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PROJECT ON TRIGONOMETRY

DESIGNED BY :SHUBHAM KUMAR 10TH D ROLL NO :- 6


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I made this project under the guidance of my mathematics teacher Ms. Jyoti Gupta mam
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WELCOME TO
THE WORLD OF TRIGONOMETRY
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INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY
The word trigonometry is derived from the Greek words tri (meaning three), gon (meaning sides ) and metron (meaning measure). In fact, Trigonometry is the study of the relationships between the sides and angles of a triangle. Trigonometric ratios of an angle are some ratios of the sides of a right triangle with respect to its acute angles. Trigonometric identities are some trigonometric ratios for some specific angles and some identities involving these ratios.
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EXAMPLE
Suppose the students of a school are visiting Eiffel tower . Now, if a student is looking at the top of the tower, a right triangle can be imagined to be made as shown in figure. Can the student find out the height of the tower, without actually measuring it? Yes the student can find the height of the tower with the help of trigonometry.
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TRIGONOMETRIC

RATIOS

Let us take a right angle ABC as shown in figure. Here, CAB or A is an acute angle. Note the position of side BC with respect to A. It faces A. we call it the side opposite to A(perpendicular). AC is hypotenuse of the right angle and the side AB is a part of A. so, we call it the side adjacent to A(base).
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TRIGONOMETRIC

RATIOS

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Let us take a right angle ABC as shown in figure. Here, ACB or C is an acute angle. Note the position of side AB with respect to C. It faces C. we call it the side opposite to C(perpendicular). AC is hypotenuse of the right angle and the side BC is a part of C. so, we call it the side adjacent to C(base).
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NAMES OF TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS


NAMES WRITTEN AS

Sine
Cosine Tangent Cosecant Secant Cotangent
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Sin
Cos Tan Cosec Sec Cot
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TRIGOMETRIC RATIOS
hypotenuse
angle

opposite side

adjacent side Definitions of sine cosine & tangent


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TRIANGLE TERMINOLOGY

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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OPPOSITE SIDE: THE SIDE OPPOSITE


THE ANGLE
opposite
angle angle

opposite

opposite

angle

opposite

angle

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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ADJACENT SIDE:
THE ANGLE

THE SIDE BESIDE


adjacent
angle

adjacent

angle

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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adjacent

angle

angle

adjacent

HYPOTENUSE: THE LONGEST SIDE

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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DEFINITIONS
B c a

A b

90o C

Tangent

Sine

Cosine

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TANGENT OF ANGLE A
tan(A) =

opposite adjacent

a b
c

tan(B)

90o C

clear

Sine

Cosine

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TANGENT OF ANGLE B
tan(B) = opposite adjacent = b a

B
c a

tan(A)
A b

90o C

clear

Sine

Cosine

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SINE OF ANGLE A
sin(A) =

opposite hypotenuse

a c
c

sin(B)

90o C

Tangent

Clear

Cosine

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SINE OF ANGLE B
sin(B) =

opposite hypotenuse

b c
c

B
a

sin(A)
A b

90o C

Tangent

Clear

Cosine

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COSINE OF ANGLE A
cos(A) =

adjacent hypotenuse

b c
c

cos(B)

90o C

Tangent

Sine

Clear

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COSINE OF ANGLE B
cos(B) =

adjacent hypotenuse

a c
c

B
a

cos(A)
A b

90o C

Tangent

Sine

Clear

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THE

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF THE A IN RIGHT ANGLE ARE TERMED AS FOLLOWS :Sin A = Perpendicular/ Hypotenuse = BC / AC Cos A = Base / Hypotenuse = AB / AC Tan A = Perpendicular / Base = BC /AB Cosec A = Hypotenuse/ Perpendicular = AC / BC Sec A = Hypotenuse / Base = AC / AB Cot A = Base / Perpendicular = AB / BC

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WAY TO LEARN TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS


Sona Pundit Har Chandi Badri Har Tawle Prasad Bole

S Sin C Cos T Tan P Perpendicular B Base H Hypotenuse


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INFORMATION
S = P/ H C=B/H T=P/B
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RECIPROCALS OF SIN , COS & TAN


Sin

= reciprocal= Cosec

Means : Sin = 1/ Cosec (sin * cosec = 1 )


Cos

Cos

= reciprocal = Sec

= 1/ Sec ( cos * sec = 1 ) = 1/ Cot ( tan * cot = 1 )


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Tan

= reciprocal = Cot
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Tan

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QUESTIONS RELATED TO ABOVE TOPICS


1) Calculating the value of

other trigonometric ratios, if one is given. 2) Proving type. 3) Evaluating by using the given trigonometric ratios value.
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TYPE 1
Let BC = 3K
AND , AC = 4K

CALCULATING VALUE OF

OTHER TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS, IF ONE IS GIVEN.


If Sin A = 3 / 4 , calculate Cos A and Tan A .

Solution - Sin A = P / H = BC / AC = 3 / 4

THEREFORE, By Pythagoras Theorem, (AB) = (AC) (BC)

(AB) = (4K) - (3K)


AB = 7K Cos A = B / H= AB / AC = 7K / 4K = 7 / 4

Tan A = P / B = BC / AB = 3K / 7K
= 3 / 7

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TYPE 2

PROVING TYPE

If A and B are acute angles such that

Cos A = Cos B, then show that A = B Solution - Since, Cos A = Cos B AC / AB = BC / AB therefore, AC = BC. B = A (angles opposite to equal sides ) Therefore , A = B

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TYPE 3

EVALUATING

BY

PUTTING THE GIVEN TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS VALUE


If Sec A = 5 / 4 , evaluate 1 Tan A .

1 + Tan A Solution Sec A = H / B =AC / AB = 5 / 4 Let AC / AB = 5K / 4K. By Pythagoras Theorem , (BC) = (AC ) (AB) Therefore, BC = 3K So, Tan A = P / B = BC / AB = 3K / 4K = 3 / 4 1 Tan A = 1 3 / 4 = 1 / 4 = 1 1 + Tan A 1 + 3 / 4 7 / 4 7
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VALUES OF TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS


0 30 45 60 90

Sin
Cos Tan
Cosec

0
1 0
NOT DEFINED

1/2
3/2 1/3 2 2/3

1/2
1/2 1 2 2

3/2
1/2 3 2/3 2

1
0
NOT DEFINED

1
NOT DEFINED

Sec

1
NOT DEFINED

Cot Next Slide

3HOME 1

1/3 0 Previous Slide

EXAMPLES ON VALUES OF
TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS
1) Evaluation 2) Finding values of A and B.

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TYPE 1 -

EVALUATION

Sin 60 * cos 30 + sin 30 * cos60

=3 / 2 * 3 / 2 + 1 / 2 * 1 / 2 =3/4+1/4 =4/4 =1

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TYPE 2

FINDING VALUES OF A AND B

If Tan (A+B) = 3 and tan ( A B) = 1/ 3 ;

0 < A + B 90 ; A> B , find A and B. Solution tan (A + B ) = 3 tan (A+ B ) = tan 60 A+ B = 60 - ( 1) tan (A- B) = 1 / 3 tan (A- B) = tan 30 A B = 30 -(2) From ( 1 ) & ( 2) A = 45 B = 15
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FORMULAS
Sin ( 90 ) = Cos Cos ( 90 ) = Sin Tan ( 90 ) = Cot Cot ( 90 ) = Tan

Cosec ( 90 ) = Sec Sec ( 90 ) = Cosec


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EXAMPLE ON FORMULAS
oEvaluate : -

(1) Sin 18 / Cos 72 = Sin (90 72 ) / Cos 72 = Cos 72 / Cos 72 = 1 ( 2) Cos 48 Sin 42 = Cos ( 90 42 ) Sin 42 = Sin 42 Sin 42 = 0
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MAIN IDENTITIES
Sin + Cos = 1 1 + Tan = Sec 1 + Cot = Cosec Sin / Cos = Tan Cos / Sin = Cot Sin / Cos = Tan Cos / Sin = Cot
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STEPS OF PROVING THE


IDENTITIES
1) Solve the left hand side or right hand

side of the identity. 2) Use an identity if required. 3) Use formulas if required. 4) Convert the terms in the form of sin or cos according to the question. 5) Divide or multiply the L.H.S. by sin or cos if required. 6) Then solve the R.H.S. if required. 7) Lastly , verify that if L.H.S. = R.H.S.
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