately stretched from the Black Sea to the Adriatic but it has been in a very backward condition . and it is a notable coincidence that in the late war. brightly coloured jackets and sashes. with dress. who are possibly the remains of the aboriginal race of the time before the first Slav invasion. —This district. poor and miserable.

I town is situated at the junction of the liosphorus and the Sea of Marmora. | atinople fall is 3 a central position for the duoe of the Black c Turks in the fifteenth •niury had a great and lasting effect on all the western to it were due tl: Qreek Literature. although there are some few ances where nothing of the east remains but the The women are always fez. are over four hundred m while the bazaars -wherein are sold the wares of the — —are large.. named after its founder. bears no resemblanc to any European costume. of The this city I : part. The is from it al of the city is chiefly carried on b I and in considerable. which is never abandoned. in many cases. unobserved. horn-shaped arm of the sea. drinking coffee and momenl sitting cross-legge in the open spaces of the towns. this city is built which might lulls • on seven and vail and it 'it appi 3 a in.A Natural Geography. but contact with western pe* veiled in the I has i this rule to be. the Turk is forbidden to indulge in alcohol. The capital of th Constantinople.: from the with its domes and minarets rising everywhere. are-proof buildings. This deep inle very plentifully supplied with ae. their train such results as the ft o! and the . i very appropriately called / den b 11 pe and a rich source of revenue.spin! in Ighf ' adventure and exploration. Li i fuln fish. Constantine the Great. Like all Mohammedan peoples. of religious though! an ion 1 of th. while the men occupy their leisure smoking Long pipes._ and are found in large numbers. l. There all built on high ground. 107 • the customary red fez as head-gear. and it stands on two hilly promoir divided by a branching. open air. the revival of learning.

and among such are Smyrna and Brusa. The few towns which enjoy prosperity seem to owe it to foreign energy in the pursuit of trade. that at the terminus of the railway The Barbary The only portion States. Damascus. and : it owes it its importance mainly to two facts is from Beirut on the coast. but the coast plains are fertile is Tunisia in producing the usual Mediterranean fruits. The population its about two millions. The general state of Asia Minor is wretched and uncared for. Tunis. on the edge of the Syrian Desert is a centre of exchange. and it possesses all the advantages of a genial climate and fertile soil. — Across lies the Bosphorus the real domain of the Turk. cut off from the Sahara desert by salt marshes and mountains. and second. that it is at the western end of the shortest caravan route across the Syrian Desert. share the inevitable legacy of the Turk —neglect and decay. Sfax. Asia Minor and Syria belongs to the Mediterranean region. a very quaint and olives. stretching from the The coastal strip of iEgean Sea into Asia Proper. and these coastal regions. Susa and Bizerta. Algeria and Morocco three of — the Barbary States. of Tunisia is . first. and this gives a white-washed are town like the capital city. the houses to reflect the heat. especially As in many other sunny countries. including Tunis. of Africa which can be classed with the Mediterranean region is the extreme north-western corner. It is^ separated from the interior desert plateau by mountain ridges. and chief towns are Tunis.108 Environment : Asia Minor and Syria. and in consequence receives the rainfall from both the Mediterranean and Black Seas. peculiarly religious appearance. in spite of their natural advantages.

as in Tunisia. a and coaling station of some importance. The fisheries. and is the central portion of the Barbary States. 109 and last of which have good harbours. Strings of donkey a bearing baskets add to the The French occupation has for cities. The and are of the town is Algiers. i <|iiaintness of the ich are not at all like British or American to races in their met hods of oolonisa- -thev are no! pioneers nipt and as a consequence they extend their territory inland. agricultural products and mineral supplies are valuable. The roofs are flat. the towns have not lost their eastern character. and Tunis has been enabled to do a great trade in them since a canal was cut to it from the open sea. but in the interior the climate approaches the Sahara type.A Natural the first Geography. chief M 'iiammedan :>ort religion. so that people may use them i-air rooms or gardens. the rainfall is well distributed over Much of this the country and is chiefly in mid-winter. and thus is left much valuable land onreclaimecl in thegri] . and as a consence eucalyptus trees have been introduced as an idote. water is stored in tanks Algeria perature is is a French colony. and distributed by the actual irrigation works constructed by the Romans. In spite of this. however. Except for the part of Tunisia within the Sahara. The §alt marshes and dry water-courses of the summer have made malaria rather prevalent. while wines are sold very cheaply and are almost to ex o iSS. left its mark on the everywhere one can find cafes and open-air rarants. [ts delightful climate makes it a popular holiday resort. On the coast the tem- very equable. while the exteriors of most are white. The greater part of the are inhabitants Berbers or Arabs. greatly improved by the French.

but now a city. safety. It is scarcely safe for a Christian to walk unpro ected. but as is the case with Greece and Turkey. of dates the world can produce . while it sends to England some of the finest steads off the coasts. city of decay with very narrow. under the and protected by a high cape. The land enjoys all the advantages of a good climate and great animal. The country of Morocco still produces some of its beautiful leather goods. and the heavy winter rains supply the rivers with enough water to last throughout the year. while Jews have to submit to many indignities. Houses or hovels are practically bridges. The foreign trade of the country is thus dependent on the fairly good road- The town of Tangier. The backbone of the country is the Atlas Eange. with whose history it has been so closely linked. cluster together for rivers roads non-existent. famous of old. shelter Gibraltar possesses a good roadstead and is the best means of entering the country for Europeans. In few countries is religious hatred carried to so great an extreme. shipped . while the sand-choked 4 river mouths are left undredged. vegetable and mineral resources. railways are looked upon as signs of mission to the hated Chri-tian. tangerine oranges. but the only really useful tract is that between this range and the sea. unhealthy streets and the usual sullen and fanatical inhabitants. This portion possesses rich plains and fertile valleys. the prosperity of the country is checked by weak government and by the religious intolerance and ignorance of the population. are crossed by few and those few in shocking sub- condition. and opposite Spain. This religious fanaticism has resulted in an almost barbarous state of public affairs. and it is the only town which approaches any resemblance to a European The chief city is Fez. such as walking bare-foot in the streets and wearing special costume.110 Environment lies in Morocco the extreme north-east of Africa. over ten thousand feet high.

most westerly state of the American one Union. a - Structure. the ramento from the north and the San Joaquin from the south. Before pointing out more definitely those differences. one being in every way the This portion is formed of a most remark- bounded on the east by the Siena Nevada and on the west by the coast ranges which are close to the Pacific. California. Thus. according one or other of the chief factors is most prominent in its influence. the the river at only opening being i^ the in channel San Francisco. all by of mountains. the central . — California may be divided into three dis- tinct portions. Ill from Tangiers.. with two well-marked seasons the summer dry and the winter wet. called the Qolden Gate. valuable. are also widely known. of the finest examples of the influence of geographic environment it is possible to find. namely: the Pacific Ocean. the is — climate varies in different parts of the state. and its climate is Mediterranean in type. and enter the Bay of San remarkable Great Valley is perfectly hemmed in on able valley. Through this valley How two streams. an area of nearly sixty thousand square miles trained through this one narrow opening to the Pacific. the position of the mountain ranges or the altitude of the land. and these unite about the middle of the I-'raneisco. Much might be done with this remnant of a former glory.1 Natural Geography. This valley. it will be well to study the physical structure of the region.i two bundled miles is . which This channel is places only one mile in width. The California. and of this area close UDOD twenty thousand square miles \ striking feature almost perfectly level lamento River is th. but it requ the hand of the hated Christian to do it.

such as quicksilver. value. and as a conse- quence very important inventions revolutionised the Besides gold. Where the coast ranges and the Sierra unite in the north. and of these borax appears likely to become a valuable export. and this slope contains very deeply-cut caiions or precipitous gorges. with the excep- . and the country the land becomes very rough and thinly inhabited South of the unproductive. other metals and gold-mining industry.112 of its course Environment no tributary flows into it from either wall is of mountains. a very large area is mountainous and thinly inhabited. The most valley Sierra Nevada. for while the rainfall on from and not the one is plentiful. all the rivers flow from the Sierra Nevada the coast ranges. the Great Valley disappears.S. and is scenery and vegetation are attractive and varied. or Snowy Eange. silver. and the discovery of this did more to stimulate commerce and emigration than anything had ever done before. iron is of and coal —the coal poor quality and thus the lack of fuel has prevented the utilisation of the great quantities of iron ore deposits. copper.A. the largest range in the U. — These California was long known chiefly for its great quantity of gold. When the miners began to extend their work to higher ground. mountains have been the great cause of the rapid growth of population on the Pacific border. the unsuitability of primitive mining methods was soon experienced. minerals are to be found plentifully in the State. The slope to the great its everywhere long and gradual. and largely is barren Practically . There are many other minor mineral supplies largely un- developed. It is a rain-shadow area.. for they contain mineral resources of enormous Minerals. southern junction of the valley walls. that on the other is almost entirely cut off. tin.

i H a HER > .i INSE UK.

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Beautiful as most of California ticular spot there is one par- which exceeds others in its attractiveness Yosemite Valley. This valley is about a hund and fifty miles from San Francisco in the Sierra Nevada. second.settlement The lasl d< turbance occurred the city of San ii 1906. the the ical character of its walls . Naturally. and practically hundred . the marvellous waterfalls. their great height. lives 1' . the climate along the Pacific milder and more equable and the rainfall more pronounced than it is east of the mountains towards the — The north of the state has also a longer winter than the south indeed.A Natural Geography. is as fertile as any io is. of Over the valley ft. California i- — Like in all t of the Pacific lias urthquakee. especially when compared with beauty soars high). the width of the valley of its third. the country. . This about twenty miles wide. and this of the State. Everywhere in California the winters are mild and the summers are kept from being disagreeable by the great dryness of the air. it greatly dis- hindered the . |' The damaj tdmated and millions of pounds worth Since the earthquake thi baa Francisco. canals. rainfall . 11 3 narrow coast strip near Los Angeles. This has led to an extension of irrigation work-. the majestic peak Mount Dana (13. by the melting -mows of the mountain summ: interior. Earthquakes. tion of a strip. in the south-east of the there is practically no rain. and amongst its peculiarities are the following: first.000 Climate. and the country beco: a desert. dryness is responsible for a great annoyance in the shape of dust. but at the same time. The rainfall is by no means constant from \ for one year may have more than sufficient while the next may be so short of rain that crops totally fail.

No shelter is required and no food other than that of the paswinter in the mild In summer tures of the plains and the mountain valleys. If the rainfall is sufficient before November. the town of San Francisco is the sea are lertile. San Francisco and district is the centre of population. manufactured. Boots and shoes are also made. to the distance of California from other manufacturingnations. possibly a total failure. but only for home con- Petroleum is Manufacturing is at a disadvantage owing sumption. the reasons for this being clear. loundries. meat and iruit . sugar and molasses refining. and there usually follow heavy crops in June and July. but as yet the quality is not good. and the valleys which open to the Thus. Productions and Manufactures. and to the expense of constructing appliances for utilising the water power. Its industries are chiefly connected with shipbuilding. apricot and grape being especially good.114 Ejivironment remodelled on a grander scale and style. which withstands shocks much better than anything else. the pear. metropolis of the whole Pacific coast of North America. then ploughing and sowing is begun at once. — — is very important. the farmer may find his crops poor and Wheat of fine quality is grown. exported in very large quantities. especially blankets. at the narrow entrance to San Erancisco -Bay. if this is not the case. The climate is most agreeable and healthy. called the Golden Gate. The influences of environment are strongly shown in the Calif ornian productions. and most of the houses are built in a steel framework. to the absence of coal. while the chief articles of manufacture are mining instruments and machinery and heavy woollen goods. while fruit-growing is of great importance Wine is plum. It is built chiefly on steep sandhills. with countless flocks of crowded are the Sierra valleys Sheep-rearing sheep.

ible thai this interior Bite was chosen through the o! marauding navigators and pirates. It is :>. The productions are naturally akin to those of the Mediterranean >n and include vine-. The climate is of the Mediterranean \ pe. orange-. this point in mouth of the Eio de la Thus the continent may now t one and a half days. bringing rain and keeping the weather mild.ire nunc the irable.A Natural Geography. while maize and wheat growin is portion of Chili contains its chief the capital. there is very little rain. p -<i . togel her with latter instru- raph and telephone. for in summer with the prevailing wind from the Pole. lemons. and it exports all the produce of the Great Vail Central Chili. in 5] of the distance from the It i^ one of the mos modern of the western c America. however. carried on by mules and llamas chiefly. ge is very lotty and continuous. most thickly populated part the most useful and Like California. situal between the Andes and the coast range. while in winter the wind is from the equator. Unlike the former. hut its natural . hut it is c Buenos Ayres at the Plata in the Argentine. which ment . forming a very fertile valley. and all the passes are so high that Transport is through the lowest of the passes a railway has tunnelled. »f of tine buildings. packing. a great part of this region is enclosed by ranges running north and south. pari- including amid delightful surroundSantiago. 3 many cities. connecting Valparaiso on the Chilian with impossible for vehicles to cross them. lies Between 28° and 40° south. the centred valley of Chili has many outlets to the sea through the coast range. apples and nes. The eastern of Chili.

has been much troubled by earthquakes. Nitrate of soda.116 Environment is added to the city by many houses built in the old Spanish style. is somewhat misnamed. Among the imports are cotton and woollen goods for clothing. or Chili salt- a valuable manure it is obtained extensively. especially silver . called. unable to expand their territory because of mountain walls and sea. where the semi-tropical heat of summer acts upon refuse of all kinds. of the English community. coal Several minerals are exported in large and some cattle. where the Spanish population enjoy their favourite sport of bull-fighting. but on the margin of the most useful portion of the western coast of South America it has long been an important centre of commerce. . converting it into this valuable fertiliser. machinery. the third city of Chili. land as to petre as it make is it yield sufficient for the needs of their increasing population. A large colony of English is centred here and other nations are to its position owing The bulk of the import trade is with the United Kingdom. and this accounts for the largeness well represented. Concepcion. for much of the city is situated on a reclaimed sandy tract or on the slopes of a few somewhat barren hills near the 'shore. and mean- ing Valley of Paradise. and copper ores nitrate of and are also exported. manure for the soil was discovered by the Incas who. named after a Spanish town. The brightly coloured costumes of the poorer Spanish classes and the richer but less gaudy clothes of the moneyed classes add a quaint charm to picturesque touch this already delightful city of the west. is . and it is found in the drier parts of the country. found it necessary so to cultivate their quantities. with barred windows and nail-studded doors. wheat guano Guano as a soda. There is also a large arena. A Valparaiso. and as in all Chilian cities. The harbour is not naturally a good one.

the alternation of drought mild and not unpleasant : and flood is not feared here as in most other parts oi find the chief the continent. while the winter. this section. The South-Western Corner.A Natural Geography. (b) the fertile stretch round the Eyre Peninsula.i natural I This district has a oonsi salt industry. Three portions of Australia. — By Dumber of far the the habitants <>i Western is Australia inhabit the south-western corner. this having been found to better than any other system of building. all in the south of t In- continent. Fremantle has hen to taki a harbour ficially improvi the capital. and it is thus a nit harbour of call for \ making Australia The western coast from Cape Leeuwin the west. \ i Dipping low and the shore W8 is This the strength increased ol the difficulty by difficult. the port of Albany 18 the only port on western half of the south coast. . iiul ports of the State are Bituated As a consequence. receive their rains in winter. though long. on an iron shocks In 190G a Australian " Mediterranean " Regions. great earthquake caused considerable damage along the American coast. Perth. we m ( ):i the south. for this genial district of the whole state. and (c) practically are (a) the whole of Victoria. which is Bituated within an is . its 117 houses are now chiefly built of concrete framework. but this town suffered less than did Santiago and Valparaiso. and possess a general climate like that of the Mediterranean border. rent flowing northwards. Spencer Gulf and the town of Adelaide. They The extreme south-western corner of V Australia. is is the most of The heat summer cooled by sea breezes.

the tidal swell and the numerous submerged rocks and islands render navigation somewhat dangerous. is the chief wheat port of the and it exports the silver produce brought by rail from the Silverton mines. the largest opening.— The Gulf portion of South Australia is a district of rapidly growing importance. millions deal of — sheep are reared. for here the weather is always delightfully cool and clear. The most important town of South Australia. with cities and towns. fruit orchards and vineconveniences. Spencer Gulf.118 Environment : Gulf Portion of South Australia. and elevated above the sea The hilly suburbs of the town are on a plateau. The rapidity of its growth will be realised when one finds that in about eighty years a wilderness. The coast is indented and contains several important harbours. Port Augusta and Port The former is the southern terminus of the Pirie. bismuth. a beautifully hill-girt city. while silver. Vincent Gulf —Port Adelaide. partially constructed the latter trans-continental railway line. together with the telegraph and many other modern Wheat fields. however. is Adelaide. contains two harbours. excellent harbours and thousands of miles of rail and road highway. inhabited by a great part of the city business people. while the trade in proportion to the population is hardly equalled by any other new All this is due first to the splendid climate country. has been converted into a prosperous land. inhabited by a few wandering black fellows. although the precipitous cliffs. yards have begun to yield enormous supplies. and it exports large quantities of wheat and pastoral . Occupations. of . This district of Australia owes a great its importance to the discovery of valuable copper mines in the York Peninsula and at Burra Burra. St. The trade is carried on through an outport on produce continent. tin and gold are also found.

As will from the excellence of the dim I)- many agricultural industries flourif i Dairy fa ming. x that is down all. and - it is inl that. however. that sco' In 1851.— Victoria. Victoria. and vine growing are thriving industries. is the most southerly of all the its beauty and although it mild. and now artificial great irri- On Works BUpply water by means. and second. Victoria. In addition to mining.'hts a strippar. the not cut . remarkable for I Occupations. most disastrous drought. recovered from these calamities with the speed only possible to a young and undeveloped land. in large quantities.A Natural Geography.. and her population grew apace. which consumed the bulk of farm property and produce and caused the death of many people. instead of being altogether had so imp j. to the energy and patience of the colonists who have taken so firm a grip on the possibilities connected with their new homelands. and Its climate is genial fertility. thai could be became especially good for pastures on which sheep The Merino in enormous nnmbe re wool of Victoria ranks as the finest in the world. of the it summer. >te Much wl i- grown. drie the water. has occasionally suffered from drought. dreadful tire. which cracked the very leaves on the trees.holes and left thousands This was followed by a of sheep dead on the plain. sheep-rearing became a popular and profitable in lustry. and it was foun that the numerous fires.us of stalk at is of so little value wl. . while ir La i' i . Gold was discovered at Ballarat and Bendigo. lone . Victoria had a of the Australian summer. kught the colonists a The occasion Lesson. 1 — nated the already it suit tble volcanic soil with ashes. 119 and the natural resources of the country. Australian colonies. owin.

shared with first inrush of the prospectors. Eallarat is not only the centre of the richest goldmining district in the world. Melbourne has grown with amazing rapidity. attracted At this point it Life of Australia. with broad.120 Environment chief. and its climate moist enough to admit of the manufacture of woollen goods from the raw wool obtained in the neighbourhood. Corio This enormous bay. — Of Port Phillip. with its is two smaller forty miles Bay and Hobson's Bay. It is the chief manufacturing centre of Australia. At the present time all these towns are well supplied is with railways converging at Melbourne. A notable feature of Australian life is the fact that the growth of the town population has not been by the absorption of the rural inhabitants. straight streets and fine buildings. and is now truly a magnificent city. Geelong is a fine seaport on Corio Bay. long and forty miles wide. as is often the case in the great manufacturing countries of the world. animal life the of the whole consider will be well to continent. Melbourne is the stands on the Yarra Kiver and on one of the two finest harbours in the Southern Hemisphere It Towns. as is the case in most old countries. In such is a natural consequence that noted mining schools have arisen. another gold-mining Ballarat the centres it centre. abroid. Bendigo. Like most of the other cities of Australia. There is no inducement for the rural population to quit their prospering country settlements for a no more profitable town life. but by the influx of colonists from by the labour requirements of the towns. the towns in Victoria. as animals are not restricted in their The Animal — . branches. for. but it is surrounded by a fine agricultural and pastoral area producing a good brand of wool.

they have naturally spread wherever they The animal the world. v. the red. or animals which rear their young from eggs. nor such an absence of forms common in other lands. deer. indie To-day it ->inkn:. Geography. So far as the cause of this is known it is very interesting. over which the pouched and egg-laying animals were wide!) In process of time. Asia and Australia formed one vast land. In the early history of the world. being neither so strong nor so intelligent. whose young are carried in a pouch. evolved new forms of animals resembling those that inhabit Asia to-day. 121 movements. however. are to be found nowhere else in the world. life of Australia is the most remarkable in In no other continent or country are there many peculiar forms of animals.A Natural could find subsistence. and marto be found so supials. when the shapes of continents were greatly different from what they are now. this change was taking place a which during buries deep Binking of the land along what is now called the made Australia into an island. one would find many monotremcs. but tail to rind any native animal even roughly resembling them. In the course of t he quite unable to hold their own. One might search the whole continent through for lions. Thus. there were distributed. leopards or monkeys and not only search in vain. the fauna of Australia includes the oldest or most primitive forma of animals 1 in the world. On the other hand. with the single exception of the opossum. which.: jing Lambuk whi channel between the island ol Bali and and on through the Molucca Passage. On some map- a dotted 1. This M P sea rier of water the newcomers were unable to ci and so the marsupial* and monotremcs of Australia from the fierce competition which exterwen minated them elsewhere. . . and these killed off the older forms which.

one reptiles. and the hot climate favours birds like the brush-turkey. only a few The opossum (the only marsupial found outside Australia). An absence of native fruit has given rise to many kinds of birds that feed on flowers. thereby differing from its representatives in other parts of the Of the " the platypus. being capable of crossing wide stretches of water. It has soft fur like a mole. nevertheless. three exits. in honour of the famous naturalist who pointed out the marked differences between bears the the fauna living on opposite sides of this channel. and name of Wallace's line. such as alligators. crows are from those of our own land . In Australia there are no less than one hundred and forty different kinds of reptiles. to the rat-kangaroo." that most commonly known is This strange creature seems to be a most peculiar combination of animals. webbed feet and Its home is a burrow. but. are not bounded like the land animals by the sea. The birds. world. for instance. which cover their eggs with a large mound of leaves to be hatched by the heat given out as The other birds differ in many ways the leaves decay. would naturally many themselves a very ancient form of animal." the most familiar is the kangaroo. the koala and the bandiinches high. The Australian porcupine is also an egg-laying animal. Amongst such expect to find a primitive fauna. ranging in size from* the great grey kangaroo. pouched cheeks like a monkey. coot belong also to this class. with two or a bill like a duck. dug in the banks of a stream. the wombat. about as tall as a man. correspond with them to a degree The peculiar features of remarkable and unexplained. snakes and lizards.122 line of Environment : separation between Asia and Australasia. . monotremes. many species of birds for evolved have continent the which one may look in vain elsewhere. Of the "marsupials.

1 Natural Geography L23 white and swans are black. both large running birds. sportsmen. as was found indispensable. Fortunately.. .imi of the South American Introduced Animals.. beauty is rivalled by that of the bird of para and songless parrots and cockatoos of every conceivable hue. 3 already become too common. their 1 captui and wholesome. whilst the rabbit and sparrow have so multiplied as to become The rabbits swarm in such myriads to to once though! necessary to leave certain pa and the government found it advisable them offer larg irds for methods oi accomplishing then alone. and cross the deserts the camel cattle. are the representatives in Australia of the ostrich of the I'- South African plains and the rhea p. The emu and cassowary. l)ut their two outstanding ures are beauty of plumage and absence of s< The lyre-bird. lw other case-^ the introduction of European animals been attended with anything hut beneficial results. As was early introduced. is so named from the shape of its gorgeously-coloured tail. however. il rabbits c The discovery by artificial freezing has made it p to be shipped immense and a ci | s their destination fresh ce. one of the few singing birds of Australia and an excelleni mimic of the sounds of the bush. indi. a discovery was made that has tun nuisance into a valuable asset. Sheep and :d stated in a previous in millions and form are p a principal source of wealth. and none wholesale destruction. whence and by whom it v . s. ing and Bhipmi I > In i on BUG <>r Je as be an indusl ry is in it - The DingO.on. have a positive pest. of Australia probably I although when. introduced in the interests of :es and game-birds. wild doe. continent include —The present animals of the in many kinds brought a beast of burden the horse t<> by man.

the colonists have : considerably reduced its numbers. with lower coast strips. on the whole. with a harbour on each side of the city. It has a charming climate and a most beautiful situation. mountainous. etc.124 introduced are fossil state. with here and there small settlements of white people. a short time ago it worked great ravages on the sheep-farms. Much of the peninsula portion is forest land. being Bound the city are exwell laid-out and uncrowded. being not unlike the climate of the Mediterranean area. but tempered by the surrounding seas. The broader portion is. The Island is almost divided into two parts at Auckland. but latterlj. and is largely inhabited by Maories. owing to a rigorous campaign of destruction. . be developed. tinct volcanic tribes. Its streets and public buildings are built on the generous colonial plan. of the city. much indented peninsula of the north from the wider and somewhat mountainous area further south. while when the forests are cleared. south of Auckland. where a narrow neck of land supports the city and this neck divides the low. which cut deeply into the ' land in many places. North Island of New Zealand . it has adopted many English names for its streets and suburbs. The North Island of New Zealand has naturally a warmer climate than South Island. and like South Island. there is no doubt that a rich fruit and farming area its sister cities of New Zealand. it all Environment unknown. Auckland is the chief city of may but now supplying holiday resorts for the people of the island. As it is found in a semimust have inhabited the continent from perhaps it came with the earliest very early times Until human settlers. Kauri pines are produced here. the strongholds of Maori once heights.

encour tmmerce and brought a In chief openings i The de. Poverty Bay. the only good one on a long coast-line. with the town of Napier. Volcanic action is marked in many forms hot spr . a healthy lent. extending to the north in all a series of volcanic cones not quite extinct. climate and has a plain behind it. but brick is now supplanting wood since earthquakes ha\ me less It has a large and safe harbour. rises From this central mountain mass the River Waikato.A Naturae Geography in 125 peak some parts narrow and in others wide. and Hawke Bay. near at hand. the per! waters possessing remarkable curative pro- on the east coast are the Bay of Plenty. New Plymouth. as in Japan. and it flows through Lake Taupo. and Palmerston north. while beautifully tin pools baths. to jed in the iron industry. the biggest lake of New Zealand. Wellington the building • is the oldest settlement and is the capital of the colony because of its central situation. and behind . may the warm water provide natural and luxuriant Some years ago the sight of the island was pink and white terraces near Mount Tarawera. whose harbour. but of a sudden eruption of ashes and red-hot stones blighted is the surrounding country and utterly destroyed the beautiful : i. be released by a blow or a scratch. originally built of wood because krthquakes. round which there is little ilation. the largest river of North Island. boiling mud bubbles and spits from cracks and scars. The whole of this district a great health resort. on a -pur of the v. which when cleared nay bring additional prosperity to this town further Greytown. geysers and water-spouts are common. The central of Kuapehu and its neighbour Tongariro form the nucleus of a mountain system.

it retained its importance as the great commercial centre for South Africa. is 8. white-fronted houses.. with the terrace or " stoep " along the front of each house. then open. Kaffirs.126 Environment rises : town Mount Eginont. in the winter. ing out. still to be seen. etc. beautifully situated ou the shores of Table Bay.. The early Dutch occupation left its mark in the flat- roofed. the capital of Cape Colony. in the neighbourhood of grow vines abundantly.000 feet in height. It owed its early importance to its position as half-ivay house to the but when this advantage was lost through the East opening of the Suez Canal. is the harbour the colony's naval station. being exposed to gales from the west and north-west. It exports the products of all parts by means especially gold. and bears it. while Dutch tongue is freely used. of Simon's Town the guttural — . Hottentots and numerous other races. Dutch. which used as a national park. on the other side of the Cape of Good Hope.topped Table Mountain overlooking the city. ostrich feathers. The harbour was naturally a poor one. largely because receives rain-bearing winds at all seasons. hides. This Mediterranean area of is confined to the it immediate hinterland Gape Town. diamonds. the heaviest rains being. however. wine. The South-West of Cape Colony. a solitary snow-capped peak. and its inhabi- — tants form a motley throng of English. from the westerly anti-trades. of its railways connections wool. with the flat. but at great expense a break-water and good harbour have been constructed. False Bay. a marked contrast to the dry terraced areas near hills The northern slopes of the product. while Malmesbury wheat is a valuable is Cape Town. The extreme south-west corner most equable portion of all South it of Cape Colony is the Africa.

China Proper. - for fourteen hundred miles. All these countries. t I la. »n <>t' Wall. Japan and Korea. high plateau of Tibet.CHATTER IT. I I < of the naturally an or as nti" writer has called them. the Chinese Republic. . north Mongolia and on the Pacific ice. The Extreme Lands.vero m c ' many ita years the I ie1 . the conntrii he tab They subject to extreme climates with a heavy fall summer rain- brought by the wet south-east monsoon. on he north-w< now is. implicity and to avoid confusion. Burmah and Cochin China with . " A -at-home gard and by the nature of the country. mono and 1 the al bar . intended to protect the m< t ma wandering . but for pnrp of China. this desire for i-><>la' On all land boundaries. with the exception of the island of Yezo and a very small portion Peking. capital. or t China Proper. i has upon its southern boundaries he ropical monsoon lands of Siam. round the region.Turkestan. high suppli . are within this wholes.

with little labour and no application of manure. being covered with a yellow soil. the Yang-tse-keang and the Hwang-ho. the loess encloses them between vertical cliffs. known as loess. but the north-eastern portion. Where this river enters the great plain . the former for its great commercial value. Loess. southward from Peking for seven hundred miles is — This plain. for chih-li.128 Environment probable invaders. When rivers cut into it. and upon its banks stand many rich and populous cities. or Yellow River have been great controlling factors Both in Chinese life in past ages and are so to-day. falling into the stream to be carried over the land in the flood seasons. which are easily undermined by the water. the two largest. are famous. The rivers of China are very numerous and Rivers. digging out caves in the vertical clefts and reaping the harvests of abundant crops from the surface. (for it is navigable for twelve hundred miles from its mouth. sediment reaches the sea and causes the shallowness of the Yellow Sea and the Gulf of PihThe loess is very valuable to the natives. even on hills the loess beds are available for as sediment all Much of this agricultural purposes. and the latter for its vast and destructive floods which have on several occasions completely submerged the lowlands its near banks. — such as Nanking and Hankow). A considerable portion of China Proper is covered with mountains. especially in the west is remarkably fertile. Thus. — feet thick. and it is an eloquent tribute to the greatness of the ancient Chinese race. the surplus population of over-crowded China often find homes in the cliffs removed from the action of running water. This peculiar formation covers a great part of the north of China and it spreads alike over high and low grounds in many places being quite a thousand a great plain.

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o:* 129 title China.'' of According to records. the danger of destructive floods has not encouraged the development of towns on its banks and added to this is the fact that navigation is almost impossible by reason of the sand bars at or near the river's mouth. the floods were heavy and the lowLi were submerged until the waters entered the bed of a smaller narrow stream and by cutting out a pasalong this new bed left the old bed dry. and it may be interesting to note what happened on the last occasion in 1853. For three years prior to this. heat is experienced from July to B rible typheons. and in times past water way was much used as a high road between Nort and South China. Thus. coasting Bteamships have taken much of its traffic awav. after submer_ _ and greatly damaging a large tract of land.A Natural Geography. which often cause enormous damage. More important than any of the minor Chinese riv'/. being nearer the Pacific are moister and Climate. c The rainfall here is of a tropical nature and autumn and esprcially in May. communication with Peking. Naturally. in - J . such a vast area the climatic conThe highlands of the interior and of the Mongolian plains are dry and liav s of heat and cold. while the basins of the two 9. — Over •' equable. now however. i ditions naturally vary. between the towns of Hankow At the latter town it joins a river in db Tien-tsin. the course of the Yellow River has changed on nine occasions in the last hundred year-. part it is known by the suggestive of "The Sorrow this of Han. the been completely two thousand nve muddy waters of the Hwang-ho ar< beginning to destroy the banks of the new bed which they adopted for themselves. v.

and before the days of steam power. China is essentially an agricultural nation the resources of the ground have been developed very considerably and all manner of products are obtained in very great quantities from the rich soil. Among the chief manufactures of China are iron. copper and silver abound. but it is rapidly being overcome under more enlightening influences. Thus. it is ment in Chinese the near future. which Europe did not discover until centuries later. They excel in workmanship and possess great patience. but the enormous mineral wealth of the country has been almost totally neglected. and since the Government has now become fully aware of the wealth .130 Environment Commerce and Industries.. but remained exclusive and jealous of outside influence. etc. The Chinese were centuries ahead of any European Power in civilised development and they possessed inventions such as printing machines. only those ores which could easily be extracted have been used and huge quantities are yet to be obtained. empire was cut off from the rest of Asia by high mountains and tablelands. Chinese civilisation developed to a certain point. Other minerals such as the ores of tin. This national feeling has been a great factor in the slow development of Chinese national life in later years. but are very lacking in originality. wool . being content to run The in the same groove for an indefinite period of time. the sea was a no less formidable barrier to traverse. paper machines. highly probable that a great developaffairs may take place in This probability is greatly increased by commercial the fact that the old absolute bar to all progress — Manchu monarchy the was swept away in the revolution of — 1911 and a new and enlightened form of republican government set up. Many provinces possess rich stores of coal and although iron has been mined for thousand of years. ' — within reach.

the capital of China is in the midst of a densely populated area and is divided into parts. 131 is and cotton goods . Hour is milled and the silk industry prospering. The river affords safe anchoi vessels a and Tin' a Large number of the inhabitants favourite device in I ma. and the fact that it is within a (lav's march of the northern fronti' [rests the idea that the Tartar conquerors desired to keep well within reach of the steppe region which had been their As the country round is too poor to support home. lation . is The opium traffic. and a Chinese outer part. lion which is easily accessible. while tea is exported in great quantities. supplies have to be imported from ti-" south and this brought about the construction of the nal one of the finest waterways in the brief survey of a will Towns.. but like most Chinese streets fchey are dirty and unimIts choice as capital is probably due to its pressive. they think. and t are built ot mud. a Manchu inner part. in the midst of a rich alluvial plain oed by the Delta. the great curse of China. :• I built on | ! guard the against thi of floods. — world. full of sacred temples and the Emperor's palace. cannot follow crooked paths. the due tli" sts the prevailing Chim i . is sheltered o the north and northi by a range of 11 hills. illation.<• of which. —A be useful. situated seventy miles from the mouth of the Canton or Pearl river. ig arc narrow to densely popuU and crooked. rapidly decreasing under the strong repressive measures of the Government. forty-seven feet thick. Canton. The wall surrounding the city is forty-five feet high and The streets are unusually wide. few of the chief towns Peking.1 Natural Geography.

tea. by treaty. Nanking. rice. tea. Its trade has suffered through the opening up of Shanghai and the Yang-tse valley. Canton is also a Treaty port. it has become the foreign market It exports chiefly silk. obtained the right to trade. The Chinese are a well-built. hides. while he carries his coins on a string placed through a square hole in the middle of each coin. The Chinaman is a poor arithmetician and so we find that his systems of measurement and of coinage are unsteady and of a fairly simple character. opened to its Canton was the first Chinese port foreign trade and this has accounted much for success. slanting eyes. cheerful. a former capital on the Yang-tse Singan. chinaware and matting and it makes great quantities of fireworks. the port of supply for China north of the Yellow river. China. on a tributary of the Hwang-ho. hard-working people and remarkably patient. that . — — Although they are a temperate. and as the climate is healthy there are many foreign residents. situated near the estuary of the Yang-tseKeang and connected by canal with all parts of the province has exceptional of of the facilities for the first distribution goods and Empire. the starting point of the Grand Canal are all towns of considerable importance. when once aroused they can be very cruel and revengeful. Tientsin. yellow skin and black. but it is still considerable. wool and is. its exports being chiefly silk. is of the Mongol type. Thus it is a common . and Hankow. Shanghai. with high cheek-bones. somewhat undersized race combining some of the suppleness of the races of India with a fair amount of the strength The face usually associated with European peoples. cereals.132 Environment about one million. It is one of the Treaty ports of one of the twenty-four ports at which England has. Chinese Life. narrow. glossy hair. cotton.

and of a simple character. this custom No some of the description of China would be com. reference to . which are conin Qg the winter time. the great British out Honjf-Konjf Biyer. of his rooms form are often of is quite a village in themselves. are u latter. with additional furs in winter. Most of the houses are one-sto I and oiled in the case of a rich man's house. The towns are closely crowded with shops in the narrow and often awnings are stretched across to keep streets out the heat of the sun. while the is upper one a thick for the protection of human b< wall surrounds the village.itliout Hong-Kong. thu the tinest situation of . but. of hiding cattle in case of attack. fortunately. charcoal stoves places . homes cluster together for safety and each village usually possesses a tower of defence with two stories. ifl an i* nth of lied all and Victoria. thus. b ovens are much used and the structed of brick. the air is often stagnant and the stench from decaying garbage is most unj> and unhealthy. d. Windows the paper. is -on for the looseness of the clothing found are in Chinese opinion that line of the body ban it is unbecoming of to show the i out- feet the womm is lildhood until they become quite loan ir. while much furniture wooden In the country district-. In the colder of the country. sight for a wealthy 133 man going to market to be accompanied by an attendent to carry these cumbrous coins. The Chinese garments almost alike for men and women and the material v: from silk to cotton. the upper one being loop-holed and the lower one without openThis lower one is for the purpose ings of any kind.A Natural Geography.

Out of ninety-five million acres. but there are countless rocks of and a half miles in circumference which are not recognised as islands by the Japanese Government. while the trade of the port ranks it amongst the finest ports of the world. the northern being much in winter than the southern islands. as its rapidly outgrowing food supply. in area slightly larger than the British Isles. for in the summer months the monsoon is drawn in from — . is it will be seen that Japan. hundred and less than two The islands stretch through twenty-eight degrees of latitude. while in addition. and since the population has grown from twenty-seven millions to fifty-two millions in sixty years. toivards country in the world has so small an area of arable land in proportion to its size. with its Environment white houses rising tier after tier up Shady nooks and rocky beauty spots the hillsides.. and thus the people have had to cultivate their land in an intensive manner. This will in a large measure account for the growing tendency No cultured colonisation and emigration. and the rivers are hence of a torrential nature. quantities producing food. part of the low-lying ground is coated with a very infertile volcanic ash. The climate of Japan is very largely controlled by the near presence of a great ocean on the one side and a great land mass on the other. number of the islands is five twenty. — Japan The official consists of a number of islands. Climate. Japan OP Niphon. a nation. in considerable compared with the area cultivated. and thus considerable variety part of climate colder is experienced. less than fourteen millions are under cultivation.134 East. Two- thirds of the area is mountainous. have attracted all manner of people. etc. silk.

and in consequence the heaviest rains are at that period. itrv it touching upon the customs of the Japanese will be well to study the nature of greater detail. by broken ranges of mountains with of m most magnifies Fuji-yama (12. lautifnl volcanic feet). while slight ones are of to the fact that is : Owing Japan frequent occurrence. frequently incorrectly called 3 t Formosa and northward to the insula by the Kurile Islands. These larger islands form he n tng away Boni hv. In the months of July. shores as the oonsidi ar by a warm ocean cum t known Kut i and y is this caosefl the warmer than i he ini vhilo the rainfall 1 Datui J \\ ' oi Bum] the toiiv an wide spread ti< -iallv i m o ice to i . August and September. is I Kamchatka PenI from end to end inches.425 . and these are at ti very violent and destructive. this monsoon is not nearly so regula the Chinese and Indian monsoons. violent typhoons often cause great damage both to shipping and land property. and in calm weather land and sea breezes alternate with day and night a many other parts of the world.A Natural Geography 135 the south and south-west by the beat of the continent. or Niphon is divided from Yezo on the north. Hondo. the largest inland. I iefore however. Hondo. detached from the mainland. in The chief island Honshiu. com[ta now practically extinct. I nut >ple ii i in . and Shikoku and Kiushiu on the south. Japan bus alw nerienced earthquakes. however.

buildings are mostly situated European buildings and on high ground. but the usual custom is to plant rice in June. Centres of Population. but . The sides are cut into terraces sign. is to be observed in the cultivation of the lower slopes of Fuji-yama. Separating Hondo from Shikoku and Kiushiu is the Inland Sea which is difficult of navigation because of strong currents and numerous rocks. which are fairly well surrounded by mountains. The population of Japan most densely concentrated in three districts its port. barley and beans are sown in the wet fields as winter crops. also done on the sides the valleys. but the commercial city stands on low Many ground reclaimed from marshes and the sea of the houses are still built of bamboo and paper. in : — is the Inland Sea. while mulberries now grown for the rearing of the silk-worm. A approaching inadequacy of the home food production. while the Thatched roofs. Tokio stands at the head of a deep inlet and has for four hundred years been the capital and residence The Mikado's palace. and are significant Environment tea in large quantities. (1) In and around Tokio and Yokohama Hondo on the shore of (2) Round Kobe and Osaka. the official of the ruler of Japan. same area of soil at the same time. and the overhanging eaves support sheaves of drying barley. regarding the rapidly and crops of of cereals are grown This in spite of the difficulty of ploughing is on the slope. (3) Round the port of Nagasaki in Kiushiu. In some parts the land is so fertile that two crops can be reared on the villages nestle at the bottom. are common.136 wheat. during the heaviest rains and after it is harvested wheat. but it links up the fertile lowlands round its shores. and which contain some of the most densely populated parts of the islands. heavily weighted.

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It is joined by rail with Tokio. This rapidly developed port is the Japanese terminus of many steamship lines from the old and the new world and it is here that foreign merchants live. which is an important naval station for the Japanese fleet. Btanda Kioto. the chief seaport of the country. Unlike Tokio and Yokohama. Bra! other towns of somi importance are groupin this protected sea and thirty miles inland on the ad of Hondo. while the sacred crown of the mountain towers over the district in majestic splendour. Inland Sea contains the At Osaka wo have all its cotton mills. The river of Tokio is silted up and is useless as a harbour and vessels have to anchor a few miles out of the city. Most of the trade is done through the port of Yokohama. the adjuncts of traffic is manufacturing greatly by a large number of canals. Many beauty spots surround these towns and they are noted for the hot sulphur waters of volcanic Faji-yama. Across the bay on which Osaka stands is the rising port of Kobe. i l- Nagasaki. the gradually brick dwellings. warehouses and city. Hence it is less Japanese in character than any other town of Japan. an old capital of the for the enormous number of temples that it contains. 137 a sign of the influence of western inter-mixture however. near to Lake Biwa. on of i' KiushlU and it OWOfl much . in the tram-lines in the light. This city is remarkable re.A Natural may be seen in Geography. number of along the main streets. it is essentially Japai mc arf although here and there the effect of v a busy while I i UM ma\ island of in. increasing parks and shops and in the free use of electric which is rapidly supplanting the picturesque paper lanterns — so productive of destroying fires. The northern shore :' it of the in lustrial centres of Japan.

The Island of YezD. and damp fogs frequently prevail. their faces are sallow-complexioned.138 Environment : ment to the excellence of its land-locked harbour. other than the jinrickshas or mancarriages are to be seen in the streets of an ordiniry . The Japanese government offers many inducements to settlers. The short. genial climate has made it a popular foreign health resort. and it is remarkable how much labour . not only because of the climate. It very mountainous and has heavy woods. although the Japanese are said to be somealert what shifty in their dealings. but the people are slow to venture on this less inviting land. but because of the impossibility of cultivating rice. black hair — the women are fond of ornamenting Mongol type the hair with flowers and tortoise-shell combs. from the and her Japan proximity of neighbour are in many respects similar. which to the Japanese is indispensable. fast rivers are full of salmon. with oblique eyes. —As may be expected of China. It is the nearest Japanese town to the western world and perhaps naturally became the first port open to Europeans. while grouse and other moorland birds are to be found. It is most beautifully situated with a mountain background and its healthy. productions and climate. high obviously of the cheek-bones and long. though is larger than the two southern islands together is only scantily peopled. They are under-sized. Both peoples are courteous in the extreme and given to over-display Japanese Life. The winter is much more severe than in any other part of the empire. the customs of politeness. but very wiry and . while it is considerably different from the rest of Japan both in Coal is plentifully found. Few vehicles. and useful forests of deciduous trees are abundant. Japanese town.

and and fatigue this is especially endure pain true of the Japanese. human They will face the certain pros- pect of a painful death with perfect coolness and without exhibiting the least sign of fear. stoically. are of easily obtainable. the .N\ >(> 'lr\ urlej v.A Xdtural these GeograpJu/.'i-y differenl from a Bun »] house. as will be Been from the following description: The framework which is of the house la usually Bides mboo. Li \m the -i 1 [OUSI AMI ing l» ( i \K!>I. L39 Most orientals can horses can endure. Via 1 1 ] .

such as . Japanese Lady. 12." but a brief description of the dress and daily fires life of the people will not be out of place. while the Japanese love of light accounts for the use of paper lanterns all night. The paper lanterns. and it is naturally of home-made material. The chief feature of the Japanese clothing is its loose- ness. and of an open side to the house in the day time.140 oiled paper. Environment unusual to have more than one story. and these it and is Fig. It would be impossible to describe in detail the numberless quaint and interesting customs of this " Land of the Rising Sun. The frequent earthquakes experienced in Japan have caused this style of building to be generally used. showing Shape of Face and Style of Hair. are a frequent cause of fires. while the one story system is partly due to the Buddhist fear of women sleeping above men and thus causing loss of dignity to the latter. Sliding paper shutters convert the house into apartments at night and into one large room during the day. have led to the construction of garden cellars of concrete where valuables are stored for safety. however.

developed Cereals. not an Sandals are usually worn. chess-playing and fencing are popular amusements with the adults. and The ii\ irrigated. Already she Formosa. mewhat v in the ly exl reme. which is always elaborately adorned. not only to retain that . Within the last forty years Japan has become a power in the world. Japan's influei still greater. cotton. suitable it 141 to for these are the climate. and the manner in which she overcame what appeared like insurmountable obstacles in to colonise in Formosa. largely consisting of rice or fish. ad etc. Kon indifl under the suzerainty of . shuttle-cocks and (on the great annual feast days) with their family dolls and toys. of There is little difference between the clothing men and women. cour. Geography. but owing to Chil . ) Later y< there . with rains aln Bummer. and i fine illustration of the energy. Yezo. The food of the Japanese is somewhat insipid. — Korea a peninsula. wrestling. but tin rn slope is the valleys are fertile and well : more gradual.A Natural cotton or silk. fertile p of coast . Dancing. in hemp. is organisation of this Korea.lap the Russo-Japanese War. which add flavour to the food. and thing to see stiffened paper waterproofs in is uncommon the rainy season. and K virtually a Japanese col B ble » !• •. Leaving only a very narrow. is a cunning.. but the latter take great pride in their hair. of brilliant >f Powers powers Japan. dividing the Japan A range of mountains closely follows the east coast. and she bids fair. balls. some of them hundreds of years old. and so they have become fond and spices. Korea and Southern Saghalin. . while the children play with kites. b« of sauces but to outstrip 'gun many of ber rivals. and open towards China.

opposite Japan. it is much affected by a cold stream flowing from the north. because in winter. The summer rains are due to the blowing of the northeast trade winds — from the Atlantic. to Manchuria. even to-day. comprising almost all the Middle Atlantic States. antiquated.142 Environment magnificent sea-fishing industry which is under the conA useful railway line trol of Japan. were confined to the fertile Atlantic border. and a few of the Prairie States. the area dominated by the Appalachian Mountains and that containing the lower Mississippi System. it was here that settlements were first made. together with the rest of the Atlantic border. China and Eussia. the population is scanty and the customs somewhat Alleganies had been crossed. because being nearest to the old world. was naturally. in the high central ranges of . for some time. the Cotton States. has a climate of moderate extremes with rains chiefly in It is very liable to sudden and great the summer time. whereas in winter. much of the area passes under the influence of dry south-west anti-trade winds. as for instance. traverses the country from Fu-san. east of the Alleghany Mountains. areas where settled. the earliest to be developed. for the whole system of winds moves southwards with the sun in winter. Eastern United States of America. This portion of the States. changes of temperature often referred to in the daily — papers as " Heat and Cold Waves " and it is less equable than the west coast. But once the spirit of exploration had been roused by the desire for fresh and wider fields for it settlement and the was not long before the whole of this eastern area began to be known and There are however. The eastern portion of the United States of America. These settlements however. that is.

and owing to the infrequent visits of clergy riders. to trade and manufacture. no intercourse with the is still spoken. dly on the | i fertile flood plains of the river itself. spinning-wheel and hand-loom are by no means out valley One has eighteanth century English of The Bible is the only literature to be had. collective funeral services and marriage services are date. less more or common to considerable varieties of industry. tobacco and rice. Although tl: rn portion has climatic features throughout. Further inland. in North-West Ohio and North in America. where maize and sugar-cane. as compared with the practically fertile lowlands. a fact which is quite unusual Again. Thus. as we approach Mississippi. magnolia can be grown in profusion.A Natural Geography.000 square miles of mountain land which naturally repelled immigration. in the main. while the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico Slates depend almost wholly on is of >n. The North Atlantic States are devoted. there are naturally differences due to latitude. distance from the Bea and These differences have given structure of the land. there are 10. necessary. in this part of America there is found no foreign element. and. between Lakes thinly peopled. woods and open e to bo id. swamps movement of settlers and deflected westward barred the these movements to the north and south of the swamp area. which and hence un- . Michigan and Erie. the next. The Manufacturing States. manufacturing ot cities — Most y of the chief are situated in the north . the Appalachian Mountains in East Kentucky. quite unattractive. comer this natural region. and to-day wo find there an area comparatively Indiana. 143 Here. for they are difficult of access.

its houses are mostly the abode of single families and not of scores. It is . was founded by the Quaker. reaching even to nine hundred feet. especially German. as is the case in the New York " sky-scrapers. This industry thrives because the town is the northern outlet for the raw cotton producing area Iron goods are also made. influence. but it has extended on all sides. a although the buildings themlines. including large quantities of coal and iron. iron. taking in several other smaller cities. and as the water-ways are excellent and the harbours quite good. New York commands many fine land and sea routes it is connected by rail with all the great cities of the country and it is united to the Great Lakes by the Erie Canal which passes through the Hudson and Mohawk Valleys to Buffalo. districts. rectangular system of selves display every type of architecture and style. Washington is the artificial capital of the Union. in its street planning Philadelphia specially in is also a great hive of industry. has a climate which is sufficiently marine to allow the manufacture of cotton goods. though much Unmodified by foreign. rich in coal. the second largest which is situated on a splendid harbour at the mouth of the Eiver Hudson. however. of the Southern States. engaged It building ships and locomotives. including Brooklyn on Long Island and Jersey City. in a ten square mile enclosure known as Columbia. Minerals. let for many industrial etc." Baltimore. William Penn. . New York is the outchief centre is the city of New and wealthiest city of the world. abound. like many of the cities of the States. anthracite. every advantage for manufacturing purposes exists. and it is like most American cities. The York.144 suitable for Environment agriculture. and the city is still noted for its Puritan characteristics. It was originally built on Manhattan Island. Its buildings are renowned for their immense height. in the same industrial area. petroleum.

containing Pittsburg. timber and Belt. and finally culminated in war between the northern and southern States. it and thus lowlands of the Cotton Belt. slave question began to occupy the minds of all olai of men. . negro ere imported and compelled to work in the fit indigo. the official residence of the President. and in a moist tropical was found very profitable in or semi-tropical climate. Millions of people are employed. — \ Afl the middle of the nineteenth century approached. These obtain their coal supplies from the Alleghany coalfield. and their iron by the Great Lakes from the Superior Plateau. where much iron ore is minea. Between Lake Erie and the coast is situated a great iron manufacturing area. — south of Virginia. States The Cotton — The and for years no successful crops were rai As a consequence the settlers tried a new crop cotton. This flourished and quickly became the staple crop.'ids oft* onditions exist on the the coast of the Atlantic Southern T .A Natural Geography. — Richmond region and of the tide is the centre of the tobacco-manufacturing chief market. It is situated at the limit is its on the River James. but as the climate in summer is too hot and damp for white. 145 thus quite apart from State jealousies. and found it easy to S With the abolition movement. and possesses the tallest obelisk in the world a memorial to George Washington. along the Atlantic slope and round the Gulf of Mexico into Texas once produced nothing but rice. lab >ur. first President of the United States. Cotton flourishes best on low-lying ground near the with salt in air and soil. while in the stony northern the settlers had no use for it. Slave labour the alluvial is onlv valuable in lands that are easily cultivated. the. as a result of which slavery was abolished in 1865. Chicago and Cleveland. The city contains the White House.

while much coal and iron in Texas and Alabama. which is raised above the surrounding country. rich crops of maize and sugar-cane with fruits of many varieties grow abundantly. These cotton-growing states also produce much tobacco and rice the low marshy peninsula of Florida grows millions of oranges and great quantities of cedar wood Texas. The Mississippi Basin. has vast cattle ranches. the largest state of the Union. Galveston and the river port of Augusta. where the heavy woods have been cleared. Savannah. Mobile.146 Environment North and South Carolina. The chief pores are Charleston. lie rolling little indication that away prairies and wind Like the Yellow Eiver of China. Cotton manufacturing was long confined to the more northerly states but is now being carried on in the cotton growing districts themselves. Georgia and Florida. and the cotton growing spread to the mainland where almost similar conditions prevail. to break the monotony of the scene. Mississippi and as " upland " cotton. This is the cause of frequent and often disastrous floods. some European there is countries. The Mississippi is the second river of the world and it has an immense tributary the Missouri. and as big as inferior quality is grown is in Texas States. The banks of the river are fringed with willows and. clusters of white houses indicate a negro — — village. changed its course in Louisiana through often has sippi swept . Cotton in greater quantity but of slightly Alabama. New Orleans. and the frequent swamps give to the west. Here and there. the Missishills. A peculiar feature of the lower course of the main stream is that it grows narrower and deeper as it nears the delta. This known . which like the stream it feeds is navigable into the very heart of the country. This brand of cotton is known as "sea-island" cotton and is the finest quality in the world.

—but with is less disastrous effect its and. about a hundred miles from the mouth of the river built the cotton capital of the country. at the inmost point of lake navigation and splendidly placed to receive all the produce of a vast region to the north. and now. It is the southern outlet for all the produce of the Mississippi basin. I the . more than two million people live and find employment within its bounds. timber. of the world. little more than a hamlet. and countless other commodities meats are received and transmitted. rapidly . seventy years ago. It is built along the river in gently slop it terraces and is the depot for transmitting the grain to supplies of the prairies to the southern ports by the It by the river Ohio. and until exteuit carried out. Grain. south and west. Causes of 1 of Development. had a reputation for fevers and general ill-health. From i ' this bri int . and so have given rise to the great meal canning industry of the district. . situated near the junction of the Missouri and the Mississippi is a town of rapid growth. \. Chicago k situated at the south-west end of L It has become the greatest railway centre Michigan. New Orleans. leather goods and beer. would probably have been the chief city of the basin. manufactures tobacco. Louis. for it is midway between the Rockies and the Atlantic.A Natural the soft soil Geography.us grain supplies have been used to fatten pigs and cattle. St. since the Government has realised great value as a national highway. which but for the development of Chicago through the construction of railways. its course has come more under control. 11. naturally its wiiat b n the principal ca rapid develop- . No city in the world ha90 ippi and the east . It is on a rather swampy foundation. it was a small military station. The surp.

Orange River Colony. The Appalachian barrier to westward movement confined the settlers until they achieved unity and prevented their being scattered over wide prairies where they would quickly have fallen a prey to the hostile red man. Basutoland.148 Environment : ment of to its present position as co-leader with Britain the world's commerce. well fitted for the climate and by nature given to overcoming obstacles. especially Since the area lies between throughout. there are certain similarities. answered. for the winds . who. the wind-belts move northward. the southern inland of climate. It was a land of boundless possibilities and the race which entered it was eminently fitted to take full advantage of everything it had to offer. in summer. the In winter. The Indian in this part of America was always resentful of the advance of the settlers. it receives. Lawrence River and the Mississippi River -with harbours open at all seasons and unspoiled by a trying climate. but Natal and the south coast receive a fair amount of rain at all The rainfall would be very small indeed were times. as rain-bearing south-east trade winds. the southern half of the Transvaal and the eastern portion of Cape Colony together form this region. it not for the high nature of the land. Natal. The country ways into the continent — —the Eastern South Africa. Its settlers were men of endurance and courage. unlike the French in Canada. came not for trading purposes but to make permanent homes for their families. and although there are considerable differences in the structure and nature of the land.. latitudes 25° and 35° S. lies The question is readily- between two great gatsSt. portion comes under the influence of the dry westerly anti-trades blowing across the colony.

.

=H

e

^

.-3

< < o D
CO

.1

Natural Gcograpluj.

149

moving from a cooler to a warmer region, which forbids condensation. The mountains, however, force the winds high and cause cooling and condensation
are
into rain.

Natal. — The
between
this part

land rises rapidly from the coast, and

and vegetation and the Hat coastal region in the southeast corner, which is dry and barren. The crowning ra of the Drakensberg Mountains rises to a height of ten thousand feet, and is snow-clad even in summer. The beauties of mountainous Natal equal those of Switzerand the lower slopes and valleys are gardens of semi-tropical vegetation, where coffee, sugar, rice, cotton and semi-tropical fruits grow in rich profusion. As the land slopes upward, its climate changes from semitropical to gonial, temperate conditions, and is not unlike
this accounts for the difference in rainfall
l,

our

own
i

climate at
to stock-r

its

best.

Moreover, these pleasant

The uplands and and large Hocks of herds of cattle find good grazing grounds in the brae air. A special long, silky wool is obtained from the important To Natal, perhaps fch< Angora goat. which maize for all, is provides food man and crop of " tea. also, has b beast under the name of " mealies
conditions prevail at every season.
;

successfully introduced.
1^

well

d of Natal The "bunks known and abundant, while iron, marble and
i

gold are to be found in great quant
lus,

trial

with combined clime icultural and indusadvantages barely rivalled, Natal should ha\ is future, although the labour problem
I

i-

\it\

difficult of solution,

tropical area the white
I

man
Hi:

for in the moist, luxuriant cannot work and the Qfl

much hard
ads
of

labour.

To

D

-inand,

en

ini-

.

and these tnak

a pi

150

Environment

Natal lacks good harbours, Durban being the only useful one, and even this, after much expenditure of money, is still marred by a great sand-bar at the mouth of its large dock. Although modern equipages and handsome public buildings adorn the streets of the city, it is a comman thing to see rickshaws of the Japanese style

drawn by Zulus,
the outlet for
largest
all

in all the principal streets.

Durban
is

is

the produce of the country and
is

the

town.

It

connected by

rail

with Pieter-

maritzburg
of

in the middle agricultural belt, the capital

of the country, situated fifty miles inland at

an elevation

two thousand
there
is

ings

are

Besides the Government buildbreweries and tanneries the country
feet.
;

here

most picturesque.

The chief river of Natal is the Tugela and this, with such places as Colenso, Ladysmith and Glencoe played a notable part in the last Boer war. The Boers recognised that the rugged nature of the country was well suited to their style of warfare and so they made Natal the
Ladysmith for one hundred and nineteen days and holding in check a British relieving force at the river Tugela for a conearly scene of their operations, besieging
siderable period.

The
live

native

inhabitants

are

Zulus or Kaffirs,

who
They

are a fine

handsome race

of a warlike disposition.

an organised

mostly in Zululand, in the north of the country and rising among them might prove dangerous They live in circular huts, to the white inhabitants, called kraals, usually arranged in a ring formation; and although in a state of semi-savagery, are now quiet and
peaceable.

The Orange Riven Colony,

lately

known

as the Orange Free State, is enclosed by the river Vaal, the Orange Eiver and the Drakensberg Mountains. It is

an undulating country, with here and there flat-topped

A Natural Geography.
hills,

101

making some break in a monotonous The plains are and dry except in the early summer months of November and December and the streams are often but tiny trickling ?rcourses, full of stones and boulders. Floods in the
called kopjes,
ry

Landscape.

i

I

wet season convert

these

" spruits "

into
fertile

torrential
strip
is

currents, quite unnavigable.

The only

along the Qaledon River, flowing from the Drakensh

along the border of Basutoland into the Orange

E

and here agriculture

is

followed.

The

inhal
all

are chiefly Kaffirs

who

are

engaged
of

in

and Dutch Boers fanning, there being no manusize
is

factures in the country whatever.

The only town
c ipital,
little

any

Bloemfontein, the
tov.
I

which

is

a quiet, healthy market

of

further importance.
is

Across the Vaal
rital,

the

Transvaal Colony,
is

the

bhern half of which

an of country
I

much

Pretoria, a the same type

and contains town Burrounded by low hills
in this region

Bloemfontein. The v similar to the other Boer colony, with
as

the

t

On that more' mining is done, especially un ildfield, which is very rich indeed. The chiei
-

town, and the largest in the colony, is Johannesburg, a mushroom growth, and bearing upon it even mark
of the

occupation of mining -'itlement.

its

inhabitants, being a typical, rough

South-Eastern Cape Colony
>n,

La

a pastoral

with plentiful rainfall only on quantities on the Ka
'

rich
<•

iThe East London and Port Elizabeth, and Kimberley. connected by rail with Johannesburg an Largely with the rod Thus their and with

ling

are

i

I

|

t

152

Environment

and pastoral districts. Grahamstown is the principal inland town and Graaf Beinet is a sheep-rearing centre •on the Great Karroo. Kimberley is the great diamond mining centre of the world, and here are situated the famous mines of De Beers.

Middle-Eastenn Coastlands of Australia. The greater half of both Queensland and New South
Wales together form one natural region, whose rainfall is supplied by the south-west trade winds, chiefly in the summer time. Since the highlands are of no considerable height and extend for some distance inland, the rainfall
is

differing

here spread over a fairly wide area, in this respect from the region further south, where the moun-

tains are higher

and more compact.

The mountains

receive various

names

in different parts of the country,

region,

but amongst the chief ranges from south to north of the we have the Blue Mountains, the Liverpool Eange, the New England Eange, etc., and these present
steep escarpments to the sea, due to the action of the

weather upon their

soft

sandstone formation.

The

east flowing rivers are short
all

and

of

no great

value, while
direction.

long rivers flow in a westerly chief The system is the Murray-Darling,
the

which has many affluents such as the Macquarie, the All these streams Murrumbidgee and the Lachlan. vary in depth according to the rainfall, and the- usefulness of the whole system is marred by shoals and sandbanks at the mouth. The main stream diminishes in volume towards the mouth owing to great evaporation, and in this respect it resembles the Nile. The coast region has several good harbours, which

The largest is that have naturally attracted settlers. of Port Jackson, round which has sprung up the great town of Sydney, containing more than a third of the Sydney Harbour is population of New South Wales.

It has a great export trade and has been outgrown in commerce by Sydney. rich pasturage. poor the a. of the best itself is town and most beautiful in the world. which is one of the finest engineering of the World. a vast plain of bush and scrub is reached. exactly suited to sheep rearing on a large scale. Br ken IInl and of the colony M othi in . north of Sydney. while its tine harbour has made it the railway " hub " of eastern Australia. coupled with the extensive nature of the land.1 Natural Geography. broken thai hills in which may mineral wealth equal Silverton . -row large plantations of orange trees and the centre for the oral le is at Parramatta. Newcastle.. unjustly noted (The as being the first convict settlement in Australia.) of Sydney is greater than that of any other town in the southern hemisphere. l'f-i one city. fo require not so • much of good. The trade convict station was at Port Jackson itself. The Baity nature of the soil and is the bush. Leaving Parramatta and crossing the Blue Mountains railway. little Lie New South Wales with t«> known region. as its name implies. to le situated fift} Commonwealth of Australia Canberra on the River Yass. one 3ydney. C is ' ' capital o. but fairly large . and the now fit to compare with any European Its streets are well laid out. a town on a creek of Sydney hour. corner of hundred and L6 miles south -wi north-western a wild. as a Large and ses. One of its holiday resorts is Botany Bay. is the port and centre of the chief Australian coal district. which stretches southwards as one of the great sheep I fi us of Australia. its buildings handsome and its public gardens unequalled. The coast regions of New South Wale-.

. some distance from large vessels. and in consequence its trade is considerable. tin and copper in very large quantities. further north. a practice which has met with much opposition. Queensland is exceptionally well supplied with a rich variety of crops. The south in is the most thickly populated part. while behind the city is a fine pastoral region. Beside many temperate products. iron. maize and tropical fruits is nourish. Brisbane. As in other similar parts of the world.154 Environment : Southern Queensland is a great cattle and sheeprearing area. which produce extraordinary pure gold. silver. Its docks river has been canalised. In addition to being so well endowed in these respects. Kanakas have been imported from the South Sea Islands to take the place of white labour. As is the case with most Australian coastrivers. and this has caused frequent inundations The rainfall is. while the cultivation of growing importance. Near Rockhampton. sufficient of parts of the city. the Brisbane Eiver often rises in great floods in the wet season. and in addition it has gold. because the can receive the sea. here to prevent its drying up in the dry season. however. as is the and near the case with many of the streams. and has been the cause of serious political differences in the sugar-cane of the colony. especially capital. are the Mount Morgan Mines.

CHAFTEB

III.

Extreme

Interior Lowlands.

The Steppes and Russian Turkestan.
B »uth of the Siberian interior lies a land
fall is

where

I

scanty and the climate extreme.

It is

hemmed

in on the north by a desert-like steppe round the Casp and Aral He the Kirghiz country, while on the th and cast are the lofty plateaus and mountain-, which form a very decided harrier to communications. To the south lies Persia, while across the Hindu Kush Afghanistan amid its mountain heights and vail farther north the Pamir Plateau, the roof of the world,
1

3

oul

its

them

—the
t
!

bween

branching ranges in all directions, one of Thian Shan Range —forming the boundary m and Chinese Turkestan.
Sti

Thus

this

trea is cut off in

:

from the rest

of the

world by very

real

barriers to

measure comri
\

munication, while
the land are couth
fed

in addition, the

habitable portion
ies

made by

the

mountain summits, which either by the Bnows Mian and Aral Seas or lose themselves into ti
of the
i '

in fertilising the

Many of many changes
they
still

sandy OS on the

aemi-deserl area.
re old

and ha\
and
title-

in the governing power bear marks of an

of the land,

in

their

fine

old

buildings.

i

156

Environment
rice, cotton,

produce

wheat and

fruits of

many

varieties,

not great enough for these, cattle, horses, camels and sheep are reared on the coarser but wide pastoral areas. As these move from place to place in search of fresh food supplies, they are accompanied by tribes of pastoral nomads, who build their houses by the sides of streams where willows are to be found, or carry portable felt tents for use where the willow wood cannot
fertility is

and where

be used.

Among

the towns on the oases are MerY, which

is

at

the crossing place of ancient routes

Bokhara and Samarkand

all of

Khiva, Tashkent. which are now linked

Fig. 13.

The Steppe Region.

by the Trans-Caspian Bailivay from Krasnovodsk, on the Caspian Sea, although caravans still follow the old routes between the towns and even over the high passes into Eastern Turkestan, and as far as Lake Balkash and the pass between the Altai Range and the Thian Shan Mountains.

The Kirghiz Steppe
north
of the

in the north stretches across the

Caspian Sea, and is broken by the lower course and delta of the Volga River, which is considerably below sea level and is very marshy. The inhabitants,

.1

Natural Geography.

157

who

are chiefly Kirghiz, are spread in thin tribes from
to the

Volga and are a nomadic pastoral race. In summer the ground is little more than a brown ible, while in winter irregular drifts of snow are scattered over the barren earth. Living is at all times difficult, and the whole region would be quite uninhabi: able but for the snows and rains of the mountains on

Lake Balkash

-

the

<

The Central
The
Rockies
less

Plain of the U.S.A.
the most easterly ridge
of

plain between

the
too

and

the

Mississippi

Valley

is

generally

for agriculture and the western half of it is not The portion than three thousand feet in elevation. Lying east of the hundredth parallel of longitude is better earns and occasional rains than the ilised b item portion and in consequence maize and tobacco are grown in the north, while the cotton belt extends The chief into Oklahoma and Texas in the south. this somewhat arid region however, is occupation in le ranching, and great herds wander half wild across Thus the cowboy is here, as on plains. the onl the Canadian D prairie, a familiar figure, and 30nal round-ups of cattle for branding and inspection

purp with
jnai.

'

her together enormous

1

t'

:endant cowboys.
at

The

combination
*

of

taring lias Led
.

Omaha.

Bee >nd only to that of

Chicago,
!1.

for the cuttle are fattened

on the surplus supplies

In this district the canon-like formation of th<
vail;

gins to

become

evi<

bed of the

stream Leaving perpendicular walls
In
I
i

unattacked by weather and rain action. the arid alkaline Staked plaint

lie

158

Environment

:

Middle and North Argentina.
Argentina
is

largely a semi-desert region of a stony,,

salt or shingly nature, except at the

base of the Andes
is

which

is

well watered by streams and

quite

fertile,

in the valley of the river

Parana and round the Plata

Estuary.

The western part
irrigation

of the steppe region is capable of

and Mediterranean fruits can be grown. But the great tract inland is dry and warm from the influence of the Andes wind, which is like the Fohn wind of Switzerland, heated by compression through its own rapid downward motion. Sheep are reared in great quantities and mining is developing. The population is scanty in the whole region, and there is a fair sprinkling of Indians, as in other parts of South America. Much of the region is formed of great grassy plains called pampas, corresponding to the prairies of the north, and here vast herds of cattle are reared to supply the towns of the Plate Eegion for the noted frozen meat export industry. In the north
is

a valuable forest region practically undeveloped.

The

chief

town

is

Buenos Ayres, from which railways spread

one crossing the continent via It is at the heart of an Mendoza to Valparaiso. agricultural district, where wheat, maize, sugar, etc., can be grown, and it is the chief outlet for the produce of this and the pastoral area inland. The harbour is spoilt by the silt of the river, and in consequence a new and deeper harbour has been constructed at La Plata, nearer the Rosario is at the head of navigation for open sea. on the Kiver Parana, and it exports vessels ocean-going wheat.
over the level plains,

CHAPTER

IV.

Extreme Tablelands,
and lofty mountains stretching in an almost unbroken line from the border of the Levant basin of the Mediterranean to Manchuria, and the tableland portion included in this
l.\

Asia there

is

a broad belt of plateaus

natural region coi
of northern China.

part of Turkey-in-Asia, Persia

and Afghanistan, and the Mongolian and

portion

Asia Minor and Armenia.
separated from the plateau by mountains on the north and south, the whole
Excepi
for
c

a narrow

trip

Minor LB elevated, and Armenia, where several higher
i

this

is

continued into
3S

the country.

climate in winter

is

very
iat

are

th<
a

and the summers ap >ration and
great part of the plateau
lightful

deficient rainfall has converted

into a

Bandy desert.
ti,e

On

tin

1

west the land slopes
-this strip
is

the climal

within

Mediterranean region. Between the Syrian Deserl <»n the south and Asia Minor, a gap in the Taurus provides a route through which commerce ami
e

invasion b
as the Cili<

on

for centuries -this

gap

is

known
of

Lying betwe P< sia and Arabia is the fertile plain Mesopotamia, watered by the Euphrates and the
I

Several ranges cross Persia from north-west to south-east into Baluchistan.160 Environment : but where agriculture and the highest civilisation once flourished. Mountains. but ignorance which despotic rule. dromedaries and goats. the Teheran is situated Tabriz and Kerman. for British influence is para- Once Persia was a great commercial mount at the present time. and the latter stands at the junction of trade routes between the Persian Gulf and Central Asia. isolated The north-east The climate is occupied by elevated and a dense mountain mass containing many is very dry. Afghanistan and Baluchistan. with ill-paved streets. unjust taxation. known together as Irania. and here only pastoral tribes can live. and while the valleys are hot the highlands are very cold. and the forbade the construction of roads and railways has brought Persia to the position of little more than a nominal independent state. mountain from wild animals. while they are in constant danger valleys. Tabriz and Kerman are both more important trade centres. Towns. which lie south of the Elburz south of the Caspian Sea. the population is now thin and chiefly engaged in pastoral pursuits. with sandy and salt deserts and swampy areas in the north and centre. and on account of the number at night. capital — The chief towns of Persia are Teheran. of robber bands. all herds are Houses are built with flat brought inside roofs and have few windows. Persia. . form an elevated plateau. Villages are often surrounded by high mud walls with strong gates. for it is meanly built and badly laid out. and from a distance the city belies its real appearance. nation. These countries. and India is separated from Irania by the Suliman and other mountain ranges. rearing horses.

Summer Rains. Arctic Highlands. Interior treme. B. 160. Plateau. C. Monsoon. E.— Ex. [To face p. • . Ex. Interior Lowlands. Small Rains.. Di. Small Rains. Cool Temperate —Equable.The Natural Regions of North Amkrica. Small Rains.. B. treme. Cold.H. Lxtreme. Cold Winters. Arctic Lowlands.F.. Small Rains. Warm Temperate. Winter Rains.— Warm.. Elevated.— Hot. Lowlands. C. Moderate Rains. A. Desert.Equable D. G. KEY A.

.

It is constantly the scene of warfare and bloodshed owing to its position as a buffer state between Indian. The soil is parched and dry in summer and the winter brings bitter ud furious destroying blizzards. and it has a considerThe country is now connected by rail able value. and it has been the scene of much intrigua and The route the stirring up of strife by jealous agi'ators. and mountain riu_ and much too dry Bowever. United States and Mexican Plateaus. will probably soon pass Mongolia* — The golia. between Kabul. Much of the region is composed of the great Gobi J >> continued in Monsides by high mountains. round the gn :ul. vn there QOE city. Eussian and Chinese territory. to India is by the Khyber Pass. and Peshawar. plateau line which is enclosed on all and has therefore a very dry and extreme climate. the capital of Afghanistan. from Sind in India via the Bolan Pass to Quetta and New Chaman. and the railway on to Kandahar. where the Indian railways end. where nomadic pastoral peoples tend their herds of goats and half-wild cattle. flat is consisting for agriculture. the experiment carried out plains of salt basins. Thus it is always necessary to keep the hills well fortified against the raids of fierce and cruel clansmen. >ry of Kandahar is a walled city with a terrible war and bloodshed.A Natural Geography. The great composed of rely basin of the United States of America high. The lands are steppe regions. known as Salt on the produce of L district. dry waste. . b 8 L ke <>t I 'tan has proved so buc- that a tlourishii. — Afghanistan is one the most waste and sterile countries in the world. 161 of Afghanistan. is eri - b v ist. h Lake City.

all kinds. and the plateau is the exposed to northerly winds which makes its climate akin to that of the United States Plateau. lie able effect on the river beds. Minerals of distributed. many hollows on the plateau are made very fertile by the The climate varies between streams which cross it. and this has had a remark- deeply at the base of canons. Hence. forest and pastoral products. are very widely exist in vast quantities .162 Environment: plateau of The Plateau of Colorado. which divides the Colorado Plateau and the Staked Plains of Texas from the Mexican Plateau. Cruz. while the needs of the settlements are partially supplied by a few areas of agricultural and cattle-rearing plains. which flows the Colorado River. and and while the coast slopes are the richest in vegetable produce. In Mexico the continent begins to narrow and the mountains follow either coast. Most of the rain . seven thousand feet deep. because of mountain rain high barriers. Flowing from the Rockies and turning to the east is the Rio Grande del Norte. especially silver. while about twenty degrees north. little agricultural work can be carried on. while the coast regions are hot and falls swampy. according to the elevation on the plateau. Most of the towns on the plateau are is which mining settlements. leaving narrow strips of coast plains and enclosing the Mexican Plateau. and the exports are chiefly mineral. Yera goods to be largely imported. a range crosses the country and contains several lofty summits. which form the watershed of many streams. while the lack of manufactures causes manufactured The chief port. The finest of these is the Grand Canon. and it is the outlet for the most thickly populated portion of the country. on the outer slopes.—The Colorado is a rainless region. temperate and cold. and through which On the east of the plateau lie the Rocky Mountains. is on the Gulf of Mexico. whose sides are perpendicular and unaffected by the action of rain.

In 182-1 Mexico became an independent republic. rainfall on the Pacific slope. it bears the impress of the Spanish rule. The capital is 163 Mexico. of the interior known. They were overthrown by the Spaniards early in the sixteenth century. The early inhabitants were the Aztecs. New The Lofty Andes of Extreme South America are an almost impenetrable mountain although they are crossed at Uspallata by a tunnel through which passes the railway between They have their Valparaiso and Buenos Ayres.A Xatural Geography. a civilised race who have left many remains. is . and the broken plateau barrier. Its houses are often built of adobs and have the usual courtyard in the centre. But like most towns of Mexico. and it is commercially important. dry and at present practically unIts climate is verv extreme. frequently richly decked with tropical blooms round the fountain.

Rainless Deserts. CHAPTER I. for their chief •characteristic is barrenness of surface. which has drifted. and the extremes of temperature have caused splitting and powdering of the rock surface into fine sand. The Sahara Atlantic is the largest desert in the world.and seasonal extremes of climate. Little need be said of the physical structure of these commercially unimportant wastes of land. often of considerable rain does fall. desert is almost rainless. What little sand-dunes. It stretches from the Ocean to the Eed . The sea limit by the fertile strip of the Nile Valley. and is nearly as big as Europe itself. and is constantly drifting into height. * The Sahara and Arabian Deserts. The Sahara from is a low plateau crossed by a high ridge which divides the Libyan portion from the western portion. THE HOT REGIONS. being broken only by the narrow valley of the Nile it is continued on the other side of the Ked Sea in the Desert of Arabia. with great daily .SECTION IV. and thence across the Arabian Sea. and cut near its eastern north-west to south-east. Sea. sinks into the ground . into the Desert of Thar in north- west India.

often taking weeks and even months to cross. The staple product of these oases is the datepalm. 14.A Natural Geography. goats and camels. Fig. and even cereals are to be raised. Tiie Desert. without which the desert would be quite uninhabitable. and there is constant danger from sand-storms and lack of water. where oases are situated. light winter rains fall. On the extreme north. however. There are many caravan routes across the desert. The southern edge of the desert lias always been the northern limit of Negro Africa. In the more fertile spots of the Sahara the wandering tent-dwellers tend flocks of sheep. while it is the barrier to southward expansion of the northern tribes. The fertile strip Nile Valley of hind its and Egypt. b the Sudan area south — two. bically is no rain- The River Nile the great controlling factor iu . and in -innnier rains occur. and hemmed in River on either is I • lesert plateaus. 165 and reappears at lower levels in springs. the fall. that I Delta area.— made up of the banks 1 consists of a of the Nile and flood plains.

and the White Nile. however. flowing out of Lake Victoria Nyanza. spreading rich alluvial soil over the valley. The heavy rains in Abyssinia cause the annual flooding of the Lower Nile from August to September. for without it fertile Egypt could not exist. cotton and several others are It is — Fig. controlled Egypt. black famine stalked through the land. —A Scene on the Nile. maize. If this flood were or insufficient in past centuries.166 Environment Egyptian life. late raised. famous as the scene of General Gordon's death at the hands of the Dervishes. rice. to be conSince British influence has ciliated at all costs. upon which rich crops of wheat. formed by two great arms the Blue Nile rising in the mountains of Abyssinia and fed by the heavy summer rains brought by the monsoon. — . tion works A network of canals conveys the water in all directions. and thus it is not a matter for surprise that the early Egyptians worshipped the Nile as a god. The two streams unite at Khartoum. 15. and now the fear of famine has been reduced to a minimum by the construction of irrigathe dam at Aswan being world famous. great engineering efforts have been made to bring the waters of the Nile under control.

early became inhabited by a population that rapidly grew dense. They are usually built -tone or of adobe.A Natural The Valley fixed limits Geography. In the more barren areas of Egypt. being naturally confined within of extension. The Delta is inhabited by an ignorant race called the fellaheen or soil-cutters. the capital of Egypt and the largest town of Africa. for only by this means in The most inch rainfall. from the most remote times. while Alexandria on the coast is the chief commercial centre. well-built ft tribes. as the pyramids of Gixeh and the ruins at Luxor and Thebes. being highest on the Red Sea by \ edge. and this people. U can all the want virtue. alleys rich in is » hilly district crossed This district. is their flat roofs on which the people may sleep. Many memorials of their ancient such kin. which are easily carried about. —a home of who frequently a SUjQ \ want. A notable feature of almost all the permanent dwellings in desert areas. became highly cultured and civilised. it is a notable fact ti matters of honesty. Arabia ia an elevated plateau with high lands round the coast. known as Nejd.i high and The hills v. who grow cotton and live in the lowest social fashion it is possible to find. but revengeful and not too particular in Indeed. the people use skin tents. Behind mountain rim turage. lies a sterile desert of burning sand. and is a fortified I and incapable town. daring and courageous. and especially in Egypt. fine. where the tribes wander from oasis to oasis. fertile is family be fully suppl part of Arabia is Yemen. oon traced and cultivated up to re . 167 of the Nile. which is a kind of sun-dried mud brick. • the south- lO. the the Arab specimen of manhood. At the of the Delta is Cairo.

is part of the country of Syria. shown Fig. ' and in their fondness for The wide. unchanging expanse of of the blue heavens- and the endless stretch naturally produces this trait. extending to Damascus on the west and to the Palestine. and the inhabited portion lies immediately between the desert proper and the Mediterranean Sea. arid desert. and the Arabs became fine horticulturists. the Moslem. 16. The northern desert of Arabia passes into the Syrian Desert. is the holy the centre pilgrimage to built. valley of the Eiver Euphrates on the east. that their powers waned. Its houses are of stone and very well and its streets wide. in their religious observances such games as chess. or the Holy Land. began to enjoy easier conditions of as in Spain. with many mosques. Mecca. —A Pastoral Scene in the Holy Land.000 feet in early times. the Arab race. to silence All desert peoples are given and this is a marked characteristic of and contemplation. the birth-place of the of Mohammed and place of Moslem faith.168 Environment : 6. while their religion gave them great enthusiasm. It was only when the Mohammedans life. The Holy Land is .

which although unnavi- and scriptural renown. which is hundreds of feet below sea level and hemmed in by hills through which there is no gable. every line of it. which is so salt as to allow n-w bodies to None hut the very lowest forms of life can sink in it. The chief river is the Jordan.wivk Hots. or near the capital is Dead 8 Jerusalem. is of great historic outflow of water. It passes through the Sea of Galilee and finally into the Dead Sea.A Natural Geography. 1G9 familiar to us as the scene of the events depicted in the and the language in which that book is writl bears ample testimony to the influence of environment on literature. South African X. which is very ind the Baits brought along by the Btream are left in the basin. but the Jewish population seem- . taken out by evaporation. 17. Tin. - m The . of chiefly noted as th< of the life of Chri is of the world and the The population Palestine mixed. Arabs and tminate. One has but to glance at the twenty-third Im to notice the influence of the desert on almost Bible.

and the white sand glows in the glaring sun almost like snow. The central portion is fall is pools. very elevated and have great extremes of climate. and many are whitened on account Tha Kalahari Desert. and part of Mexico approach the desert type. although of much greater importance. . This district is commercially of little value and is It practically uninhabitable except near to the shores. being arid and almost rainless. is Bechuanaland is part of the Kalahari where the land very sterile and at present unproductive. is but a continuation of the Great Plateau Region of Utah. with the excepof the tion of the coasts and the western slopes coast Many provinces are is dry and of a salt nature. and in parts the hardy bush is quite dense. Much ranges of the west of North America. very scanty. Lower California. living in organised villages —the huts being of the typical Kaffir rounded shape. Arizona. the part most plentifully wooded and grassed. while maize is reared in small patches near some of the pools. The wellunder chiefs built natives are peaceful semi-savages. The rainto the Eiver Zambesi. up chiefly of red sand and dried up salt lakes. The houses are all flat-topped. The Alkaline Plains of North America.000 feet. which. and is made 3. are yet semi-desert in character. and the meagre supply forms into where native bushmen and Bantus herd their goats and where wild animals like the antelope or the lion can find food and water. Nevada and Colorado. of the fierce heat. This area stretches from the border of Cape Colony and has a general elevation of over It is smaller than the Sahara.170 Environment : be gradually increasing. for sleeping purposes.

The Australian Desert. Beyond lie stretches of brown earth. become vast deposits of by have unaffected soil. the dry water-courses the construction of the lines easier. silver and copper ores. soda-nitrate. and the inhabitants adopt many devices in order to take lull advantage of any dew or mist their best Bubstitutes tor rain. The houses. and in consequence. Tl ' Desert of West and Central Australia bears it many likenesses to the Sahara. No have made doubt the arid md made more product ert might be irrig but it would be the means of spoiling the fertiliproducts obtained here. 171 Chili-Peru Desert The northern part of Chili and the southern part of western Peru fthat is. no such work will be attempted.-imdar eztrei fierce Summer heat and is formed in .. while on the coast-rocks and islets guano is obtained. The tablelands a similar I t towards the interior into lower with a few broken ran itweeu the two chiel d : fall pi .1 Xfttural Geography. the coast strips) are barren and What the land lacks rainless. etc. rain. until the mountain background is reached. . for •ure lias —a . except in a few valleys. makes up for in the value of its mineral The salts of the deposits. huts. way by the weathering of the rooks into sand two main sections are the Great Sandy Desert and the Great of the south. ifi up the and although water supply -iillicult to obtain. railways zig-zag :ern slope of the Andes. tanks.. and so. which are very extensive. and there are also large quantities of borax. until these supplies are exhausted. crowd together near the coasts. in rolling hills and dry. dusty billows. soaring up many thousands of feet into the dry air. iron sheds. in fertility it Many valuable mines are situated high on the Bolivian Plateau.

172

Environment
in the

:

extreme south-eastern corner of the desert area, is a salt lake below the sea level, and from In the central this point the land rises very gradually. ranges, deep valleys, shaded from the sun, hold water all the year round, but this is the only district where such can be found. The dry regions north of these ranges have a few patches of spiky scrub and short, tufty grasses, while there are wide plains with no vegetation, The heat is exfull of stones and bare, brown earth. cessive, and in the dry atmosphere explorers have found that the hair even ceases to grow. Gold is found in the south-western corner at Coolgardie, Murchison, and other places, and water is conveyed to the mines by pipes laid from the coast. Mining could probably be extended further inland if water could be obtained, but so far this has not been As in Africa, the camel is chiefly used for possible. purposes of trade and communication. The cooling of the interior of the houses of the mining populations, and indeed of most of the dry parts of Australia, is brought about by means of a water-filled porous bag. The heat is thus greatly reduced by evaporation, the dry air absorbing the water rapidly.

Lake Eyre,

The Animals

of the Desert.

— Of large areas

of

the

earth's surface, deserts are

by

far the

most inhospitable,

serving as the most effective barriers both to human proBut despite the fact gress and to animal distribution.

that the vegetation is always of the scantiest, and thedaily changes of heat the most intolerable, certain animals

have adopted the desert as their own dominion. They are, apart from birds and reptiles, about fifteen in number,

and include the
jerboa, the hare

gazelle, the jackal, the fennec-fox,

the

and the sand-rat.

Some of

these animals

find their subsistence on the scanty vegetation, uninviting though it is, and the others, being carnivorous, feed upon

them.

A Natural Geography.
It
is

173

not surprising to find that these animals h

undergone radical changes in achieving the mastery of such a hostile environment, and two observations may
be made in respect of nearly all of them. Firstly, the animals mentioned above being all of a sandy or khaki colour, harmonise closely with their surroundings (the reasons for this have been discussed elsewhere) and
;

secondly, owing to the absence of cover and the long

distances which

they must travel in search
fleet

of

food,

they are usually

of foot.

slenderest of the antelopes,
of the smaller animals,

Thus the gazelle is the the hare amongst the swiftest

and the jerboa has developed long hind legs which make it resemble a rat-kangaroo. As the ostrich is the fleetest of living creatures it needs no protective colouration, though it is probably not a mere
coincidence that

eggs are the colour of the sand. -s that inhabit the desert, the it of all the c camel has undergone the greatest changes of adaptation to its environment, an adaptation that is so perfect that
its

wherever deserts have to be crossed by man, the camel, or its near relative the dromedary, has become indisThe broad foot which will not sink in the isable. the acuteness of scent and Bight which take it to the next oasis by the shortest route, the hump of fat and internal reserve of water which, in hard straits, enable it. to travel for days without food or drink, the frugal and de diet, the indifference to temperature by which it
i,
i

3

the

1.

lays or the coldest nights, and,

above
time,

all,

the remarkable powers of speed and endui
it

by which
all

cove;

aces in the
desert

minimum

of

serve to
of

show how manifold and exacting
life,

are

the

conditions

and how complete the

ndancy which the camel has gained over them.

CHAPTER
Sfi-

II.

The
The East

Tropical

Monsoon Lands,
*includes almost the

Tropical

Monsoon Eegion

which whole of India. It excludes only that territory of Thar or Indian Desert, the greater part is known as the the mouth extending inland from the Gulf of Cambay to lowlying land is unable to conof the Indus, where the The dense the monsoon winds from the Arabian Sea.
northern boundary of the region is the Himalaya Mouneastward so as to include tains, but the region extends most southerly the Indo-China Peninsula and all but the way, it another Described in of the Philippine Islands. Asia where consists of all that portion of south-eastern the moisturethe mountains are so arranged as to intercept from laden winds which blow during the summer months importance the Indian Ocean. As these winds are of vital prosperity meaning population, of to the teeming millions when they arrive in time and dearth and famine when how they are delayed, it will be necessary to understand

they

arise.

The Monsoons.

—The

region consists of peninsulas

land mass in jutting into a vast ocean from the greatest by the world, from which, however, they are separated length extreme of range the Himalayan Mountains, a

A Natural
and breadth, and
of the world.

Geography.

175

of a height unequalled in

any other part

In winter, the winds blow, as one would expect, from the great land mass to the equator, and being deflect e by the earth's rotation form what is called the NorthEast Winter Monsoon, but what is re.illy only the regular Trade Wind of the Northern Hemisphere. In the summer months, however, this wind is reversed, for the air above the great land mass of Northern India becomes so heated by the sun, which is then north of the equator, that the cooler air of the Indian Ocean, saturated with moisture, blows with great violence towards it. In doing this, however, it meets almost at right angles the high range of mountains above referred to, and is so cooled in asc aiding the chilly heights that its moisture is either deposited as rain on the lower slopes of the mountains or frozen into snow nearer their summits, Wherever in the region the height of the land is sufficient to cause this wind, called the South-Wcst Monsoon, to ascend considerably, rain is deposited, and its quantity increases with the altitude of the land and the angle at which the wind reaches it. From this fact it follows that the rainiest parts will lie on the slopes of the Western Ghats and the Himalayas. In Assam, where the mountains intercept the winds to whose moisture the Ba B ngal lias also contributed, lies Cherrapungi, whose rainfall of over five hundred inches IS the greatest on
I

the Burface of

tin

1

earth.

The rainy
from
dry.

or

summer season

includes

the

months
is

May

to October,

In places,

while the resl of the year however, where the configuration

of

the land is such that the North-East Winter Monsoon flows over a large body of water, it may bring rain.
Sucli a place
rainfall
is is

the Ooromandel or eastern coast, hut neither BO regular nor SO he;i thai
.

enjoyed by the rest of the region.

As

this alternation

176
of

Environment

:

the land
its

wet and dry seasons is very unhealthy for Europeans, is still, and always will be, inhabited chiefly by
native people.

Rivers. Testimony to the amount of rain which the monsoons bring is shown in the magnificent rivers that the region possesses. The Indus which, with its four
tributaries, gives the

name Punjaub,

or Five Bivers, to

North-Western India; the sacred Ganges, to which a hundred million souls owe their livelihood the mighty Brahamaputra or Sanpu, which joins the Ganges near its mouth the Godavari and the Kistna, which cross the Deccan the Irawadi, Salwen and Mekong, which serve as the great highways of the eastern peninsula, are but a few of the most important rivers to which the region owes its great prosperity. Not only do they serve as avenues for trade and as the means of irrigating
;

;

;

very
vast

the greater part of the country, but they provide the soil itself. Their great volume and the height from

which they

fall

enable them

all

to carry
is

with them a

amount
of

of sediment,

which

deposited upon the

lower courses. Thus the soil of the is not only enriched, but renewed from year to year, and the vast irrigation works, for which the Empire is famous, carry the fertilising waters to lands now rich with produce that were formerly barren
plains
their

Indo-Gangetic Plain

and lifeless. The immense quantity of rain which falls in the wet season, helped by the retentive nature of the soil, is sufficient to supply the rivers the whole year round.
Agriculture.

—Now the extremely exacting conditions

demanded
of heat

for the cultivation of rice, namely abundance and moisture followed by a dry period, are nowhere better fulfilled than in the tropical monsoon regions, and as these conditions are almost impossible to imitate by artificial means, the monsoon regions practically hold a

Amoi and gath< oil-seeds. Rice is raised chiefly along the deltas of the great rivers. indeed. 1 Xa t u ra I Geog raj) hy. of the majority of the population generally. in such quantities as to leave a surplus after providing for the needs of the enormous native population. Iras. Requiring less moisture than rice. though it should bo added that there is no crop produced in such vast quantity that takes so small a part in international trade. tobacco. more and more being worked into manufacti goods in India itself. —To carry this vast en some of the the whole the produce abroad there have ports in the world. Ports. for reasons which will be explained later. seeing the harm done by this drug.7 monopoly in the cultivation of that crop. tecial interest also a. and is grown chiefly in and Annam. so luxuriant. Rice and millet form the staple food of the native people. wheat is grown wholly for export. Native needs thus being satisfied. Naturally. nature of the oo M . Ceylon Assam. cultivated in great sugar. Burinah exports more rice than any other country in the world. reared chiefly in the Punjaub and Central Provinces. other variety. only a moderately damp M \ -much as the Chinese authorities.. Tea also requires 3 soil. The cultivation of opium for the Chinese market is of especial interest. however. indigo. Those above-mentioned are but a few of the vegetable products of the region to which are cial interest is attached. endeavour from time to time to limit its importation. and to a lesser extent in Indo-China. coffee is Bow imp do less griculture maybe i from the fact that than nine-tenths of the popu- lation are either directly or indirectly in it. 1. in is a country where vegetable growth crops will be ire spic<--. to crops of cotton and jute which. although its is i ill-favoured in n poe shipping facilities.

Such. owing the coast. swampy nature Neither is Madras w ell placed. Nonavigable river helps inland communication. and as is well known they have divided themselves into four great castes. and the unprotected shipping is exposed to the open Bay of Calcutta. Inhabitants. it is still strictly adhered . and Haiphong. apart from the great w heat port of Karachi 7 Bengal. which carries off some of the surplus trade of Calcutta. distant from to the T coal. are the greatest ports of India. on Salsette Island. Passing eastward along the coast we come to Chittagong. (outside the region). Bombay. the people of India represent many different stages of civilisation. exports teak.178 especially of Environment : the larger peninsula. — Stretching as they do over such a large area. however. the shallowness of the waters near the shore. has created huge ports which suffer from disadvantages that would be almost fatal elsewhere. though sugar and coffee are shipped in great quantity. possesses by far the best harbour in all India. Rangoon is the chief port of Burmah. in order that the different classes of people shall remain distinct. and until the opening of a railway experienced great difficulty in of communicating inland." because porting rice. the chief port of Tonking. is It exports teak. the rice port of Cochin-China. with hundreds of sub-divisions. of its watery highways. rice and tin. It is. the presence of sandbanks and swift currents are foreign trade. Although this system of caste is hundreds of years old. rice and coal. Bangkok is the only port of Siam. Saigon Manilla is the capital and chief port of the Philippines and is most famous for its export of hemp and tobacco. despite its great trade. however. ex- teak and tin from the Irawadi Valley as far as Mandalay. obstacles in the way of The greatness of the demand. possesses one of the most dangerous harbours in the world. and it is often called the " Venice of the East.

which are the most important in the world. There are. however. Hanoi. is Tongking. silks. hut Mandalay. which are without rival amo: lie non-European peoples. carved wood and ivory. from which the caravan-. Lahore. Their appreciation of the beautiful is shown in the thousands of magnificent native temples and other buildings. are Poona in ivory. there has been established in Bombay modern machinery the raw cotton to c on goods without the necc i shipping the unworked material to Bur >t .A Xatural Geography. and like the Kashmir shawls are embroidery of Lucknow of great 1 an the gold and silver lace of their manufacture. and Delhi in jewellery. and therefore have no manufactures. consist chiefly in the making of articles of luxury silks and muslins. noted the world over for its objects in figured brass and Lacquer work. dav become a great manufacturing country. is 179 it and when Europeans caused. ports have been mentioned. and objects in silver and gold. show infinite patience in Cuttack specialises in silver filigree. other inland towns are the capital of • I unimportant. One of the ancient cities engaged in this work is Benares. It also rivals Trichinopoli in the pro- — duction of fine ity. I fail to respect great trouble higher classes are often very wealthy. to. si^us that India herself may some Air. en the River Song-ka. The native industries. To the north and on the same river lies Bhamo. wl have been carried on for centuries. the capital of Dpper Burm ah. educa" and intelligent. owes its importance to its ruby mines. In consequence a it follows that pi the only important towns are the sea-port and the The where agricultural produce is collected or minerals found.carry the produce of the \ alley across the Chinese frontier. Towns. The people of the eastern peninsula — neither >o industrious nor so intelligent.

not injure the falling timber. Habits and Customs. with the discovery of new fields and railway access to them. live near the river in pile dwellings or on the river in boats made of teak are thus near to the flood-plains and bamboo.ore. The character of the land and the nature of the climate have had a pronounced effect — on the habits of the people. we may some day find that our Indian Empire has captured the market in the Ear East.180 Environment is Calcutta her cotton. the wet season. and even where coal is found there is usually a local absence of iron. as well as in parts of Burma and Annam. Minerals. when the softness of the ground will in home the water as on land. and elephants are trained to do all the hard toil attached to the industry. . When these have been opened up we may find that the Tropical Monsoon Eegion has become as famous for its coal as it has been in times past for its gold and precious stones. etc.. and though at present Bombay and Calcutta practically monopolise these modern industries. However. as a few instances will Burmah. are on rafts and boats moored The teak-cutting is usually done in in the streams. The people of Siam and as a rule. — The chief fields at present lie to the north-east of Calcutta. Such a disadvantage is fatal to great manufacturing industry. and most of their shops and places of entertainment. The country suffers from one great drawback. doing with her jute what Bombay does with Of late years there has been a constantly decreasing import of goods manufactured from cotton and jute. be sufficient to show. the supply of coal is greatly increasing. attributable to the fact that India is making these goods for herself. a comparative scarcity of coal. They where their rice is sown and they naturally become in early childhood as much Their games are at chiefly water games. at Raniganj and in the Deccan.

possibly because of the denseness of the dark forests. which are also made with very broad >il. Not only are these trees most abundant. I . which is reall} The men are also wiry. wheels to the car. while the teak is hard and much more readily withstands the attacks of weather and the numerous wood-destroying insects that infest the region. rims to prevent their sinking in the The tribes ol the mountain frontiers of India. and they have curious devices to scare away spirits — all kinds of such as creaky Fig. are constantly breaking out into rebellion. lithe and ol patriotism.-. and the growth of clan feeling. The people are superstitious. but the bamboo is light and easily carried about.A Natural Geography. 18. which isolates tnhes in their mountain fastnesses.1 . and this is largely the result of the land ire. of teak and bamboo are utilised for all manner of articles and structure-. 181 in The materials primitive districts in daily use — are it is —especially the more usually those easily obtained in each locality. all mgly built a result of their had and often hand•nouth existence in their mountain e ment. especial} on the north-west. and not surprising that vast quant. —A SiAMlSB Km B 3< I nk.

Not only have the natives failed to make constant war upon the animals. for as animals -are usually adapted to a definite environment. to molest the native cattle is a grave crime. the area in which wild animals are abundant is steadily diminishing. and owing partly to its measures and partly to the spread of civilisation. that it not only contains the huge apes. rhinoceroses. It contains high The Animals Monsoon — mountains and wide rivers. but by no means perfect. and a shape broken up by gulfs and straits into numerous promontories and islands. but they have in some cases made laws to protect them. It is by no means an accident that this region should be richer than any other in animal life. Thus the lemurs of Malacca have their nearest allies in the primitive fauna of Madagascar. the more varied the environment the more varied the animal life. lions and buffaloes . vast forests and grassy plains. Nor has man here made the endeavours which elsewhere have been so fatal to animal life. there exist the conditions which have made this region small in comparison with Africa or America far richer than both. has much less sentiment. isolation of the Malay Peninsula has given that area just a touch of primitive life. however. — — Interest attaches to the fact that the comparative. though everywhere else. and the tapir. elephants. one of the oldest living animals. and monkeys The are held sacred even when committing damage. British government. Thus. When to this is added a tropical climate and a regular rainfall. endeavour to enumerate with which this region to say. It would be foolish indeed to even a tithe of the creatures Suffice it abounds. here survives.182 Environment of Tropical Asia. which makes vegetation most luxuriant. it has become extinct. save in tropical America. even when this has involved great sacrifice. Now this region is particularly diverse.

the tapir. they each and all bear the impress of their environment upon them. on the Himalayan slopes and Malay Peninsula. causes the government to offer large rewards for their destruction. . finds in its beautiful markings a concealment of no mean value. Though they are not usually distinguished for their beauty. the on of the concealment being realised only by who have encountered this monarch of the Incidentally it Berves _le in its native home. However peculiar may be the circumstances in which animals are placed. its environment the animal is enabled to creep near to or away from its few enemies unobserved. the Bengal which in a cage looks so conspicuous. The reptiles range in size from the huge crocodile to the smallest lizard. about half of which are unknown elsewhere. and no other region can show such an abundance of snakes. and difficult it is to choose an outstanding instance where all a-it will perhaps be best to find an illusexcellent. are to be numbered in many hundreds of kinds. lS. ' t :. they include such magnificent forms as the pea- Even the insects. too.i which characterise Africa. aie ion in one of the most familiar. but also the bears.A Natural Geography. The tawny background resembles the sun-burnt gra amongst which it lives. The birds. especially cock and argus pheasant. t< show us how the all influence of life. environment animal as well as human . seem to rival the birds in their variety and splendour. and the black stripes the thicker By this mimicry of la which grow amongst them. and many kinds of deer and cattle which Africa has not. which by unfortunately claiming each year so heavy a toll of human life.

the . rhinoceros. The Sudan Region stretches along the southern margin of the Sahara Desert and although there is no well denned boundary between the two. and the strong white teeth which The are all probably the result of their environment. Inhabitants. British. fall heavily in summer. The portion of Africa affected of the by the Monsoons is a broad belt formed Sudan. clearings where maize is grown by the natives who live in beehive huts not unlike those of their Kaffir brethren further south. negro population. for the means of access to it are both dangerous and unhealthy. It is only lately that anything has been known of this great region. the Niger and the Congo. Abyssinia. drawn in from the surrounding oceans by the heat of the continent and feeding the crocodile show how waters of the Nile. which form a separate equatorial region. hippopotamus and monsoon area The rains differs from the desert land on the north. there is a very strongly marked contrast in climate. together with the island of Madagascar. and in the vicinity — made of the stalks of the grain grown all these together with the presence of greatly this tropical the lion. elephant. become quite acclimatized to the unhealthy conditions and they show physical traits. belts of thorny woodlands full of creeping undergrowth. such as the thick. frequent general features between them.184 Environment The African Tablelands. — It is the the land of the negros. Ehodesia and part of Angola. giraffe. Somaliiand. curly home of the native blacks who through long centuries have hard skull. all these surrounding the Guinea Coast and the Congo Basin. and Portuguese East Africa. is largely under the dominion hair. German. vegetation and High grasses. however.

: — Equable Climate. Heavy Rains. KEY A. Tablelands. Deserts. [To face p. Mediterranean Regions. Warm Temperate. Winter Bams. Extreme. 0. Summer Rains. D. B. B. Monsoon. 184.The Natural Regions of Africa. Equatorial. . Semi-Tropical.

very cruel and much given to noisy music. this its moun- tain land. like South France. the lowlands being hot and the plateaux and mountain areas with a climate altitude. the chief being Harrar. as The productions may barley and oats and coffee. Many wild animals remain here. is Abyssinia. from which the crusade against slave trading on. The climate naturally varies with the elevation. retained its inde- pendence. with a roof of thatch and little or no means of lighting the interior. for while the higher lands produce many fruits. The Abyssinian is a strong. the When Moslem invaders swept over Africa. but formerly It eventually a great slave market. His manner of eating is coarse and his taste for raw meat somewhat in warfare His house is usually a round stone or mud hut. well-built man. of access.186 Environment is : Zanzibar* East Africa and an island. route calling place. became the centre was carried It is the greatest port of eastern Africa. and the influence of this flelds is civil strife in the last shown in the wasted and deserted villages on the once cultivated slopes of the hills. the hot lowlands grow the baobab tree and other tropical plants. — Abyssinia its a land of mountains and people have been Christian from very early times. being tempered by the also vary with the altitude. and with Christianity. The land has been much torn by century. . The wet winds from the Indian Ocean in summer are condensed on the mountains and cause the annual flooding of the Nile which is fed from Abyssinia by the Blue Nile. while wild bees provide honey a favourite food for the people. while his towns are unimportant. important as a trade surprising. thirty miles from German now a British Protectorate. be expected. being none too easy it.

187 The Southern Monsoon Territory.A Natural Geography. Roads are being con ply on the lakes and the has its terminus in the distri< I mahips ro Railway at . The River Zambesi flows through the district.Waggon Crossing (Note the boulders. and they are chiefly e 1 in the culti- vation of tobacco and the wring >ry gathering of rubber. 19. while wi: . South Ajrican Ox.! 1 inhabitants.. which is still comparatively unknown. lias lately been introduced reeu tl The miner.) a "Spruit. great Lakes Tanganyika and Nyassa and region that the slave ible Here are the was in this trade was followed in its most it form. for This region might very well be termed Living stonia. passing over the famous Victoria Falls and across the province of Khod' sia. grain and vegetables are of Borne value. while the I resouroes arc crops of thought to be valuable. white men live here amongst the thousands of black 1 L'i>. it is in this part that the great African missionary and explorer pursued his untiring labours.

—The fauna of Mada- gascar surpasses in interest that of all other islands. is on the Eiver Ikopa. through dominated by a range of mountains running the length of the island.188 Ujiji is Environment a market town on Lake Tanganyika. The land is now a French possession. because their presence appears at first so unaccountable as to have given rise to the theory that a large continent formerly There is so striking a existed in the Indian Ocean. are is Madagascar sandy and unproductive. the African mainland that some naturalists have pro- . and is noted as the meeting place of Stanley and Livingstone. at the edge of a very fertile and wide rice area. and although much is made for home use. difference between the animals of the island and those of selves. that part is densely forested and covered with rich vegetation. cotton and hemp. and as the rainfall is heavy on the east coast. as will be seen later. or in The capital. not only on account of the peculiarity of the animals them- but also. although the remnants of old customs and traditions are still maintained. Animal Life in Madagascar. The French are now building roads and railways. Blantyre is one of the chief white settlements where much missionary work is done. but up to the present all carriage of goods has been done by men. It is named after the place in Scotland where Livingstone was born. although it was The for a long time the seat of a great Arab trade. many of whom are Christians. Antananarivo. The south and west. one of the largest islands of the It is world. with a population of over two millions. The Malagasy people a considerable quantity are weavers of of this is silk. African and Malay mixed of people inhabitants are a origin. exported. canoes. however.

Tin not share this inactivity. Adaptation to its environment is shown in its whole form. there being more than thirty species. and ngue however. are extremely Bluggish. whose form is eminently ad. none of which are to be found elsewhere. headquarters of the Moreover. their environment. Madagascar possesses one of the n weird-looking creatures in the world the aye-aye whose appearance is so unique that naturalists. frequently occupying a minute in takin. with which it picks out from eath the bark of trees.. is which this strange creature is so fond. 1S9 posed to make Madagascar and the Mascarene Islands a distinct animal region in themselves. which the word lemur means. the wood-grubs whose presence acute hearing readily detects. the general features of the fauna resemble those of Australasia in three respects. do when the former perot . and capable of probing into strange the name — the very nam vvices in search of the insec.1 X. being called by the Germans half-apes. occur in greater variety and abundance than elseThese tree-dwelling lizards. finally allowed it to represent a whole family of animals in itself. All the fingers are its Long and slender. but the third finger of each hand is ily thicker than a wire. The island is the especial home of the lemurs. the island chameleons. They are the lowest form of monkeys. a iking peculiarity about will marked primitiveness in others and them all. but especially in its remarkable hand. Although the individual animals are quite different. as a few instances make abundantly clear. i the single forward Btep. Amongst these animals.:. namely there is a singular poverty in some : classes of animals. which although found in many other land-. and for their appearance and nocturnal habits well deserve ghosts. it ura I Geography. after haying made several mistakes in deciding to which el of animals it belonged.

. yet of the existing hundred and fifty kinds of land birds an unusually large number are unknown on the mainland less than two hundred and fifty miles away. They include a few of brilliant plumage. many birds of prey. A few of its eggs have been found in a semi-fossil state. rather than to the necessity for concealment. itself must have attained huge proportions. lying to the north. peculiar kinds. with a rapidity and accuracy that render escape impossible. this and other real having made them a source of time immemorial. is by no means fully understood. such as kites. likewise noted in the tortoise. seems to be due to changes in the animal's feelings. they were thought in on air. Another sluggish reptile. is which Madagascar possesses several This animal is remarkable for its great hard bone. will the bird each contain as much matter as three ostrich eggs. The giant tortoise once ranged over the whole island. of more superstitious days and imaginary habits fables and stories from fable. hawks and owls and numerous waterfowl. such as the sun-birds and kingfishers. and for its protective shield of Aldabra. but is now restricted to the Islands of tenacity of life. which is club-shaped at end and covered with a gummy secretion. the latter. which. Why the birds. Within comparatively recent times there lived in Madagascar the iEpyornis. a running bird corresponding to the Moa of New Zealand.190 Environment thefor- an insect near by. to which the crossing of the Mozambique Channel means but the flight of a few hours. They are best known by their power ward changing their colour. and as they . is thrust to a distance often exceeding the length of theanimal's body. which on being polished is used for combs and ornamental purposes. of Owing to feed to their habit of filling their large lungs to distension. contrary to general opinion. should exhibit the same peculiarity as the animals.

active and fierce. It is the largest carnivorous animal on the ml. the giraffe. the is :. One need not fear the leopard in the jungle. it this animal may becoi when we discover that the characteristic forms of tropical life are all absent. in the corresponding latitud 98 — account for the pro- — bul difficulty m • the Malay Peninsula. and the great depth of the Mozambique Channel seem to rod addithe 1 )< . -s-eating and hoofed animals with which the continent abounds. no native cattle graze in the fertile nor wild goats find a fastness on the mountain The elephant.>ne would expect. The whole of the cat tribe is reprelike sented by a single specimen — the fossa — it. not . Long severance the mainland i not at all simple. in fact. The Malagasy people have more in common with the Malayans than the Africans. >f similar animate lands now a strong indi and therefore som raphers I have supposed that a large continent. to which ie nai! once stretched righl the Indian thai ( the Mala} Peninsula. valleys. and one would have to look in vain for many of the birds which breed abundantly the opposite shore.A Natural G Remarkable though stranger still hy. and entirely confined to of this The explanation fauna connection with the British pointed out how isolation on islands tends to m impoverished and peculiar fauna. nor hope to see the zebra on the plains. the hippopotamus. In [sles it has already been is fi i may in this case fully having gone so far this much is clear bul unexpected difficulty appears when it is seen that the nearest relations of many of the animals are found. are quite unknown. the all antelope and the lion. very slender. the large flesh-eating. an enormous weasel. top. with a body over a yard long. life 191 he. in Owing to the which f most animals find | crossing wide bhey water.

Ecuador. but modern research has made such an explanation unnecessary. unlike that of the British Isles. from the effects of the north-east Trades in the northern hemisphere and the south-east Trades in the southern hemisphere. Along the west coast. the Panama mountains the made to pierce . with a somewhat similat climate. These lands include Central America between the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Panama Isthmus. We may its therefore consider is. many of which are but little government is not all that could be desired. The Monsoon Lands of America. the West Indies and the plateaus. by canals. and south-eastern Brazil The winters are very dry and moderately warm. two great sections the American Continent are joined by a great neck Central America^ —The of of land of irregular shape. occurring in Europe and even America. but most remote antiquity. of Colombia. of the was an event not of yesterday. but in view of its peculiar fauna one must believe separation from the mainland. Fossil forms of recent discovery prove that formerly lemurs had a much wider distribution. but for some unknown reason have nowhere been able to hold their own save in the isolated Malay Peninsula and the ancient forests of this vast island. divided into a States. that a piece land which once formed part of the adjoining conti- nent that . except on the higher parts and the summers are hot and wet. stretch the line of mountains connecting the number of political known and whose Eocky Mountains with the Andes and there is no doubt that it is these which have interfered so greatly with the Two attempts have been opening up of the region.192 tional Env i ro nmen t credence to this theory. Madaof gascar to be a continental island.

Extreme. Ci. Bi. fall. E. Cool Temperate. /*Bah. Temperate.mf c^t afr^r \ I *M*r\ ***•%. Lands. [To face j. Rainy. Semi- Extreme Plateau. B. 6. Femi-Tropical Plateau. Ai. Cold Winters. 19Z.o J I30 -1 Wf} |/3f \0CEAfJ -V" - VT . Equable. ~ /—.— ^ 10 80 70 60 50 40 1 / LATLA f£TIC_ QCEA V f^X^S-' e- ^'EfA i 10 kz/uT Is ^7T J < \\PERI.so / 00 — y~ \ -4o \ 50 r' * •Of? 7 Falkland Islands aggllan I / / ~50 \ \ \ / 60 50 / 90 / 30 90 1 80 70 Thk Natural Begions of South America. Low Rain- Monsoon Tropical. Low Raiutall. Cold. KEY: A. Equatorial Lowlands. Warm D. ink GEN " \v\ClF$C 20 G ISOS . Desert. J. . Plateau. Winter Rains. Interior Lowlands. I. Equable.

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S. Towns. rubber. in Btraggling fashion.A. de Lesseps the constructor of the Suez Canal. while silver and other minerals have been produced from the time of its est — The northern of Tehuantepec sheep and goa occupation by the Spaniards. The chief productions of Central America are sugar. Government. The — — — unhealthiness i of the swamps and difficulties forests. part of the plateau in the rea Isthmus hora numbers of cattle. maize. and the canal will probably be open for traffic in 1914. tobacco. The Panama route partially complet J by the French engineer. —There dev< are naturally few important tow it in this region.A Natural Geography. but the work has now been undertaken by the U. and other tropical growths. both of which failed at the first attempt. cacao. which is perhaps the greatest foe of enterprise in this 'ii. the Most of the towns are built adobe and in the Spanish bouses of the better class usually inc ntral courtyard. For fifty year-. often of Btyle. and it is said that the risk has now become very smalL floods and financial 1 Productions. was through a region of soft rocks. . but this lias frequently 1> sen in danger from the flooding of rivers in the heavy rains of the wet seasons. although is i> ssible that i Colon Panama may 1 of the opening between them. rice. commerce between the two oceans has been aided by a railway across the Panama Isthmus. bananas. 193 Canal and the Nicaraguan Canal. together brought the work porarily to a close. towards the low divide three hundred feet in height which barred the way to the Pacific. Much money has expended in the contest against yellow fever.

arid subject to fearful hurricanes and frequent outbursts of volcanic All the islands force. In many of the islands the cotton-growing industry has been re-introduced and is beginning to flourish. coast and climate are excellent and make it a useful possession. Hispaniola has immense forests and but for a weak independent government might develop some very fine agricultural lands. tempered in some degree by oceanic influence. capital. Cuba is the largest island. although in common with that of the whole group of islands its sugar trade has declined very much since the freeing of the slaves brought about a difficulty in obtaining labour iron ore is mined in the mountains.194 Environment : The West divided into Indies. which are The Greater Antilles stretch to the east from the Yucatan Peninsula and contain Cuba Jamaica. . the of Spain. of the being more mainland. South-east of these lie the Lesser Antilles. HaYana. until lately in the hands independent republic under It has fine tropical forests and grows tobacco and sugar very largely. but of the The vegetation is exceptionally same type as that rich. even the swamps producing Porto Rico. moist climate. s have a hot. The whole island is utilised. and north-west these latter are continued in the Bahamas. lie —Across the the Caribbean Sea from Central America several groups. Haiti or Hispaniola and Porto Rico. The native Indian race appears to have become extinct under the sometimes cruel oppression of the European immigrants. United States. but now owned an the protection of the United States. belonging to the excellent rice crops while the island is not deficient in . Its soil. is well situated on the routes to the Peninsulas of Yucatan and Florida. was formerly a Spanish penal settlement. West Indies. profuse.

d like stepping to 3 in a graceful curve from ezuela is the peninsulas of ider thai Florida and Yucatan. and is owing the variety of its urces a known product. as yet undeveloped. which stands on a somewhat shallow harbour. Sanitary precautions and has been too prevalent. etc. plantations worked by slaves have begun to fall to ite. Jamaica has on its a central mass of mountains. . Near the island Lies the smaller one of Tobago. hut where yellow at.. on a harbour of the south where the rainfall is lowest. ting through its name having been given to a world-wide Luxury tobac West Indian Islands one q Looking at a map of the aot help being impressed with the fact that they — . -per under the progressive United States' rule. draii e now greatly improving the health is of the city. Islari Trinidad not the hottest of the West Indian to unhealthy. the thai 1 • this arrangement accidental. with suffi- cient rainfall to keep the land constantly green. maize. obtained of the island. the chief export. Asphalt is its wellprosperous colony. 195 It bids fair mineral wealth. owing to the difficulties of the labour problem. e mountain summits. but the great depth . while oranges. from the Pitch Lake in the Jt^ capital is Port of Spain. there being these islands represent but summits of a now submerged range of mountains wo American continents. Kingston is the capital. The once immense si. are exported in large quantities. charts used to of incidenc depict in 1 Antilles still which the name aland called Antiglia. bo remind us. nutmegs..1 Natural Geography. although of late years the importation of Indian and Bananas form Chinese coolies has been commenced.

pigeons and humming birds. when for a space the . and the musk-rat. plumage.196 of the sea is itself Environment'. such as parrots. are unknown in South America and the rodents doubtless owe their survival to the astounding rapidity with which their numbers increase. the extinction of the of clearing the ground by setting woods and forests. it islands should enjoy an abundance of birds unknown to the mainland. so called from the odour of its fur. strange to say. restricted many forms of bird life to the narrow limits They include many of brilliant of this archipelago. much used in the lining of cloaks. making it partake so much of the character of oceanic islands that no other region on earth to — which nature has besn otherwise so kind suffers from such a scarcity of the higher forms of animal life. carnivorous animals was. Seeing that they are possessed of such exceptional seems strange that the facilities for locomotion. Amongst the latter is the agouti. one factor in the preservation of the insect-eating animals which. still remain. As regards these. all the larger animals have disappeared. perhaps. Long insularity has produced a few peculiar forms. This extinction has indeed been aided by the settlers' practice fire to the primeval the Virgin Islands having suffered Only two orders of animals particularly in this way. This fact has had the greatest effect on the fauna of the archipelago. The fondness which these creatures are known to betray toward their old haunts has. The Fauna of the West Indies. As one might expect from the long isolation. . the smaller forms which still survive bearing a resemblance to those of the southern continent. combined nature cease to oppress them. such as the tailless rat forces of man and of Cuba. sufficient to prove that the depression of the mountain chain must have occurred in an age extremely remote. however. a pig-like form.

possessing more species fireti than It all the rest of America. silver. Communication is difficult and this 000 lerably retarded development. in respect of land-shells. The L97 characteristic dearth of the higher animals cannot be said to apply to the lower forms. may be interesting to observe that the local being collected in considerable numbers in glass botth -. the West Indies are the most productive area in the world.500 feet above the with a fresh and sunny climate all the year round. situated H. the western coast Lands are low and swan but cooled by the northward flow of a cool oc cunvnt and the Caribbean Sea coast which was (iuli Stream is hotter than the Pacific although by iii" further from the equator. capital is . Monsoon Lands Colombia. part of large the country is mountainous and although it lies round the equatori temperate products grow at an elevation of about feet. Coffee and tobacco are the chief exports but other crops are cinchona. this fact probably acco: 'J 1 t 1 ing for the position of this settlement. The largest river is the Ma^dalena. The tropical climate which all the islands save the northern Bahamas enjoy has largely encouraged reptilian life. the triple mountain chain of the Andes is lofty and cool. The temperature zones of Colombia are four in number. rubber. while platinum. Bogota. and is fairly elevated.A Natural Geography. \ of South America. being abundant. boas and adders innumerable. lizards and scorpions Further. and gold are mined and orchid much sought for. The — . containing river valleys and high level plateaus. cocoa and maize. are used as lanterns by the poorer class of natives. which into the Caribbean Sea and is navigable for five hundre miles to the town of Honda. The eastward slope of the Andes is hot.

also breeds large numbers of cattle.Eastern Brazil.198 Environment : and often scarcely wide enough for mules to pass each other. pure air and cool temperature keep the city healthy. The montana or eastern forested slopes of the mountains are very vegetation everywhere plentiful and densely clothed with trees. and the wide open tablelands of the interior are wooded and These highless fertile than the lowlands and valleys. such as the making of Panama hats is done.— The portion of Brazil not included in the Amazon Basin is a tableland. pine-apple groves and flower gardens of brilliant hues. while the western slopes grow palms. who are very sure- footed. cut The bv several long rivers draining to the Atlantic. the position of its capital. abundant and the soil fertile. A little manufacturing of various kinds. sugar plantations. very healthy. ridges of the plateau are highest near the coast. Santos is the port for a great coffee-growing region on the other side of the coast range. very good ports on the coast. Quito stands nine thousand feet above the sea. cocoa-nuts. so that if communication were easier agriculture would prosper. Quito. is Sao Paulo stands high up and although one of the oldest towns of Brazil. centred round Sao This district Paulo. or rather. South. so that travellers across the mountains are carried in chairs on the backs of Indians. lands are called Campos. bananas. on the equator. Ecuador* The rainfall is is receives its name from its position. and its There are several stoep slopes closely border the coast. and is a typically dirty and ill-kept Spanish town. while religious houses are very numerous. on a tributary of the Eiver Parana. but the clear. The coastal range is called the Sierra de Mar. and it has many .

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s P o PC (3 w a H Q w o « a ft « .

c ttlements populated region the to high grassy a compos a of Central Brazil. for the town itself has badly-laid streets and many evil odours. thrived on the proc and on ruined. The nice is a mile wide and is strongly fortified. so that lev olera. for it has been found that this practice was having quite a parching effect on the climate. It has a long. etc.J Natural Geography. coal. winding some distance inland. silent illustration of the i fortunately the beauty of the city is only apparent from a distance. often d i boundaries of Brazil require Ij afford and the larger army than Brazil can n this has prevented her from expending more on her commercial development. land-locked harbour. changing 'M. its abolition was nearly Lcted 2 However. Ted pie. while its inhabitants are a motley throng. has Innd. Another factor wh a progress <-an in is the nature of the who always dirl find enough to live upon. Rio de Janeiro is a world-famous city on account of beauty of its situation. now not so prevalent.. An the almost unequalled power of vegetation to a' the climate is shown by a law which forbids the cutting down of trees. hut It city of is narrow streets and evil its harbour the most spacious of Brazil. The trade with Santos is by rail. Bahia is another smells. and cutting into the coast range which surrounds the hay with splendid peaks and rugged heights. : ion of Improvements are now being ma fine modern buildings and le both in the in improved sanitary arrangements. its it excellent harbour has \ produi much commerce and less exp Behind the of t diamon is a and swamps. and and ignore bhemse . fine buildings 199 and is a railway centre of importance.

bear a marked resemblance to those Palms and other tropical trees nourish in of India. being mainly Chinese. Western Australia. The Northern Territory of South Australia. through inter-marriage between is to the Blacks and the Chinese or other foreign settlers. —This is the most populous part of the region. sugar-cane cultivation. while gold is a good sheep and be found in the Kimberley division. South Australia and Queensland lie within the tropics and receive monsoon winds with Tha vegetation near the coast heavy summer rains. The chief town is Palmerston. The population is largely a mixed one. —This district is not so it rich in vegetation as the rest of the region. is rich swamps and jungles with dense undergrowths of ferns and creepers. . very great in summer. as the. North Australia. . Queensland. infested with snakes and a huge variety of birds.200 Environment : Monsoon Lands of Australia. and even in the dry season the dew is so heavy that men strip to wade through the long. and mining. favoured parts of and no doubt. as it fulfils many of the requirements. — The the moist. a small settlement and terminus of The area might the overland telegraph to Adelaide. maize and The rainfall is fruit-growing are all thriving industries. which is waist-high. Northern portions of West Australia. hot climate. possibly be cultivated for cotton-growing. but cattle-rearing area. grass.more the continent become more thickly peopled and developed. greater attention will be paid to this northern district. —The shores are here bold and rugged and the inhabitants few in number.

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opposite a break in the Great Barrier Reef. The gaps are most numerous in the south. Between the Barrier and the mainland the water is calm Pearls and as the reef forms a natural breakwater.A Natural Geography. and it exports grain. collected by Chinese are and natives from the trepang reef. or Bcchc de Mer. bold and rugged. and are due to the fresh water of the riv which is unfavourable to the growth of the coral polypes. Trepang. TownsYille. which the natives The mountains are here quite live quite undisturbed. . is a kind of smoked or sun-dried sea-slug shaped like a cucumber. much eaten by the Chinese people. gold and other minerals. is the chief town. Cape Yorke is a wild region in The Great Barrier Reef is a series of coral reefs extending for over thirteen hundred miles along the coast of Queensland. differing from those further south.

Equable Hot Lowlands. . upon which a population equal to that of this Europe could be supported.CHAPTER III. many towns are scourged by yellow fever and the numerous swamps are the homes of malaria and a°ue. while iron found in parts of the Country. by well wooded streams. and known as campos. the country receives a copious rainfall all through the year that of the upper Amazon being exceptionally heavy. Not only can region produce abundant food stuffs but it is along with the rest of Brazil. especially — between December and May. Since Brazil receives either the wet south-east or the equally wet north-east trade winds according to the season and since the Amazon itself lies in close proximity to the Doldrums. r>recious in all stones and metals. The latitude makes the climate warm and the rainfall makes it equable. usually furrowed could be developed into very profitable grazing grounds and agricultural areas. are bracing and healthy and vary between stoniness and great fertility. or Zone of Equatorial rains. while rheumatism and general all weakness is encouraged by the damp heat in parts of the country. The Amazon Basin. As it is. is exceptionally rich. They The elevated lands. and the country could be made fairly healthy if better sanitary measures were taken and more money could be spared.

The in difference in their surroundings is chiefly shown Almost the character of the bark. etc. while kinds abound. sugar. with the well-known Brazil nuts. including bananas. and while it is two f<>r thoUSSJD fOT ocean Vessels I normally a mi. except fine for man to hold in check. but everywhere the trees are gigantic and no brushwood is to be found. for distinct differences —The may be noted according to position and surrounding. and Beldo 11 remain long in one place. Natural Geography. mile-. The banana forms the chief food of the native Indians. who often live on boats in the streams and swamps. such as coffee. The influence of the environment is clearly marked on the vegetation of the forest lands. and the combined effects of heat and moisture cause an abundance of vegetable life. The Amazon. or more than one-third of all South A basin comprises the northern two-thirds of Brazil The river i> naviga and the northern half of Bolivia. 203 huge northern lowland is covered with mattas or dense forests. One Btufifs of the reasons why Brazil produces so little food and imports so much wheat from the Un s that the cultivated soil is occupied in the production of ma. tobacco.A Vegetation. too pro- The vegetation of Brazil. pine-apples. on the loftiest mountains and on the stony parts of the campos. robber. gently merging into the campos of the higher lands further south. rice. mangos and melons. every kind of useful fruits of all wood is grown in the forests. is luxuriant <>nd description. cotton. in !• mil receive^ enormous The i drained by this vast river system -the largest in the world is not less than two and a half million square — miles. The River Amazon — flowing as it does close to • and almost parallel with the equator tor the is part of its course nearly four thousand miles tributaries. dials for foreign markets. in I 10I0 .

at the junction of the Eio Negro and the Amazon has . while the coast is surf-bound.204 Environment surrounding country is under water. It was a place of refuge for liberated slaves. near the estuary exports forest products. dusty Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara. Liberia is also a freed-slave colony. The Guinea Coast The Guinea Coast is . gums. which also create much fear of the supernatural and give rise to many superstitious customs. so that small clans frequently attack each other under cover of the dark forests. as the wet south-east trades are drawn across the equator by the heat of Africa. then higher to lands that are still covered with forests. a typical equatorial forest area. but merge into swamps and forests. . and the descendants of these are settled here and on the neighbouring coast. which name commemorates the reason for which the colony was formed. No united existence is possible to the tribes that inhabit this region. There are few towns in the basin and none of any great importance. for the forests are dense and the streams unhealthy. The coast various states. Sierra Leone United States and given independence. the rainfall is heavy. Thsse waters are kept from flowing into the Eiver Orinoco on the north by a low divide. and Manaos. although Para. The climate is hot at all seasons. outnumber the Indians. rubber. The chief products of the region are palm-oil and kernels. most difficult of access. The shores are low and sandy. districts have lately become divided into has a good port and harbour in Freetown. ivory. and except from October to January. gold from the Gold Coast. and of late European immigration has been great. when the dry. formed by the. a similar The population of Brazil is very mixed Negroes trade.

and its banks are thickly mlated by negros. Their . Some of the forests are nnmei and the thickest of them. l!00 etc. Cotton growing has recently been established on a commercial basis in Nigeria and along the Gold Coast. The animal inhabitants are numerous and while the lion and giraffe are not found. bounded by low plateau edges Basin from those of which separate the the Zambesi and the Nile from Lake Chad and the Niger. Lagos is an important commercial town on the SlaYe Coast.1 Natural Geography . The coast rises to a plain some fifteen hundred feet high. Its climate is hot and moist and is unhealthy for Europeans. and rapids whicb bar continuous traffic. of dense high forests lie i terns and all weeds four teet and roofed is foliage that shuts out little Bunlight. the ape and the gorilla are seen in large numbers. while rice and nuts are considerably grown for food latter for and the oils. It is finely Hundreds of milesituated among rocky heights. is seventy miles up stream and is the head of navigation for ocean vessels. but e aze over twenty millions of the black inhabitants. Boma. falls Congo hut for the — — \ flowing 3. many of whom are canniba my of the tributaries are huge and belong to France. am bush. which hopes in time to develop by their means a and useful territory. The Congo Basin and Coast. The Congo Coast is is feverish and full of jungles reached by rivers from the higher interior.. race. Most of the Congo Basin is the Congo Free State. witli the tributary Aruwimi the are navigable. the home o dwarfed over in height. which is really a Belgian dependency. the capital. The rainfall heavy and the forests are kept wet and luxuriant all the year round..

206 stunted size is Environment due to their dank and dismal environment and their fear of cannibals causes them to be very They can afraid of coming into contact with strangers. These dwarf races are commonly known as Pigmies. v . The Malay Peninsula has a central boss of mountains rising from swampy mangrove coasts and alluvial plains. baskets. and who use the poisoned arrow and the blow-pipe as their chief weapons. thus attracting much commerce. The land is joined by a narrow neck to the mainland. The Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. The jungles of the interior are still inhabited by tribes not unlike the Pigmies of Central Africa in their stunted size and monkey-like habits. etc. but Chinese settlers carry on many industries. sticks. Malays are the most prominent in numbers. Singapore stands on an island at the southern ex- not only a British Naval Station and the capital of the Straits Settlements. but is made bearable by ocean breezes bringing frequent showers almost every tremity. and it shows characteristics similar to those of the mainland and of the islands of the Archipelago on the south. and it is a picturesque sight to observe the Malays in open avenues of palms making canes. while the ease with which the country is reached by sea attracts numbers and Europeans. The climate is hot and equable. The native settlements make a blaze of colour. but is a free port where such are rare. besides Armenians solid dwellings of these latter contrast strangely with the pile dwellings of the Malays on the edge of the jungles. and the more of immigrants from India. flit about the trees like monkeys and will frequently follow a stranger for days and attempt to shoot him with their poisoned arrows and darts. and is day.

I This lower north of t while the ho m >untain harrier has winter rains. The people are lazy. silent and temperate. known as Wallaces Line.A Natural GeogravJuj. and the whole island . a short crooked sword. to those of tort the lips The games are similar the Siamese. but it is now Indian Archipelago. Sumatra. The reason for his elevated pile dwellings— reached by ladder — is the necessity for avoiding the swampy ground. IS drained by the . straight knife called a parang. which includes a long. and these are divided into two distinct of fauna and flora by the line passing through the Molucca Passage. The Malay race was cradled of —the stems of a variety in the mountain island J Sumatra. rid. together with a short. but very quick to take offence and thought found throughout the by many to be cruel and treacherous. The : Islands. often infested with noxious animals. its adjacent islands bear many is to in I Australia. A peculiar feature of Malay life the police equipment. — and Celebes. and New Guinea the md B north and centre of the island are mountainous. —The islands of the East Indian Archipelago are countless in number. and like them the people disby chewing the betel-nut.inner Ply rains River. -"< by catting and twisting rattans of palm tree. The chief weapons are the kris. who thus often hurt or kill many is — in their momentary madness. New Guinea and imblances lire. and contain sev< very large ones chiefly New Guinea. Borneo. ins. forked stick for the purpose of pinning to the wall any who should " run amok " a common event among the brooding Malays. ping towards Torres Strait in the south.

while mineral wealth and timber is abundant. and as a natural consequence the people are divided into small tribes. {Malay houses are often similar. The forests. .208 Environment interior is undeveloped because of the heavy while even the mountains are covered with vegetation. 20. but still undeveloped owing to the bad means of communication. Fig. Tree House. where cannibalism and other barbarous practices are indulged. New Guinea.) i Pearls and trepang are obtained from the sea.

_ cd d Q a a. 2« s H <._." 6 I - • .S'3 J _ si M .

.

but disturbed by squalls thunder-storms. The numerous islands of which Guinea forms the bulk are called Melanesia. bananas. The Northern Islands. noticeable feature of the costume is the enormous plaited hat which serves as both headgear and umbrella. Across these the winds blow with ilarity and thus navigation has always been easy and the peoples are sailor races. with a soil. Sumatra lies on either side of the Hquator with tne volcanic a great its heavy rains and considerable elevation. nuts. nose and breasts are decorated with shells. forest lands which . New and tobacco. while the body is often tattooed. in of the islands. They are fond of dancing and noisy music. sugar. the hair being trained like a mop. coffee. 209 mostly built on piles or trees the roofs being frequently ornamented by shells and the skulls of slain enemies they are thus protected in a measure from marauding tribes. an under an English ruler is situated on lowlands its name is Sarawak.A Natural The houses Geography. or in grasses hung round the They are very waist. — Most of these islands present high fronts to the oceans and low shores to the shallow inland seas. while they are daring and adventurous on the sea oread-fruit in their light canoes. Their chief productions are nuts. sheltered by a large island. and the ears. sugar-cane. and the best port is Surabaya. others dress in bark softened by chewing. bones. In the centres are placed. and cereals are grown. is the most productive of the islands. of the people are — — Many of the people wear no clothes. and teeth. usual equatorial climate. food produce is easily obtained o and . state — Java fertile. live conquered races that have frequently intermarried with their Lent river In the north of Borneo. wild beasts and tloo is. mountainous visitors. products due to range of Rubber. quinine. fond of ornament and decoration. A.

The island is rich in vegetable and mineral products. They are a remarkable race who have high central morals.210 hence the people are the island is noted camphor. although European influence is gradually making itself felt among them. while pepper. obviously introduced by their long and constant connection with the surrounding seas. Thus. : Much its timber abounds. but few pure blooded ones remain. for black gums and as in other The islands rich mineral products are worked here by the Chinese. they have long been a source of danger to travellers and to other tribes. The natives are Dyaks. are truthful and industrious. swamps and river deltas. of — . none being more pronounced than that of the wise rulsr of Sarawak Eajah Brooke. but have the custom head-hunting as a means of proving their manhood. with a mass of mountains surrounded by wide coast plains of forests. The influence of environment on the language of the peoples of these islands is most clearly shown by the immense number of sea-faring terms. - Borneo is second only to New Guinea in size. Environment lazy.

and the effect of the is verj not form of the Bolivian Indians. of Peru and Bolivia comprise the region and their The nearness to the equator so neutralises their altitude that cultivation of the soil is possible to a height of ten thou- and trees will grow well thousand feet higher than this. and their chests an ihorl big. With the exception of Tibet. day are experienced. for its valleys are rich in tropical produce. thai of the sand feet. all volcanic in structure. 1 who livi an altitude of 11. Their cular. In Colombia. two convi Peru and Bolivia arc plateau formations. The whole region would without doubt beo. there are three •is of the Andes.000 feet. lie all the highlands of the tropical area in the cordilleras of the little Andes. while m Ecuador the chains have 'Ho main ridges. Highlands of Ecuador and Colombia. importance to trade were it not for the difficulty of communication.CHAPTER IV. besides the coastal range. Tropical and Semi-Tropical Highlands. its minerals are valuable and it is near the rich rubber-producing area of the Upper Amazon. and very South American can be said concerning them. 1 and environment and the rare atmosphere in the physical Great extremes of night g the largest in the Andes. and very containing .

when brought to a lower level they become subject to illness and often perish. The northern portion practically uninhabited. while the winters are bitterly cold and severe. ranging from barren. The summers are hot and scorching. yaks. rudely built of mud or bamboo. Tibetan Plateau but the high arid area crossed by the Tarim Eiver between the Kwen Lun Mountains and the Thian Shan Range and the dry lower plateau betwesn the latter range and the Altai Mountains. copper. and the liberated negro slaves who have settled in the country are a menace to safety even in broad daylight.212 Environment like distended bellows. with fiatroofed houses. The scenery in Peru is most varied. and near it on a dry plain lies the capital. . Many of these valleys are irrigated and yield some cereals and a few fruits. goats. gold and coal are enormous. and it was these riches which lifted Spain its rivers crowned peaks. The rainfall is scanty and while in summer there are vast stretches of shifting sand. although there is no external trade carried on at The people are chiefly herdsmen. but are similar in some respects. The chief port is Callao. Lima. These high plateaus lie further from the Equator than the corresponding regions in South America. while to the forefront of the nations in the fifteenth century. —The includes not only Tibet itself. and it name of was from this vast wealth that Bolivia received El Dorado " The Golden." — its The Tibetan Plateau. rearing flocks of all. with an excellent harbour and busy manufactures. but Southern Tibet has valleys and plains where population is settled. horses and mules. great areas of the higher regions are covered with snow and form the is headquarters of huge glaciers. The mineral deposits of silver. and the yak is the chief beast of burden. desert-like stretches to rich valleys and snow- and lakes are very large. Misgovernment is everywhere apparent.

and the food chiefly consists of mutton. >ome streams supply sufficient water to support only one or families. the capital and sole The city has been kept important town of the country. Gobi Desert and the Sin Ling Mountains. and these are naturally subject to raids from wandering robbers. Their Grand Lama. On the south. which also serves as a rain screen and gives to Tibet its dry climate. and is the chief stronghold of Buddhism. yak beef. chiefly at few settlements hi Kashgar and Yarkand. for only in large social communities that such intercom can be obtain- ill promote intellig . and so there is no need to wonder that this country is one trated there. of the oasis determines the size of the community. The Tibetans their country chief ruler is are noted for their religious fervour. a In Eastern Turkestan in the south. China is cut off by the Kwen Lun Mountains. whereas at Kashgar the oasis supports more than sixty thousand people. and he is worshipped as a god in his temple at Lhasa. of the least known in all the world. communication with India is forbidden nv the impassable barrier of the lofty Himalayas. and difficulty it is only with great and danger that some few foreigners have peneThe houses are dirty. barley soup and tea. ccording to the size of the community. which are starting points for the caravan routes across Here the size the high Pamirs into Russian Turkestan. and it is noticeable that the intellectual Btrength of the pe >ple is been made small or .A Natural Geography. which which is drunk almost all day long. called the a mystery to the outer world.

cotton and many fruits. New Life in the Islands of the Pacific.CHAPTER V. the largest and most mountainous the whole group of islands. Animal — has never been connected with any great land mass and as such oceanic islands never possess any of the higher forms of animal life. The vast archipelago which has earned the name of Polynesia. very natural. these creatures having secured a world-wide distribution by clinging to . while the more fertile ones produce sugar. The means of dispersion which have served to clothe the islands with a rich vegetation. Only the land-shells are abundant. rice. have been quite incapable of performing the same service to animals. the climate is the most equable on the surface of the globe. despite its great extent and genial climate. The best known islands are the Fiji Group the Sandwich Islands — now called the Hawaiian Group — containing the port of Honolulu. — . we have here. coffee. The The Islands of the Pacific Ocean. being mainly either of volcanic or coral origin. Cocoanuts are produced on the coral islands. the poorest animal region in the world. many are the result ot all seasons it is heaviest in summer. mostly in the tropical portion of the Western Pacific Ocean. the island home of a famous writer Eobert Louis Stephenson . and of Caledonia. and while most of them are Pacific Islands lie made As at volcanic action. Samoa. and while the rainfall occurs is of coral.

where} during unmolested by man. and as t lie four or dands are separated from each five larg other by swift currents flowing through deep chan: On nearing come to the 7 a species unknown all to the rest. though it is unknown by what means they have reached their present abode. six hundred miles v. however. never having been connected either with South America or even with each other show the influence of isolation better than any other such group on the Here have been preserved the peculiar gigantic globe. The lizards. Considering how great a variety of bird life obtains elsewhere. but their numbers rapidly diminish toward the east and cease This fact would point to altogether east of Samoa. Insects too are scarce. peculiarity. of Ecuador. to which country they belong. we Galapagos Islands. The smaller reptiles. tortoises to which the islands owe their name. the like in ind nearly the birds exhibit a far time Btorm or other accident h Tied tfa i'ijiii the South American coast. a violent . Even the birds seem to have little fondness for this waste of waters. No doubt at some distant . they ha develo] iliar forms in accordance with the varied conditions their new environment imposed upon them. Avuifs 215 broken from the shore and carried by marine currents and winds far from their original home.A Natural Geography. such as lizards and snakes are more numerous than could be expected. the existence of but a hundred and of five thousand miles shows fi ty species over a space how great is the scarcity of animal life. their coming from the Old World mass. These islands. the American continent.

how in the case of Leeds. We have already seen. the means of being easily defended. Many towns therefore originated because of these reasons.APPENDIX. their importance and even their origin have been affected by the various features of their environment. Paris and several other towns. Now. Birmingham. in dealing with North-west Europe. when under primi- men were scattered over a country in groups or communities. some would be more favourably situated than others and the communities would thus strive one against the other for possession of the better This would lead to the selection of sites situations. Men are by nature fond of the companionship of their fellows and where food is plentiful will tend to associate together into communities. there are usually several others which clear that bear considerable influence. This should make it towns and villages do not spring up without cause or reason and that although one or two factors may predominate. -*- The influence of Environment of is very clearly shown in the origin and development easily possible for us to trace the causes to towns and it is often which their growth is due. possessing amongst other advantages. . tive conditions. Causes of the Origin and Development of Towns.

such as the advancement of learning. those founded for religious purposes. however. for example. have Bprnng up for reasons quite unconnected with any hese. animal or vegetable. bringing with them new ideas. amongst which would be the knowledge that certain natural productions. possessed a greater value elsewhere than in the region where they were found. those situated in specially healthy or beautiful surroundings. together with illustrative examples. This would to barter and naturally to the growth of towns . some towns which their origin. as. or those designed for some special purpose. whether it be climate .Natural Geography. To one or more of the above reasons most towns owe There are.an important the land or any oth< of of develops Below will be found a list containing a summary the causes to which the origin and development of toare due. and to such places would come adventurers from other districts and other lands. environment. All communities or towns develop in size and importance according as their environment is well suited to the special nature of the occupations carried and every feature or structure of pari in such on there or no. where this could be most easily carried on. 217 Other communities would live where communication was easy. . mineral. especially by water.

(c) At the lowest point for bridging or where the the banks of nature facilitates London. Pontefract (Latin. Aswan 4. Confluens). Chief Causes of the Development of I. Mannheim. 2. Fishguard. Liverpool. a bridge). (c) Teddmgton(Tide-e?idtoivri). Paris. London. tion for smaller of 3. York. Barrow. Halifax. [Nile Cataract) Meeting Place (a) of Trade Routes. Swansea. Burton. (c) the leeward side of Islands and Promontories. Sydney. On good On Harbours. two Reading. John. St. Paris. . Berne. Peterborough. Newcastle. Examples. Towns. Buffalo [Niagara bridging. Towns on Navigable (a) Rivers. Hamburg. River Ports. Lisbon. (A) Exchange of Commodities. Coblentz (Latin. — Berlin and Manchester. (a) At the highest point of the tide. Falls). (d) Where falls or rapids impede navigation. (a) At the (b) mouths of Kivers. Prague. Goole. Oxford. Trade. Magdeburg. Bordeaux. Adelaide. (b) At a bend on the course of a river. some Capitals of Europe. Savannah. Seaports. Central Position Crossing Place of Roads. Southampton. Orleans. Calcutta. Bridgnorth. Montreal.218 Environment. 1. Cambridge. Hamburg. Montreal. of At the junction streams. Holyhead. Pons. At the head navigaSteamers. Paris. (b) At the head of navigation for Ocean Steamers.

II. the foot Turin. Where raw material is produced or mined. ' . and Coal). P 1 - Tourist Cluny. Namur. Coal and Waterway). Ripon. Other Circumstances than Trade or Defence. Sheerness. 1 Defence. C ' irlisle. 2. Nantwich (Salt). and Coal). Aden. 3. MIII. 1. Biarrit Sim] Marienbad. Milan. Lee (b) In a Valley of a Pass. Alexandria. Kabul.oui:. Heligoland. L\ons (Mulben iet silk worms. Gibraltar. 2. J . Kabul. : . Lille. Pittsburg (Iron. Examples. ribraltar. Quebec. Forts Lafayette and fill for. Peterborough. Buxton. Religions Associal ion-. Chamonix. I '. — Caravan Peshawar. Middlesborough(iron) Blackburn (Climatr •_!.A I. terwick. Augusta (Cotton). Timbuktu (Sahara). Lawar. irnemouth. z. Dover. (c) Edge of Deserts Routes. Natural Geography. Wigan (Coal). On islands in of ri\ or at the mouths Hamilton (New 3 ) Towns commanding passes by laud or wal Harbour). at Examples. Watering Barrogate. ( I -i. [ealthy tain Mounconditions Sanatoria. (B) Production of Commodities. Pr mtier Towns. I iug rne. ( >ban. 1. Scutari. Jodhpur (Thar). Keswick. Where special facilities for manufacture exist. Examples. 219 Trade. Constantinople.

calms. earth and dung made into bricks and dried in the sun. Andes. It is Dyaks. Aye-Aye. Chinchilla. — An animal change the colour which can of its coat. Cordilleras. soft grey fur is used in the making of muffs. Adobe. so called from the cry of the animal. Escarpment. of the lizard kind — Chameleon.220 Environment. —The head-hunting races of Borneo and the face of ridges of of adjacent islands. GLOSSARY. . A good example is the steep slope the Cotswold Hills on to the Severn Valley. of —A mixture — Alluvium. Canons. They are usually found in rainless districts where the denuding of the sides of gorges by weather action is almost impossible. —A term given is The name sailor's Doldrums. Deep gorges between high and steep banks forming as it were great natural tubes. Earth and other matter deposited anywhere by the ordinary operations of water and usually forming a very fertile soil. — whose to the South American more correctly applied to the ragged or dome-like summits of these mountains. A small South American rodent. —A and is term for the tropical zones of caused by the rising of the trade winds a region of constant precipitation of rain. Fbhn Wind. —The steeper cliff-like hard rock. chopped straw. —The Swiss name for the warm southerly winds heated by compression through their own rapid descent of the mountains. —A rare animal of Madagascar.

generally from June to December. January and February. Guino. — An edible sea slug found in the Indian Or chiefly and much enjoyed by the Chinese. — The Moraine. — Ricksha or Jinricksha. Harmattan. and shipping. -Great rotatory storms canes thai visit of wind or hurri- the coasts of Southern China and They Japan. blowing from the great desert of Africa in December. (Horses are somewhat dangerous m the narrower streets. North America and New Zealand. Australia passing through the Mo! Line of separation between the faunas of the — two continental areas and it is named after the famous naturalisl who pointed out these different . Typhoons. li^iit I —A Tapir. A North American animal somewhat larger than the fox and resembling a badger. veranda round a South African house. ±11 —The name given to certain intermittent boil- ing springs or spouting fountains found in Iceland. of —The dung of birds or sea fowls found in beds of great thickness on certain islands off the coast South America. —A Japanese carriage drawn by a coolie. earth or all debris found at the edges and terminations of glacie. It is much valued as a manure. hot dry winds of Senegambia and Guinea. Trepang. — Accumulations of stone.A Natural Geography. often do great damage to property Wallaces Line. Geysers. They are generally made of cane an have rush blinds soaked with water to keep out the glare of the sun and to cool the atmosphere. great Racoon. The line of division between Asia It ige.) Stoep. —A quadruped of several species somewhat like a pig.

111-115 Californian Great Valley 111... 10* 69. 67. 220 . 52.198. 112. 91. 84. 152-154. Balkan Peninsula Balkash Lake Baltic Sea 103. 148. 61. 79 Midi du Canal 84 Cantabrian Mts 86 Canterbury Plain 48.. 158. 86. 100.. 49. 54... 171. 99. 211 Amazon R 80 Amur R . 202.. 28.. 183 175. 210. Angola Angora Goat Annam Anti-trade 184 149 177 Boers 150. 82. 166. 126. 148 Appalachian Mts. 156. 212 207.. 95. . 67. 184. 198. 202. 191. 69. 71. .. 83.73 62. 41. 168 Arabia Winds Borneo Bosphorus Boxers Brahmaputra Brazil 63 R 176 Arabian Sea Aral Sea 164. 91. 79 British Isles . 92. 220 107. 134. 50.. 22. Bavaria Beche de Mer (see Trepang) 157 72 160 170 108-111 52.. 73. 177-181 R Armenia Artificial Irrigation 159. 29... 160 Afghanistan Aire 2 17. 40.133 Canton R Cape Breton Island 59 . 22.65 85 . Gap Barbary States Bass Strait . Baluchistan Banfcus 47. 36. 95.. 171-173.. 108-111. 75.. 83. 142. 103. 183-188... 30-41. 100. 162. 143. 99-105 15ri. 79. 96. Belle Isle Strait 170 17. 71. 151 . 36. 54.. 117-124.INDEX.159 182. 52.... 192..... 159. 85... 40-44. 200. 148 94. 104 212 18. 73 Canadian Pacific Railway 60. 79. 80. Aurora Borealis Australia 14 198. 25. 203 9. 52.53. 40-44.. 201.108. . 45. Abyssinia Adige R.. 118. 167. 66-68. 28. 199. 96 Apennine Mts 159. Andes 45.. 211. 86.174 155 Brenner Pass Brisbane 192. 148. 91. 85... 106 Bulgaria 127. 108 Balkan Mts. 209. Gulf of 174 Campos Canada . 53 99 148. 88. 192 104. 48.. 164-167. 164. 167. 142...40.. 208. 220 109 90 Biwa Lake 137 Black Earth Region 71 Black Fellows . 182. 221 Bechuanaland Behring Strait Belgium .. 57. 48. 24. 115.83. 94. 84. 172. 186 Adobe Adriatic Sea. 191. 46. 58.. 94. 56. 40. 76 9. 151 Bohemia Bolan Pass Bolivia 85 161 171. 90. 103.. 115 . 153 23. 104. 45. 95. Altai Mts 198. 204-206 155. 182. 12. 207 Australian Animal Life . 79.64. 142. 108 . 98 163.. 177 Burmah Galedon R 151 R Aswan Dam Atlantic Ocean Atlas 75 166 California 82. 84. 197.109 Algeria 142 Alleghany Mts Alps 8(5.. 22-28. 204. 115.. 157 . 164. 211. 116. 63. 166. 62. 13.. 56-61. 198 84. Argentina 62 13. 56. 110 Mts Cambay. 119 205 67. 83. 79. 160. 82. 201. 106-108 Blue Mts 152.Continental Railway Austria Aztecs • • •• 118 99 163 Canadian Eastern Highlands . Basutoland ...49 131.. 13. 178 . 106 . 203. 189 Australian Trans . 205 61 175.120-124. 83.202-204 99 Araucanian Indians Arctic Ocean 21. 25. 170. 73-76. 158 154 British Columbia 22.. 48. 200 Black Sea 66-68. 58. 47. Bay of Bengal Berbers Bay of Biscay Amuria Ancient Greece 62.206 Aruwimi R Asia Minor Asiatic Animal Life Assam Assiniboine • . iEgean Sea Africa . 79 Alaska 104 Albania 76 Alberta 190 Aldabra Islands 108.

160 207 91 177 165. 126.. 113. . 114. 116... 58 194... 82. .. . m 107 98 2 1 . 186. 213 Goflaveri R. 48 Cook Strait Corinth Canal Corinth.' 13. -2-2. 62. 32 BUI 21.....A. 82. 79.. loi-ii -I .. .211.. 15.. Erie Canal Kskinios arpathian Mts Cascade Range Caspian Sea Celebes Island Cevennes Mts Ceylon Chad Lake Cheviot Hills Chili . ... 142. .. 35 47 . 13. 69-72. ti. Gulf of . 35.. 141 . 173 21 2D2. 100.. Danube 1 R. Fens Fiji Islands . Chnrchill R 35. 81.51. 177. 183 .. l 19-19 -7 Earthquakes Bbro K. 91. Cape Colony e Horn Cape of Good Hope Cape to Cairo Railway i ( 223 95 144 37 15-19 47. 1 Galapagos Islands Lake Ganges R Garden of Canada . 186. 211 . 171 China ..'. 89... 181.. 169 22. 39.. 113. 45-17.72 .. • Don Pour i Efc. 137 60 ColoradoR Congo Free State Congo R Continental Shelf 162 162 205 184. i7<. 127.. 62 196 187 197 Bpsom Salts. 63. 201. .1 192. Harmattan Wind Hawaiian 212 I 204. 215 160 i7». 161.221 » . Bay of Galilee 22. 161 171 127 irakensberg Mts.. . 143- 117..22i) Gold Coast Golden Gate Golden Horn ozola Cheese Grampian Mis Grand Canal of China Great Barrier Reef Great Lakes of Canada Great Postal Road i- Ill.". .A Natural Geography. 205 31 Esparto Grass Euphrates R.161 181. 05. 27.205 21 47... 91 . 125 193. 31. Quint Gulf Drift i 18 : 18... 28.. 82.. 28.. 115-H7 Chili Saltp' tre 116. j 87.. 116. S2-84. 117. 197 R. . 64. 127-134. 66.. 33.. and R. Gulf of Corio B iv iwold Hills on Belt (U.. 108. 212. 141.. 30.. Great Sandy Di a . 188 305 .211 IIS 'ulorado Grand Caiion Colorado Plateau Fraser R Fuji-yama Mt. 206. . Fundy.. 80 Decline of Spain mark Dervishes Aniinai . 45. . 103 79 156. 159. . 55. 12. 195 Exploration 19 20. 156.197.. 135. I>avi. 136. 177.. 195... _-er Bank B una 166 172. . 195 . Strait of 178 90. 179..50. 2 '. 104. 64..S. 172. 61. >:. 815 l iana :. 63.. 128.. 130-132. 901 Fdhn Wind Formosa Forth . Cilician Gates 74 159 R St Foveaux France. 114. 37-30. 141. Garonne R Geneva Lake Genoa. I . 105 12 160 B ten Mines . Crete Crow's Nest Pass rus 220 146.. 170 Emelian Way . lght a Victoria Desert 117. 221 Finland Flinders Island Florida Pen 30..'. 140. I-. Clans Clyde R Cold Wall Colombia < 35 12. 4^. 99... 91-94.. 110 211) e ks 1 BS.. 41 135.Strait 1 1. 79. 117. 157 85 79 85 Gibraltar Gibraltar.218.) 1 102 103 190 12. 59 M 99 95 Germany Ghats 9. 210.. 200. .. 221 161.. 1-7 Eyre Lake 172 False Bay Fellaheen 126 167 .129. B Glaciers. 891 Chinese .

Hobson's Bay Holland Environment: 125 142 175. 80 83.. 138 Mongols 121.. 40. 51. Mekong R Melanesia 68. 15 14. 148.. 127. 204. 213 149 155 120 . 134-142 40 Japanese 15.. 81-105.. 143. 133 83 126 59 144 105 Libyan Desert Lions.. 40 11.85. 192. 200. 131 144 . 206.. 170 73. 130. 198.162 142. Meseta Mesopotamia Mexico Mexico. Kalahari Desert Kama R Kamchatka Peninsula Kanakas Kara Sea Karroos Kirghiz Country . 67. 99 144 57. Japan Current Japan Sea Java Jews Jinrickshas 145 101.. 85. 65. 200. 64.) 45. .145.. 122 Monotremes. 126. 159. (see Yellow R.. 100. 146. Sea Marsupials 83... Monsoon .. Iberia . 204 164 92 152 128 .224 Hawke Bay Heat and Cold Waves Himalaya Mts. 86-91. 17.147 91 .209 89... 83.. 127. 177 Indo-China Mackenzie R 74 Macquarie R.. 209 62-65.169 138.. Marmora.. 170.'.. 29. 107.93-99 James R Japan 15. 168.. 127. 207. Hong Kong Hottentots Horse Latitudes . Gulf of Mississippi R. 111. Malays Manchuria Indo-Gangetic Plain Indus R Irania 176 174. 207. Cap Iceland IkopaR Incas India . 74 IceAse Icebergs Ice 30 12. 186-192 Magdalena R 197 Malacca 182 Malay Archipelago 207-210 Malav Peninsula 182. 111 Mormons Morocco Kwen Lun Mts . 150. 174.. 212 174. 124.. 188. 127. 146-148.. 141. 213 Indian Ocean 174... 159 64.. 77.. 125. 109. 150.. 197. 207.. 102. 135. 161. 191..110. 102. 157 Missouri R.. 221 188 116 85. Gulf of Liverpool Range Loess Lombardy Plain Long Island . 164. 65. Labrador Current Lachlan R. 168 Khyber Pass Kicking Horse Pass Kiel Canal Kistna R Klondyke Kopjes Korea Kurile Islands Kuro Sivvo 155-157 161 79 29. 184.. 160..178 103 R of . Indians . 167. 183. Mont Cenis Tunnel Monte Carlo Montenegro Moors Moraine Morava R 99 94 105 89 30.26 87 159 76. 174-181. Levant Leveche Wind Liberia 9. 142... 174-176 180. . 152 17-19 17. 170 73 135 154 18 151. 160 50. 188 191.. 68.124 103 107 121. 220 Madagascar Animal Life.. Lapland Lapps Lee u win Cape (see Cold Wall). 115. 56. 131. 213 144 121.'. Hindoos Hindu Kush Mts. 182.. 184 . Hudson Bay Hudson R Hungary Hwang-ho R. . 122 189 203 IrawadiR Iron Gates Italy 176. 110. 126.... .. 194. 138-141 136.. Jordan R Jura Mts Jutland Peninsula Kaffirs . 169 91 29 '. 206. 70.221 42-47. 117. Mattas Mediterranean Region 23.22 Island . 95. 158. 186. 159 87. 192. 93. 176 Manchus Manhattan Island Maories Maritza . 110. 203. 19.. 183.. 211.. 56 176 79 151 .141. 64.. 182. 188-192. 161 132. 159... 194 Lumbering . 166.. 62.221 103 161 108. 137 .. 119 25. 142 135 135 212. 98. 221 Molucca Passage 93 Monaco Mongolia . 176 209 88. 158. 206. 175. 96 Lena R.. 187.. 96.221 207.. . Japanese Inland Sea Mascarene Islands... .51. 18 117 69." 161-163.... 152 Madagascar . 152 Mistral Wind Mohammedans Mohawke R. 64. 13. 221 Merino Wool Mersey R. 129. 184.

28. 69 Obi R Ocean Currents 186. 185. 127. lull 128 18..22-24. BO.. 108..211. 117. 157.. 157 Nelson R Niw Caledonia 74 214 IS3 61 907-210 47-52. 197. -7. Pindua Mt^ Pink and l: ida Mt-. 24. Port Phillip Poverty Bay Prairies cros 184.58.. Ru11.. 190. Gulf of Island enR Samoa Bamoyeddea sandwich Islands Sin Francisco Ray Joaqnin R iwak Sault Ste. 2 J. 79.28. 184i- Rhone R Rio de NileR. 73.A Natural Mount Dana Mount Egmont Mozambique Channel Murray R Murrumbidgee Natal ET< Geography. . Bohleawifr-Holstein 72.. 12.92 Plata (See Plate River) Rio Grande del Norte 162 la .114 .i . 212 76. . 146.. 1-. 33. 9M m-ii.204. lf| 2... Norsemen North American Animal Life Rio Negro Riviera Rocky Mts. 19. 167 25.. 211. 198 Highland! i::.91. 124-126.. LM L06 Pat .. 16. 79. tish 15H. 40. 214 Animal Life Island* . 84 184. 161 21 1. 16 16P 170 in 210 58 I can 78... 157 21. Sacramento R . 82.212 17) >-se .. 150 .. . Mans 40.l Plain. 18. Ohio R Okhotsk. 40.. 1 98 . 171. 170. 33. Sea of Opium.. 61 Serbs i 100. Norrland 73 1 84. 12.V Of 12-1 it. . 79.93 North German Plain North Pole North Sea sa . Red Sea Rhine R Rhodesia 151 75 164. Bimplon 'runnel 2<!f> 116. 216 ii:t. 1"". 17.Mt.") v l . 205. 218 Panama Canal Panama Isthmus Parana R Parmesan Cheese PaniH--u. 17s.2 I 5 111.Canton R.. 197. (. 41. 18. 191 214 162.. 12.. 17-.. 214.lids M de f Mar one .:: 12. 86 76.. 221. Niagara Fall« ria r Ranching Rand Red R.alia 111. 135. 20 113 12ti . 111-114.. 148. i-i 171. ern Uplands ton 86 IC 102 45-17. 11. 160.. L6fl l iyof Sin Ling Mta I 8 . 105 [ce rtine i-»». 1-7 Nicaraguan Canal 193 205 R .. 214.. .. 99 Sahara Desert L66.205 164-167.5 ly it.. . 95.112 Ill B4. 27. Prince Edward Island 59 167 Pyramids Pyrenees New England Range Newfoundland N'ew Guinea 'ew Zealand 191. 104 17-t 63 150 1 Salonica. Orange R Orange River Colony Orinoco R Pacific fie 147 184. . 109. OderR.SV/. 13. 164. 100 14. 1< LiKiulf ianB ' Biam . Shannon R 160 Islands 106 127. 86..2 H J. 62-73. 80 11. Poland Polar Animal Life Polynesia Port Jackson 225 72.) Severn l R : Pennine Range '.18 38 187 69 Romans Ruapehn Mt. 162.. 163 152 R 1 59 PoR 95 12U .nir Plateaa .91. 204. 101.gonia Pearl R. Lake 14. Marie Canal B BeandinaTia . 16. 1M. 199 85...

56 Tasman 21.. . 148 : Trinidad Pitch Lake Sky-scrapers.' Stoep Straits Settlements 126.... Typhoon 83. . 146 73 .. 144 29 145 75 . St. 6s. 195 . Spiuits Turkey Turks . Tweed R. 2<>3... Gothard Tunnel Lawrence R. 207. 94.70. St..110. 156. 65.174 ... . 79 . 69. 120 153 132. 82..... 104-107... 162.193 160 Sumatra Svealand Switzerland 158..126... Trepang 201. 193-195. 66. VardarR Venezuela Vesuvius • . i — . 221 185 . 58. 164. 169 35 129. 65 117. 168 Table Bay Table Mt TagusR Tanganyika Lake Tarawera Mt 126 126 87. 115. South Sea Islands Soya Beans .185 196 68. Yarra R Yass R Yellow R Yellow Sea Yenesei R York Peninsula Yosemite Valley Yucatan Peninsula 9. 70 Somaliland . Suliman Mts... 92.210 72 13. 149. 170. 187. 48. 144 . 52-54.. . 36. Tugela R . Upland Cotton Ural Mts Vaal R. 162 61. 197 191-197 74-76. 26 37 58 196. 170.208..213 100-104.221 206 35 118 165. 125 121... 155.. 212 98 127. 118 14 151 157. Staked Plains Steppes St. SO Yukon Zambesi R Zanzibar Zulus 118 113 194. 66.'. 106 88 184 r. Song-ka River Southern Alps South Pole . 108. Solano Wind Tundra Tunisia Turkestan 195 loO 18....226 Sirocco Environment Wind 96 144 205 145 100. .'.159 85. Slave Coasi Slavery Slavs .131 Glacier 48 22. lt-8 Waikato R Wallace's Line . .9 48 20. 75.108.. 69.. 43-4 >.73 71 Vodka Volga R..127. Vincent Gulf Sudan Suez Canal .. Valdai Hills . Thames Tiber R 125 159 192. 155-157 99 57-61.. 99.. 204 Trade Winds 156 Trans-Caspian Railway Trans-Siberian Railway .. 9J 187. 205 . 161.221 186 150 Printed by Henry Palmer dt Co. 84. 66.209. 207.. 157 Syria 83. "l29. 184. 18 128. 157. London. Uganda United States of America 9. 166.. 73. 159. 111... 193 33 Walney Island Weald of Kent Welland Canal West Indian Animal Life West Indies Wheat Area of Canada White Coai White House Winnipeg Lake Yalmal Peninsula Yang-tse-keang R.. 128.151 68 41 (See Tasmania) 104 195 97 187 Stratum ore .. 156. 220. 68 148. Victoria Falls Victoria N>anza Virgin Islands Vistula R Lake ..109 127.. 185 Vancouver Island Van Dieman's Land 150 . 63.155-157..106-108. 99. 151 Transvaal 1H2 Treaty Ports of China R Tibet Tigris R 128. 175. 115 154 64. 60. 221 TarimR Tartars 125 212 18..... 211-213 159 137 TokioR 125 Toagariro Mt 207 Torres Strait 83. Tasmania Taupo Lake Taurus Range Tehuan tepee Isthmus . 142-148.. 100. 141 69. 132 Thar Desert Thian Shan M^s.. .. 202.. 66. 152. Spencer Gulf Spitzbergen . ..

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