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Original Title: Trignometry

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I made this project under the guidance of my mathematics teacher Ms. Jyoti Gupta mam

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WELCOME TO

THE WORLD OF TRIGONOMETRY

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INTRODUCTION TO TRIGONOMETRY

The word trigonometry is derived from the Greek words tri (meaning three), gon (meaning sides ) and metron (meaning measure). In fact, Trigonometry is the study of the relationships between the sides and angles of a triangle. Trigonometric ratios of an angle are some ratios of the sides of a right triangle with respect to its acute angles. Trigonometric identities are some trigonometric ratios for some specific angles and some identities involving these ratios.

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EXAMPLE

Suppose the students of a school are visiting Eiffel tower . Now, if a student is looking at the top of the tower, a right triangle can be imagined to be made as shown in figure. Can the student find out the height of the tower, without actually measuring it? Yes the student can find the height of the tower with the help of trigonometry.

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TRIGONOMETRIC

RATIOS

Let us take a right angle ABC as shown in figure. Here, CAB or A is an acute angle. Note the position of side BC with respect to A. It faces A. we call it the side opposite to A(perpendicular). AC is hypotenuse of the right angle and the side AB is a part of A. so, we call it the side adjacent to A(base).

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TRIGONOMETRIC

RATIOS

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Let us take a right angle ABC as shown in figure. Here, ACB or C is an acute angle. Note the position of side AB with respect to C. It faces C. we call it the side opposite to C(perpendicular). AC is hypotenuse of the right angle and the side BC is a part of C. so, we call it the side adjacent to C(base).

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NAMES WRITTEN AS

Sine

Cosine Tangent Cosecant Secant Cotangent

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Sin

Cos Tan Cosec Sec Cot

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TRIGOMETRIC RATIOS

hypotenuse

angle

opposite side

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TRIANGLE TERMINOLOGY

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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THE ANGLE

opposite

angle angle

opposite

opposite

angle

opposite

angle

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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HOME

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ADJACENT SIDE:

THE ANGLE

adjacent

angle

adjacent

angle

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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adjacent

angle

angle

adjacent

Opposite side

Adjacent side

Hypotenuse

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DEFINITIONS

B c a

A b

90o C

Tangent

Sine

Cosine

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TANGENT OF ANGLE A

tan(A) =

opposite adjacent

a b

c

tan(B)

90o C

clear

Sine

Cosine

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TANGENT OF ANGLE B

tan(B) = opposite adjacent = b a

B

c a

tan(A)

A b

90o C

clear

Sine

Cosine

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SINE OF ANGLE A

sin(A) =

opposite hypotenuse

a c

c

sin(B)

90o C

Tangent

Clear

Cosine

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SINE OF ANGLE B

sin(B) =

opposite hypotenuse

b c

c

B

a

sin(A)

A b

90o C

Tangent

Clear

Cosine

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COSINE OF ANGLE A

cos(A) =

adjacent hypotenuse

b c

c

cos(B)

90o C

Tangent

Sine

Clear

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COSINE OF ANGLE B

cos(B) =

adjacent hypotenuse

a c

c

B

a

cos(A)

A b

90o C

Tangent

Sine

Clear

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THE

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS OF THE A IN RIGHT ANGLE ARE TERMED AS FOLLOWS :Sin A = Perpendicular/ Hypotenuse = BC / AC Cos A = Base / Hypotenuse = AB / AC Tan A = Perpendicular / Base = BC /AB Cosec A = Hypotenuse/ Perpendicular = AC / BC Sec A = Hypotenuse / Base = AC / AB Cot A = Base / Perpendicular = AB / BC

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Sona Pundit Har Chandi Badri Har Tawle Prasad Bole

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INFORMATION

S = P/ H C=B/H T=P/B

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Sin

= reciprocal= Cosec

Cos

Cos

= reciprocal = Sec

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Tan

= reciprocal = Cot

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Tan

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1) Calculating the value of

other trigonometric ratios, if one is given. 2) Proving type. 3) Evaluating by using the given trigonometric ratios value.

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TYPE 1

Let BC = 3K

AND , AC = 4K

CALCULATING VALUE OF

If Sin A = 3 / 4 , calculate Cos A and Tan A .

Solution - Sin A = P / H = BC / AC = 3 / 4

AB = 7K Cos A = B / H= AB / AC = 7K / 4K = 7 / 4

Tan A = P / B = BC / AB = 3K / 7K

= 3 / 7

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TYPE 2

PROVING TYPE

Cos A = Cos B, then show that A = B Solution - Since, Cos A = Cos B AC / AB = BC / AB therefore, AC = BC. B = A (angles opposite to equal sides ) Therefore , A = B

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TYPE 3

EVALUATING

BY

If Sec A = 5 / 4 , evaluate 1 Tan A .

1 + Tan A Solution Sec A = H / B =AC / AB = 5 / 4 Let AC / AB = 5K / 4K. By Pythagoras Theorem , (BC) = (AC ) (AB) Therefore, BC = 3K So, Tan A = P / B = BC / AB = 3K / 4K = 3 / 4 1 Tan A = 1 3 / 4 = 1 / 4 = 1 1 + Tan A 1 + 3 / 4 7 / 4 7

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0 30 45 60 90

Sin

Cos Tan

Cosec

0

1 0

NOT DEFINED

1/2

3/2 1/3 2 2/3

1/2

1/2 1 2 2

3/2

1/2 3 2/3 2

1

0

NOT DEFINED

1

NOT DEFINED

Sec

1

NOT DEFINED

3HOME 1

EXAMPLES ON VALUES OF

TRIGONOMETRIC RATIOS

1) Evaluation 2) Finding values of A and B.

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TYPE 1 -

EVALUATION

=3 / 2 * 3 / 2 + 1 / 2 * 1 / 2 =3/4+1/4 =4/4 =1

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TYPE 2

0 < A + B 90 ; A> B , find A and B. Solution tan (A + B ) = 3 tan (A+ B ) = tan 60 A+ B = 60 - ( 1) tan (A- B) = 1 / 3 tan (A- B) = tan 30 A B = 30 -(2) From ( 1 ) & ( 2) A = 45 B = 15

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FORMULAS

Sin ( 90 ) = Cos Cos ( 90 ) = Sin Tan ( 90 ) = Cot Cot ( 90 ) = Tan

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EXAMPLE ON FORMULAS

oEvaluate : -

(1) Sin 18 / Cos 72 = Sin (90 72 ) / Cos 72 = Cos 72 / Cos 72 = 1 ( 2) Cos 48 Sin 42 = Cos ( 90 42 ) Sin 42 = Sin 42 Sin 42 = 0

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MAIN IDENTITIES

Sin + Cos = 1 1 + Tan = Sec 1 + Cot = Cosec Sin / Cos = Tan Cos / Sin = Cot Sin / Cos = Tan Cos / Sin = Cot

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IDENTITIES

1) Solve the left hand side or right hand

side of the identity. 2) Use an identity if required. 3) Use formulas if required. 4) Convert the terms in the form of sin or cos according to the question. 5) Divide or multiply the L.H.S. by sin or cos if required. 6) Then solve the R.H.S. if required. 7) Lastly , verify that if L.H.S. = R.H.S.

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