THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE ATOMIC BOMB WHY HIROSHIMA WAS DESTROYED

The Untold Story by Eustace C. Mullins June 1998

THE SECRET HISTORY OF THE ATOMIC BOMB A NE MISSION CRIMINA!S ON "IS#!AY ATOMIC TERRORISM A $NITE" NATIONS #ROJECT THE JE ISH HE!!%BOMB THE B$C& #ASSES TO TR$MAN !I#MAN SIE I!! JA#AN S$RREN"ER BEFORE THE BOMB IS "RO##E"' THE HORROR OF HIROSHIMA MASS M$R"ER A #I!OT(S STORY "I" THE ATOMIC BOMB IN THE AR A)AINST JA#AN' THE NA)ASA&I BOMB AMERICAN MI!ITARY A$THORITIES SAY ATOMIC BOMB $NNECESSARY ANOTHER EISENHO ER S#EA&S MACARTH$R(S ARNIN) THE NE ATOMIC A)E THE REBIRTH OF ISRAE! THE !E)A! AS#ECTS OF N$C!EAR ARFARE )AN"HI S#EA&S Cast *+ C,a-acte-s BIB!IO)RA#HY. THE CO$RT OF INTERNATIONA! J$STICE

T,e /*-l0 /as stunne0 t* lea-n t,at In0ia ,as n*/ teste0 nuclea- /ea1*ns. F*- 2any yea-s3 all nati*ns ,a4e been c*nce-ne0 ab*ut t,e 1-*li+e-ati*n *+ at*2ic e51l*si4es. E4en in t,ei- 0ist-ess3 n* *ne see2s t* be inte-este0 in t,e ,ist*-ic *- t,e 1syc,*l*6ical -ec*-0 *+ /,y t,ese /ea1*ns /e-e 0e4el*1e03 an0 /,at s1ecial b-ee0 *+ 2an7in0 0e4*te0 t,e2sel4es t* t,is 0iab*lical 6*al. "es1ite t,e lac7 *+ 1ublic inte-est3 t,e -ec*-0 is clea-3 an0 easily a4ailable t* any*ne /,* is inte-este0. My inte-est in t,is sub8ect3 0*-2ant +*- 2any yea-s /as su00enly -e7in0le0 0u-in6 2y annual lectu-e t*u- in Ja1an. My ,*sts ,a0 ta7en 2e t* t,e city *+ Na6asa7i +*- t,e +i-st ti2e. it,*ut tellin6 2e t,ei- 1lans3 t,ey ente-e0 t,e Na6asa7i At*2ic B*2b Museu2. I t,*u6,t it /*ul0 be an inte-estin6 e51e-ience3 but3 t* 2y su-1-ise3 /,en I /al7e0 int* t,e e5,ibiti*n -**2s3 I /as su00enly *4e-c*2e by sa0ness. Reali9in6 t,at I /as ab*ut t* bu-st int* tea-s3 I 2*4e0 a/ay +-*2 2y c*21ani*ns3 an0 st**0 bitin6 2y li1. E4en s*3 it see2e0 i21*ssible t* c*nt-*l 2ysel+. I /as su--*un0e0 by t,e 2*st 6-ues*2e *b8ects3 t,e +in6e-s *+ a ,u2an ,an0 +use0 /it, 6lass3 a 1,*t*6-a1, *+ t,e s,a0*/ *+ a 2an *n a b-ic7 /all: t,e 2an ,a0 been 4a1*-i9e0 in t,e e51l*si*n . A NEW MISSION ,en I -etu-ne0 t* t,e $nite0 States3 I 7ne/1 ,a0 t* unea-t, t,e siniste- +i6u-es be,in0 6-eatest *+ ,u2an catast-*1,es. It t**7 2any /ee7s *+ -esea-c, t* unc*4e/,at tu-ne0 *ut t* be t,e 2*st +a-%-eac,in6 c*ns1i-acy *+ all ti2e3 t,e 1-*6-a2 *+ a +e/ 0e0icate0 -e4*luti*na-ies t* sei9e c*nt-*l *+ t,e enti-e /*-l03 by in4entin6 t,e 1*/e-+ul /ea1*n e4e- un4eile0. T,e st*-y be6ins in )e-2any. In t,e 19;<s3 )e-2any an0 Ja1an ,a0 a nu2be- *+ scientists icin6 *n t,e 0e4el*12ent *+ nuclea- +issi*n. In b*t, *+ t,ese c*unt-ies3 t,eilea0e-s ste-nly +*-ba0e t,e2 t* c*ntinue t,ei- -esea-c,. A0*l+ Hitle- sai0 ,e /*ul0 ne4e- all*/ any*ne in )e-2any t* /*-7 t* /*-7 *n suc, an in,u2ane /ea1*n. T,e E21e-*- *+ Ja1an let ,is scientists 7n*/ t,at ,e /*ul0 ne4e- a11-*4e suc, a /ea1*n. At t,at ti2e t,e $nite0 States ,a0 n* *ne /*-7in6 *n nuclea- +issi*n. T,e 0is6-untle0 )e-2an scientists c*ntacte0 +-ien0s in t,e $nite0 States3 an0 /e-e t*l0 t,at t,e-e /as a 1*ssibility *+ 6*4e-n2ent su11*-t +*- t,ei- /*-7 ,e-e. As "*n Beye- tells t,ese i22i6-ants t* t,e $nite0 States 1us,e0 t,ei- 1-*6-a2. =!e* S9ila-03 t*6et,e- /it, ,is l*n6 ti2e +-ien0s an0 +ell*/ Hun6a-ian 1,ysicists3 Eu6ene i6ne- an0 E0/a-0 Telle-3 a6-ee0 t,at t,e #-esi0ent 2ust be /a-ne0: +issi*n b*2b te,n*l*6y /as n*t s* +a-+etc,e0. T,e Je/is, e2i6-es3 n*/ li4in6 in A2e-ica3 ,a0 1e-s*nal e51e-ience *+ +ascis2 in Eu-*1e. In 19;93 t,e t,-ee 1,ysicists enliste0 t,e su11*-t *+ Albe-t Einstein3 lette- 0ate0 Au6ust > si6ne0 by Einstein /as 0eli4e-e0 by Ale5an0e- Sac,s t* F-an7lin ". R**se4elt at t,e ,ite H*use *n Oct*be- 113 ;9.= CRIMINALS ON DISPLAY

*/e-3 /.a0 *nly .ite H*use by #-esi0ent an0 M-s.*c7in6 /*-l0 *1ini*n by t.-ec*22en0e0 a6ainst usin6 t.a0 1-e4i*usly c*--es1*n0e0 /it.is li+e in 2ental instituti*ns3 un0e-6*in6 b*t.e $nite0 States in Oct*be.a0 *ne 8*b in .*+ b**7s ab*ut Eisen. insulin t. Si62un0 F-eu0 ab*ut .* le+t Eu-*1e an0 ca2e t* t. R**se4elt.3 +*un0e0 by t.e at*2ic b*2b at !*s Ala2*s lab*-at*-ies3 Ne/ Me5ic*.e -eas*ns I 6a4e +*. N*. He /as s**n 0ee1ly in4*l4e0 /it.at Ja1an /as al-ea0y 0e+eate0 an0 t.t t.at Einstein e4e.e A6e *+ Einstein=3 1*ssibly because .ei2e-3 /.en t* t.uste-3 NY3 198.e .t.e b*2b(s e5istence.**0 *+ "eat.e 2et /it.c*unt-y s. ..e $nite0 States 6*4e-n2ent .*/e. Elean*.ail t.4*ice0 (2y 6-a4e 2is6i4in6s3 +i-st *n t.e b*2b /as c*21letely unnecessa-y3 an0 sec*n0ly because I t.*/e.*t*6-a1.e l*06es . T-u2an an0 .* /as t.c*ul0 n*t .* 0e4el*1e0 t.e.e basis *+ 2y belie+ t.*/e.. Ot.e-.en Sti2s*n sai0 t.i6.en E. T.*u6.e .at ti2e.-ee 0ays late-3 Eisen.e State *+ Miss*u-i3 an0 t.*c7 t-eat2ent3 n*ne *+ /.at 0-*11in6 t.a0 1laye0 1-*2inent -*les in *-6ani9in6 /a-s an0 -e4*luti*ns since t.an6e in . ATOMIC TERRORISM T.e /as +ete0 as a +a2*us scientist3 an0 /as in4ite0 t* t.*u6. t. R*be-t O11en.by Ste1. .?>@3 Eisen. S*2e *+ Einstein(s bi*6-a1.*/e.is t.e-e .e-s . Sti2s*n +i-st t*l0 Eisen.a4e 7n*/n t. Eisen.2y Duic7 c*nclusi*n(. =Sec-eta-y *+ a. is +*un0 in nu2be. Eisen. A2b-*se3 Si2*n A S.b**7s *n Eisen.is 1-*8ects *+ =1eace= an0 =0isa-2a2ent=3 alt.e Einstein Re4*luti*n= an0 =t.*/e. His /i+e sai0 t.is in 2*ti*n /as Albe-t Einstein3 /./as en6ul+e0 by =a +eelin6 *+ 0e1-essi*n(.u2an bein6s /it.a0 al-ea0y s/*-n t* use a6ainst Ja1an3 -e6a-0less *+ any 2ilita-y 0e4el*12ents.e $nite0 States 1-*1*se0 t* use t.s *+ t/* 2en a-e 1-*2inently 0is1laye0: Albe-t Einstein3 an0 J.e b*2b3 an0 a6ain /as i6n*-e0.is ca-ee. Einstein .*/e.*ul0 a4*i0 s.is ca-ee-3 as a Mas*nic *-6ani9e.( Sti2s*n /as u1set by Eisen.e. *+ t.e en0an6e-e0 .en su1-e2e Milita-y C*22an0e-3 /.ic.e B-*t. He .e 2an /.e Russell T-ust in 18?8 as a bunc.*/e-(s attitu0e (al2*st an6-ily -e+utin6 t.is s*n E0ua-0 s1ent .*+ t.state t.e $nite0 States3 .c*ul0 .ic.*/e.e Na6asa7i At*2ic B*2b Museu23 1.sent .e .acce1te0 any *+ .*/e. Einstein .e c*ns1i-at*-s in t.at #-esi0ent T-u2an .e b*2b3 /.ic.e )e-2an Illu2inati3 *.*/e-3 an0 /.t.* set all t.ey . can be +*un0 *n 1.at *u.is 1-inci1al a04is*-s.e-a1y an0 elect-*s.19. 1-*0uce0 any c.e built u1 late.Hen-y !.a0 a 1e-s*nal inte-est in F-eu0(s /*-7 because .e*-ies.e 0i0 n*t belie4e t.ic.+*.at .ea-tily c*ncu--e0. F-eu0 late.i2 t* t.at Sti2s*n /as a 1-*2inent 2e2be.at t.e $nite0 States Senate an0 t.a4e 7n*/n t.e 2*0e-n e-a as =t.. Als* *n 0is1lay is a state2ent +-*2 )ene-al Eisen.ic.2any le+t/in6 causes3 in /.e 1-*6-a2 .e =-e6a-0e0 .+le/ t* Be-lin3 /.est le4el *+ t. 0etestati*n=.*+ S7ull an0 B*nes at Yale3 t.e use B*+ at*2ic /ea1*nsC.en Einstien a--i4e0 in t. A6ain Eisen.at .e b*2b a6ainst Ja1an3 Eisen.e 1-esi0ency.is 1-*tests a6ainst t.At t.at t.by .R**se4elt in .e set in 2*ti*n t.sai0 .is c*n0iti*n.

e C.= =T. Sac. Cla-7 2enti*ns in Einstein: His !i+e An0 Ti2es3 A4*n3 19F13 1."ulles. But i+ t.e A2e-ican Re1ublic in /*-l0 a++ai-s3 yet *+ t.se4e-al 2*-e 2*nt.ey su--en0e-3 /e /*n(t .e2 in t.e 1-esi0ent *+ t.at 6*al3= sai0 J*. .e Ei*nists +*.n .e .e at*2ic b*2b 1-*6-a2 c*ul0 n*t be launc.*ut t.*ul0 say a 2illi*n.a 1-i4ate 2eetin6 in t.*se 2ent*-3 illia2 Nels*n C-*2/ell3 .a4e a li4e 1*1ulati*n *n /.e .*+ t. =T.= =E5actly3= sai0 J*.3 .a4e al-ea0y l*st )e-2any3= Stettinius sai0.is lette.= =Yes3= -e1lie0 Stettinius3 =/e a-e .at3= sai0 Stettinius.e a-c.a0 been calle0 a =1-*+essi*nal -e4*luti*na-y= *n t. t* R**se4elt in t."ulles3 *+ t. Stettinius calle0 t.2en -e1-esente0 t.st-ate6y3 *-3 as t.t.e b*2b is -ea0y3= sai0 J*.e +l**.Hiss3 -e1-esentin6 t.e necessa-y all St-eet s1*ns*-s. =T.t* R**se4elt -eDuestin6 t.a0 calle0 t.s.ey /*n(t a6-ee t* t. Sac.is li+el*n6 c*22it2ent t* =1eace an0 0isa-2a2ent=.e 1lus.ite H*use.+*. T.e 1-inci1als -eti-e0 +*.* -e6ula-ly 0eli4e-e0 la-6e su2s *+ cas. Sac.Sac.is t*1 ai0e3 Al6e.*+ t.n F*ste.= On 1. Ei*nist e++*-ts.e /as *n +-ien0ly te-2s' T.e !a9a-0 F-e-es Inte-nati*nal Ban7in6 H*use3 an0 als* /it.il0s a11-*4e0 *+ t.a4e t* 7ee1 t.ic. t.n F*ste"ulles3 =y*u /ill nee0 a 4e-y 6**0 tally.ea0.= =Ne4e-t.ese +*u. T.*+ C*n6-ess: an0 .e Je/is. = e .y 0i0 Einstein enlist an inte-2e0ia-y t* b-in6 t.t* R**se4elt3 0ate0 au6ust >3 19.ey a-e s/*-n t* 1-*tect t.* .ic. t* test t.e S*4iet &)B: J*.e 6*4e-n2ent inau6u-ate an at*2ic b*2b 1-*6-a2 /as *b4i*usly sti--e0 by .e $nite0 States an0 t.until t.il0s3 /.e2sel4es3 t.sc.e R*t. A4e-ill Ha--i2an3 1leni1*tentia-y e5t-a*-0ina-y3 /.s( 0eli4e-y *+ t.FF3 =He /*ul0 ca21ai6n /it. His actual c*22it2ent /as t* Ei*nis2: R*nal0 .is sec-et 2eetin6 /it.e Einstein lette.enti-e 1*st/a.e . $nc*n0iti*nal su--en0e-.1eace3 /.s *n Oct*be.e $nite0 Nati*ns.= =But3 M-.e b*2b.*+ nuclea.e /a.ea0 *+ t.itects *+ 1*st/a.su-4i4al.e at*2ic b*2b.e a/es*2e 1*/e.e 2eetin6 t* *-0e.*-i9e0 by t.e $ni4e-se=3 6at.e e5clusi4e )a-0en R**2.e at*2ic b*2b /*ul0 n*t be -ea0y +*.e /*-l0 /it.is /ea1*n.t* R**se4elt3 /it.a-te.e E21e-*-.ite H*use let R**se4elt 7n*/ t.2an B-*t.i2 t* 6* +ull s1ee0 a.t* t.en y*u .ey li7e0 t* call t.e 1-*8ect an0 /is.e all St-eet la/ +i-2 *+ Sulli4an an0 C-*2/ell3 /.at t.a Je/is.i1.e $nite0 States. t.e-s3 an*t.e +*u-3 *nly Sec-eta-y *+ State E0/a-0 Stettinius J-.+issi*n in t.at is n* 1-*ble2.sc.1-*6-a2 0e1en0s *n te--i+yin6 t.e R*t. Se4e-al *+ t.e-e0 in San F-ancisc* at t.is 1-*+essi*n as =ec*n*2ist= but /as actually a ba62an +*.*2 .e =Maste-s *+ t.e te--ible 1*/e.*+ t. t.?@<3 Cla-7 Du*tes Einstein3 =As a Je/ I a2 +-*2 t*0ay a su11*-te.*1in6 +*. !e.Hiss3 =n* *ne can i6n*-e t.+*.e0 /it.*2elan0 in #alestine.a 2illi*n tally in Ja1an.a0 s1ent t. .a0 a 1*siti*n aut. I s. #alace H*tel t* /-ite t.e0 . =I+ Ja1an b*/s *ut3 /e /ill n*t ..t.t* 0iscuss an u-6ent 2atte-: t.eless3= sai0 Stettinius3 =*u.n F*ste. /.= B1919C Einstein(s lette.s /as an a04is*.*+ t.e $nite0 States 0ele6ati*n . His lette. . Sec-eta-y3= sai0 Al6e. 1-esente0 a 6-a4e c-isis.in6.e C*nstituti*n.at t.a4e anyt.93 /as 0eli4e-e0 1e-s*nally t* #-esi0ent R**se4elt by Ale5an0e.= =T* acc*21lis./ell 7n*/n ban7e-.= =T.s3 a Russian Je/3 liste0 . A UNITED NATIONS PROJECT In May *+ 19?G3 t.11.e last t/* yea-s in M*sc*/ 0i-ectin6 Stalin(s /a.e Ja1anese /e-e al-ea0y 1-i4ately suin6 +*. T.t* Eu6ene Meye.e.

T.e Na9i -e6i2e. in tu-n -eDui-e0 2ass 2u-0e-.1-inci1als.ea0 t.attan3 as 0i0 2any *+ t.e *t.us /e see t.is n*2inati*n /as sec*n0e0 by J*.a4e a++*-0e0 t* 0e4el*1 suc.e /*-l0(s +i-st at*2ic /ea1*n *n a li4in6 1*1ulati*n.1e-8u-y +*. .attan #-*8ect3 because its sec-et 0i-ect*-3 Be-na-0 Ba-uc. In 19.is e51l*its as a S*4iet es1i*na6e a6ent.#.il0s. Al6e.is b-*t. As Senat*.e /a-.e-s /e-e -e1-esentin6 t.3 an0 t. M*-6an t* *4e-see all 1u-c.e +un0s t* 2aintain t.?G a. R*be-t O11en.ell *ut *+ =e2.2.e *1e-ati*n.ei.sent t* 1-is*n +*."ulles.3 li4e0 in Man.clients3 &u. N* *t.Allen .as base0 its enti-e st-ate6y *n t. T.e T-inity site3 t/* .e a6*ny *+ t. )-*4es t* .a0 1-e4i*usly built t.en ."ulles.= THE JEWISH HELL/BOMB T. !eslie R.in6t*n 1*liticians3 /.e +i-st 2ilita-y st-ate6y sessi*n *+ t.e as.an0 6ua-antee0 .e unite0 States.a0 c. )en.e at*2ic b*2b *ccu--e0 at t.-ee yea-s3 c*st A2e-ican ta51aye-s +i4e t-illi*n 0*lla-s3 an0 acc*21lis.* usually ca2e /. T.F*ste. .3 .e )a-0en R**2 /as actually t.>9. T. bec7*ne0.ic.scienti+ic a04ise-.e 1-esti6i*us Ca-ne6ie En0*/2ent +*. T.e Ne/ *-l0 O-0e. /as t.* .2aste-3 J*se+ Stalin3 t. a b*2b.*ut t.ei2e-: t.e s*n *+ a J.ic.e . .e Re1ublican l*yal *11*siti*n3 /as t* say Bas Du*te0 in A2e-ican He-ita6e 2a6a9ine3 Au6ust 19FFC3 = e . *n July 1@3 19?G. Ba-uc..*sen as .ei.e /*-l0 c*ul0 . He ./.Han0enbe-63 lea0e.*usan0s *+ ci4ilians bu-ne0 ali4e at Hi-*s.*ut 2ass te--*-is23 /.in t.a0 lea-ne0 +-*2 t. F-ance an0 En6lan0 in t.e /as c.t.nati*n in t.*sen Ma8. He . T.ese lea0e-s .e Man.+*.e .ases *+ 2uniti*ns by b*t.ei2e."ulles /as als* an acc*21lis.a0 been t.a0 a 6**0 -e1utati*n a2*n6 t.e Fi-st *-l0 a-.-*u6.ei2e-3 sci*n *+ a 1-*s1e-*us +a2ily *+ cl*t.*usan0s *+ c.." E0/a-0 Stettinius J-. T.ed -e"r o.*+ t. M*-6an 1a-tne.ants.n !*eb C*.e scienti+ic 0i-ect*.e 6*l0en 1-ince *+ t.e $nite0 States t.sc.il0-en sittin6 in t.at n* *ne can -ule /it. In O11en.i2 t.sc. 1<@3 =Ba-uc. *+ !*s Ala2*s at G.e an0 .Hiss /as t.is sec-et 2eetin6 in t.e 1*siti*n *+ seni*.un0-e0 2iles s*ut.e $nite0 Nati*ns3 because it /as 0e0icate0 t* its 2issi*n *+ e51l*0in6 t.e /*-l0(s la-6est 2uniti*ns 0eale.e C*l0 a-3 /.en Ba-uc.e !*s Ala2*s !ab*-at*-ies in Ne/ Me5ic*.a4e 6*t t* sca-e t.e R*t.Inte-nati*nal #eace a+te. It als* +*-ecast t.a0 been na2e0 by J.e t*1 sec-et 1-*8ect /as calle0 t.e.lyin6 ab*ut .in6 2e-c.ei.*-l0 aII3 .e.e 1-*8ect c*st an esti2ate0 t/* billi*n 0*lla-s.ea0 *+ t.e c*22unist elite in t.at !*s Ala2*s /as J.a0 -us.e.e0 /a-2*n6e-.e0 e5actly n*t.in63 as it /as inten0e0 t* 0*.e "ulles b-*t.e0 t* C*l*6ne t* 2eet /it.n F*ste.n F*ste.e +i-st success+ul test *+ t. laste0 +*-ty%t.**l-**2s.#. A0*l+ Hitle. J*.un0-e0s *+ t.e enti-e st-ate6y *+ t. " ee! J"!"n #n the $"r "nother three %onth&' "nd $e ("n )&e the *o%* on the#r (#t#e&+ $e $#ll end th#& $"r $#th the n".e at*2ic b*2b /as 0e4el*1e0 at t. /as es1ecially inte-este0 in O11en.e #enta6*n3 an0 .at t.e Yea-s O+ Ris73 by Ja2es &unet7a3 #-entice Hall3 NY3 198>3 &unet7a /-ites3 1.i2a an0 Na6asa7i3 inclu0in6 2any t."ll the !eo!le& othe $orld' $ho $#ll then *o$ to o)r $#ll.= T. Hiss /as late.

Ba-uc.e /as . Ca-*lina3 /.attan #-*8ect3 t* 0est-*y t. T. */ne0 t.uanian Je/ /.e 0ecisi*n t* 0-*1 t.in6t*n. &a-l C*21t*n3 an0 Ja2es F.is e1it*2e *+ t.a0 been c*22issi*ne0 by inst*n C.a0 *-0e-e0 t. By-nes3 actin6 Sec-eta-y *+ State.e scientists t.t. Als* *n t. /*ul0 0est-*y t.e 2*st la4is.e /ealt. He li4e0 in B*st*n *n !a/-ence St.e na2e0 H*bca/ Ba-*ny.a0 been c*nsi0e-able +ea.e a6e *+ se4enteen.at t.is all St-eet 1-*+its3 Ba-uc. /.ic.eline t* a00 t* .0esi-e t* -ule t. He /as !i12an Sie/3 a !it.e Man.iest 2an in S*ut.in6 an0 t* 7n*/ e4e-yt. /as in a 1*siti*n t* 0ictate t* T-u2an3 t.i2 t* 0-*1 t.= In0ee03 t.(s 1e-s*nal 1ublicity a6ent.c-i2inal *+ t.e 1*litical 1u-se st-in6s.e at*2ic b*2b *n Ja1an.*usan0 c*1ies .at . As t. At Ha-4a-03 .attan #-*8ect /as t.i2.0e4el*1in6 2*-e e++ecti4e 1*is*n 6ases3 an0 /.i-e0 by He-be-t Baya-0 S/*1e3 e0it*.e ulti2ate 1*/e-3 t.ill t* 0e4el*1 an Ant./as besi0e .u-c.e at*2ic b*2b *n Ja1an3 a00e0 t* .e *-l0.ei2e.in6 in )e-2any. THE BUC PASSES TO TRUMAN Alt.i2 in 1a1e-s +ile0 be+*-e t.a0 attaine0 t.e /a-3 .*usan0%yea. C*22ittee3 c*nsistin6 *+ )e*-6e !.e bu-nin6 *+ 2y b**73 The Federal Reserve Conspiracy3 ten t.*+ )e-2any a+te.e s.3 t.e +act t.is 1e*1le . C*nant an0 /as tut*-e0 by .e enti-e /*-l0. LIPMAN SIEW "es1ite t.e Man. O11en.* . . estate in S*ut.e s1ectacle.e enti-e /*-l0.ic. .-a5 b*2b t* be use0 *n )e-2any3 /.a0 an*t.+i4e% t. T-u2an li7e0 t* ta7e +ull c-e0it +*.a4in6 been 1ublis.in6 ab*ut t.a0 been 7n*/n as Be-na-0 Ba-uc.e Fi-st *-l0 a.* /as 7n*/n as Be-na-0 Ba-uc.a0 s1ent t.t.e2ical /a-+a-e 1-*+essi*nal3 all*/e0 2e t* 0esc-ibe . t.e /*ul0 .+-*2 t. !au-ence.ei2e-(s e5ultati*n ca2e +-*2 .e ulti2ate 6*al *+ t. it.e New York World3 /.e /as a04ise0 by a 1-esti6i*us 6-*u13 T.i-ty yea-s3 By-nes .e0 in Obe-a22e-6au3 t.a0 c*2e t* t.at t.-*u6.e Nati*nal "e+ense Resea-c.e-/ise .*ul0 0-*1 t. Ha--is*n3 1-esi0ent *+ t.-ie7e03 =I a2 bec*2e "eat.*u6.ic.at n*/ . Ca-*lina3 t.e 2*st cl*sely 6ua-0e0 sec-et *+ *-l0 a.*+ /*-l0s.* .e 2*st n*t*-i*us /a. /*ul0 .ic.e "est-*ye. . C*nant3 1-esi0ent *+ Ha-4a-03 /.e at*2ic b*2b *n Ja1an3 in +act3 .O11en.e /*-l0.ic. He s. a04ise0 .als* c*nt-*lle0 t.*+ t.e Sec*n0 *-l0 a-=. N*/ Ba-uc.t in0ee0 set *++ a c.t.e b*2b be+*-e )e-2any su--en0e-e03 *t.a4e .is see2e0 t* be t.ei.a4e 7ille0 e4e-y li4in6 t. His se-4ice *n T-u2an(s C*22ittee /. .II3 *ne 2an3 an0 *ne 2any *nly3 /as all*/e0 t* *bse-4e e4e-yt.e c*22ittee /e-e "-.e Fe0e-al Rese-4e Ban7 *+ Ne/ Y*-7: "-.<3 !au-ence acce1te0 an *++e.e na2e *+ illia2 !.i2sel+ at t.e $nite0 States as a 1*litical -e+u6ee at t. As )auleite.e test e51l*si*n 2i6.e $nite0 States C*u-t *+ Clai2s in 19GF3 as =t.e ca-1et%ba66e.e-e .ey c*ul0 i21le2ent t.(s 2an in as.is -esu2e.e New York Times t* . C*nant /as unable t* 1e-+ect t.e 1-*8ect.a2*n6 t.e .e site *+ t.is 1-e4i*us -ec*-0 as a c.3 an0 0eci0e0 t* ta7e t.e /*-l0%+a2e0 #assi*n #lay.is -eali9ati*n t.* in 19?> .ain -eacti*n3 /. Ja2es B.en !au-ence /ent t* Ne/ Y*-73 . .-*u6. F*.is 2an By-nes3 t. In 19.a0 built t.e beca2e a cl*se +-ien0 *+ Ja2es B.

t./as *ne *+ t. t.a0 n* in7lin6 t. O+ Ja1an(s @@ bi66est cities3 G9 .?.e scientists .i2a c*ntinue0 t* /atc.este.un0-e0 t.a0 been bu-ne03 G<<3<<< 0ie0 in t. late-3 . 9 an0 1<3 19?G3 .a0 been 2*stly 0est-*ye0.e-e /as an*t.* sus1ecte0 its e5istence.e MA)IC su22a-y in 19?G3 /.e /*-l0.i2a3 &*7u-a3 Nii6ata3 an0 Na6asa7i.e e51e-i2ental at*2ic b*2b.e ensuin6 +i-est*-2.1eace.ey .e-e /e-e still 2any an5i*us 2*2ents +*. IEn0 Du*tin6J On 1.ic.* t. !ess t.e .= H*/ *ne c*ul0 be a 1ublic -elati*ns /-ite.ea0 /it.a0 . Be6innin6 in ea-ly May3 a si5%2an c*uncil *+ Ja1anese 0i1l*2ats e51l*-e0 /ays t* acc*22*0ate t.at .at t.t.e c*ul0 stay in t.t.e B%>9 *n t.e2 0*/n t* an ab8ect su--en0e.e B%>9s +ly *4e-.e 0ele6ates in+*-2e0 t*1 2ilita-y *++icials t. T.-*u6. a ne/ -ei6n *+ te--*.(s insistence3 .at t. !eslie )-*4es3 at Be-na-0 Ba-uc.e Ja1anese 1e*1le.e. !au-ence /as t.e test b*2b *n July 1@3 19?G.c*nciliat*-y 6estu-es.an *ne . T.i-ty%+i4e sDua-e 2iles *+ T*7y*3 lea4in6 2*-e t.e =/as selecte0 by t..a0 bu-ne0 t.>G B%>9s .a-6e *+ 1-e1a-in6 t. He states in .Ja1an3 an0 MacA-t.e *nly ci4ilian 1-esent at t.e s1-in6 *+ 19?G t. Only +*u.Al1e-*/it9 Du*tes B-i6.a0 n*t been 0est-*ye0: Hi-*s. 0ay it see2e0 less li7ely t. Ma8.e ancient ca1ital *+ Ja1an3 t. 1F8 sDua-e 2iles *+ u-ban 0/ellin6s .at &y*t* be t.at a ne6*tiate0 1eace /as t..e -esi0ents *+ Hi-*s.e Allies.ile t.ist*-ical inte-4ie/3 = e b-*u6.a0 0e2an0e0 t. Eac. t.u.e0=.*ut t.bec*2e its science e0it*-.an0 1ublic -elati*ns.a t*1 sec-et 1-*8ect /as n*t e51laine0.e State "e1a-t2ent t* be ale-t +*.-*u6.ea0e0 by Hi-*.Du*tes )ene-al "*u6las MacA-tbu.e #enta6*n an0 t.e +i-es3 an0 n*/ t/enty 2illi*n Ja1anese /e-e .t.e )ene-al 1-e0icte0 t.e b*2b.at s.e at*2ic b*2b 1-*8ect as s*le /-ite.e Ja1anese ca1ital3 an0 it /as . A 0*4is.Sti2s*n *b8ecte03 sayin6 t.is nati*n(s a6*ny.e *nly /ay t* en0 .* .in. T.a0 -ese-4e0 +*.an a 2*nt. He 7e1t u-6in6 t.e Je/s /ante0 t* 0est-*y it 1-ecisely because *+ its 6-eat cultu-al i21*-tance t* t.J T.e +e/ A2e-icans /.i2sel+3 /.ey .* state0 in a 19G9 .ei.*ut 0-*11in6 b*2bs *n t. Ja1an .*2eless.cities .e initial ta-6et *+ t.ist*-ic e51l*si*n *+ t. Ca-te. )en.ea0s *+ t.2e-c. t.ei.t t.*usan0 Ja1anese 0ea0 in t.un0-e0s *+ . THE HORROR OF HIROSHIMA .e b-ea7 /*ul0 c*2e +-*2 T*7y*3 n*t t. WILL JAPAN SURRENDER BEFORE THE BOMB IS DROPPED0 T.ant .ist*-ic /**0en te21les3 an0 n* 2ilita-y ta-6ets.G93 )a.at =*u-esistance is +inis. illia2 Manc.e c*ns1i-at*-s3 /.*(s .it* . Sec-eta-y *+ a.in A2e-ican Caesa-3 !ittle B-*/n3 19F83 1.abitants . T.e .e +ate+ul Na6asa7i b*2bin6 -un.e /a-.e c*1il*ts seat *+ t. Cla-7e3 in c.+*. On Ma-c.a0 been sa4e0 as ta-6et cities +*.t.e )ene-al /as -i6.F IDu*tin6.e23 t.e city *+ &y*t* . )en. T.a0 c*nclu0e0 in t. c*aliti*n /as +*-2in6 in t.e2.e Ja1anese a-2y.a0 been suin6 +*.e te--ible +ate /.a0 n* in7lin6 *+ t.e accele-ate0 sin7in6 *+ t.at as t.* 1lanne0 t* launc.e sat in t.t.

t/* at*2ic b*2bs.at a /ea73 ine51e-ience0 1-esi0ent3 c*21letely un0e.= B1.*-ities 2i6.3 in .0i0 I c*2e t* 7n*/ t.e0 ac-*ss t. In t.G3 >< 7il*t*ns yiel03 /as e51l*0e0 18G< +eet in t.%>.at a (ce-tain t-ust in .e *11*site 0i-ecti*n3 la-6ely un0e.t ne4e.*-ity *+K1e-s*nally -e1-esente0Kt.* t-eate0 s*2e *+ t.e te--ible natu-e *+ t. )a.is */n Sec-eta-y *+ State3 Stettinius.at Hi-*s.a0*/s3 /e +in0 a state2ent by a 0*ct*.e instant t. I s1*7e t* 2ysel+ an0 bit 2y li1 s* t. =It /as st-an6e t* us t.e2 as an e51e-i2ent +*.3 Hiroshima's Shadows3 &ensabu-* Oe 0ecla-es3 =F-*2 t.a4e use0 suc.2a5i2u2 e51l*si4e e++ect.e at*2 b*2b +*.i4es3 . By-nes.e /a.been b*2be03 0es1ite t.e use *+ nuclea.2a-ine an0 ..e +ie-y 0e2*n /.e t-a6e0y *+ Hi-*s.in6t*n3 Ja2es F..t.e aut.a0*/s3 /e +in0 t.e0 in *-0e.unta-* Hi0a.i2a(s S.a0 0isc*4e-e0 an0 yet 7ne/ s* little ab*ut its c*nseDuences3 t.3 all*/e0 . T..at c*nclu0e0 /it.Al1e-*/it9 states3 1.ic..i2a3 +*.e 0-*11in6 *+ t.ile t-eatin6 t. a /ea1*n a6ainst t. /as 0esc-ibe0 as =a 4alentine=3 a02itte0 t. 2an7in0 .a1s3 i+ t.is lau0at*-y bi*6-a1.al*ne3 an0 /.sDua-e 2iles3 an0 7ille0 1?<3<<< *+ t. It 0e4astate0 +*u.e 4icti2s: 1.e sy2b*l *+ all .i2a .e A2e-ican aut.abitants.a0 n* bac76-*un0 in +*-ei6n 1*licy3 n* e51e-t a04is*-s *+ .en /e 0i0n(t nee0 t* 0* it3 an0 7ne/ /e 0i0n(t nee0 t* 0* it3 /e use0 t.e city e4e-y 0ay. t.at B%>9 b*2be-s +le/ *4e. #e-.e /as t*tally in+luence0 by Be-na-0 Ba-uc.* 0eci0e0 u1*n t.e +act t. Hi0a says t.u2an st-en6t.= .(s 2an in as.ic.i2a an0 Na6asa7i /as t.* ulti2ately beca2e its 4icti2s.e b*2b *n Hi-*s.e >GG3<<< in.e at*2ic b*2b e51l*0e03 it beca2e t.i2a(s S.un6e.u2an e4il: it /as a sa4a6ely 1-i2iti4e 0e2*n an0 2*st 2*0e-n cu-se.at Hi-*s.a0 c-ie03 I /*ul0 .at I /*ul0 n*t c-y. In Hi-*s.= "-.e FG<3<<< Ja1anese /. tea-s.By-nes /as an inst-u2ent *+ 0i1l*2acy%at*2ic 0i1l*2acy.t* 1-ese-4e it as a ta-6et +*.at /.( *.(.e 2in0s *+ A2e-ican intellectuals /.= On 1.i5C MASS MURDER On Au6ust @3 19?G3 a u-aniu2 b*2b .= Alt.a4e l*st 2y c*u-a6e t* 7ee1 stan0in6 an0 /*-7in63 t-eatin6 0yin6 4icti2s *+ Hi-*s.a0 1ai0 su++icient -e6a-0 t* t. #-esi0ent T-u2an -e+e--e0 t* .t2a-e ste2s +-*2 a sus1ici*n t.at =T-u2an /as 2*4in6 in Duite t. My ni6.e in+luence *+ By-nes.e $nite0 States *n all b*2b% -elate0 2atte-s in t.i2a. Only a+te.?.e ai./.*-ity in t.= "a4i0 McCull*u6.?1G3 "-.t.i2a.i2a3 acc*-0in6 t* A2e-ican a-c.i2sel+ as t.y *+ T-u2an3 /. S.e 1-esi0ent *+ t.i2sel+ t* be 2ani1ulate0 int* 1e-1et-atin6 a te--ible 2assac-e.e int-*0ucti*n t* Hi-*s.u2anis2( +las.e 0ecisi*n t* 0-*1 t.at =T-u2an 0i0n(t 7n*/ .e A2e-ican a02inist-ati*n an0 its 2ilita-y aut.t.e Inte-i2 C*22ittee(s 0elibe-ati*ns.= T.e b*2b3 in +act .ab*4e Hi-*s./ea1*ns.e te--ibly 2an6le0 an0 bu-ne0 4icti2s3 =My eyes /e-e -ea0y t* *4e-+l*/ /it. 19@3 =By-nes s1*7e /it.is */n.e in+luence *+ By-nes an0 Ba-uc.t.e s*le aut.t.*u6.e 1-*8ect t. He .a0 been 7e1t unt*uc.a0 ne4e.. I+ I . t.*-ities .

e can say t.i2a b*2bin6 BSe1t.e .e use *+ t. In Na6asa7i3 t.at t.e. T. G3 19?G et seD. T-u2an Ha-1e-3 198<3 1.1-*1a6an0a ai2e0 at c-eatin6 t. T.e Du*tes )ene-al )-*4es( in0i6nant c*22ent3 =T.Na6asa7i .e Rec*-0: t.1 (t.e int-*0ucti*n t* Hiroshima's Shadows3 /e +in0 t.at =One *+ t.e s1eci+ic ta-6et cities.GC =T.e Ne/ Y*-7 Ti2es at +ull sala-y /.e b*2bs 2ust be use0 /it.e Hi-*s.e 0ecisi*n t* 0-*1 (at*2ic( lea+lets *n Ja1anese cities /as n*t 2a0e until Au6ust F3 t.e use *+ t.a0 been b*2be0.e-e /e-e ab*ut 1G< 0eat.ile B1.ic.e use *+ t.e at*2ic b*2b.et.a0 been any -a0iati*n e++ects *n t.e0 se4e-al st*-ies in t.e at*2ic b*2b sa4e0 =a Dua-te.an0 illia2 #.i2sel+ 4a-i*usly state0 t.ile als* -ecei4in6 a +ull sala-y +-*2 t.i2a an0 Na6asa7i /e-e 2ilita-y ta-6ets.at an at*2ic b*2b /*ul0 be 0-*11e0.In t./a-nin6.at Bat Hi-*s.i2a: t.i2a casualties /e-e c.e a.t.<?3 =In 19?G I . On June 13 19?G3 a +*-2al an0 *++icial 0ecisi*n /as ta7en 0u-in6 a 2eetin6 *+ t.e t*tal 0eat.i2aC =st-ictly 2ilita-y 0a2a6e /as insi6ni+icant. T.1<3<<< 0ie0 in t.e At*2ic B*2b 0-*11e0 *n Ja1an at t/* 1laces 0e4*te0 al2*st e5clusi4ely t* /a.e Ne/ Y*-7 Ti2es 0enyin6 t.e 0ay a+te.e at*2ic b*2b= 1ublis.e b*2bin6. )-*4es see2s t* .= In +act3 2any t.ic.ei.e Hi-*s.= =Cl*sely lin7e0 t* t.i2a an0 a11-*5i2ately ><3<<< 2enK*+ /.al+%2illi*n A2e-ican li4es=3 an0 +inally settle0 *n t.e -esi0ents *+ Hi-*s.e s*%calle0 Inte-i2 C*22ittee n*t t* /a-n t.at /e c*ul0 n*t 6i4e t.@?C illia2 !.*.il0-en sittin6 in t.e lea+lets !e*na-0 Na0le.= Mean/.at t.e at*2ic b*2b.*usan0s *+ t.= H*/ a-e /e t* -ec*ncile t. )-*4es +i6u-e *+ =a 2illi*n A2e-ican li4es sa4e0.e-e .i2a b*2bin6.i-0 (a-ticle *+ +i+t.e aut.abitants /e-e /a-ne0 by lea+lets t. t*ll /as 2a0e u1 *+ 2ilita-y 1e-s*nnel.t.at Hi-*s. Ha--y T-u2an(s 4ain6l*-i*us b*ast in O++ T.e b*2b /as 0-*11e0 because B1. Ma8. T. ab*ut .e #-esi0ent(s Inte-i2 C*22ittee *n t.i2a is t.at t.at t.i2a Museu2 in 19@< an0 19F< /e-e 0-*11e0 a+te.al+3 *.*-t3 2*-e t.e belie+ t.us3 bet/een t.e At*2ic B*2b 0eci0e0 *n May .*+ a 2illi*n A2e-ican li4es=3 a =.e 2yt.at t.9 *+ Hiroshima's Shadows /e +in0 t.class-**2s. )en.e A2e-ican le6en0 *+ Hi-*s.e =1ublic -elati*ns a6ent +*.e-2*-e3 t.e in.e use *+ t.e t/* cities3 ?. In s.s *+ Hi-*s.e Hi-*s.e )en. .e 4icti2s *+ t.* /as /-itin6 +*.e clai2 t.e Hi-*s.e 1*1ulati*ns *+ t.e Ja1anese a-e still c*ntinuin6 t.e casualties /e-e ci4ilians..e Hea0Dua-te-s *+ t.ey /e-e n*t 0-*11e0 until Au6ust 1<3 a+te.an 9GL *+ t.e Duesti*n *+ /.e ta-6et cities is t.e b*2b /*ul0 sa4e a 2illi*n A2e-ican li4esK%a +i6u-e in t.*ut 1-i*.insiste0 t.at un0e-1ins t.e attac7.C in /.a /a-nin6 *+ an at*2ic b*2b attac7 /as 6i4en t* t.= T-u2an .e #-i4ate #a1e-s *+ Ha--y S.= On 1.e -eal2 *+ +antasy.e Ja1anese any /a-nin6(.*+ t.( t.e ci4ilian 1*1ulati*ns *+ t.ese 2eetin6s. !au-ence3 /. Ja2es By-nes an0 O11en.. By-nes sat in *n t.s a2*n6 2ilita-y 1e-s*nnel in t.e Man.e Ja1anese Sec*n0 a-2y /e-e l*cate0 in Hi-*s.is .ei2e.at t.attan #-*8ect(s 2ana6e-s /e-e l*bbyin6 t* use t. T.t.is state2ent /it.e t.?L *+ t.a11ene0 because t.ei. Fu-t."e1a-t2ent as t.i2a -ecei4e0 n* a04ance /a-nin6 ab*ut t. T.t.. J*nes -ecall seein6 in t.e city.a0 *-0e-e0 t.a4e been t.1-*0ucti*n.

@@C =T.e +*ll*/in6 2e2*-an0u2 t* t.e R**se4elt%T-u2an at*2ic C*l0 ast-ate6y *+ 0ecei4in6 t.e at*2 b*2b c*22an0 /as 4e-y +ea-+ul t.e clai2 t.F*-ce /as -unnin6 *ut *+ cities t* bu-n.t.ic.e Ja1anese )*4e-n2ent.e 0e4astati*n in Ja1an /as e5t-a*-0ina-y3 an0 t.at Ja1an /as still 2ilita-ily 4iable in t.e city *+ Hi-*s.e. cities /e-e 7ey 2ilita-y ta-6ets is unt-ue. 1?C =T.e t*/n *+ Hi-*s.a0 a 4este0 inte-est in *bscu-in6 t. N*t *nly is t.at b*t.e clai2 t.e t-ut.b*-in6 -e6i*ns *t*/ns c*nstitutes a 2ilita-y *b8ecti4e.e t*/n.a0 i2a6ine0 1*ssible an0 t.eat +-*2 t.*u.at B1.e /a. t.e sec*n0 ele2ent *+ t.e attenti*n *+ 2*-e t.at /e-e /*-t.e /a.city all *4e.ist*-y /it.e -e2a-7able -ec*-0 *+ Ells/*-t.*bse-4ati*n 2issi*n *4e.a0 1-*4en success+ul +abey*n0 anyt.e -esi0ential 0ist-ict *+ t.t.t.*ut any 1-*tecti*n *s1ecial 2ilita-y installati*ns *+ any 7in03 but als* n*ne *+ t. t* l*+t t.e +i-st /ee7 in June 19?GC any ta-6et cities le+t t.e ><t.e int-*0ucti*n t* Hiroshima's Shadows c*nclu0es t.1laneC +le/ t. 4e-y li6.e !e6ati*n *+ S/it9e-lan0 .= Bas *+ June 13 19?G3 be+*-e t.at an in4asi*n *+ t.e /a.at an (at*2ic /a-nin6( /as 6i4en t* t.*ut t.i2a #il*t=3 B1.us atte21tin6 t* c-eate sy21at.l54iiC =T.i2a at*2ic battle 1lan 2y B%>9 Bna2e0 Jabbitt III3 Ca1tain J*.an G< B%>9s3 an0 *n a bi6 0ay3 /e c*ul0 sen0 u1 as 2any as ?G< 1lanesM= =T.at late.e 2a8*.*+ ci4ilians an0 0est-*yin6 a 6-eat 1a-t *+ t.an0 be 1*litically able t* use t.e at*2ic b*2bs is unt-ue.e2 u1/a-0s +-*2 ? *.e .t su--en0e.e +i-e%b*2bin6 *+ Ja1an .i2a is unt-ue.e at*2 b*2b.is is3 *+ c*u-se3 sati-e *n Ca--in6t*n(s 1a-t.i2a3 b*2bs *+ a ne/ ty1e3 7illin6 an0 in8u-in6 in *ne sec*n0 a la-6e nu2be.e-e /e-e n* l*n6e.e t*tality *+ t.= T.Bas *+ t. (T.e sec*n0a-y ta-6et *+ &*7u-a *n Au6ust @3 19?G.e2sel4es.*u-s%a%0ay t* a4*i0 suc.at Ja1an 2i6.y +*t.e clai2 t.e .ese state2ents is +*un0 in t. T. a 2is+*-tune.t l*sses B*+ B%>9sC.i2a a 1-*4incial t*/n /it.in6 t.t/enty%+i4e yea-s be+*-e +inally -eleasin6 itC.t by u10-a+ts st-*n6 en*u6.i-0 /a.= A PILOT1S STORY C*--*b*-ati*n *+ t. 1<C =A+te.is /as 2atc.ey .e /eat. Al-ea0y t.e +i-st b*2b /as 0-*11e03 t.= B1. An0 t.e at*2ic b*2bs /e-e 0-*11e0.e +ace *+ Ja1an Be5ce1t +*.e 1*1ulace *+ Hi-*s. t.*2e islan0s /as necessa-y /it.at t.e Hi-*s.at /as all*/e0 t* -eac.e T-u2an 6*4e-n2ent cens*-e0 an0 c*nt-*lle0 all t.be+*-e /e c*ul0 0-*1 t. sat *n it +*.C =in city a+te.*l*caustC t.as -ecei4e0 a c*22unicati*n +-*2 t. S*2eti2es t.e use *+ t. T*--ey Ca--in6t*n3 =Re+lecti*ns *+ a Hi-*s. Ai. 1.G3<<< +eet all t.1<3<<< +eet.= B1.( On Au6ust @3 19?G3 A2e-ican ai-1lanes -elease0 *n t.in+*-2ati*n t.at*2ic .e !e6ati*n *+ S/it9e-lan0 *n Au6ust 113 19?G +*-/a-0e0 +-*2 T*7y* t.n Abb*tt ils*n(s t.e 2*st te--ible +i-est*-2s in .ese +i-est*-2s /as s* intense t.= T.e nei6.e0 by t.C B1.e sec*n0 b*2b3 s* *u1e*1le /*-7e0 a-*un0 t.e Ja1anese . B1. s* as t* su--e1titi*usly 1-*l*n6 t.e 1ublic3 an0 *+ c*u-se3 T-u2an .un+ai-ly an0 t.t*l0 us t.i21-essi*n /e /*n t.at t.9C =As 1a-t *+ t.e cl*c73 >?%.e /ay u1 t* 8 *.cities s1a-e0 because -ese-4e0 +*. T.ey i6nite0 t.e nea-%t*tality *+ Ja1an(s 0e+encelessness. Re6a-0in6 t./a4es *+ B%>9s /e-e cau6.e State "e1a-t2ent B/.e 1ublic int* belie4in6 t.

e use *+ t.ea4y ta5es t* su11*-t t.lan0 in4asi*n *+ t.e Ba-ba-is2 *+ t.e J*int C.ese +eelin6s *+ insecu-ity .in t.el1in6 set t. Fu-t.since.e c*2bine0 Na4y su-+ace an0 ai.e "a-7 A6es. 1@3 =On May G3 May 1> an0 June F3 t.an t.at t.= T.= )a.2essa6es ca2e *n May 183 July F3 July 1.t. is t.ea-ly su--en0e.a4e t* sca-e t. Ca--in6t*n c*ntinues3 1. DID THE ATOMIC BOMB WIN THE WAR A2AINST JAPAN0 A02i-al illia2 !ea.e e++ecti4e sea bl*c7a0e an0 t. >?G3 I Was There3 Mc)-a/ Hill./innin6 *-l0 a. I /as n*t tau6.*-i9e0. Ca--in6t*n Du*tes A02i-al illia2 ".t* b-*/beat t.ine #*liticians e4e.a6ainst Ja1an.e +i-st t* use it Bt.= Ca--in6t*n c*nclu0es3 1.e at*2ic b*2bC /e .Al1e-*/it9 n*tes3 1.t.e A2e-ican 1e*1le +*.is ti2e .e .e ti2in6 *+ t.e 1-e1a-ati*n *+ 1lans +*.e.e at*2ic b*2b3 /.s1-in6 an0 su22e. N*ne *+ us t.been aut.i2a an0 Na6as7i /as *+ n* 2ate-ial assistance in *u.e ea-ly Au6ust ti2etable *+ t.y3 1.c-i2es a6ainst t.II t.e in4asi*n itsel+ /as ne4eaut.t t* 2a7e /a.e /a-.e Ja1anese 2ainlan0 /as necessa-y t* /in t.il0-en. T.y als* state0 in I Was There3 =My */n +eelin6 is t.e O++ice *+ St-ate6ic Se-4ices B*u.e.at t.e sea.e O7ina/a ca21ai6n /as e5clusi4ely -elate0 t* t.e success+ul b*2bin6 /it.y3 +-*2 I Was There3 =It is 2y *1ini*n t.a4e been e51l*ite0 by unsc-u1ul*us C*l0 a.>>3 =T-u2an(s /ant*n use *+ at*2ic /ea1*ns le+t t.e b*tt*2 *+ t.a0 e4e.e Ja1anese /e-e al-ea0y 0e+eate0 an0 -ea0y t* su--en0ebecause *+ t.i*n3 an0 /a-s cann*t be /*n by 0est-*yin6 /*2en an0 c.e A2e-ican 1e*1le +eelin6 0-a2atically less secu-e a+te.e s*le 1u-1*se *+ .us T-u2an3 u-6e0 *n by )ene-al )-*4es3 clai2s t. !ea.e ca-0s. T.e sta6e +*.Du*tes A02i-al !ea.e te--ibly e51ensi4e an0 c-i2inally unnecessa-y ca21ai6n a6ainst O7ina/a.a0 e4e.+elt be+*-e3 an0 t.a0 a0*1te0 an et.e cente-1iece /as t. an0 July 1@.at +as.e Ja1anese Na4y /as al-ea0y *n t.e c-i2inally unnecessa-y use *+ at*2ic /ea1*ns *n Ja1an.e at*2ic b*2b.an in4asi*n3 but t.e 2*nst-*us t-ut.e use *+ t.a0 +*-ce0 Ja1an int* a 1*siti*n t.at 2a0e .e C*l0 a-.ie+s3 t.+*-ce acti*n e4en by t. c*n4enti*nal /ea1*ns.en n* in4asi*n .= As Senat*.at bein6 t.ey .Mac.*-i9e03 an0 /as n*t in t.ine4itable.at =a 2illi*n A2e-ican li4es /e-e sa4e0= by t.e JCS 0i0 *-0e./a.= .e A2e-ican 1e*1le int* 1ayin6 .e 1*tentialities *+ t.*+ 19?G3 t.at n* 2a8*.ical stan0a-0 c*22*n t* t.en 7ne/ t.intelli6ence *1e-ati*nC3 -e1*-te0 Ja1an /as c*nsi0e-in6 ca1itulati*n.ell *ut *+ (e2= in *-0e. 1@3 =T.e.Han0enbe-6 sai03 = e . J(accuseM I accuse #-esi0ents F-an7lin R**se4elt an0 Ha--y T-u2an *+ 0elibe-ately c*22ittin6 /a.= Ca--in6t*n +u-t. T.t.is ba-ba-*us /ea1*n at Hi-*s.e at*2ic b*2b3 but it /as 2y *1ini*n3 an0 I u-6e0 it st-*n6ly *n t. =A la-6e 1a-t *+ t.

e-e /as any *++icial -ec*6niti*n *+ t.c-i2inal. t.e at*2ic b*2b.an6e0 in 19@8 as a /a. illia2 !au-ence -i0in6 in t.a4e been e++ecti4ely 1-e4ente0 +-*2 ta7in6 any stan0 *n t.e Russians ente-in6 an0 /it.e T*7y* t-ibunal3 Ju06e Ra0.t.. #RESS INN$IRY.en t.t.e at*2ic b*2b *n Na6asa7i3 /it.e c.e-s3 .u-c.e Inte-nati*nal T-ibunal +*.e /as .is 2attebecause t.u-c.*ut t.at a st-*n6e. Ja1an3 /as Duietly c*ntinue0. .e T-eaty /it.e A2e-ican 2ilita-y *ccu1ati*n3 /. 2et in T*7y* +-*2 19?@ t* 19?8.abin*0 *+ In0ia3 0is2isse0 t.e Ai.e at*2ic b*2b 2assac-es in Ja1an. A+te.= Se1te2be.a0 c*ns1i-e0 t* c*22it at-*cities3 statin6 t.is c. t.in6 t* 0* /it. #.*+ t.e last ti2e t.ic.i11e-s.e Cat.e /aat all.e 7neelin6 /*-s.?3 =T.in t/* /ee7s /it. *++icially en0e0 in 19G> /it.at3 si-' it.= Al1e-*/it9 als* Du*tes )ene-al Cu-tis !eMay3 c.*ut t. it. THE NA2ASA I BOMB .e 0issentin6 2e2be.case 2i6.e stan0in6 $nite0 States 0e2an0 +*.is la/ye-s state0 t* t. AMERICAN MILITARY AUTHORITIES SAY ATOMIC BOMB UNNECESSARY . Ja1anese *++icials .3 The Fall Of apan3 by illia2 C-ai63 "ial3 NY3 19@F3 =t.= T.ei. T.e-e is n* 1ublic 0iscussi*n *+ t. St-an6el*4e3 .e en0 *+ t.a-6e t.at /as t.ei.e 4ict*-s3 because t. A 4e-y 1*1ula. All *+ t.e 0-*11in6 *+ t.e c*%1il*t(s seat *+ t.ic.at Ja1anese lea0e-s .>93 19?G3 state2ent.but suc.state2ents.b*2bin6s *+ Hi-*s.as n*/ been -ebuilt3 an0 is a 1-*2inent +eatu-e *+ t.e2 0ie0.e E21e-*.e at*2ic b*2b .t be 2a0e a6ainst t. cent-al tenets *+ Ja1anese cultu-e as /ell.-eatene0 n*t *nly t. t. T/enty%ei6.a4in6 en6a6e0 in c*ns1i-acy t* c*22it at-*cities.e at*2ic b*2b' !eMay.e Ai.t.is t-ial3 ..e /a/*ul0 .e 1e-s*n *+ t. T.t Ja1anese 2ilita-y an0 ci4ilian lea0e-s /e-e accuse0 *+ .e 1-*secut*-s i22e0iately *b8ecte03 an0 cens*-e0 t.e0-al +ell *n t. "u-in6 .@3 =T.e Asian 4e-si*n *+ Nu-e2be-6 T-ials3 t.c-i2es c*ul0 n*t be6in t* a11-*ac.i2a an0 Na6asa7i.9.2*4ie in Ja1an t*0ay is !ride" The Fa#ef$l %omen#3 /.i2a an0 Na6asa7i.c-i2es by an Inte-nati*nal Milita-y T-ibunal /.*ut t.*lic c.e 4ict*-i*us Allies 2*4e0 1-*21tly t* t-y Ja1anese *++icials +*.(unc*n0iti*nal su--en0e-( 0i-ectly t.a0 n*t.e te--*. s.F*-ce 0-*11e0 t.East3 t.e at*2ic b*2bs *n Hi-*s.e -**+ an0 2as*n-y *+ t.c-i2es=.e 1-inci1al ta-6et /as a Cat.e B%>93 1-eten0in6 t* be "-.e c-i2es *+ Hi-*s.e Na6asa7i t*u-.e 0ecisi*n t* use t..*/s #-i2e Ministe.a4e been *4e.i2a an0 Na6asa7i3 t. T*0ay3 ?93<<< A2e-ican t-**1s a-e still stati*ne0 in Ja1an3 an0 t.ic.)ene-al Hi0e7i T*8* in a +a4*-able li6.*usan0 Ja1anese 2ilita-y 2en /e-e +*un0 6uilty *+ /a.F*-ces3 1.e Russians an0 /it. T.e-e a6ain t..t.*lic cat. T. si5 *t.*ut t. Y*u 2ean t.e at*2ic b*2b -esulte0 in in0isc-i2inate 2u-0e-.=/a.Al1e-*/it9 1*ints *ut3 1.ie+ *+ t.e Fa.at T*8*(s /a. F-*2 19?G%G1 se4e-al t.

e testi2*ny *+ t.?.2any /ee7s be+*-e t.Al1e-*/it9C.. In Hiroshima's Shadow3 t.= One *+ t.3 !a/-ence /-*te3 =T.by t.S..e !i6.Al1e-*/it9 Du*tes Ja2es M.e l*-0 1-i4y seal3 t. As t..F*-ces sai0 it /asn(t necessa-y an0 t.in t..e +i-st t* c*n0e2n t.13 19?G3 Ja1an /*ul0 .T.a4e been unnecessa-y +*. C*21etent testi2*ny e5ists t* 1-*4e t.is attac73 =T.e at*2ic b*2bs .a0 0eci0e0 as ea-ly as May 19?G t..e $.-ist in A2e-ica issue0 a +*-2al state2ent in Ma-c.e su-1-ise b*2bin6s *+ Hi-*s. =T.e 1e*1le *+ Ja1an.II /as t.F*-ce unit 0u-in6 *-l0 a.e $ntie0 States 6*4e-n2ent /as in 0e+iance *+ e4e-y senti2ent an0 e4e-y c*n4icti*n u1*n /.e A-2y Ai.a4e su--en0e-e0 e4en i+ t.*u6.esitate t* e21l*y t. On 1.e 2*st 0est-ucti4e /ea1*n *+ all ti2es in0isc-i2inately a6ainst 2en3 /*2en an0 c.ic.ey 1e-sua0e Ja1an t* acce1t unc*n0iti*nal su--en0e-.its use a6ainst Ja1an.e Su-4ey(s *1ini*n t./.at +i-st use0 t.*+ stin6in6 e0it*-ials3 t.e a.e at*2ic b*2b an0 a1*l*6i9e +*.a0 n*t been 0-*11e0 an0 e4en i+ n* in4asi*n . Ne/s an0 *-l0 Re1*-t.e /*-0 (c-i2e( i21lies sin3 an0 sin -eDui-es a c*nsci*usness *+ 6uilt. T.F*-ces tell us /e c*ul0 . t* t. e .e /a-.at ce-tainly 1-i*.a4e sinne0 6-ie4*usly a6ainst t.13 19?G an0 in all 1-*bability 1-i*.e C.Ai.at t.*+ Cat.*ul0 be en0e0 e4en i+ it 2eant acce1tance *+ 0e+eat *n allie0 te-2s.a0 been /*n al-ea0y.c*nstant c-y in ans/e.e si21le t-ut.e at*2ic b*2bin6s /as "a4i0 !a/-ence3 +*un0e.an 1<<3<<< 2en3 /*2en an0 c.t.sin.+utu-e 2issi*ns.e C.e 1*/et.y5iate an0 c-e2ate 2*-e t.at t.a4e use0 a .S.S. selecte0 ta-6ets *n t.t* c-iticis23 but it /ill ne4e.ic. St-ate6ic B*2bin6 Su-4ey -e1*-t *+ July 13 19?@ states3 =T.e Relati*n *+ t.=KC*22issi*n *n t. Ou. S1*7es2en +*.u-c.ic.ese ci-cu2stances3 /e .c*nscience as a nati*n 2ust t-*uble us.e -esults +*.es *+ C.a0 been 1lanne0 *c*nte21late0.*--ible /ea1*n t* as1.0i0 t. *u.e /a.e-ase +-*2 *u.e +i-st *n Au6ust 1F3 19?G. . analy9e0 t.e at*2ic b*2b ca2e. It is t.is in a /a.t *+ t.e basis *+ nee03 an0 /.e la/s *+ )*0 an0 a6ainst t.ic.3 t.e $. 19?@ Bcite0 by )a.a2be-K an0 all t.t.= On Oct*be. s1*7es2an +*.*ut t. e 2ust c*n+ess *u.83 )a.at /e3 *+ all ci4ili9e0 nati*ns3 t.-istian Fait.e at*2ic .e Fe0e-al C*uncil *+ t.e t-ut.ci4ili9ati*n is base0.esitatin6 t* use 1*is*n 6as3 0i0 n*t .= B*t.*ul0 be t.e 2*st 4*ci+e-*us c-itics *+ t.u-c.*+ $.e E21e-*-3 t.* en0e0 t.e /a.e 2*st aut.il0-en. T. B*t.>.e +*-ei6n 2iniste-3 an0 t. is /e a-e 6uilty.2in0s t.i2a an0 Na6asa7i at*2ic b*2bs 0i0 n*t 0e+eat Ja1an3 n*.e at*2ic b*2bin6 *+ Ja1anese ci4ilians.at Ja1an /as see7in6 t* su--en0e. )illis3 e0it*.a4e -ea0ily /*n /it.an0 e0it*. St-ate6ic B*2bin6 Su-4ey3 /.e na4y 2iniste.il0-en in a s*-t *+ su1e-%let./innin6 t. He si6ne0 a nu2be. =Milita-y necessity /ill be *u..t* N*4e2be.t* "ece2be.= On N*4e2be.*u.i2a an0 Na6asa7i a-e 2*-ally in0e+ensible.at t.*lic *-l03 =I /*ul0 call it a c-i2e /e-e it n*t t.e acti*n ta7en by t.s.e Hi-*s.e at*2ic b*2b un0e.G3 !a/-ence c*ntinue0 .al 6as c.e 1-i2e 2iniste-3 t.e $nite0 States s. T. b*2bin6s 2ust be 8u06e0 t* . 2ilita-y3 1*litical an0 -eli6i*us lea0e-s s1*7e *ut a6ainst t.al-ea0y /*n *.e ene2y lea0e-s /.*-itati4e Ai.e C.e /a.

= "u-in6 . c*nt-i4ance(.a-0 M.t-ie0 t* +in0 1eace+ul uses +*.e 1*tential +*.als* t-ie0 t* /a-n t.e 0a-7 as t* .*u6.6*4e-n2ent .a0 +*-2e0 an un.83 19G. (Ou.ne4e. As Du*te0 by )a.e /ea1*n an0 late.e F-ee2as*ns .t *.= C*nt-*l *+ at*2ic ene-6y .*se 2*ney an0 1*/e.enati*ns3 es1ecially t.G83 Milt*n Eisen.>@13 /e +in0 t.an6e0 .e $nite0 States inti2ately3 an0 /as a/a-0e0 t.ellis.b*2b.1eace( ente-e0 t.in0 t.-e+e--e0 t* it as a (. T.at*2ic ene-6y.e /as actually /a-nin6 t.e 2ilia-y% in0ust-ial c*21le5.be+*-e t.i2a an0 Na6asa7i /ill +*-e4e.2isuse *+ t.is ne/ +*-ce at Hi-*s.e 1.s*u6.at t.t3 by t.cliDue en*-2*us 1*/e-3 an0 Eisen.e21l*y2ent *+ t. ANOTHER EISENHOWER SPEA S Alt.te*us citi9ens *+ t.= "a4i0 !a/-ence /as an a4*/e0 c*nse-4ati4e3 a success+ul business2an3 /.e0 *ut at la-6e #enta6*n bu06ets. #. t* t. e *u6.t. by Eisen.i2a an0 Na6asa7i /as a su1-e2e 1-*4*cati*n t* *t.is *1ini*n *+ t.* 7ne/ ele4en 1-esi0ents *+ t.*ly alliance /.e.e A2e-ican 1e*1le in t. Ni5*n3 A1-il >>3 19F<.t Eisen.is 0ay t.is #-esi0ency3 "/i6.is 1-esi0ency . MACARTHUR1S WARNIN2 )ene-al "*u6las MacA-t. T* t.e-3 Milt*n Eisen.e acDuisiti*n *+ un/a--ante0 in+luence3 /.et.e 2ilita-y%in0ust-ial c*21le53 t.uns*u6.e A2e-ican 1e*1le.u.is t.e inte-nati*nal ban7e-s3 t.*/e-3 a 1-*2inent e0ucat*-3 /as e4en 2*-e 4*cal *n t.e-e+*-e3 t* a1*l*6i9e in uneDui4*cal te-2s at *nce t* t.e #-esi0ency In Re4ie/ B"*uble0ay3 19@9C3 *n Janua-y 1F3 19@13 /a-ne03 =In t.e5ists an0 /ill 1e-sist.e c*uncils *+ 6*4e-n2ent /e 2ust 6ua-0 a6ainst t.e inte-nati*nal ban7e-s3 Eisen.e A2e-ican 1e*1le *+ t.este-3 !ittle B-*/n3 19F83 1.*/e.is sce1ticis2 *+ t.be *n t..*le /*-l0 +*.e 0isast-*us -ise *+ 2is1lace0 1*/e.e 1*/e.*/e.e ta-6et cities. M*-e*4e-3 its use 4i*late0 t.Al1e-/it93 1.ey 0* n*t un0e-stan0 /.sai03 =Ou.e c*nscience *+ t.e $nite0 States.*/e.= His b-*t.as 7e1t us in a .e Ei*nists an0 t.e las.is +a-e/ell s1eec.e Me0al *+ F-ee0*2 by #-esi0ent Ric.e /as t-yin6 t* say3 t.a0 n*/ 6i4en t.e at*2ic b*2b3 0u-in6 . Ce-tainly /.t3 t.e2 a6ainst.be.>>G3 =I7e /*ul0 ne4e.e S*4iet $ni*n.e $nite0 Nati*ns "ece2be.l*se .*u.e use *+ t.@9>3 =In 19GF3 . In The &isenhower 'iaries3 1.e -e1eate0ly 4*ice0 .le+t t.*/e.e /.a11ene0 at Hi-*s.e n*-2al stan0a-0s *+ /a-+a-e by /i1in6 *ut enti-e 1*1ulati*ns3 2*stly ci4ilians3 in t.*/e-3 in .e at*2ic b*2b.is *1ini*n3 as Du*te0 by Ste4e Neal3 The &isenhowers "*uble0ay3 19F8.at =T.c*ul0 n*t be *4e-c*2e by -i6.= By +ailin6 t* na2e t.-ase (at*2s +*.*/e.. a s1eec.e le5ic*n *+ inte-nati*nal a++ai-s /it.at .e Ne/ *-l0 O-0e.-eat3 as Du*te0 in (merican Ceaser3 by illia2 Manc.e A2e-ican 1e*1le *n lea4in6 t.c.is sub8ect. Eisen.at .

-esi6ne0 +-*2 t.e ne/ an0 2uc.9@3 =Bac7 in t.a4e . St-auss /as a11-ise0 *+ O11en.*+ .ei2e.S.an0 i21-u0ent 0an6e-*us ass*ciati*ns /it. Yet3 in -et-*s1ect3 t.e ca2e t* t.in7 tan7 +*.a0 been 7ille0 0e+en0in6 C*22unis2 /it.at O11en. He /as -e1lace0 by !e/is !ic.= T.in6 t* t. At*2ic Ene-6y C*22issi*n3 /it.te-3 clas1in6 .e At*2ic Ene-6y C*22issi*n 4*te0 t* st-i1 O11en.t* .is .t./as sab*ta6in6 1-*6-ess *n 0e4el*1in6 t.e b**73 R*be-t O11en.ei2e.at O11en.A04ance0 Stu0y3 a t./as un0e.el0 +-*2 A1-il G t* May @3 19G?. A Ne/ Ci4ili9ati*n3 by Si0ney an0 Beat-ice ebb3 t.e tele1.e-. St-auss t.e s.ea-in6 /as . t.in6 t.is 2ent*-3 Albe-t Einstein3 1-esi0e0 *4e.e bet-ayal3 . Ott* F-isc.-e+u6ee =6eniuses=3 +inance0 by t.e C*22issi*n.*+ -esea-c.*ne t* b**7 tables at t. . t.e c-y *+ 6-a4e nati*nal e2e-6ency.-e4ie/in6 t.Han0enbe-6(s +a2*us c*22ent3 = e .e 0eci0e0 t* *4e-l**7 t. It see2e0 a11a-ent t. O11en.a0 been a li+el*n6 C*22unist.e scientists /.at . O11en. -e2e2be-s t. Al/ays t.t* -esi6n as 0i-ect*.*+ t.ei2e.e2 until .-eti-e0 t* #-incet*n3 /.t* .*2e +*.i2 t* 2a--y &itty #eunin6 an0 2a7e a .#a-ty 0isci1line3 t.e be t-ie0.at .e ne/s *+ t. Ba-uc.ese 0isaste-s see2 ne4e.a0 built t.(= O11en.ey -ecei4e0 t.is secu-ity clea-ance3 -ulin6 t.ei2e.c*ntinue0 .ei2e.e Institute +*.e-e . A+te.e #a-ty t.ei2e-(s 2any C*22unist ass*ciati*ns3 but .e ne/s *+ its success at Hi-*s..ei2e.is /i+e /as &itty #eunin63 /i0*/ *+ J*e "allet3 an A2e-ican C*22unist /.e +*un0 t.. =He /as .e-e .ea4ily in+luence0 by S*4iet C*22unis2 =. Fu-i*us at t.e e5*-bitant +un0s 0e2an0e0.e . a 2i5tu-e *+ -elie+3 1-i0e3 8*y3 s.= THE NEW ATOMIC A2E T.as been s*2e te--ible e4il t* 6*bble us u1 i+ /e 0i0 n*t blin0ly -ally be.1e-1etual state *+ +ea-K7e1t us in a c*ntinu*us sta21e0e *+ 1at-i*tic +e-4*-K/it. Because O11en.ab*4e .ai-2an.e b*2bin6 *+ Hi-*s./as 0elayin6 t.ei2e-3 "a-7 #-ince3 by Jac7 Ru22el3 199>3 /e +in03 1./al7e0 a-*un0 =li7e a 1-i9e+i6.en t.i2a .e n*t*-i*us !inc*ln B-i6a0e in S1ain.e at*2ic b*2b /e-e 6lee+ul /.*uts *+ 8*y3 (Hi-*s.e $nite0 States t.e -esults3 t.a4e been Duite -eal.an0s t*6et. A .tenstein St-auss3 *+ &u.e -estate2ent *+ Senat*.e as7e0 O11en.ei2e.a4e t* sca-e t.* .ei2e.as been 0est-*ye0M( (Many *+ 2y +-ien0s /e-e -us.e. O11en.t* celeb-ate. at t.* .-e+use0.3 se-4in6 as c.a11ene03 see2 ne4e.*c7 an0 sa0ness.e S*4iet $ni*n c*ul0 6et its */n 4e-si*n *n line. He beca2e 0i-ect*.ea0 as .e 1*0iu2=.e =1*ssesse0 substantial 0e+ects *+ c. 2*-e 0est-ucti4e .e !a F*n0a H*tel in Santa Fe in *-0e.in0 it by +u-nis.y0-*6en b*2b until t.ei2e.i2a an0 Na6asa7i.is . In t.e .is /as t.e At*2ic Ene-6y C*22issi*n t* atten0 t* .is 2ent*-3 Be-na-0 Ba-uc.ell *ut *+ (e2.en *-0e-e0 .en *-0e-e0 t.e .e ne/ly +*-2e0 $.n3 !*eb C*.a-acte. 7n*/n sub4e-si4es=.is business inte-ests.y0-*6en b*2b.is 2any C*22unist #a-ty Ass*ciati*ns: .e +*un0e-s *+ Fabian S*cialis2 in En6lan0.ei2e.i2a /as 6-eete0 /it. O11en.

e0 The S#ran+elove *e+acy" The Impac# Of The N$clear Threa# On Children3 c.F*-ce 1-e+e--e0 2et.e-3 . T.e =te--*.at t.t.yllis !aFa-6e 1ublis. !au-ence3 sittin6 in t.F*-ce .*2e /it.n 4*n Neu2ann3 t.ic.an6e0.**ls .-*niclin6 t.at Abba Eban3 t.-*u6.a stea0y 8*b.t. J*.e 0ecline in 1ublic 2*-ality. N* *ne t*l0 t.e. I+ t.e c.t.2issiles.*0s *+ tec. O11en. in 19@@.ic.e c.e2 t.e-e+*-e3 be in4*l4e0 in Is-ael(s 1-ese-4ati*n. T.ei2e.e /*-l0 .is 1u-1*se.-eat *+ anni. It /as illia2 !.e Institute3 /e-e .niDues an0 inst-u2entalities +*. It beca2e a billi*n 0*lla.e 0es7s *++e-e0 n* 1-*tecti*n a6ainst nuclea.e at*2ic b*2b3 RAN" C*-1. t.e *b8ect *+ -ec*22en0in6 t* t.F@< *+ &ins#ein) His *ife (nd Times /e +in0 t.e F*-0 F*un0ati*n.e sa/ t./as al-ea0y a t-ustee *+ t.ea0 *+ t. . t.e 2*-al 0e4astati*n /-ea7e0 *n t. He belie4e0 t. Cla-7e3 A4*n B**7s 19F1.ele2ents *+ t.il0-en in Hi-*s. e5ten0e0 -esea-c.il0-en3 *.e /*-l0 *+ t.il0-en .st-ate6y=.as n*t c.e RAN" C*-1*-ati*n as an *++icial t.e 4icti2s3 t.is /as 0*ne because t.e *t. In 198F3 #.Na6asa7i3 an0 t.e Ai. t.i0in6 un0e.is 0eat.ilati*n.ei. *ne *+ t.R*t.**ls c.el0 0aily b*2b 0-ills3 /it.e-e see2e0 little -eas*n t* stu0y3 2a--y an0 .e ne5t ten sec*n0s3 t.*+ =6a2e t.is situati*n .*usan0s *+ sc.a0 been incine-ate0 in t. 13 19?@3 A-2y Ai.ei. /*ul0 be t.ei./ea1*ns 1-*6-a2 is t.e -ebi-t.a4e c.e c. *+ Is-ael as *ne *+ t. S.a0 s*le c*nt-*l *+ t.e*-y=3 in /.is ./ea1*ns.Einstein t*l0 2e t.i2a .e $nite0 States an0 t.0es7s.C*22an03 t.2any sec-et +*un0ati*ns.e /*-l0 s.* state0 t.e c.e c*nscience *+ t.e nuclea. *+ Is-ael. t.e sc.e un0iscl*se0 -eas*n +*.= On May 1?3 19?83 RAN" C*-1*-ati*n +un0in6 /as ta7en *4e. T.e $nite0 States3 t. t.e S*4iet $ni*n en6a6e0 in a /*-l0/i0e =6a2e= t* see /.e St-ate6ic Ai.F*-ce C*nt-act N*. R*/an )ait./it.a0 an essential 2*-al Duality.ei.*ul03 t.e -e2aine0 until .by H.e AiF*-ce an0 at*2ic b*2b 1-*6-a2 +*. T.e Is-aeli A2bassa0*-3 ca2e t* .e 2*-al e++ect *n t. MO%F91 /as si6ne03 c-eatin6 t. In t.e Is-aeli c*nsul3 Reuben "a+ni.is 0e2*-ali9ati*n t.e b-*a0 sub8ect *+ ai. On Ma-c.il0-en /aitin6 t* be 4a1*-i9e0 bel*/./a-+a-e /it.e in4ent*. THE REBIRTH OF ISRAEL Einstein c*nsi0e-e0 t.e.class-**2s: t. 0e4el*1e0 t.-*u6.e 2issile 1-*6-a23 an0 2any *t. On 1.e 0aily t.sc.e Ai.at t.-*u6.t.e +i-st t* attac7 t.e Du*tes F-ee2an "ys*n3 /.e C*l0 a-3 /it.il0-en by t. He late.ese scientists3 /it. *n t./-*te3 =#-*+ess*. THE LE2AL ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR WARFARE .in7 tan73 0e+inin6 #-*8ect RAN" as =a c*ntinuin6 1-*6-a2 *+ scienti+ic stu0y an0 -esea-c.t.e c. nuclea.ey /e-e t* be 4a1*-i9e0 in t.= by R*nal0 .e -ebi-t.e c*%1il*t(s seat *+ a B%>9 *4e.il0-en /as 0e4astatin6.il0s t.e /*-l0 *+ t. t.lea0in6 scientist3 bec*2in6 /*-l0 +a2*us as t.6a2e +*.is li+eti2e /.1-e1a-e +*.as been 0i4i0e0 int* t/* /*-l0s3 t. t.t.e +e/ 1*litical acts in .ic.at .e /a--i*-s3 an0 t.il0-en.e at*2ic a6e 2e-ely as a sta6e +*.

inte-nati*nal la/' F*.sc.i2a an0 Na6asa7i b*2bin6s.e basis *+ t.e c*n0uct *+ a-2e0 c*n+lict.* 0* n*t belie4e it.t.e (Ha6ue( an0 ()ene4a( la/s.c.N.a-te-3 ten *+ t.e t*bacc* t-ust3 t.t an e21ty 4ict*-y t* t.-eat t* use a nuclea.ei*1ini*n *n 2*-e t.c*nsi0e-ati*n.a0*/sC =In July 199@3 t.*u6.at t. It t. T.t.ey /e-e ille6al t.e i21licati*ns *+ t.e $.as c*2e t* t.i ec. 6*4e-ns t.e $nite0 Nati*ns 1*se0 a sin6le3 yet 1-*+*un0ly basic3 Duesti*n +*.e C*u-t +*.e s*ul *+ Ja1an bein6 0est-*ye0./ea1*ns a-e ille6al un0e. .e-e /e-e 0i++e-ences c*nce-nin6 t.at nuclea. It ..at a-e c*llecti4ely 7n*/n as t.i2a(s S.en3 an0 t.a-6e0 +*. N*/ /e un0e-stan0 t.an a04is*-y *1ini*n.e $nite0 States( use *+ at*2ic /ea1*ns in Ja1an3 Ma.e e5istin6 can*n *+ .il0s. #. Ja1anese lea0e-s /e-e t-ie0 an0 e5ecute0 +*.e )ene-al Asse2bly *+ t.as -esulte0 +*. =T.e C*u-t(s 4ie/ t.as 0ea0ene0 t. T.e R*t. nee0s t* be -e1eate0 as l*n6 as t.-eat *+ use *+ nuclea.e na7e0 t-ut. Ne/ Y*-7 a6ent *+ t. T.-eat *+ t. It /as n*t until 199@ t.at *+ 2i6.a4e sustaine0 2an7in0 +*.e-e a-e 2en /.t-usts +*.e +inest +eelin6s /.ic. 2ANDHI SPEA S A2*n6 /*-l0 lea0e-s /.i2a an0 Na6asa7i./ea1*n t* be ille6al *n t.an a centu-y *+ t-eatise an0 c*n4enti*ns t.e c*11e./ea1*n is ille6al.i2a(s S.t *+ sel+%0e+ense 1-*4i0e0 by A-ticle G1 *+ t.a11ene0 t* t.ic.t.ei.*-ity . T/* yea-s ea-lie-3 t.c-i2es= n* *ne /as e4e.>G83 Hi-*s.e +i-st ti2e3 t. 2a0e it t*le-able.* at t.e *-l0 c*u-t t**7 a stan0 in its +i-st +*-2al *1ini*n *n t.e *-l0 C*u-t 0eli4e-e0 an *1ini*n *n t.u2anita-ian la/ /.e +*u-teen 8u06es . Alt./ea1*n is (unla/+ul(.* s1*7e *ut ab*ut t.e at*2ic b*2bs *n Hi-*s.e t. T. He beca2e .e $nite0 Nati*ns .7n*/s n* la/ e5ce1t t.e s*ul *+ t.e at*2ic b*2b b-*u6.e use *+ t./. It is als* t.sc.e Duesti*n *+ c-i2inality 4is%a%4is t.e -i6.= T. /e-e in e5istence at t.e /*-l0(s 1-e%e2inent 8u0icial aut.e.= Me2*-ial "ay3 1998 C"&t o.e use *+ nuclea/ea1*ns3 B1.e use *+ a nuclea.e ti2e *+ t. C.t-ust an0 *t. Be-na-0 Ba-uc.e t.e-e use0 t* be s*%calle0 la/s *+ /a.e H*use *+ R*t.at t.e le6ality *+ nuclea.e Ja1anese )*4e-n2ent /as ne4e.=/a.* 2a0e en*-2*us 1-*+its 0u-in6 t.t.e c*nclusi*n t.e 6ene-al cli2ate *+ *1ini*n.e at*2ic b*2b .2*ney t* ta7e *4e6*4e-n2ents. Alt.as c*nsi0e-e0 t.e Allie0 a-2ies.*e0 t.a-6es ab*ut t. .e nineteent. T-ut.e R*t.sc.at2a )an0./ea1*ns *n any ci-cu2stances 1e-2itte0 un0e.t.a0 as7e0 t.a6es.at .e Ha6ue an0 )ene4a c*n4enti*ns 3 a6-ee2ents /.as .G@G3 Hi-*s.us t.at e4en t.e case +*un0 t. t.e ti2e bein6 in t.e use *+ t.e use *+ a nuclea. a. T.Ch"r"(ter&3 T.ea-in6 t.t.e centu-y set u1 t. Milita-y in 19?G3 t.ey a-e ille6al n*/.e 8u06es base0 t.Because Ja1an /as *ccu1ie0 by t.ic.il0s /.e at*2ic b*2bin6s./ea1*ns.e use *+ a nuclea.e Hi-*s.e tu-n *+ t.a0*/.ic. centu-y3 an0 use0 t.e C*u-t -ule0 t./ea1*n3 an03 in 0*in6 s*3 it .*u6.all*/e0 any *11*-tunity t* +ile any le6al c.S.e 0est-*yin6 nati*n is yet t** ea-ly t* see..e $.il0: inte-nati*nal ban7e-s /.

e at*2ic b*2b *n Hi-*s. T.*/e.i2a an0 Na6asa7i. N*-t*n3 1981.en E.e Eisen.At a-3 by "a4i0 Eisen.A R*/3 198<.#-ess3 1998. BIBLIO2RAPHY3 T. T.is as.. T.e i9a-0s O+ A-2a6e00*n3 by F-e0 &a1lan3 Si2*n A S.e $nite0 States at*2ic b*2b 1-*6-a2 /.t ".*/e-3 Ste1.ei2e-3 "a-7 #-ince3 by Jac7 Ru22el3 199>. R*be-t O11en.e Yea-s O+ Ris73 Jas Ta-6et T*7y*3 )*-0*n . By-nes3 a04ise0 T-u2an t* 0-*1 t.Hi6. R**se4elt in 19. . T.e Fall O+ Ja1an3 by O11en.e Rec*-0: T. Eisen. a 1e-s*nal lette.e St-an6el*4e !e6acy3 #.en . atts3 198. . &unet7a3 #-entice Hall3 198>. Hi-*s. illia2 C-ai63 "ial3 NY3 19@F.9.*/e-3 "*uble0ay3 19@9. Ma-tins #-ess3 NY3 199.*/e-s3 by Ste4e Neal3 "*uble0ay3 19F8.attan #-*8ect3 by "*n E. Albe-t Einstein: li+el*n6 Ei*nist /. Eisen."ia-ies3 . In Re4ie/3 "/i6..a0*/3 e0ite0 by &ai Bi-03 #a21.e At*2ic B*2b3 Mic.e #-i4ate #a1e-s O+ Ha--y S. A2b-*se3 Si2*n A Sc.e $nite0 States( at*2ic b*2b 1-*6-a2 /it. Einstein3 His !i+e A Ti2es3 R*nal0 .e Man.*+ t. . T.is lac7ey3 J.*/e.t* #-esi0ent F-an7lin ". #-an6e3 Mc)-a/ Hill3 198?.ei2e-3 T.e )-eat "ecisi*n3 T.in6t*n lac7ey3 Ja2es F.ael A2-ine3 #utna2s3 NY3 19G9.en .e #-i4ate !i4es O+ Albe-t Einstein3 by R*6e.t. T-u2an3 Ha-1e. T. Albe-t Einstein3 by Milt*n "an73 F-an7lin O++ T.*/e-3 Ran0*2 H*use3 NY3 198@.+iel03 St.e Eisen. Cla-73 A4*n b**7s3 19F1.A R*/3 198F.e 6-ey e2inence *+ t.letee. Beye-3 F-an7lin at3 1991. T.e !*s Ala2*s b*2b 0e4el*12ent3 an0 /.ei2ne-3 beca2e 0i-ect*..i2a(s S.. R*be-t O11en.yllis !aFa-6e3 Ha-1e.uste-3 NY3 199.e Sec-et Hist*-y O+ T. Eisen.* initiate0 t.uste-3 198.

e Ha6ue a6-ee2ents an0 t.ese c-i2es by issuin6 a nu2be.i1 S*ciety an0 t.e At*2ic B*2b3 by )a.ese /a.i2a an0 Na6asa7i 0u-in6 *-l0 a. as Einstein Ri6. *-l0 C*u-t *+ Inte-nati*nal Justice t* -es*l4e 1. "e+en0ant 4i*late0 t.e $nite0 States )*4e-n2ent3 "e+en0ant. T.e 1-ete5t t.ese c-i2es3 0e+en0ant c*ns1i-e0 t* c*4e.at a s2all 6-*u1 *+ c*ns1i-at*-s3 -e+u6ees +-*2 Eu-*1e3 ca2e t* t.e 1e*1le *+ Ja1an 0u-in6 a.T. ?.e 6*4e-n2ent *+ t.e "ecisi*n T* $se T.II.e-e3 *n t.e ci-cu2stances be.e #e*1le *+ Ja1an3 #lainti++s3 T.c-i2es3 an0 0ist*-ti*ns *+ +act t* e4a0e any 1unis.t.t attac7.at-e0 an0 -eli6i*us bi6*t-y.-eat t* any*ne.e 1e*1le *+ Ja1an 0u-in6 *-l0 a. "e+en0ant c*ns1i-e0 t* c*22it /a.ese c-i2es by 2ilita-ily *ccu1yin6 t.in0 t. ill3 Basic B**7s3 198@.e at*2ic b*2bin6 *+ Hi-*s.e )ene4a C*n4enti*n3 as 0ete-2ine0 by t.e +*ll*/in6 c.u1 t.u1 t. ?93999 t-**1s stati*ne0 t.e A2e-ican 1e*1le t.t' by Cli++*-0 M. At n* ti2e 0u-in6 t.is acti*n be+*-e t.e nati*n *+ Ja1an3 e++ecti4ely 1-e4entin6 t.e c*22issi*n *+ t. A+te. "e+en0ant c*ns1i-e0 t* c*22it at-*cities a6ainst t.*+ +alse state2ents3 0enyin6 /a.e . "e+en0ant c*ntinues t* 2ilita-ily *ccu1y Ja1an t*0ay3 /it.c-i2es a6ainst t.e t.e 1-*8ect t* 2anu+actu-e an at*2ic b*2b +*.is c*ns1i-acy /e-e t. THE COURT OF INTERNATIONAL JUSTICE Eustace C.use a6ainst )e-2any an0 Ja1an.e $nite0 States an0 in+ilt-ate0 t. F.at t. G.e S*4iet $ni*n c*lla1se0 in 1989 an0 0*es n*t 1*se a t.a-6es. @..t.e 1e*1le *+ Ja1an3 2*ti4ate0 by -acial . "e+en0ant c*ns1i-e0 t* c*22it c-i2es *+ 6en*ci0e a6ainst t. "e+en0ant c*ns1i-e0 t* subseDuently e4a0e an0 c*4e.e 6e*1*litical +act t.II. >.e 1e*1le *+ Ja1an +-*2 see7in6 le6al -ec*u-se +*.e acti*ns *+ 0e+en0ant. T.is 1-ete5t i6n*-es t.c-i2es3 t.e *-l0 C*u-t in June 199@3 by 2a7in6 /a.Al1e-*/it93 &n*1+3 NY3 199G.e 1lainti++s b-in6 t.II. *-l0 .c*22ittin6 t.c-i2es.ese /a. Mullins3 E9-a #*un0 *-l0 #eace F*un0ati*n Ja1anese%A2e-ican F-ien0s. "e+en0ant als* c*ns1i-e0 t* c*nceal +-*2 t.e $nite0 States3 an0 in t*tal sec-ecy launc.e0 t.at t.e S*4iet $ni*n 2i6.2ent +*.a6ainst ci4ilians an0 in+lictin6 2illi*ns *+ casualties by +i-eb*2bin6 Ja1anese cities an0 t.

8.A2e-ican 2ilita-y lea0e-s3 2a0e 1ublic state2ents t.*-ities state t.= )ene-al "/i6. t.ai-e0 by Ba-uc./as .e 1-i2a-y ta-6et *+ t. Hi-*s.t.e 1.*/e-3 Su1-e2e Milita-y C*22an0e-3 A02i-al illia2 ".t* #-esi0ent F-an7lin ".*ut 1unis.e b*2bs .c*nsulte0 +*.II3 0e+en0ant .clai2e0 t.at t.ile i6n*-in6 1eace ten0e-s +-*2 Ja1an since May 19?G3 an0 0e+en0ant +u-t. T.= T.at it be 0-*11e0 *n Ja1an3 in *-0e. His lette. T.in0 t.at =/e c*ul0 n*t 6i4e t.t +alse.y3 Ai.e #-esi0ent(s Nati*nal "e+ense Resea-c.e at*2ic b*2b /as n*t use0: t.a0 been in0i6nantly -e8ecte0. R**se4elt3 Au6ust >3 19. Ba-uc.at &y*t* /as t.an t/* . Albe-t Einstein3 t.e at*2ic b*2bs.e city t.abitants /e-e /a-ne0 by lea+lets 0-*11e0 *4e.-*u6.*-i9e0.-*u6.e sec*n0 +alse.e A2e-ican 2ilita-y /*ul0 su++e. Eisen.e $nite0 States.e city *+ &y*t* be t. !ea. T.a0 been -e0uce0 t* as.3 an a6ent *+ t.*ne 2illi*n /a0ea0 /.+*-ce )ene-al Cu-tis !eMay3 an0 2any *t.at an in4asi*n *+ Ja1an /*ul0 be necessa-y i+ t. #*litical c*nsi0e-ati*ns 0ictate0 t.**0s t* a4*i0 bla2e +*.e at*2ic b*2bs *n Hi-*s.*u6. Alt.all St-eet s1eculat*-3 Be-na-0 Ba-uc.e in4asi*n itsel+ /as ne4eaut.*u6.e.il0s.an0%0eli4e-e0 t* R**se4elt by Ale5an0e.nati*ns.ile in4a0in6 Ja1an3 an0 t.e 1-*8ect3 an0 J.y 1*inte0 *ut in .t.2ent. Ba-uc.t ".13 19?G t.e in.e 1-*6-a2.e ancient ca1ital *+ Ja1an3 an0 a -eli6i*us cente.*+ t.t* test it *n a li4in6 1*1ulati*n3 an03 i+ 1*ssible3 t* =tally= a 2illi*n *.*+ t.is is .at /as ta7in6 1lace3 n*.a0 e51l*0e0.sc. By-nes.is b*2b be built by t.e 1-*6-a23 insistin6 t* Ma8*.e #-esi0ent(s C*22ittee .as c*n0ucte0 a /*-l0/i0e 1-*6-a2 *+ at*2ic te--*-is23 calle0 at*2ic 0i1l*2acy3 t* ensu-e t.e 0e4astati*n *+ Hi-*s.un0-e0 ancient te21les. c*ntinue0 t* issue 0i-ecti4es t.ei2e.s3 a all St-eet s1eculat*-.e.ese 2assac-es *+ ci4ilians. Many lea0in6 A2e-ican 2ilita-y aut. t.t.*sen3 alt. 1<.e scenes by an*t. neit.*+ t. Ja1an . T. 11.at it /as necessa-y t* 0-*1 t.t.e.e Ja1anese any /a-nin6.inti2i0ati*n *+ all *t. !ea.as science 0i-ect*. selecte0 Ma8*)ene-al !eslie )-*4es as t.in6t*n -e1-esentati4e3 Ja2es F. 9.e at*2ic b*2bs.at an at*2ic b*2b /*ul0 be use0.at it /as n*t necessa-y t* 0-*1 t.e at*2ic b*2b /as t.2*-e 4icti2s /it. Ba-uc.**0 /as t.e +i-st /as t.e at*2ic b*2b 1-*6-a2 /as 0i-ecte0 +-*2 be.e lea+lets /e-e n*t 0-*11e0 until Au6ust 1<3 a+te.at t. C*22ittee3 c.es by June 19?G3 0e+en0ant insiste0 t.e $nite0 States a/a-e *+ /.*ut t./it.i2a an0 Na6asa7i /e-e +inally c.e b*2bs3 +*t.ysicist3 /-*te a 1e-s*nal lette.is /*ul0 c*st a 2illi*n A2e-ican li4es.i2a an0 Na6asa7i3 0e+en0ant 1e-1et-ate0 a nu2be*+ *ut-i6.ese cities *++e-e0 a 1-i2a-y 2ilita-y ta-6et.e.*se e++*-ts t* 0e4el*1 suc. R*be-t O11en.a0 -es*l4e0 *n May .e c-eati*n *+ a s2all 6-*u1 *+ Eu-*1ean -e+u6ees3 /. A+te.e 0i-ect*.eia11-*4al3 in 4i*lati*n *+ -e1ublican(1-inci1les an0 t.at its 1-*6-a2 c*ntinues unabate03 an0 /it. In +act3 t.t.e R*t.at an in4asi*n /as necessa-y3 /. a b*2b in Eu-*1e .at t.(s as.i2a3 Au6ust @3 19?G3 an0 Na6asa7i3 Au6ust 93 19?G.93 -ec*22en0in6 t.)ene-al )-*4es t.e 1u-1*se *+ 1*st/a. 2*-e t.e C*nstituti*n *+ t. In +act3 as A02i-al illia2 ".e at*2ic b*2b3 t.at t. Milita-y lea0e-s *11*se0 t.e.is selecti*n3 1*intin6 *ut t.Sac. Since *-l0 a.e $nite0 States.is b**73 I Was There3 =t.1e*1le *+ t. c*ntinue0 t* 0ictate 0ecisi*ns *n t.

e t-a6e0y *+ Hi-*s. T.-e1*-t *+ July 13 19?@ states3 =t.at =in 19?G I .e 1ai0 1-*1a6an0ist +*. It .e 1-i2e 2iniste-3 t.e /a.c*nscience as a nati*n 2ust t-*uble us././. +alse.at *+ 2i6.. 1>.e !e6ati*n *+ S/it9e-lan0 in T*7y* +*-/a-0e0 t* t.e $. cities /e-e =7ey 2ilita-y ta-6ets=.e Su-4ey(s *1ini*n t.e E21e-*-3 t.e Ja1anese =a-e atte21tin6 t* c-eate sy21at. T.e testi2*ny *+ t.*-itati4e *++icial $nite0 States unit 0u-in6 *-l0 a.a6es.is e0it*-ial N*4e2be.i2a an0 Na6asa7i. It is t.at t.7n*/s n* la/ e5ce1t t.e t-ut.y5iate an0 c-e2ate 2*-e t. As "a4i0 !a/-ence3 +*un0e.= In +act3 2*-e t.e na7e0 t-ut.*ul0 be en0e0 e4en i+ it 2eant acce1tance *+ 0e+eat *n allie0 te-2s.e at*2ic b*2b 0-*11e0 *n Ja1an at t/* 1laces 0e4*te0 al2*st e5clusi4ely t* /a.e nei6.= 1G.at t.at t.e c*21laint t.e at*2ic b*2b . a.Ai. !au-ence Du*te0 Ma8*.*+ $. e 2ust c*n+ess *u. St-ate6ic B*2bin6 Su-4ey3 /.e a.as .e ene2y lea0e-s /. .*--ible /ea1*n t* as1.is in a /a.is 1-i4ate 1a1e-s t.= 1?.a4e use0 a .e bene+it *+ +utu-e 2issi*ns.as 0ea0ene0 t.e 0ea0 at Hi-*s.a0 been 1lanne0 *.a0 *-0e-e0 t. !au-ence3 t.by t.t* "ece2be. +*-e7n*/le06e t.al 6as c.ic.ese t/* cities. T.**0 /as t.e +inest +eelin6s /.an0 1aci+ist Ma.a4e -ea0ily /*n /it.at =t..t* N*4e2be.i2a an0 Na6asa7i /e-e /a. e5clusi4e -i6.e l*-0 1-i4y seal3 t. t*ll /as 2a0e u1 *+ 2ilita-y 1e-s*nnel.S.e 0e+en0ant a state2ent +-*2 t.e 4icti2s .13 19?G3 an0 in all 1-*bability 1-i*.i2a an0 Na6asa7i b*2bs 0i0 n*t 0e+eat Ja1an3 n*. T.* en0e0 t. e .an0 e0it*. Ne/s An0 *-l0 Re1*-t3 /-*te in .il0-en in a s*-t *+ su1e-%let.e na4y 2iniste.abs*lutely +alse.i2a is a 1-*4incial t*/n /it.a0 0eci0e0 as ea-ly as May 19?G t. T.e at*2ic b*2b.t.e city *+ Hi-*s.1-*0ucti*n.3 19?G3 =t.an 9GL *+ t. s1*7es2an +*.e 0est-ucti*n *+ Hi-*s.e b*2bin6s +*.II /as t.e at*2ic b*2bs . A +*u-t.at2a )an0.S.**03 1-inte0 in t.c*nte21late0.a0 su++e-e0 n* -a0iati*n 0a2a6e. #-esi0ent T-u2an b*aste0 in . N*/ /e un0e-stan0 t.e2sel4es=.e at*2ic b*2b b-*u6.13 19?G3 Ja1an /*ul0 .ts t* 2ate-ial *n t. is /e a-e 6uilty.e-e use0 t* be s*%calle0 la/s *+ /a.e Allie0 a-2ies.e -esults *+ t.e scene -ec*-0e0 t.*ut t.a4e su--en0e-e0 e4en i+ t.c-i2es 0elibe-ately c*22itte03 /it.sin.= 1. T. Only ?.ic.t*/ns c*nstitutes a 2ilita-y *b8ecti4e.2ilita-y installati*ns *+ any 7in03 but als* n*ne *+ t.= Obse-4e-s *n t.at it /as n*t necessa-y t* 0-*1 t.al-ea0y /*n *."e1a-t2ent /it.s.at b*t.a4e sustaine0 2an7in0 +*.i2a an0 Na6asa7i /e-e ci4ilians.at =st-ictly 2ilita-y 0a2a6e /as insi6ni+icant.e 2*st aut.e at*2ic b*2bs *n t. =T.ei.is 1-*4es t.y +*t. Ou.at t..t.t.an 1<<3<<< 2en3 /*2en an0 c.e Ja1anese 6*4e-n2ent3 t.*u.at ce-tainly 1-i*.e /*-l0 lea0e.e t. T. T. T.i-0 +alse.e 0eat.ic.e at*2ic b*2b..>.*ut any 1-*tecti*n *.b*-in6 -e6i*ns *.)ene-al )-*4es t.0i0 t.e Hi-*s.ic.e Ne/ Y*-7 Ti2es Se1te2be.F*-ces tell us /e c*ul0 .e +*-ei6n 2iniste-3 an0 t.ey 1e-sua0e Ja1an t* acce1t unc*n0iti*nal su--en0e-.. T. selecte0 ta-6ets an0 analy9e0 t.e /a.a2be-Kan0 all t. 2a0e it t*le-able.a0 n*t been 0-*11e0 an0 e4en i+ n* in4asi*n .t an e21ty 4ict*-y t* t.?L *+ t.i s1*7e sa0ly ab*ut t.is st*-y /as /-itten by illia2 !.G3 19?G3 /as t.

#-*t*c*l >3 Sc*1e *+ A11licati*n *+ Hu2anita-ian !a/3 states.inte-nati*nal a6-ee2ent3 ci4ilians an0 c*2batants -e2ain un0e. ? A# IIC 19.e c*n+lict t* (at all ti2es 0istin6uis. T.=an attac7 by b*2ba-02ent by any 2et.e !i4*nian 1-*+ess*.e s*% calle0 Ma-tens Clause3 0e4el*1e0 by t.e 0est-*yin6 nati*n is yet t** ea-ly t* see.e 0ictates *+ 1ublic c*nscience.*+ clea-ly se1a-ate0 an0 0istinct 2ilita-y *b8ecti4es3 l*cate0 in a city3 t*/n3 4illa6e *.. A state can n*t3 t.us be la-6e su1e-se0e0 by t.in 19<F3 /as e51-esse0 in its .= 1F. I+ an act *+ /a. =#-*tecti*n *+ ci4ilians +-*2 a-bit-a-y an0 *11-essi4e ene2y acti*n3 *utline0 in 18993 an0 late.e0 cust*23 +-*2 t.ibite0 by inte-nati*nal a6-ee2ents *cust*2a-y la/3 t.= A-ticle G1K#-*tecti*n *+ t.a c*2binati*n t.as been inclu0e0 in t.at it is actually 1e-2issible.a-e *nly 1e-2issible i+ t. =In /a-3 a belli6e-ent 2any a11ly *nly t.c*ncent-ati*n *+ ci4ilians *. G IbJC.e.is 0*es n*t necessa-ily 2ean t.e ci4ilian 1*1ulati*n3 1a-a6-a1. 18.e Ha6ue #eace C*n+e-ences3 /.u1settin6 t.= T. =Inte-nati*nal .e b*2bin6 cause0 unnecessa-y su++e-in63 an0 0e+en0ant(s atte21te0 8usti+icati*n /as *1enly 1e-+i0i*us.e.e ci4ilian 1*1ulati*n an0 c*2batants(.*se -ules. IH.e s*ul *+ Ja1an bein6 0est-*ye0.at a2*unt an0 7in0 *+ +*-ce necessa-y t* 0e+eat t.e c*nc-ete an0 0i-ect 2ilita-y a04anta6e antici1ate0 Ba-ticle G1K#-*tecti*n *+ t.as .e *bli6ati*n *+ t.a11ene0 1@.ibiti*n *+ (in0isc-i2inate attac7s(.e ti2e bein6 in t.2eans /.e #-*t*c*l *.i2a an0 Na6asa7i clea-ly +alls *utsi0e t..e 19FF A00iti*nal #-*t*cal I as state0 bel*/3 /ill al/ays be a11licable.*las II at t. 1>9. "e+en0ant is in 4i*lati*n *+ t.by *t. t* t.Nic.at balance by 0e1a-tin6 +-*2 t.e 1-inci1les *+ .e sc*1e *+ t. In cases n*t c*4e-e0 by t.e s*ul *+ t.F-ie0-ic.e 19<F Ha6ue C*n4enti*n IH an0 -ea++i-2e0 in t.-esulte0 +*. BA-tl...ic. /*ul0 be e5cessi4e in -elati*n t* t.*t.e 1-*tecti*n an0 aut.is -ulin63 bein6 ci4ilian ta-6ets3 t.e ene2y. t-eats as a sin6le 2ilita-y *b8ecti4e a nu2be. Acts *+ /a. > A# 1: see als* #-ea2ble 1a-s. 4*n Ma-tens B18?G%19<9C 0ele6ate *+ Tsa.= . T.e #a-ties t* t. G BaC an0 =an attac7 /. ?3 in 1a-ticula.e b*2bin6 *+ Hi-*s.e )ene4a C*n4enti*n.*0 *.= A-ticle ?8K Basic -ule3 =t.t. ><.e #-ea2ble t* t.e-e*+3 /. Hu2anita-ian ReDui-e2ents an0 Milita-y Necessity.e -ules *+ inte-nati*nal ..t.*-ity *+ t.3 1a-s. #-*t*c*l IK#a-t IH.a-ea c*ntainin6 a si2ila.e 1-inci1les *+ inte-nati*nal la/ 0e-i4e0 +-*2 establis.u2anita-ian la/ is a11licable t* inte-nati*nal a-2e0 c*n+licts.e ci4ilian 1*1ulati*n3 1a-a6-a1. bet/een t.e ci4ilian 1*1ulati*n 1a-a6-a1. 2ay be e51ecte0 t* cause inci0ental l*ss *+ ci4ilian li+e3 in8u-y t* ci4ilians3 0a2a6e t* ci4ilian *b8ects3 *.u2anita-ian la/. #-*t*cal IK#a-t IH3 Secti*n 1.ic.e states c*nce-ne0 /ill t.at .e 1-*.. Secti*n i. 1.e inte-nati*nal la/ *+ 1eace e5istin6 bet/een t.ci4ilian *b8ects= BA-ticle G1K#-*tecti*n *+ t.u2anity3 an0 +-*2 t.ey a-e n*t li7ely t* cause unnecessa-y su++e-in63 an0 i+ t.ey a-e 0i-ecte0 a6ainst 2ilita-y *b8ecti4es3 i+ t.ey a-e n*t 1e-+i0i*us.is n*t e51-essly 1-*.t.e-e+*-e3 be all*/e0 t* in4*7e 2ilita-y necessity as a 8usti+icati*n +*. .ic.ic. =.

ei.c-i2es an0 at-*cities3 c*ns1i-acy t* c*4e.eic*ntinuin6 c*ns1i-acy t* c*4e.all . Eustace C.u1 t.a-6es3 0eci0e u1*n a11-*1-iate 0a2a6es3 an0 1unis.ei.is #-*t*c*l.an0 7n*/le06e *+ t.e F*u-t.e2 +-*2 see7in6 any -e0-ess +*.ese c-i2es3 an0 by 0e+en0ant(s *n6*in6 1-*6-a2 *+ at*2ic te--*-is23 1e-+i0i*us +alse.**0s3 an0 t.at t.ea.e 2*4ant3 .t.a-6es *+ c*ns1i-acy t* c*22it /a.ese c.e 1lainti++s -es1ect+ully 2*4e t.at-e0 an0 -eli6i*us bi6*t-y3 an0 .ic.e C*u-t s.ese c.is C*u-t t* .e *++en0e-s.a4in6 +i-st.e 6*4e-n2ent *+ Ja1an an0 1-e4ente0 t.2ent +*.ea.t. )ene4a C*n4enti*n *+ 19?93 /.2*st c*21lete +*-2 in t.a4in6 inti2i0ate0 t.u1 c-i2es *+ 6en*ci0e3 2ass 2u-0e. Mullins 1>@ Ma0is*n #lace Staunt*n3 HA >??<1 G?<%88@%GG8< P IH*2eJ . Res1ect+ully sub2itte0 Eustace C.c-i2es3 2*ti4ate0 by -acial .e +acts.4icti2s3 an0 t.an0 un0ue su++e-in6 a2*n6 t.t. Mullins as a citi9en in 1a-ty3 t. HEREFORE3 t. is n*/ su11le2ente0 by t.t.

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