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Ehy;tpgug; gl;bay; - BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DATA


Ehypd; ngaH : khdplg; Gtpapay;
MrphpaH : B. S. mf;\ad;
Kjw;gjpg;G : 2011
ntspaPL : jtrp Nyzpq; rpw;wp
fzdp tbtikg;G : B. S. mf;\ad;
gf;fq;fs; : 200 (196+iv)
tpiy : 400/=
kpd; dQ;ry; Kfthp : akshayansm@gmail.com
nry; yplg;Ngrp ,yf;fk; : 0772054540
TITLE OF THE BOOK : Puviyin Amaippu
AUTHOR : B.S. Akshayan
FIRST EDITION : 2011
PUBLISHED BY : Thavasi Learning City
COMPUTER DESIGNING : B.S. Akshayan
PAGES : 200 (196+iv)
PRICE : 400/=
E-MAIL : akshayansm@gmail.com
MOBILE No. : 0772054540
khdplg; Gtpapay;
B. S. mf;\ad;
-i-
ntspaPL:
jtrp Nyzpq; rpw;wp
BA (Hons) Special in Geography
Gjpa ghlj;jpl;lk;
-G.C.E. A/L-
f.ngh.j. caHjug; Gtpapay; Gjpa ghlj; jpl;lj; ij jOtpajhf
,e;j khdplg; Gtpapay; vDk; Ehy; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. fy;tp
ntsp aP l; Lj; jp izf; fsj; jp d; Mrp hp aH mwp Tiug; G
top fjh l; bia jOtp ajh f ,e; Ehy;
cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sNghjpYk;> xUrpy gFjpfspy; Nkyjpf
tplaq;fisAk; NrHj;Js; Nsd;.
Gjpa ghlj;jpl; lj; jpy; ghPl;ir vOJk; khztHfspd; fuq; fspy;
tp iuthf toq; fNtz; Lk; vd; w Nehf; fp y; ,e; Ehiy
ntspapLtjdhy; > Ehypy; vOj; Jg; gpiofs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
vdNt khzthfSk; > Mrp hp aHfSk; mtw; iw jpUj; jp
thrpf;Fk;gb jathf Nfl;Lf;nfhs;fpd;Nwd;.
,e;Ehypd; jpUj;jpa gjpg;gpid Fiwfis ,aYkhdstpw;Ff;
fise; Jk; > njspthfTk; ,k; khdplg; Gtpapay; Ehiy jdpj; jdp
rpW gFjpfshf mikAk; gb ntspaplj; jP Hkhdpj; Js;Nsd;
vd;gjidAk; njhptpj;Jf;nfhs;fpd;Nwd;.
,e;EhYUthf;fj;jpw;F cly; cs Mw;wiyj; je;Jjtpa
KOKjw; nghUSf; F vdJ Kjw; fz; ed; wp iaj;
njhptpj;Jf; nfhs; fpd; Nwd;. NkYk; vd; Ehyhf; f Kaw; rpfSf; F
xj; Jiog; Gk; Cf; fKk; toq; Fk; midtUf; Fk; vdJ
ed; wpfs;.
B.S.mf;\ad;
jtrp Nyzpq; rp;w;wp
khtbNtk;G -02
rpj;jhz;b
kl; lf;fsg;G
cq; fs; Kd; rp y ep kp lq; fs; .....
KOKjw;nghUs; Jiz
-iii-
nghUslf;fk;
mj;jpahak; gf; fk;
01. cyfpd; rdj;njhif 01
02. ,yq;if rdj;njhif 22
03. cyfpd; FbapUg;G 33
04. ,yq;if FbapUg;G 43
05. efuhf;fk; 51
06. tptrhaj; njhopEl; gk; 69
07. cyfpd; ifj;njhopy; 88
08. ,yq; if ifj;njhopy; 122
09. cyfkakhjy; 146
10. rHtNjr tHj; jfk; 164
11. tya mikg;Gfs; 175
12. Gs;spapay; juTfs; 189
-iv-

1.cyfpd; rdj;njhif
cyfpd; rdj;njhifg; gUkd;
1) cyfpd; rdj;njhifg; gUkd;:-
Fbj;njhif vd; gJ Fwpg; gpl;l #oypy;
tiaWf;fg;gl;l fhy ,ilntspapy; capH tho;fpd;w
kf;fspd; vz; zpf;ifiaf; Fwpf; Fk;.
Fbj; njhiff; fy;tpapd; je;ijahf John
Graunt vd; gtH fhzg;gLfpd; whH.
cyf Fbj;njhifg; Nghf;F Muk;gj; jpy;
rhjhuz Nghf; fpidf; nfhz;bUe;jhYk; ,d;W
mghafukhd tsh;r;rpiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
kdpjd; Xuplj; jpy; epiyahf tho;e;j
fhyj;jpNyNa rdj;njhifg; ngUf;fk; mjpfkhff;
fhzg; gl;lJ
cyf rdj;njhif 1780k; Mz;lstpy;
0.5gpy;ypad; MfTk; 2008k; Mz;L 6.7gpy;ypad;
MfTk; 2150k; Mz;lstpy; 11.6 gpy; ypad; MfTk;
mjpfhpf;Fk; vd vjph;T $wg;gLfpd;wJ.
2010 Mz;bd; cyf rdj;njhif 6810
kpy; ypad; (6.8 gpy; ypad;) Mff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -01- mf; \ad;
2) fz; lq; fs; mbg; gilap y; rdj; njhifg; gUkd; -2009
(rjtPjj; jpy;):-
3) njd; Mrpahtpd; rdj;njhifg; gUkd; (2009 >
rdj;njhif kpy;ypadpy; ) :-
fz;lk; rdj;njhif (kp y;ypadp y;) fp l;barjtPjj;jp y;
Mrp ah 4117 60%
Mgp hp f;fh 999 14%
INuhg;gh 738 11%
yj;jPd;;mnkhpf;fh 579 9%
tlmnkhp f;fh 341 5%
Xrpahdp ah 36 1%
ehLfs; rdj;njhif
,e;jpah 1171.0
ghfp ];jhd; 180.8
gq;fshNj]; 162.2
Mg;fhzp ];jhd; 28.4
Neghsk; 27.5
,yq;if 20.5
G+l;lhd; 0.7
khdplg; Gtpapay; -02- mf; \ad;
4) gUkd; mbg;gilapy; rdj;njhifapy; Kjd;ik ngWk; 10
ehLfs;.
cyf rdj;njhif guk;gy;
5) cyfpd; rdj; njhifg; guk;gy;:-
cyfpy; rdj; njhifahdJ vj; jifa
tpjj;jpy; cyf ehLfspy; guk; gpf; fhzg;gLfpd; wNjh
mjidNa rdj;njhif guk;gy; vd;gH. cyfpd;
rdj; njhif guk;gypy; njspthd rpy gz; Gfis
mtjhdpf;fyhk;.
cyf Fbj;njhifapy; tlmiuf; Nfhsj; jpy;
90tP jk; kf; fSk; njd;diuf; Nfhsj;jpy; 10tPjk;
kf;fSk; tho;fpd; wdH.
kj;jpa Nfhl;il mz;b kf;fs; nrwpthfTk;
KidTg;gFjpapy; IjhfTk; tho;fpd;wdu;.
ehLfs; rdj;njhif 2009
(kpy;ypadpy;)
ehLfs; rdj;njhif -2050
vjpHT$wy;
(kpy;ypadpy;)
rPdh 1331 ,e;jpah 1748
,;e;jpah 1171 rPdh 1437
If;fpa mnkhpf;fh 307 If;fpa mnkhpf;fh 439
,e;NjhNdrpah 243 ,e;NjhNdrpah 343
gpNwrpy; 191 ghfp];jhd; 335
ghfp];jhd; 181 ie[Phpah 285
gq;fshNj]; 162 gq;fshNj]; 222
ie[Phpah 153 gpNwrpy; 215
u];ah 142 nfhq;Nfh 189
ag;ghd; 128 gpypg;igd;]; 150
khdplg; Gtpapay; -03- mf; \ad;
cyf rdj; njhifap y; miuthrp f; F Nkw; gl; NlhH
Mrpahtpy; tho;fpd; wdH.
cyf rdj;njhifapy; 60 tPjk; gpujhd 10 ehLfspy;
tho;fpd;wdH.
cyf rdj; njhifap y; miuthrp g; NgH 5 tP jk;
epyg; gug;gpy; tho;fpd;wdH.
tl miuf; Nfhsj; jpy; thOk; kf; fspy; 50 tP jk;
tlmfyhq;F 10
0
- 40
0
,ilapy; tho;fpd; wdH.
mT];Nuypahtpy; rdj;njhif mlHj; jp fpNyhkPw; wUf;F
mz; zsthf 2 NguhFk; . ,q; F rdj; njhif 21
kp;y;ypadhFk;.
rdj; njhif mlHj;jp:- Fwpg;gpl;l epy mynfhd; wpy;
thOk; kf;fs; njhifiaf; Fwpf; Fk;.
6) cyfpd; rdj;njhif guk;gy; tyaq;fs;:-
cyfp d; rdj; njhif gp uNjrq; fis mlHj; jp ap d;
mbg; gilapy; %d; W ngUk; gpuNjrq;fshf tifg; gLj; jp
tpsf;f KbAk;.
$ba rdr;nrwpT tyak;
Fiwe;j rde; nrwpT tyak;
eLj; ju rdj; njhif tyak;
7) $ba rdr;nrwpT tyak;:-
,t;tyaj;jpy; rJu ikYf;F 125 200
Nkw; gl;ltu;fs; tho;fpd;wdu; . cyf nkhj;j
epyg; gug;gpy; ,t;tyak; 10% Ak; cyfpd; nkhj;j
Fbj;njhifapy; 64% Ak; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
,t;tyaj;jpw;Fs; gpujhdkhf ehd;F gpuNjrq;fs;
cs; slq;Ffpd; wd.
njd; dhrpah ehLfs; (,e;jpah> ,yq;if>
ghfp];jhd;> tq;fshNj];)
fpof;fhrpa ehLfs; (rPdh> [g;ghd;> nfhupah>
jha; thd;)
khdplg; Gtpapay; -04- mf; \ad;
njd; fpof;F Mrpah ehLfs; (,e;NjhNdrpah>
gpypg;igd; ];)
Nkw; F INuhg; gpa ehLfSk; kj;jpa INuhg;gpa
ehLfSk; (If; fpa ,uhl;rpak;> ];ngapd;> gpuhd;];>
,j;jhyp> neju;yhe;J)
8) Fiwe;j rdr;nrwpT tyak;:-
,t;tyaj;jpy; rJuikapYf;F 25f;F
Fiwe;jtu;fNs trpf; fpd;wdu;. ,t;tyak;
kiyg;gpuNjrj;ijAk; ctg;gw;w fhyepiyiaAk;
nfhz;l gFjpahFk;. ,g;gpuNjrj;jpid ehd;fhf
gpupf;fyhk;.
mjpf Fspu;g; gpuNjrk; (I];yhe;J>
fpwpd; yhe;J)
mjpf ntg;gg;gpuNjrk; (rfhwh> fyfhup>
mNugpah)
mjpf <uypg;ghd gpuNjrk; (mNkrd;>
Nghu;dpah> epA+f;fpdp> nfhq; Nfh)
mjpf caukhd gpuNjrk; (,kakiy>
nuhf;fp]; kiy> me;jP]; kiy)
9) eLj; ju rdj;njhif tyak;:-
,t;tyaj;jpy; rJuikYf;F 25 125 Ngu;
tho; fpd;wdu; . ,t;tyaj;jpw;Fs; gpd; tUk; gFjpfs;
mlq;Ffpd;wd.
If;fpa mnkupf;fhtpd; kj;jpa gFjp
tlfpof;F gpNurpy;.
nkf;rpNfh
rpyp
fdlhtpd;njd;kj;jpa gpuNjrk;.
kj;jpa Mgpupf;fh
Mrpahtpd; rpy kj;jpa gFjp.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -05- mf; \ad;
10) rdj; njhif guk;gypy; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;:-
11) fhyepiy :-
kdpj tho;tpw;Fk;> gapHr;nra;if
eltbf;iffSf;Fk; nghUj;jkhd fhyepiy
mtrpakhFk;. nghUj;jkhd ntg; gepiy kw;Wk;
kiotPo;r;rp fhzg; gLfpd;w gFjpfspy; kf;fs;
njhif mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
cjhuzk;:- ,yq;if> ghfp];jhd;>
tq;fshNj];> ,e;jpah> tlmkhpf;fh>
Nkw; F INuhg; ggh> njd;fpof;fhrpa ehLfs;.
mjpf ntg;gepiyNah my;yJ Fiwthd
ntg; gepiyNah fhzg; gLfpd; w gFjpfspy; kf;fs;
nrwpthf tho;tjpy;iy. cjhuzk;:- mjpf ntg; gk;-
ghiytdq;fs; > mjpf FspH- KidTg; gpuNjrq; fs;.
ngsjPff; fhuzp fs; khdp lf; fhuzp fs; tuyhw;Wf; fhuzp fs; Fbtiuap ay;
fhuzpfs;
fhyep iy
jiuj;Njhw;wk;
ePHtsk;
jhtug;NghHit
kz;tsk;
fdp atsq;fs;
,aw;if mdHj;jk;
efuhf;fk;
nghUshjhuk;
Ntiytha;g;G
Nghf;Ftuj;J
njhlu;ghly;
fy;tp > Rfhjhu trjp
murp ay; epyik
ehfhp fq;fs; tsHr;rp
ehLfhz; gazk;
FbNaw;wthjk;
gilnaLg;Gf;fs;
,lg;ngaHT
,aw;if
mjp fhp g;G
khdplg; Gtpapay; -06- mf; \ad;
kpfr; nrwpthd kiotPo;r;rp(mjpf <uypg;G) fpilf;Fk;
gFjpfs;> kiotP o; r;rpNa fpilf; fhj gFjpfspYk; kf;fs;
nrwpthf tho; tjpy;iy. cjhuzk;:- mjpf <uypg;G:-
kiof; fhl;Lg; gFjpfs;> tul; rp:- ghiytdg; gpuNjrq;fs; .
12) jiuj;Njhw;wk;:-
jiuj;Njhw;wj;jpid gP l G+kp> cau;kiyg; gpuNjrk;>
fiuNahu jho;epyk; vd tifg;gLj;jyhk;.
rkntspg; gpuNjrq; fSk; > tz; ly; nrwp e; j Mw; W
tbepyq; fSk; mjpf rdr; nrwpitf; nfhz;Ls; sd.
cjhuzk; :- ,e;Jf; fq;if rkntsp
caHkiyg; gp uNjrq; fsp Nyh my; yJ gP lG+ kp g;
gpuNjrq; fspNyh kf;fs; FiwthfNt tho; fpd;wdH.
cjhuzk; :- ,kakiyg; gFjpfs; > nkhq; Nfhypah
Nkl; Lepyk;> ntypkil Nkl;Lepyk;.
13) kz;tsk;:-
gap Hr; nra; if eltbf; iffis kdp jd; rp wg; ghf
Nkw; nfhs;tjw;F kz; tsk; Kf;fpak; ngWfpd;wJ.
tz; ly; nrwpe;j rkntspfs; new; gapHr; nra;iff; F
rhjfkhff; fhzg; gLfpd; wikahy; tbepyq; fisaz;ba
gFjpfspy; mjpf kf;fs; tho; fpd;wdH. cjhuzk; :-
,e; Jf; fq; if rkntsp> ,e; jpahtpd; fpof; Ff; fiuNahuk; >
,yq;ifapd; njd;Nky; jho;epyk; > Fthq;Nfh ejp> USA
apd; kj;jpa gFjp
nropg;ghd fUkz; nfhz;l gpuNjrk; > rptg;G kz;
nfhz;l gpuNjrk; kf;fspd; FbapUg;ig J}z;Lfpd;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -07- mf; \ad;
14) ePu;tsk;:-
kf;fspd; md; whlj; Njitfisg; G+Hj;jpnra;tjw; Fk;>
gap Hr; nra; if eltbf; iffSf; Fk; eP Htsk;
Kf;fpakhdjhFk;.
ejpfisAk; kw;Wk; Nghjpa eP h;tsj;ijAk; nfhz;l
gFjpfs; rdr;nrwpT $baitahfTs;sd. cjhuzk;:-
iey; ejp gs;sj; jhf; fpy; gapu;r;nra;ifia Nkw; nfhs;sf;
$bajhf ,Ug;gjdhy; vfpg;jpy; rdr;nrwpT mjpfkhf
cs;sJ.
ePhtsk; mw; w tuz;l ejpfsw; w gFjpfspy; kf;fs;
FiwthfNt tho;fpd;wdH. cjhuzk;:- Mgpupf;fhtpd;
fp of; Ff; fiuNahuk; >njd; Mgp up f; fhtp d; njd;
fiuNahuk; Mfpad NghjpasT ePu; ,d;ikahy; ,q;F
rdj; njhif kpff; Fiwthf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
15) ,aw; if mdu; j;jq;fs;:-
Rdhkp> vupkiy ntbg;G> epyeLf; fk; > nts;sg; ngUf;F>
#whtsp> kz; rupT mjpfkhf ,lk;ngW fpd; w gFjpfspy;
Fbj; njhif Fiwthf fhzg;gLk;.
cjhuzk; :- Rkj; jpuh jP tpy; Vw; gl; l epyeLf; fk;
fhuzkhf ghjpg; gile; j khiyjP T kf; fs; ,lk; ngau; e; J
mdu;j;jk; Fiwthf ,lk;ngWk; gFjpfspy; FbNawpdu;.
16) efuhf;fk;:-
cyfpy; efuhf;fkile;j gpuNjrq;fs;
tu;j;jfj;ij ikakhff;nfhz;lJ.
kf;fsJ rfy NjitfSk; G+u;j;jpnra;ag; gLk;
,lkhf ,J fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
,q;F tsu;r; rpaile;j JiwKfq;fs;
ifj; njhopy; tsu;r;rp> Nghf;Ftuj;J tpUj;jp
fhzg;gLtjdhy; rdr;nrwptpid ,q;F fhzyhk;.
cjhuzk; :- ,yq;ifapd; nfhOk;G efuk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -08- mf; \ad;
17) fy;tp:-
mjpf fy; tpawpTila rpy ehLfspy; rdj; njhif
nrwpthfTs;sJ. fy;tpawptpdhy; ifj;njhopy;fspd;
tpUj;jp kw; Wk; NtW ehLfspypUe;J fy;tpawpitg;
ngWtjw; fhf kf;fs; ,lk;ngaHfpd;wik Kjypad
rdr; nrwp itf; $l; Lfp d; wd. cjhu zkh f
If;fpauhl;rpak;> mnkhpf;fh Nghd;w ehLfSf;F caH
gl;lg;gbg;Gf;fSf;fhf kf;fs; nry;fpd; wdH.
If; fpa mnkupf; fh 99%Kk; ,yq; ifapy; 91%Kk;
vOj; jwpT tP jk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
18) nghUshjhuk;:-
ifj; njhop y; Jiwap y; Kd; Ndwp a ehLfsp d;
nghUshjhu tpUj;jp mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;. ,jdhy;
kf;fs; mjpf Cjpaj;Jld; njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fisAk;
ngw;Wf; nfhs; s VJthfpd;wJ.
tlfpof;F mnkupf;fh rpw;ej ifj;njhopy; ikakhf
,Ug;gjhy; kf;fs; njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fSf;fhf mg;gFjp
Nehf;fpr; nry;tjhy; ,q;F mjpf Fbr; nrwptpid
fhzyhk;.
cyf rdj;njhif tsHr;rp
19) cyfpd; rdj;njhif tsHr;rp:-
cyf rdj; njhif tsHr;rpahdJ eP z; lfhykhf
xU nkJthd gazj; jp y; <Lgl; Lg; gp d; FWfpa
fhyj;jpDs; Jhpj tsHr;rpAld; Gjpa xU ghijapy;
GFe;Js;sJ. gpd;tUk; jutpypUe;J cyf rdj;njhif
xt; nthU gpy; ypadhf mjpfhpg; gjw; F vj; jid Mz; Lfs;
vLj; Js; sJ vdgijAk; vjp hfhyj; jp y; vj; jid
Mz; Lfspy; mLj; jLj; j gp y; ypad; fis milAk;
vd;gijAk; njspthf tpsf;Ffpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -09- mf; \ad;
20) rdj;njhif tsHr;rp tPjk;:-
Fwpg;gpl;l xU ehl;by; Fwpg;gpl;l xU tUlj; jpy; Vw; gLk;
,aw;if tsHr;rp tPjk;> Njwpa Fbg;ngaHT tPjk; Mfpa
,uz; bd; %yKk; rdj;njhifapy; Vw;gLk; mjpfhpg;G
my;yJ FiwT rdj;njhif tsHr; rp tPjk; vdg;gLk;.
21) ,aw; if tsHr;rp tPjk;:-
Fwpg; gpl; l ehl; by; Fwp g; gpl; l xUtUlj; jp y;
epfo;fpd;w gpwg;Gf; fspd; vz;zpf;iff;Fk;> ,wg;Gf;fspd;
vz;zpf; iff;Fk; ,ilapyhd tpj;jpahrj; ij ehl;bd;
nkhj;jr;rdj; njhifapdhy; gphpj;J mjid 100 ,w;F
fzpg;gNj ,aw;if tsHr;rp tPjk; MFk;. nghJthf
ehLfspd; ,aw;if tsHr;rptPjKk; rdj;njhif tsHr;rp
tP jKk; kpfr; rpwpa tpj; jpahrj; JlNdNa fhzg; gLk;. Mdhy;
,lg; ngaHTf; F mjpfstp y; cs; shfpd; w ehLfsp y;
,t;tpj;jpahrk; fhzg;gLk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -10- mf; \ad;
22) mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfs;> tsHKf ehLfspd; rdj;njhif
tsHr;rpg; Nghf;Ffs;:-
cyf rdj;njhif tsH;r;rpapy; mgptpUj;jpmile;j
ehLfspd; tsHr; rpia tpl tsHKf ehLfNs mjpfstpy;
rdj; njh if tsHr; rp iaf; nfhz; ldth ff;
fhzg; gLfpd;wd. 2009 Mk; Mz;L jfty; fspd; gb
mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfspd; rdj;njhif 1232100000
(18%) MfTk; > tsHKf ehLfsp d; rdj; njhif
5577872000 (82%) MfTk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
tsHKf ehLfsp y; rdj; njhif tsHr; rp tP jk;
mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLtjw;F tptrhag; nghUshjhuk;>
tWik> fy; tpawpT FiwT> FL; k; gf; fl; Lg; ghl; L Kiwfs;
gp d; gw; wg; glhik> fyhrhu fhuzp fs; vd; gd
Kf;fpakhditahff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
rpytsHKf ehLfspd; ,aw;if tsHr;rp tP jq;fs;:-
iefH (3.9)> kNahl; b(3.6)> cfz;lh (3.4)> Nrhkhypah
(3.0)> ,e;jpah (1.6)> ,yq;if (1.2)
mgptpUj; jpaile; j ehLfspy; rdj; njhif tsHr;rptPjk;
Fiwthf ,Ug; gjw;F> njhopy; tha; g; G> caHfy; tp>
ifj; njhopy; nghUshjhuk; > caH tho; f; ifj; juk; vd; gd
fhuzq;fshf mikfpd;wd.
rpy mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfspd; ,aw;if tsHr;rp
tPjq;fs;:- u];ah(-0.3)> N[Hkdp (-0.2)> ag;ghd; (0.0)>
,j;jhyp (0.0)> fdlh (0.4)> I.mnkhpf;fh (0.6)
23) rdj;njhif ,ul;bg;giljy;:-
rdj; njhif ,ul; bg;giltjw;F vLf; Fk; fhyj;ij
jP Hkhdpg; gjpy; rdj;njhif tsHr;rptP jk; nry;thf;Fr;
nrYj; Jfp d; wJ. mgp tp Uj; jp aile; j ehLfSf; F
,ul; bg;ghFk; fhyk; $LjyhfTk;> mgptpUj;jpaile;j
ehLfspy; ,ul;bg;ghFk; fhyk; FiwthfTk; fhzg; gLk;.
gp d; tUk; ml; ltizap yp Ue; J ,jid tp sq; fp f;
nfhs;syhk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -11- mf; \ad;
ehLfs; tUlhe;j
tsHr;rp
tPjk;
,ul;bg;gila
vLf;Fk;
fhyk;
ag;ghd; 0.3 223
gpuhd;]; 0.5 175
I.mnkhpf;fh 1.0 70
rPdh 1.1 64
,e;jpah 1.9 37
gq;fshNj]; 2.2 32
ie[Phpah 3.0 23
khdplg; Gtpapay; -12- mf; \ad;
24) rdj; njhif tsHr;rpf; fl;lq;fs;:-
cyfpd; rdj; njhif tsHr;rpahdJ ehd;F gpujhd
fl;lq;fshff; fhzg; gLfpd;wJ. ,J cyfpd; gpwg;GtP jk;>
,wg; GtPjk; vd;gtw;Wld; njhlHG gl;ljhf mikfpd;wJ.
,j; jifa rdj;njhif tsHr; rpf;fl;lq; fis njspthfTk;
tphpthfTk; tpsf;FtjhfNt Fbtiuapay; epiykhW
Nfhl;ghL fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
fl;lk; 1(caH Vw;wj; jho;T):- ,e;epiyahdJ 1650 -
1735 tiu fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. caH gpwg; GtPjKk;> caH
,wg; G tPjKk; ,f; fhyfl; lj; jpy; fhzg; gl; lJ. rdj;njhif
tsHr;rp tP jk; Fiwthff; fhzg;gl;lJ.
fl;lk; 2(Kd; tphpT):- ,e;epiyahdJ 1736 - 1885 tiu
fhzg; gLfpd; wJ. caHthd gpwg; G tP jKk; > Fiwtile; J
nry; fpd; w ,wg; G tP jKk; fhzg;gl; lJ. rdj; njhif
tsHr;rptPjk; kpf mjpfkhftpUe;jJ.
fl;lk; 3(gpd;tphpT):- ,e;epiyahdJ 1886-1950 tiu
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. Fiwtile;J nfhz;Lnry; fpd;w gpwg;G
tPjKk;> Fiwtile;Jnfhz;L nry;fpd;w ,wg;GtP jKk;
fhzg; gl; lJ. rdj; njhif tsHr; rptP jk; mjpfhpj; Jf;
fhzg;gl;lJ.
fl;lk; 4 (jho; Vw; wj;jho; T):- ,e;epiyahdJ 1950 Mk;
Mz; bw;Fg; gpd; dH fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. Fiwe;j gpwg;G tPjk; >
Fiwe;j ,wg; G tP jk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. rdj;njhif
tsHr;rptPjk; FiwthfNt fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
rdj;njhiff; fl;likg;G
25) rdj; njhiff; fl;likg;G:-
rdj; njhiff; fl; likg; G vd; gJ rdj; njhifap y;
cs; slq; Fk; Mz; ngz; mstpid taJj; njhFjp
mbg; gilapy; tifg; gLj; jpf; fhl; LtNjhL jpUkzepiy>
fy;tpf;fl;likg;G> ,d> kj fl;likg;G vd;gtw;iwAk;
cs;slf;FtjhFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -13- mf; \ad;
26) rdj;njhiff; $k;G:-
xU ehl;bd; rdj;njhifia taJ> ghy;
mbg; gilapy; tifg;gLj;jpf; fhl;Lk; tiuG
rdj; njhiff; $k;G vdg;gLk;. mjpy; fhzg; gLk;
gy;NtW njhFjpfSk; taJ kl;lq;fspd;
mbg; gilapy; Copag; ggil> jq;fptho;NthH mjhtJ
rpWtHfs;> KjpNahh;fisAk; Fwpf;fpd;wJ.
Copag;gil ( 15-60 tajpw;Fl;gl;NlhH )
rpWtHfs; (15 tajpw;Ff; Fiwe;jth; fs;)
KjpNahHfs; (60 tajpw;Ff; Nkw;gl;ltHfs);
27) rdj; njhiff; $k;Gfspd; tbtk;:-
ehLfspd; rdj;njhif gz;Gfspd; NtWghL
fhuzkhf rdj;njhif $k;Gfspd; tbtKk;
khWgl;Lf; fhzg;gLk;. me;jifapy; gpujhdkhf 3
tifahd rdj;njhif $k; Gfis mtjhdpf;fyhk;.
rhjhuz $k;G.
epiyahd $k;G.
mbg; gf;fk; xLq;fpa $k;G.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -14- mf; \ad;
28) cyfpd; kjhP jpahd fl;likg;G:-
Source: The world factbook (2007 data)
29) nkhop mbg;gilapyhd fl;likg;G:-
Source: The world factbook (2005 data)
kjk; rjtPjk;
fpwp];jtk; 33.32
,];yhk; 21.01
,e;Jkjk; 13.26
ngsj;jk; 5.84
rPf;fpak; 0.35
A+jkjk; 0.23
tfha;]; 0.12
NtWrkaq;fs; 11.78
rkak; my;yhNjhH 11.77
ehj;jpfk; 2.32
nkhop rjtPjk;
rPdnkhop 13.22
];ghdp]; 4.88
Mq;fpyk; 4.68
muG 3.12
,e;jp 2.74
NghHj;Jf;fP]; 2.69
u];ad; 2.20
[ghdp]; 1.85
N[Hkd;nkhop 1.44
gpuQ;Rnkhop 1.20
khdplg; Gtpapay; -15- mf; \ad;
30) mgptpUj;jp mile;JtUk; ehLfspy; rdj;njhif tsHr;rpahy;
Vw;gLk; khw;wq;fs;:-
Ntiytha;ig toq;Ftjw;F mjpf nryT Vw;gLjy;.
czTg; nghUl; fis ,wf; Fkjp nra; tjw;F mjpf gzk;
nrytply;.
jdpegUf; fhd tptrha epyg; gug; gpd; msT Fiwtiljy; .
epyg;gw;whf; Fiw fhuzkhf fhLfs; mopf;fg;gLjy;.
tPl; L> tjptplg; gpur;rpid Vw;gly;.
fy; tp fw; w %isrhypfs; ntspehjLfSf; Fr; nry; Yjy; .
efu xJf;Fg;Gwq;fspy; Nrhpfs; cUthFjy;.
jpz; kf;fopTfs; mjpfhpj; jy;.
FbeP Hj; jl;Lg;ghL Vw;gLjy;.
njhw;WNeha; fs; guTjy;.
,lg;ngaHT
31) ,lg;ngaHT:-
kdpjdpd; epiyahd tjptplj; ij khw; wpaikf; Fk;
Gtpapay; hP jpahd eltbf; if ,lg; ngaHT vdg; gLfpd;wJ.
32) ,lg; ngaHit Vw;gLj;Jk; fhuzpfs;:-
js;Stpirf; fhuzpfs; ,Otpirf; fhuzpfs;
Ntiyapd;ik
tPl;L trjpapd;ik
Nrit trjpfs; FiwT.
rypg;G+l;Lk; tho;f;if Kiw.
ghJfhg;G gpur;rpidfs;.
fy;tp ];jhgdq;fs; FiwT.
cl;fl;likg;G trjpfs; FiwT
Fiwthd Rfhjhu trjpfs;
Ntiytha;g;Gf; fpilf;fpd;wik.
nrhFrhd tho;f;if Kiw.
fy;tp Rfhjhu trjpfs;
ghJfhg;Gldhd tho;f;if.
caH r%f me;j]; ijg; ngwy;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -16- mf; \ad;
33) ,lg; ngah;tpd; tiffs;:-
cs;ehl;L ,lg; ngaHT
ntspehl;L ,lg; ngaHT
34) cs;ehl;L ,lg;ngaHT:-
xUehl; bd; murpay; vy; iyf; Fs;Ns kf;fs;
,lk; ngaHjy; cs;ehl;L ,lg;ngaHT vdg;gLfpd;wJ.
cjhuzk; :- Ky; iyj; jP T kf; fs; tTdpah>
aho; g;ghzk; Kjypa gFjpfSf;F Aj; jk; fhuzkhf
,lk; ngaHe; jik.
35) cs;ehl;bd; ,lg;ngaHT(gphpTfs;):-
gphpT ,lg;ngaHtpw;fhd fhuzk;
fpuhkk; - fpuhkk; Aj;jgak;> Ntiytha;g;G> Gjpa epyq;fis ngwy;
fpuhkk; - efuk; caHfy;tp> Ntiytha;g;G> caH tho;f;ifj; juk;>
ghJfhg;G
efuk; - efuk; njhopy; ,lkhw;wk;> Gjpa njhopy; tha;g;Gf;fs;>
caHfy;tp trjp
efuk; - fpuhkk; ,aw;ifr; #oy;> Xa;itf; fopj;jy;> nrhj;Jf;fisg;
ghJfhj;jy;> efu ,ae;jpu tho;f;fifapypUe;J kPOjy;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -17- mf; \ad;
36) ntspehl;L ,lg;ngaHT:-
xUehl;bd; murpay; vy;iyf;Fs; tho;fpd;w kf;fs;
NtNwhH ehl; bd; murpay; vy; iyf; Fs; nry; Yjy;
ntspehl;L ,lg;ngaHT MFk;.
cjhuzk; :- ghy]; jP dpa kf; fs; ,]; Nuyp aHfsp d;
Mf;fpukpg;gpdhy; vfpg;J kw;Wk; INuhg;gpa ehLfspw;F
,lk; ngaHe; jik.
37) ntspehl;L ,lg;ngaHT (gphpTfs;):-
mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehl;bypUe;J tsHKf ehl; bw;F
,lk;ngaHjy; . cjhuzk;:-KjyP l;lhsHfs; > MNyhrfHfs; >
tpNrl epfo; Tfspy; fye;J nfhs;gtHfs;.
tsHKf ehl;bypUe;J mgptpUj; jp mile;j ehl; bw;F
,lk;ngaHjy; . cjhuzk;:-caHfy;tp ngWjy; . itj; jpaH>
nghwpapayhsHfs;> epy msitapayhsHfs;.
mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehl;bypUe;J mgptpUj;jp mile;j
ehl; bw;F ,lk;ngaHjy;. cjhuzk;:-rdr;nrwpT $ba
INuhg;gpa ehlfspypUe;J trjp$ba NtW ehLfspw;f
nry; yy;.
tsHKf ehl;bypUe; J tsHKf ehl;bw;F ,lk;ngaHjy;.
cjhuzk;:-kj;jpa fpof;F Kjypa $yp kw;Wk; NtW
Ntiytha;g;Gf;fhfr; nry;Yjy;.
38) ,lg;ngaHtpdhy; Vw;gLk; tpisTfs;:-
%isrhypfspd; ntspNaw;wk;
Copag;gil ntspNaw;wk;
mfjpfs; cUthFjy;
efu rdj;njhif tpUj;jp
khdplg; Gtpapay; -18- mf; \ad;
Fbtiuapay; epiykhW Nfhl;ghL
39) Fbtiuapay; Nfhl;ghL:-
Muk; g fhyq; fspy; Nkw; Fyf ehLfspd;
cz; ikahd Fbj; njhif tuyhw; W mDgtq; fspypUe; J
ngw; Wf; nfhs;sg;gl; ljhf ,f; Fbtiuapapy; epiykhW
Nfhl;ghL fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
tp Uj; jp aile; j ehLfsp d; gp wg; G ,wg; G
tP jq; fsp d; tP o; r; rp nrad; Kiw gw; wp a
nghJikg; gLj; jg; gl; l tp sf; fj; ij cUthf; Fk;
Nehf; Fld; cUthf; fg; gl; l ,f; Nfhl; ghL
mz;ikf;fhyq;fspy; 3k; cyf ehLfspy; Muk;gf;
fl; lj; jp y; ,Uf; fp d; w Fbj; njhif khw; wq; fSf; F
gpuNahfpf;ff; $ba Nfhl;ghlhf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
caHkl; l gp wg; G tP jj; jhYk; > Ntfkhf
tP or; rp aile; JtUk; ,wg; G tP jj; jhYk; caH
Fbj; njhifiaf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;w ehLfs; vjpHfhy
Fbj;njhif Nghf; if fz;lwpe;J nraw;gl ,f; Nfhl; ghL
gad;gLfpd;wJ.
,f;Nfhl;ghl;bd; cUthf;f fHj;jhthd Landry
(1909) vd; gtH Fbg; Gs; spapay; khw;wk; 3 gpujhd
fl;lq;fs; Clhf nrd;W nfhz;L ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;whH.
1) Guhjd fhyk;
2) ,ilf; fhyk;
3) etPd fhyk;
NkYk; INuhg;gpa Fbj;njhif mDgtq;fis
xU Nfhl;ghl;L tbtj;jpy; nghJikg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpy;
Thomson, Notesteen Nghd;NwhH ,f;Nfhl;ghl;il NtW
ehLfSf;Fk; gpuNahfpf;fyhk; vd thjpl;ldH. ,tHfs;
cyf ehLfis 3 gphpTfshf tFj;Js; sdH.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -19- mf; \ad;
1) epiykhW fhyj;jpw;F Ke;jpa epiy
2) epiykhW fhyg; gFjp
3) epiykhW fhyj;jpw;F gpe;jpa epiy
Fbtiuapay; Nfhl;ghl;il njspthf
vLj; Jf; $wpatuhf NguhrphpaH O.B. Walker (1947)
vd;gtH fhzg;gLfpd; whH. ,tH Fbj;njhif ghpdhk
tsHr;rpia 5 fl;lq;fshf ,dk; fhZfpd; whH.
1) caHkl;l vz;zpf;ifapy; khw;wKwhj fl; lk;.
2) Kw;gl;l tphpthf;ff; fl; lk;.
3) gpw; gl;l tphpthf; ff; fl; lk;.
4) Fiwe;j vz;zpf;ifapy; khw;wKwhj fl; lk;.
5) tPo; r;rpaile;J nfhz;bUf; Fk; fl; lk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -20- mf; \ad;
fl;lk;
1
caHkl;lk;
2
Kd;tp hp thf;fk;
3
gp d;tp hpthf;fk;
4
jho;kl;lk;
5
tPo;r;rp
ehLfs;
nfhq;Nfh
vjpNahg;gp ah
Nrhkhypah
vfp g;J
nfd;ah
,e;jpah
gp Nwrpy;
fdlh
u];ah
Imnkhpf;fh
ag;ghd;
gpuhd;];
I.uhl;rpak;
N[Hkdp
ngy;[p ak;
mT];Nuypah
gp wg;GtPjk; caHT caHT tPo;r;rpailjy; FiwT kp fFiwT
,wg;GtPj
k;
caHT
Ntfkhf
tPo;r;rp ailjy;
kpfnkJthf
tPo;r;rpailjy;
FiwT FiwT
,aw;if
mjpfhpg;G
epiyahf
,Uj;jy;
my;yJ
nkJthf
mjpfhpj;jy;
kp f Ntfkhf
mjp fhpj;jy;
nkJthf
mjpfhp j;jy;
ep iyahf
,Uj;jy; my;yJ
nkJthf
mjp fhpj;jy;
nkJthf
Fiwtiljy;
gp wg;gtPj
mjpfhpg;gp
w;fhd
fhuzk;
tptrha eltbf;iffSf;fhf
mjpf rp WtHfs; Njit>
rp Wtajpy; mjpf rpWtHfs;
,wf;fpd;wik> r%f
Cf;fg;gLj;jy;fs;>
FLk;gj;jp l;lkp ly; ,d;ik.
czT> Rfhjhu
tp Uj;jp>
Fiwthd
Foe;ijfs;
Njitg; gl;lik.
FLk;gj;jpl;lkply;> ngz;fspd;
ep iy caHj;jg;gl;lik> gp w;gl;l
jp Ukzk;
,wg;G tPj
mjpfhpg;gp
w;fhd
fhuzk;
Neha;>
gQ;rk;>
Fiwe;j
kUj;Jt
mwpT> mjpf
Foe;ijfs;
,we;jik
kUj;Jtk;> czT> kdp j ey
Nkk;ghLfs; tp Uj;jp> Fiwe;jsthd
Foe;ijfs; ,wg;G
rpwe;j Rfhjhu ftdk;> epr;rakhd
czT tp dpNahfk;.
40) Fbj; njhif epiykhW fl;lj;jpd; gz;Gfs;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -21- mf; \ad;

2. ,yq;ifapd; rdj;njhif
1) mwpKfk;:-
cyfpd; mgptpUj; jpaile; JtUk; ehLfspy;
XusT tp Uj; jp aile; j Fbj; njhifg; gz; Gfis
,yq; if nfhz; Ls; sJ. ,yq; ifapy; 2007 Mk; Mz;L
kjpg;gP l; bd; gb 20 kpy; ypad; rdj; njhififiaf; nfhz; l
xU ehlhf fhzg; gLfpd;wJ. ,J 2009 ,y; 20.5
kp y; yp aidf; nfhz; bUg; gJld; > 2050 ,y; 25.4
kp y; yp aidf; nfh z; bUf; Fk; vdTk;
vjpHT$wg; gl;Ls;sJ.
2) ,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhif tsHr; rp:-
,yq;ifapd; rdj; ;njhifg; gz; Gfis ehk;
tpQ; Qhd G+Htkhd Fbf;fzpg;Gf;fs; %yk; 1871 Mk;
Mz; bypUe; Nj ngwf; $bajhfTs; sJ. 1871 Mk; Mz; L
fzpg;gPl; bd;gb ,yq;ifapd; rdj;njhif 2.4 kpy;ypad;
Mf fhzg; gl; lJ. 2010 Mk; Mz; by; cyf
rdj; njhif Gs;sptpgu kjpg; gPl;bd; gb 20.7 kpy;ypadhf
fhzg;gl;lJ.
,yq; ifapy; fhzg; gLk; ngUk; eP Hg; ghrdf;
Fsq;fisAk;> ghoile;J fplf;Fk; Fsq;fs; tay;fs;
vd; gtw; iwf; nfhz; Lk; ,yq; ifap y; fhzg; gl; l
giltPuHfspd; vz;zpf;ifiaf; nfhz;Lk; gz;il
ehspy; ,yq;ifapy; fdprkhdsT kf;fs; tho; e;jpUf;f
Ntz; Lnkd mwpQHfs; fUJfpd;wdH. fp.gp. 1300 Mk;
Mz;lstpy; ,yq;ifapy; 70 ,yl;rk; kf;fs; mjhtJ
7 kpy;ypad; kf;fs; tho;e;Js; snud N.K.
rHf;fhH vd;gtH fUJfpd;whH.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -22- mf; \ad;
Muk; gfhyq; fsp y; ,t; thW fhzg; gl; l mjp f
rdj; njhif Ml; rpahsHfspd; Aj; jk; > gilnaLg; Gf; fSk;
mjidj; njhlHe; J muRfspd; ,lg;ngaHTfs; > nfhyuh>
kNyhpah Neha;fspd; cf;fpuj;jhf; fk; Nghd;wtw; wpd;
tpisthf kf; fs; ,wg; Gf; fisAk; > ,lg; ngaHTfisAk;
re;jpj;jpUf;fyhk; vdf; fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.
3) ,yq;ifapd; rdj;njhiff; fzpg;gPL:-
,yq; ifap y; Kjd; Kjyhf tp Q; Qhd hP jp ahd
rdj; njhif fzp g; gP L 1871 Mk; Mz; bNyNa
,lk; ngw;wJ. gpd;dH xt;nthU gj;J tUlq;fSf;F
xUKiw Fbf; fzpg; G ,lk; ngw; wJ. ,yq; ifapd;
Fbf; fzpg;ghdJ 1871> 1981> 1891> 1901> 1911> 1921>
1931 Mfpa Mz;Lfspy; KiwNa ,lk;ngw;Wte;jJ.
Mdhy; 1941 ,y; ,uz; lhk; cyf kfhAj; jk; fhuzkhf
,lk;ngwtpy;iy. gpd;dH 1946> 1953> 1963 kPz;Lk; 1971>
1981 vd fzpg;gPLfs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
1991 ,y; ,yq;ifapy; epytpa Aj;j #o;epiyikfs;
fhuzkhf mf; fzpg; gP L ,lk; ngwtpy; iy. gpd; dH kPz; Lk;
2001 ,y; ,Wjpahf fzpg;gpL ,lk;ngw;wJ. Mdhy;
,jpy; mk; ghiw jtpu tlf; F fpof; F khfhzq; fspYs; s
khtl; lq; fs; Fbf; fzp g; Gf; F cl; gltp y; iy.
,tw; Wf; Fhp a juTfs; kjp g; gP l; L Kiwap NyNa
fzpf; fg;gl;ld.
vjp HtUk; 2011 ,y; ehLG+ uhfTk; fzp g; gP l; il
Nkw; nfhs; tjw; F ,yq; if njhifkjpg; G Gs; sptpgutpay;
jpidf;fsk; eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;L tUfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -23- mf; \ad;
,yq; ifapd; rdj; njhif 1871 2009
%yk; :- Ministry of Health Care and Nutrition, and Population
Reference Bareu
Mz;L Fbj;njhif
(000)
tsHr;rptPjk;
1871 2400 -
1881 2760 1.42
1891 3008 0.86
1901 3566 1.72
1911 4106 1.42
1921 4499 0.91
1931 5307 1.68
1946 6657 1.52
1953 8098 2.80
1963 10582 2.60
1971 12690 2.20
1981 14847 1.70
2001 18732 1.20
2004 19492 1.10
2006 19900 1.30
2007 20100 1.20
2008 20300 1.20
2009 20500 1.20
2010 20700 1.20
khdplg; Gtpapay; -24- mf; \ad;
4) ,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhif tsHr;rpapy; nry;thf; Fr; nrYj;Jk;
fhuzpfs;:-
,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhif tsHr;rpapy; Kf;fpakhf
%d;W fhuzpfs; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jfpd;wd.
gUkl;lhd gpwg;GtPjk; :- ,yq; ifapy; 1900 Mk; Mz;L
fhyg;gFjpfspy; gpwg;GtPjk; mjpfhpj;jf; fhzg;gl;lJ.
,Ue; jNghjpYk; Fwpg; gpl; l fhyg; gFjpfspy; Neha; >
kUj; JtRfhjhu trjp FiwT Kjypa fhuzq; fspdhy;
,wg; GtP jKk; mjp fhp j; Jf; fhzg; gl; lJ. ,jdhy;
rdj;njhif tsHr;rp ghhpa mstpy; ,lk;ngwtpy;iy.
ngz; fspd; njhopy; kw; Wk; fy; tp epiy caHT>
fUj; jilKiwfs; > FLk; gj; jp l; lkp ly; Nghd; w
fhuzq;fspdhy; gbg;gbahf ,yq;ifapd; gpwg;GtPjk;
Fiwe; J nfhz; L nry; fp d; wJ. ,jdhy;
mz; ikf; fhyj; jp y; rdj; njhif tsHr; rp kp fTk;
FiwthfNt ,lk; ngWfpd; wJ. 2009 juTfspd; gb
Mapuj;jpw; F 19 Mff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
gUkl; lhd ,wg; GtP jk; :- Muk; g fhyq; fsp ypUe; Nj
,yq; iap d; gUkl; lhd g,wg; GtP jk; caHthff;
fhzg;gl;lJ. 1900 Mz;L fhyg; gFjpapy; ,wg;GtPjk;
Mapuj;jpw;F 50 Mff; fhzg;gl;lJ. ,e;epiyikf;F
Muk; g fhyq;fspy; Vw; gl;l Neha;fs;> kUj;JtRfhjhu
trjp FiwT > fy;tpawpT FiwT Kjypa fhuzpfs;
gq;F tfpj; jd; . gpd;dH murhq;fq;fspdhy; gpd; gw; wg;gl;l
nfh s; iffs; ,wg; gtP jj; ij gbg; gbah ff;
Fiwj;Jte;Js; sd. 2009 juTfspd;gb Mapuj;jpw;F 7
Mff; Fiwtile;Js;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -25- mf; \ad;
Njwp a Fbg; ngaHT tP jk; :- Muk; g fhyq; fsp y;
,yq; iff; F ntsp ehLfsp yp Ue; J Fbtu T
fhzg;gl;likapdhy; ghhpa tsHr;rp Vw;gl;lJ. njd;
,e; jp ahtp yp Ue; J ngUe; Njhl; lq; fsp y; Ntiy
nra; tjw; fhf Njhl; lj; njh op yhsH fs;
ngUksptpy;kiyag;gpuNjrq;fspy; FbakHj;jg;gl; ldH.
1983 Mk; Mz; Lfspw;Fg; gpd;dH ,yq;ifapy; Vw; gl;l
,dg; gp ur; rp idfsp dhy; ,yq; ifap yp Ue; J
ngUkstpyhd kf;fs; NtWehLfspy; murpay; jQ;rk;
Nfhhp ,lk; ngaHe; J nrd; wdH. ,e; jpah> fdlh> INuhg; gpa
ehLfSf;F ,t; thW ,lk; ngaHe;jdH. ,d;Wk; $l
mjp fkhNdhH murp ay; jQ; rk; Nfhhp mT]; Nuyp ah
Nghd; wehLfSf; Fr; nry; tJld; > fy; tp f; fhfTk;
,lk; ngaHe; J NtWehLfSf; Fr; nry; fpd; wdH. ,j; jifa
epiyikfspdhy; ,yq; ifapd; rdj; njhif tsHr;rpapy;
xU nkJthd tsHr;rp fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
5) ,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhif tsHr; rpf; fhyfl;lq;fs;:-
,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhif tsHr;rpf; fhyfl;lq;fis
gpujhdkhf %d;Wfl;lq;fshf NtWgLj;jyhk;.
fl;lk; 1 (caHVw;wj;jho;T):- caHgpwg;GtPjk;> caH
,wg; GtPjk;> rdj;njhif tsHr;rp mjpfk;.
fl; lk; 2 (tphpthf;fk; ):- caH gpwg;GtPjk;> Fiwe;J
nry; Yk; ,wg; GtP jk; > rdj; njhif tsHr; rp kp f
mjpfkhff; fhzg;gl; lik.
fl;lk; 3 (jho; Vw;wj;jho;T):- jho; gpwg;gtPjk;> jho;
,wg; GtP jk; > rdj; njhif tsHr; rp Fiwthff;
fhzg;gl;lik.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -26- mf; \ad;
6) ,yq; if rdj;njhif ,ul;bg;giltjw;f vLf;Fk; fhyk;:-
1881 njhlf; fk; 1931 tiuahd fhyg; gFjp ap y;
,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhif tsHr; rptPjk; Fiwe;jstpy;
fhzg; gl; ljp dhy; m rdj; njhif ,ul; bg; ghf 60
Mz;Lfs; vLj;jd.
1931 ,ypUe; J rdj;njhif kP z;Lk; 30 Mz;LfSf; Fs;
,ul;bg;gile;jJ.
jw; NghJ ,yq; ifap d; rdj; njhif tsHr; rp tP jk;
Fiwthff; fhzg; gLfpd; wikahy; ,ul; bg; gilAk; fhyk;
XusT $bAs; sJ.
,yq;ifapd; rdj;njhifg; guk;gy;
7) ,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhifg; guk;gy;:-
cyfpy; vt;thW Fbj;njhif tpj;jpahrkhf guk; gpf;
fhzg; gLfp d; wNjh mNj Nghd; Nw ,yq; ifap Yk;
Fbj; njhif rkkw; w Kiwap y; guk; gp As; sJ.
,yq;ifapd; Fbj;njhif guk;giy tpsf; Ftjw; F
,yq; if Fbj;njhif mlHj;jp gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.
,yq; ifapd; Fbg; guk; gy; tyaq; fis %d; W gphpTfshf
gphpf;fyhk;.
njd;Nky; jho; epyk;
aho; g;ghzKk; kiyafKk;
tuz;ltyak;
8) njd; Nky; jho;epyk;:-
,g;gFjp tUlk; KOtJk; gutyhd
kiotPo;r; rpiaAk; rPuhd ntg;gj;ijAk; nfhz;l
gpuNjr khFk;.
,g;gFjp gapu;r;nra; iff;F cfe;j
gFjpahfTk; fdpg;nghUs; tsq;fis nfhz;l
gFjpahFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -27- mf; \ad;
njd; Nky; jho; epyj; jpy; Fbg; guk; gy; rJu fpNyh kP w; wUf; F
1000Ngu; tho;fpd;wdu;.
,q; F njd; id> ney; > ,wg; gu; Nghd; w gapu; fs;
gapuplg;gLfpd; wd.
,jdhy; ,g;gFjpfspy; Fbj;njhif guk; gy; mjpfkhf
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
9) aho; g;ghzKk; kiyafKk;:-
df
md;dpau; Ml;rpf;fhyj; jpy;
ngUe; Njhl;lq; fspy; Ntiy nra;tjw;F
njhopyhsu;fs; mjpfkhf Fbaku;j;jg;gl;ldu;.
,q;F ejpg;gs;sj;jhf;Ffs; gapu;r;nra;iff;F
rhjf khfTk; tPjpfSk; > Gifapujg; ghijfSk;
kiy ehl;by; efuhf;fiy J}z; baJ.
aho; FlhehL jiuf;fPo; eP iuf;
nfhz;Ls;sjhy; gapu;r; nra;iff;F rhjfkhf
cs;sJ. ,jdhy; kf;fs; ,ilapilna neUf; fkhf
tho; fpd;wdu;.
fz;bapy; rJu fpNyhkPw;wUf;F 700 ,w;F
mjpfkhNdhu; tho;fpd;wdu;.
10) tuz; l gpuNjrk;.
nkhj;jr; rdj;njhifapy; 13rjtPj kf;fs;
tuz; l gpuNjrj;jpy; Ijhf tho;fpd;wdu;.
,q;Fs;s gpuNjrq;fspy; rJufpNyhkPw;wUf;F
300 NgUf;Fk; FiwthdtHfNs tho;fpd; wdH.
kiotPo;r;rp FiwT> kpjkpQ;rpa ntg;gepiy>
Aj;jk;> nfhba Neha; Nghd;wtw;wpdhy;
,g;gpuNjrj; jpy; Fbg;guk;gy; kpf Ijhf
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -28- mf; \ad;
11) ,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhif mlHj; jpapYk; guk;gypYk;
nry; thf;Fr; nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;:-
,yq;ifapd; rdj;njhif fl;likg;G
12) ,yq; ifapd; rdj;njhiff; fl;likg;G:-
,yq; ifap d; rdj; njhf fl; likg; gp id
gpujhdkhf ghy;> taJ> ,dk;> rkak; Mfpatw; wpd;
mbg; gilapy; Muhayhk;.
ngh Uk; ghYk; gh y; > taJ
Mfp atw; wp dbg; gilap y; ,yq; ifap d; juTfis
tp sf; Ftjw; f rdj; njhif gp ukp l; Lf; fs;
gad; gLj; jg; gLfpd; wJ. ,yq; ifapd; rdj; njhiff;
$k; gpidg; nghWj; jtiuapy; taJj; njhFjpfspd;
gUkdpy; fhyj; jpw;Ff; fhyk; khw;wk; Vw; gl; LtUfpd;wJ.
Muk; g fhyq; fsp y; rp WtHfsp d; njhif
mjpfhpj; Jf; fhzg; gl; ljdhy; rhjhuz tbtpidf;
nfhz; ljhf rdj; njhiff; $k; G fhzg; gl; lJ.
jw; Nghija epiyapy; gpwg; gtP jk; XusT fl; Lg; gLj; jg; gl; l
ep iyap y; fhzg; gLfp d; wikahy; rdj; njhiff;
$k;ghdJ epiyahd $k;gpd; tbtj;ij ngWtjw;F
mz;kpj; Js;sJ.
ngsjPff; fhuzpfs;
nghUshjhuf;
fhuzpfs;
r%ff;fhuzpfs;
fhyepiy
jiuj;Njhw;wk;
kz;
,aw;iftsk;
,aw;if
mdHj;jq;fs;
tptrhak;
ifj;njhopy;
Nrit trjpfs;
tHj;jfk;
cl;lfl;likg;G trjp
mur nfhs;iffs;
Nghf;Ftuj;J
efuhf;fk;
murpay; epiyik
khdplg; Gtpapay; -29- mf; \ad;
13) ,yq; ifap d; Fbj; njhif ghy; mbg; gilap y; (
juTfs;Mapuj;jpy;)
14) ,yq; ifapd; ,dhPjpahd rdj;njhif (rjtPjj;jpy;)
15) ,yq; ifapd; kjhPjpahd rdj;njhif (rjtPjj;jpy;)
Mz;L Mz; ngz;
1871
1981
1891
1901
1911
1921
1931
1946
1953
1963
1971
1981
1991
1280
1470
1593
1896
2175
2381
1811
3532
4269
5499
6531
7539
8792
1120
1290
1414
1670
1931
2117
2495
3125
3829
5083
6159
7311
8455
,dk; 1981 2001
rpq;fstH
,yq;if jkp oH
,e;jpa jkpoH
K];yp k;fs;
VizNahH
74.0
12.6
5.5
7.1
0.8
82.0
4.3
5.1
7.9
0.7
kjk; 1981 2001
ngsj;jH
,e;Jf;fs;
,];yhkpaH
fpwp];jtH
NtW
69.3
15.5
7.6
7.5
69.1
7.1
7.6
6.2
10.0
khdplg; Gtpapay; -30- mf; \ad;
,yq;ifapd; ,lg;ngaHT Nfhyq;fs;
16) ,yq; ifapd; ,lg;ngaHT:-
,yq; ifapd; ,lg; ngaHTfis gp ujhdkhf
cs;ehl;L ,lg;ngaHT vdTk; ntspehl;L ,lg;ngaHT
vdTk; ,uz;lhf ghFgLj;jp Muhag;gLfpd;wJ. NkYk;
,t;tpuz;L gphpTfSk; NkYk; jw;fhypf ,lg;ngaHT>
epue;ju ,lg; ngaHT vd NtWgLj; jg;gLfpd;wd.
,yq; ifap d; murp ay; vy; iyf; Fs; Ns
,lk;ngaHtjid ,J Fwpf; Fk;.
,yq; ifapypUe;J NtnwhU ehl; bd; murpay;
vy;iyf;Fs; nry;tjid ,J Fwpf; Fk;.
17) ,yq;ifapd; cs;ehl;L ,lg; ngaHtpw;Fhpa fhuzpfs;:-
ntspehl;L Mf;fpukpg;Gf;fs;:- ,yq;ifapd; kPJ
Muk;g fhyq;fspy; njd;dpe; jpahtpy; tho;e;j murHfs;
gilnaLj; jjdhy; jkJ ep yq; fis iftp l; L
,yq; ifap d; njd; Nkw; Fg; gFjp Nehf; fp kf; fs;
,lk; ngaH e; jdH. cjhu zkh f
Nrhokd;dHfs;(,uh[uh[Nrhod; )> fypq;fNjrkd;dhd
khfd; MfpNahhpd; gilnaLg;Gf;fisf; $wyhk;.
FbNaw;wj;jpl;lq;fs; :- cyHtyag;gpuNjrq;fspy;
ePHg;ghrz trjpfs; mikf;fg;gl;L <utyaj;jpypUe;J
kf; fs; cyHtyaj; jpw; F FbNaw; wg; gl; lik. cjhuzkhf
fy;Nyhah jpl; lk;.
efuhf;fk;:- efuhf;fj;jpd; fhuzkhf efiu Nehf;fp
fpuhkj; jpypUe; J ,lk; ngaHe; j kf; fs; efuq; fspy;
fhzp fisf; nfhs; tdT nra; J mq; NfNa
FbNawpAs;sdH.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -31- mf; \ad;
Aj; jeltbf;iffs;:- ,yq; ifapy; ,lk;ngw;w Aj;jq; fs;
fhuzkhf mjpfstpy; kf; fs; Aj;jq;fsw; w ghJfhg; ghd
gFjpfSf;F ,lk; ngaHe;jdH. aho;g;ghzj;jpypUe; J
nfhOk; G Nghd; w gFjp fis Nehf; fp 1990- 95
fhyg;gFjpfspy; Nkw;nfhz; ldH.
18) ,yq; ifapd; ntspehl; L ,lg; ngaHtpw;Fhpa fhuzpfs; :-
Aj;j eltbf;iffs;:- ,yq;ifapy; ,lk;ngw;w
Aj;j fhyq;fspy; jkpo; kf; fs; murpay; jQ;rk; Nfhhp
,e; jpah> mnkhpf; fh> fdlh> gphpj; jhdpah Nghd; w
ehLfSf; F mfjp fshf ,lk; ngaHe; jikiaf;
Fwpg;gplyhk;.
fy; tp eltbf; iffs; :- caHfy; tpfisg; ngWjy; >
Gyikg; ghprpy; Nghd; w fhuzq;fshy; ,yq; ifapypUe;J
mnkhpf;fh> gphpj;jhdpah Nghd;w ehLfSf;F kf;fs;
,lk;ngaHfpd;wdH.
rkaeltbf; iffs; : - Gdp j]; jyq; fs; >
gpjpHfld; fs; Nghd; wtw; iw epiwNtw;Wtjw; fhfTk;
,yq; ifapypUe; J ,lk; ngaHfpd; wdH. cjhuzkhf
,e;jpahtpw;F kJiu Nghd;w Nfhtpy; fSf;Fk;> K];ypk;
kf;fs; nkf; fhtpw; Fk; ,t; thW gazp;fpd; wdH.
cy;yhrg; gazk; > tHj; jfk; :- ,yq;ifapypUe;J
rpq; fg;G+H kw;Wk; gpurpj; jp ngw; w jyq;fs;> ,lq;fs;
vd;gtw;iwg; ghHg;gjw;fhf cy;yhrg; gazpfshfTk;>
tHj; jf eltbf;iffSf;fhfTk; ,lk;ngaHfpd; wdH.
njhopy;tha; g; G:- kj; jpa fpof; F ehLfSf; F
Ntiytha; g; GfSf; fhf Mz; fSk; ngz; fSk;
mjpfstpy; nry;fpd;wdH. NkYk; rpy itj;jpaHfs;>
nghwpapayhsHfs; epue;jukhf NtWehLfspd; njhopy;
kw;Wk; gjtpfSf;fhf ,lk;ngaHfpd;whHfs;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -32- mf; \ad;

3.cyfpd; FbapUg;G
1) FbapUg;gpd; tiutpyf;fzk;:-
kdpjd; jdJ Njitfis epiwNtw; wpf;
nfhs;tjw;fhf mikj;Jf;nfhz;l ciwtplq;fNs
FbapUg;GfshFk;. xU FLk;gNkh my;yJ gy
FLk; gq;fNsh xd;w NrHe;J thOk;NghJ FbapUg; Gfs;
cUthfpd;wd. ,aw;ifahd fw;Fiffs;> kug;nghe;Jfs;>
rpW$lhuq;fs;> Fbirfs;> epue;jukhd tPLfs;>
khbtPLfs; vd gy;NtWgl;l tPl;Ltiffis
FbapUg;f;Fk; trpg;gplq;fshf kdpjd; gad;gLj;jpAs;shd;.
2) kdpjd; FbapUg;Gf;fis mikj;Jf; nfhz; ljd;
Nehf;fq;fs; :-
#oypy; Vw;gLk; nta;apy;> kio> gdp> ntg;gk;> FspH
vd;gtw;wpypUe;J jk;ikg; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs; sy;.
,aw; ifahf Vw;gLk; rpy mdHj; jq;fspypUe;J
jk;ik ghJfhj; Jf; nfhs;sy;.
tpyq;Ffs;> fs;thfsplkpUe; J jk;ikAk;>
clikfisAk; ghJfhj;Jf;nfhs; sy;.
mikjpahfTk; > re;NjhrkhfTk; tho;f; ifia
elhj;Jjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -33- mf; \ad;
3) xU FbapUg;gpy; fhzg;gLk; Kf;fpa mk;rq;fs;:-
tPLfs;
kf;fs; $l; lk;
epHthf mYtyfk;
Nrit epiyaq;fs;
njhopw;rhiyfs;
Nghf; Ftuj;J tP jpfs;
kpd;rhu ,izg; Gfs;
Rw;Wr;#oy;(epyk;> ePH)
4) FbapUg;gpd; tsHr;rp epiyfs;:-
Kd; ida fw; fhy Afj; jpy; Ntl; ilf; fhuHfSk; >
fha; fdpfs; Nrfhpg; NghUk; kug; nghe; Jfs; > fw; Fiffs; Nghd; w
jw;fhypf FbapUg;Gf;fis gad;gLj;jpdH.
ehNlhb ke;ijNka;r;rypy; <LgLgtHfs; ifj;njhopy;
kw;Wk; gapHr;nra;if njhlq;fpa gpd;dH Fiwe;j mstpy;
epiyahd FbapUg;Gfis mikj;Jf; nfhz; ldH.
tptrhag; Gul; rp Vw;gl; l fhyj; jpy; gapHr; nra; ifAk;
tpyq; FNtshd;ikAk; Muk;gkhfpajhy; epiyahd tP LfSk;
fpuhkq;fSk; cUthFjy;.
efug; Gul; rp Vw; gl; l fhyj; jpy; fpuhkp a tho; f; if
KiwapypUe;J efHg;Gw tho;f; if Kiwf; F khwpaTld;
efuf; FbapUg;Gfs; cUthFjy;.
17 Mk; Ehw; whz;bd; gpd;dH 1750-1850 tiuapyhd
fhyjjpy; ifj; njhopy; Gul; rpAld; efurdj; njhifAk; >
efuq;fSk; Jhpjkhf tsHr;rpailjy;.
20 Ehw; whz; bypUe; J mgptpUj; jpaile; j tUk; ehLfspd;
efu rdj; njhif mjpfhpj;jYk; KO cyfpdJk; efu tsHrp
Vw;gl;l ,af;f efHf; FbapUg;Gf; fhyj;jpy; ngUefHfs;>
$l;Lefhfs;> ngUefuj; njhFjpfs; vd;wthwhf efHfs;
tpUj;jpaile;jd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -34- mf; \ad;
5) FbapUg; Gf;fspd; tsHr; rpapy; nry; thf; Fr; nrYj; Jk; fhuzpfs;:-
ngsjpf fhuzpfs;:- jiuj;Njhw;wk;> fhyepiy> ,aw;if
tsk;
r%f nghUshjhu fhuzpfs; :- tptrhaKk; eP Hg; ghrdKk; >
ifj; njhopy;> Nghf;Ftuj;J> tHj;jfk; > murnfhs;if
6) FbapUg;Gfspd; tiffs;:-
cyfpy; fhzg; gLfpd; w FbapUg; G tiffis gpujhdkhf
,uz;L gphpTfSf;Fs; mlf; fp tplyhk;. fpuhkpa FbapUg; Gfs; >
efuf;FbapUg; Gfs; vd mit gpujhdkhf ,uz;L gphpthf
gphpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;iw gpujhdkhf gphpg;gjw;F ,q;F
msTNfhy; fshf rdj; njhif> rdj; njhif mlHj; jp >
nghUshjhu eltbf; iffs; > Nritfs; > epyg; gadghL>
tPLfSf;fpilapyhd Jhuk;> r%fj; njhlHGfs;> md;whl
efHTfs; vd; gd gpukhzq;fshf nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd.
fpuhkpaf;FbapUg;Gfspd; gbKiw xOq; F gpd;tUkhW
mikfpd;wJ.
jdp ikg; gLj; jg; gl; l tP L my; yJ gz; iz tP L>
Ff;fpuhkk;> fpuhkk;
efuf; FbapUg; Gfspd; gbKiw xOq; F gpd; tUkhW
mikfpd;wJ.
efuk;> khefuk;> ngUefH> $l;LefH> efHj;njhFjp.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -35- mf; \ad;
7) fpuhkpaf; FbapUg; Gf;Fk; efuf; FbapUg; gpw;Fk; ,ilapyhd
xg;gPL:-
rdj; njhif - fpuhkf; FbapUg; Gfspd;; rdj;njhif >
efuf; FbapUg;Gfspd rdj;njhifia tpl xg;gPl;lstpy;
FiwthFk;.
rdj; njhif mlHj; jp fp uhkq; fsp d; ; rdj; njhif
mlHj;jpahdJ - efuq;fspd; rdj;njhif mlHj;jpia tpl
Fiwthff; fhzg;gLk; . efuq; fspy; FWfpa epyg;gug; gpy;
mjpf FbapUg;Gfis fhzf;$bajhftpUf; Fk;.
nghUshjhuk; - fpuhkpaf; Fbapug;Gf;fspy; Kjdpiyg;
nghushjhu eltbf; iffs; mjpfkhff; fhzg; gLtJld; > efuf;
FbapUg; gfspy; ,uz; lhk; > %d; whk; epiy nghUshjhu
eltbf;iffs; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLk;.
Nritfs; - fpuhkpaf;Fbapg; Gf; fspy; Nrittrjpfs;
efug; gFjpfis tpl FiwthFk;. efuf;FbapUg; Gfspy; fy;tp>
Rfhjhuk;> epjp> tHj; jfj; Jiwfspy; gy;NtW Nritfs;
Vuhskhf ikag;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd.
ep yg; gad; ghL fp uhkp af; Fbap Ug; Gfsp y; fl; ll
epHkhzj; jpw; fhd epyg; gad; ghlhdJ efuf; FbapUg; Gf;fistpl
xg;gPl;lstpy; FiwthfTk; tptrha epyq;fs; mjpfkhfTk;
fhzg; gLk; . fp uhkp af; Fbap Ug; gp y; jp we; j efHfs;
fhzg;gLtJld;> efu FbapUg;Gfspy; nrwpthd fl;lq;fis
fhzyhk;.
r%fk; - r%f kw; Wk; fp uhkq; fSf; fp ilap yhd
Jhuj; jpidf; ftdj; jpy; nfhs; Sk; NghJ fpuhkq; fspy; ngsjP fj;
Jhuk; mjpfkhfTk; r%fj;Jhuk; FiwthfTk; fhzg;gLk;.
efuf; FbapUg; Gfspy; ngsjP fj;Jhuk; fiwthfTk; r%fj; Jhuk;
mjpfkhfTk; fhzg;gLk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -36- mf; \ad;
8) fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;Gfs;:-
Kjdp iy ngh Ush jh u eltbf; ifffsh d
gaphr; nra; if> tpyq; F tsHg; G> kP d; gpb> Ntl; ilahLjy; kw; Wk;
fha; fdpfis Nrfhpj; jy; Mfpatw; iw Nkw;nfhz; L tho; f; if
elhj; JNthH trpf; Fk; gFjpfs; fpuhkpaf; FbapUg; Gfs;
vdg; gLfpd; wd. MdhYk; rpy fpuhkpaf; Fbapug; gfspy;
,uz; lhk; epiy > %d; whk; epiy nghUshjhu eltbf; iffspy;
<LgLNthUk; trpf; fpd; wdH. ngUk; ghyhd fpuhkpaf; FbapUg; Gg;
gFjpfs; trpg;gplq; fis nfhz;l gpuNjrk;> nghUshjhu
eltbf; ifg; gpuNjrk; vd ,uz; L ghfq; fshf gphpe; J
fhzg; gLk;.
9) cWjpg;ghl;bdbg;gilapy; fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;gpd; tiffs;:-
fp u h kp af; Fbap Ug; Gfs; mtw; wp d;
cWjp g; ghl; bdbg; gilap y; jwfhyp fkhd muFiw
cWjpg;ghLila FbapUg;Gfs; vdTk;> epiyahd fpuhkpaf;
FbapUg;Gfs; vdTk; ,uz;lhfg; gphpf; fg;gLfpd;wd.
10) jw;fhypf miuFiw cWjpg;ghLila FbapUg;Gfs;:-
epiyahd FbapUg;Gfspy; tho;tjw;F Kd;dH kdpjH
jw; fhyp fkhd kw; Wk; miuFiwahd cWjp g; ghLila
FbapUg;Gfspy; tho; e;jdH. czT Njb fhyj; jpw;F fhyk;
efHe;J FbNaWjy;> ,iufpilf;Fk; ,lq;fis khw;Wjy;>
,lj; jpw; fplk; khwpr; nrd; W kP d;gpbj; jy;> Nridg; gapHr; nra; if>
Nridg; gaphr;nra;if> gUtf;fhjyepiy khw;wk; rhHe;j
,lHfs; Nghd; w fhuzq; fsp dhy; jw; fhyp f kw; Wk;
miuFiwahd fbapug; gf; Nfhyq;fs; cUthfpAs; sd.
,d; Wk; $l cyfpd; rpy gpuNjrq; fspy; ngUk; ghyhd
nghUshjhu eltbf;iffSld; njhlhGila jw;fhypfkhd
FbapUg;Gf;fis fhzf; $bajhfTs;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -37- mf; \ad;
11) epiyahd FbapUg;Gfs;:-
ngUk;ghyhd fhyq;fspy; njhlHr;rpahf xNuaplj; jpy;
mike; Js; s Fbap Ug; Gfs; ep iyahd Fbap Ug; Gfs;
vd;wiof;fg; gLfpd;wd. Njhw; wk; > miktplk; > nghUshjhu
eltbf; iffs; > ,lg; gug; G> rdj; njhif> Fbap Ug; Gf;
Nfhyq; fspd; jd; ik Nghd; w gpukhz; fSf; fika ,t;thwhd
epiyahd FbapUg;Gfis tifg;gLj;jyhk;.
Mrpa ehLfspd; ney; tptrhaf; FbapUg;Gfs;;
,yq; ifapd; <utyaf; fpuhkq;fs;
kj; jp a kiyehl; bd; gs; sj; jhf; F rhHe; j
fpuhkq; fs;
cyH tay Fsj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;l
fpuhkq; fs;
ngUe; Njhl; l mikg; gpy; Njapiy> ,wg; gH> fUk; G Nghd; w
gapHr; nra; if nra; ag; gLk; gpuNjrq; fspypYs; s FbapUg; Gfspy;
Kiwahf jpl;lkplg;gl;L tPLfs; mikf; fg;gl;Ls;sd.
12) fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;Gf; Nfhyq;fs;:-
Fwpg; gpl; l xU gpuNjrj; jpy; trpg;gplq;fSk; fl;llq;fSk;
guk; gpf; fhzg;gLfpd;w tpjk; FbapUg;Gf; nfhyq;fs; vd
miof;fg;gLfpd;wd. me;jtifapy; fpuhkpaf; FbapUg; Gfs;
gutp As; s tp jj; jp dbg; gilap y; rp jwp a Fbap Ug; Gfs; >
nfhj; jzp f; Fbap Ug; Gfs; > ehlhf; Fbap Ug; Gfs; >
tisatbtp yhdJk; gRikahdJkhd Fbap Ug; Gfs; >
jpl; lkplg;gl;l FbapUg;Gfs; vd tifg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
nghpastpyhd epyg;gpuNjrj;jpw;Fs; jdpikg;gLj; jg;gl;l
jdpahd tP l; L myFfs; jdpikg; gLj; jg; gl; l tP Lfs; vdg; gLk; .
cjhuzkhf mNkrd; fhl;Lg;gFjpfspy; ,aw;if tsq;fspy;
jq;fpapUe;J thOk; tPLfs;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -38- mf; \ad;
ngh p astp yhd jdp egH gap H r; nra; if
ep yj; ijaz; bajhf gutyhf cs; s tP Lfs; rp jwp a
FbapUg;Gfs; vdg;gLfpd;wd.
fl; lq; fs; xUq; fike; J fhzg; gLk; FbapUg; Gfs;
nfhj;jzpf; FbapUg; Gfs; vdg;gLfpd;wd. nghJthf njw;F
kw;Wk; njd;fpof;fhrpa ehLfspy; ,t; tbtf; FbapUg;Gfisf;
fhzyhk;.
tP jp fs; > Mw; Nwhuq; fs; > fhy; tha; fs; > xLq; fp a
gs;sj; jhf; Ffs; Mfpatw; wpd; ,UkUq; fpYk; eP sthl;by;
tP LfSk; NtW fl; lq; fSk; mike; jp Uf; Fk; NghJ
ehlhf;FbapUg;Gfs; vdg;gLfpd;wd.
XH ,lj; ij ikag; gLj; jp athW tl; ltbtp y;
mikf;fg;gLfpd;w FbapUg;Gfs; tl; ltbtf; FbapUg; Gfs;
vdg; gLfpd;wd. Mgphpf;f ehLfspy; ngUk;ghYk; ,j; jifa
FbapUg;Gf;fisf; fhzyhk;.
jw;NghJ Gjpjhf fl;lg;gl;L FbapUg;Gfs; jpl;lkplg;gl;l
Fbap Ug; Gfsp d; tifiar; rhUk; . Fwp g; ghf Rdhkp
mdHj; jj; jpw; F gpd; dH ghjpf; fg; gl; l kf; fSf; F Gjpjhf
jpl; lkpl;l Kiwapy; mikj; Jf; nfhLf;fg;gl; l fpuhkpaf;
FbapUg;Gfs; ,j;jifadthFk;.
13) efuf; FbapUg;Gfs;:-
rpwg;Gg;gzpAk; Jhpj ,af;fKk; nfhz; lit efuq;fs;
vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wd. tiuaWf;fg;gl;l xU epyg;gFjpapy;
ngUkstpyhd rdj;njhif jpul;rpAk;> ifj;njhopy;> Nrit
trjpfspd; ikag;gLj;jg;gl;l jdlikiaAk; nfhz; Ls;s
FbapUg;Gfs; efuf;FbapUg; Gfs; vdg;gLfpd;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -39- mf; \ad;
14) efuf; FbapUg;Gfspd; mbg;gilahd gz;Gfs;:-
efug; gFjp fsp y; fl; lq; fSf; Fhp a ep yg; gad; ghL
mjpfstpy; fhzg; gLtjdhy; tptrha ep yq; fSf; fhd
epyg; gad;ghl; bw;Fhpa epyj;jpd; msT kpff; Fiwthff;
fhzg;gLk;. gpuNjrj;jpd; mjpfkhd gFjpfis tPLfSk;>
njhop w; rhiyfSk; Viza fl; llj; njhFjp fSk;
Mf;fpukpj; jpUf;Fk;.
gy;NtW gl;l njhopy; eltbf;iffs; efug;gFjpfspy;
nrwpe; jpUg; gjdhy; gy; NtW ,dkjq; fisr; NrHj; tHfs;
trpf; fpd;wdH.
efurdj;njhifahdJ fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;Gfis tpl
mjp fhp g; gjdhy; rdj; njhif nrwp Tk; efug; gFjpfspy;
mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
15) efuf;FbapUg;Gf;fis rdj;njhiff;fika tifg;gLj;jy;:-
efuf;FbapUg; Gf;fis tifg;gLj;jtjw; F rdj; njhif>
njhop w; ghL vd; gd gp ukhzq; fshff; fhzg; gLfp d; w
mNjNtis rdj; njhifapd; mbg; gilapyhd tifg; gLj; jNy
gp u jhdkhff; fh zg; gLfp d; wJ. me; jtifap y;
rdj; njhifapdbg; gilapy; efuq; fs; gpujhdkhf 5 gphpTfshf
tifg;Lj; jg;gLfpd; wd.
rpwpa efuq;fs; 2000 - 20 000 ( 20 Mapuj;jpw;F
FiwT)
,ilj; ju efuq;fs; 20 000 - 100 000 (20 Mapuk;-
100 Mapuk;)
efuq; fs; 100 000 - 1 000 000 (100 Mapuk;
- 1 kpy;ypad;)
kpy; ypad; efuq;fs; 1 000 000 -10 000 000(1
kpy; ypad;- 10 kpy;ypad;)
khngUk; efuq;fs; 10 000 000 Nky; (10 kpy; ypaDk;
NkYk;)
khdplg; Gtpapay; -40- mf; \ad;
16) efu tsHr;rpapd; gy;NtW fl;lq;fs;:-
efukhdJ mjDila rdj; njhif msTk; ngsjPf
hPjpahd epyg;gug;G tphpthf;fj;jpw;Fk; Vw;g tsHr;rpaile;J
nry; fpd; wJ. me; jtifapy; efuq; fspy; tsHr; rpahdJ gpd; tUk;
xOq;fpy; fhzg; gLk;.
efuk; (Town City) > ngUefuk; (Metropolitan) >
$l;LefH (Combination) > efHj;njhFjp (Megalopolis)
17) efuk;:-
kl; Lg; gLj; jg; gl; l ep yg; gp uNjrj; jp y; ngUksthd
rdj; njhif xd; W $Ltjhy; mjpfkhd kf; fl; nrwpT ,Uf; Fk;
fdpa> ifj;njhopy; epjp> fy;tp> Rfhjhu> epu;thf> jq; Fkplk;
Nghd;w gy; NtW Ntiyfs; ikag;gLj;jg; gl;l FbapUg; Gf;fs;
efuq; fs; miof;fg;gLfpd;wd.
18) ngUefuk; :-
Jhpjkhf tsHr; rpailAk; ghhpa efHfisr; Rw; wp
efug;Gwq;fSk;> fpuhkhe;jpuq;fSk; cUthfpd;wd. ,t;thW
kj; jpa efuj; ijr; Rw; wp cgefuq; fSk; > mLj; J rpwpa
efuq; fSk; tsHr; rp ailfp d; wNghJ mit ngUefuk;
vdg;gLk;.
ngUefug; gpuNjrk; xd; W cUthtjw; F gy fhuzpfs;
nry; thf;F nrYj;Jfpd; wd. ifj;njhopy; Gul;rpapd; gpd;du;
tpUj;jpaile;j ehLfspy; fpuhkpa gpuNjrq;fspd; ghupasT
rdj; njhif efuq;fSf;F ,lk; ngau;e;jd. efuq;fspy;
tjpAk; kf; fs; efuq; fspd; #oy; khrilT> Ms; g; ghw; whf; Fiw>
fhzpfspd; tpiyNaw; wk; > tP l; L thlif mjpfupj; Jr; nry; yy; >
efu #oypy; tho tpUk; ghik Nghd;w fhuzpfshy; efu;
vy;iyg;Gwq;fspy; (efupw;F ntspNa) Fbngau;e;jdu;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -41- mf; \ad;
vdpDk; mtu; fspd; Ntiyj; jsk; gpujhd efuj;jpNyNa
fhzg;gl;likapdhy; ehshe;jk; efuj; jpw;F Nghf;Ftu;j;J
nra; a Ntz; ba ep iy Vw; gl; lJ. ,jdhy;
Nghf;Ftuj;jpw;FnryT nra;af; $ba kj;jpaju tFg;gpdu;>
cau; kl; lj; jp du; khj; jp uk; efuq; fSf; F ntsp Na
,lk;ngau;e;jdu;.
Gifap uj tP jp tp ]; jup g; G> Gifap uj tP jp g;
Nghf; Ftuj; Jf; fhd mDkjpr; rP l; L Fiwe; j fl; lzj; jpy; ngw; Wf;
nfhLj; jy; Nghd; wtw; why; njhopyhsu; tu; f; fj; jpdUk;
efuj;jpypUe;J ntspNa tho Kaw;rpj;jhu;fs;. ,JNghd;w
efuq;fspy; Ntiy nra; Nthu; Fbaku; e;j gpuNjrq;fspy; cg
efu;fs; cUthf;fk; ngw;wd.
19) $l;L efH:-
ngUefu;fs; gbg; gbNa tpupthfp ,U ngUefu; fs;
xd; Wlndhd; W ,iztjhy; njhlu; r; rpahf tpahgpf; Fk;
efu;g; Gwg; gz; Gfisf; nfhz; l ghupa gpuNjrk; cUthfpd;wJ.
,t; thW ngUefu; fs; xd;Wlndhd;W ,iztjhy; cUthFk;
tyak; $l;Lefu;fs; vd;wiof;fg;gLk;.
cjhuzk; : ghupa ,yz; ld; $l; Lefu; > Nkw; F Nahf; \au;
20) efHj;njhFjp:-
rp y $l; Lefu; fs; ghij tiyaikg; gp dhy;
xd; Wlndhd; W njhlu; G nfhs; tjhy; efu; j; njhFjp fs;
cUthfpd; wd. efu; j; njhFjpfspd; cUthf; fk; efu FbapUg; G
tsu; r;rpapd; cr;r fl;l re;ju;g;gkhff; fUjg;gLk;.
cjhuzk; :
If; fpa mnkupf; fhtpd; epANahu; f; > ghy; upNkhu; vdg;gLk;
njhFjpfisAk; ,izj; jthW ngh]; jhdpypUe; J th\pq; ld;
tiu tpupthfpr; nry; Yk; efu; j; njhFjp > rp f; fhNfh
gPw; wu;];Ngu;f; efu; j;njhFjp (rp[pl; b];)
ag;ghdpd; Nlhf;fpNah kw;Wk; nfhf;ifNlh efu;j;njhFjp
khdplg; Gtpapay; -42- mf; \ad;

4. ,yq;ifapd; FbapUg;G
1) ,yq; ifapd; FbapUg;Gfs;:-
Kjdpiyg; nghUshjhu eltbf; iffsp d; Clhf
,yq;ifapd; Muk;g FbapUg; Gf; fs; cUthfpd. vspa
tho; f; if Kiwg; gz; Gfisf; nfhz;ldthfgz; ila
fp uhkq; fs; fhzg; gl; ld. md; W Kjy; ,d; W tiu
,yq; ifapd; FbapUg;Gf;fs; gy; NtW Jiwfs; rhu;e;jdthf
tsu; r; rp aile; jd. fp uhkk; > rp Wefu; > khefu; vd
FbapUg;Gf;fs; gy; tifg;gLfpd;wd.
2) ,yq; ifapd; FbapUg;Gfspd; tsHr; rp:-
Muk; gj; jpy; kpfTk; vspikahd Kiwapy; FbapUg; Gf; fs;
mike;jpUe; jd.
(fw; Fif> kug;nghe; J> )
tp trhaj; ij ikakhff; nfhz; L fp uhkp af;
FbapUg;Gf;fs; cUthfpd.
efuf; FbapUg;Gf;fs; Njhw;wk; ngwy;.
me; ep a Mjp f; fj; jp d; fhuzkhf ngUe; Njhl; lf;
FbapUg;Gf;fs; cUthfpd.
Rje; jpuj;jpd; gpd; G tptrhag; gz; izfis mz;ba
FbapUg;Gf;fs; cUthfpd
mgptpUj;jpr; nraw; wpl;lj; jpd; %ykhf FbapUg;Gf;fs;
cUthfpd
ifj; njhopy;fis Kjd; ikahff; nfhz; l ifj; njhopy;
FbapUg;Gf; fs;.
jp l; lkp lg; gl; l Fbap Ug; Gf; fs; (cj; Njrp f; fg; gl; l
tPlikg;Gj; jpl;lk;)
Gjpa efuq;fs; Njhw;wk; ngwy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -43- mf; \ad;
3) ,yq; ifapd; FbapUg;G tiffs;:-
fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;G
efuf; FbapUg;G
Njhl; lf; FbapUg;G
jpl; lkplg;gl;l FbapUg;G
4) fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;Gfs;:-
Kjdpiy nghUshjhu eltbf;iffspy; <LgLNthH
ngUkstpy; trpf;Fk; ,lq;fs; fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;Gfs;
vdg; gLfp d; wd. ,yq; ifap d; Fbap Ug; Gfsp y;
ngUk;ghyhdit fpuhkf; FbapUg;Gf;fshFk;.
,q; F Kjdpiy nghUshjhu eltbf; iffshd jhdpar;
nra; if> fha; fwp r; nra; if> tp yq; FNtshd; ik>
Ntl; ilahLjy; > kPd;gpb Nghd;wd fhzg;gLk;.
fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;Gfspy; gUtk; rhHe;jit> XusT
epiyahdit> epiyahdit vd FbapUg; Gf; fis mikj; J
kf;fs; tho;e;Js; sdH.
,yq; ifap d; fp uhkp af; Fbap Ug; Gf; fis Guhjd
fp uhkq; fs; > kfhtyp fp uhkq; fs; vd ,uz; lhf
NtWgLj;JtH.
5) Guhjd fpuhkq;fspy; fhzg;gl;l gpujhd $Wfs;;:-
FbapUg;G
Fsk;
Guhjd tay;
Gjpa tay;
Nridr; nra;if
fhL my;yJ Nkl;L epyk;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -44- mf; \ad;
6) ,yq; ifapd; fpuhkpaf; FbapUg;Gf; Nfhyq;fs;;:-
,yq; ifap d; fp uhkp af; Fbap Ug; Gf; Nfhyq; fs;
njhopw;ghl; bdbg;glapy; gpd;tUkhW gphpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
Ff; fp uhkk; > Fsf; Fbap Ug; G> kP dtf; Fbap Ug; G>
NeHNfhl;Lf; FbapUg;G>
7) Ff;fpuhkk; :-
,yq; ifapd; FbapUg; Gf; Nfhyq; fspy; kpff; Fiwe; jsT
rdj; njhif gutpAs;s FbapUg;G ,JthFk;. xU kdjpd;
my;yJ xU FLk;gk; gpujhd Fbapug;gpypUe;J tpyfp xU
gp uNjrj; jp y; xU tjp tp lj; ij mikj; Jf; nfhz; L
thOk;NghJ mjidj; jdpj;jike;j tjptplk; my;yJ
Ff; fpuhkk; vd;gH. tptrha eltbf; iffspy; <LgLk; kf; fs;
Ff;fpuhkq;fspy trpf;fpd;wdH. nfhj;kiy eP Hj;Njf; j;ij
mikj;jNghJ kz; rhpTfs; Vw;gl;ljhy; tjptplq;fis
,oe; j kf;fSf;fhf nfhj;kiy kiy;rhpTfspy; fl;lg; gl;l
nkhwnfhy;y> wptHirl; vd;gd Ff;fpuhkq;fshFk;.
8) Fsf; FbapUg;G:-
cyhtyaq;fspy; tptrha eltbf;iffapd; epkpj;jk;
Fsq; fisAk; fhy;tha; fisAk; #o;e;J trpg;gplq;fis
mikj; Jf; nfhs; sg; gl; l Fbap Ug; G Fsf; Fbap Ug; G
vdg; gl; lJ. ,f; FbapUg; Gf; fspy; new; gapHr; nra; if mbg; gil
nghUshjhu eltbf;ifahf miktJld; gaW> Fuf;fd;
Nghd; w Nridg; gaphr; nra; ifAk; > tP l; Lj; Njhl; lj; jpy; ku; fwpg;
gapHr;nra;ifAk; gor; nra;ifAk; fhzg;gl;ld. Fsq; fspy;
kPd; gpbj;jYk; > fhLfspy; Ntl;ilahLjYk; ,lk;ngw;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -45- mf; \ad;
9) kPdtf; FbapUg;G:-
flw; fiuia mz;bajhf kpd; gpbj; njhopiy Nehf; fhff;
nfhz; L cUthf; fg; gl; l Fbap Ug; Gfs; kP d; gp bf;
FbapUg; Gfs; MFk; . ,yq; if jP thifahy; ,yq; ifiar;
#oTs;s flw; fiug; gpuNjrq;fis mLj; Js;s kf;fs;
kP d; gp bia tho; thjhukhff; nfhz; ljhy; kP dtf;
fpuhkq;fs; Njhw;wk; ngw;wd. gUtfhyq; fSf;Nfw; g
kP dtHfs; ,lk; ngaHtjhy; mtHfsJ tP Lfs; ngUkstpy;
FbirfshfNt fhzg; gLfpd;wJ. kapypl;b> fw;gpl; b>
kphp];]> NgUtis> jq;fhiy> ePHnfhOk;G> Ngrhiy>
fy;Kid> kd; dhH> jpUNfhzkiy> rpyhgk; > fhyp
Nghd;wd kpdtf; FbapUg;Gf;fis fhzyhk;.
10) NeHNfhl;Lf; FbapUg;G:-
fhy; tha; fspd; ,UGwq; fspYk; > tP jpfspd; ,UGwq; fspYk;
xU NehHNfhl;by; mike;J fhzg;gLk; FbapUg; Gfs;
NeHNfhl;Lf; FbapUg;Gfs; vdg; gLfpd;wd. jd;dpiwTf;
fpuhkq; fspy; cw; gj; jp mjpfhpg; G Vw; gl; L mtw; iw Viza
gFjp fSf; Fk; nfhz; Lnry; yNtz; ba Njit
cUhfpajhy; Nghf;Ftuj;Jg; ghijfspd; ,UkUq;fpYk;
NeHNfhl; Lf; FbapUg; Gfs; Vw; gl; ld. flw; fiuNahuq; fspd;
nghUshjhu eltbf;iffspd; nghUl;Lk;> ,j;jifa
NeHNfhl;Lf; FbapUg; Gf; fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. Muk; gj; jpy;
cyH tyaj; jp y; tp trh af; FbNaw; wq; fis
Vw;gLj;Jk;NghJ NeHNfhl;L KiwNa gpd; gw;wg;gl;lJ.
cjhuzkhf fhfk> fl; baht FbNaw;wj;jpl;lq;fisf;
Fwpg;gplyhk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -46- mf; \ad;
11) jpl; lkpl;l FbapUg;G:-
FbapUg;Gf;fis jpl; lkpl;l Kiwapy; mikj;J mjd;
%yk; tptrah epyq; fis FbapUg; GfSf; F mz; ikapYk; >
gy; NtW Nrit trjp fisAk; ,yFtp y; mZff;
$bathW FbapUg; Gf; fis mikj; jy; jpl; lkpl; l FbapUg; G
vdg; gLfpd;wJ. cyu; tya tptrhaf; FbapUg;Gf; fs;>
kfhtypf; Fbap Ug; Gf; fs; > cjhfk vd; gdtw; iwf;
Fwpg;gplyhk;.
,j;jifa jpl; lkplypd; mbg;gilapy; kfhtyp
FbapUg;G mike;J fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,it kfhtyp
fq;ifAld; njhlHG gl;litahff; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
NeHNfhl; L Kiwap y; Fbap Ug; Gfs; mike; J
fhzg; gLtjdhy; tsq; fisg; gq; fpLtjpy; gpur; rpidfs;
fhzg; gl; ld. ,j; jifa gp ur; rp idfSf; F jP HT
fhZKfkhfNt jp l; lkp lg; gl; l kfhtyp FbapUg; G
mikf; fg; gl; lJ.jp l; lkplg; gl; l FbapUg; gp y; vy; yhf;
FLk; gj; Jf; Fk; eP u; g; ghrdj; Jldh d fhzp
toq; fg; gl; bUg; gijf; fhzyhk; . $l; LwTr; rq; fk; >
ghlrhiy> tpisahl; L ikjhdk;> Kd; ghlrhiy>
mQ; ry; mYtyfk; > kahd G+ kp Mfp a gFjp fs;
mikf;fg;gl;bUj;jy;.
12) ngUe;Njhl;lf; FbapUg;G:-
ngUe; Njhl; lq; fsp y; njhop y; Ghp tjw; fh f
gphpj; jhdp aHfshy; njd; dp e; jp ahtpypUe; J nfhz; L
tug; gl; l njhopyhsHfs; tho; tjw; fhf kiyafg; gFjpapy;
mikf; fg; gl; l FbapUg; Gfs; Njhl; lf; FbapUg; Gfs; MFk; .
khdplg; Gtpapay; -47- mf; \ad;
,j; Njhl; lf; FbapUg; Gfs; epuw; gLj; jg; gl; l rpwpa
miwfs; nfhz;l yad; FbapUg;Gfshf fhzg;gl;ld.
,it kpfTk; trjp Fiwe; jitahfTk; mufpy; ghlrhiy>
,e; JNfhtp y; vd; gtw; iwf; nfhz; lgitahfTk;
fhzg; gLfpd; wd. jhpR epyr;rl; lj; jpd; fP o; kiyaf
kf;fsplkpUe;J ngwg;gl;l fhzpfspNyNa ,t;thwhd
yad; FbapUg; Gf;fs; mikf;fgl;ld.
Etnuypah> gJis> khj;jis> Nffhiy> ,uj;jpdGup>
fSj; Jiw Mfpa khtl; lq;fspy; ngUkstpy; gutpf;
fhzg;gLfpd; wd.
13) Rje; jpuj; jpd; gpd; du; murpdhy; ngUe; Njhl; l FbapUg; Gf; fspYs; s
kf; fspd; tho; f; ifj; juj; ij Nkk; gLj; Jtjw; F Nkw; nfhs; sg; gl; l
eltbf;iffs;:-
Rfhjhu trjpfis Nkk;gLj; Jjy;
jdptPLfis mikf;Fk; cj;Njrj; jpl; lk;.
cly; MNuhf; fpa epiyia Nkk; gLj;Jtjw;F Njhl;l
kUj;Jt
kidfis mikj; jYk; mYtyu;fis epakpj;jYk;.
njhopyhsu;fspd; rk;gs kl;lj;ij cau;j; Jjy;
czT epthuzk; toq; Fjy;
E} yfk; > tp isahl; L ikjhdk; Mfp atw; iw
mikg;gJld; r%f
trjpfis tpUj;jp nra; jy;.
14) efuf; FbapUg;Gfs;:-
efuf; FbapUg;G vd;gJ fdpaq;fs;> ifj; njhopy; fs;>
fy; tp > Rfhjhuk; >ep u; thfk; > jq; Fkp lq; fs; Mfp a
gy; NtWgl; l gzp fSf; Fk; ikakhf mike; j
FbapUg;ghFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -48- mf; \ad;
tiuaWf; fg; gl; l epyj; jpy; ngUksT rdj; njhif
Ftpe; jpUg; gJld; mjpf rdr; nrwp Tk; fhzg; gLk; .
tu;j;jfk;> ifj;njhopy;> fy;tp Nghd;w nraw;ghLfSk;
xUq;fpize;jpUf;Fk;.
tptrhak; rhuhj eltbf;iffspy; <LgLk; r%fj;jpdu;
Nru; e;J thOk; gFjp efuf; FbapUg;ghFk;.
15) ,yq; ifapd; efuf; FbapUg;Gfspd; tpUj; jp:-
,yq; if efu kakhjy; Nkiyj; Njaj; jtu;fspd;
tUifapd; gpd; dNu Jupjkhf Vw;gl;lJ
rpwg; ghf Mq; fpNyau; Ml; rpf; fhyj; jpd; NghJ fiuNahug;
gpuNjrq; fspy; b efukakhjypd; mbg; gil Vw;glyhapw; W
nfhOk;ig NtW ,lq; fSld; njhlu;GgLj;jy; Gif
tz; bg; gh ij ngUe; njUf; fs; vd; gd
mikf; fg;gLtjhYk; nghUl; fs; Vw;wpapwf; fg;gLtjhYk;
rdj; njhif mjpfupj;jy;
,e; jp ahtp yp Ue; J nfhz; Ltug; gl; l njhop yhsu;
xd;wpize;jjpdhy; ml;ld; Etnuypah Nghd;w Gjpa
efuq; fs; Njhd;wpd.
16) ,yq; ifapd; efuf; FbapUg;Gf; fspd; Gjpa Nghf;F:-
nfhOk;G ngU efukhf tsu;r;rp miljy;
tuz;l tya FbapUg; GfSf; F mz; ikapYs; s
efuq;fspy; rdj;njhifmjpfupj;jy;
efu tpUj;jp Ntfk; nkJthf epfOjy;.
nfhl;by;fSk; Nrupg; Gwq;fSk; Vw;gLjy;
efukakhjy; gp uNjrq; fsp y; nfhl; by; fs;
Nrupg;Gwq;fs; cUthfpAs;sd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -49- mf; \ad;
17) Nrhpg;Gwq;fs;:-
Nrhp g; Gwq; fis thp irtP Lfs; (yad; tP Lfs; )>
Nrhpj;Njhl; lq;fs; vd ,Ugphpthf ,dk;fhzyhk;.
,it gyiffs;> fhl;Nghl; kl; ilfs;> jfuj;jz; Lfs;
vd;gtw;iwf; nfhz;L neUf;fkhfTk; Rfhjhuj;jpw;Fg;
nghUj;jkw;wjhfTk; fhzg;gLk;.
18) ,yq; if murhq;fk; nfhl;by;fs;> Nrhpg;GHwq;fspd;
gpur;rpidfSf;F Nkw;nfhz; l jPHTfs;:-
Nrupg;Gwq;fs; mike;Js;s gFjpfspd;
epiyikfis Nkk;gLj;jy;
gpuNjrj;jpDs; kPsf; FbapUj;jy;
efUf;F ntspNa FbapUj;jy;
tPLfisf; fl;l epjp trjpfs; toq; Fjy;
Rfhjhu trjpfis toq; Fjy;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -50- mf; \ad;

5. efuhf;fk;
1) efuq;fs;:-
efuk; vd; gJ rp wg; Gg; gzp Ak; > Jhp j ,af; fKk;
nfhz;lit vd tiuaWf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. nghJthf gy
mk;rq; fs; ikag;gLj;jg; gl; l jd;ikapidAk; tptprha
my;yhj FbapUg;Gf;fisf; nfhz;ldthfTk; efuq;fs;
fhzg;gLfpd; wd.
2) efuhf;fk;:-
Vw; fdNt fhzg; gLfp d; w efug; gFjp xd; wp d;
Fbj; njhifapd; cs; tutpd; fhuzkhf efug; gFjp epyg; gug; G
fpuhkg;gFjp Nehf;fp ngsjPf hPjpahf tsHe; J nry;fpd;w
ep iy my; yJ efug; gFjp fsp d; vy; iy gy; NtW
fhzuq;fspdhy; tp]; jhpf;fg;ggl;Lf; nfhz;L nry; Yjy;
efuhf;fk; vdg;gLfpd;wJ.
,lg; guk; gypay; Nehf;fpy; ghu;f; Fk; NghJ ehl; bd; nkhj; j
rdj; njhifapy; efuj; ij ikakhff; nfhz; bUf; Fk; msT
efu kakhjy; vd miof;fg;gLk;. xU ehl; bd; efu
tyaj; Jf; F mz; ikapy; epfOk; kf; fs; FtpT efukakhjy;
vdf; fUjg;gLk;.
efu kakhjy; vd;gJ xg;gPl;L mstPlhFk;. Ehl;by;
nkhj; j rdj;njhifapy; efu FbapUg;Gfspy; trpg;NghusT
rjtP jkhff; fhl;lg;gLk;.
If;fpa ehLfs; rig:- fpuhkq;fspy; ,Ue; J efuq;fis
Nehf; fp ,lk; ngWfpd; w kf; fspd; mirT efuhf; fk;
vdg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -51- mf; \ad;
3) njhopw;ghl; bdg;gilapy; efuq;fspd; tifg;ghL:-
njhopw;ghL efuq;fs;
ifj;njhopy; efuk; gpynly;gpah> rpf;fhf;Nfh> gGNyh> epAfhrpy;>
Ngkpq;fhk;> new;wpq;fhk;> gPfhH> WhHNfyh>
gj;jpuhtjp> xrhfh> nahf;ffhkh> NfhNg
JiwKf efuk; wpnahbn[dPuh> Gtd];maH];> ty;giwNrh>
epANahHf;> epANahHf;> td; $tH> nkhd;wpay;>
yz;ld;> yp];gd;> Nfg;uTz;> NlHgd;> yhNfh];>
fuhr;rp> Kk;gha;> nfhOk;G> nky;Nghd;> rpldp
fyhrhu efuk; vfpg;J> yz;ld;> GJnly;yp> Nuhk;> Nth\pq;ld;
Nrit efuk; rpq;fg;G+H>
tHj;jf efuk; Kk;gha;> rpldp> Nfg;uTz;> epANahHf;> yz;ld;>
Nlhf;fpNah
fy;tp efuk; xf;];Nghl;> Nfk;gpwpl;[;> mz;zhkiy> ehye;jh
murpay; efuk; GJby;yp> gP[pq;> gf;jhj;> nfhOk;G
Rw;Wyh efuk; x];Nyh> fz;b> Cl;b
njhiyj; njhlHG efuk; Nlhf;fpNah> yz;ld;> nfhOk;G
mfo;thuha;r;rp efuk; nkh`Q;rjNuh> `ug;gh
kPd;gpb efuk; NehHNt> xrhfh> fw;gpl;b
rkag;gzp efuk; kf;fh> n[UrNyk;> thuzhrp> kJiu
khdplg; Gtpapay; -52- mf; \ad;
4) efuq;fspd; msT mbg; gilapyhd tifg;ghL:-
rpwpa efuq;fs; 2000 20 000 ( 20 Mapuj;jpw;F
FiwT)
,ilj; ju efuq;fs; 20 000 100 000 (20 Mapuk;-
100 Mapuk;)
efuq; fs; 100 000 1 000 000 (100 Mapuk;
- 1 kpy;ypad;)
kpy; ypad; efuq;fs; 1 000 000 10 000 000(1
kpy; ypad;- 10 kpy;ypad;)
khngUk; efuq;fs; 10 000 000 Nky; (10 kpy; ypaDk;
NkYk;)
5) efug; gpuNjrnkhd;wpy; ,dk; fhzg;glf;$ba gpujhd tyaq;fs; :-
efu cl;gFjp
cgefu tyak;
fpuhk efu tyak;
6) efu cl;gFjp:-
ehL KOtjpYk; jhf; fj; ij Vw; gLj; Jfpd; w caH xOq; F
eltbf;iffspd; caH nrwpthf;fk; fhzg;gLjy;.
tHj; jfk; > Rfhjhuk; > fy; tp > tq; fp > ep Hthfk;
Kjyptw;iwf; nfhz;lJ.
nghpastpyhd Vw;Wkjp epiyaq;fs; njhl;L rpwpa
tHj; jf ];jhgdq;fs; tiu fhzg;gLjy;.
cl; gFjpapypUe; Jk; > cl;gFjpf; Fk; kpf mjpfstpy;
ehs; NjhWk; gazpg;gtHfisf; fhzKbfpd;wJ.
nghJ kw;Wk; jdpahH Jiwfspd; eltbf;iffSf;fhd
gy fl;llq;fs; mjpfhpj;Jr; nry;Yjy;.
kj; jp a kw; Wk; jho; tUkhdj; njhFjp apdUf; fhf
khbf; FbapUg;gfs; mjpfhpj;Jr; nry;tJld; Mlk;gu khbf;
FbapUg;Gf;fSk; fhzg;gLjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -53- mf; \ad;
7) cg efuk;:-
cl;gFjpf;F rw;W ntspapy; mike;Js;sJ.
nghUshjhu eltbf; iffSf; Fk; Fbap Ug; G
NjitfSf; Fk; mjp fkh f ep yk; fp ilf; ff;
$bajhftpUf;fpd;wik.
rpwg; ghd tho;Tg; gpuNjrj; jpw;fhd caHe;j Nfs; tp
fhzg;gLtjhy; epyg; ngWkhdk; mjpfhpj; Jf; nfhz;L
nry;fpd; wJ.
ifj; njhopy; mikg;Gf; fs; kw; Wk; njhopw;rhiyfspd;
,lmiktpd; fhuzkhf caH ftHr; rp ia msp f; Fk;
gpuNjrk;.
,t; tyaj; jpy; gd; Kfg; gLj; jy; eltbf; ifapd; tpisthf
mgptpUj;jpapy; tpiuthd Ntfj;ijf; fhzKbfpd;wJ.
Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp fs; ftdj; jpw; nfhs; sf; $ba
Kd;Ndw;wk;.
cl;gFjpf;F ehshe;jk; gazpg;gthfspd; caHtP jk;.
8) fpuhk efu tyak;:-
cgefu tyaj; jpw;F ntspapy; mike;Js;sJ.
efu> fpuhk nraw;ghLfSf;Fk; mk;rq;fSf;Fkpilapy;
fyg; Gj;jd;ik fhzg;gLjy;.
fp uhkp a efug; gFjp ap y; jdp j; Jk; rp jwyhfTk;
fhzg; gLfpd;w xU rpy rpwpa efuq;fs; mj; jpahtrpa
Nritfis toq;ff; $ba epiyapy; cs;sd.
ep yg; gFjp apd; ngWkhdk; xg; gP l; lstp y; cl; gFjp>
cgefug; gFjpia tpl Fiwthff; fhzg;gLfpd;w NghJk;
epyg;ngWkhdk; mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;L nry;fpd;wJ.
,t; tyaj;ij Nehf;fp ifj; njhopw; Ngl; ilfs;> Vw; Wkjp
Cf;Ftpg;G tyaq;fs; vd;gd nghJthf ftug;gLfpd;wd.
rl;ltpNuhjkhd NrhpfSk;> Mf;fpukpg;Gg; gFjpfSk;
fhzg;gLfpd; wd.
Nghf;Ftuj;J trjpfs; rpwg;ghf fhzg;gLjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -54- mf; \ad;
9) cyfpd; efuhf;f tsHr; rpAk;> njd;dhrpahtpd; efuhf;f
tsHr;rpAk;:-
10) mgp tp Uj; jp aile; j> tsH Kf eh Lfsp d;
efuhf;fg;Nghf;F(If;fpa ehLfs; rig):-
11) fz;lq;fs; hPjpahf efur; rdj;njhif(rjtPjk;):-
1950 1970 1985 2000
cyfk; 29.2% 37% 41% 46.6%
njd;dhrpah 6.1% 26.9% 27.7% 35%
Mz;L 1990 2020
mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfs; 73% 77%
tsHKf ehLfs; 37% 53%
1991 2000 2025
cyfk; 43 50 57
Mgphpf;fh 34 38.5 49.6
INuhg;gh 75 75 90
tlmnkhpf;fh 78.2 80.5 86
njd;mnkhpf;fh 66.4 68.5 75
Mrpah 34 38.8 50
Xrhdpah 70.4 72.5 75.3
khdplg; Gtpapay; -55- mf; \ad;
12) efu rdj;njhiftPjj;ij mjpfstpy; nfhz;l Kjy; gj;J
ehLfs;:-
,y ehL efu
rdj;njhif
tPjk;
rdj;njhif
1 nfhq;nfhq; 100.0 6961000
2 nkhdhNfh 100.0 34000
3 eTW 100.0 13000
4 rpq;fg;G+H 100.0 4108000
5 tj;jpf;fhd; 100.0 1000
6 ngy;[pak; 97.4 5444000
7 Fitj; 96.1 1894000
8 fl;lhH 92.9 534000
9 I];yhe;J 92.7 261000
10 g`Nud; 92.5 603000
khdplg; Gtpapay; -56- mf; \ad;
13) efuq;fspd; guk;gypy; fhzg;gLfpd; w gz;Gfs;:-
1950 y; cyfp y; fhzg; gl; l mjp fsT
rdj; njhif nfhz;l efuq; fs; tpUj;jpaile; j cyfpy;
fhzg;gl; ld.
50 tUlq;fspd; gpd;dH 2000 Mz;by; tsHKf
cyfpy; fhzg; gl; l efuq; fs; mjpf rdj; njhif nfhz; l
efuq;fshf Kf;fpaj;Jtj;jpidg; ngw;wpUf;fpd;wd.
tsh; Kf cyfpy; mjpfsT rdj; njhif nfhz; l
efuq;fs; yj;jPd; mnkhpf; fhtpy; fhzg;gl;ld.
2015 mstpy; mjpfst rdj;njhif nfhz;l
efuq; fs; njhlH; e;Jk; tsHKf cyfpNyNa fhzg; gLk; .
Mdh y; mit Mrp ah f; fz; zlj; jp Ys; s
efuq;fshftpUf;Fk;.
KOf;fhyg; gFjpapYk; Nlhf;fpNah njhlHe;Jk;
mjpfsT rdj; njhif nfhz;l efukhfTs;sJ. 2015
Mk; Mz;lstpy; mJ cyfpy; mjpfsT rdj;njhif
nfhz; l efukhf 36 kpy; ypad; kf; fis cs; slf; fpajhf
,Uf;Fk;.
14) tsHKf ehLfspd; efukakhf;fj;jpw;fhd fhuzpfs;:-
tWik Ntiyapd;ik kw;Wk; epyg;gw;whf;Fiw
vd;gd fhuzkhf fpuhkpa gFjpfspypUe;J kf;fs;
efuq; fs; Nehf; fp ,lk; ngaHe; jik. (js; Stp ir
fhuzpfs;)
efuq;fs; kf;fisf; ftHe;jik. (,Otpirf;
fhuzpfs;)
tsHKf ehLfsp y; filg; gp bf; fg; gl; l
mgptpUj;jpf; nfhs;iffspy; fhzg;gl; l efH rhhe;j
ghugl; rk; > efug; gFjpfspy; Fbj; njhif mjpfhpg; G vd;w
tpisTf;F toprikj;jJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -57- mf; \ad;
efuq; fsp d; Gtp ap ay; hP jp ahd rhh; ghd
epiyikapdhy; Kaw; rpahz; ikahsHfspilNa Vw; gl; l
ftHr;rp.
tHj; jf nghUshjhu ep Hthff; fhuzp fs;
fhuzkhf efuq;fspd; tuyhw;W hPjpapyhd tsHr;rp.
efug; gFjp fsp y; Fbj; njhifap d; ,aw; if
tsHr;rp.
ep H thf eltbf; iffs; fhu zkh f
efug;gFjpfspNy Vw;gl;l Gtpapay; hPjpahd tphpthf; fk;.
fpuhkhe;jpuq;fspd; my;yJ fpuhk efuq;fspd;
Njhw; wk;.
15) tsHKf ehLfspd; efhuhf;fg; gpur;rpidfs;:-
jq; Fkpl trjp g; gp ur; rp idfs; :- efug; gp uNjrq; fspy;
epyj;jpw; fhd ngWkjp mjpfkhFk; .,jd; fhuzkhf NtW
gp uNjrq; fsp yp Ue; J efiu Nehf; fp tUgtHfs;
ciwtp lq; fis mikj; Jf; nfhs; tjp y;
rp u kg; gLfp d; wdH . ngUk; gh Yk; ,t; th W
ntspaplq;fspypUe;J efug;FjpfSf;F tUgth;fspy;
ngh Ush jhu hP jp ap y; eyp Tw; wtH fsh ff;
fhzg;gLfpd;wikahYk; efuq;fspd; xJf;fg;Gwq;fspy;
mjhtJ tP jp fsp d; mUfhikap Nyh my; yJ
fhy; tha; fSf; f mUfpNyh jkJ ciwtplq; fis
jw; fhypfkhf mikj;Jf; nfhs; fpd;wdH. ,j;jifa
jw; fhyp f citp lq; fs; Nrhp f; Fbap Ug; Gf; fs;
vdg; gLfp d; wd. ,it
rl; ltp Nuh jkh ditahftp Ug; gJld; > #oy;
gpur; rpidfSf; Fk; toptFf;fpd;wJ. rpy ehLfspd;
efuq; fsp y; tP jp fsp Yk; jkJ ciwtp lq; fshf
gad;gLj;Jfpd;wdH.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -58- mf; \ad;
cly; ey Rfhjhug; gpur; rpidfs; :- efug; gFjpfspy;
Nghf;Ftuj;jpy; <LgLfpd;w thfdq;fs; ntspNaw;Wk;
Gif> njhopw;rhiyfspdhy; ntspNaw;wg;gLk; Gif>
er;Rf; fopTfs; fhuzkhf cly;ey Rfhjhur; rPHNfLfs;
Vw;gLfpd;wd. njhopw; rhiyf; fopTfs; eP Hepiyfspy;
NrUjy;> efuf;fopTfs; Ftpe;J fplj;jy; Kjyptw; why;
njhw; WNeha; fs; guTfp d; wd. ,it Esk; gfsp d;
ngUf;fj;jpw;F toptFg;gJld; nlq;F> kNyhpah Nghd;w
Neha; fSf; Fk; toptFf; fpd; wJ. thfdq; fs; > tpkhdq; fs;
%yk; NknyOg; gg; gLk; JhRf; fs; Rthrj; Jld;
fyg; gjdhy; Rthrg; Gw;WNeha; Kjypa Neha; fSk;
Vw;gLfpd;wd. mj;Jld; efug;gFjpfspy; fhzg;gLfpd;w
twpath;fSf;F Nghjpa tUkhdkpd;ikahYk; Rfhjhu
trjpfis Kiwahfg; ngw;Wf; nfhs; tjpYk; rpf;fy;fs;
cUthfpAs;sd.
Nghf; Ftuj; J neUf; fb:- efug; gp uNjrq; fs; mjp f
Fbj; njhifap idAk; > njhop w; rhiyfisAk; >
tHj; jffl; lq; fisAk; mjp fk; nfhz; bUf; fp d; wd.
,jdhy; ngUkstp yhd efuthrp fsp d; jdp g; gl; l
Nghf; Ftuj; J rhjdq; fshd rpw; Whe; J> ce; JUsp>
Jtpr; rf; futz; b Kjyptw; wp d; ghtid mjp fkhf
,Ug; gJld; > mur kw; Wk; jdp ahH NgUe; JfSk;
mjpfstpy; Nritapy; <LgLj;jg;gLfpd; wd. mj; Jld;
ehshe; jk; cw; gj; jp g; nghUl; fisNah tHj; jfg;
nghUl; fisNah Vw; wp ap wf; Fk; thfdq; fsp d;
vz; zp f; ifAk; efug; gp uNjrq; fsp y; mjp fkhf
ghjtidap y; cs; sd.,j; jifa fhuzq; fshy;
Nghf;Ftuj;J nehpry; fSk; tpgj;Jf;fSk; mjpfstpy;
Vw;gLfpd;wd. Fwpg;ghf rhjhuzkhf xU fpNyhkP w;wH
Jhuj; ij NgUe; jp dhy; 4 ep kp lq; fsp y; fle; J
nry; yf; $ba trjp fhzg; gLfpd; wNghJ ,j; jifa
efug;gpuNjrq;fspy; 20 my;yJ 30 epkplq; fs; $l
vLf;Fk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -59- mf; \ad;
rl; ltp Nuh j eltbf; iffs; mjp fhp j; jy; : -
efug;gpuNjrq;fspy; njhopy;tha;g;igj; Njb gy;NtW
gp uNjrq; fspYkpUe; Jk; ,isQHfSk; > Atjp fSk;
tUfpd;wdH. ,tHfs; jkf; Fhpa njhopy; tha;g;Gfs;
fpilf;fhj gl;rj;jpy; gzk; <l;Lk;nghUl;L rl;lj;jpw;F
Gwk; ghd nray;fspy; <Lgl Kidfpd;wdH. flj; jy;>
nfhs; is> jpUl; L> ghjhs cyff; FOf; fspy; ,izjy; >
fyhrhu rPHNfL eltbf;iffs; Kjyptw; wpy; ,tHfs;
<LgLfpd; wdH. ,jdhy; efug;gpuNjrq; fspy; Fw;wr;
nray;fSk;> tz;Kiw eltbf;iffSk; mjpfstpy;
,lk;ngWfpd; wd.
#oy; khrhf;fk;:- efHg;Gwr;#oypy; tspkhriljy;>
epyk; khriljy;> eP H khriljy;> xyp khriljy;
Kjyp ad ep fo; fp d; wd. (tp hp thf efuhf; f #ow;
gpur; rpidfs; vDk; jiyg; gpy; Kd; dH Muhag; gl; Ls; sJ)
16) cyfpd; rdj;njhif $ba khefuq;fs; tsHKf ehLfspy;
fhzg;gLfpd;wikf;fhd fhuzq;fs;:-
xNunahU tpUj;jpaile;j efUk;:- tsHKf ehLfspy;
xNunahU tpUj; jp ngw; w efuNk fhzg; gLd; wJ. ,jdhy;
epiyikfspdhy; ifj; njhopy;> epHthf> Nritfspd;
ikag;gLj;jYk; ,q;f mjpfhpj;jhf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
,j;jifa epiyikfs; fhzkhf ngUkstpy; kf;fis
ftuf; $badthf ,Ug; gjdhy; kf; fs; njhif
mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.
njhopy; tha; g;G efug; gFjpfspNy ikak; nfhz; bUj; jy; :-
tsH Kf ehLfs; ngUk; gh Yk; tp trh a
eltbf; iffisNa gue; Jgl; l mstpy; fpuhkg;gFjpfspy;
nfhz;Ls;sJ. v mj; Jld; efug; gFjp fsp ny
ifj;njhopy; eltbf;iffspd; nrwpthf;fKk;> mjdhy;
cUthf; fg; gl; l Ntiytha; g; Gf; fSk; mjp fstp y;
fhzg; gLfpd; wd. ,jdhy; ngUkstpy; njhopy; NjLNthH
efug;gFjpfspy; FbNaWfpd;wdH.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -60- mf; \ad;
cl; fl; likg; G> Nrit trjp fis ngUkstp y;
nfhz;Ls;sik:- kpd;rhuk;> Nghf;Ftuj;J> njhlHghy;>
fy;tp> kUj;Jttrjp Nghd;wtw;wpd; tpUj; jpaile;j
epiyik ,q; Fs;s efug; gFjpfspNy mjpfstpy;
fhzg;gLfpd; wJ. fpukg; gFjpfspy; ,it kpff; Fiwthd
tifap Yk; Kw; wh f tp Uj; jp ngwh kYNk
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jdhy; jkJ Njitia ,yFthf
G+Hj;Jnra;J nfhs;s tpUk;Gfpd;w kf;fs; ngUkstpy;
,q; F fp ukg; gFjp fsp yp Ue; J efug; gFjp fsp y;
FbNaWfpd;wdH.
cs;ehl;L ntspehl;L KjyPl;lhsHfs;> epWtdq;fs;
fhzg;gLfpd;wik.
fpuhkpa gFjpfspy; tWik kw;Wk; Ntiytha;g;gpd;ik.
ghJfhg; G fpuhkg; gFjpfis tpl efug; gFjpfspy;
fhzg;gLfpd;wik.
17) fpuhkpa efHg;Gw ,lg;ngaHtpw;F gq;fspg;G nra;Ak; gpujhd
fhuzpfs;:-
js;Stpir:-
i. fpuhkj;jpy; Ntiyapd;ik.
ii. Nrit trjpfs; FiwT.
iii. rypg; G+l;Lk; tho;f;if Kiw.
iv. ghJfhg;G gpur;rpidfs;.
v. fy;tp ];jhgdq;fs; FiwT.
,Otpir:-
Ntiytha;g;Gf; fpilf;fpd; wik.
nrhFrhd tho;f;if Kiw.
fy;tp Rfhjhu trjpfs;
ghJfhg;Gldhd tho;f;if.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -61- mf; \ad;
18) tsHKf ehLfs; fp uhkp ag; gFjp fis tp Uj; jp nra; a
Nkw; nfhs;sSk; eltbf;iffs;:-
fpuhk mgptpUj;jpj; jpl;lq; fs;.
cl;fl;likg; G tpUj;jp.
ifj; njhopw; jpl;lq; fs;.
fy;tp> Rfhjhu trjp Vw;gLj; jy;.
etPd njhopy;Elg; trjpfis toq;Fjy;.
epUthfj;ij gutyhf; fy;.
murpay; tYit gutyhf; fy;.
FbapUg;Gf;fis jpl;lkpl;L tpUj;jp nra; jy;.
19) tsHKf ehLfspd; NrhpfspdJk; > mj;JkPwpa
FbkidfspdJk; miktplq; fs;:-
efuj;jpd; ikaj;jpw;F mUfpy; fhzg;gLjy;.
mj;JkPwpa Fbkidfs; gw vy;iy topahf
mike;jpUj;jy;.
rJg; G epyq; fspy;> ghij> ,Uk;Gg;ghij>
fhy; tha; Mfpatw;wpw; F mUfpy; fhzg;gLjy;.
kiyr;rhpT> Fg;ig $okpy;yh gFjpfspYk;
NrhpfspdJk; > mj;JkPwpa FbkidfspdJk;
miktplj;ijf; fhzyhk;.
20) tsHKf ehLfspy; NrhpfspdhYk;> mj;JkPwpa
FbkidfspdhYk; Vw; gLk; jhf;fq;fs;:-
,q;Fs;s Fiwe;j gbg;gwpTs;NshUf;F
Kiwrhug;gphpTfspy; Ntiytha; g;Gf;fs; fpilf; Fk;.
($ypNtiy> gOJghHj;jy;> tPl;LNtiy> elkhLk;
tpahghuk;)
fpuhk thrpfs; te;J Ntiy ngWtjw;F
topVw;gLj;Jfpd; wd.
Nrhpfs; Fiwe;j tUkhdKs;stHfSf;F
Fiwe;j nrytpy; ,Ug;gplq; fshfpd;wd.
mj;JkPwpa Fbkidfs; efu ViofSf;F
Fiwe;j nrythd ,Ug;gplk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -62- mf; \ad;
r%f nghUshjhu gpur;rpidfis cUthf;Fk;.
#oy; khrilTfSf;F (epyk; > tsp > eP H)
topVw;gLj;Jk;.
efu rigf;F ,j;jifNahUf;F trjpaspg;gjpy;
nryT.
#oy; > Rfhjhu gp ur; rp idfis jP Hg; gjp y;
ngUksT nrytpid muR Nkw;nfhs; sy;.
21) efur;Nrhpfs; > mj;JkPwpa Fbkidfs; rhHe;j gpur;rpidfisj;
jPHg;gjw;F vLf;ff; $ba eltbf;iffs;:-
ePH> Rfhjhu trjpfSld; tPl;L trjpfis Vw;gLj; jy;.
Nrhpfspd; juKaHj; jy;.
efuj;jpw;F ntspNa Gjpa miktplq;fis Vw;gLj;jy;.
tPlikj;jYf;Fhpa fld; kw;Wk; Viza trjpfis
vw;ghL nra; jy;.
Ntiytha;g;Gf;fis Vw; gLj;jpf; nfhLj; jy;.
22) efu Kfhikj;Jtk;:-
Nrupg;Gwk; kw; Wk; Fbirthrpfs; thOk; ,lq; fis
mfw; WjYk; mtu;fSf;F NtW ,lq;fspy; fhzpfis
toq;FjYk;.
Nrupg;Gwk; kw;Wk; Fbirfis Nkk;gLj; JjYk; fhzpj;
Jz;Lfs;> Nridfs; vd;gtw;iw toq;Fjy;. ,jd; fPo;
fl;blq;fs; > ghijfis Nkk; gLj;jp Nritfs; trjpfis
toq;Fjy;.
tPLfs; fl;Ltjw;Fj; Njitahd trjpfs; cjtpfs;
toq; Fjy;
Fg; ig $oq; fs; efu fopTfs; vd; gtw; iw mfw; Wtjw; F
Kiwahd Ntiyj; jpl; lj;ijj; jahupj; jy; fopTfis
kPs; Row;rpf;Fl;gLj;jy;
r%f Rfhjhu Nritfis Nkk; gLj; Jtjw; fhd
cj;jpfisj; jahupj; jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -63- mf; \ad;
23) ,yq; ifap d; < utyaj; jp y; efuq; fs;
nrwpe;Js;sikf;fhd fhuzq;fs;:-
ngsjPff; fhuzpfs; rhHghf cs;sik. (epyk;> ePH>
fhyepiy)
tuyhw; W rk; gtq; fs; ( Muk; gfhy kd; dHfsp d;
uhl;rpaq;fs;)
nfhOk;G efhpd; efuhf;fk; tp];jhpg;G.
ifj;njhopyhf;fk;.
cs;sikg;Gf;fSk; NritfSk; tsHr;rp.
epHthfj; jiyefhpd; ,lkhw; wk;.
ngUe;Njhl; lg; gapHr;nra;if.
24) nfhOk;G khefupd; gpujhd gpupTfs;
nfhOk;G kj;jpa efuk;
kj;jpa efuj;ijr; #o cs;s cg efuq;fs;
fpuhkhe;ju efuk;
fpuhkhe;ju efuj;jpDs; jdp efuk;
= [atu;jdGu GJ efuk;
25) ,yq; ifapd; efu Kfhikj;Jtk;:-
,d;W ,yq;ifapy; efu kakhf;fk;
njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfSf;Fupa jPu; thfngsjPfj;
jpl; lkply; nfhs;iffs; kw;Wk; efuj; jpl;lkply;>
ngsjPf tpUj; jp kw;Wk; Rw;whly; ghJfhg;G
njhlu;ghd topfhl;ly; 2030 k; Mz;lstpy;
,yq; if vDk; jpl;lj;ij Kd;itj;Js;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -64- mf; \ad;
26) Njrpa ngsjP f fl;likg;Gj; jpl;lkply;:-
Njrpa ngsjPf jpl; lkplY}lhf Rw; whlYld; mjpf
njhlu;Gs;s gpuNjrq; fs;> khefu tyaq;fs;> khefu
kw;Wk; cl; fl; likg; G trjpfs; tyaq; fSf; fpilapyhd
njhlu;Gfs; ,dq;fhdg;gl;Ls;sJ.
,e; j fl; likg; Gj; jp l; lkp lY}lhf Njrpa ngsjP f
jpl; lkply; nfhs; ifia mbg; gilahff; nfhz; L
xUKfg; gLj; Jk; topfhl;ly; ,lk; ngWk;.
Njrpa ngsjP f jpl; lkply; %yk; Vw; gLj;jf; $ba
Jiwfs;> Rw; whly; tya ghJfhg;Gld; efu kj;jpa
epiyaq;fis gyg;gLj;JtJld; nghUshjhu r%f
eltbf; iffis tp Uj; jp nra; tJld; KO
,yq; ifiaAk; tp Uj; jp ngwr; nra; jy; vd; gd
vjpu;ghu;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
,j;jpl;lkplypD}lhf kf;fs; gpupTfSldhd njhlu;G>
ep yg; gad; ghL> Nghf; Ftuj; J> nghUshjhu
nraw; ghLfs; > nghUshjhu rkj; Jtkp d; ikiaf;
Fiwj;jy; vd; gd vjpu;ghu;f; fg;gLfpd;wJ.
27) fl;likg;Gj; jpl;lkplypy; mbg;gil ngsjPf mk;rq;fs;:-
gpujhd efu tyaq;fs;
gpujhd ngUe;njUf;fs;
gpujhd Gifapuj tPjpfs;
gpujhd JiwKfq;fs;
gpujhd kPd;gpbj; JiwKfq;fs;
gpujhd kpd;rf;jp epiyaq;fs;
gpujhd tpkhd epiyaq;fs;
khtl;lj;jpd; jiyefuq;fs;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -65- mf; \ad;
28) gpujhd efu tyaq;fs;:-
mk;ghe;Njhl;ilia gpujhd efu ikakhff;
nfhz;l njd; khfhz khefu tyak;
nfhOk;G> fSj;Jiw> fk;gh Nghd;w gpujhd
efuq; fSld; njhlu; Ggl; l Nky; khfhz khefu tyak;
aho; g;ghz gpujhd efiu ikakhff; nfhz;l
tlkhfhz khefu tyak;
jpUNfhzkiy> mEuhjGuk;> nghyd;dUit>
jk; Gs; is gpujhd efuq; fSld; njhlu; Gila
tlkj; jpa khfhz khefu tyak;
mk;ghiw> kl; lf;fsg;G> gpujhd efuq;fSld;
njhlu;Gila fpof;F khfhz khefu tyak;
29) gpujhd ngUe;njUf;fs;:-
mjpNtf ghij (nfhOk;G - khj; jiw)
mjp Ntf ghijia tp up TgLj; jy; (khj; jiw
mk;ghe;njhl;il -nkhduhfiy)
fz;b mjpNtf ghij epu;khzpj;jy;
mk; ghe; Njhl;il> kl;lf; fsg; G> jpUNfhzkiy tPjp
(njw;F - fpof;F gpujhdtPjp)
ePu; nfhOk;G - kd;dhu; tPjp
nfhOk;G - aho;g;ghd tPjp
nfhOk;G - jpUNfhzkiy tPjp
30) gpujhd Gifapuj tPjpfs;:-
mk;ghe;njhl;il - kl;lf;fsg;G (mk;ge;njhl;il
> nkhduhfiy> xYtpy; mk;ghiu)
FUehfy; - `guz (jk;Gs;s Clhf)
rpyhgk; - `guz
nfhOk;G - ,uj;jpdGup - mk;ghe;Njhl;il tPjp
mk;ge;njhl; il nkhduhfiy - kl;lf;fsg;G
kl;lf;fsg; G jpUNfhzkiy
ru;tNjr Mrpa Gifapuj tPjp - mk;ghe; Njhl; il
,e; jpah
khdplg; Gtpapay; -66- mf; \ad;
31) gpujhd JiwKfq; fs;:-
mk;ghe;Njhl;il
fhq;Nfre; Jiw
jpUNfhzkiy
nfhOk;G
fhyp
xYtpy;
32) gpujhd kPd; gpbj; JiwKfq;fs;:-
jpUNfhzkiy> fhq; Nfre; Jiw> fhyp JiwKfk; >
mUfk; Flh> gUj; jpj;Jiw> NjhLtht GLthfLt>
fz; lf; Fop > rp yhgk; > jp f; nty; y> mk; gyq; nfhl>
njhle;jt> fyntba> ePu; nfhOk;G
33) gpujhd kpd; rf;jp epiyaq;fs;:-
jpUNfhzkiy
rpyhgk;;
Etnuypah
xYtpy;
Ky;iyj;jPT
mk;ge;njhl;il
fw;gpl;b
mk;ge;njhl;il
jpUNfhzkiy
khj;jis
,uj;jdGup
jpUNfhzkiy
kd;dhu;
gJis Etnuypa
khdplg; Gtpapay; -67- mf; \ad;
34) tpkhd epiyaq; fs;:-
fl;Lehaf;f - KjyhtJ ru;tNjr tpkhd
epiyak;
mk;ghe;Njhl;il - ,uz; lhtJ ru; tNjr
tpkhd epiyak;
`pq; Fuh nfhl - %d; whtJ ru;tNjr tpkhd
epiyak;
,uj;kyhd
aho;g;ghzk;
tTdpah
jpUNfhzkiy
mDuhjGuk;
Gj;jsk;
jk;Gs;s
kl; lf;fsg;G
mk;ghiw
fSj; Jiw
35) khtl; lj;jpd; jiyefuq; fs;:-
kd;dhu;
fpspnehr;rp
Ky;iyj;jPT
tTdpah
Gj;jsk;
FUehfy;
khj;jis
fz;b
Nffhiy
Etnuypah
gJis
,uj;jpdGup
nkhduhfy
fhyp
khj; jiw
khdplg; Gtpapay; -68- mf; \ad;

6. tptrhaj; njhopEl;gq;fs;
1) mwpKfk;:-
,Ugjhk; Ehw;whz;by; Vw;gl;l rdj; njhif ntbg; gpid
fUj; jp w; nfhz; L mjw; Nfw; g ep yj; ij ngUf; Fk;
topKiwfs; rhj;jpakw;witahff; fhzg;gl;lNghNj
etP d Elg; q; fspd; %yk; cw; gj; jpia mjpfhpf; Fk;
Neh f; fNk tp trhaj; njh op El; gq; fSf; F
tp j; jp l; lJ.,t; thW tptrhaj; jpy; gad; gLj; jg; gl; l
El;gKiwfshf 1. gRikg; Gul; rp rhHe;j tptrhaj;
njhop El; gk; > 2. kugZj; njhopEl; gk; (cap hpay;
njhopEl;gk;) vd;gtw;iwf; Fwpg;gplyhk;.
2) gpujhd tptrha njhopEl;gq;fs;:-
gRikg; Gul;rp
kugZj; njhopy;El;gk;
3) gRikg; Gul; rp (Green Revelution):-
tptrhaj; Jiwapy; fhzg; gLk; gioikahd
cw; gj; jp Kiwfisf; fise; J mwp tp aiyAk;
njhop y; El; gj; ijAk; cs; slf; fp mjd; %yk;
tpisr;riyg; ngUf; Ftjw; fhd Kaw;rpNa gRikg;
GulrpahFk;.
jhtutpay; tpQ;Qhdj;jpd; Kd;Ndw;wj;jpD}lhf
mjpfupj;j tpisr;rYk; ; #oYf; F kpfTk; <LnfhLf;Fk;
gapu;fSk; mwpKfk; nra;ag;gl;lik gRikg; Gul; rp
vdf;Fwpg; gplyhk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -69- mf; \ad;
gRikg; Gul;rpapd; Muk;gkhf nkf;rpf;Nfhtpy; 1943 ,y;
Muk; gpf;fg;gl;l tptrha Ma;Tr; nraw;wpl;lj;jpidf;
Fwpg;gplyhk; . ,r; nraw;wpl; lk; 1962y; Kbtile; j
NghjpYk; 1963y; cyf czT tptrha mgptpUj; jpf; fhd
ru; tNjrj; jp l; lk; vDk; ep fo; r; rp j; jp l; lk;
Muk; gpf; fg; gl; lJld; ,r; nrad; Kiw cyfk; KOtjpYk;
gRikg; Gul; rp vdg; gpugy; ak; mile; jJ. ,jdhy; gRikg;
Gul; rpapd; jhafkhf nkf;rpf;Nfh miof; fg;gLfpd;wJ.
gRikg; Gulrpapd; je; ijahf Nehky; nghyhf; (Normal
Borlaug) vd;gtH Nghw; wg;gLfpd;whH.
gRikg;Gul;rp njhlu; ghd ru;tNjr nraw;ghLfSf;fhf
ru;tNjr tptrha Muha;r;rp njhlu;ghd MNyhridr;
rig(CGIAR) jhgpf;fg;gl;lJ.
4) gRikg; Gul; rp nraw;gLj;jg;gl;l ,U gpujhd Jiwfs;:-
tpidj; jpwd; nfhz; l Gjpa tpijapdq; fspd; fz; Lgpbg; G.
etPd tptrhaj; njhopEl;gq;fisg; gpuNahfpj; jy;.
5) Gjpa tpijapdq;fs; fz;Lgpbg;G:-
Gjpa tpijapdq;fs; fz;Lgpbg;ghdJ ,U tiffspy;
,lk; ngw;wJ. fyg;G tpijfs; cUthf;fk; > ,ul; ilf;
fyg; G tp ijfs; cUthf; fk; Mfp a ,uz; LNk
mitahFk;.
6) fyg;G tpijfs; cUthf;fk;:-
xNu FLk; gj;ijAila ntt;NtW gz;Gfisf; nfhz;l
tpijfs; ,uz; ilf; fye; J tpNrl gz; Gfisf; nfhz; l
tpijfis cUthf;Fjy; fyg;ghff;fk; vdg;glfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -70- mf; \ad;
cjhuzkhf tul; rpf; Fj; jhf; Fg; gpbf; ff; $ba ney; ypdk;
xd; iwAk;> mjpf tpisr; ry; jUk; ney;ypdk; xd; iwAk;
fyg;ghf;fk; nra;J tul;rpf; F jhf;Fg; gpbf;ff; $baJk;
mjp f tp isr; riyj; juf; $baJkhd Gjp a
ney; ypdnkhd; iw cUthf; Fjy; . ,t; thW Njitf; Nfw; w
gz; Gifsf; nfhz; l tpijapdq; fis fyg; ghf; fk; %yk;
ngwg;gl;lJ.
7) fyg; ghf;fk; nra;ag;gl;l ney; tpijapdq;fs;:-
International Rice Research Institute IRRI
vDk; RUf;f vOj;Jf; fshy; miof;fg; gl;l rHtNjr
ney; Muha;r;rp epiyak; (gpypg; igd; ]; ) IR vDk;
KjnyOj; Jf; fSld; gy Gjpa ney; ypdq; fisf; fz;L
gpbj;jJ.
ru; tNjr ney; Muha; r; rp ep iyaj; jp dhy;
cUthf;fg;gl;l IR-8, IR 36 vDk; ney; ,dq;fs;.
Mgpupf; fg; gpuNjrq; fSf;F mwpKfk; nra; ag;gl; l
neupfh]; (Nericas) ney; ,dk;.
H-4 ney; ,dk;.
8) fyg; ghf; fk; nra; ag; gl; l ney; tpijapdq; fspd; gz; Gfs; :-
Neha;fSf;F jhf;Fg;gpbj; jy;.
G+r; Rj; njhy;iyfSf;F jhf; Fg;gpbj;jy;
FWfpa fhyj;jpy; tpisr;ry; ngWjy;.
kuG ney; ,dq;fis tpl gyklq;F tpisr; ry;
mjpfupj;jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -71- mf; \ad;
9) fyg; ghf;fk; nra;ag; gl;l NfhJik tpijapdq;fs;:-
[g;ghdpy; cs;s NfhJik ,dq;fs; gytw;wpD}lhf
cz;lhf;fg;gl;l nehupd; 10 (Norin) mt;thwhd xU
,dkhFk;.
10) fyg;ghf; fk; nra; ag; gl;l NfhJik ,dq;fspd; gz; gfs;:-
fLq; fhw;Wf; F jhf;Fg;gpbj; jy;.
Fs;skhd gapuhf ,Uj; jy;.
mjpf kio> Neha; vd;gw;Wf; F jhf;Fg;gpbj; jy;.
G+Q; rd Neha;fSf;F jhf;Fg;gpbj; jy;.
11) ,ul; ilf; fyg;G tpijfs;:-
kugZuPjpahf NtWg; gl;l ,uz;L
tpijapdq;fisf; fUf;fl;b nra;J ngwg; gLk;
tpijfis gapu; nra;J mjd; %yk; tpijfisg;
ngWjy; ,ul;ilf; fyg;ghf;fk; nra;jy; vdg;gLk;.
NfhJik> iu vd;gtw; iw ,ul; ilf;
fyg; ghf;fk; nra;J mjpf gz; Gfs; nfhz;l
NfhJik ,dnkhd;W cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
BG 407 H vDk; ngau; nfhz; l ney; ,dk;
,ul; ilf;fyg; ghf;fk; nra;j tpij ,dkhFk;.
12) ,ioa tsHg; G:-
Ma;T$lnkhd; wpy; epfo;j;jg; gLk;
nrad;KiwfSlhf jhtuq;fspy; cs;s
,ioaq;fspy; ,Ue;J jukhd gapu;fisg;
ngUksthfg; ngWjy; ,jd; %yk; eilngWfpwJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -72- mf; \ad;
mjpf tp isr; riyg; ngWtjw; fhfg; gpd; gw; wg; gl; l
kw; WnkhU nraw; ghlhf ,ioa tsu; g; G Kf;fpak;
ngWfpwJ.
,ioa tsh;g;G (Tissue Culture) %yk; G.M thio vDk;
Gjpa ,dk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.
13) gRikg;Gul; rpapd; %yk; cUthf; fg;gl;l Gjpa ,dq;fs; :-
NfhJik tpijfs; :- S 308, B 18, fy;ahz; Nrhzh>
227 Nrhzh yP f;fh
Nrhs tpijfs;:- tp[a;> gr;uh> hP 1
ney; tpijfs; :- IR 20 > N[hdh 351
fUk;G ,dq;fs; :- CO 1148 , CO 67 11
gUj;jp tpijfs;:- JO 34
,ioa tsh;g;G (Tissue Culture) %yk; G.M thio vDk;
Gjpa ,dk; cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.
,q; fp yhe; jp y; FNshdp q; (Cloning) Kiw %yk;
fhy; eilfsp y; Nlh yp vDk; nrk; kwp ah L
cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.
14) etPd tptrha njhopEl;gq;fisg; gad;gLj;jy;:-
tptrha eltbf; iffsp y; tp ijap dq; fis
fyg; ghf; fk; nra; tJ khj; jp ukd; wp njhop El; g
KiwfSf;$lhfTk; cw; gj;jp mjpfhpg; G cghaq;fs;
Vw;gLj; jg; gl; ld. me; jtifapy; gpd; tUtdtw; iwf;
Fwpg;gplyhk;.
,ae; jpuq;fspd; gad;ghL
,urhazg; grisfspd; gad;ghL
G+r; rp> fis nfhy;ypfspd; gad;ghL
khdplg; Gtpapay; -73- mf; \ad;
15) tptrha eltbf;iffspy; ,ae;jpug; gad;ghL:-
epyj;ijg; gz;gLj;jy;> jhdpatiffis tpijj; jy;>
eh w; W eLjy; > fis gp Lq; Fjy; > tp trha
,urhadq; fisg; gad; gLj; Jjy; > eP u; toq; fy; > mWtil
nra; jy; Nghd; w midj; Jf; fUkq; fSk; ,ae; jpuq; fshy;
Mw; wg;gLfpd; wd.
if buf;lH Kjy; NgusT buf; lHfs; mWtilf;fhfg;
gad; gLj; jg; gLk; rpwpa ae;jpuq;fs; Kjy; $l; L mWtil
ae; jpuq;fs; tiu (Combined Harvest) gy;NtW tpjkhd
ae;jpuq;fs; gad;gLj; jg;gLfpd;wd.
,ae; jpug; gad;ghl;lhy; Ntiyfs; ,yFthjy;> fhyk;
Nrkp f; fg; gLjy; > rp y gp uNjrq; fsp y; ciog; Gg;
gw;whf;Fiwf;F jPu; thf mikjy;> ,ae;jpu guhkupg;Gr;
Nritfs; njhlu;ghd Ntiytha;g; Gfs; cUthjy;
Ntiyapd;ikf;F XusTf;F jPu; T fpilj;jy; Nghd;w
ed;ikfs; fpilf;fpd;wd.
16) ,urhazg; grisfisg; gad;gLj;jy;:-
gRikg; Gul;rpapd; ntw;wpfukhf tpisTfisg;
ngWtjw;F nraw;ifg; grisfisg; gad;gLj; Jjy;
fl;lhaf; fhuzpahf ,Ue;jJ. Kd;Ndw;wk; nra;ag; gl;l
tpij ,dq; fs; %yk; $ba tpisr;riyg; ngWtjw; fhf
nraw;ifg; grisfisg; gad; gLj;Jjy; mtrpakhf
,Ue;jJ.
17) G+r; rp nfhy;yp> fis nfhy;ypfspd; gad;ghL:-
G+r; Rj; njhy;iy> fisfs; vd; gtw;iwf; fl;Lg;gLj;j
G+ r; R nfhy; yp fisAk; fis nfhy; yp fisAk;
gad; gLj; Jtjdhy; gap u; nra; iff; F Vw; gLk;
Nrjq;fisj; jtpu;f; f KbAk;. NkYk; tpisr;riyg;
ghJfhf; fTk; mjpfup f; fTk; mjd; %yk; tha; g; G
Vw; gLfpd; wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -74- mf; \ad;
18) tp trhaj; Jiwap y; gad; gLj; jg; gLk; njhop y; El; g
Kiwfs;:-
,ae;jpukakhf;fy;
etPd ,urhag; gad;ghL
etPd ePHg;ghrd Kiwfs;
gPilehrpdpfspd; gad;ghL
fsQ;rpag;gLj;jy;
tptrha Muhl; rpAk;> tpijapd; tpUj;jpAk;
re;ijg; gLj; jYk;> Nghf;Ftuj;Jk;
kuf; fwpfisg; gjdpLk; Kiw
Nkl; Lepyg; gapHr;nra;if
caphpay; njhopy;El;gk;
jukhd jhtu ,dtpUj;jp
19) tpyq;F Ntshd;ikapy; GFj;jg; gl;l
njhopy;El; gKiwfs;:-
Gjpa ,dq;fisf; fz;Lgpbj;jy;
Neha;j;jil kUe;J fz;Lgpbj;jy;
ghy; fwit ,ae;jpuk; fz;Lgpbj;jy;
gjdply; kiw mwpKfk;
fSQ;rpag;gLj; jy; nraw;ghL
,iwr;rpabj;jy;
KbTg; nghUs; jahhpj;jy;
20) tptrhaj;Jf; fhf jfty; njhopEl;gj; ijg;
gad;gLj;jy;:-
tpijapdq;fspd; Neha;f;fl;Lg;ghL
tskhf;fpfisg; gad;gLj;Jjy;>
G+r; Rf;nfhy; ypfs;>fis nfhy; ypfs; gad;gLj;Jjy;.
ePu; toq;fy;> re;ij epiyikfs; Nghd;w midj;J
JiwfSf;Fk; fzzpapd; cjtpfisg; ngw;Wf;
nfhs;Sjy; jw;fhyj;jpy; eilngWfpwJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -75- mf; \ad;
21) gRikg; Gul; rpahy; Vw;gl;l ez;ikfs;:-
mjp fhp j; j rdj; njhif Vw; g czT cw; gj; jp
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
re;ijg;gLj; jYk; Nghf;Ftuj;Jk; mjpfhpj;jJ.
twpa ehlfspd; nghUshjhuk; Kd;Ndw;wkile;jJ.
tptrha epyg;gug;g mjpfhpj;jJ.
mjp f tp isr; ry; juf; $ba gap h p dq; fs;
cUthf;fg;gl;lJ.
Neha; gP il vjp Hg; Gf; nfhz; l gap hp dq; fs;
fz; Lgpbf;fg;gl; ld.
epytsg; gad;ghL Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ.
kdpjDila Ntiy ,yFgLj;jg;gl;lJ.
Ntiyapy;yhg; gpur;rpid Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.
tpyq;F Ntshd;ik rHtNjr kag;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
fhlopg;Gf; Fiwf;fg;gl;lJ.
22) gRikg; Gul; rpahy; Vw;gl; l jPikfs;:-
epyk; ePH tsp khrile;jJ.
fp Ukp ehrp dp fshy; cztp y; er; Rj; jd; ik
fye; jJ.
Gjpa Gjpa Neha;fs; Vw;gLfpd; wik.
kiotP o;r;rp Fiwtile;Js;sJ.
Gtpntg;gkhf;fg; gLfpd; wJ.
ghiytdkhjy; mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.
epyk; ctuhjy; mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ.
jiuf; fPo; ePH khrilfpd;wJ.
Ez;zq;fpfs; mopf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -76- mf; \ad;
23) kugZj; njhopEl;gk;:-
gRikg; Gul; rpapd; ghjfkhd jhf; fq; fspy; ,Ue; J kP z; L
czT cw; gj; jp ia mjpfupf; Fk; cghankhd; whf
kugZj; njhopEl;gj; ij mwpKfk; nra; ag;gl;L mJ
,uz; lhtJ gRikg; Gul; rp vdTk; mwp Kfk;
nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.
kugZj; njhopEl;gk; %yk; xU capupapd; my;yJ
jhtuj;jpd; guk;giu mynfhd;iw (kuG mZ xd;W)
kw;WnkhU capupAld; my;yJ jhtuj;Jld; fyj;jy;
eilngWfpwJ. mjd; %yk; Kjyhk; capupapd; my; yJ
jhtuj; jp d; Fzhk; rq; fsp y; ,Ue; J NtWgl; l
Fzhk; rq; fs; nfhz; l tp yq; nfhd; W my; yJ
jhtunkhd;W cUthf; fg;gLfpwJ.
24) kugZ njhopEl; gk; tptrhaj;jpy; nry; thf; Fr; nrYj; jpa
Jiwfs;:-
jhdpa cw;gj; jp (ney;> NfhJik> Nrhsk; )
kuf; fwpfSk; fpoq;FtiffspdJk; cw;gj;jp
goq; fs; cw;gj;jp
tpyq;F rhu; cw;gj;jp
25) jhdpa cw;gj; jp:-
jhdpa cw;gj; jpapy; ney;> nfhJik> Nrhsk;
vd;gd Kf;fpak; ngw;w cw;gj; jpfshff; fhzg;gl;lJ.
kugZ njhop El; gj; jp d; %yk; gy; NtW
Nehahf; fpfSf;Fk; > njhw;W Neha;fSf; Fk; jhf;Fg;
gpbf;f $ba tpNrl Fzhk;rq;fisf; nfhz;l ney;
,dq; fs; gy mwpKfk; nra;ag; gl;ld. cjhuzq; fs;:
khdplg; Gtpapay; -77- mf; \ad;
IR 2061 vDk; ney; 7 tifahd Nehahf; fp fpUkpfSf; F
jhf; Fg;gpbf; f $ba ney;ypdkhFk;.
jq;f muprp (Golden Rice) capu;r;rj; Jfs; nfhz;l muprp
tif xd;whFk;.
kugZ njhopEl;gKiwapD}lhf gy;tif Neha;fSf;F
jhf; Fg; gp bf; ff; $ba NfhJik ,dnkhd; Wk; >
NfhJikiaAk; iu jhdpaj;ijAk; kugZ Kiwapy;
fye; J jahup f; fg; gl; l NfhJik tifnahd; Wk;
cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
gf;Bupahit cs;slf; fp B.T Nfhd; (B.T Corn) vDk;
ngaup y; Nrhs tifnahd; Wk; ep yf; fliyap d;
kugZit cs;slf;fp Nrhah mtiu ,dnkhd;Wk;
ku gZj; njh op El; gj; jp d; %yk; mwp Kfk;
nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.
26) kuf; fwpfSk; fpoq; FtiffSk;:-
kugZ njhopEl;gj; jpd; fP o; tpNrl tif jf; fhsp
,dnkhd;Wk; mtiu> ful; Nghd;w kuf;fwp tiffs;
gyTk; cw;gj; jp nra; ag;gl;Ls;sd.
cUisf; fp oq; F kugZj; njhop El; gj; Jf; F
cl;gLj;jg;gl;l ,d;ndhU gapuhFk;. mt;thW cw; gj;jp
nra; ag; gl; l cUisf; fp oq; F tiffSs; u\; a
tpQ;Qhdpfshy; cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gl;l cUisf;fpoq;F
tifnahd;Wk; NgU ehl; bd; yP kh efupy; cs; s ru; tNjr
cUisf; fpoq; F Muha; r;rp epWtdj;jpdhy; cw;gj;jp
nra; ag; gl; l cUisf; fp oq; F tifnahd; Wk;
Fwpg;gplj;jf;fitfshFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -78- mf; \ad;
27) goq;fs; cw;gj;jp:-
kugZj; njhopEl; gk; %yk; cw; gj; jp nra; ag;gl; l
gotiffs; Vuhsk;. thio> gg; ghrp> nfhb Ke;jpup>
mg;gps;> Njhil vd;gd ,tw;Ws; Kf;fpakhdit.
,t; thW cw; gj; jp nra; ag; gl; l goq; fs; G+ Q; rd
Neha;fSf;F jhf;Fg;gpbj;jy; > fhyk; jho;j;jpf; fdpjy;>
Nghf; Ftuj; jp d; NghJ erp tilahik Nghd; w
Fzhk; rq;fisf; nfhz;bUe;jJ.
28) tpyq;F rhH cw;gj; jp:-
ghy; cw;gj; jp> Nfhop tsu; g;G> gd;wp tsu;g;G
vd;gd tpyq;F rhu; cw;gj;jpapy; Kf; fpakhditahFk;.
29) czty;yhj tpijfspy; kugZj; njhopy;El;gk;:-
gUj; jp kugZ njhopEl; gj; ij gad; gLj; jp
gUj; jpr; nrbfSf; F Vw; gLk; fpUkp Neha; fSf; F
jhf; Fg; gp bf; f $ba gUj; jp tifnah d; W
cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
30) kugZj; njhopEl;gj;jpd; mD$yq;fs; (ed;ikfs;):-
czT cw; gj; jp ia mjp fup f; f KbAkhf
,Uj;jy;.
tpisr;riy mjpfupf;ff; $bajhf ,Uj; jy;.
gapu;fSf; F Vw;gLk; Neha;fisf; Fiwf;ff;
$bajhf ,Uj; jy;.
gy; NtWg; gl; l R+ oy; fSf; Fk; nghUj; jkhd
gapu;tiffis tpUj; jp nra; a KbAkhf ,Uj; jy;.
kuf; fwp > gotiffsp d; tp isr; ry; > mWtil
tPzhtjidj; jLf;f KbAkhf ,Uj; jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -79- mf; \ad;
31) kugZj; njhopEl;gj;jpd; gpujp$yq;fs; (jPikfs;):-
kugZj; njhopEl;gj; jpdhy; kdpj Rfhjhuj; jpw; Fk;>
#oYf;Fk; ghjpg;Gf;fs; Vw;gLfpd;wd.
kugZj; njhopEl;gj; jpd; %yk; cw;gj;jpr; nra;ag; gl;l
Nrhsk; > cUisf; fpoq; F>Nrhah mtiu Nghd; w czT
tiffSs; cUisf;fpoq;F> Nrhah mtiu Nghd;w
czT tiffshy; kdp j clk; Gf; F ghjfkhd
jhf;fq;fs; epfOjy;.
B.S.T. NhHNkhd; gad;gLj; jg;gLtjdhy; ghy; cw;gj;jp
mjpfupj; j NghjpYk; mg; ghiyg; gad; gLj; Jtjdhy; kdpj
clk; Gf;F ghjfkhd jhf;fq;fs; Vw;gLjy;.
tptrhaj;jpf; F mD$ykhd G+r; Rfs; mope;J Nghjy;.
fis nfhy;ypfSf;F <L nfhLf;ff; $ba fisfs;
mjpfupj;jy;.
capu;g;gy;tifik mope;J Nghjy;.
kuGuPjpahd tpij ,dq;fs; mope;J Nghjy;.
32) cw;gj;jp tphpthf; f Kiwfs;:-
tpisr;riy mjpfupj; jy;.
epyj;jpd; gug;G msitf; $l;Ljy;.
FWfpa fhyj;jpy; tpisr;ry;.
fsQ; rpag;gLj;jy;> jahu;g;gLj;jy; nrad; Kiw.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -80- mf; \ad;
33) tpisr;riy mjpfhpg;gjpy; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;jpAs;s
fhuzpfs;:-
mjpf tpisr; ry; jUk; tpijfs; gad;gLj;jg;gLjy;
(c+k;: IR 8 ney;> nehupd; 10 NfhJik)
nraw; if cuq; fSk; fisnfh y; yp fSk;
gad;gLj;jg;gLjy;.
G+ r; Rf; nfhy; yp fSk; fis nfhy; yp fSk;
gad;gLj;jg;gl;lik.
kugZj; njhopEl;gk; gad;gLj;jg;gl; lik.
kz; ghJfhg;G Kiwfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl; lik.
tpUj;jpaile;j ePu;ghrd Kiwfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lik.
etPd gapu;r; nra;if Kiwfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;lik
(gr;ir tP L).
34) cw;gj;jpapy; mjpfhpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpa ehLfs;:-
NfhJik : rP dh> ,e; jpah> u\;ah> ghfp];jhd;>
frfp]; jhd;.
mup rp : rP dh> ,e; jp ah> ,e; NjhNdrp ah>
gq;fshNj\;> tpal;dhk; > jha;yhe;J.
Nrhsk; : rP dh> gpNurpy;> nkf;rpNfh> MH[d;Bdh>
,e;jpah> ,e;NjhNdrpah
cUisf; fpoq; F : rP dh> u\; ah> ,e; jpah> If; fpa
FbauR> cf;iud;> Nghyhe;J.
35) tpisepyj;jpd; gug; gsit mjpfhpj;jy;:-
gap u; r; nra; iff; fhf epyj; jp d; gug; gsit
mjpfupg; gjpy; mNef ehLfs; mtw; Wf; Fhpa vy; iyfis
neUq;fpAs;sd. cjhuzkhf ,e;jpah> rPdh> Nkw;F
INuhg;gpa ehLfs;> vfpg;J vd;gd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -81- mf; \ad;
rp y ehLfs; eP u; toq; fy; KiwfSlhf gap u; r;
nra; iff;F epyj;ij <LgLj; Jtjw;fhd Kaw;rpfis
vLj; Js;sd. cjhuzkhf rT+jp mNugpah NfhJikg;
gapu;r; nra; iff;fhf epyj;ij <LgLj;jpaik.
xl;L nkhj;jkhf cyfpd; Nrhsk;> ney; cw;gj;jpf;fhd
epy msT gbg; gbahf Fiwtile; J tUfpd; wik.
Nrhsk; cw; gj; jpf; fhd epyg; gug;G mjpfupf; Fk; Nghf; iff;
fhl;LfpwJ.
kdp ju; fsp d; Vida eltbf; iffSf; fhf ep yk;
gad; gLj; jg; gLtjdhy; gap u; r; nra; if ep yg; gug; G
tUlhe;jk; Fiwe;J tUfpwJ.
ePu; toq;fg;gLk; epyg;gug;Gfspd; 10% cyu;j;jd;ik
mile;Js; sikahy; mit gapu;r; nra;ifapy; ,Ue;J
xJf;fg;gl;Ls; sd.
36) FWfpa fhy tpisr;ry;:-
kugZ njhopEl;gKk; Kd;Ndw;wk; nra;ag; gl;l
tpijapdq;fSk; fhuzkhf FWfpa fhyg; gFjpapy;
tp isr; riyg; ngwf; $ba tp ijap dq; fs;
cUthfpaik.cjhuzk; :
110 ehl;fSs; tpisr;ry; ngwf;$ba NfhJik.
3 khj fhyj;Js; tpisr;ry;ngwf;$ba ney;.
40 ehl;fSs; tpisr;ry; ngwf;$ba cUisf;
fpoq;F
FWfp a fhyj; jp y; tp isr; ry; ngwf; $bajhf
cs;sikahy; rpy gapu;fs; %yk; xU tUlj;jpy; gy
Nghf tpisr; riyg; ngwf; $bajhf cs;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -82- mf; \ad;
37) kuf;fwp go cw;gj;jpapd; tphpthf;fj; jpy; nry; thf; Fr; nrYj; jpa
fhuzpfs;:-
kugZj; njhopEl;gj;jpd; %yk; Nkk;gLj; jg;gl;l tpij
,dq; fshy; $ba tpisr;ry; ngWjy;.
nflhky; ePz; lf;fhyk; itj;jpUf;f KbAk;.
tskhf; fp g; ghtidAk; Kd; Ndwp a njhop El; g
Kiwfspd; gad;ghLk.;
gr;ir tPl;Lg; gapu;r; nra;ifKiw fhuzkhf $ba
tpupthf;fk; mile;jik
38) tpyq;FrhH cw;gj;jpapd; tpupthf;fk;:-
ghYk;> ghy; rhu;e;j cw;gj;jpfSk;> Nfhop ,iwr;rp>
gd; wp ,iwr; rpvd; gd tpyq; F rhu; e; j cw; gj; jpapy;
Kf; fpakhdit.
,tw; wp d; cw; gj; jp tp up thf; fj; jp y; kugZj;
njhopEl; gj; jpd; nry; thf; ifAk; gz; iz xOq; fikg; gpd;
Kd;Ndw;wj;ijAk; fhl;lyhk;.
ghy; cw;gj;jpia Nkk; gLj;Jk; eilKiwapy; B.S.T.
NhHNkhdpd; gad;ghL njspthf cs;sJ.
Nfhop tsu;g;G> gd; wp ,iwr;rp cw;gj;jp vd;gtw; wpy;
Gjpa Kiwfs; gpd;gw;wg;gLjy;.
kpfTk; FWfpa fhyg; gFjpapy; Efu; Tf; Fg; gad; gLj; jyhk;
vd; wtifapy; Nfhop ,iwr; rpf; fhf mjpf Nfs; tp
fhzg; gLfp d; wik mjd; tp up thf; fj; jp y; ghjp g; G
Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ.
ghy; cw;gj;jpapy; 1. If;fpa mnkupf; ff; FbauR 2.
urpah 3. ,e; jpah 4. epA+rpyhe;J Nghd;w ehLfSk;>
Nfhop ,iwr; rp> gd; wp ,iwr;rp cw;gj;jpapy; rPdhTk;
Kd;ddp tfpf;fpd;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -83- mf; \ad;
39) kPd; cw;gj;jpapd; tphpthf;fk;:-
kP d; cw; gj; jpapid gpujhdkhf 3 gphpTfshfg; gphpf; fyhk; .
fly; kPd; cw; gj;jp
cs;ehl;L ePu; epiyfSlhf eilngWk; kPd; cw;gj;jp
ePu; tho; capupdq;fspd; tsu;g; G %yk; eilngWk;
cw;gj;jp
40) gpujhd kPd; gpbg; gz;izfspd; kPd; cw;gj;jp (kpy;ypad;
nkl;wpf;njhd;fspy;):-
tlNky; grpgpf; - 21.6
njd; fPo; grpgpf; - 12
Nkw; F> kj;jpa grpgpf; - 11.2
tlfPo; mj;jpyhe;jpf; - 9.1
fpof;F ,e;jpah rKj; jpuk; - 5.8
41) kPd; cw;gj; jpapd; tpupthf; fj;jpy; fhzg;gLk; jilfs;:-
ehLfSf;F ,ilNa Nkhjy;fs;
Rw;whly; gpur;rpidfs;
kPd; gpbg; gpuNjrq;fspd; ghJfhg;G
42) kP d; gp bj; njhop yp y; Nkhjy; fisj; jP Hg; gjw; fhf
Nkw; nfhs;sg;gl;l eltbf;iffs;:-
mj;jpyhe;jpf; ^zh Mizf;FO
1929d; If; fp a mnkup f; f FbauRf; Fk;
fdlhTf;Fk; ,ilapyhd grpgpf;-`ypgl; xg;ge; jk;.
1970d; jdpj;Jtkhd nghUshjhu tyaq;fs;
njhlu;ghd ,zf;fg; ghL.
1995d; cyf kPd;gpbf; ifj;njhopy; njhlu;ghd
cNuhk kfhehL.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -84- mf; \ad;
43) fsQ; rpag;gLj;jy; mtrpakhtjw;fhd fhuzq;fs;:-
Nkyjpf cw;gj;jpfisghJfhg;ghf itj;jpUj; jy;.
cw;gj;jpfis njhlu; j;Nju;r;rpahf epuk;gy; nra; jy; .
vjpu;f;fhyj; NjitfSf;fhf ,Ug;Gf;fisg; NgZjy;.
44) jw;fhyf; fsQ; rpag; gLj;jy; nrad;Kiwapy; fhzg;gLk;
tpUj;jpaile;j nrad;Kiwfs;:-
,ae; jpukakhfp cs; sik.
fzzpj; njhopEl;gk; Nghd;w etPd Kiwfs;
gad;gLj;jg;gLjy;.
Kd;ida nryT $ba KiwfSf;Fg; gjpyhf
Gjpa Kiwfisg; gad;gLj;jy;.
,k; Kiwfisg; gad;gLj; Jtjd; fhuzkhf
nghUl; fsp d; ghJfhg; ig cj; juthjg; gLj; jTk;
tPz; tpuaj;ijj; jLf;fTk; KbAkhf ,Uj; jy;.
45) tptrhag; nghUl;fis jahHgLj;Jk; nrad;Kiw:-
jfuj;jpy; milj;jy; (kPd; > ,iwr; rp> goq;fs;
vd; gd)
nghjpaply; - vspjhf czthff; nfhs; sf;$ba
tpj; jpy; jahu; nra;ag;gl;l kuf;fwpfs;> goq; fs;.
Nghj;jypyilj;jy; - gor;rhW> ghy; vd;gd.
ghy; nghUl; fisj; jahu; g; gLj; Jk; NghJ gy; NtW
,ay; GfSld; cw; gj; jpfis Kd; itj; jy; .c +k; :
ghw; fl;b (rP ];) ntz;nza; fl;b (gl; lH) ghy;kh.
khkprq;fisj; jahu;gLj;Jk; NghJ jfuj; jpy;
milj;jy;. nrhNr[]; Nghd;wtw;iw jahu;gLj; jy;.
jhdpaq;fis khthf khw; Wjy;
Njapiy> Nfhg;gp> nfhf;Nfh vd;gtw;iw J}s;
MfTk; NtW KiwfspYk; jahu; gLj; jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -85- mf; \ad;
rpy nghUl;fisj; jahu;g; gLj;Jk; NghJ mtw;iw NtW
xd;whf khw; Wjy; eilngWk;. cjhuzk; : Nrhsk; :
Nrhah Mfpa #upafhe; jp tpij> nfNdhyh vd; gtw;wpy;
,Ue; J vz;nza; gpupj;njLj; jy;.
46) re;ijg;gLj;jy; nrad;Kiw:-
cyfpd; vy;yh ehLfSk; jkf; Fj; Njitahd tptrha
cw;gj; jpfis jhNk cw;gj;jp nra;J nfhs;s KbahJ.
rpy ehLfs; Nkyjpfkhf cw; gj;jp nra; a rpy ehLfspy;
mg; nghUl;fis cw;gj;jp nra;a Kbahj epiyAk;
cz;L. ,jd; fhuzkhf tptrhak; rhu;e; j Vw; wpwf; Fkjp
tu;j;jfk; Njhd;WfpwJ. ,jdhNyNa re; ijg; gLj;jy;
nrad; Kiw epfo; fpwJ.
tptrhag; nghUl; fs; njhlu; ghd re; ijg; gLj; jy;
nrad;Kiw rpf;fyhd ,ay;GilaJ. mJ nghUs;
cw; gj; jp Kjy; Efu; T tiu njhlu; Gg; gl; Lf;
fhzg;gLfpwJ.
47) re;ijg;gLj;jy; Kiwfs;:-
cw; gj; jp ahsd; jdJ cw; gj; jp ia Neubahf
Efu; NthDf;F fpilf; fr; nra; jy;.
cw; gj; jp ahsdp lkp Ue; J ,ilj; jufu; fs; %ykhf
Efu; NthUf;Ff; fpilf;fr; nra;jy;
,d; Wk; re;ijg; gLj; jy; nrad; Kiwapy; kpf Kf; fpakhd
,uz; L Kiwfshf nkhj; j tp ahghuk; rp y; yiu
tpahghuk; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
48) re; ijg; gLj; jy; nrad; Kiwap y; nry; thf; Fr; nrYj; Jk;
fhuzpfs;:-
nfhs; iffs;
gy;Njrpa jhgdq;fs;
tptrha Kaw;rpfs;
tptrhak; rhu; epWtdq;fs;
re;ijj; jfty;fs;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -86- mf; \ad;
49) gy;Njrpaf; fk;gdpfs;:-
tpijfs; > tskhf; fpfs; > G+r; R fis nfhs; spfs; >
ae;jpuhjpfs; Nghd;w tptrhaj;Jld; njhlu;Gg; gl;l
midj;Jj; JiwfspdJk; re;ijg;gLj;jypy; Kjd; ikg;
ngw; W tpsq; FtJ gy; Njrpaf; fk; gdpfNs vd; gJ
ntspg;gilahdJ. cjhuzk; : If;fpa mnkupf;fhtpd;
nkhd;nrd; Nlh fk;gdp tptrhag; nghUl; fs; rk; ge; jkhd
khngUk; gy;Njrpaf; fk;gdpahFk;.
tpijfs; > G+r; R nfhs; spfs; > fis nfhs; spfs; jahupj; jy;
mjd; gpujhd fUkkhFk;.
tptrha urhadq; fSf; Fk; kuf; fwp tpijfSf; Fk;
bA+nghd;l; fk;gdp gpurpj;jkhdJ
fhfp];> nfy;[pd;> rPgh nfa;fp Nghd;w fk;gdpfs; cyf
jhdpa tu;j;jfj;jpy; gpugy;akhdit.
ne]; Ny Nghd; w epWtdq;fs; ghYk; ghy; rhu; e; j
czTfspdJk; tu;j;jfj;jpy; Kjd;ikahdit
mNef gy; Njrpaf; fk; gdpfs; ,yhg Nehf; fj; ijf;
nfhz;ljhf ,aq;FtJ tpNrl gz;ghf cs;sJ.
50) tptrha rHtNjr mikg;Gf;fs;:-
cyf czT tptrha mikg;G (F.A.O)
tptrha mgptpUj;jpf;fhd ru;tNjr epjpak; (IFAD)
cyf czTj; jpl; lk; (WFP)
cyf czTf; fTd;rpy; (WFC)
khdplg; Gtpapay; -87- mf; \ad;

7.cyfpd; ifj;njhopy;
1) mwpKfk;:
kdpju; fspd; jiyaPl;Lld; cw;gj; jp rhjdq;fSld;
,aw; if tsq;fisg; gad;gLj;jp kdpjd; jd; Njitfis
epiwTnra;tjw;F KbTg;nghUs;> ,uz;lhk; epiyg;nghUs;
vd; gtw; iw cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; nraw;ghlhdJ cw; gj;jpf;
ifj; njhopy; vd tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.
2) cyfp d; cw; gj; jp f; ifj; njhop y; miktp lj; jp y;
nry; thf;Fr; nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;:
ifj; njhopy; ,lmiktpy; nry;thf;F nrYj; Jk;
gpujhd ,U fhuzpfs;:
ngsjPf fhuzp> khdpl nghUshjhu fhuzp
3) ngsjP f fhuzpfs;:-
epyk; -
%yg;nghUs; -
tYg;nghUl;fs;
fhyepiy
4) khdpl nghUshjhu fhuzpfs;:-
%yjdk; (khdplKk;> ngsjPfKk;)
njhopyhsH (gapw;wg; gl;l> gapw;wg;glhj)
njhopDl;gk;
re;ij tha; g;G
Nghf;Ftuj;J
mur nfhs;if
khdpl> ngsjPf tsk; mike; Js;s J}uk;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -88- mf; \ad;
,Uk;GUf;F ifj;njhopy; (Iron and Steel
Industry)
5) ,Uk; GUf; F ifj; njhopy; Kf; fpak; ngWtjw; Fhpa
fhuzq; fs;:-
gpujhd Viza ifj; njhopy; fshd fg; gy; >
Nkhl;lhHthfdk;> tpkhdk; Nghd;wtw;wpw;Fhpa Kf;fpa
%yg; nghUshfff; fhzg;gLfpd; wik.
epiyj;jpUg; gJld; gyk; tha;e;jjhf ,Ug; gJk;
NtW cNyhfq;fSld; caH;e;j
,lj; jpy; epyTfpd;wJ.
mjpH;tpw;Fk;> ntg;gj;jpw;Fk; <LnfhLj; jy;.
NtW cNyh fq; fSld; tise; J
nfhLf;ff;$baJ.
xg; gP l; L hP jp ap y; Fiwe; j nrytp y;
ngw; Wf;nfhs;sf;$baJ.
6) ,Uk; GUf; F ifj; njh op Yf; F mtrp akh d
%yg; nghUl;fs;> tYg; nghUl;fs;:-
,Uk; Gj; jhJ (nkilap l; > yp NkhNdhrp l; >
nk];fdrpl;)
Rz;zhk; Gf;fy;
nlhyikl;
nkq; fdPd; (nkf;dPrpak;)
eP H
epyf; fhp [me;jpuirl; (Arthracite) gpyhkpdpa];
(Biluminars) ypf;idl; (Lignite)].
khdplg; Gtpapay; -89- mf; \ad;
7) ,Uk; GUf;fpd; tiffs;:-
fhgz; cUf;F tP l; L cgfuzq; fs; > ae; jpurhjdq; fs; >
];gpwpq;.
fyg;GNyhf cUf;F thfdr; rl; lq;fs;> mr;Rf; fs;>
tpNrl fj;jpfs;.
caHtypikAila cUf;F Gifapujg; ngl;bfs;
fUtpfSf;fhd cUf; F - Jwg; ghd; fs;> Njhy; ijf; Fk;
,ae; jpuq;fs; > cNyhfk; ntl; Lk; ths; fs;.
fiwgpbf;fhj cUf;Ffs; - ngw; Nwhypaj; njhl;bfs;>
vz; nza; Rj; jp fhp g; G Foha; fs; > tp z; ntsp
cgfuzq;fs;> ,urhaz Miyfs; > rj; jpurpfpr;ir
cgfuzq;fs;> rikay; cgfuzq; fs;.
8) ,Uk; GUf;F ifj;njhopypy; <LgLk; ehLfs;:-
If;fpa mnkhpf; fh (gpw;];Ngf;> Ngkpq;fhk;> kpy;thf;fp>
rpf; fhf;Nfh> gpAg; Nyh> kpy;thf;fp> LYj;> th\pq; ld;>
nld; tH )
ag;ghd; (Nlhf;fpNah> nahf;ffhkh> fpNuhrpkh> fhtrhfp>
rP gh> fhkha; rp> xrhfh> NfhNg> fpNkrp> ahtw; wh-tlfpAR)
,e;jpah (ahk;nrl; G+H> Fy;b NgHd; G+H> ngf;fhNuh>
gj;jpuhtjp> &HNfyh> gpyha;> tprhfg;gl;bdk;> Nryk;>
kJiu)
gphpj; jhdpah (yz;ld; > Ngkpq; fhk; > yptHG+y; > fpsh]; Nfh>
yPl; ];> iud;irl; > new;wpq;fhk;> nrgP y;l;> epAfhrpy;>
kpb]; NgHf;> Nlfhk;)
u];ah (cf;fpNud;> njd;A+uy;> F];gh];)
rPdh (kQ;#upah> md;rd;> rq;Rthd;)
Nkw; F INuhg; gh (N[Hkdp> gpuhd; ]; > yf; rk; NgHf; >
ngy;[pak;)
N.I.C. ehLfs; (gpNwrp y; > njd; nfhhpah> kNyrpah>
,e;NjhNdrpah)
khdplg; Gtpapay; -90- mf; \ad;
9) mnkhp f; fhtp d; ,Uk; GUf; F ifj; njhop Yf; F rhjfkhd
fhuzpfs;:-
%yg; nghUs; - ,Uk;GUf;F cw;gj;jpf; ifj;njhopypd;
gpujhd %yg; nghUshd ,Uk;Gj;jhJ kw;Wk; Viza
nghUl; fisAk; ,yFtpy; ngw; Wf; nfhs; sf; $ba
tifapy; ifj; njhopy; ikaq;fs; mike; jpUf;fpd;wd.
,jd; %yk; cw; gj; jp r; nrytp idf; Fiwj; Jf;
nfhs;sf;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;. Ngkpq;fhk; ,Uk;GUf;F
ikak; mUfhikapNy ,Uk;GUf;if nfhz; Ls;sJld;
gpw;];Ngf; ikak; NgNuhpf; fiufspypUe;J ,Uk;GUf;if
ngw;Wf; nfhs; fpd; wd.
tYg; nghUs; - ,Uk; Gj; jhjpid ciyf;fsj; jpy;
mz; zsthf 1500 gh. nr. ntg; gep iyap y;
cUf; Ffp d; wNgh Nj ,Uk; G cUf; fp id
ngw; Wf; nfhs; syhk; . ,t; thW cUf; ftjw; Fhp a
tYg;nghUshf ngUkstpy; epyf; fhpAk; rpwpjstpy;
eP Hkpd;rhuKk; gad;gLj;jg; gLfpd; wJ. mnkhpf; fhtpy;
fhzg; gLk; ,Uk; GUf; F ikaq; fs; ,yFtpy; epyf; fhpia
ngwf;$ba gFjpfspy; fhzg; gLfpd;wJ. mg;gyhr;rpad;
epyf;fhp taypypUe; J gpw;];Ngf;> Ngkpq; fhk; Nghd;w
,Uk; GUf; F ikaq; fs; ep yf; fhp ia ,yFthfg;
ngw;Wf; nfhs; fpd; wd.
Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp - ,Uk; GUf; Fj; njhop yp y;
Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp ahdJ %yg; nghUl; fis>
tYg; nghUl; fis njhop w; rhiyfSf; F Vw; wp r;
nry; tjw;Nfh my; yJ cw; gj;p nra; ag; gl; l ,Uk; G
cUf; fp id re; ijf; F vLj; Jr; nry; tjw; Nfh
Nghf; Ftuj;J mtrpakhfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -91- mf; \ad;
gpw;];Ngf; ,Uk;Uf;F ikaj; jpw;Fj; Njitahd ,Uk;Gj;
jhjpidg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhf fg;gy; Nghf;Ftuj;J
gad; gL; j; jg; gLfp d; wJ. rp f; fhf; Nfh ikaj; jp w; F
Njitahd epyf; fhpia Vw; wpr; nry; tjw; F Gifapujq; fs;
gad;gLj; jg;gLfpd; wd.
re; ij trjp - ,Uk; GUf;F njhopypd; tpUj; jpapy;
,Uk; Gj;jhJ> tYg;nghUs; vd; gtw;wpw;F mLj; jjhf
re; ijtha; g; G Kf; fp ak; ngWfpd; wJ. ngUk; ghYk;
,Uk; GUf;F ikaq;fSf;F mUfhikapy; re;;ijfs;
fhzg; gLfpd; wNghJ Nghf; Ftuj; J nrytP dj; ijf;
Fiwe; jf; nfhs; sKbAk; . mnkhpf; fhtpy; ,Uk; GUf; fpid
gad; gLj;jp fg;gy; fl;Lk; njhopy;> Nkhl;lhH thfdf;
ifj;njhopy; vd;gd ,lk;ngWtjdhy; cs;ehl;bNyNa
ngUkstpy; ,Uk;GUf;F Efug;gLfpd;wJ.
Jiz%yg; nghUl;fs;- ,Uk;Gj;jhjpypUe;J cuf;fpid
gphpj;njLg;gjw;F Rz;zf;fy;> nlhyikl;> kq;fdP];
Nghd; w Jiz%yg;nghUl; fSk; Njitg; gLfpd; wd.
I. mnkhp f; fhtp y; fhzg; gLfp d; w ngUk; ghyhd
,Uk; GUf; F ikaq; fSf; F mUfh ikap y;
Rz;hk;Gf;fy; iyg; ngwf;$ba trjp fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
gpw; ];NgHf; ,Uk;GUf; F ikaj; jpw;F fz;bq;ld; vd;w
,lj;jpypUe;J Rz;zf;fy; fpilf;fpd;wJ. mNj Nghd;W
Ngkpq; fhk; vd; w ikaj; jpw; F Njitahd Rz; zhk; Gf; fy;
mjd; mUfpNyNa fpilf;fpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -92- mf; \ad;
njhopyhsH trjp - ,Uk;GUf; F njhopw;rhiyfspy;
njhop y; Ghtjw; fhp a njhop yhshfs; njhop El; g
mwpTilatHfshf ,Uj;jy; Ntz; Lk;.,ae;jpuq;fs;
kw;Wk; fUtpfs; vd;gtw;iw nghwpapy; Jiw kw;Wk;
,yj; jp uzp ay; Jiw rhHe; j njhop El; g mwp T
mtrpakhFk;. mnkhpf;fhitg; nghWj; jtiuapy; xU
mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehlhfTk; > fy;tpawptpy; $ba
ehlhfTk; . ifj; njhop yp y; Kd; Ndwpa ehLfSs;
xd; whfTk; fhzg; gLfpd; wikahy; njhopw; rhiyfSf; Fj;
Njitah d njh op yh sh fis ,yFth fg;
ngwKbfpd; wJ.
10) ag; ghdp d; ,Uk; GUf; Fj; njhop Yf; Fr; rhjfkhd
fhuzpfs;:-
[g;ghdpd; ,Uk;G> cUf;F ifj; njhopypd; ,l
mikT> ghuk;gupa fhuzpfspy; ,Ue;J khWgLfpd;wJ.
[g; ghdpd; ,f; ifj; njhopy; ,lmiktpw; F ntspehLfspy;
,Ue; J ,Uk; Gj; jhJ> fop tp Uk; Gfs; ,wf; Fkjp
nra; ag;gLfpd;wJ. ,e;j ifj; njhopy; miktplj;ij
ghuk; gup a fhuzp fs; jP u; khdp f; ftp y; iy. ,q; F
ifj; njhop iy jP u; khdp g; gJ re; ij fhuzp Ak; >
tsu; r;rpaile;j Nghf; Ftuj;JkhFk;.
%yg; nghUs; - ag; ghdpy; ,Uk; Gj; jhJg; gbkq; fs;
ngUkstpy; fhzg; glhtpl; lhYk; NtWehLfspy; ,Ue; J
,wf; Fkjp nra;ag;gLfpd;w ,Uk;Gj; jhijAk;> fopT
,Uk; igAk; gad; gLj; jg; gLfp d; wJ. gp yp g; igd; ];
kNyrpah Nghdw ehLfspy; ,Ue;j ,Uk;Gj; jhij
,wf;Fkjp nra; tJld; fopT ,Uk;G cyfpd; vg;ghfj; jpy;
,Ue; jhYk; ,wf; Fkjp nra; J gad; gLj; Jfpd; wJ. ,jw; F
tha; ghf me; ehl; bd; Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp fhzg; gLfpd; wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -93- mf; \ad;
tYg; nghUs;- ag;ghdpd; ,Uk;GUf;F ikaq;fSf;F
Njitahd tYg; nghUshf ngUkstpy; ep yf; fhp
gad; gLj; jg; gLfp d; wJ. ag; ghdp y; cs; s aghwp >
rp f; fhf; Nfh Nghd; w gFjp fsp y; XusT ep yf; fhp
fpilf;fpd;wJ. Nkyjpfkhfj; Njitg;gLk; epyf;fhpapid
mT]; Nuypah> rPdh Nghd;w ehLfspy; ,Ue;J ,wf; Fkjp
nra;fpd; wJ.
Nghf;Ftuj;J trjp- ag;ghdpd; ,Uk;GUf;F njhopypy;
Kf; fpakhd gq; fpid Nghf; Ftuj; J tfpf; fpd; wJ. epyf; fhp
kw; Wk; ,Uk; Gj; jhjpid NtWehlfspy; ,Ue;J Vw; Wkjp
nra; J nfhs;tjw;F ngUkstpy; fg;gy; Nghf;Ftuj;J
cjtp Ghp fp d; wJ. ag; ghdp d; ,u k; GUf; Fj;
njhopw; rhiyfs; fiuNahug; gFjpfspy; mike; J
fhzg; gLfp d; wikAk; gy; YUtj; jd; ik nfhz; L
fhzg; gLfp d; wikAk; Jiwkfq; fSf; F rhjfkhd
fhuzpfis toq;fpAs; sJ. mj;Jld; ag; ghd; fg;gy;
fl; Lk; njhopypy; Kjdpiy tfpf;fpd; wikAk; ,yFthd
fg;gy; Nghf;Ftuj;jpw;F tpj;jpl;Ls;sJ.
njhopElg; mwpTila njhopyhsHfs; - ag; ghdpd;
,Uk; GUf;Fj; njhopy; tpUj; jpapy; rpwpe; j njhopElg;
mwpTilanjhopyhsHfisAk; nghwpapayhsHfisAk;
ngwf;$ba epiyik rhjfkhdjhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
cyfpd; rdj; njhif $ba > fy;tp tsHr;rpaile;j
Nlhf; fp nah Kjyp a efuq; fisf; nfhz; L
fhzg; gLfp d; wikAk; njhop El; g mwp Tldhd
njhopyhsHfis mjpfstpy; ngwKbfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -94- mf; \ad;
re;ij tha;g;G ag;ghdpy; cw;gj;jp nraag;gLfpd;w
,Uk; GUf; F NtW ehLfSf; F Vw; Wkjp
nra; ag;gLtjpy;iy. mJ cs;ehl;by; fhzg;gLfpd;w
Viza ifj;njhopy;fspNyNa gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.
ag; ghdp d; ,Uk; GUf; fhdJ ju kh djh fTk;
tpiy$bajhfTk; fhzg; gLfpd; wJ. ,jdhy; ,j; jukhd
,Uk;GUf; fpidf; nfhz; L fg;gy; flLk; njhopy; >
Nkhl; lhH thfdf; ifj; njhop y; Nghd; w tw; wp y;
gad; gLj; jp cr; rg; gaidg; ngWfpd; wJ. ,jdhy;
cs;ehl;bNyNa ngUkstpy; ag;ghdpd; ,Uk;GUf;fpw;F
Nfs; tp fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
11) If;fpa ,uhl; rpaj;jpd; ,Uk;GUf;F ifj;njhopYf;F rhjfkhd
fhuzpfs;;;:-
tuyhw; wpy; cyfpd; ,Uk;GUf; F cw; gj;jp ifj; njhopypy;
Kjyp lj; ijg; ngw; wp Ue; jJ gp hp j; jhdp ahthFk; .
%yg; nghUs; fp ilf; Fk; ,lq; fshifahy; mJ
ed;ikahfpaJ. ,Ug;gpDk; me; ehL ngw;Wf;nfhz;l
,lk; ,d;W fpof; fhrpahtpy; Kf;fpa ehLfshd [g; ghd; >
rP dh> ,e; jp ah> kNyrp ah Mfp a eh Lfs;
ngw;Wf;nfhz;Ls;sd.
If; fp a mnkhp f; fhtp y; ,Uk; Guf; fj; njhop yhdJ
]; nfhlyhe; J> tlfP o; ,q; fp yhe; J> kp l; yhe; J>
njd;Nty; ]; > yq;fhraH> Nahf; raH> new; wpq;fhk; > Nlgpf;
Mfpa gpuNjrq;fspy; Nkw;nfhs; sg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -95- mf; \ad;
%yg; nghUs; - Njitahd ,Uk; Gj; jhjpy; 10 rjtP jj; ij
jdJ ehlbypU;Jk; kPjpia RtPld;> fdlh> tlMgphpf;f
ehLfspy; ,Ue;Jk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;fpd;wJ.
tYg; nghUs; - ,Uk;GUf;F ikaq;fs; ahTk; epyf;fhp
tay; fis mz; ba gFjp fsp NyNa mike; J
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
Nghf;Ftuj;J trjp JiwKfq; fSf;fUfhikapy;
ikaq;fs; fhzg;gLfpd;wikahy; %yg;nghUl; fis
fg; gy; fs; %yk; ,wf; Fkjp nra; tjw; F trjpahfTs; sJ.
%yjd trjp mgptpUj; jpaile; j ehL> Muk; g
fhyq;fspy; gyNtW ehLfis Mf;fpukpj;Jg; ngwg;gl;l
tUkhdKk; Nghjpa %yjdj;ij toq;fpAs;sJ.
12) ,Uk; GUf;Fj; njhopypd; mz;ikf;fhyg; Nghf;Ffs;:-
Gjpa jpl; lkply; > kw;Wk; njhopy; El;gKiwfisf;
ifahs; tjd; %yk; cw; gj; jp ap d; msitAk;
Ntfj; ijAk; mjpfhp j; jy; . ,Uk; Gj; jhij #lhf; f
Muk; gj; jpy; gad; gLj; jg; gl; l jpwe; j mLg; G> #is mLg; G
vd;gtw;wpw;Fg; gjpyhf kpd; rf;jp gad;gLj;jg;gLfd; wik.
jpw;ej mLg;gpdhy; 350 njhd; ,Uk; ig cUf;fhf khw;w
10 kzpj;jpahyq;fs; vLf;f kpd;rf;jp mLg;gpw; F 10
epkplq;fs; khj;jpuNk vLf;fpd;wd.
Gjpjhf ifj; njhop y; kakhfpa ehLfSk;
,Uk; GUf; Fj; njhopy; mz; ikf; fhykhf <LgLfpd; wik.
(njd;nfhhpah> kNyrpah> ,e;NjhNdrpah)
khdplg; Gtpapay; -96- mf; \ad;
Muk; g fhyj;jpy; ,Uk;Gj;jhJk; epyf; fhp tay; fSk;
fhzg; gl; l ,lq; fsp y; ifj; njhop w; rhiyfs;
Muk; gp f; fg; gl; l fiuNahug; gp uNjrq; fsp y;
njhop w; rhiyfs; Muk; gp f; fg; gl; l fiuNahug;
gpuNjrq;fspy; njhopw;rhiyfs; Muk;gpf;fg;gLfpd;wik.
If;fpa mnkhpf;fhtpy; ngNuh];nghapz;l;> ghy;hpNkhH>
gphpj;jhdpah epAfhrpy;> kpby; ]; NgHf; > ag; ghd; - NfhNg
> fhyp]; Nghd;w ,lq;fis Fwpg;gplyhk;.
,Uk; GUf; Fj; njhopypy; Mrpa ehLfspd; Nghl; ; b
mjpfhpj;Js;sik. (,e;jpah> ag;ghd;)
Gjpa njhopy;El;g KiwfSf;fika ,ae;jpuq;fspd;
ghtid mjpfhpg;gpdhy; njhopyhsHfspd; vz;zpf;if
Fiwtilfpd;wik.
foptpUk;gpypUe;J cUf;F jahhpj;jy;. ( ag;ghd;)
,Uk; GUf;Fld; Gjpa %yg;nghUl;fs; fye;J jukhd
cNyhfj;ij ngWjy;.
Gjpa tsq; fis fz; lwpa Ma; Tfis Nkw;nfhs; Sjy; .
fg;gy; fl;Lk; ifj;njhopy; (Shipping Industry)
13) fg;gy; fl;Lk; ifj; njhopy; mwpKfk;:-
ru; tNjr tu ; j; jfj; jp y; ngh Ul;
gup khw; wj; jpd; NghJk; kP d; gpb eltbf; ifapd; NghJk;
mtrpakhd rpwpasT Kjy; ghupastpyhd fg; gy;
tiuahd fg; gy; cw; gj; jp ,jd; fP o; ,lk; ngWk; .
Aj;jf;fg;gy;> mizj;J trjpfis nfhz;l fg; gy;>
ngw; Nwhyp a nghUl; fis Vw; wp ,wf; Fk; fg; gy; >
nghUl;fisAk; Ml;fisAk; Vw;wp ,wf;Fk; fg;gy;
Nghd;w gytif fg;gy;fis cw;gj;jp nra;fpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -97- mf; \ad;
14) fg;gy; fl;Lk; njhopypy; <LgLk; ehLfs;:-
ag; ghd; > rP dh> njd; nfhhp ah> rp q; fg; G+ H> If; fp a
mnkhpf; fh> If; fpa uhl; rpak; > N[Hkdp> RtP ld; > nld; khHf; >
nejHyhe;J> gpuhd;];> ua;ah> ,e;jpah> NehHNt.
gpupj;jhdpah> mnkupf;fh> If;fpa mnkupf; fh> Nehu;Nt
Mfpa ehLfs; Muk; g fhyq;fspy; Kjd; ik tfpj;jJld;
jw;fhyj;jpy; [g;ghd;> rPdh> njd; nfhupah> jha; thd;
cl;gl gy; NtW ehLfs; ,f; ifj; njhopypy; <LgLfpd;wJ.
15) fg;gy; fl;Lk; njhopYf;F rhjfkhd fhuzpfs;:-
JiwKf trjp - fg;gy; fl;Lk; njhopypy; JiwKf
trjp nfhz;l flw;fiuNahuq; fs; rhjffkhditahff;
fhzg;gLfpd; wd. ,jdhy; fg;gy; fl;Lk; ifj;njhopypy;
<LgLk; ehLfs; fg;gy; fs; jphpj;J epw;ff; $baJk;>
nry; yf; $baJkhd cs; ehl; L eP H epiyfisAk; >
JiwKf; fisAk; nfhz; bUf; fp d; wd. a; gghdp y;
Nlhf; fp Nah> eNfhah Nghd; w JiwKfq; fSk;
mnkhpf; fhtpy; gpynly; gpah> ghy;hpNkhH JiwKfq;fSk;
gp hp j; jhdp ahtp y; fp sh]; Nfh > ,e; jp ahtp y;
tp rhafg; gl; bdk; Nghd; w JiwKfq; fisAk;
Fwpg;gplyhk;.
,Uk; GUf;F ikaq;fs; fhzg;gLjy; - fg;gy;fSf;Fj;
Njitahd cUf; Fj; jfLfs; > jz; lthsq; fs; >
ghug; nghwpfs; > ,ae;jpuq; fs; Kjypatw; iw ,Uk;GUf; Fj;
njhopw;rhiyfspy; ,Ue;J ngWtjw;fhf mtw; Wf;F
mUfhikapy; fg;gy; fl; Lk; JiwKf; fs; mike; Js; sd.
cjhuzkhf Nlhf;fpNah> nahf; ffhkh fg;gy; fl;Lk;
JiwKfq; fs; > gp w; ]; Ngf; > gTNyh Mfp a
gpuNjrq; fSf; fUfhikapy; ,Uk; GUf; F ikaq; fs;
minkhpf;fhtpYk; cs;sd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -98- mf; \ad;
njhopyhsH trjp njhopy;jpwd; kpf; f njhopyhsH
trjp fg; gy; fl; Lk; njhopYf;F ,d; wpaikahj xd;whFk; .
,ae;jputpaypy; Vw; gl; l tpUj; jp fg; gy; fl;Lk; njhopiy
rpf; fyhf;fp tpl;lJ. mjdhy; fg;gy; fl;Lk; njhopypy;
<LgLj;jtjw;F nghwpapay; Jiwapy; rpwg;ghfj; NjHr;rp
ngw; w njhopyhsHfisf; nfhz;bUf;fpd; w ehL fg;gy;
fl;Lk; njhopypy; Kd;Ndwp tUfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf
ag; ghd; . If; fpa mnkhpf; fh Nghd;w ehLfspy; njhopEl; g
mwpTila njhopyhshfis mjpfstpy; nfhz;Ls; sJ.
Jizf; ifj; njhopy; tpUj; jp xU ghhpa fg;giy
mikg; gjw; F gy; NtW Jizf; ifj; njhopy; fSk;
tp Uj; jp ngw; wp Uf; f Ntz; Lk; .
Jizg;nghwpfs;>nfhjpfyd;fs;> rpy;Yfs;> mr;Rfs;>
fapW Rw; Wk; mr; rhzpfs; > gk;gpfs;> kpd; dpaw; nghwpfs; >
tlq; fs; > fp Wfs; > jsghlq; fs; vd; gdTk;
Njitg; gLtjhy; ,j; Jiw rhHe; j ifj; njhop y;
JiwfSk; tpUj;jp ngw; wpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ag;ghdpy;
,yj; jpuzpay; njhopy; kw;Wk; Viza ifj;njhopy;
JiwfSk; kpf cr; r mstpy; tpUj;jpaile; jpUf; fpd;wd.
%yjd trjp fg; gy; ifj; njhopy; mjpf %yjdk;
mtrp akhd ifj; njh op yh Fk; . ,jdhy;
,f;ifj;njhopYf;F mur MjuT mtrpakhFk;. cau;
tUkhdk; nfhz;l gpupj;jhdpah> If;fpa mnkupf;fh>
neju;yhe;J Mfpa ehLfs; ,J njhlu; ghf mbg;gil
%yjdj; ij ,l; Ls; sJ. [g; ghd; > ,e; jp ah
Nghd;wtw;wpw;F KjypLk; rf;jp cs;sikapdhy; fg;gy;
fl;Lk; ifj;njhopypy; <Lgl;Ls;sd. nghUshjhuj; jpy;
gytP dkhd ehLfs; ,f; ifj; njhopypy; <lgLtJ ,y; iy.
,tw; wp dhy; Nkw; $wp a %yjdj; ij Kjyp l
Kbahikahy; MFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -99- mf; \ad;
tul; rp ahd fhyep iy - fhyep iy fhuzp ap y;
Kf;fpakhdJ ePz;l fhykhf eP u; fpilf;fh tz;zk;
tul; rp ahf ,Ug; gJ fg; gy; ifj; njhop Yf; F
Kf;fpakhdJ.
Aj;jf;fg;gy;> mizj;J trjpfis nfhz;l fg; gy;>
ngw; Nwhyp a nghUl; fisVw; wp ,wf; Fk; fg; gy; >
nghUl;fisAk; Ml;fisAk; Vw;wp ,wf;Fk; fg;gy;
Nghd;w gytif fg;gy;fis cw; gj;jp nra;fpd; wdH.
16) fg;gy; fl;Lk; njhopypy; mz;ikf;fhyj; jpy; Vw; gl;L
tUfpd;w khw;wq;fs;:-
ag;ghd; kw;Wk; mnkhpf;fh vd;gd Kjd; dpiy
cw;gj;jp ehLfshf tpsq;Ffpd;wd.
cjphpg;ghfq;fs; NtW ,lq; fspy; nra;ag; gl;L
ghhpa JiwKff; fl;llq;fspy; nghUj;jg;gLfpd; wik.
Gjpa ehLfspd; Nghl;b. ( N.I.C. ehLfs;)
gy; NtW %yg; nghUl; fs; gad; gLj; jg; gly; .
(fz;zhb ,io> kuk;> mYkpdpak;> ,wg;gH> gpsh];bf;)
Aj;jk; kw;Wk; Nghf;Ftuj; J tpUj; jp fhuzkhf
rHtNjr re; ijap y; fg; gy; fSf; fhd Nfs; tp
mjpfhpj;Js;sJ.
cw;gj;jpr; nryT mjpfhpj;Jr; nry;fpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -100- mf; \ad;
Nkhl; lhH thfdf; ifj; njhop y; (Motor
Vehicles)
17) Nkhl;lhH thfdf; ifj;njhopy; mwpKfk;:-
20 Mk; E}w; whz;by; cyfpd; kpf cau;e;j
,lj; ijg; ngw;Wf;nfhz;l Jiwahf Nkhl;lu; thfd
ifj;njhopiy milahsg;gLj;j KbAk;. kpy;ypad;
nlhyu; mstpy; Mjhak; ngw KbtJld; kpy;ypad;
fzf; fhd njhopy; tha;g;G re;ju;g;gj;ijAk; mNef
ifj;njhopYf;F cgfhur; Nrit toq;Fk; Jiw vd;w
tifap y; Nkhl; lu; thfdk; eilKiwap y;
Kd;Ndw;wj; Jf;F cl;gl;Ls;sJ.
18) Nkhl;lhH thfdf; ifj;njhopypy; <LgLk; ehLfs;:-
ag;ghd; - Nlhf;fpNah> nahf;ffhkh> eNfhah>
xrhfh> fthrhfp> fpNuhrpkh
If;fpa mnkhpf;fh - nll;Nwhapl;> fpsPt;yhe;J>
rpf; fhf;Nfh> ghy; bNkhH> xf;yfhkh> fd; rh];
,e;jpah -Kk;gha;> nly;yp> nrd;id> fy;fj;jh>
ngq; fSH> NfhaKj; JhH> mfkjhghj; > ik#H>
ifjughj;> yf;Ndh
N[Hkdp - nfhNyhd;> ngh;ypd;> gpuhq;Nghl;>
];Ul;fhl;
,j;jhyp - kpyhd;> kpA+wpd; > nuhuhz;Nlh
u];ah - nkh];Nfh
gphpj;jhdpah
N.I.C. ehLfs; - njd; nfhhp ah>kNyrp ah>
nkf;rpf;Nfh> gpNwrpy;> Mn[e;jP dh> rpq;fg; G+H> jha;thd;>
njd; Mgphpf; fh> ,e;NjhNdrpah>
mT];Nuypah> fdlh> gpuhd;];
khdplg; Gtpapay; -101- mf; \ad;
19) Nkhl;lhH thfdf; ifj;njhopYf;Fr; rhjfkhd fhuzpfs;:-
,Uk;GUf;F ikaq;fs; - Nkhl; lu; thfdf; ifj;njhopy;
,l miktp w; F gp ujhdkhd ,Uk; G cUf; F
ifj;njhopYf;F mUfpy; ,Uj;jy; kpfg; nghUj;jkhdJ.
ag; ghd; > gpupj; jhdpah> If; fpa mnkupf;fh> ,e;jpah Mfpa
ehLfs; ,e; j Kf; fpakhditfshFk; . ,e; j ehLfspdhy;
,Uk; G cUf; F cw; gj; jp nra; tjdhy; mjw; F
mUfpNyNa ifj; njhopw; rhiyAk; mikag; ngw; Ws; sJ.
ag;ghdpd; Nlhf;Nah> nahf;ffhkh gFjpfspy; Nkhl;lhH
cw;gj;jp ikaq;fs; ,Uk;GUf; Fj; njhopw;rhiyfis
Mjhukhff; nfhz;L mike;Js;sd. mNj Nghd;W
If; fpa mnkhpf; fhtpd; fpof; Fg; gFjpfspy; fhzg; gLfpd; w
Nkhl; lhH thfd cw;gj; jp ikaq; fs; ,Uk; gUf; F
njhopw; rhiyfis Mjhukhff; nfhz; L mike; Js; sd.
tYg; nghUs; - tY rf;jp mNefkhd ifj;njhopYf;F
Fwpg;ghf Nkhl;lu; thfd cw;gj;jpf;F ,d;wpaikahj
tskhFk; . ngw; Nwhypak; > epyf;fup> ,aw; if thA vd; gd
,f;ifj;njhopy; njhlu;ghd mj; jpahtrpa fhuzpahFk;.
If;fpa mnkhpf;fh> ,e;jpah> ag;ghd; nghd;w ehLfspy;
tYg; nghUl; fis NeubahfNth my; yJ ntW
ehLfspypUe;Njh ,wf;Fkjp nra;Jnfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ.
ifj; njhopy; Jiw tpUj; jp Nkhl; lhH thfdf;
ifj; njhopypd; tpUj; jpf; F nry; thf; Fr; nrYj; Jk;
fhuzpfspy; ifj;njhopy; Jiw tshr; rpAk; njhopy; El; g
tpUj;jpAk; Kf;fpakhdjhFk;. Nkhl;lhH thfdq;fspy;
gad; gLj; jg; gLk; ,ae; jp u q; fs; kw; Wk;
Jizg;nghUl; fis cw;gj;jp nra;af; $ba mstpy;
ifj; njhop y; JiwahdJ tsHr; rp aile; jp Uj; jy;
Ntz;Lk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -102- mf; \ad;
mj;Jld; thfdq;fs; ePbj;j ghtidAk; ,yfthf
,af;ff;$bajhfTk; > etPd trjpfis nfhz;ljhfTk;
fhzg; glNtz;Lk;. ag; ghd; > mnkhpf;fh Nghd; w ehLfs;
ifj; njhop yp Yk; > njhop El; gj; jp Yk; Kd; ndwp a
eh Lfsh fTk; fhzg; gLfp d; wik rhjfkhf
mike;Js;sJ.
re; ij trjp cyfpd; Nghf;Ftuj;J tHj; jfk; vd;gd
tp Uj; jp aile; J fhzg; gLtjdhy; Nkhl; lhH
thfdq;fspd; ghtidAk; mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. Nkhl;lu;
thfdf; ifj; njhopy; kdpjdpd; Nghf; Ftuj; ijAk;
gy;NtW nray;fisAk; kpf tpiutpy; nra;JKbj;Jf;
nfhs;tjw;Fk; KbAk;. 20 Mk; E}w;whz;by; cyfpd;
kpf cau; e; j ,lj; ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhz; l Jiwahf
Nkhl; lu; thfd ifj; njhopiy milahsg; gLj; j KbAk; .
Njitf;F Vw; gNt nghUs; cw;gj;jp eilngWfpd;wJ.
Njrpa> ru;tNjr re; ijfis mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L
Nkhl; lhu; thfdq;fis cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.
tpNrlkhf [g; ghd;> rPdh> If;fpa mnkupf;fh Mfpa
ehLfs; ,jpy; cs;slq;Fk;. ghu CHjpfs;> kw;Wk;
rpwpa nfz;lHfs; vd;gd ,d; W ngUkstpy; tHj;jf
eltbf; iffsp y; <LgLj; jg; gLtJld; jdp egH
ghtidf; fhd Nghf; Ftuj; Jr; rhjdq; fisAk;
,jd;%yk; ngwg;gLfpd; wJ. vdNt cs;ehl;L> rHtNjr
re;ijtrjpfis ,f;ifj;njhopy; ngw;Ws;sJ.
njhopEl;g mwpYila njhopyhsHfs; - tpQ;Qhd
njhopDl;g Nju; r;rp> Kfhikj;Jt Nju; r;rp tha; e; j
njhop yhsu; fs; fhzg; gLtJ Nkhl; lu; thfd
ifj; njhopy; ,l miktpw;F rhjfkhd fhuzpahFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -103- mf; \ad;
vd; [pd;fis nghUj;Jjy;> ,yj;jpuzpay; rhjdq;fis
,izj; jy Nghd;wtw; wpw; F njhopEl; g mwpTk; gapw; rpAk;
mtrpakhFk;. ag;ghdpy; kdpj tsk; caH;e;jstpy;
,f;ifj;njhopYf;F gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.
,ltrjp Nkhl; lhH thfdf; ifj; njhop Yf; F
Njitah d cjp h p g; gh fq; fis ,Uk; GUf; F
Miyfsp yp Ue; Jk; > Jizr; rhjdq; fs; NtW
njhopw;rhiyfspy; ,Ue;Jk; ngwg;gl;L xU ikaj; jpy;
xd; wp izf; fg; gLfp d; wd. xNu Miyap y; gy
thfdq; fis xUq; fp izg; gjw; Fk; mjw; Fhp a
%yg;nghUl; fis Ftpj; J itg;gjw;Fk; gue; j rkntspg;
gp uNjrq; fs; nghUj; jkhditahf mike; Js; sd.
cjhuzk; Nlhf; fpNah
Nghf;Ftuj;J trjp %yg; nghUl;fis Nrfhpg;gjw;Fk;>
Nkhl;lhH thfdq;fis cs;ehl; bYk;> ntspehl; bYk;
cs; s re; ijfSf; F nfhz; L nry; tjw; Fk;
Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp mtrp akhfpd; wJ. cs; ehl; Lr;
re; ijfSf; F Nkhl; lhH thfdq; fis fduf
thfdq; fspd; %yNkh my;yJ Gifapujq; fspNyh
vLj; Jr; nry; fp d; wdH. rHtNjr re; ijfSf; F
thfdq; fs; fg; gy; fspd; %yk; vLj; Jr; nry; yg; gLfpd; wd.
Fwpg; gpl; l ehLfspd; Nghf; Ftuj; J tiyg; gpd; dy; tpUj; jp
ngw;Ws;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -104- mf; \ad;
20) Nkhl;lhH thfdf; ifj;njhopypd; mz;ikf;fhyg; Nghf;Ffs;:-
#oYf;F ,irthd thfdq;fis cw;gj;jp nra; jy;.
Gjpa #oy; ghjpg;gw; w vhpnghUs;fis gad;gLj;jf;
$ba thfd cw; gj;jp(kpd;rf;jp> #hparf;jp)
ngw; Nwhypa ghtidiaf; fl;Lg; gLj;jp jw;fhy rpwpa
uf ghpkhdKs; s tz;bfis cw;gj;jp nra; jy;.
rfy nrhFR trjp nfhz;l Nkhl;lhH tz;bfis
cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; Kiw mjpfhpj;jy; . (A.C, T.V, Radio)
thfdq;fspd; tbtikg;ig mbf; fb kh;wk; nra; jy;.
rpwpa Ntfk; $ba tpkhd tbtpyhd fhH cw;gj;jp -
ag;ghd;
%yg; nghUl;fSld; ,Nyrhd mYkpdpak;> gpsh]; bf;>
fz; zhb ,iog; nghUl; fs; gad; gLj; jp ghuk; Fiwthd
thfdq;fis cw;gj;jp nra; jy;.
caH njhopy; El;gq; fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLjy;. ( G.P.S.
fUtp ,izf; fg;gl thfdq;fs;.)
fbdkhd NtiyfSf;F ,ae;jpu kdpjHfs; (Robo)
gad;gLj;jg;gLjy;.
N.I.C ehLfspd; Nghl;b mjpfhpg;G. (Mrpa ehLfspd;
re; ij)
Gjpa Nkhl;lhH tz;b cw;gj;jp ikaq;fs; cUthf;fk;.
ag; ghdp d; th fdq; fSf; F kf; fs; tp Ug; G
mjpfhpj; Js;sik.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -105- mf; \ad;
tp khdk; fl; Lk; ifj; njhop y; (Aeroplanes
Industry)
21) tpkhdk; fl; Lk; ifj;njhopy; mwpKfk;:-
,uz; lhk; cyf kfh Aj; jj; jp w; F gp d;
mgptpUj; jpf;F cl;gl;l ifj;njhopyhf ,jid tpsf;f
KbAk; . mj;Jld; mJ xd;wpizf;Fk; ifj; njhopyhFk; .
Ml;fis Vw;Wk; nypf;nfhg;lu; Kjy; ngupastpyhd
Ml; fis Vw; Wk; Mfha tpkhdk; tiu cw; gj; jp
nra; ag; gLtJld; Aj; j eltbf; iffSf; fhf
gad; gLj; Jk; tpkhdk; > ,af; fpfSldhd tpkhdk; > Fz; L
tPRk; tpkhdk; vd gytifg;gLk;. rj;jk;> Ntfk; kpf
tpiuthf gazk; nra;Ak; tpkhdk; vd eilKiwapy;
cw; gj;jp nra; ag; gLfpd;wJ. (NjLjy; )> guprP ypj; jy; >
Ml; fis Vw; wp nry; tjw; Fk; tp khdk; cw; gj; jp
nra;ag;gLk;.
22) tpkhdk; fl;Lk; njhopypy; <LgLk; ehLfs;:-
ag;ghd; - Nlhf;fpNah> eNfhah> xrhf;fh
I. mnkhp f; fh ep ANahHf; > ghy; bNkhH>
fypNghHdpah> kpr; rpfd;> xifNah> yh]; VQ; ry; ]; >
nfhd;wpf;
I. uhl; rp ak; - Nghl; ]; kTj; > yz; ld; >
epArTj;Nty;];
gpuhd;]; - ghhp]; > lTrpy;q;
,e; jp ah - ,yf; Ndh> ifjughj; . fhd; G+H>
GJby;yp> ngq;fSH
N[Hkdp gpuhq;nghl;> ngHypd;
rPdh gP[pq;> rha; fha;
,j;jhyp ntdp];
,];Nuy; - kpyhd;
u];ah - Vnwhkpdh
khdplg; Gtpapay; -106- mf; \ad;
23) tpkhdf; ifj; njhopYf; F rhjfkhd fhuzpfs;:-
%yg; nghUs; - tp khdq; fs; fl; ltjw; Fhp a
%yg; nghUl;fs; ill; Nldpak; > mYkpadpak; vd;gd
Kf;fpakhditahFk; . ,it JUg;gpbf;fhjitahfTk;>
ghuk; Fiwe;jitahfTk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. vdNt
Njitahd cNyhfq; fs; ehl; bDs; Ns fpilf; ff;
$bajhfNth my; yJ NtW ehLfspy; ,wf; Fkjp
nra; ag; gl; Nlh gad; gLj; jg; gLfpd; wd. If; fpa mnkhpf; fh>
u]; ah> gpuhd]; nghd; w ehLfspy; ,k; %yg;nghUl; fis
,yFtpy; ngw; Wf; nfhs;sKbfpd;wJ.
%yjdk; - mjpfsT %yjdj;ij Kjypl Ntz;ba
ifj; njhop yhf tp khdk; fl; Lk; ifj; njhop y;
fhzg; gLfpd; wJ. tpkhdf; ifj; njhopypy; <LgL; k;
ehLfs; ngUkstpy; mgptpUj; jpaile; j nry; te; j
ehLfshf fhzg; gLfpd; wJ. ag; ghd; > mnkhpf; fh> gpuhd; ];
nghUshjhuj;Jiwapy; tpUj;jpaile; j ehLfshFk;.
mj; Jld; rpy ehLfspy; tpkhdj; ij nfhs; tdT nra; Ak;
ehLfNs cw;gj; jpf;Fhpa cjtpg; gzj; ij toq; Ffpd; wJ.
njhopEl; gj; jpwd; tpUj; jp - tpQ; Qhd njhopDl; g trjpfs;
fhzg;gLfpd; wikAk; ,f;ifj;njhopy; ,l mikTf;F
gpujhd fhuzpahFk;. ag;ghd;> gphpj;jhdpah. mnkhpf;fh
Kjypa tpkhd cw; gj; jp ehLfspy; tpQ; Qhd njhopDl; g
gp d; dzp tha; e; j njhop El; gtp ayhsHfisAk; >
njhopyhsHfisAk; ngwf;$bajhfTs;sJ. ,jdhy;
,f; ifj; njhop y; ,e; ehLfsp y; ,lmiktp idg;
ngw;Ws;sd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -107- mf; \ad;
tuz; l fhyepiy - fhyepiy ,d; DnkhU Kf;fpa
fhuzp ahFk; . tp khdk; fl; Lk; ifj; njhop Yf; F
Ma;tpw;Fk; tpkhdk; fl;Ltjw;Fk; ey;y>#upa xspAk;>
Fiwthd kiotP o; r; rpAk; fhzg; gly; mj; jpatrpakhFk; .
tpkhd cw;gj; jp ehLfspy; rpwg;ghd tya ehLfSk;
tuz; l tya ehLfSk; fhzg;gLtjhy; ,t;thwhd
gz; Gfisf; fhzKbAk;. ,e; j nghUj; jkhd fhyepiy
jd; ik tp khdf; ifj; njhop yp d; tp Uj; jp f; F
toptFj; Js;sJ.
,ltrjp tpkhdk; fl;Lk; njhopyhdJ tpkhdj; jpd;
ntsp g; gFjp ia cw; gj; jp nra; Ak; Miy> ce; J
fUtpfis cw; gj; jp nra; Ak; Miy> vd; [pd;fis
cw;gjjp nra; Ak; Miy vd gy;NtE gFjpatpyhd
njhopw;rhiyfis nfhz; like;jJld; mit ahTk;
Xhp lj; jp y; Ftp f; fg; gl; L tp kh dkh f
xd;wpizf; fg; gLfpd;wd. ,jdhy; tpkhdk; fl;Lk;
ifj; njhop Yf; F tp rhykhd ,lk; mtrp akhFk; .
kiyfs; mw;w gue;j rkntsp epyk; fhzg;gly; tpkhd
Ma;T eltbf;iffSf;F Vw;wjhFk;. Nkw; fhl;lg; gl;l
ehLfSs; ,t; thwhd trjp fs; njsp thff;
fhzg;gLfpd; wikahy; ,f;ifj;njhopypy; ,lmikT
rhjfkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
mur cjtp - gpupj;jhdpah> If;fpa mnkupf;fh> [g;ghd;>
,e;jpah Mfpa ehLfspy; tpkhdk; fl;Lk; ifj;njhopy;
,lk; ngw mur nfhs; ifAk; fhuzkhf mikfpd;wJ.
tpNrlkhf ehl;bd; ghJfhg; gpw;F nry;thf;F nrYj;Jk;
ifj; njhopy; vd;w mbg;gilapy; mur MjuT ,J
njhlu;ghf gpujhd nry;thf;F nrYj;Jfpd;wJ
khdplg; Gtpapay; -108- mf; \ad;
24) thDhHjpf; ifj;njhopypd; mz;ikf;fhyg; Nghf;Ffs;:-
tpkhdj; ij cw; gj; jp nra; tjw; Fhpa nryT
mjpfhpj;J nry;fpd;wik. (mYkpdpak;> ill;Nldpak;
tpiy caHT)
etP d njhopy; El;gj;jpd; %yk; NtfKk; trjpAk;
nfhz;l tpkhdq;fspd; cw;gj;jp.
Nghf;Ftuj;Jj; Jiwf;fhf nghpa tpkhdq;fs;
(thd; NgUe;J) cw;gj; jp nra;ag;gLfpd; wik.
jhpg; G ,d; wp mjpf Jhuk; gpuahzQ; nra; af; $ba
tpkhdq;fis cw;gj; jp nra; jy;.
,uhZtj;Jiw rhHe;j tpkhdq;fspd; cw;gj;jp
mjpfhpg;G. (fpgPH> kpf;)
tpkhdq;fspy; etPd ,yj;jpuzpay; fUtpfs;
kw;Wk; GPS ghtiz mjpfhpg;G.
tpz; ntspf; fyq; fis cw; gj; jp nra;jy; gpurpj; jp
ngw;Ws;sik.
,yj; jp udp ay; ifj; njhop y; (Electronic
Industry)
25) ,yj; jpuzpay; njhopy; mwpKfk; :-
kf; fs; tho; f; ifapy; xt; nthUehSk; eilngWk;
nraw; ghLfspid ,yFthf; Ftjpy; jfty; njhlu; ghly;
njhlu; ghf gy; NtW cgfuzq; fs; cw; gj; jp nra; ag; gLjy;
,yj;jpuzpay; ifj;njhopy; (Electronic Industry)MFk;.
cau; njhopDl;g ifj;njhopYf;Fk; (High Tech
Industries) ,yj; jpudpay; ifj;njhopYf; Fk; (Electronic
Industry) ,ilapy; ghupa NtWghL ,y;iy. ,Ug;gpDk;
rpwpa NtWghL fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. cau; njhopDl;g
ifj; njhop yp d; xU gp u p Nt ,yj; jp udp ay;
ifj; njhopyhFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -109- mf; \ad;
etPd njhopDl; g Muha; r; rpapd; cjtpAld; kdpj
,dj; jpd; tpUj;jpf; Nfh my;yJ moptpw;Nfh VJthd
njhopDl; g cgfuzq;fis epu;khdpj; jy; mjpcau;
njhopDl;gf; ifj;njhopy; (High Tech Industries) vd
If; fp a mnkup f; fhtp d; njhop yhsu; fhup ahyak;
tiutpyf;fzg; gLj;Jfpd;wJ.
,t; tiutp yf; fzg; gb njsp thtJ ,yj; jp udp ay;
ifj; njhop y; rw; W mg; ghy; nrd; W kdp jDila
xt;nthUehSk; Ntiyfis ,yFthf;Ftjw;fhfTk;
njhlu; ghly; fSf; fhfTk; cgfuz cw; gj; jp
eltbf;ifapy; <LglyhFk;.
Muk;g fhyq; fspy; gad;gLj; jpa rpwpa miwf; Fk;
,ae; jpuk; > njhiyf; fhl; rp > thndhyp g; ngl; b> kp d;
cgfuzq; fs; > kp d; tp rp wp Mfp aitAk;
njhlu;ghlYf; fhfg; gad;gLk; njhiyNgrp> nry;ypl
njhiyNgrp> fzpdp mJ njhlu;ghd cgfuzq; fSk;
,yj; jpudpay; gad;gLk; cgfuzq;fshFk;.
[g; ghd; > ngupa gpupj; jhdpah> If; fpa mnkupf; fh> N[u; kdp>
gpuhd;]; > njd; nfhupah Mfpa ehLfs; ,yj;jpudpaypy;
<LgLk; gp ujhd ehLfshFk; . ,jpy; njd; fp of; F
Mrpahtpy; NIC ehLfs; Kd;dzp ehLfshFk;.
,f;ifj;njhopy; gue;Js;s tpjj;jpw;Nfw;g ,uz;lhfg;
gphpf;ffg;gLfpd;wJ. cgfuzq; fis cw;gj;jp nra;Ak;
ifj; njhopy; > caH njhopEl;gf; ifj;njhopy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -110- mf; \ad;
26) ,yj; jpuzpay; ifj;njhopy; cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fs;:-
,yj; jpuzpay; cgfuzq;fs; - fzdpAk; fddpf;fhd
cgfuzq;fSk;.
njhlHghly; fUtpfs; - thndhyp> njhiyf;fhl;rp>
njhiyNgrp> GPS, Sattalite
Aj;j cgfuzq;fs; - VTfiz> whlH
itj; jpa cgfuzq;fs; - re;jpu rpfpr;ir ,ae;jpuk;>
];Nfd; ,ae; jpuk;> vf;];Nu ,ae;jpuq;fs;> Laser tools
EfHTg; nghUl;fs; - kpd;dOj;jp> kpd;mLg; Gfs;
27) ,yj; jpuzpay; ifj;njhopypy; <LgLk; ehLfs; :-
G 8 ehLfs; - I.mnkhpf;fh> I. uhl;rpak;> N[Hkdp>
gpuhd;];> ,j;jhyp> fdlh> ag;ghd;> u];ah
NIC ehLfs; - ,e;jpah> rP dh> rpq; fg;G+H> kNyrpah>
,e;Njhdrpah> gpypg;igd;];> nfhq;nfhq; > jha;thd;>
njd; nfhhpah> gpNwrpy;> Mn[d; jPdh
NtW ehLfs; - fq;Nfhp> Rtpw;ryhe;J> ,]; Nuy;
28) ,yj; jpuzpay; ifj; njhopYf;F rhjfkhd
fhuzpfs;:-
%yjdk; - ,f; ifj; njhop yp d; Muk; gfhyq; fsp y;
%yjdj; ij ,Lfpd; w rf; jpAila ehLfs; Ma; T
eltbf; iffsp y; <Lglf; $ba ehLfs; cw; gj; jp
nra; af; $bajhf ,Uf; fp d; wJ. tp Nrlkhf ,q; F
Nkw; fj;jpa ehLfshd If; fpa mnkupf;fh> gpupj;jhdpah>
INuhg; gp a ehLfs; Kd; dzp ap y; ep w; fp d; wd.
mz; ikf; fhyj; jpy; njhopDl; gk; Nkw; F ehLfspy; ,Ue; J
Mrp ah> yj; jP d; mnkupf; fh ehLfSf; Fr; nrd; W
tpUj; jpaile;j gpd;du; ,yj;jpudpay; ifj;njhopy;
me;ehLfspy; gy;NtW mstpy; ];jhgpf; fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -111- mf; \ad;
,jpy; kNyrpahtpy; > njd;nfhupah> [g;ghd; > gpNurpy;>
,e;jpah> rPdh Mfpa ehLfs; Kd;dzpapy; epw;fpd;wd.
ngUk;ghYk; ,e;ehLfSf; F ,ilapy; rpy ehLfs;
,f;ifj;njhopiy mikg;gjw;Fk; Kd;Ndw;Wtjw;Fk;
Muk; g fhyq; fs; tpUj; jpaile; j ehLfspdhy; Kjypl;l
%yjdk; VJthf mike;jJ.
Muha;r;rp eltbf;iffs; - ,yj;jpuzpay; ifj;njhopy;
njhopEl; g khw; wq; fis cs; thq; fpf; nfhz; L tsUfpd; w
njhopyhFk; . ,jdhy; Gjpa Gjpa Muha; r; rp fis
Nkw; nfhs; fp d; w ehLfNs cw; gj; jp ap y; Kd; dzp
tfp f; fKbAk; . ,jdhy; mjp fstp y; Muha; r; rp
eltbf;iffs; ,j; njhopypd; tpUj;jpf;F rhjfkhf
mikfpd;wJ. ,j; Jiw njhlu;ghf njhlu;r; rpahf Ma;T
nra; tjw; F ghupasT %yjdj; ijnrytplf; $ba jd; ik
Fwpg;gpl; l ifj; njhopy; ehLfspy; fhzg; gLtJld;
njhopEl;g NjHr;rpAk; tsHr;rpaile;Js;sJ. mjpfkhd
njhop w; rhiyfs; gy; fiyf; fofq; fs; > Muha; r; rp
epWtdq;fSf; F mz;ikapy; mikag; ngw;Ws; sik.
%yg; nghUs; trjp - ,yj; jp uzp ay; njhop yp y;
gad; gLj; jg; gLk; %yg; nghUl; fshf nrg; G> ,Uk; G
Nghd;wdTk; gpsh];jpf> fz;zhb Nghd;wdTkhFk;.
mnkhpf; fh> gpuhd; ]; Nghd; w ehLfspy; ,tw; iw
cs; ehl; bNyNah my; yJ NtW ehLfsp yp Ue; J
,wf; Fkjp nra;J nfhs;sNth Kbfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -112- mf; \ad;
njhop El; gj; NjHrrp Aila njhop yhsHfs; -
,yj; jpuzpay; njhopiyg; nghWj; jtiuap y; mJ
caHnjhop y; El; gk; gad; gLj; jg; gLtjdh y;
njhop yhsHfSk; njhop El; g mwp Tilathfshf
,Uf; fNMtz; Lk; . ,f; ifj; njhopypyy; <LgLfpd; w
ehLfspy; njhopElg; mwpTila njhopyhsHfis
mjp fstp y; ngw; Wf; nfhs; s Kbfp d; wuikahdJ
rhjfkhfTs;sJ. ,q; F ghlrhiyfspy; kf;fpakhd
xU fw; ifahf njhopEl; g ghlq; fs; Nghjpf; fg; gLfpd; wd.
epf; ehLfspy; Muk;g fhyq;fspy; ifj;njhopy; Jiwapy;
Kd; Ndwp a ehLfs; jkJ ifj; njhopw; rhiyfis
mikj; jpUe; jikap dhy; ,q; fs; s njhopyhshfs;
njhopw;gapw;rp ngw;wpUe; jdH.
re; ij tha; g; G ,yj; jp uzp ay; nghUl; fsp d;
ghtidahdJ ,d; W mj; jpahtrpakhd xU Njithahf
cs; sJ. Nghf; Ftuj; J Jiw> thj; jfj; Jiw>
njhlhghly; Jiw Kjyp atw; wpy; ,yj; jp uzp ay;
nghUl;fs; Kf;fpa gq; fhw;wp tUfpd;wd. njhlHghly;
Jiwapd; tpuj;jpf; F Kf; fpa gq;fhw; WtJ ,yj; jpuzpay;
nghUl; fshFk; . nra; kjp fs; > njhiyNgrp fs; >
njhiyfhl;rpfs;> fzdpfs;> thndhypfs;> nkhlk;>
ngf; ];nkrpd; > [pgpv]; vd gy;NtW nghUl;fs; ,q;F
gad; gLfpd;wd. mj;jpahtrpa rhjdq;fspy; xd;whf
,yj; jpuzpay; nghUl;fs; ,t;thW tpsq;Ftjdhy;
cs; ehl; bYk; ntspehl; bYk; re; ijtrjpapidf; nfhz; l
xU ehlhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -113- mf; \ad;
ghJfhg; ghd Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp - ,yj; jpuzpay;
nghUl; fsp d; nfhz; L nry; yyp y; ghJfhg; ghd
Nghf; Ftuj; J kf; fp akhdJ. ngUkstp yhd
,yjjpuzpay; nghUl; fs; cilaf; $ba jd;ikiaAk; >
mjphTfspdhy; my; yJ fP No tpOe; jhy; nraw; gl
KbahjthWk; ghjpf; fg;gLfpd; wd. ,jdhy; ghJfhg;ghd
Kiwapy; nw[pnghk; Nghd;w nghUl;fshy; Rw;wg; gl;L
fg;gy;fspy; my;yJ cs;ehl;by; thd;fspy; vLj;jr;
nry; yg;gLfpd;wd.
29) ,yj; jpudpay; njhopypd; mz;ikf;fhyg; Nghf;Ffs;:-
xNu nghUsp y; gy; gad; ghL nfhz; l
nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jp mjpfhpj;Jf; fhzg;gLfpd; wik.
cjhuzkhf ifj; njhiyNgrpapy; xyp> xspg; gjpT kw; Wk;
thndhyp > njhiyf; fhl; rp Nghd; w trjp fs;
fhzg;gLfpd;wik.
rP dh Nghd;w ehLfspy; cw; gj; jp nra;ag;gLfpd;w
nghUl;fs; twpa ehLfis ikakhff; nfhz;Lk;>
re; ijtha; g; ig ifg; gw; Wk; Nehf; FlDk; kypthd
tpiyapy; tpw; fg;gLfpd;wik.
Gjpa njhopy;El;gq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wik.
cjhuzkhf rpy njhiyNgrp> fzdp vd;gtw;wpypUe;J
jfty;fis ,yFthf ghpkhw;wk; nra;tjw; F Infarared,
Bluetooth Nghd;w trjpfs; fhzg;gLfpd; wik.
rpy EZf;fkhd NtiyfSf;F NuhNghf;fspd;
cjtp ngwg; gLfpd; wik.
ftHr; rp fukhdJk; mstp y; rp wp aJkhd
nghUl; fs; cw;gj;jp mjpfhpj; J tUfpd; wJ. cjhuzkhf
Pocket PC, Palmtop Computer, Plat Model Monitor & TV,
Thouch Screen Equipments.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -114- mf; \ad;
ngw;Nwhypa ,urhad ifj;njhopy; (Petro
Chemicals Industry)
30) ngw; Nwhypa ,urhaz ifj;njhopy; mwpKfk;:-
fdpa tsk; Rj; jpfupg; gpd; NghJ ntspahFk;
fopTfisg; gad;gLj;jp gy; NtW tifahd ,urhad
nghUl; fs; cw; gj; jpahfpd; wJ. ,J ngw; Nwhypa ,urhad
nghUl;fs; vd;gJld; cw;gj;jp nra;jy; ngw;Nwhypa
,urhadf; ifj; njhopy; vd tiuypyf;fzg;gLj; jyhk;.
31) ngw; Nwhyp a ,urhaz ifj; njhop y; cw; gj; jp g;
nghUl;fs;:-
jhu;
ieNyhd; tif
g+r; Rfs; (epwg;g+r;R)
fpUkpehrpdp
gpshj; jpf;F
xl;Lfpd;w rpwpa gir
g+r; rp nfhy;yp
Bry; vz;nza;
gugpd; nkOF
32) ngw;Nwhypa ,urhaz ifj;njhopypy; <LgLk; ehLfs; :-
ngw; Nwhypa ,urhad ifj; njhopy; eilngWtJ
If; fpa mnkupf; fh> Nkw; fj; jpa ehLfspd; Clhf
,Ug; gpDk; jw;NghJ kj;jpa fpof;F ehLfspYk; Mrpa
ehLfspYk; cw; gj; jp ifj;njhopy; ,J njhlu;ghf
mikf;fg;gl; Ls;sJ. epytp tUk; fLk; Njitapdhy;
cyfk; KOJk; ngw;Nwhypa ,urhad ifj;njhopy;
tphptilfpd;w ifj;njhopyhf khwpaJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -115- mf; \ad;
33) ngw; Nwhypa ,urhaz tiffSk; mtw;wpd; gad;ghLk; :-
nw;nwhypa ,urhaz tiffis Muk;g ,urhaz
tiffs; > ,uz; lhk; ju ,urhztiffs; > ,Wjp
,urhaz tiffs; vd gphpf;fyhk;.
Muk;g ngw;Nwhypa ,urhad tif vj; jypd; (Ethylene),
gpNuhg; gypd; (Propylene), nglbd; (Butadine) vd NkYk;
%d;whf tifg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.
vdyp d; > GNuhgyp d; ifj; njhop y; ,urhad
cw;gj;jpfSf;F gad;gLfpd;wJ.
gpshj;jpf; F cw;gj;jpfSk; nraw;if ,wg;gu; cw;gj;jp
nra; tjw;Fk; nglbd; gad;gLj;jg; gLfpd;wJ.
ngd;rpd; (BUNZENE) il tif cw;gj;jpf;Fk; fpUkp
ehrpdpfspd; cw; gj; jpf; Fk; nlhyrpd; gpshj; jpf; Fk;
nraw;ifahd ieNyhd; cw;gj;jpf;Fk; gad;gLk;.
rp e; ji]]; thAit gad; gLj; jp a+ up ah cu
cw;gj; jpf;Fk; gy;NtW ,urhad tiffs; fOTtjw;Fk;
gad;gLfpd;wJ.
34) ngw; Nwhypa ,urhaz ifj; njhopypd; tpUj; jp f; F
rhjfkhd fhuzpfs;:-
%yg; nghUs; - ,f;ifj;njhopy; %yg;nghUis
ikakhff; nfhz;Nl mikag; ngw;Ws; sJ. ,jdhy;
ngw; Nwh yp a Rj; jp fu p g; gp y; <Lgl; Ls; s
midj;JehLfspYk; ngw;Nwhy; ,urhad ifj;njhopy;
,lmikTg; ngw;Ws;sJ.
njhop El; gmwp Tk; njhop yhsUk; - mjp f
njhopyhsu; mtrpakhd ,j; Jiwapy; njhopDl; g
trjpAk; ghupasT Njitg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -116- mf; \ad;
%yjdk; - ,f;ifj; njhopYf;F ghupastpyhd %yjdg;
gad; ghL mtrpak;. fl;blq;fs;> ntt;NtW tifahd
Ma;Tf; F. gy;NtWtifahd %yg;nghUl;fspy; ,Ue;J
%yf; $Wfisg; gpupj; J vLg; gjw; fhf EZf; fkhd
(rpf; fyhd) ,ae; jpuq; fs; vd; gdtw; wpw;F ghupasT
%yjdk; mtrpakhfpwJ. ,jid Kjyplf; $ba ehLfs;
ifj;njhopiy ghupastpy; tpupTgLj;jp mgptpUj;jp
nra; Js;sJ
nghUj; jkhd ep yk; - ngw; Nwhyp a ,urhad
ifj; njhopypy; ,lmiktpid Vw; gLj; Jtjw; fhf epyKk;
xU fhuzkhf mikfpwJ. Rw; whlypy; gpur; rpid
Vw;gLtjhy; ,f;ifj;njhopy; efug; gFjpapy; ,Ue;J
tpyfp mikf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
ghw; gz; izf; ifj; njhop y; ( Dairy
Production)
35) ghw;gz;izf; ifj;njhopy; mwpKfk;:-
gRtpdJk; vUikfspdJk; ngw; Wf; nfhs;sg;gLk;
ghypy; nra;ag;gLk; cw;gj;jpfs; ghYld; njhlu; Gila
cw;gj; jp vd tiutpyf; fzg;gLj;jyhk;. ,e;j cw;gj; jpg;
nghUl; fs; rf; jpia cw; gj; jp nra; Ak; czTtifahFk; .
gytp jkhd czTg; nghUl; fis cw; gj; jp
nra;Ak; ,lq;fs; ghy; cw; gj; jpap;d; kj; jpa];jkhf
tpsq;Ffpd; wJ. ghw;nghUs; cw;gj; jpapy; ngupa mstpy;
cw;gj;jp gRtpypUe;Jk; mLj;J
vUikg; ghypypUe; J mij tplf; Fiwthf
Vida tp yq; Ffsp y; ,Ue; Jk;
ngw; Wf;nfhs; sg;gLfpd;wJ. (ML> xl;lfk;> Fjpiu)
khdplg; Gtpapay; -117- mf; \ad;
36) ghw; nghUs; cw;gj;jpfs;:-
ghy;kh
ntz;nza;
rpWtu; ghy;kh
ghyhilf;fl;b
Mtpahf;fg;gl;l ghy;
nea;
japu;
Nahfl;
37) ghw; nghUs; cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; ehLfs;:-
INuhg; gh nld; khHf; > nejHyhe; J> Rtpw; ryhe; J.
ngy;[pak; > NehHNt> RtPld;> gpuhd;];> ,j;jhyp> If;fpa
,uhl; rpak;
Mrpah u];ah> ,e;jpah> rPdh> frf];jhd;>
ghfp];jhd;> ,yq;if
mT]; Nuypah> epArpyhe;J> fdlh> Mn[e;jPdh>
If;fpamnkhpf;fh> njd;dhgphpf;fh
38) ghw; gz;izj; njhopYf; F rhjfkhd fhuzpfs;:-
epyk; - rkntspAk; kdpj elkhl;lKk; mw;w
gpuNjrKk; Gw;fs; ed;F tsUk; gpuNjrKk; ,jw;F
mtrp akhFk; . ,jw; Nfw; g> tlf; F> njw; F>
miuf; Nfhsq; fspy; ,ilntg; g tyaq; fshd nld; khu; f; >
epa+rpyhe;J> neju;yhe;J> mT];jpNuypah> Mgpupf;fh
Mfp a ehLfSk; u]; ah> If; fp a mnkup f; fh
Mfpatw;wpYk; ghw;gz;iz njhopy; eilngWfpd;wJ.
,q; F ep yk; gap hr; nra; iff; F nghUj; jkw; wjhf
,Ug; gJld; fhyepiyAk; fhy;eilfs; tsHtjw;Fg;
nghUj;jkhf cs;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -118- mf; \ad;
njd; mnkupf;fh - yhNdh];> fk;g];> tl mnkupf;fh
- gpNuup];> njd; mnkupf;fh - nty; l;> mT];jpNuypah -
lTd;];> u];ah - ]; nug;gP ]; Mfpa gpuNjrq; fspd;
Gy;ntspfSk; fhyepiyAk; fhy;eilfspd; tsHr; rpf;F
Vw;wdthf cs;sd.
njhopyhsH trjp - ngupasT ghy; cw;gj;jpapy;
<LgLtjhy; ngupasT epyj;jpy; Ntiy nra;tjw;Fk;
Rfhjhu Kiwapy; Ntiy nra;tjw;Fk; ghupa Ml;fs;
njhif Njitg; gLtu; . ,t; thwhd trjp ia
Nkw; fhl; lg; gl; l ehLfsp y; ngw; Wf; nfhz; L
,f;ifj;njhopy; tsu;r; rpailfpd;wJ.
%yjdk; :- ghhp astp y; gz; izfis mikj; j
epHtfpg;gjw;F mjpfsT %yjdk; Njitg;gLfpd;wJ.
jdpahu; Jiw> mur Jiw ,uz;LNk ,k; %yjdj; ijg;
gad; gLj;jp ,f;ifj; njhopiy Nkw;nfhs;s KbfpwJ.
tpNrlkhf gy; Njrpa fk; ngdp ,j; Jiwapy; <Lgl; Ls; sij
mtjhdpf; f Kbfpd; wJ. cjhuzk; : ne]; Ny> nghd; Nuuh
(mq; fu;)
re;ij tha;g; G - ghy; nghUs; cw;gj;jp re;ij gpujhd
,lj; ij tfpf;fpd;wJ. juj;jpidg; NgZtjd; Clhf
nghUl;fis re;ijapy; tpw;gid nra;aKbfpd;wJ.
,jdhy; tpahghu ngaH mbg; gilapy; cw;gj; jpia
tpw; gid nra; af;$ba Nghf;if mtjhdpf;fyhk; . ,q;F
ghtidahsu; fsp d; Njitf; Nfw; g nghUl; fis
toq; Ftij mtjhdpf;fKbAk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -119- mf; \ad;
Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp - Nghf; Ftuj; J trjp
fhzg; gLfpd; wik ghw;nghUs; cw;gj; jpia jP u;khdpf; Fk;
fhu zp ah Fk; . fg; gw; Ngh f; Ftu j; J>
tpkhdg;Nghf; Ftuj;J> jiug;Nghf;Ftuj;J vd;gtw;iw
tpidj; jpwDld; gad;gLj; jp tpiuthf ghw; nghUs;
cw;gj;jpia re;ijf; F toq; f Kbfpd;wJ.
caHuf khLfs; - ghw; gz; izf; ifj; njhop yp y;
ePz; lfhy hPjpapy; cw;gj;jpia mjpfstpy; ngw;Wf;
nfhs; tjw; F rhjhuzkhd khLfis tpl caHuf
khLfs; gd; klq; F ghiy toq; FtdthfTk; >
ePzlfhyj; jpw; F gad; juf; $bajhfTk; fhzg; gLfpd; wd.
Fwpg;ghf nejHyhe;ij jhafkhff; nfhz;l gpwprpa];
khL ,dkhdJ 6000 7000 yP w; wH ghiyAk; >
gp hp j; jhdp ahitj; jhakhff; nfhz; l maHraH
,dkhdJ 5500- 6000 yP w; wH ghiyAk; fw;itf;fhyj; jpy;
toq; Ffp d; wJ. ,j; jifa caHuf khLfNs
ghw; gz; izj; njhop yp y; <LgLk; ehLfsp y;
gad;gLj; jg;gLfpd; wd.
njhop w; rhiyfs; fhzg; gly; - ghw; gz; izg;
nghUl; fisg; cw; gj; jp nra; tjw; F nghUj; jkhd ,ae; jpu
rhjdq; fs; kw; Wk; Fsp &l; ly; trjpfSld; $ba
njhopw;rhiyfs; fhzg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. ghw;gz; izj;
njhopypy; mjpf tUkhdj;ij <l;btUfpd;w fk;gdpfs;
jkJ njhopw; rhiyfis caHjuj;jpy; NgZfpd;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -120- mf; \ad;
39) Kjd;ik Nkhl; lhH thfd cw; gj; jp epWtdq;fs; (2008):-
40) Kjd; ik ifalf;f njhiyngrp epWtdq;fs; (2009):-
41) tpkhd cw;gj;jp ehLfSk; cw;gj;jp tiffSk;:-
Rank Company Country epWtdk;
1 Toyota Japan nlhNahl;lh
2 General Motors USA n[duy;Nkhl;lH];
3 Volkswagen group Germany nghf;];Ngfd;
4 Ford USA Nghl;
5 Honda Japan n`hz;lh
6 Nissan Japan eprhd;
7 PSA Peugeot Citroen France gpAnfhl;
8 Hyundai-Kia South Korea `{z;lha;
9 Suzuki Japan RRfp
10 Fiat Italy gpahl;
Rank Company Country epWtdk;
1 Nokia Pinland nehfpah
2 Sony Ericsson United Kingdom nrhdp vhpf;rd;
3 Samsung South Korea rk;Rq;
4 Apple USA mg;gps;
5 LG Electronics South Korea vy;[p vyf;Nuhzpf;];
6 Motorola USA nkhnlhNwhyh
7 Blackberry Canada gpsf;nghp
8 Sanyo Japan rd;Nah
9 Siemens Germany irkd;];
10 Audiovox USA XbNahnthf;];
ehL cw;gj;jpg; nghUs;
If;fpa mnkhpf;fh vt; 16> vt; 18
If;fpa ,uhl;rpak; nfhd;nfhl;> af;FthH
gpuhd;]; kpuh[; vahHt];
,e;jpah Rg;gnrhdpf; n[l;> kpf;> mt;Nwh> rhndw;> Gl;fhuh
,];Nuy; fpgPH
u];ah kpf;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -121- mf; \ad;

8.,yq;ifapd; ifj;njhopy;
1) mwpKfk;:-
tsq;fis gad;gLj;jp kdpjUila Njitia epiwT
nra; tjw; F kdp j jiyaP l; bdhy; Nkw; nfhs; sg; gLk;
ngh Ush jh u Kaw; rp ifj; njhop y; vd
tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jyhk;.
jiyefuq;fs; Muk;gkhdjpypUe; J ,yq;ifapy; rpw;rpy
ifj;njhopy;fs; fhzg;gl;ljhf Gtprupjtpaypd; ClhfTk;
tuyhw;W E}y; ClhfTk; njsptilfpwJ. tp[ad; fhyk;
Kjy; mjw;F gpw;gl; l fhyj; jpYk; 1960 tiuapYk; 1960
Kjy; 1970 ,ilapyhd fhyj;jpYk; 1970 Kjy; 1977 ,w;F
,ilapyhd fhyj; jpYk; 1977 gpw;gl;l fhyj;jpYk; ,yq;if
ifj; njhopy; gy fhyq;fspy; mgptpUj;jp nra;ag;gl;lJ.
Muk; g fhyj;jpy; tptrhaj;ij ikakhf nfhz;L
tpsq; fpa nghUshjhuk; ,d;W ifj;njhopy; Jiwf; F $ba
Kf;fpaj;jk; nfhLg;gij mtjhdpf;f KbAk;. jyh Njrpa
cw; gj;jpapy; ifj;njhopy; Jiwapd; njhopy; tha;g;gpk;
,yq;if ifj;njhopy; Jiw cau;e; Js;sJ. vq;fs; ehl; bd;
ifj; njhopy; gy gpupthf gpupf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
vkJ ehl; bd; ifj; njhopy; gpujhd 3 gpupTfis
nfhz;lJ. %yg;nghUs; mfo;T> cw;gj;jp> Nrit vd;gJ
xU tifahd ghFghlhFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -122- mf; \ad;
2) cw;gj;jpf; ifj;njhopy;fspd; gphpTfs;:-
NgusT ifj;njhopy; (rP dp> rPnke;J)
,ilepiy ifj;njhopy; (gpshj;jpf; F> gp]; fl;)
rpw; wsT ifj;njhopy; (ifg;gzpnghUs;> gj;jp)
3) ,yq; ifapd; gpujhd ifj;njhopy;fs;:-
ghuk;gupa ifg;gzp ifj;njhopy;
rPnke;J ifj;njhopy;
rPdp ifj;njhopy;
Mil ifj;njhopy;
,wg; gu;> gpshj;jpf; rhu; ifj;njhopy;
4) ifj; njhopiy Xuplg; gLj;Jk; fhuzpfs;:-
tpNrl fhuzpfs;
rkfhy NtWghLfs;
mur nfhs;if
%yg;nghUs;
ciog;G
%yjdk;
re; ij.
5) ghuhk;ghpa ifg;gzp ifj;njhopy;fs;:-
,yq; if nghUshjhuj; jp d; Muk; g fhyk; Kjy;
nry; thf;F nrYj;Jk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ghuk;gupa ghuk; gupa
ifg; gzp ifj;njhopy; njhlu; ghfthFk;. tPl; by; rpw;wsT
cw;gj; jp nra; ag; gLk; ifj; njhopy; Fbirf; ifj;njhopyhf
,dq; fhzg; gl; Ls; sJ. ifg;gzpg; nghUs; ifj; njhopy;
tsu; r;rp njhlu;ghf ftdk; nrYj;Jtjpy; fPo; fhl;lg; gl;l
fhuzpfs; Kf;fpak; tfpf;fpd;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -123- mf; \ad;
6) ghuhk; ghp a ifg; gzp ifj; njhop y; fsp d; ,lmikitj;
jPHkhdpf;Fk; fhuzpfs;:-
%yg; nghUs; > ciog; G> vd; gd ,f; ifj; njhop y;
,lmiktpid jPu;khdpf;fpd;wd.
ifj; njhopYf; F ciog; G mtrpakhdJ Nghd; Nw
%yg; nghUSk; mtrpakhFk;.
%yg;nghUs; miktplk; gapw;wg;gl; l njhopyhsiu
ngWjYk; ifj; njhopy; ,lmikTf;F Neubf;fhuzpahFk;.
ngupastpy; Njrpa %yg; nghUis ngw; Wf; nfhs; tJld;
rpytw;iw ,wf;Fkjp nra;tJKz;L.
,q; F ghuk; gup a El; gKiwfis guk; giuf; F
toq;Ftijf; fhzyhk;.
ghuk; gupa ifj; njhopypy; <LgLtjw; F etP d guk; giuf; F
tpUg;lgk; ,d;ikahy; ,J tPo;r;rpf; F cs;shFk;.
7) ghuhk;ghpa ifg;gzp ifj;njhopy;fspd; rpwg;Gf; fhuzpfs;:-
xt;nthU ifj;njhopYf;Fk; rpwg;ghd gpuNjrq;fis
Vw;gLj;jjy;>
cjhuzk; - Fz; lrhiy> fyhGu> Ntty;njdpa> fpuptTy>
mk;gyhq;nfhl> vk; gf;f
tUlhe;j fz; fhl; rp> tpUJfis toq; fy; > gapw;rp
newpfs; vd;gd Clhf Cf;Ftpg;Gfis ngw;Wf;nfhLj;jy;
vd;gd tsu;r;rpf;F VJthFk;.
tP l; by; Ntiy nra; Jnfhz; Nl ifj; njhop yp y;
<LgLtjhy; ngz;fSf;F mjpfk; gq;fspg;G nra;a KbAk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -124- mf; \ad;
8) ghuhk;ghpa ifg;gzp ifj;njhopy;fspd; rkfhy khw;wq;fs;;:-
Rw; whly; gpur; rpidj; jP u; thf rk; gpujha ifg; gzp
ifj; njhopiy Nkw;nfhs;syhk;.
,f;ifj;njhopy; #oYld; Nru;fpd;w fopTg;nghUl;fs;
mRj; jkhd thA vd;gd Fiwthf; Fk;.
nghUl; fis kP s; Row; rpf; F cs; shf; fy; > #oYld;
,ize; j nghUs; cw;gj;jp vd;gdt;wwhy; ,f;ifj;njhopy;
rkfhyj;jpy; $ba Kf; fpaj;jtk; tha;e;jJ.
Rw; Wyh ifj; njhop yp d; re; ij rkfhyj; jp y;
tsu;r;rpaile;Js;sJ.
9) ghuhk;ghpa ifg;gzp ifj;njhopy;fspd; murnfhs; if:-
fhzg; gLfpd; w midj; J muRk; ifj; njhopy; tsu; r; rpf; F
jd nfhs;ifis ntspapLfpd;wd. rpW ifj; njhopy;
jpizf;fsk;> yf;ry ifg;gzp ifj;njhopy;> nfkpjpupa
Njrpa myq;fhu (Nkh];ju;) kj;jpa epiyak; vd;gtw;iw
mikj;J xj;Jiog;ig toq;Fjy; Kf;fpakhFk;.
rKu; j;jp tq; fp> fpuhkpa tq; fp Mfpatw;wpd; Clhf
flid ngWjy;.
ghuk; gup a ifg; gzp nghUl; fs; tp Uj; jp aile; J
fhzg;gLfpd;w rkfhy Njitabg; gilapy; nghUSw;gj;jp
mtrpakhFk;. mJ Nghy ,yFthd nghUs; cw;gj;jp
mtrpakhdJ.
10) rPnke;J ifj;njhopy;:-
gp ujhd ifj; njhop yhf rP nke; J ifj; njhop y;
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
ifj; njhopy; ,lmikTf; fhuzp ,jpy; nry;thf;F
nrYj;jfpd;wJ. ,tw; Ws; Kf; fpa fhuzp> %yg;nghUshFk;.
nghUs; cw; gj; jp njhlu; ghf Muk; gj; jp y; vLg; gJ
%yg; nghUshFk;. %yg; nghUSs; tpuakhtJld; tpiuthf
gOjilaf; $baJkhFk; > vdNt mjidg; gad; gLj; j
%yg; nghUis mz; b mikf; fg; gl; Ls; sij mtjhdpf; f KbAk; .
khdplg; Gtpapay; -125- mf; \ad;
%yg; nghUspd; ngWkjp mjpfkhfTk; mjid Nghf;Ftuj;J
nra; tjw;Fk; mjpf nryT nra;tjhy; %yg;nghUs; mUfpy;
mikj; jy; mtrpakhFk; . ,jw; Nfw; g rP nke; J ifj; njhopy; ghupa
ifj;njhopyhf ,Ug;gJld; %yg; nghUis Kjd;ikahff;
nfhz;l ifj;njhopyhfTk; Kf; fpaj;Jk; ngWfpd;wJ.
11) rPnke;J ifj;njhopypd; ,lmikTf; fhuzpfs;:-
fhq; Nfrd;Jiw> fhyp> Gj;jsk; vd;gd ,yq;ifapy;
gpujhd ifj; njhopy; rhiyahFk;.
cs;ehl;L ,dg;gpur;rpidahy; fhq;Nfrd;Jiw
njhopw;rhiy jw;fhypakhf %lg;gl;Ls;sJ.
Gj;jsj;jpypUe;J aho;g;ghzk; tiu fhzg; gLk;
Rz;zhk;Gf;fy;iy gad;gLj;jp cw;gj; jpia
Nkw;nfhs;syhk;.
rPnke;Jf; ifj;njhopy; tpUj; jp njhlu;ghf
fhyj;Jf;Nfw; w njhopyhsu; gapw;rp nry;thf;F nrYj;jfpwJ.
12) rPnke;J ifj;njhopypd; tpNrl fhuzp:-
fhyp rPnke;J ifj;njhopy; gpujhdkhf Nghf;Ftuj;ij
ikakhf nfhz; Ls; sJ. fhypj; JiwKfk; ,jpy; nry; thf; F
nrYj;jpaJ.
,jp y; njd; khfhz re; ijAk; ifj; njhop Yf; F
VJthfpaJ.
rPnke;jpd; gytifia cw;gj;jpf;fhf gad; gLj;Jtjhy;
ghupasT re; ij cUthfpAs; sJ. cjhuzk; - tP l; L cgfuz
cw;gj;jp
,yq; if mgptpUj;jpapy; fl; bl mikg; gpw; fhf rPnke; jpd;
Njit ghupasT Vw; gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzk; - tPjp> JiwKfk;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -126- mf; \ad;
13) rPnke;J ifj;njhopypd; rkfhy NtWghL:-
rkfhy cw; gj; jp gy; yp dkhdit. cjhuzk; -
gy;NtWtifahd nghUSw;gj;jp.
#oy; khriljiy Fiwg;gjw;F ku cw; gj;jpf;fhf
rPnke;Jld; njhlu;Gila cw;gj;jpfis gad;gLj; jy;.
rPnke;J ,wf;Fkjp cau;e;J fhzg;gLtJ.
tpahghu ngaiu mbg; gilahf nfhz; L tpahghu
eltbf;if tsu;r;rpailjy;. cjhuzk; - Nfhy;rPk
ntt;NtW mstpy; rPnke; J tpw;gidf;F
ntt; NtWtif Njitf; Nfw; g rP nke; ij mwpKfg; gLj; jy;
cjhuzk; - rhe;J g+Rjy;> ily;]; vd;gd
14) rPnke;J ifj;njhopypd; murnfhs; if:-
1950 ,y; ,yq; if rP nke; J $l; Lj; jhgdk;
mikag;gl;Ls; sJld; 1955 ,y; mur mDruizAld;
$l; Lj; jhgdkhfTk; 1957 ,y; ifj; njhopy; $l; Lj; jhgdj; jpd;
fPo;nfhz; Ltug; gl;lJ. jw;NghJ ifj;njhopy; mikr;rpdhy;
elj;jg;gLfpd; wJ.
,yq; ifapd; midj;J mur rPnke;J ifj;njhopypd;
Kd;Ndw;wj;Jf;F nfhs;if jahupj;Js;sJ.
tpidj; jpwDld; gaDs; stifapy; rP nke; J ifj; njhopy;
NkYk; tpUj; jp nra; a Ntz;baJld; rP nke;J ,wf;Fkjpia
Fiwj;J Njrpa cw; gj;jpia cau;j;jy; gpujhdkhdJ.
,jw;fhf muR jiyaPl;L Njhitahd eltbf;if vLj;jy;
rkfhy NjitahFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -127- mf; \ad;
15) rPdpf; ifj;njhopy;:-
,yq; if kf; fsp d; kp f mtrp a czthf rP dp
mwpag;gLk;. ,jw;fhf tUlhe;j rPdp ghupastpy; cztpy;
Nru;f;fg;gLfpwJ.
rPdpf;ifj;njhopy; ,lmikT ngw;Ws;sJ> cw;gj;jpf;F
mtrpakhd fUk;G ,lmikT ngw;Ws;s ,lj;jpyhFk;.
,q; F gp ujhd %yg; nghUshdJ fUk; ghFk; .
,yq; ifapd; rpdpapd; Nfs;tpapy; Fiwe;j tPjNk cw;gj;jp
nra; ag;gLfpd;wJ. ngupasT tPjk; ,wf;Fkjp nra;ag;gLk;.
rPdp ifj; njhopy; ,lmikTf;F epyKk; %yg; nghUSk;
gpujhd nry; thf; F nrYj; JtJld; fP o; fhl; lg; gl; l fhuzpfs;
,J njhlu;ghf Kf;fpakhdit.
16) rPdpf; ifj; njhopypd;; ,lmikTf; fhuzpfs;:-
fUk;ig Nghf; Ftuj;J nra;tij tpl rPdpia cw;gj;jp
nra; tJ yhgfukhdJ. %yg; nghUs; rhu;e; j ,lj; jpy;
ifj; njhopy; ,lmikT ngWtJ yhgfukhdJ. ,jd;gb
rP dp ifj; njhopy; %yg;nghUSk; fUk;Gk; xNu khjpup
Kf; fpakhdit.
ciog; G cw; gj; jp ,lj; jp w; F mUfp NyNa
ngw; Wf;nfhs; tJ NkYk; yhgfukhdJ.
,yq; ifapd; rpdp cw; gj;jp ifj;njhopy; mUfpy; mJ
njhlu; ghd kf; fis Fbaku;j;j rpy ifj;njhopy; %lg; gLk;
NghJ gy;NtW gpur;rpidfs; Njhd;Wfpd;wd.
ifj; njhopYf; F mUfpYs; s fhLfs; cw; gj; jpaplq; fshf
njupT nra; ag; gLtjhy; kpUfq; fs;; thoplkpd; wp gpur;rpidfs;
Njhd; wp As; sd. ,jdhy; kdp j> ahid gp ur; rp id
cf;fpukile;Js;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -128- mf; \ad;
17) rPdpf; ifj; njhopypd; tpNrl fhuzpfs;:-
rPdp cw;gj;jpapy; ,ilf; ifj;njhopy;fshf gy;NtW
ifj;njhopy; fs; cUthfpAs; sd. (kJghdk; > thrid>
nghUs;)
rPdpia ikakhff; nfhz; L gy; NtW cw;gj;jpfs;
cUthfpAs;sd. (,dpg;Gfs;)
ifj; njhopypd; tsu;r; rpaile; jTld; rP dp njhlu;ghd
Nfs;tp mjpfupj;jik
Rw; Wyh
18) rPdpf; ifj;njhopypd; rkfhy khw;wq;fs;:-
fe;jsha;> pq;Fuhd Mfpa gpuNjrq;fspy; Muk;gj; jpy;
rPdp ifj;njhopw;rhiy Muk;gpf;fg;gl; lJ. gpd; ngy;tj;ij>
nrtfy gpuNjrq;fspYk; Muk;gkhdJ.
Muk; g fhyq;fspy; ,yq;if rP dp $l;Lj;jhgdj; jpd;
fPOk; gpd; jdpahu; Jiwapd; fPOk; rPdp njhopw; rhiy
Muk;gpf;fg; gl;lJ.
cw;gj;jp epyj;jpd; mUfpy; Copau;fs; ciog;G> r%f
nghUshjhu gpur; rpidfs; tsu; r; rpaile; Js; sJld; ,tw; iw
jPu; j;J cw; gj;jpia tpUj;jp nra;jy; mtrpak;.
neUf;fb epiyik fhuzkhf ifj;njhopy;rhiyfs;
gy cw;gj;jp epWj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
rPdp ,wf;Fkjp mjpfupj;jik rkfhyj;jpy; fhzyhk;
.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -129- mf; \ad;
19) rPdpf; ifj;njhopypd; murnfhs; if:-
1957 ,y; ,yq;if rPdp $l;Lj; jhgdk; mikf;fg; gl;l
fe;jsha;> `pq;Fuhd Mfpa njhopw;rhiyfs; mjd; fPo;
nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ.
1977 ,d; gp d; jdp ahu; Jiwap y; ifj; njhop y;
Muk;gpg;gjw;F mDkjp toq;fg;gl;lJ.
fUk; G cw;gj;jpahsu;fis ghjfhf;f muR jiyapl;L
,wf; Fkjp nra;ag;gLk; rPdp njhlu;ghf tup mwtpLfpd;wJ.
,J rP dp tpiyNaw;wj;Jf;F VJthfpaJ.
ifj;njhopy; rhu;e;j tptrhapfSf;F khdpak; ngw
cl; fl; likg; G trjp fis tp Uj; jp nra; tjw; F mur
nfhs;ifahf nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.
20) Milf; ifj;njhopy;:-
,yq; if ifj; njhopy; Jiwapy; eilKiwapy; Kd; dzp
tfpg;gJ Milf; ifj;njhopyhFk;. ,f;ifj;njhopYf;F
vkJ ehl;by; ePz;l tuyhW fhzg;gLtNjhL Rje;jpuj;jpd;
gpd; fhyk; kpf Kf;fpakhdJ. jpw; ej nghUshjhu nfhs;if
mwpKfg;gLj;jg;l; l gpd; Mil njhlu;ghf ,yq;if gpujhd
ehlhfpaJ. vt;thwhapDk; ,q; F ,lmiktpid epyk;>
ciog;G> %yg; nghUs;> KjyPl;Lr; re;ij vd;gtw; Wld;
,d;Dk; gy fhuzpfs; VJthFk;. ,tw;wpy; rpy fhuzpfs;
kl;Lk; ,yq;ifapy; cs;sd.
vkJ ehl;by; ciog;G gpujhd fhuzpahFk; . gy;NtW
ngau;fspy; mwpag; gl; Ls; s njhopw; rhiyfspd; kj; jpa
epiyak; ,yq;if KOJk; gutpf; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -130- mf; \ad;
21) Milf; ifj;njhopypd; ,lmikTf; fhuzpfs;:-
ciog; ig Kjd; ikahf nfhz; L ,yq; ifapy; Milf;
ifj;njhopy; ,lmikT ngw; Ws;sJ yhgfukhdJk; gapw; rp
ngw; wJkhd ciog;G mtrpakhFk;. Vida ehLfSf;F
,izahf yhgfukhd gapw; rp ngw;w ciog; G vkJ ehl; by;
cs;sJ.
re;ij> Nghf;Ftuj;J trjp> epyk; Mfpa fhuzpfis
gad; gLj;jp ifj;njhopy; Xuplg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
KjyP l;lhsu; fSf;F Njitahd cl;fl; likg;G trjp
epyk; vd;gd mUfpNyNa ngw;Wj;jug;gl;Ls;sJ.
,wf; Fkjpia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L mijr; #o;e;j
trjpahd gpuNjrq;fs; ghupasT gue;Js;sJ.
22) Milf; ifj;njhopypd; tpNrl fhuzpfs;;:-
,yq;if Mil njhlu; ghf ghupa Nfs; tp epyTfpd;wik
juu P jp ahf cau; cw; gj; jp ah f cyfk;
Vw; Wf;nfhz; Ls; sikahy; ,q; F ghhpa Njit epyTfpd; wJ.
fhyj; Jf; Nfw; w rpwe; j gapw; wg; gl; l njhopyhsu; cs; sjhy;
cw;gj;jp juk; cau; tile;Js;sJ.
ntsp ehLfSlDk; mikg; GfSlDk; tp ahghu
xg;ge;jq;fis Vw;gLj;jpf;nfhz;Ls;sik;: rg; lh> [Pv];gp
23) Milf; ifj;njhopypd; rkfhy khw;wq;fs;:-
,yq; ifap d; Milf; ifj; njhop yp y; rkfhy
fz;fhzpg;ig nrYj;jp trjpfis toq;fp ifj;njhopiy
tsu;r;rpailar; nra;Js;sJ.
1962 Milf;ifj;njhopypy; FbapUg;ig mikj; jik.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -131- mf; \ad;
1978 - Rje; jpu tu;j;jf tyak; mikj;jik
1992 - 200 Milf;ifj;njhopy; Ntiyj;jpl;lk;
1995 - ifj;njhopy; g+q;fh Muk;gk;
1996 - ifj;njhopy; efuk; Muk;gk;
2006 - fpuhkj;Jf;F ifj;njhopy; Ntiyj;jpl;lk;
ifj; njhopy; gd;Kfg;gLj;jy; Nkw;fhl;lg;gl;l rkfhy
khw; wq;fis Nehf;fkhf nfhz;lJ.
fhyj; Jld; > ciog; gpDs; fhzg; gl; l Kf; fpakhd khw; wk;
re;ijAld; Nghf;Ftuj;J Mfpa fhuzpfs; ,lmiktpw;F
VJthfpaJ.
Mil Vw;Wkjp njhlu; ghf tpahghu xg;ge;jk; gpurpj;jp
ngw;wJ. Mil Nfhl;lhtpid ngw;Wj;juy; ,q; F Kjd;ik
tha;e;jJ.
tpahghu fz;fhl;rpia Vw;gLj;jp kw;nwhU re; ijia
NjLjiyf; fhz KbAk; . ,d; Dk; gy cw; gj; jp fs;
cUthfy; rkfhyj; jpy; Vw;gLk; khw; wkhFk;. (gy; NtW tif
Milfs;)
24) Milf; ifj;njhopypd; murnfhs; if:-
Rje; jpuj;jpd; gpd; Vw;lgl;l muR ,yq; ifapd; Milf;
ifj; njhopy; tsu;r;rpf;F gy;NtW nraw; ghLfis nfhz;L
te;Js;sJ.
nfhOk;G ngUk;Nghf nghUshjhu Mizf;FO 1978
Mk; Mz;L mikf;fg;gl;L fl;lehaf> gpahfk vd;gd
Vw;Wkjp tyakhf mikf;fg;gl;lJ.
1992 ,y; nfhOk; G ngUk; Nghf nghUshjhu
Mizf;FOit gutyhf;f ,yq; if KjyPl;lhsu; rigia
mikj; jy;.
1994 ,d; gpd; Vw; gl; l muR gy; NtW ngau; fspy;
ifj; njhop iyg; gutyhf; fp Milf; ifj; njhop iy
tYt+l;baJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -132- mf; \ad;
25) ,wg; gH> gpshj;jpf;F rhH ifj;njhopy;:-
,wg; gu;> gpshj;jpf; rhu;e;j ifj; njhopy; ,q;F ftdk;
nrYj;jYldhd eilKiwia ,J gue;jstpy; guk; gpf;
fhzg;gLk; ifj;njhopyhf fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
,wg; gu; cw; gj;jpapy;xU re;ju;g; gj;jpy; %yg;nghUis
cw;gj;jp nra;Ak; mNj Ntis kw;nwhU re;jug;gj; jpy;
KbT nghUs; cw;gj;jp ,lk; ngWfpd;wJ.
26) ,wg; gH> gpshj; jpf; F rhH ifj; njhopypd; ,lmikTf; fhuzpfs;:-
%yg; nghUshf ,wg; giu cw; gj; jp nra; Ak; ifj; njhopy;
,wg; gu; gapupLk; epyj;jpd; mUfpYk; KbTg;nghUs; cw;gj; jp
nra; Ak; ifj;njhopw;rhiy ifj;njhopy; gpuNjrq;fSf;F
mUfpYk; mike;Js;sJ.
%yg; nghUs; cw; gj; jp nra; Ak; gp uNjrq; fsp y;
ifj; njhopw; rhiy gue; J fhzg; gLfpd; wJ. mjw; Nfw; g
Nffhiy> ,uj; jp dGup> fSj; Jiw Mfp a ,lq; fsp y;
fhzyhk;.
KbTg; ngh Ush f cw; gj; jp nra; ag; gLk;
ifj; njhopw; rhiyfs; fsdpg; gpuNjrj;jpy;> lau;> ba+g;>
ghjzp> fhy; kpjpab vd;gd cw;gj;jp nra;ag;gLfpd;wd.
%yg; nghUshf cw; gj; jp nra; ag; gLtjpy; epyk; > ciog; G>
fhyep iy Nghd; w fhuzp fs; gp urp j; jkhdit.
KbTg; nghUshf cw; gj;jp nra; tjpy; ciog; G> re;ij Mfpa
fhuzpfs; Kf;fpakhdit.
,wg; gUld; ,ize;J nry;Yk; ifj;njhopy; gpshj; jpf;
ifj;njhopy; > fdpa vz; nza;apd; cg njhopyhf gpshj;jpf;
cw;gj;jp ,lk; ngWfpd;wJ. ,q;F fduf ifj;njhopyhf
,jid vLf; f KbtJld; ,jpy; nghUSw;gj; jp cg;G
ifj; njhopyhf nfhs;syhk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -133- mf; \ad;
ifj; njhopy; tyak; my;yJ ifj;njhopy; efuj; Jf;F
mUfpy; rpW mstpy; tPl;Lg; ghtid gpshj;jpf;F nghUs;
ifj; njhopy; gue;Js;sJ.
re;ij> Nghf;Ftuj;J ciog;G Mfpad gpshj;jpf;F
ifj; njhopy; ,lmiktpw;F nry; thf;F nrYj;Jfpd;wJ.
27) ,wg; gH> gpshj;jpf;F rhH ifj;njhopypd; tpNrl fhuzpfs;:-
gy; NtW cw; gj; jp cUthfy; > cau; e; j cw; gj; jp
cUthfpd;wikahy; Njitfs; mjpfkhjy;.
trjp ahd cilahjjhifahy; tP l; Lg; ghtidf; F
ngUe;Njit epyTfpd;wJ.
Nghf;Ftuj;J trjp
28) ,wg; gH> gpshj;jpf;F rhH ifj; njhopypd; rkfhy NtWghLfs;:-
kug; nghUs; cw; gj; jp tpuakhdJk; mjpf nryTk;
Mifahy; Njitfs; mjpfupg; gpw; F Vw; g gpshj; jpf; F
ifj; njhopy; tsu Ntz; Lk;.
mNdf cgfu zk; gp shj; jp f; fp y; cw; gj; jp
nra; ag;gLfpd;wJ.
juj; jpy; cau;e;j ntt;NtW cw;gj;jpfs; ,lk;ngWk;.
(tpisahl;Lg; nghUs;> tPl;L cgfuzk;)
tpahghu ngaupdhy; cw;gj;jp cau;tiljy; (gpdpf;];>
Mu;gpnfh)
gad; ghl;bd; gpd; fopTfs; #oypy; Nru;j;jy; Rw;whly;
khriljy; mjpfupg;gpw;F VJthfpwJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -134- mf; \ad;
29) Rw;Wyhf; ifj;njhopy;:-
Rw;Wyhj; Jiw cyfpd; Fiwe;jsT nrytpy; mjpf
yhgk; jUk; Jiwahf cyfk; G+uhTk; czug;gl;Ls;sJ.
Rw;Wyh ifj; njhopy; eilKiwapy; cyfpd; ghupa
mgp tp Uj; jp aile; J tUk; ep iy fh zg; gLk;
ifj; njhopyhFk;.
ehl; Lf;F ehL> gpuNjrj;jpw;F gpuNjrk; nry;Yjy; -
cy;yhrg;gpuahzpfs; jpl;lkpl;L> jpl; lkplhJ nry;y KbAk;.
jpl; lkpl;l tifapy; cy;yhrg; gpuahzk; ifj;njhopy;
tpahghu khHf;fkhf fl;bnaOg;gg; gly;.
gUtfhyq; fs; ep yTk; fhyep iyap d; fhuzkhf
tre; jf;fhyq; fspy; ,q;F tUif jUfpd; wdH.
Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs; ,yq;ifapd; Rw; Wyh ,lq;fis
njup T nra; aj; jf; f Rw; Wyh ifj; njhop y; gy; NtW
ep iyaq; fis ikakhf mikj; Js; sik gp ujhd
fhuzpahFk;.
cjhuzk; - Rw; Wyh rhu; e;j cy; yhrg; gpuahzf;
ifj; njhopy; > tpyq; Ffs; ruzhyak; > fyhrhuk; rhu;e;j
cy; yhrg; gpuahz ifj; njhopy; > Guhjd rpijTfs; >
topg;ghl;Lj; jyq;fs;> mUk; nghUl; fhl;rpr; rhiy Nghd;w
,yq;iff; Nf cupa mUq;fiy rhu; Rw;Wyhj; njhopy;.
(Heritage Tourism)
Rw; Wyhf; ifj; njhop yp y; cs; ehl; L> ntspehl; L
ifj; njhopy; vd ,U gpupTfisf; nfhz;lJ.
30) ,yq; ifapd; Rw;Wyhj;Jiw tsHr; rpf;Fhpa fhuzq;fs;:-
,e;J rKj;jpuj;jpy; mike;Js; s kpf rpwpa jPthfpa
,yq;ifapy; gy; NtW Gtpapay; NtWghLfs>; gy;NtW
fhyepiy> FWf;fpafhyj;jpDs; milaf;$ba gy;NtW
,aw; ifahdJk; > khdp l mikg; Gf; fSk;
mikf; fg; gl; Ls; sJk; . Rw; Wyhj; Jiwia ftUtjw; F
VJthfpd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -135- mf; \ad;
tiuaWf; fg; gl; l gp uNjrj; jp y; gy; NtW ep iyik
fhzg; gLfpd; wikAk; ,t; xt; nthU epiyikiaAk;
gp uNjrj; jp Ds; Fiwe; j J}uj; jp y; milaf; $bajhf
,Ug;gJk; tpNrl fhuzpahFk;.
,aw; if moif urpg;gjw; F> ghu; itapLtjw;F tUif
je;j Rw;Wyhg; gazpfs; vjpu;g;ghu; g;gJ #upa ntspr;rk;
(Sun), fly; (Sea), kzy; (Sand) Mfpa Nritfs; (Sevice)
vd; gdthFk;.
mgp tp Uj; jp aile; j ehLfsp y; kf; fsp d; nghOJ
Nghf;fpw;F VJtha; mike;jfhuzp jyh Njrpa tUkhdk;>
cau; kl;lj;jpy; epyTtjhFk;.
tUlhe; j Xa; T tpLKiwia ngw;Wf; nfhs; s mikj; J
Copau; fSk; tof;fkhf;fp nfhz;Ls; sdH. ghLjy; > urpj;jy; >
tpLKiw fhyq;fspy; jkJ Ntiyaplj;jpy; ntspNawp
tpLKiwia fopg;gjw;F rk;gsj;Jld; tpLKiw fpilg;gJ
fhuzkhFk;.
tp LKiwia fop g; gjw; F jkJ ehl; by; nryT
nra; tijtpl Fiwe;j nrytpy; NtW ehl;by; fopg;gjw;F
cjTtJ ,d;ndhU fhuzpahFk;.
,yq; iff;F cy;yhr gpuahzpfs; ,uz;L Kiwapy;
tUif je;jdH.
FOthf Rw;Wyh Kftu; fspd; Clhf jpl;lkplg; gl;l
Rw; Wyhj; njhFjp (Tour Package) tp iyf; F ngw; W
tUifj;juy;.
jdpahf tUifj; jUk; Rw;wyh gazpfs;.
cs;ehl; L cy; yhrg; gpuahz ,lkhf mDuhjGuk; >
fjp u; fhkk; > Etnuyp ah> fz; b> rp tndhsp ghjkiy>
nghyeWit> rP fpupah> jk;Gy; y Kf;fpkhdJ.
ehl;bDs; gaq; futhjk; epiwTw; wJkhd tlf; F> njw; F>
gpNjrq;fSf; F ,jpy; <Lgl tha;g;Gz;L.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -136- mf; \ad;
31) ,yq; ifapd; Rw;Wyh tyaq;fs;:-
,yq; if Rw;Wyh rigapdhy; ,yq;ifapd; gpujhd
Rw;Wyh tyak; 7 ngauplg;gl;Ls;sJ.
nfhOk;G - efuk;
nfhOk;G khefuk;
njw;F fiu
fpof; F fiu
kj;jpa kiyehL
tuyhw;W efuk;
tl gpuNjrk;
32) Rw; Wyhj; Jiwf; fhf murpdhy; Nkw; nfhs; sg;gl; l eltbfiffs; :-
Rw; Wyh ifj; njhopy; mgptpUj;jpf;fhf Muk;gj;jpy; 1937
Rw;Wyh Ntiyg;gpupT Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lik vjpu;f;fhyj;jpw;Ff;
fhyhfpaJ.
1966 ,y; 10 Rw; wyh rl;lj;jpd; Clhf ,yq;if Rw;Wyh
rig mikf;fg;gl;lik.
1968 - 1978 w;F ,ilapyhd 10 Mz; Lf;fhy Kd;Ndw;w
mwpf; if jpl; lj; ij tbtikj; jJ. ,jw; Nfw; g gpujhd Rw; Wyh
kj;jpa epiyak; 5id ngauply;.
,yq; ifRw;Wyh Nhl; ly; ghlrhiyia mikj;jy; -
1993
gj; jhz; L jpl; lj;ij UNDP/ WTO mDruizAld;
jhgpj;jy;.
33) cy;yhrg; gpuahzf; ifj;njhopypd; jhf;fk;:-
cy;yhrg; gpuahzj;njhopypd; %yk; mD$ykhd gy
epiyikafSk; cUthfpd;w mNj Ntis ghjfkhd
epiyikfSk; cUthfpd; wd. nghjthf Vw; gLfp d; w
jhf; fq; fis nghUshjhuj; jhf; fk; > r%f fyhrhuj; jhf; fk; >
#oy; jhf;fk; vd %d;whfg; gphpf;fyhk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -137- mf; \ad;
34) cy;yhrg; gpuahzf; ifj;njhopypd; nghUshjhu jhf;fk;:-
me;epa nryhtzp cioj; jy;.
njhopy; tha;g;G
gpuNjr mgptpUj;jp
mur tUkhdk; mjpfupg;G
nghUshjhu tsHr;rp
35) me;epar; nryhthzpia cioj;jy;:-
,yq; ifapd; nghUshjhuj;jpDs; me; epa nryhtzp
ciog;gjpy; gpujhd Jiwahf Rw;Wyhj; Jiw cs;sJ.
2004k; Mz;bYk; &gh kpy;ypad; 42.666 (4.7%) 2005k;
Mz;by; &gh kpy;ypad; 36.377 (3.6%) ngw; Ws;sJ. 2006k;
Mz;L tiu ngw;Wf; nfhz;l tUkhdk; mnkupf;f nlhyu;
kpy; ypad; 319.5 MFk; . 2006k; Mz; L cy; yhrg; gpuahzj; Jiw
nryT mnkupf;f nlhyu; 76.7 MFk;. ,jd; mbg;gilap;y;
,yq; iff;F me;epa nryhtzpapid ,yFthf ngw;Wf;
nfhs;tjw;F tha;g;ghf cs;s Jiwahf Kf;fpaj; Jtk;
ngWfpd; wJ.
36) njhopy;tha;g;G:-
cyfp y; ngw; Wf; nfhs; Sk; midj; J njhop y;
tha;g;Gf;fSs; gj;jpy; xU gFjp cy; yhrg; gazj; Jiwia
rhu; e; jjhf ftdj; jpy; nfhs; tJld; %d; whk; cyf ehl; Lf; F
tUif jUfpd; w cy;yhrg;gazpfs; ItUf;F xU Ntiy
tha;g;gpid ngw;Wf; nfhs;sf; $ba re;ju;g;gk; Vw; gLtij
Vw;Wf; nfhs; sy;.
,jd; mbg; gilapy; njhop y; tha; g; gpid ngw; Wf;
nfhLg;gjw;F ,j;Jiw Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wJ.
NeubahfTk; kiwKfkhfTk; njhopy; tha; g;G Vw;gLk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -138- mf; \ad;
Neub njhopy; tha; g; Gfshf cy; yhr N`hl; ly; > cy; yhr
thb tPL> cy;yhr czT tpLjpafk; gy;NtW cy;yhr
Nritfis toq;Fk; epWtdq;fs; cUthFk;.
kiwKf Ntiy tha; g; Gf; fshf> N`hl; ly; fSf; F
cgfhu Nrit toq;FeH. (N`hl;lYf;Fj; Njitahd
if Ntiyg; nghUl; fs; )> Qhgfhu; j; j nghUl; fs; >
khzpf;ff;fy; Mguzq;fisAk;> jq;f Mguzq;fisAk;
cUthf;Fgtu;fSk;> cy;yhrg; gpuahz topf; fhl;bfs;
cUthfpd;wdH.
cy; yhrg; gazj; Jiwap y; 100 Neub Ntiy
tha; g;Gf;fis cUthf; Fk; NghJ kiwKf Ntiytha;g;G
140 cUthfpd;wJ. cjhuzk;: 2005k; Mz;L kj;jpa tq;fp
mwpf;ifapy; $wg;gl;Ls; sJ. 2005k; Mz; L cy;yhr Nrit
njhlu;ghd Neub Ntiy tha;g;Gfs; 52.085 fpilj;Js;sd.
,yq; ifapd; cy; yhrg; gaz fzf; fwpf; ifapd; gb 2008k;
Mz; L Neub Ntiy tha; g; Gf; fs; 51857k; kiwKf
Ntiytha;g;Gfs; 72599 Ntiy tha;g; GfSk; MFk;.
37) gpuNjr mgptpUj;jp:-
cy; yhrg; gaz ghJfhg; G gpuNjrj; jpw; Fk; mjid
mz;kpj;j gpuNjrj;jpw;Fk; mbg;gil trjpfis tpUj;jp
nra; jy;. cjhuzk; : gpd;dtiy> jk;Gs;is> fe;jsha;;>
rPfpupah> nghyd; dWit> fjpu; fhkk;> `pf; fLt Mfpa
gp uNjrq; fSk; mtw; iw #oTs; s gp uNjrq; fsp Yk;
mgptpUj;jp Vw;gl;Ls; sik.
mg; gpuNjrj; ij md; kpj; J mbg; gil trjpfs; mjpfupj; jy; >
etPd Kiwapyhd cy; yhr N`hl;ly;fs; > cy;yhr czT
tpLjpafk; mikj;jy; ehfupfk; Vw;gly;.
cy; yhrg; gaz rigapy; gjpT nra;Js; s N`hl;ly; fs;
2005 Mz;by; 234 mtw; wpd; miwfspd; trjpfs; 13162
MFk; .
khdplg; Gtpapay; -139- mf; \ad;
38) mur tUkhdk; mjpfhpj;jy;:-
,yq; if murpD}lhf> cy; yhrg; gazj; Jiwapd; Clhf
Neu bahfTk; > kiwKfkhfTk; tup mwtp ly; .
mUk; nghUl;rhiy ruzhyak;> Njrpa tdk; (rpq;fuh[h
tdk; )> fyhrhu Kf; Nfhz gpuNjrk; NtW ,lq; fspy; EioT
fl; lz rP l;bid tpw;gid nra;tjd; %yk; mjpfsT
tUkhdj;ijg; ngwy;. 2005k; Mz;by; ,t;thW ngwg; gl;l
tUkhdk; &gh kpy;ypad; 1880.3 ngwg;gl;lJ.
tpkhd Nghf; Ftuj; J fl; lzk; (Embarkation Tex) jP u; it
fl;lzk; mwtpLjy; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jJ MFk;.
,jd; mbg;gilapy; ,yq; if nghUshjhuj;jpw; F ghupa
tUkhdk; fpilf;fpd;wJ.
39) nghUshjhu tsHr;rp:-
cy;yhrg; gaz gpuNjrj;jpy; cy;yhrg; gazpfspd;
tUif mg;gpuNjrq; fspy; trpf;Fk; kf;fspd; tho;f;ifj; juk;
cau; tjw;F tha;g;ghFk;. cjhuzk; : fz;b> pf; fLt>
nge; Njhl; il> NgUtis> cztl;Ld> gpd; dtiy> fe; jyk; >
jk;Gs;is Mfpa gpuNjrq;fis Fwpg;gplyhk;.
40) r%f fyhrhu jhf;fk;:-
,yq; if fyhrhuk; cyfk; G+uhTk; gpugykiljy;.
,yq; if fiy El;gk;> tbtikg;G gpugykiljy;.
fiy rpw;gpfSf;F Gjpa tUkhd top gpwj; jy;.
fyhrhu Kf; Nfhzj; jp w; F nrhe; jkhd ,lq; fis
mNefkhf njhy; nghUs; fhl;rpg;gLj;jYf;F mDkjpAk;>
gzKk; fpilf;fpd; wik.
rp y nghUs; cw; gj; jp nra; fp d; w ifg; gzp
ifj; njhopYf;F kPz; Lk; GdH epHkhdk; nra; jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -140- mf; \ad;
41) fyhrhu vjpHghHg;G:-
mNef ,dj; ij mwp e; J cyf rkhjhdj; jp w; F
topg;gLj;jy;.
fyhrhuj; jp w; F ,ilap y; ,yq; if fyhrhuj; ij
ntspaply;.
,yq; ifapd; Atjp> ,isQHfis me;epa nkhopfisf;
fw;gjw;F top nra; jy;.
mj;Jld; ntspehl; lthu; fspd; rpwe;j el;gz; Gfis
fw;Wf;nfhs; s tpisjy;.
42) r%fj;jpd; fyhrhuj;jpw;F Vw; gLk; ez; ik:-
fyhrhu ngWkjp tha;e;j tpohf;fs;> fiyEl;gk; rpy
nghUl; fspy; fhzg; gl; l gpujhd fyhrhu gz; Gfis
ghuhl;Ljy;.
rka> ngsjp f ngWkjp tha; e; j nghUl; fis
ntspehLfSf;F Vw;Wkjpr; nra; jy;.
cy;yhrg;gazpfspdhy; ehl;L kf;fSf;F Rje;jpukhf
jkJ rkaj; ij iff; nfhs; tjw; F ,ilA+ whf
mikfpd;wik.
rpy ntspehl; L gazpfs; cs;ehl;L rka topg;ghl;L
jyq;fspy; Kiwahf ele; J nfhs;shik.
43) r%fj;jpd; fyhrhuj;jpw;F Vw;gLk; jP ik:-
ntspehl;Lg; gof;f tof;fq; fis filg;gpbj; jy;.
FLk;g cwTfs; gyg;gLj; jy;.
ew;Fz gz;Gfs; epiwe;Jf; fhzg;gly;.
r%f Neha;fs; guty;.
Foe; ij tpw;gid mjpfupj; jy;.
kJghd ghtid mjpfupj; jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -141- mf; \ad;
44) Rw;whlYf;F Vw;gLk; ghjpg;Gfs;:-
Rw;whly; rhu;e;j Rw;Wyh Jiwapd; Kjd;ikahdJ
Rw;whliy ghJfhf;Fk; Nghf;F mjpfupg;gjw;F cjhuzk;
: Rw;whly; rhu;e;j ifj;njhopy; Jiwapy; (ECO Tourisam)
<Lgly; cjhuzkhf fhl;lyhk;.
Rw; whliyg; ghJfhg; gjw; F ntspehl; L cjtpia ngwy; .
mop e; J NghFk; > mr; RWj; jYf; F cs; shFk;
capupdq; fis ghJfhj; jy; njhlu; ghf ntspehl; L cjtpia
ngwy;. cjhuzk;: flyhik ghJfhg;G
mgaG+kp (ruzhyak;)> gwitfs; ruzhyak; > tpyq;F
ruzhyak; njhlu;ghf mDkjp gj;jpuk; toq;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
,jd; Clhf ,t;tplq; fis guhkupf;f cjTfpd;wJ.
45) Rw;whlypy; Vw;gLk; jPikfs;:-
,yq; ifapy; fhzg; gLfp d; w ,aw; if R+oYldhd
gpuNjrj;jpy; thb tPL> Nhl;ly; Nghd;w fl;blq;fis
mikj;jy; ,aw;if mofpw;F ghjpg;gpid Vw;gLj; Jk;.
mofpa Rz;zhk;G fw;ghiw mopTf;F cs;shjy;.
fly; mupg;G
cy;yhr gazpfs; ghupastpy; fz;L fspf;Fk; Nkw;F>
njw; F flw; gpuNjrk;khriljy;.
cy;yhrg; gazpfs; kJ mUe; Jjy;> mUfpy; cs;s
ePu; khriljy;.
mope;J NghFk; mghaj;jpid vjpu;Nehf;Fk; capu;fspd;
gFjpfspy; nra;ag;gLk; nghUl;fis cy; yhrg;gazpfs;
tp iyf; F thq; Fjy; mt; Tap up dq; fsp d; mop Tf; F
VJthfpd;wJ. cjhuzk; : fly; Mik> ahid
fhL ftu;r;rpahd ,lk; vd;gJld; ruzhyaq;fSkhFk; .
,q; F mbf; fb cy; yhrg; gp uahzp fSk; mtu; fsJ
thfdq;fSk; tUifj;jUtjdhy; capu; gy;tifikAk;>
#oy; njhFjpapdJk; > nraw; ghl; bw; Fk; ghjfk; tpistpf;Fk; .
khdplg; Gtpapay; -142- mf; \ad;
cy; yhrg; gazpfs; fz;izf; ftUk; ,lq; fspy;
cf;fhj nghUl;fis ,ly; (gpsh];bf;> fz;zhb Nghj;jy;
Mfpad) capu; gy;tifikapy; jhf;fk; Vw;gLk;.
,aw; if mofpid nfhz;l ,lq;fis fz;L fspj;J
mq;F QhgfhHj; j nghUl;fis Nru;g; gjdhy; mr; RWj; jYf; F
cs;shfpd;wJ. cjhuzk; : ef;fpy;]; > fhg;G> rpq;fuh[h
fhL kuq;fspd; gFjpfis ntl;b gpupj;J ufrpakhf NtW
ehLfSf;F cy;yhrg; gazpfs; vLj;Jr; nry; yy;.
46) Rw; Wyhf; ifj; njhop ypd; tsHr; rpf; F Nkw; nfhs; sg; gLk;
nraw;ghLfs;:-
cy;yhrg;gazj; Jiwapd; ftu; r; rpia (Attractions)
tpUj;jp nra; jy;.
,yq; ifapd; ngsjpf> khdpl R+oy; Rw; Wyh gazpfs;
ftu; r;rpf;F ,yFthf cs;shf;fyhk;.
rpwpa ehlhfpa vkJ ehl;by; fhzg;gLk; ngsjPf> R+oy;
gy;tifikia cy;yhrg; gazpfSf;F nfhz;L nry;yy;
,yFthdJ.
FWfpa fhyj; jpy; Fiwe; j nrytpy; mjpf fhyk; Xa; thf
fopg; gjw; F nghUj; jkhd #oy; cz; L vd; gij cyfyhtpa
uPjpapy; gpur;rhuk; nra;jy; mtrpak;.
Vida cy;yhrg;gpuahz gpuNjrq; fSf;F ,izahf
,q;F fhzg; gLk; tpNrl jd; ik Fwpj; J ntspehl; L
gazpfSf;F gue;jstpy; mwpar; nra;jy; . cyfpy; 8tJ
mjprakhf Kd; itf;ff; $ba rPfpupahit gw;wp $wy;.
fhl; L #oYf; F Vw;g ahidfspd; kj;jpa epiyakhf
tp sq; Fk; ahidfsp d; ruzhyak; gp d; dty cap H
gy;tifikia Ngzp tUk; rpq;fuh[h tdk;> ef;fpy;];
ghJfhg;G tdhj;j tpy; Y> Rz;zhk;G fy; Fif> upjpfiy
Fd;W cy;yhr gpuahzpfis ftUk; ,lk; cyfpd; NtW
vg;gFjpapYk; Rw;WyhgpuNjrq;fis fhzKbtjpy;iy.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -143- mf; \ad;
And];Nfh epWtdj;jpdhy; ngauplg;gl;l cyf cupik
7 MFk;. mit ,yq;ifapy; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. ,jw;Nfw;g
,yq; if tpNrlkhd cy;yhr gaz tyakhf gpurhuk;
nra;jy; mtrpakhFk;.
cy; yhrg; gazpfSf; F ,yFthf ,Ug; gjw; fhf jq; Fkpl
trjpapid Vw; gLj; jpf; nfhLj; jy; Kf; fpaj; Jtk; ngWfpd; wJ.
mjid tp l Rw; whlYld; ,ize; j cy; yhrg;
gazpfSf;fhf mtu;fs; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;fpd;w jq;Fkpl
trjpapid nra;J nfhLj;jy; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; MFk;.
tpNrlkhf Rw;whlYld; ,ize;j cy;yhrg;gazpfs;
mbg; gil trjp fs; > flw; fiu Nah u j; jp id
ghu;itapLtjw;fhd trjpfis Vw; gLj;jpf; nfhLj;jy; .
gwitfs; > eP u; tP o; r; rp fs; Nghd; wtw; iw ghu; itaply;
Rw; whliy ghjpf; fhj tifapy; trjpfis Vw; gLj; jp
nfhLj;jy; gpujhd mk;rkhFk;.
cy;yhrg; gazpfspd; jq;FkpltrjpfSf; F Gwk;ghf
mtu;fsJ gazpfspd; Nghf;F tuj;jpd; NghJ re; Njhrkhf
Xa;tpid fopg;gjw;F mtrpakhd Vida tpisahl;L
tpNdhj eltbf;iffSk; Nghd;w trjpfis Vw;gLj; jy;.
cy; yhrg; gazp fSf; Fj; Njitahd Nghf; Ftuj; J
trjp fs; > tp khdk; > ngUe; njU> Gifap ujk; NtW
Nghf;Ftuj;J Clfq;fs; gad;gLj;Jk; NghJ trjpfis
NkYk; mjpfupj;jy;.
cy; yhrg; gazpfspd; NritfSf; fhf mtrpakhd
Copau; fSf; F Kiwahd gapw; rpia mspj; jy; mtrpakhFk; .
jw; fhyj; jpy; cy; yhrg; gazpfis topelj; Jgtu; fs; jtwhd
Kiwap y; nraw; ghLfis Nkw; nfhz; likahy;
cy; yhrg;gazpfs; gpur; rpidfSf;F Kfk; nfhLf; f Ntz; b
Vw;gl;lJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -144- mf; \ad;
jw; fhyj; jp y; cy; yhrg; gazj; Jiw njhlu; ghf
Vw; gl; Ls; s nfhs; iffs; ed; ik juf; $bajhf
fhzg; glhikapdhy; rupahd mwpT+l;ly; toq; fg; gly; .
mjD} lhf cy; yhrg; gazj; Jiw njhlu; ghd
gpur; rpidfis Fiwf;f KbAk;.
vq; fSila ehl; bw; F me; ep a nryhtzp ap id
,yFthf ngw; Wf; nfh s; sf; $ba tskh f
cy; yhrg; gazj; Jiw Njrp a kl; lj; jp y; Mjutp id
ngWtjw; fhd Ntiyj; jp l; lq; fis xOq; fikj; jy; .
cy;yhrg;gazr; rig kl;Lk; jdpj;J ,jid Nkw;nfhs;s
KbahJ.
N`hl; ly; fis mikf; Fk; NghJ Rw; whlYld; ,ize; jthW
vy; iyg; gLj; jy; . mjpf tUkhdk; cy; yhrg; gazpfspd; %yk;
ngWtjpy; mjpf mtjhdpg;ig Vw;gLj; jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -145- mf; \ad;

9.cyfkakhjy;
1) cyfkakhjy;:-
cyf ehLfs; xd; Nwhnlhd; W njhlHGgLjy;
cyfkakhjy; vdg;gLfpd;wJ. nghJthf nghUshjhu>
r%f> murpay; mbg;gilapy; cyfk; KOtjpYk; eil
ngw; Wf; nfhz; bUf; Fk; mikg;G khw; wq; fs; vd;W fUjyhk; .
mjhtJ ehLfSf; fpilNa fl; Lg; ghLfis epuhfhpj; J
tp Ltjd; %yk; vy; yh ehLfSk; cyfhP jp ahf
rpe; jpg;gijAk;> xt;nthU ehLk; xd; wpy; xd; W jq; fpapUf;ff;
jq;fpapUf;ff;$ba mstpw;F cyfk; KOtijAk; jd;
nghUshjhu nrayhw; wy;fSf; fhd re; ijahfg; gad;gLj;j
KbAk; vd; w fUj; jpy; mikfpd; wJ. mjhtJ vy; yh
ehLfSk; nghJthd re;ijahf vy;yh ehLfisAk; fUj
Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhf mikfpd;wJ.
ntspehl; L tu; j; jfj; jpw; F ,d; Nwy; ehLfSf; fpilapyhd
gz;lq;fSk; NritfSk; gupkhw;wk; nra;jYk; ntspehl;L
%yjd KjyP l; lhsu; fSf; F Rje; jp ukhf gup khw; wp f;
nfhs; tjw; fhd FWf; fP Lfis eP f; fp tsu; r; rp aile; j
njhopEl;gj;jpd; cr;rkhf gad; gLj;jJk; cs;ehl; L tu;j; jf
re;ijfs; Clhf ru;tNjr nghUshjhuj;jpy; nry;thf;F
nrYj; Jk; ,y; iyNay; > G+Nfhsnkhd; w tifapy; fhyj; jpdJ
Neuj; jpw; Fkpilapyhd ,ilntspapid Fiwj;jy; vd
tiutpyf;fzg;gLj;jyhk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -146- mf; \ad;
2) jfty; njhopy;El;gk;:-
fle;j fhyj;Jld; ifNfhu;j;Js;s jfty; njhlu;ghly;
njhop El; gj; jp D}lhf mtjhdj; jp w; Fl; gLk; jfty;
njhlu;ghly; njhopEl; gk; G+Nfhskakhjypd; %ykhFk;.
jfty; fspD}lhf r%fj; jpy; Vw; gLk; vjhtJ xU tplak;
mwpf;ifapy;> njhlu;gpy;> fhl;rpapy; fpufpj; J jdjhf; fpf;
nfhs;fpd;wdH.
njhlu; ghlypd; Clhf nra; jpfis xUtuplkpUe; J
,d;ndhUtUf;Fk; my;yJ FOtpw;F mDg;Gjy; mjidg;
ngw; Wf;nfhz;lik gw;wp tpsq;fpf; nfhs; sy;.
Muk; gj; jpy; jfty; njhopEl; gk; (Information Technology
IT) mwpKfk; nra;tjd; Clhf gpd; du; jfty; njhlu;ghly;
njhopEl; gk; (Information Communnication Tech- nology
ICT) gad; gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.
20k; E}w;whz;bd; Muk;gj;jpy; KjtyP L nghUshjhu
tsu; r; rp ,d; wpaikahj rhjdkhf cl; gLtJld; fhyj; Jld;
jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopEl;gk; ,lj;j;pidg; gpbj;Js;sJ.
1950k; jrhg; jj;jpDs; fzdp fz;Lg;gbf;fg;gl;lJld;
gpw;gl; l fhyj; jpy; njhopEl; g ifj;njhopypD}lhf tsu; ; r; rpAk;
(b[ply;) jd;dpaf; fg;gLj;jy; Clhf njhiyg;Ngrp> nra;kjp
njhopEl;g tsu;r; rpA+lhf jfty; njhopEl;g Gul;rpahf
tsu; r; rp aile; jJ. ,jd; %yk; fUjg; gLtJ fzdp
njhop El; gKk; njhlu; ghly; njhop El; gKk; njhlu; Gg;
gl;Ls;sik %yk; nra;jp njhopEl;gk; Njhw; wk; ngw;wJ.
,t;thW njhopEl;g mwpT nghUshjhu cw;gj;jpapid
NkYk; mjp fup j; jy; %yk; cw; gj; jp ap d; juj; jp id
cau; j;Jtjw;F toptFf;fpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -147- mf; \ad;
,yj; jp u dp ay; Clhf jfty; Nrfu p j; jy; >
fsQ; rpag; gLj; jy; > tpepNahfpfj; jy; Nghd; w nraw; ghLfSf; F
gad; gLj; Jk; midj; J njhop El; gk; njhlu; ghly;
njhopEl;gj;jpw;F ,ilapy; fzdp> fzdp tiyaikg;G>
fzdpAld; njhlu; Gila cgfuzk; > njhiyg; Ngrp> ngf; ]; >
nra; kjp Nghd; w gy; NtW ,yj; jp udp ay; cw; gj; jpfs;
gad; gLj;jg;gLk;.
tpQ;Qhd njhopEl; gj; jpd; epue;jukhdJk; > NghJkhdJk;
jukhd Jupj tsu;r;rp G+NfhskakhjYf; F cl;gLtjd;
Clhf NkYk; kdpjDila md;dpNahd;dpa njhlHGfs;
tsu; r; rp aile; J fhzg; gLtJld; mjw; fhf mikf; f
Ntz; ba nryT Fiwe;J nry;tJld; mjw;F rkdhf
Nrit toq;FdHfspd; msT cau; tile;J nry;fpd;wJ.
cjhuzk; : 1930k; tUlj;jpy; ept;Nahu;f; njhlf;fk; yz;ld;
tiu 3 nrf;fd; njhiyNgrp miog;gpw;F 300 nlhyu;
nryT Vw; gLk; NghJ 2005k; tUlkhFk; NghJ 0.08 nlhyuhf
Fiwe;Js;sik.
1970 y; 5257 nlhyu; ngWkjpAila fzpzp 1990
jrhg; jj; jpDs; tiuaWf; fg; gl; l msT Fiwe; J nrd; Ws; sJ.
xU nkhopapid tiyg; gpd;diy gad; gLj; Jtjd; %yk;
gy; NtW nkhopfSf; F nkhop ngau; f; f $bajhf cs;sik.
jfty; njhlu; ghly; njhop El; gk; fhuzkhf
G+Nfhskakhjypd; ngWNgWhf midj; J gFjpfspYk; gutpa
ehLfisg; ghu; f; Fk; NghJ etP d> R%fkhd cwT njhopEl; g
gad; ghl;bidg; ngw; Wf; nfhs;s mtrpakhd Nju;r;rpfs;
%yk; gy; NtW R%fq; fSf; fp ilap yhd rkdw; w
jd;ikapid mwpayhk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -148- mf; \ad;
3) rHtNjr jfty; toq;Fk; mikg;G:-
fzpzp njhlu; ghly; Jiwapy; ghupa khw; wj; jpid
Vw; gLj; j nra; kjp ap idg; gutyhf gad; gLj; jy;
gad;ghl;LilajhFk;.
ru;tNjr jfty; toqFk; mikg;gpd; %yk; Njitahd
tplak; gw;wpa jfty; fis toq;FtJld; mj;jfty;fs;
cyfpd; gy;NtW ehLfis nrd;wilfpd;wJ. cyfpd; kpfg;
ngupa fzpzptiyaikg; G ru; tNjr tiyaikg; ghf
mwpKfQ; nra;tJld; fzpzpAk; fzpzp tiyaikg;Gk;
xd;Wlndhd; W ,ize;Nj nraw;gLtJld; ,j;njhFjp
fzpzp tiyaikg;G vd;wthW mwpKfk; nra; jy;.
fhyj;Jld; $ba Kiwahd tsu;r;rp fhzg;gLtJld;
Fwpj; j fhy ,ilntspf; Fs; mNdfkhdtu; fspd; trjpapid
fUj; jp w; nfh z; L nghUj; jKilathW etP d
kag;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ.
FWfpa fhyj;jpw;Fs; mwpT tsu;r;rpia Vw;gLj;jYld;
ghupastpyhd mr; Rg; gjpj; jy; xyp> tP bNah> glq; fs;
Nghd; wit nra;kjpfspD}lhf mjpf Clfq; fSf;F jfty;
toq; fy;.
gy;NtW Jiwfspy; ,Ug;gtu;fs; nra; kjpfspD}lhf
jkJ mwptpid mjpfupj;Jf; nfhs;fpd; wdH.
4) nra; kjpapDhlhf gad;ngWNthH:-
fy;tpapidg; ngWfpd;Nwhu;. (gy;fiyf;fof khztu;>
ghlrhiy khztu; > NtW)
cau; f;fy; tp epWtdq; fs; (gy; fiyf; fofk;> Ma; T
epWtdq;fs;)
mur epWtdq;fSk; gy;NtW mikg;GfSk;
tu;j;jfq;fs;
NtW FOf;fs; (tpNdhjkilNthu;)
khdplg; Gtpapay; -149- mf; \ad;
5) nra; kjpAk; mjDld; njhlHGila trjpfSk;;:-
,d;lnel; (Internet) -epWtdnkhd;wpy; cs;shu;e;j
fzpzp midj;ijAk; xd;wpidj; J jfty; gupkhw; wk;
nra; Ak; njhFjp
vf; ];unel; (Extranet) - rpy epWtdq;fs; xd; wpize;J
jahupf;fg; gLk; fzpzp njhFjp
,uj; jpudpay; tzpfk; ( E- commerce) nra;kjpfis
gad; gLj; jp Nkw; nfhs; Sk; nfhLf; fy; thq; fy; ,yj; jpudpay;
tzpfkhFk;. vOj;J %ykpd;wp FWfpa Kiwapy; rpwg;ghf
cupa fhupaj;jpid epiwNtw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;.
,yj; jp udp ay; fbjk; (E- Mail) kp f tp ithf
vOj; JUtp yhd jftiy ngw; Wf; nfhLg; gjw; Fk;
nghUj; jkhd fdg; nghOjpy; ngw; Wf; nfhs; sf; $ba
njhlu;ghly; ClfkhFk;.
khaep iy gy; fiyf; fofk; (Virtual Campus)
,t;tpyj;jpudpay; fy; tp mNefkhd ehLfspy; tpiuthf
gutp tUtjD}lhf Fiwthf ngsjP f tsq; fisg;
gad;gLj;jp mNdfkhNdhu;fSf;F cau;f;fy;tp trjpapid
,jD}lhf ngw;Wf; nfhs;syhk;.
,yj; jpudpay; tq; fp (E- Banking) nra; kjp> njhiyg;
Ngrp my; yJ Nlyu; ,ae; jpuj; jpid gad; gLj; jp ehnshd; wpNy
ve;Neuj;jpYk; tq;fp eltbf;ifapy; <Lglf;$baJld; fld;
fhl;il ( Credit card) gad;ghL ,q; F Kf; fpaj; Jtk;
ngWfpd; wJ.
,yj; jpudpay; itj; jpa Nrit (E- medicine) itj;jpa
Nrit gw; whf;Fiwapid eptu;; j; jp nra; tjw; fhd topahFk;.
nra;kjpapD}lhf itj; jpa Nritapid ngw;Wf; nfhs;sy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -150- mf; \ad;
6) jfty; njhlHghlYk; mjNdhbize;j gpur;rpidfSk;:-
jfty; njhopEl; gj; jpd; ghjpg; G fhuzkhf Nfhskakhjy;
xuplj;jpy; ikag; gLj; jpaikapdhy; mjDld; ,ize;j
gyg; gpur;rpidfs; tsu;r;rpaile;j> tsu;r;rpaile;J tUk;
ehLfsp y; ep yTfp d; w ngh Ush jh u j; jp Ny
Kfq;nfhLf; fpd;wdu;.
fzdp itu]; %yk; fzdpj; njhFjp ghjpg;giljy;.
,ufrpakhf Ntiyj; jpl; lq; fisg; ngw; Wf; nfhs; tjw; Fk; .
ghupa ,ufrpaq;fis ,izaj;jsj;jpw;F cl;gLj;jf;
$bajhf ,Uj; jy;.
,izaj; jsj;jpD}lhf nraw; gLfpd; w NgusT mbg; gil
Nkhrbfs;.
,ay;ghd xspgug;G> tpsk; guk; > Gifg; glk;> rpdpkh
,izaj; jsj; jp D} lh f tp ep Nah fp j; jYk; >
,izaj;jsj;jpD}lhf vLf;ff; $ba jfty; fs;.
xU ehl;bw;F rl;l uPjpahd my;yJ rl;l uPjpaw; w xU
tplaj;jpid ,d;ndhU ehl;bw;F rl;l uP jpahd myy;yJ
rl;l uPjpaw;wjhff; njd;gly;.
jfty; njhopEl;gk; nghJ kf; fspd; Clfkhf cs;sik
nry; thf;F kpFe;jtu;fspd; %yk; mtw;iw ifg;gw; wpf;
nfhz; Ls; sik. mtu; fSf; Fj; NjitahdthW nra; jpfis
cUthf;Fjy; %yk; nkhopg; gad;ghl;by; Vw; gLk; r%f
gpur;rpidfSf;fhd re;ju;g;gj;jpid Vw;gLj; jy;.
Fwpj;j fhyj; jpw;Fs; jfty; ntspaplg; gly; fhuzkhf
jtwhd jftyhf kpf tpiuthf gutyiljy;.
gaq;futhj nraw;ghLfis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F jfty;
njhlu; ghly; njhop El; gk; ghup astp y; gad; ghl; bw; F
cl;gLj;jpAs;sik.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -151- mf; \ad;
7) cyfkakhjypy; jfty; njhopy;El;gj;jpd; jhf;fk; :-
Nfhskakhjypd; jfty; njhopEl;gj;jpd; jhf;fj;jpdhy;
ghupa xj;Jiog;gpid tiyaikg;G toq;fpaik mjd;
gutyhd gad; ghL njhlu;ghly; Jiwapy; ghupa khw;wj; ij
Vw; gLj; jp cs; sJ. FWfp a fhy vy; iyf; Fs;
mjpfstpyhNdhupd; trjpapidf; fUjp nghUj;jkhd etPd
kag; gLj;jpAs; sik r%fj;jpy; fhzg; gLfpd;w nghUshjhu>
r%f> fyhr;rhu> murpay; Nghf;F Mfpa fhuzpfspdhy;
MFk; .
fzpdp mwpTila xUtUf;F jfty;fis ,yFthf
jpul;bf; nfhs;sKbAk;.
fy; tp nraw; ghLfSf; fhf cyfk; KOtJk;
gy; fiyf; fofk; mizaj; jsj; jpw; F cl; gLj; jy; re; ju; g; gKk;
mjd; Nritiag; ngw;Wf; $ba jpwikia Vw;gLj; jy;.
ve;j xU Jiwf;Fk; jfty; jkf; F NjitahdthW
ngw; Wf; nfhs; s Kbjy; mjw; fp ilNa gp urp j; jp ahd
Gj; jfq; fs; > Ma; Tfs; > Njly; gj; jp uq; fs; > E}y; fs;
gj;jpupiffs; > mfuhjpfs;> thrpfrhiy trjp.
,ytrkhf ngw;Wf; nfhLf;Fk;> gzk; nrYj;jp ngw;Wf;
nfhs; sf; $ba gy; NtW ,yj; jp udp ay; > topf; fhl; ly; >
cgNjrk;> fzdp mfuhjp Mfpatw;iwg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s
$baik.
gz; lq;fisAk; > NritfisAk; tpepNahfpj; jy;> tu;j;jf
tpsk;guk; gLj;jy;> tu;j;jf Ma;tpid xOq;Fg;gLj;jy;
Nghd;wtw;iw tu;j;jf cyfj;jpDs; Kbjy;.
kpfTk; rupahd jPu; khdk; vLg;gjw;F Ml;rp> epu;thfk;>
nraw; ghLfis ,yFgLj;jyhk;.
mur eltbf; iffSf; F jfty; njhopEl; gj; jpid
gad; gLj; Jtjd; Clhf ehl; L kf; fSf; F gpujp ,yhgj; jpid
ngw; Wf; nfhLf;f KbAk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -152- mf; \ad;
nghOJ Nghf;Ftjw;fhf jahupf;fg; gl;l Ntiyj;jpl;lk;>
jpiug; glq; fs; > fh^d; > ez; gu; fs; xd; Wf; $ly; Nghd; wtw; iw
ngw; Wf; nfhs;sf;$bajhf cs;sJ.
,izaj; jsj; jpw; F Nkyjpfkhf Gtpapay; jfty;
KiwikAk; (GIS)> Gtp epiyfhz; njhFjp(GPS) apD}lhf
jfty; fisg; ngw; Wf; nfhs; tjw; F> jfty; fis
xOq; Fg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk; > tpepNahfpg;gjw;Fk; Kbjy;.
nghUshjhu> r%f> fyhr; rhu Nfhskakhjy;
nraw; ghLfis Vw; gLj; jy; Nkyjp f tp Uj; jp ap id
Vw; gLj; Jtjw; fhf jfty; njhopEl;gj; jpid cl; gLj; jf; $ba
Kiw.
8) cyf kakhjYk; ehLfspilNa mjpfhpj;JtUk; rhHe;jpUf;Fk;
epiyAk;:-
cyfkakhjy; Njhw;wg;ghL ,d;W cyf muq; fpy;
ep[khd xU mk; rkhfptpl;lJ.
cyf ehLfspd; kj;jpapy; ,aw;if> kdpj tsq;fspd;
rkkw;w jd;ikAld; njhlHG gl;ljhAs;sJ.
jw;NghJ fhzg;gLk; cyfkakhf;fypd; Nghf;FfSk;
mk;rq;fSk; tpUj;jpaile;j ehLfs; mjidj; jq;fsJ
fl;Lg;ghl;Lf;fs; itj;jpUg;gJ kl;Lky;yhJ gpujhdkhf
jq;fsJ ed;ikf;fhfNt fl;Lg;gLj;jp tj; jpUf;fpd;wd.
mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehLfs; gpuhe;jpaf; $l;Lf;fspd;
%yk; jkf; Fs; Ns murpay; nghUshjhu cwTfis
tYg; gLj;jp tUfpd;wd.
tsHKf ehLfs; rhHf; Nghd;w gpuNjrf; FOf; fshf
xd; wpy; xd; W jq; fp ap Uf; Fk; jd; ikia Vw; gLj; jp f;
nfhz;lhYk; cyf muq;fpy; mtw;wpd; jhf;fk; kpfTk;
gytPdkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -153- mf; \ad;
mz;ika kdpj mgptpUj;jp mwpf;ifffs; mgptpUj;jp
mile;j kw; Wk; tsHKf cyFf; fpilNa fhzg; gLk;
,ilntsp tphptiltijf; fhl;b epw;fpd;wd. ,k; nkhj;jj;
Njrpa cw; gj; jp kw; Wk; jiyf; Fhpa tUkhdq; fspy;
kl; Lky; yhJ ey; y tho;f; ifj; juj;Jf; f gq; fspf; fpd; w fy;tp
Rfhjhuk; Ntiyfs; vd;gtw;wpd; fpilf;fk; jd;ikiaAk;
milag; ngWk; jd; ikAk; Nghd; w gy; NtW kdp j
mgp tp Uj; jpr; Rl; bfsp Yk; ,ilntsp tphptiltijf;
fhzyhk;.
9) tp Uj; jp aile; J tUk; ehLfs; cyfkakhjyp y; fLk;
tpisTfis Vw;gLj;j Kbahikf;Fhpa fhuzpfs;:-
mNdfkhd tpUj; jpaile;JtUk; ehlfs; FbNaw;w
ehLfshapUe;jJld; me; ehLfs; Rje;jpukile;jNghJ xU
mgp tp Uj; jp milah j ngh Ush jhu j; ijf;
nfhz; litahftp Ue; jd. MfNt gy ehlfs; cyf
muq; fpy; xU gykhd nghUshjhuj; jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;j
KbahjdthftpUe;J tUfpd;wd.
rp y ehLfs; nrop g; ghd ,aw; if toq; fisf;
nfhz; bUe; j NghjpYk; $l cyfg; nghUshjhuj; jpy; VjhtJ
Nghl; bkpF jd; ikapidg; ngw; Wf; nfhs; Sk; nghUl; L jk; ik
tpUj;jp nra; aj;Njitg;gLfpd;w %yjd kdpj tsq;fspy;
gw;whf;Fiw nfhz;L fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
Jhpj jfty; njhopy;El; g mjpfhpg; G> vz; zq; fs; >
GJikfspd; guty; %yk; cyfkakhf; fy; Jhp jkhf
tYg;ngw; W tUfpd;wJ. ,j; Jiwfspy; tpUj; jpaile; J tUk;
ehLfs; rhjfkw;w epiyapy; ,Ug;gjdhy; Nguk; NgRk;
rf;jpia ,oe;J nry;fpd;wJ.
tpUj; jp aile; J tUk; ehLfspy; cUthf; fg; gl; l
gpuhe;jpaf; $l;Lf; fspy; mNdfkhf mtw;wpy; xU nghpa
ehL Mjpf;fk; nrYj;Jtjidf; fhzyhk;. rhhf; mikg; gpy;
,e;jpahtpd; gq;F ,j;jifa xU epiyapy; xU gpuhe;jpaf;
$l;L gytPdkhftpUg; gijf; fhzKbfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -154- mf; \ad;
tp Uj; jp aile; JtUk; ehLfsp y; murp ay;
Fog; gq;fspdhYk; epiyaw; w jd; ikfs; mjpfhpj; J tUtjd;
fhuzkhfTk; njspthdnjhU ntspehl;L nghUshjhuf;
nfhs; ifiaf; nfhz; bU; ftpy; iy. NkYk; Ml; rpap y;
murp ay; fl; rp fs; khWk; nghOJ mjd; top ahff;
nfhs;iffspy;rLjpahd khw; wq; fs; Vw; gl toptFf;fpd;wJ.
,j;jifa gpd; dzpapy; ehLfSf;fpilNa elhj;jg;gLk;
Ngr;RthHj; ijfs; vy;yh kl; lq; fspYk; gytP dkhfNt
mikfpd;wd.
10) cyfkakhjyp dhy; tsHKf ehLfSf; F fp ilf; Fk;
ez;ikfs;:-
epiykhwpr; nry;Yk; njhopy;rhH cyfpy; tha;g;Gf;fs;
mjpfhpj;J gq;Fgw;w trjpfNsw;gLfpd;wd.
tpQ; Qhdk;> njhopy;El;gk; Mfpatw;wpy; mwpT jfty;
fpilj;jy;.
,izaj;jpd; %yk; $ba fy;tp tha;g; gfs; kw;Wk;
nghUshjhug; gphpTfs; gw; wpj; jhkjkpd; wp jfty; ngwf; $ba
trjp.
eltbf;iffSf;F nrhw;g Neuk; NghJkhapUj; jy;.
11) cyfkakhjypdhy; tsHKf ehLfSf;F fpilf;Fk; jP ikfs;:-
gz; ghl; L CLUty; fsh y; gok; ngUk;
ghuhk;ghpaq; fisAk;> gof;f tof;fq;fisAk; ghJfhf;f
KbahjpUj;jy;.
cyfg; nghUshjhu Kiwap y; fl; lhakhfj;
njhopw;glNtz;ba epiy. vy;yhk; xNu jpir Nehf;fpa
eltbf;ifahfTs;sJ.
cyfg; nghUshjhu tp isTfsp yp Ue; J jg; g
topapy;yhjpUj;jy;.
Nguk; NgRk; ty;yik kpff; Fiwe;Js; sik.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -155- mf; \ad;
12) cyfkakhjypdhy; ,yq;if mile;Js;s ez;ikfs;:-
tpiyf; fl;Lg;ghLfis ePf; Fjy; .mjhtJ ,Jtiu
,Ue;J te;j murhq;f epfo; thf jPHkhdq;fSf;fika
,yhgk; jPHkhdpf;fg;gl;l KiwAk; mfw;wg;gl;L mjw;Fg;
gjpyhf re;ijr; rf;jpfNs tpiyfisj; jP Hkhdpf;Fk; Kiw
nfhz;L tug; gl;lNjhL> xUthpd; jpwikf;F Vw;g ,yhgk;
ciof;Fk; Kiwf;F tha; g;G Vw;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
Muk; gj;jpy; vk;ehl;by; fhzg;gl; l thpfs;> jPHitfs;
vd; gd cyfkakhjyp y; ,izf; fg; gl; ljDhlhf
Fiwf;fg;gl;L ghjpf;fg;gl;ltHfis kPl;nlLf;Fk; epfo;thf
tp sq; Ffp d; wJ. ,tw; NwhL jdp ahH Jiwap d;
nraw;gghLfis mjpfhpf;fr; nra;fpd;wJ.
nghUshjhu Kaw;rpfspy; mur jiyaPl;il ePf;Ftjd;
Clhf murhq; f nryitf; Fiwj; Jf; nfhs; sTk; >
njhopy;El;g tUifia vjpHghHj; J ntspehl;L tHj; jfk;
kPjhd fl;Lg;ghLfis ePf;FtjhfTk; mikfpd;wJ.
rpy nghUl;fSf; F cyf re;ijapy; Nfs; tp mjpfkhff;
fhzg; gLfpd; wJ. vLj; Jf; fhl;lhf Njapiy> ,aw;if wg;gH
kw;Wk; ijf;fg;gl;l Miltiffs; Nghd; wd mjpfstpy;
Vw;Wkjp nra; ag;gl;L cyf ftdj;jpid <Hf;fpd;wJ.
cyfkakhjypDhlhf Gjpa khjphpf; ifj; njhopy; fs;>
Nritf; ifj; njhop y; fs; vd; gtw; wp d; tsHr; rp
Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl;L fhzg;gLtjdhy; ehl;bd; tsHr;rpaile;j
ehlhf khw;w Kbfpd;wJ.
nghUshjhuj; jpy; mgptpUj; jpf; Fj; Njitahd epjp
cjtpfis Fiwe;j tl; bapy; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjDhlhf
ehl; bd; mgptpUj;jpia tpiuTgLj;Jfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -156- mf; \ad;
13) cyfkakhjypdhy; ,yq;if mile;Js;s jPikikfs;:-
Kjyp y; fp ilg; gjw; fhp a mop tile; J NghFk;
%ytsq;fis ,of;f NehpLfpd;wJ.
cyfkakh jy; %yk; Gjp jh f cUth fp a
Ntiytha;g;Gf;fis tpl mit ,y;yhky; nra;j Ntiy
tha; g;Gf;fNs mjpfhpj;Jf; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
ehl; Lkf; fs; jq; fs; mgp yhirfs; > KbTfs;
Nkw; nfhs;tjpy; ,Ue;j mjpfhuk; Nghd;w vy;yhtw;iwAk;
cyfkakhf;fy; rpijj; J tpLfpd;wJ.
Njrp a tsq; fs; kP J ehl; Lkf; fs; flg; ghL
nfhs;skhl; lhHfs; . rHtNjr epWtdq; fNs ,j; jifa
KbTfis vLj;J tptrha cw;gj;jpfs; kPJ ghJfhg; gpid
Fiwj; jjd; fhuzkhf ehl; L tptrhapfs; ghjpg; gile; jJld;
cztpy; RaepiwtpidAk; ,oe;J fhzg;gLfpwJ.
cyfkakhf; fy; gztP f; fj; jpid mjpfhpf; fr; nra; jJld; >
nghUshjuj;jpd; cWjpaw;w epiyf;F nfhz; L nrd;W
jq;fpapUj;jy; epiyapid mjpfhpf;fr; nra;Js;sJ.
14) murpay;Nfhskakhjy;:-
jfty; njhlu;ghly; Clfj; jpd; %yk; ehL cs;shu;e;j
nraw; ghLfs; murpay; gp ur; rpidfs; tpiuthf KO
cyfpw;F guTtjpypUe; J ru; tNjr kf; fSf; F rpw; rpy
ghjpg; Gf; fs; Vw; gLj; jf; $bajhf ,Uj; jy; . mjD}lhf khdpl
cupikfs; > mbg;gil cupikfs; Mfpatw;wpw;F ghjpg;gpid
Vw;gLj;jy;.
15) Rw;whly; kakhjy;:-
Rw;whlYf;Fg; ghjpg; G Vw;glhj Gtpf; nfhs;ifapid
tsu;j;Js;sik. xU Gwj; jpy; mjpfhuk; ngw;wtu; fspd;
Rw; whlw; ghjpg;G KbTfs; midj;Jk; midtiuANk
ghjpf; fpd; wJ. cjhuzk; : fhyepiy khw; wk; kWGwk;
njhlu;ghly; njhopEl;gg; gupkhw;wj;jpD}lhf ,t;thwhd
Rw;whly; gpur; rpidfspypUe;J tpLgLtjw;F ,ay;ghf
jP u; khdk; vLg; gjw; F tsu; r; rpaile; j njhopEl; gk; fhzg; gly; .
khdplg; Gtpapay; -157- mf; \ad;
cjhuzk; : Rdhkpapdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l xU ehL jkf;F
Vw; gl; l ghjpg;gpid cldbahf ru; tNjr njhlu;ghly;
Clfj; jpD}lhf ghjpg; Gf; Fs; shff; $ba Vida ehLfSf; F
mwptpj;jy;.
16) ,yq; ifapy; jfty; njhopy;El;gKk; nghUshjuKk;:-
,yq; ifapy; tptrhaj; Jiwapd; nraw; ghLfSf; F jfty;
gupkhw;W njhopEl;gk;. Fiwe;jstpNyNa gad; gLj;jg; gl;L
tUfpd;wJ.
gy; NtW tifahd gapu; nra; iff; F cw; gj; jpfis
Nkw; nfh s; tjw; Fj; Njitah d mwp tp id
,izaj;jsj;jpD}lhfg; ngw;Wf; nfhs; sy;.
tptrhapfs; > tu; j; jfu; fs; Nritfis toq; Fgtu; fSf; F
,ilapYk; mwpTg; gupkhw;wj;jpid Vw;gLj;jy;. cjhuzk;
: re;ij tpiy> Ma;TfisAk;> Gjpa fz;Lg;gpbg;Gf; fs;.
tptrhaj;jpw; Fg; nghUj;jkhd gy;NtW muRfspdJk;>
jdp ahu; ep Wtdq; fsp dJk; tp trha tsq; fsp d;
ghJfhg; gpw; Fk; > Kfhikj; Jtj; jpw; Fk; G+Nfhs jfty;
njhFjpia (GIS) gad;gLj; jp Njrg; glk; jahupg;gjw;Fk;
mjid tp l jfty; gup khw; Wj; njhopEl; gj; jpd; kpf
Kf; fpaj; Jtk; tha; e; j fUtpahd Gtpia epiyg; gLj;Jfpd; w
njhFjp (GPS)apid gad;gLj; jy;.
tpNrlkhf cuk;> fpUkp ehrpdp> tptrhaKkk; Vida ,ju
cw;gj; jpfis Nkw; nfhs; fpd; w epWtdq;fs; jfty; gupkhw;W
njhopEl;gj;jpidg; ngUk;ghYk; gad;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -158- mf; \ad;
tpijapd cw; gj;jpfs;> tptrha ,urhad nghUl;fs;
Neha; fsf; F cl; glhJ cw; gj; jp fs; > tp Q; Qhd
Ma; Tf; $lq; fspDs; Njrpa kl; lj; jpw; F cl; gl; lthW
tp ijap dq; fsp d; gu p Nrh jid> fh y; eilts
cw; gj; jpAk;ghJfhg; G> tptrha cgfuzq; fs; > tprhag;
Nghf;Ftuj;J nraw;ghLfs;. cjhuzk; : gtu; epWtdk;>
Nyp]; epWtdk; > gpuTd; ]; epWtdk; Mfpait ,yq; ifapy;
Kd;dzpapy; jpfo;fpd;wd.
,yq; ifapDs; tprhaj;Jiwapy; Vida JiwfSf;F
rkdhf jfty; njhlu; ghd njhopEl; g gad; ghL Kd; dzpapy;
cs;sJ. mjw;fpilapy;>
tprhaf; ifj;njhopy; %yg; nghUs; cw; gj;jpf;fhf
muRk;> jdpahu; epWtdq;fSk; jfty; njhopy;El;gj; jpid
gutyhfg; gad; gLj; Jfpd; wd. cjhuzk; : lau; -BA+g; cw; gj; jp>
rPdp cw;gj;jp.
,yq; ifapDs; ifj;njhopy; Ngl;ilfs; mjpfstpy;
gutpf; fhzg; gLtJld; ,jw;fhf kpf mjpfstpy; jfty;
gupkhw;Wj; njhopy; El; gk; gad; gLj;jg; gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzk; :
etPd myq; fhu tbtikg; Gfis mwpjy;> etPd mwpitAk;
cgfuzq;fisAk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sy;> %yg; gnhUl;fisg;
ngw; Wf; nfhs;sy;> Gjpa re;ijfis mwpe;Jf; nfhs; sy;>
tp iyfis jP u; khdp j; jy; . ,tw; wp D}lhf ,yq; if
ifj; njhopy; Jiwapy; jfty; gupkhw; W njhopEl; g gad;ghL
mgptpUj;jpaile;Js;sikg;g gw;wp tpsf;fk; ngwy;.
Nritj; Jiwapy; mtjhdjlij nrYj;JtjD}lhf
,e;epiyikap;id mwpe;Jf; nfhs;syhk;.
tq; fpf; fzf; F tof; F> fhNrhiy gupkhw; wk; > tl; bapid
jPu; khdpj; jy;.
ifj; njhopw; rhiyfs; - xOq; fikj;jy; > cw;gj;jp>
juj; ijg; Ngzy;> Nkw; ghu;itaply;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -159- mf; \ad;
mr; rpLk; Jiw - xOq; fikj; jy; > xOq; fikj; jy; >
mr;rply;>.
jfty; gupkhw; W njhopEl; gj; jpid gad; gLj; JtjD}lhf
Nritj; Jiw kp fTk; ru p ah f tp laq; fis
xOq; fikg; gjw; Fk; > elj; jpr; nry; tjw; Fk; $bajhfTs; sik.
Vida ehLfSld; xg;gpLk; NghJ ,yq;ifr; r%fk;
gupkhw; wj; jpw; F tiuaWf; fg; gl; l mstpNyNa jfty; njhopy;
El;gj;ij gad; gLj;Jfpd;wJ.
eilKiwap y; cyfp y; njhop y; El; guP jp ap y;
tsu; r;rpaile;j mNefkhd ehLfs; njhopyhsu; fspd;
Njitf; fUjp mNefkhd jfty;fis jfty; njhopy; El;g
cghaq;fis njhlu;Gg; gLj;jpAs;sJ.
Nritfis toq; Fk; NghJ cldbahf njhop y;
toq; FdUk>; njhopyhsUk; re;jpg;gJ mtrpakhdjd;W.
gy; NtW cgh aq; fs; Clh f mjhtJ
,izaj;jsj;jpD}lhf Nritapd; epkpj;jkhf njhlu;Gf;
nfhz;L jkJ Njitfis ve;j ehl;bypUe; Jk;> ve; j xU
gpuNjrj;jpypUe;Jk; ve;j xU Neuj;jpYk; G+u;j;jpr; nra;Ak;
trjp fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.cjhuzk; : mur epu;thfk;.
tq;fpr;Nrit - gzg;gupkhw;wk;
fy; tp - ,izaj; jsj; jp D} lhf gy; NtW
Ntiyj; jpl; lq; fis gq; Fgw; wTk; guP l; irf; F r%fk;
mspj;jy; Nghd;w Nritfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sKbAk;.
Rfhjhuk; - Neha; fis ,dq; fhzYk; mjw; fhd
gup fhuj; ij ngw; Wf; nfhs; tjw; F (Tele Medicine)
fhzg; gly;.
Nghf;Ftuj;J - tpkhdk;> fg;gy; Nghf;Ftuj;J njhFjp
,izaj;jsj; Jld; njhlu; Gg; gLj; Jtjhy; ,yFthf
Nkw;nfhs;s KbAk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -160- mf; \ad;
17) murpay; JiwAk; jfty; njhopy;El;gKk;:-
,yq; ifapDs; jfty; gupkhw;W njhopel; g nraw;ghl;bd;
NghJ mJ njhlu; ghd tp isTfis rl; lfkhf
jahupj; Js; sJ. ,jid < = yq; fh (E - Sri Lanka)
ghu; f; fyhk; . ,jD}lhf vjpu; g; ghu; f; fg; gLtJ Njrpa mgptpUj; jp
ntw; wpfukhf nraw; gLtjw; F G+Nfhs mwpit ikag; gLj; jpf;
nfhs;sy;.
,yq; ifap Ds; gy; NtW ep u; thf nraw; ghLfis
xOq;fikg;gjw; F> nraw; gLj; J tjw; Fkhd fzpg;gP l;bw;fhf
jfty; njhop y; El; gk; gy; NtW mur ep u; tdq; fs;
jpizf;fsj;jpD}lhf gpuNahfdg;gLj;jpf; nfhs; Sk;.
mur ghJfhg; Gj; njhlu;ghd tplaq;fSf;Fj; jfty;
gupkhw;W njhopy; El;gj;jpid gad;gLj;jy;. cjhuzk;:
G+ Nfhs Xup lg; gLj; jy; njhFjp ap D} lhf (GIS)
Aj;jg;gpuNjrq;fs; njhlu;ghd tiug;glj;jpid jahupj; jy;.
Nfhskag;gLj; jy; njhFjp (GPS) Clhf Aj;jgpuNjrj; jpw;F
mz; kpj; J jfty;fis cldbahf ngw;Wf; nfhs; sf;
$bajhfTs;sik.
fzdpapy; gy;NtW ,izaj;jsj;jpD}lhf Nju;jy;
eltbf; iffis nraw; gLj; Jtjw; F jfty; njhopy; El; gj; ij
gad; gLj; jpf; nfhs; sy; . cjhuzk; : gy; NtW fl; rpfspD}lhf
Nju; jy; thf; FfSf;F mwpTWj;jy; toq; Ftjw;Fk; Via
fl;rpfs; gw; wpAk; ehl; by; fhzg; gLk; murpay; R+oy; gw;wpAk;
tpsf;Ftjw;Fk; gad; gLj;jpf; nfhs; sy;.
18) fyhrhu r%fj;jpw;F jfty; njhopy;El;gj;jpd; gad;ghL:-
jfty; njhopy;El;gj;jpD}lhf ghupastpy; ghjpg;gpw;F
cl;gl;Ls;s Jiwfshf fyhr;rhuj;ijAk; > r%fj;ijAk;
Fwpg;gplyhk;.
ehfuPf gpuNjrq; fis R+o ,j njhopy; El;gj;ij
gad; gLj; jy; fp uhkgFjp fSf; F cau; kl; lj; jp y;
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -161- mf; \ad;
fpuhk gpuNjrq;fSf;F rkdhf ehfuPf gpuNjrq;fspd;
fzdp> ,izaj;jsq; fs;> ifalf;f njhiyg;Ngrp> Vida
njhopy; El; g cgfuzq; fspd; gad; ghL rhjhuzkhf
fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
rka nraw;ghLfs;> nkhop> Xa; T Neuk; > tpisahl;L>
mofpay; nraw;ghLfSk; . epu;khdk; cil> czT> ghdk;
Mfpa jfty; njhopy;El;gj;jpdhy; gy;NtW khw;wq; fSf;F
cl;gl;Ls;sJ.
nkhop ,yFthfg; gad; gLj; jg; gl; Ls; sJld; Gjpa
nraw; ghLfspd; gad; ghL> mup r; Rtb> RUf; f nra; jp>
nghUj; jkhd jiyg; Gfs; ,izaj; jsq; fs; gy
cUthfpAs;sd.
nghOJ Nghf; F eltbf;iffSf;fhf njhiyf;fhl;rp
Ntiyj;jpl;lk; > fzdptpisahl;L> rpdpkhg;gllk;> mwpf;if
epfo; r;rp Mfpad cUthfpAs; sJ. ,j; Jiwapy; r%f
tho; f;iff;F ghupa jhf;fj;jpid Vw;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.
mofpay; JiwapDs; Gjpa thj;jpaf; fUtps; gy
cUthf; fg; gl;Ls;sJld; rq;fPjf; fiyj; Jiwapy; tsu; r; rpf;
fz;Ls;sJ.
Milazpfs;> tbtikg;Gj;njhlu; ghd ,izaj;js
fUj;juq;Ffs; njhlu;ghd jiyg;Gfs; gytw;iw mwpe;Jf;
nfhs; syhk; . ,jw; fhf etP d cgfua gad; ghL
tpuptile;Js;sJ.
,aw; ifahd nghUl; fs; NtW nghUl; fSld;
njhlu;Gila jfty; njhopDl;gj;jpid ngw;Wf; nfhs;s
kf; fs; top g; gLj; jy; . jfty; tp ep Nahfj; jp w; fhf
gad; gLj; Jfpd; w njhopy; El; gk; ehSf; F ehs; tpUj; jpaile; J
tUfp d; wJ. mt; thNw jfty; gup khw; W njhop Dl; g
gad; ghl; bdhy; r%fj; jp y; midj; J iffSk;
etPdkag;gLj;jYf;F cl;gl;Ls;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -162- mf; \ad;

10.rHtNjr tHj;jfk;
1) rHtNjr tHj; jfKk; mjd; nraw;ghLfSk;:-
cyfp y; midj; J ehLfSk; VjhtnjhU top ap y;
ru; tNjr tu; j; jfj; jpy; njhlu; Ggl; Ls; sJ. mjhtJ xt; nthU
ehLfSf; fpilapYk; cw; gj; jp gupkhw; wk; nra; a Ntz;bajd;
mtrpakhFk;. cw;gj;jpf;F mtrpakhd tsq;fs;> vy;yh
gpuNjrq;fspYk; my;yJ vy;yh ehLfspYk; rkkhf gue;Jf;
fhzg;glhikNa fhuzkhFk;.
ru;tNjrk; tu;j;jfk; Fwpj; j rpy mbg;gilapy; kl;Lk;
nraw;gLtjy; y. gy;NtW mikg; GfSk;> epWtdq; fSk;
njhlu;Ggl;Ls;sd.
1970k; Mz;Lfspd; gpd;dH gy;Njrpaf;fk;gdp ru; tNjr
tu; j; jfj; jp y; gp ujhd jP u; khdq; fis Nkw; nfhs; Sk;
mjpfhuj; jpid nfhz;bUe; jik Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;j
tplakhFk;.
1980d; gpw;gl;l fhyj;jpy; ru; tNjr tu;j;jfj;jpy; gy; NtW
nraw;ghl;lhsu; rk; ge;jg; gl; likf; fhzf; $bajhf cs;sJ.
gpuhe; jpa mikg; GfSk; > tu; j; jf mikg; GfSk; Kf; fpaj; Jtk;
mile;jd.
gy; NtW eh LfSf; fp ilNaAk; > murp ay;
FOf; fSf;fpilNaAk; murpay; fhzq;fs; milahsk;
fhz; gjw; F gad; gLk; fUtp ah ru; tNjr tu; j; jfk;
gad;gLj;Jk; re;ju;g;gq;fs;. cjhuzk;;: tu; j;jf $l;likg;G
cUthjy;.
ru;tNjr tu;j;jfj;jpdhy; nghUshjhu mgptpUj;jpapy;
Njhy; tpaile; jikf; fhd tplak; njhlu; ghf mwpayhk;. KO
ru; tNjr tu; j; jfj;jpYk; Vwf; Fiwa 70% mgptpUj; jpaile; j
ehLfspilNa Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -164- mf; \ad;
fhyk; > rpukk;> nryT Mfpait Fiwe; jstpy; <LgLj;jp
mjp f gad; ngwg; gLfp d; wJ. jdp g; gl; ltu; fsp ilNa
njhlu;Gfis Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;sTk; r%f kf;fspilNa
cupikg; gw; wp ruskhd mwpitg;ngw; Wf; nfhLg;gjw;F>
r%fj; ijg; gw; wp mwpT+ l; ltjw; fhf gy; NtW Jiwfs;
njhlu;ghd jfty; gupkhw;wj; jpd; gad;ghL jw;fhyj; jpy;
ruskhff; fhzg; gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzk; :- gy; NtW itj; jpa
Ntiyj; jpl; lq; fspd; %yk; Clf kf; fis mwpT+l;ly; %yk;
tpgj;Jf;fis Kfhikj; Jtg;gLj; jy;.
njhiyf; fhl; rp kw;Wk; ,izak; vd; gd ,yq; if r%fr;
#oyp y; Kidg; ghd khw; wq; fis Vw; gLj; Jtjp y;
fhuzkhfpAs;sJld; r%f eyDf; Fk; r%f rP u; Fiytpw; Fk;
fhuzkhfpAs;sd.
jfty; njhop Dl; gk; ,yq; ifap d; gz; ghl; L
ngWkhdj; ij tP o; r; rp ailar; nra; tjp y; Neubahf
nry; thf;Fr; nrYj; jpAs;sJld; ,tw;iw ifahSk; NghJ
mtjhdj;Jld; ,Ug;gJk; Kf;fpakhfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -163- mf; \ad;
2) cyf tHj;jfj; jpy; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jk; fhuzpfs;:-
kj; jpa fhyj; jpy; Vw; gl; l ehLfhz; gazq; fspd; tpUj; jp.
ifj; njhopy; Gul;rp fhuzkhf nghUl;fspd; cw;gj;jp
mjpfhpj;jik.
Njitfs; mjpfhpj;jikahy; cw;gj;jp mjpfhpj; jik.
njhopy;El;g mwpT gzg;ghpkhw;wk; tphptile;jikahy;
Vw;gl;l Kd;Ndw;wk;.
etPd njhlHghlw; rhjdq;fspd; gd; Kf tpUj;jp.
cyfpd; vy;yhg;gFjpfspypYk; vy; yhg; nghUl;fisAk;
cw;gj;jp nra;aKbahik.
vy; yh ehLfspypYk; tsq;fs; rkdhff; fhzg;glhik.
gzg; gad; ghl; bd; Kd; Ndw; wj; NjhL fhNrhiyfs; >
,yj; jpuzpay; Rw;Nwhl;lk; Jhpjkile; jik.
xUnghUspy; rpwg; Gj; NjH; rrpAila ehLfs; fhzg; gLjy; .
tH;j;jfk; Nghf;Ftuj;J> nra; jpg; ghpkhw;wj; jpy; Vw; gl;l
Kd;Ndw;wk;.
KbTg; ngh Ul; fisr; re; jijg; gLj; jTk; >
%yg; nghUl;fis ngw;Wf;nfhs; sTk; FbNaw;w ehLfis
mikj;jik.
cyfpd; ve;jnthU gpuNjrKk; jkf;Fj; Njitahd
midj;Jg;; nghUl;fisAk; ngwKbahJs; sik.
3) Guhjd fhyj; jpy; tHj; jfk; tpUj; jpailahikf; fhd fhuzq; fs; :-
Mjpkdpjdpd; Njitfs; tiuaiwf; Fl; gl; itahf
,Ue; jik.
Njitfs; cspikahftpUe; jik.
njhopEl;g mwpT tpUj;jpailahik.
cwtpdH Rw; Wg;Gwr; #oypy; trpj; jik.
kf;fs; jkf;Fj; Njitahd tsq; fis mUfpNyNa
ngwKbe;jik.
Nghf;Ftuj;J trjpfs; Fiwthf ,Ue; jik.
rdj; njhif Fiwthf,Ue; jik.
gz; lkhw; Wkiwfhzg; gl; likahy; gzg; Gof; fk;
fhzg;gltpy;iy.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -165- mf; \ad;
4) cyf tHj;jfk; ehLfSf; fpilNa gutpapUf;Fk; jd; ik:-
cyf tHj;jfj; jpy; 75-80 rjtPjk; mgptpUj;jp mile;j
ehLfSf;F chpajhf ,Uj; jy;.
tsHKf ehLfsp d; gq; F Fiwe; j rjtP jj; jp y;
fhzg;gLjy;.
If;fpa mnkhpf;fh> ehLfs;> N[Hkdp> gpuhd;];> fdlh>
ag;ghd; Nghd;w ehLfspy; tHj;jfk; jq;fpAs; sik.
Kd;ida Nrhtpaj; rkTilik Fbaurpw;F chpj;jhf
cs;s ehLfspd; gq;fspg;G FiwthfTs; sik.
Mgp hp f; f ehLfs; kp ff; Fiwthd gq; fp id
nfhz;Ls;sik.
cyf tHj; jfj; jpy; ngUksT rjtP jk; INuhg; gpa
ehLfSf;Nf chpj;jhf cs;sd.
5) rHtNjr tHj;jf kP jp:-
xU ehl;bd; Vw;Wkjp %yk; fpilf;Fk; tUkhdj;jpw;Fk;>
,wf; Fkjp %yk; Vw;gLk; nryTfSf;Fk; ,ilapYs;s
tpj;jpahrk; tHj;jf kP jp vdg;gLk;.
rhjfkhd tHj; jf kPjp:- Vw; Wkjp %yk; fpilf;Fk;
tUkhdk; ,wf; Fkjp %yk; fpilf;Fk; nrytPdj;ijtpl
mjpfkhtpUe;jhy; rhjfkhd tHj;jf kPjp vdg;gLk;.
ghjfkhd tHj; jf kPjp:- Vw; Wkjp %yk; fpilf;Fk;
tUkhdk; ,wf; Fkjp %yk; fpilf;Fk; nrytPdj;ijtpl
FiwthftpUe;jhy; ghjfkhd tHj;jf kPjp vdg;gLk;.
6) mgptpUj; jp mile; j ehLfs; tHj; jf kP jpia rhjfkhf
itj; jpUg;gjw;F gpd;gw;Wk; cj;jpfs;:-
toq; fy; fis tiuaWj; J nghUSf;Fj; jl; Lg; ghl; bid
Vw;gLj;jy;.
tpiyfisj; jP Hkhdpg;gjpy; nry;thf;Fr; nrYj;Jjy;.
tsHKf ehLfsp d; cw; gj; jp g; nghUl; fSf; fhd
gpujpaPl;Lg; nghUl;fis cw; gj;jpnra;J EfHjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -166- mf; \ad;
7) tsH Kf ehLfs; gh jfkh d tHj; jf kP jp ia
nfhz;Ls;sikf;fhd fhuzq;fs;:-
tsHKf eh Lfs; Kjdp iyg; nghUl; fis
re; ijg;gLj;Jfpd;wik.
mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehLfspd; gpujpaPl;Lg; nghUl;fs;
re;ijapy; fhzg;gLfpd; wik.
8) cyf tHj;jfj;jpd; Gjpa Nghf;F:-
mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehLfs; ngUkstpy; ifj;njhopy;
cw;gj;jp KbTg;nghUl;fis Vw;Wkjp nra;fpd;wd.
tsHKf ehLfspd; Vw;Wkjpg; nghUl; fs; Kjdpiy
nghUl;fshf fhzg;gLfpd;wd.
Gjpa ifj;njhopy; ehLfs; vspa EfHTg; nghUl;fis
tHj; jfj;jpy; <LgLj;Jfpd;wd.
cyf tHj;jfj;jpy; gy;Njrpaf; fk;gdpfs; ngUksT
jhf;fj;ij Vw; gLj;Jfpd;wd.
,yj;jpuzpay; Clhd gzg;ghpkhw;wk; ,lk;ngWfpd;wJ.
EfHthsH Neubahf njhop w; rhiyfsp yp Ue; J
nghUl;fisg; ngWfpd; wdH.
njhlHghlw; rhjdq; fs; re; ijAld; Neubahfj;
njhlHGgl;bUf;fpd; wd.
rp wg; G Vw; Wkjp g; nghUl; fsp y; rp y ehLfsp d;
nghUshjhuk; jq;fpAs;sJ.
tsHKf ehLfs; rp ytw; wp d; ifj; njhop y; fs;
%lg; gLtjhy; mjw;Fhpa re;ijia ,of;fpd;wd.
tHj; jf cld;gbf;iffs;> tHj; jf xOq;fikg;Gf; fs;>
tHj;jff; $l;Lf; fis Vw;gLj;Jtjpy; cyfehLfs; Kaw;rp
nra;fpd;wd.
EfHNthhp d; mj; jp ahtrp a Njitfis tp l
cw; gj; jpahsHfspd; ,yhgNk Nehf;fkhff; fhzg; gLfpd; wJ.
tp Uj; jp mile; j ehLfs; %yg; nghUl; fisg;
ngw; Wf; nfhs; tjw; Fk; > jkJ cw; gj; jpg; nghUl; fis
tpw; gjw; Fk; tsHKf ehLfSld; njhlHG nfhz; bUf; fpd; wd.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -167- mf; \ad;
9) rHtNjr tHj;jfj;jpy; tpUj;jpaile;j ehLfs; vjpHNehf;Fk;
gpur;rpidfs;:-
fdpa vz;nza; tpiy mjpfhpg; gpdhy; ifj;njhopy;
cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fSf;fhd nryT mjpfhpj; jy;.
tsHKf ehLfs; jkJ cs;SH %yg;nghUl;fisf;
nfhz;L ifj;njhopy;fis Muk;gpg;gjhy; tpUj;jpaile;j
ehLfs; %yg;nghUs; jl;Lg;ghl;il vjpHNehf;Fjy;.
10) rHtNjr tHj;jfj;jpy; tpUj;jpailej; ehLfs; vjpHNehf; Ffpd;w
gpur;rpidfis jPHg;gjw;fhd eltbf;iffs;:-
tHj;jf $l;likg;Gf;fis Vw;gLj; jy;.
Gjpa re;ijfisg; ngw; Wf;nfhs; sy;.
,Ugf;f tHj;jf xg;ge;jq;fis Vw;gLj; jy;.
gpujpaPl;Lg; nghUl;fspy; rhHe;jpUj; jy;.
rpy nghUl;fis kPs;Row;rpf;F cl;gLj; Jtjpy; ftdk;
nrYj;Jjy;.
11) rHtNjr tHj; jfj; jp y; tsHKf ehLfs; vjp HNehf; Fk;
gpur;rpidfs;:-
jkJ cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fSf;F epahakhd tpiyiag;
ngwKbahik.
gy;Njrpaf; fk;gdpfspd; nry;thf;F fhzg;gLjy;.
tpUj; jpaile;j ehLfspd; nry;thf;F.
ghuhk;ghpa re;ijfis tpl; L tpyFjy;.
12) rHtNjr tHj; jfj; jp y; tsHKf ehLfs; vjp Hnfhs; Sk;
gpur;rpidfisj; jP Hg;gjw; fhd eltbf;iffs;:-
tHj; jf cld; gbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;.
tya xOq;fikg;gf;fis Vw;gLj; jy;.
gfpuq;f Vy tpw;gid Kiwfisg; gpd;gw;Wjy;.
tHj; jf fz;fhl;rpfis elhj;Jjy;.
Nghl;bahd Gjpa re; ijfSf; Fs; Eiojy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -168- mf; \ad;
13) gy;Njrpa epWtdq;fs;:-
1950-1960 jrhg;jj; jpy; If; fpa mnkupf;f ehLfspy; rpy
fk;gdpAk; INuhg;gpa ehLfspYk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;lJ. gpd;dH
INuhg; gp a whLfsk; mnkupf; fhTk; ,jid gp d; gw; wp
jk; Kila tp ahghu q; fis NtW eh Lfsp Yk;
Muk; gpf;fg;gl; lJld; gy; Njrpaf; fk; gdp guTtjw; fhd Muk; g
rw;ju;g;gkhf mikag;ngw;wJ.
jw;NghJ cyfpy; nraw;gLk; ghupa gy; Njrpa fk;gdpfs;
600y; 300 fk;gdpfs; If;fpa mnkupf;fh ehLfspYk; 100
tiuapy; [g; ghdpYk; mike; Js;sJld; NkYk; 60 tiuapy;
If; fp a ,ul; rp aj; jp Yk; mike; Js; sJ. Vida
mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfspd; gy;Njrpaf;fk;gdpfs; gw;wp
tpguj;ij Encarta Encyclopedea - 2008 y; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sy;.
,f; fk; gdp fs; %yk; NtW ehLfsp y; Neubahf
ntspehl;L Neub KjyPLfs; (Foreign Direct Investments -
FDI) nra; ag;gLfpd;wJ.
mtu; fsp d; Nghf; Ftuj; J tiyaikg; G gy; NtW
El; gtopfs; njhopy;El;g nraw;ghLfspd; Clhf cs;ehl;L
ifj; njhopy; cw;gj; jpfis fl;Lg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.
cyfpd; ghhpa gy;Njrpaf; fk;gdpfs;:
Monsanto - USA Bayer - Germany
Unilever UK Shell - UK/Netherland
Merck - UK Cargills - USA
Laxo - UK Mitsui Toatsy Japan
khdplg; Gtpapay; -169- mf; \ad;
14) KjyPLfs;:-
tu;j;jfj;jpy; rpW cw;gj;jp Vw;Wkjpapy; jq;fpapUj; jy;>
mtw; Wf; fhd tpiy Fiwthf re; ijapy; fp ilj; jy;
fhuzkhfTk; mgptpUj; jp mile; J tUk; ehLfspy; %yjd
KjyP Lfs; Fiwe;j kl;lj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpd; wJ. ru; tNjr
tu; j; jfj; jpy; gy; Njrpa tu; j; jf fk; gdpfNs Mjpf; fk;
nrYj;Jfpd; wd. ,jdbg;ilapy; mgptpUj;jp mile;J tUk;
ehLfs; ru;tNjr tu; j;jfj;jpd; %yk; ngWfpd;w ed;ikfs;
Fiwthff; fhzg;gLfpwJ.
mgptpUj;jp mile;J tUk; ehLfspy; Nritf;Fiwe;j
$ypAk; cw;gj;jpf;fhdciog;gpw;F nryT FiwthfTk;
,Ug; gjdhy; gy;Njrpa fk;gdpfs; me;ehLfspy; mjpfsT
%yjd KjyPLfis nra; jy; ed; ik gaf; Fk;.
gy; Njrp a fk; gdpfs; mgp tp Uj; jp mile; J tUk;
ehLfspd; %yjd KjyPL nra;tjdhy; mgptpUj;jpaile;j
ehLfspd; re; ijap id ,yf; fhf nfhz; Nl cw; gj; jp
jPu;khdpf;fg;gLfpwJ.
%yjd KjyP L nra; tjhy; <l; lg; gLk; ,yhgk;
fk; gdp fsp dhy; ngw; Wf; nfhs; sg; gLtJld; Vida
ehLfSf;F Nritf;fhf Cjpak; kl;LNk ngwg;gLk;.
Vida ehLfspdhy; Nkw;nfhs; sg;gLk; cs;ehl; L
KjyP Lfs; (Foriegn Direct Investments FDI) gy; Njrp a
fk;gdpfNa gpujhd gq;Ftfpf;fpd;wJ.
jw; fhyj; jpy; gy; Njrp a fk; gdp mjp fstp y; rP dh>
kNyhrpah> rpq;fG+H> jha;yhe;J> njd; nfhupah> jha; thd;
Mfpa ehLfspy; KjyPL nra;fpd;wJ.
ntspaehl;L gzk; KjyPL nra;ag;gLtjd; %yk;
ntspaehl;Lfs; gpd;gw;Wk; nfhs;iffs; Kf;fpaj; Jtk;
tha;e;jit.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -170- mf; \ad;
jw;fhyj; jpy; rPdh> rpq;fg;G+H> kNyhrpah Nghd; w ehLfs;
jkJ nghUshjhuj; jpid tpupTg; glj; JtjD}lhf ntspehl; L
KjyP Lfis ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw; F ,lkspf;fg;gLfpwJ.
rP dh tp y; ntsp awhl; L gz KjyP fs;
mz; ikf; fhyq; fsp y; mjp fup j; Jr; nrd; Ws; sikNa
rP dhtp Dila nghUshjhuk; ntsp g; gltjw; fhd
fhuzkhFk;.
rP dh jw; fhyj;jpy; njhiyf;fhl; rp cw; gj; jpapy; Kjyplk;
tfp f; fp d; wJld; kNyrp ah thndhyp (cgfuzq; fs; )
cw;gj; jpapy; cyfpy; Kjyplk; ngWtJk; ntspehl; L
KjyP Lfis ngw;Wf; nfhz;likAk;.
jw; fhyj; jp y; ntsp ehl; L KjyP Lfis ngw; Wf;
nfh s; tjw; fh f jkJ ehLfsp d; rk; gp u jh a
rl;lj;jpl;lq;fisAk; khw;wpf; nfhz;Ls;sd.
15) njhopEl;g ghpkhw;wk;:-
VjhtJ xU ehL jkf;F ntspehl; L KjyPl; vid
tp up thf; fkf; nra; tjw; fhd Nehf; fq; fSs; xd; whd
njhop y; El; g Kiwfisg; gw; wp mwp itg; ngw; Wf;
nfhs;syhk;.
gy; Njrpa fk; gdp jkJ njhopEl;gj; jpid mg;gbNa
toq; Ftjdhy; gpur;rpidfs; Vw;gLfpd;wJ.
mtu;fs; Fiwe;j cw; gj; jp nrytpd; $yk; mjpf
,yhgj; jpid ngw; Wf; nfhs; s Kaw; rp vLf; fpd; wdH.
,jdbg;gilapy; me;ehLfspy; gapw; wg;glhj rpukj; jpid
(ciog;gpid) kl;LNk ngw;Wf; nfhs; tJld; gapw;wg; gl;l
njhopDl; g mwpTila Nritfis jkJ jha; ehl; bypUe; Nj
ngw;Wf; nfhs; tu;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -171- mf; \ad;
mjdbg; gilapy; njhopy; El; g gupkhw; wj; jpd; NghJ
njhopy;El;g gapw;rp toq;Fk; NghJk; rpwpa mstpNyNa
njhopEl; g khw; wk; Vw;gLfpwJ. vdNt njhopEl; g tsu;; rpNah>
gupkhw;wNkh Vw;glhik njspthfpwJ.
Kfhikj;Jt El;g Kiw KjyPLfs; Nkw;nfhs;Sk;
ehLfSf;F ngw; Wf; nfhs; Sk; vjpu;g; ghu;f; fg;gLtJld;
vjpu;f;fhyj; jpy; epiwNtw;wg; gLk; vd;gJ re;Njfj;jpw; Fupa
tplakhFk;.
16) tsq;fspd; gad; ghL:-
Gtpapy; fhzg;gLk; tsq;fs; kdpjdpd; Njitapd;
nghUl;L ,aw;if R+oypy; ,Ue;J ngw;Wf; nfhs;sg; gLk;
nraw; ghNl tsq; fsp d; gad; ghL vd; W mgp tp Uj; jp
nra;ayhk;.
mgptpUj;jpaile;J tUk; ehLfs; jkJ mjpfkhd
tsg; ghl;bw;F KjyPL nra;tjw;fhd gzKk; njhopy; El;g
mwpTk; fhzg;gltpy;iy.
,e;ehLfs; tsg; gad; ghl; L nraw;ghl;Lf; fhf ntspehl; L
KjyP Lfspy; rhu;e;Js;sJ.
tsg; gad;ghl; L nraw;ghLfspy; khj;jpuk; <LgLfpd;w
gy; Njrpa fk; gdpfs; fhzg; gLfpd; wd. cjhuzkhf Mgpupf; f
ehLfsp y; gp j; jis> jq; fk; Mfp a tsg; gad; ghl; L
nraw;ghLfspy; ,f; fk;gdpfs; <Lgl;Ls;sd.
epiyj;J epw; Fk; mgptpUj;jpia fUj;jpw; nfhs;shJ
tsg; gad;ghL mjpfstpy; ,lk; ngWfpd;wJ.
mgptpUj; jpaile; j ehLfs; jkJ tsq; fis vjpu; f; fhyj;
Njitf; F ghJfhf; Fk; nghUl; L Xu; cghakhf
mgptp Uj; jp aile; J tUk; ehLfis tsg; gad; ghl; L
nraw; gh lfsp y; < LgLj; jp As; sikia
fhzf;$bajhfTs;sJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -172- mf; \ad;
kP z; Lk; cUthfhj tsq;fisAk;> kP z; Lk; cUthtjw; F ePz; l
fhyk; vLf;Fk; tsq;fisAk; mjpfsT gad;ghl;Lf;F
cl;gLj;Jtjdhy; gpur;rpidfs; Vw;gLk;.
17) Kfhikj;Jtk;:-
gy; Njrp a fk; gdp fs; Ez; Kfhikj; Jt jp wik
nfhz;ljhFk; . tu;j; jfr; re;ij> tu;j;jf nfhs;iffs;>
tsq; fs;> njhopyhsu;fs;> njhopy; gpupT Nghd;wtw; Wf;F
Kfhikj;Jtk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ngWfpd;wJ.
ru;tNjr my;yJ tya uP jpapy; tu;j;jf mgptpUj; jpia
Vw; gLj; jy; Kfhikj; Jtj; jp y; Xu; mk; rkhFk; .
(G+Nfhskakhjy;)
Nfhskakhjy; nghUshjhuj; jp w; F nghUj; jkhd
Kfhikj;Jt gapw;rp toq; fYk; mjDld; njhlu; ghd
Kfhikj;Jtg; ghlrhiy cUthfpaik gaDilajhFk;.
mgp tp Uj; jp ap d; gy; NtW Jiwfis mwp e; Jf;
nfhs; tjw; fhf Kfhikj; Jtk; xd; iw eilKiwg; gLj; JtJ
Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jjhFk;.
nghUshjhu tsu;r;rpia Vw;gLj;jy;> fl;Lg;gLj; jy;>
njhlu;ghd nfhs;iff; F Kfhikj;Jtk; Kf;fpakhFk;.
gy; Njrp afk; gdp fSld; ngUj; jkhdthW Njrp a
nfhs; ifap y; Vw; gLj; jp nfhs; tjw; F Kfhikj; Jtk;
mtrpakhFk;.
18) ,yq; ifapd; ntspehl; L tHj;jfj;jpy; nry;thf; Fr; nrYj;Jk;
fhuzpfs;:-
mur nfhs;if
kpif cw;gj;jp
nfhs;tdT rf;jpapy; Vw;gl;l tpUj;jp
njhlHghly; tpsk;guj;jpd; nry;thf;F
khdplg; Gtpapay; -173- mf; \ad;
rHtNjr njhlhGfspy; Vw;gl;l tpUj;jp
tHj; jff; $l; Lf;fs; xOq;fikg;gf;fspdJ nry;thf;F
kf; fs; njhif mjp fhp j; jikahy; Njitfs;
mjpfhpj;jik
gpuNjr hPjpahd efuq;fis ,izf;Fk; Nghf;Ftuj;jpd;
tiyaikg;G
19) rHtNjr tHj;jfj;jpy; ,yq;if vjpHNehf;Ffpd;w gpur;rpid:-
Kjdpiyg; nghUl;fspd; tpiyfs; tPo; r;rpailjYk;
jsk;gyiljYk;.
Kjdpiy cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fis tpwg;id nra;tjpy;
re; ijapy; tUfpd; w gpujpaP l; Lg; nghUl;fs; jilahf
cs;sik.
Kjdpiyg; nghUl;fspd; ngWkjpapy; ngUk; gFjp
kPz; Lk; mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfisr; nrd;wiljy;.
nghUshjhu tYf; FiwghL.
mgptpUj;jp mile;j ehLfs; caHe;j Rq;fthpfis
tpjpj;jy;.
Nfhl;lhKiwapy; ,wf;Fkjpf;F mgptpUj;jp mile;j
ehLfs; mDkjp mspj; jy;.
mgptpUj; jp mile; j ehLfs; ,wf; Fkjpf; fl; Lg; ghLfis
tpjpj;jy;.
Vw; Wkjp g; nghUl; fSf; fhd ep ahakhd tp iy
fpilf; fhik.
,yq; if ,wf;Fkjp nra; fpd;w cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fspd;
tpiyfs; caHtiljy;.
gy;Njrpaf; fk;gdpfspd; Mjpf; fk;.
20) ntspehl;L tHj;jfj;jpy; ,yq;if vjpHNehf;Ffpd;w
gpur;rpidfisj; jPHg;gjw;F Nkw;nfhs; fpd;w eltbf;iffs;:-
Vw;Wkjpiag; gd;Kfg;gLj; jy;.
tHj; jf cld; gbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;.
ntspehl;L cjtpfisg; ngWjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -174- mf; \ad;

11. tya mikg;Gfs;
1) tya mikg;Gf; fspd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
cWg; G ehLfSf; fp ilNa fhzg; gLk; fl; lw; w
tHj; jfj; jp w; fhd jilfis eP f; FjYk; > nghJthd
ntspj;jPHit xd;wpidg; gpd;gw;WjYk;.
%ytsq;fis xd;W jpul; b caHjukhd nghUl;fs;
cw;gj;jp nra; jy;.
cWjpahd [dehaf r%fk; xd;wpid cUthf;Fjy;.
ntspehl;L Neub KjyPLfspd; mstpid mjpfhpj;jy;.
$l;Lj; njhopy; Kaw;rpfis cUthf;Fjy;.
tHj; jf Nehf; fkpd;wp murpay; rkepiy> Rfhjhuk;>
Nghf;Ftuj;J njhlHghly;> gz;ghL fyhrhu tplaq;fisg;
NgZjy;.
ngUksT rpwg;Gj; NjHr;rpapid ngWtjd; %ykhf
nghUshjhu tphpthf;fj;jpid Jhz;b tpLjy;.
caH mstpyhd Nghl;bfspd; eyd;fis mDgtpj;Jf;
nfhs;Sjy;.
fhuzpfspd; cj;jk gad;ghl;bid cWjp nra; jy;.
,aysTila cw; gj; jp ap id ep r; rag; gLj; jp f;
nfhs;Sjy;.
tphpT gLj;jg;gl;l re;ijnahd;wpid mDgtpj; jy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -175- mf; \ad;
2) tya mikg;Gf;fSk; mtw;wpd; RUf;fKk;:-
njd; dhrpa ehLfspd; $l;likg;G (rhHf;) SAARC
njd; fpof;fhrpa ehLfspd; $l;likg;g (Mrpahd;)
ASEAN
gy; Jiw njhop y; El; g kw; Wk; nghUshjhu
njhlHGfSf; fhd tq; fsh tp hp Flh tya mikg; G
(gpk;];nuf;) BIMSTEC
Mrp a gRgp f; tya nghUshjhu xj; Jiog; G
mikg;G(vngf;) APEC
INuhg;gpaf; $l;likg;G( INuhg;gpa A+dpad;):- EU
INuhg;gpa nghUshjhur; r%fk; :- EEC
INuhg;gpa Rje;jpu tHj;jfr; rq;fk; :- EFTA
3) rhHf; (SAARC) mikg;G:-
Mq;fpy tphpT - (South Asian Association for
Regional Cooperation - SAARC)
mikg;gpid Vw;gLj;Jtjw;fhf 1970 gq; fshNjrj; jpd;
[dhjpgjpahd rpah cy; u_khd; MNyhrid toq;fpdhu;.
1983 [_d; khjk; GJby;yp efupy; tya ntspehl;L
nrayhsu;fspd; %yk; xj;Jiog; gpid toq;fp 9 Jiwfs;
gw; wp a jp l; lkp liy Kd; itj; jdu; . ,jid GJby; yp
MNyhrid vd $wyhk;.
tptrhak; fpuhk mgptpUj;jp njhlu;ghly; thdpiy
tp Q; Qhdk; > rdj; njhif nraw; ghL> Nghf; Ftuj; J>
jghy;Nrit> tpQ;QdKk; njhopDl;gKk;> tpisahl; L>
fiy> fyhrhu nraw;ghL Mfpa 9 Jiwfs; MFk;.
1985 brk;gu; 8 Me; jpfjp gq;fshNjrpy; lhf;fh efupy;
njd;dhrpa tya xj; Jiog;G mikg; G (SAARC) rk;gpujhag;
g+u;tkhf Muk; gpf;fg;gl;lJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -176- mf; \ad;
4) rhHf; (SAARC) mikg;gpy; mq;fk; tfpf;Fk; ehLfs;:-
,yq; if> ,e; jp ah> gq; fshNj]; > khiyjP Tfs; >
ghfp];jhd;>Neghsk; > G+l;lhd;> Mg;fhzp]; jhd;
Mg; fhdp]; jhd; 2007 Vg;gpuy; 3 Me; jpfjp Kjy;
mq;fj;Jtk; ngw;wJ.
5) rhHf; mikg; gpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
njd; dhrp a ehLfsp ilNa $l; L ek; gp f; ifia
mgptpUj; jp nra; jy; kw; Wk; tYg; nwr; nra; jy; vd; gtw; Wf; fhd
eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs; Sjy;.
gaq; futhjj; ij xop j; jy; kw; Wk; murp ay;
cWjpapd;ikiag; Nghf;Fjy; vd;gd njhlHgpy; tyaj; jpd;
nghJg;gpur; rpidfspd; NghJ rHtNjr hPjpapy; tyakl;l
mbg; gilapy; Kd;tUjy;.
czTf; fhg; ig Vw; gLj; Jtjw; fhf rhHf; tptrha
epiyak; kw; Wk;ghJfhg; ghd czTf; fsQ; rpaj; ijAk;
gq;fshNjrpy; mikj; jy;.
gaq; futhjj;ij xopg; gjw;F muR kl; lj; jpy; jiytHfs;
jP Hkhdq; fis Nkw; nfhs; Sjy; > gaq; futhjj; ij
jtpHg;gjw;fhd cld; gbf;ifia eilKiwg;gLj;Jjy;.
njd; Mrpa ehLfspd; tWikia xopj; jy;.
nghUshjhu Kd;Ndw;wk;> Rfhjhug; gpu;rpidfSf;Fj;
jpHT fhZjy; vd;gtw;Wf;fhf [g;ghd; rhHf; ntspehl;L
epjpak;> njd; Mrpah mgptpUj; jp epjpak; vd;gtw;wpd; %yk;
epjp kw;Wk; nghUs; cjtpfis toq;Fjy;.
tHj; jfk; njhlHgp y; vOe; Js; s gp ur; rp idfis
,op tsthf; Ftjw; F njd; Mrp a Kd; Dhp ik tHj; jf
cld;gbf;ifia(SAPTA) eilKiwg;gLj;jy;> njd; Mrpa
Rje; jpu tHj;jfg; gpuNjrj;ij(SAFTA) Vw;gLj;jy;.
6) njw; fhrpa ehLfspd; tu;j;jf xg;ge; jk; (SAPTA) nfhz;Ls;s
4 tplaq;fs;;:-
mq; fj; Jt eh Lfsp d; nghUshjhu k; >
ifj; njhop y; Jiwfsp y; tup tpyf; fsp j; jy; > ntsp ehl; L
tu; j; jfk; njhlu; gh f mtjhdj; ij Vw; gLj; jp
xt; nthUtUf; Fk; khdpak; toq; Fk; tifapy; nraw; ghLfis
Nkw;nfhs;sy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -177- mf; \ad;
xg;ge;jk; nraw;gLj;jypd;NghJ gbg;gbahf guPl;rpj;J
ngUfp d; w mDgtj; jp d; Clhf mjid mgp tp Uj; jp
nra; tjw;F Njitahd nraw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs; sy;.
kp ff; Fiwe; j mgp tp Uj; jp fhzg; gLk; ehLfsp d;
Njitf; Nfw; g Kiwfs; njhlu; ghd xj; Jiog; gp id
Vw;gLj;jy;.
%yg; nghUs; > KbTg; nghs;> miuFiwg; nghUs; Nghd;w
midj; J cw; gj; jpfSld; njhlu; Gila xg; ge; jj; jpid
Nkw;nfhs;sy;.
7) njd; fpof;fhrpa ehLfspd; rq;fk; (Mrpahd; ) :-
Mq;fpy tphpT - (The Association of South East Asian
Nations - ASEAN)
1967 Mf];l; 8 ,y; jha;yhe;jpd; ghq; nfhf; efupy;
mq; fj; Jt ehLfs; 5 fye; Jnfhz; L ,t; tikg; G
jhgpf;fg;gl; lJ.
8) Mrpahd; (ASEAN) mikg;gpy; mq;fk; tfpf; Fk; ehLfs; :-
jha;yhe; J> rpq;fg; G+H> gpypg;igd;];> ,e;NjhNdrpah>
fk; Nghbah> tpal; dhk; > kNyrpah> kpad; khH> G&iz>
yhNth];
,e; NjhNdrpah> kNyrp ah> gp yp g; igd; > rpq; fg; g+ u; >
jha;yhe; J Mfpa ehLfs; Mrpad; mikg; gpy; Muk; g
mq;fj;Jt ehLfshFk;.
G&iz> tpal;ehk;> yhNth];> kpad;khu;> fk;Nghbah
Mfpad gpd;du; ,ize; J nfhz; l ehLfshFk;. nkhj;j
mq;fj;Jt ehLfs; 10 MFk;.
9) Mrpahd; mikggpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
tyaj; jp d; rkhjhdk; ]; jp uj; jd; ik vd; gtw; iw
cWjpg;gLj;j eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs; sy;.
,aw;ifmopTfspd; NghJ md; dpNahd;dpa cjtpfs;
toq;Fjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -178- mf; \ad;
nghUshjhu mgptpUj; jpf;F xj;Jiog; G toq;FjYk;
tHj; jfj;ij Nkk;gLj;jYk;.
tpyq; F Ntshd; ik mgptpUj; jp td mgptpUj; jpj;
jpl; lq;fSf; F epArpyhe;jpd; Mjuitg; ngWjy;.
kpd; gpb mgptpUj;jpf; F fdlhtpd; cjtpiag; ngWjy;.
,aw; if mopTfspd;NghJ mtw;iw Kd; $l; bNa vjpHT
$Wjy;.
njhpT nra; ag;g; gl; l njd; fpof; F Mrpa ehLfspy;
,lHnjhlHghly; Nfe; jpu epiyaq;fis mikj; jy;.
Mrpahtpd; tpQ;Qhdk; kw;Wk; njhopEl;gf; FOf;fis
mikj; jy;.
tHj; jfk; njhlHghd rthy;fis ntw;wp nfhs;tjw;F
me; ehLfSf;F epthuzk; mspf;Fk; Rq; fthpf; nfhs;ifia
eilKiwg; gLj;jy;.
10) INuhg;gpa rq; fk; (European Union)
INuhg;gpa rq;fj;jpd; mq;fj;Jt ehLfs; 27 ,iz
cl;gLj;jpa nghUshjhu murpay; rq;fkhFk;.
1993 etk;gu; 1 Mk; jpfjp kh];upr; rq;fk; (Treaty of
Mastricht) vDk; ngaupy; INuhg;gpa rq;fk; ];jhgpj; Js;sJ.
,jd; Muk;g;jpd; NghJ 6 ehLfs; mq;fj;Jtk; ngw;wd.
mit ngy;[pak;> gpuhd;];> Nkw;F N[u;kdpa FbauR>
,j;jjhyp> yf; rk;Ngu;f;> neju;yhe;J Mfpad. jw;NghJ
mq;fj;Jt ehLfspd; vz;zpf; if 27 MFk;.
INuhg; gpa rq; fk; mq; fj; Jt ehLfSf; Ffpilapy; nghJg;
gz myF a+Nuh vd mwpKfk; nra; ag;gl;Ls;sJ.
jw; Ngh J 1 6 eh Lfs; a+ Nuh ehzaj; ijg;
gad;gLj;JtJld; me;ehLfis cs; slf; fpa tyak; a+Nuh
tyak; vd mwpKfk; nra; ag;gLfpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -179- mf; \ad;
11) INuhg;gpa A+dpadpy;; (EU) mq;fk; tfpf; Fk; ehLfs;:-
If; fpa uhr; rpak; > maHyhe; J> gpuhd; R> ]; ngapd; >
NghHj; Jf; fy; > yf; rk; NgHf; > ,j; jhyp > x]; jp hp ah>
]; Nyhthf; fp ah> ]; Nyhthdp ah> Nkhy; lh> fq; Nfhp >
ngy; [pak;> nejHyhe;> nld;khHf;> N[Hkdp> fphP];> RtP ld;>
tj; tpah> gpd;yhe; J> v];Nlhdpah> ypJNtdpah> Nghyhe;J>
nrf; FbauR> irgpu];
12) INuhg;gpa A+dpadpd; cg epWtdq;fs;:-
INuhg;gpa fkprd;
INuhg;gpa mikr;rHfs; fTd; rpy;
INuhg;gpa ghuhSkd;wk;
INuhg;gpa ePjpkd;wk;
13) INuhg;gpa A+dpadpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
mq;fj;Jt ehLfSf;fpilNa jilfs; thpfs; mw;w
tpjj;jpy; fl;lw;w tHj;jfj; jpid Njhw;Wtpj; jy;.
mq; fj; Jtk; ngwhj Viza ehLfSldhd tHj; jfj; jpy;
nghJthd tHj;jfj; jilfis epHtfpj; jy;.
gpuhe;jpa ehza Kiwapy; nghJthd ehza epjpf;
nfhs;if xd;wpidf; filg;gpbj; jy;.
%yjd> Copa> njhopy;El;g mk;rq;spy; mq;fj;Jt
ehLfSf;F xj; Jiog;gpid toq;Fjy;.
jdpbnahU ehzak; kw; Wk; ehza tptfhuq;fSf;fhd
jdp ahd INuhg; gp a tq; fp vd; gtw; wp id jhgpg; gij
Nehf;fkhff; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
INuhg; gp a A+ dp adp y; mq; fk; tfp f; Fk; ehLfs;
gad; gLj; Jk; nghJthz ehzaj; jp d; myF A+ Nuh
vdg;gLfpd;wJ.
14) INuhg;gpa nghUshjhur; r%fj;jpy; (EEC) mq; fk; tfpf;Fk;
ehLfs;:-
gpuhd;]; > N[Hkdp> ngy; [pak; > yf; rk; NgHf; > nejHyhe;J>
,j;jhyp> If; fpauhr; rpak;> maHyhe;J> nld;khHf;> fphP];
khdplg; Gtpapay; -180- mf; \ad;
15) INuhg;gpa nghUshjhur; r%fj;jpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
nghUshjhu xUikg; ghl; bd; %yk; murp ay;
xUikg;ghl;il cUthf;Fjy;.
jkJ mikg; gp Ys; s ehLfSf; fhd thp fis
eP f;fpaJld;> Viza ehlfs; kPJ xNu tifahd thpapid
tpjpj;jy;.
jkJ mikg; G ehLfSf; Fs; ve; j ehl; bYk;
mikg;gpYs;s ehLfspypUe;J ntiytha;g;ig ngWjy;>
ve;jnthU cWg;G ehl; bYk; KjyPL nra; jy;.
16) A+Nuh ehza myF mwpKfk; nra; ag; gl; likf; fhd fhuzq; fs; :-
rq; fj; jp d; eh LfSf; fp ilap y; ngh Ul; fs;
gupkhw; wj; jpd; NghJ xt; nthU ehLk; gy; NtW gz myFfis
gupkhw;wk; nra;Ak;NghJ Vw;gLk; ghjpg;gpid jtpu;j; jy;.
mq;fj;Jt ehLfs; ehzakhw;wpy; Vw;gLk; ghjpg; igf;
Fiwj; jy;.
If; fpakhd INuhg; ghtpid fl; bnaOg; Gtjw; F INuhg; gpa
nghUshjhuj; ij cUthf;f mj; jpthukply;.
mnkup f; f nlhyUf; F gjp yhf gyk; tha; e; j
khw; Weltbf;if xd;wpid Kd;itj;JnlhyUf;F gjpyhf
a+Nuhtpd; tp];jPu jd;ikia Vw;gLj; jy;.
17) Mgphpf;f nghUshjhu Mizf; FO:-
1958 If;fpa ehLfspy; nghUshjhu r%f mikg; gpy;
tya Mizf; FO 5 MFk; . mjpy; xd; W Mgp upf; f
nghUshjhu Mizf;FO.
Mgpupf;f ehLfspd; mgptpUj;jpia Fwpj;J mq;fj;Jt
ehLfs; r%f nghUshjhu mgptpUj;jpf;F cjTjy;> tya
xj; Jiog; gpid tsu; j; jy; > cs; ehl; L xj; Jiog; gpid
mgptpUj;jp nra;tjw;F ,t;thizf; FOit Vw;gLj;jpaik
mbg; gil Nehf;fkhFk;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -181- mf; \ad;
Mgpupf; f nghUshjhu Mizf; FOtpd; nehf; fq; fisAk;
Fwp f; NfhisAk; miltjw; F nraw; gh Lfis
xOq; fikg;gjw;F ,U jiyg;Gfspd; fPo; nraw;gLtjw;F
xOq;fikf; fg; gl;lJ.
18) Mgphpf; f nfhUshjhu Mizf; FOtpd; Kf; fpa ,U jiyg; Gfs; :-
tya xj; Jiog; gpd; %ykhf Mgpupf; f rq; fj; jp d;
vjpu;ghu;g; gpd; Kf;fpaj; ij czu; jy;.
Mgpupf;f ehLfspy; tpNrl re; jug; gj; jpD}lhf ntspg; gLk;
g+Nfhs rthy;fis ,dq;fhzy;.
19) Mgpupf;f nghUshjhu Mizf;FOtpd; nraw;ghLfs; :-
tu; j;jfk; > mbg; gil trjpfs; gw; wpa tya njhlu; Gfis
tpUj;jp nra;tjw;F eltbf; if vLj; jy;.
mgptpUj;jpf;fhf jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopDl;gk; >
tpQ; Qhd njhopDl;g Kiwfis gad;gLj; jy;.
me; ehLfspd; ed; ik fUjp> tya ehLfspd; ,ilapyhd
xj; Jiog; G> jdpj; Jtk; > r%f cwT Mfpatw; iw mgptpUj; jp
nra; tjw;F Njitahd eltbf; ifia Nkw;nfhs; sy;.
mq; fj; Jt eh LfSf; Fk; rp we; j gaid
ngw; Wf; nfhLg; gjw; fhd nraw; ghLfis Nkw; nfhz; L
Mgpupf;f nghUshjhu Mizf;FO gpuNjr fhupahyq;fs;
5 cs;sd.
mq; fj; Jt ehLfsp d; mgp tp Uj; jp f; fhf etP d
kag;gLj;jg; gl;l Nritfs; rpy fPNo jug; gl;Ls; s gpupTfspd;
fPo; guty; milar; nra;tjw;F Mgpupf;f nghUshjhu
Mizf; FO eltbf; iffis Nkw; nfhz; Ls; sJ.
mbg; gilf; nfhs; ifAk; mwpTiuAk; > gq; fspg; gpd; mgptpUj; jp
(mq; fj; Jt ehLfs; )> njhopDl; gtpayhsu; gq; fspg; G>
njhlu;ghly; > mwpT gupkhw;wk; > gpuNjr tya nraw;ghl;Lf; F
xj;Jioj;jy; > gpuNjr nghUshjhu r%f mikg;G.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -182- mf; \ad;
20) Mgphpf;f nghUshjhu Mizf;FOtpd; mq;fj;Jt ehLfs;:-
nghl; Rthdh> my; [P upah> nrdfy; > fk&d; > mq; Nfhyh>
nrl;FbauR> vfpg;J> ngdpd;> nlhq;nfh> vRj; jpupah>
gu; fpdhghNrh> nyrj; Njh> vjpNahg; gpah> G&z; b> iygP upah>
nrk; gpah> Nfg;lTd> klfh];fhu;> fhdh> nfhkNuh]>;
rpk;ghNt> nfd; ah> ifNghd; > nrk; gpah> [pa+[pl; b> fpdpah>
nkhrhk;gpf;> ypgpah> kj;jpa fpdpah> ba+dprpah> kyhtp>
jd; rhdpah> kj;jpaMgpupf;fh> nkhyprd;> &thz; lh>
Rtp]; yhe; J> cfz; lh> khyp> #lhd; > ek;gpah> nfhq; Nfh
FbauR> ie[u; > ie[P upah> rpahuhypNahd; > ItupNfh]; l; >
rPnry;];> nkhuhf; Nfh > njd; Mgpupf;fh> Nrhkhdpah>
nfhq;Nfh> nkhupl;Nldpah
21) tlmnkhpf;f Rje;jpu tHj;jf xg;ge;jk;:-
tlmnkupf;f tyaj;jpDs; Kf; $l;L tu;j;jfk; vd
mnkupf; f If; fpa FbauR> fdlh> nkf;rpf;Nfh Mfpa
ehLfspd; ,ilNa Md xg;ge;jkhFk;.
,t;tu; j; jf xg; ge;jk; 1994 Kjy; nraw;gLj;jg; gl;L
tUfpd;wJ.
,J If; fpa mnkupf; f FbauRf; Fk; fdlhTf; Fk;
,ilapy; eilngWk; If;fpa FbauR fdlhTf;F Rje;jpu
tu;j;jf tpNrl xg;ge;jkhf fUjg;gLk;.
tl mnkupf;f Rje;jpu tu;j;jf xg;ge;jk; Nkyjpfkhf
,U nraw;ghLfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.
1. tlmnkupf;f Rw;whly; xj;Jiog; G xg;ge;jk;
2. tl mnkupf;f njhopyhsu; xj;Jiog; G xg;ge;jk;
tl mnkupf;f Rje;jpu tu;j;jf xg;ge;jj;jpd; gpujhd
Fwpf; Nfhgs; If;fpa mnkupf; fh FbauR> fdlh> nkf; rpf; nfh.
Mfpa ehLfSf; F ,ilapy; tu; j; jfj;ijAk; KjyP L
njhlu;ghd jilfis ePf; Fjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -183- mf; \ad;
,jw; fika 1994 ,y; If; fpa mnkupf; fh FbauR
nkf; rpf;Nfhtpy; ,Ue;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;Ak; gz;ltifapd;
,wf; Fkjp miug; gq;F If; fpa mnkupf; f FbauR fdlhtpy;
Vw;Wkjp nra; Ak; NghJ %d; wpy; xU gq; F tuptpyf; F
mspf;fg; gLfpwJ.
gj; J tUlq; fSf; Fs; If; fpa mnkupf; fh FbauR
nkf; rpf;NfhTf; F Vw; Wkjp nra;fpd; w tptrha cw;gj; jp
nghUl; fs; jtpu; e; j Vida midj; J nghUl; fSf; Fk; jP u; it
tupapid mfw; Wtjw;F eltbf;if vLj;Js;sJ.
fdlh If; fp a mnkup f; f FbauRf; Fk; ,ilap y;
mNdfkhd tu; j; jf nfhLf; fy; thq; fy; eilngWtJ jP u; it
tup ,d;wp MFk;.
22) gpk;]; nuf; (BIMSTEC) mikg;gpy; mq;fk; tfpf;Fk; ehLfs;:-
,e;jpah> kpad;khH> ,yq; if> Neghsk; > kNyrpah>
jha; yhe;J> gq;fshNj];> G+l; lhd;
23) gpk; ];nuf; mikg;gpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
gaq; futhjj; ij xLf;Fjy; kw;Wk; tz;KiwfSf;F
vjpuhf eltbf; iffis Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;.
,aw; if mopTfis fl; Lg; gLj; Jtjw; F thdpiy
mtjhd epiyaq;fis mikj;jy; njhlHghf ftdk;
nrYj;Jjy;.
tHj;jfk;> KjyPL Mfpa eltbf;iffis Nkk;gLj;jy;.
gz; lq; fis Vw; wp ,wf; Fjy; njhlHghly;
eltbf;iffis Nkk;gLj;Jjy;.
Rw; Wyh eltbf; iffs; > kP d; gp b eltbf; iffs; >
tp trhaj; ij Kd; Ndw; Wtjw; fhd eltbf; iffis
Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;.
tWikia xop g; gjw; F xd; wp ize; J nghJthd
nfhs;ifiag; gpd;gw;Wjy;.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -184- mf; \ad;
capHg;y; tifikiag; ghJfhg;gjw; F eltbf;iffs;
vLj;jy;.
#oy; kw;Wk; ,aw; if mopT vd;gtw; iw Kfhikj; Jtg;
gLj;Jtjw;fhd eltbf;iffis vLj; jy;.
24) vngf; (APEC) mikg;gpy; mq;fk; tfpf;Fk; ehLfs;:-
G&iz> ag; ghd; > njd; nfhhpah> epArpyhe; J> nkf; rpf; Nfh>
kp ad; khH> gp yp g; igd; ]; > jha; yhe; J> rp q; fg; G+ H>
,e; NjhNdrp ah> kNyrp ah> fdlh> gg; Gth epAfp dp >
n`hq;nfhq;> If;fpa mnkhpf;fh> mT]; Nuypah> rPdh
25) vngf; mikg; gpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
tHj; jfk; njhlHghd rthy;fis ,optsthf;Ftjw;F
tyaj; jpy; KjyP L kw; Wk; tHj; jf eltbf; iffis
Kd; Ndw;Wjy;.
Mrp a gRgp f; tya ,izg; gp dhy; nghUshjhu
xj;Jiog;ig Vw;gLj;jtjw;F eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs; sy;.
tWik xopg;gpw;F chpa kdpj ts mgptpUj;jpf;fhf
njhopypd;ikf; Fcjtp> Ntiyaw;NwhUf;F epthuzk;
toq; Fjy;> fhg;GWjp Kiw Muk;gpj; jy;.
Nfhskakhjypd; ghjfkhd tpisTfs; Vw;gLtijj;
jLg; gjw; F tyaehLfs; xd; WNrHe; J jP Hkhdq; fis
Nkw;nfhs;Sjy;.
,e; j mikg; gp d; %yk; Rje; jp u tHj; jfj; ij
Vw; gLj; Jtjw; F cjTk; Kfkhf tyaehLfsp ilNa
mDgtq; fisg; gfp He; J nfh s; Sjy; >
njhopy; El; gxj; Jiog; G toq; fjy; > cyf tq; fp epjpapypUe; J
nghUshjhu cjtpfisg; ngWjy;.
26) xngf; (OPEC) mikg;gpy; mq;fk; tfpf;Fk; ehLfs;:-
ntdpRtyh> <f;FtNlhH> my;[Phpah> ypgpah> ie[Phpah>
mq;Nfhyh> <uhf;> rT+jp mNugpah> <uhd;> fl;lhH> Fitj;>
If;fpa muG vkpNul;];> ,e;NjhNdrpah
khdplg; Gtpapay; -185- mf; \ad;
27) xngf; mikg; gpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
ngw;Nehypaj;ij thq;Fk; ehLfs; jhk; ephzapj;j
kypthd tpiyapnyNa ngw;Nwhypaj;ij thq;fp te;jd.
,jdhy; ngw;Nwhypa cw;gj;jp ehLfs; ghjpg;gile;jd.
,e; epiyikia khw; wp mikg; gjw; fhf 1960 ,y; gf; jhj;jpy;
$ba kfhehl;by; jPHkhdnkLj;J xngf; mikg;gpid
jhgpj;jd.
vz;nza; cw;gj;jp ehLfs; jhk; mnkhpf; f> gpuhd;rpa
vz;nza;f; fk;gdpfshy; Ruz;lg;gl;lij kdjpw; nfhz;L
jkJ tpiyia jPHkhdpj;jd.
xngf; mikg; G ehLfis nghUshjhu gpd; diltpypUe; J
kPl;nlLj;jy;.
28) INuhg;gpa nghUshjhur; r%fj;jpy; (EEC) mq; fk; tfpf;Fk;
ehLfs;:-
gpuhd;]; > N[Hkdp> ngy; [pak; > yf; rk; NgHf; > nejHyhe;J>
,j;jhyp> If; fpauhr; rpak;> maHyhe;J> nld;khHf;> fphP];
29) INuhg;gpa nghUshjhur; r%fj;jpd; Nehf;fq;fs;:-
nghUshjhu xUikg; ghl; bd; %yk; murp ay;
xUikg;ghl;il cUthf;Fjy;.
jkJ mikg; gp Ys; s ehLfSf; fhd thp fis
eP f;fpaJld;> Viza ehlfs; kPJ xNu tifahd thpapid
tpjpj;jy;.
jkJ mikg; G ehLfSf; Fs; ve; j ehl; bYk;
mikg;gpYs;s ehLfspypUe;J ntiytha;g;ig ngWjy;>
ve;jnthU cWg;G ehl; bYk; KjyPL nra; jy;.
30) INuhg;gpa Rje;jpu tHj;jfr; rq;fj;jpy; (EFTA) mq;fk; tfpf; Fk;
ehLfs;:-
M]; jp hp ah> gp d; yhe; J> I]; yhe; J> NehHNt>
NghHj;Jf;fy;> RtPld;> RtPw;ryhe;J
khdplg; Gtpapay; -186- mf; \ad;
31) INuhg;gpa tHj;jfr; rq;fj; jpd; nraw;ghLfs;:-
Nkw; F INuhg; gpa ehLfs; jkJ tHj;jf tpUj;jpf;fhf
mikj;Jf; nfhz;l epWtdNk ,JthFk;.
cWg; G ehLfs; jk;kpilNa tHj;jf eltbf;iffisr;
Rq; fj;jP Hit tHj;jff; fl;Lg;ghLfs; vd;gd jsHj;jg;gl;l
tpjj;jpy; elhj;jp tUfpd;wd.
,t; mikg; gp y; nld; khf; Fk; > If; fpa uhr; rpaKk;
njhlf; fj;jpy; mq; fj;Jt ehLfshftpUe;jd. gpd;dH 1973
,y; INuhg;gpa nghUshjhur; r%fj;jpy; mq;fj; Jtk;
ngw; wJk; tpyfptpl;ld.
32) ngneyf;]; (BENELUX) mikg;gpy; mq;fk; tfpf;Fk; ehLfs;:-
ngy; [pak;> nejHyhe;J> yf;rk;NgHf;.
33) ngy; nef;]; mikg;gpd; nraw;ghLfs;:-
mikg;gpYs;s ehLfSf; fpilNa gu];gu tHj; jfj;jpw;F
Rq;fthp vJTk; mwptplg;gLtjpy;iy.
Viza ehLfsp yp Ue; J ,wf; Fkjp nra; Ak;
nghUl;fSf;F xNu tpjkhd Rq;fthpia tpjpj; jy;.
,t; mikg; gp Ys; s ngy; [p aj; jp y; ep yf; fhp Az; L>
yf; rk; Nghf; fpy; ,Uk; Gj; jhJ cz; L. nejHyhe; jpy;
,itapy; iy. Mdy; me; ehLfspd; xj; Jiog; gpdhy; %d; W
ehLfspYk; ,Uk;GUf; F cw;gj;jp ,lk;ngWfpd;wJ.
34) cq;uhl; (UNCTAD) mikg;G:-
nghUshjhu tsk; kpf;f ehLfs; > nghUshjhuj;jpy;
rpuope; jpUf;Fk; ehLfSf;F xj; Jiog;G mspg; gjw; fhf
cUthf; fg; gl; l ep Wtdq; fsp y; xd; Nw cq; uhl;
epWtdkhFk;.
,J If; fp a ehLfsp d; tHj; jfk; > mgp tp Uj; jp
Mfpatw;Wf;fhd Mizf;FO vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ.
n[dpthtpy; 1964 ,y; ,e;j epWtdk; $l;lg;gl;lJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -187- mf; \ad;
cyf ehLfSf; fpilNa rHtNjr tHj;jfk; njhlHghf
mgp tp Uj; jp aile; JtUk; ehLfs; vjp HNehf; Fk;
gpur; rpidfisj; jP Hj; Jf; nfhs; tjw; fhd xU topKiwahf
,k;khehL $l;lg;gl;lJ.
cq;uhl; mikg;gpy; 150 ehLfs; mq;fk; tfpf;fpd;wd.
35) mq;fj;Jt ehLfspd; nghUshjhuj;ij tpUj;jp nra;tjw;fhf
Nkw;nfhs;Sk; eltbf;iffs;:-
tHj;jfjjpw;Fj; jilahd jPHit thpfisf; Fiwg;gjd;
%yk; my; yJ Kw; whf eP f; Ftjd; %yk;
mgp tp Uj; jp aile; J tUk; ehLfsp d; cw; gj; jp g;
nghUl;fSf;F mgptpUj;jpaile; j ehLfspy; re; ijfisg;
ngWjy;.
mgptpUj;jpaile;JtUk; ehLfs; jkf; Fj; Njitahd
czTg; nghUl; fisAk; KbTg; nghUl; fisAk;
mgptpUj;jpaile;j ehLfsplkpUe;J ,wf;Fkjp nra;J
tUfpd;wd.
,e;j ,wf;Fkjpg; nghUl;fspd; tpiyfs; jsk;ghky;
ghHj;Jf; nfhs;tJld; mtw;wpw;F epahakhd tpiyapy;
ngw; Wf; nfhLg; gjw; F cj; juthjkspj; jYk; ,e; epWtdj; jpd;
gzpahFk;.
mgptpUj;jpaile;J tUk; ehLfspd; tUkhdk; xUrpy
Vw; Wkjpg; nghUl; fspy; jq; fpapUg; gjhy; mit nghUshjhu
neUf;fbf;f js; sg; gLfpd; wd. ,j; jifa epiyiaj;
jLj; J me; eh Lfsp d; cw; gj; jp j; Jiwiag;
gd;Kfg;gLj; Jtjw;F cq;uhl; Kay;fpd;wJ.
mgptpUj;jpaile;JtUk; ehLfspy; ,d;W ifj;njhopy;
cw;gj;jpfs; mjpfhpj; J tUfpd; wd. Mdhy; cw;gj; jpg;
nghUl;fis tpw;gjw;F ngUk; rpukk; Njhd;wpAs;sJ.
mgptpUj; jpaile;j ehLfspd; KbTg; nghUl;fSld;
Nghl; bapl; Lr; re; ij tha; g; gpidg; ngWjy; fbdkhfTs; sJ.
me;j ,lHghl; ilj; jPHg;gjw;F cq;uhl; Kay;fpd;wJ.
khdplg; Gtpapay; -188- mf; \ad;

,yq;ifapd; khtl;l hP jpahd rdj; njhif
khtl;lk;
1981 2001
t.tPjk;
(1981-2001)
1. nfhOk;G
1,699,241 2,251,274 1.3
2. fk;gfh
1,390,862 2,063,684 1.9
3. FUehfy;
1,211,801 1,460,215 0.9
4. fz;b
1,048,317 1,279,028 1.0
5. fOj;Jiw
829, 704 1,066,239 1.2
6. ,uj;jpdGhp
797, 087 1,015,807 1.2
7. fhyp
814, 531 990, 487 1.0
8. Nffhiy
684, 944 785, 524 0.6
9. gJis
640, 952 779, 983 0.9
10. khj;jiw
643, 786 761, 370 0.8
11. mEuhjGuk;
587, 929 745, 693 1.2
12. Gj;jsk;
492, 533 709, 677 1.8
13. Etnuypah
603, 577 703, 610 0.7
14. mk;ghiw
388, 970 592, 997 2.0
15. mk;ghe;Njhl;il
424, 344 526, 414 1.1
16. aho;g;ghzk;
738, 788 490,621 2.0
17. kl;lf;fsg;G
330, 333 486,447 1.9
18. khj;jis
357, 354 441, 328 1.1
19. nkhdwhfiy
273, 570 397, 375 1.8
20. nghyeWit
261, 563 358, 984 1.6
21. jpUNfhzkiy
255, 948 340,158 1.4
22. kd;dhH
106, 235 151,577 1.7
23. tTdpah
95,428 149,835 2.2
24. fpspnehr;rp
91,764 127,263 1.6
25. Ky;iyj;jPT
77,189 121,667 2.2
,yq;if
14,846,750 18,797,257 1.1

%yk;:- njhifkjpg;G Gs;sptpgutp ay; jp idf;fsk;> ,yq;if

12.Gs;sapay; juTfs;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -189- mf; \ad;
cyfpd; gj;J kpy;ypaDf;F Nkw;gl;l efuq; fs;
(2004 [{iy rdj;njhif kpy;ypad;)
,y efuq;fs; rdj;njhif ehL
1 Nlhf;fpNah 31.2 ag;ghd;
2 epANahHf; 30.1 I.mnkhpf;fh
3 nkf;rpf;Nfhrpw;wp 21.5 nkf;rpf;Nfh
4 rpNahy; 20.1 njd;nfhhpah
5 rhNaNghNyh 19.0 gpNwrpy;
6 [fhHj;jh 18.2 ,e;NjhNdrpah
7 xrhfhNfhNg 17.6 ag;ghd;
8 by;yp 17.3 ,e;jpah
9 Kk;gha; 17.3 ,e;jpah
10 nyh]; VQ;ry;]; 16.7 I.mnkhpf;fh
11 my; xfpuh 15.8 vfpg;J
12 fy;fj;jh 14.3 ,e;jpah
13 kdpyh 14.0 gpypg;igd;];
14 rq;fha; 13.9 rPdh
15 Gtd]; maH]; 13.2 Mn[e;jPdh
16 nkh];Nfh 12.2 u];ah
17 wpNahb n[dPuh 11.5 gpNwrpy;
18 njfpuhd; 11.4 <uhd;
19 ghhp]; 11.4 gpuhd;];
20 hPd; - &H 11.2 N[Hkdp
21 yz;ld; 11.2 I.uhl;rpak;
22 rpf;fhf;Nfh 10.9 I.mnkhpf;fh
23 fuhr;rp 10.8 ghfp];jhd;
24 gP[pq; 10.3 rPdh
25 ,];jhd;Gy; 10.3 JUf;fp
26 lhf;fh 10.2 gq;fshNj];
%yk;:- fpUgh ,uh[ul;zk;> Njrg;gltiufiy mwpTj; JspH
khdplg; Gtpapay; -190- mf; \ad;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -191- mf; \ad; khdplg; Gtpapay; -192- mf; \ad;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -193- mf; \ad;
tlf;F fpof;F khtl;lq;fspy; fhzg;gLk; ghhpa Fsq;fSk;
mit ePHg;ghrdk; nra;Ak; gug;gsTk;.
Fsj;jpd; ngaH nff;laH
fpspnehr;rp khtl;lk;
,uizkLf; Fsk; 8451
fy;kLf;fsk; 1396
mf;fuhad; Fsk; 1283
fhpahiyehfgLthd; Fsk; 698
GJKwpg;Gf; Fsk; 399
gpuke;jyhW Fsk; 244
td;Ndhpf; Fsk; 139
fdfhk;gpiff; Fsk; 105
Ky;iyj;jPT khtl;lk;
tTdpf;Fsk; 2791
Kj;ijad; fl;Lf;Fsk; 2473
jz;zpKwpg;G 957
fZNfzpf; Fsk; 734
cilahH fl;LFsk; 486
Iad;Fsk; 385
njdpahd; Fsk; 304
mk;Gyg; ngUkhs; Fsk; 252
kUjd; Fsk; 182
Nfhl;il fl;bd Fsk; 164
fy;tpshd; fsk; 163
kjthdrpq;fk; Fsk; 162
epj;jpiff; Fsk; 154
KUfz;b Fsk; 144
ky;yhtp Fsk; 132
tp];tkL 121
Njhuhq;fz;ly; Fsk; 121
gdq;fhkk; Fsk; 121
nfhy;dPyd; Fsk; 106
kd;dhH khtl;lk;
,uhl;rj Fsk; 9890
mfj;jpKwpg;G Fsk; 1837
tpahbf; Fsk; 495
ntypkUjkL Fsk; 304
nghpakL Fsk; 304
nghpagz;btphpr;rhd; Fsk; 244
jl;rdhkUjkL Fsk; 215
khdplg; Gtpapay; -194- mf; \ad;
Fiwf; Fsk; 215
mlk;gd; Fsk; 162
Ky;iyf;Fsk; 152
tTdpah khtl;lk;
ghtw; Fsk; 1673
kfjd; Fsk; 312
khkLt Fsk; 267
NrkkL Fsk; 243
<uw;nghpa Fsk; 204
kUjkL Fsk; 177
tTdpah Fsk; 172
fy;kL Fsk; 162
kLfe;j Fsk; 162
nghpajk;gid Fsk; 138
ky;ypiff; Fsk; 121
uhN[e;jpud; Fsk; 119
gk;igkL Fsk; 105
jhk;gd; Fsk; 104
kfhfr;rp Fsk; 104
kl;lf;fsg;G khtl;lk;
cd;dpr;ir Fsk; 5163
Wfk; Fsk; 3440
thfNdhp Fsk; 3108
fLf;fhKidf; Fsk; 3088
GYFzht Fsk; 1709
fl;LKwp g;G Fsk; 344
ePr;ry; Fsk; 334
tLKid Fsk; 324
Jk;gq;Nfzp Fsk; 275
kJuq;Nfzpf; Fsk; 202
fubad; Fsk; 142
nghpa NghujPT Fsk; 139
ntypf;fh fz;ba Fsk; 138
kfpOH Fsk; 137
Midf;fl;l Rl;l Fsk; 126
Nrtfg; gw;Wf; Fsk; 122
milr;rfy; Fsk; 109
fphpQ;ir Xil Fsk; 101
nghpa gOhfkk; Fsk; 89
juit Fsk; 81
kfpobj;jPTf; Fsk; 81
jpUNfhzkiy khtl;lk;
fe;jsha; Fsk; 5049
khdplg; Gtpapay; -195- mf; \ad;
nkhw Fsk; 1635
kfhjpTk; Fsk; 563
ntz;lurd; Fsk; 521
thd; vy Fsk; 417
ePyg;gdpf;fd; Fsk; 416
kfhfyk;gw;W Fsk; 291
fy;nkj;jpaht Fsk; 260
,yf;fe;ij Fsk; 245
Fuq;F ghQ;rhd; Fsk; 202
Mz;lhd; Fsk; 183
vjk;ngz;bf; Fsk; 129
nghpa Fsk; 126
Gypfz;b Fsk; 118
kjthr;rpa Fsk; 116
kLtf; Fsk; 106
fpA+Nyf;fl Fsk; 105
mk;ghiw khtl;lk;
Nrddhaf;f rKj;jpuk; 43813
etfphp 7003
tPuhnfhl 3743
rhfkd; Fsk; 1364
gydXah 1311
rlaejyht 1123
ehky; Xah 951
mk;gyd; Xah 929
fQ;rpFbr;r MW 688
Nuhl;il Fsk; 541
&g];Fsk; 413
ghzk Fsk; 304
tyjgpl;b 283
tUft Fsk; 263
gd;dyfk 249
njk;gpl;ba 174
wnjy;y Fsk; 170
ehTy Fsk; 103
%yk;:- ,uh. rptr;re;jpud;> tptrha tsKk; gad;ghLk;
khdplg; Gtpapay; -196- mf; \ad;