HINDU CASTES AND SECTS OF SHAHDADKOT, SINDH

(1713-2013) By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi

Baba Guru Nanak (1469-1539) with his disciples

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HINDU CASTES AND SECTS OF SHAHDADKOT, SINDH

(1713-2013)

By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi

SAROH
Saroh Social Development Organization Shahdadkot Saroh Office, Near Scientific Public School, Railway Station Road, Shahdadkot, District amber!Shahdadkot, Sindh, Pakistan! ""#$$ Ph% &'(!")!)$*(+',, -ell% &'(!##)($*.+', /!mail% org0saroh1gmail0com ($*) 2D3 *)#. 24

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Contents….

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Forewords Foundation of Shahdadkot in 1713 AD Early Hindu Settlement in Shahdadkot 1713-14 AD Shahdadkot under Kalat Rule 1780-1794 AD Lieutenant Robert Leech’s Report on Sindian Army 1837 AD First Anglo Afghan War & Shahdadkot 1839 AD 1840 AD: Migration of Hindus from Village Tando Murad Ali Khuhawar to Shahdadkot Sirai Pir Bakhsh Khan Khuhawar, Sir John Keane & General John Jacob History of Sibi, Kalat & Gandavah from Alexander’s Invasion to the first Anglo Afghan War Mir Nasir Khan II (1840-1857); Hindus of Gandawah & their flee to Shahdadkot River Indus floods: 1849 Arrival of Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan & Hindu families from Kanda Balochistan Indian Mutiny of 1857 & Revolts on Sindh Kalat border Mir Sher Dil Khan & the Migration of Hindus from Kalat to Shahdadkot 1863 Population of Shahdadkot in 1874 Shahdadkot Population in 1876 Notification of Shahdadpur (Shahdadkot) Taluka 1884 Hindus of Shahdadkot converted to Islam by Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan (1844-1905) Hindus in Shahdadkot 1901 Hindus in Shahdadkot 1911-1924 Nao-Muslim Sheikh Community of Shahdadpur (Shahdadkot in) from 1911 to 1947 Hindus in Shahdadkot 1934-1947 Hindus in Shahdadkot 1950-1978 Hindus in Shahdadkot 1989-2014 Index of Hindu Castes & Surnames of Shahdadkot

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I dedicate this work to one of my soft hearted, labourious and true friends

Advocate Ishwar Lal Nagdev

Founder of Moon Light English Classes Shahdadkot

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Acknowledgement Appreciation is expressed to Seth Deepchand Punjabi, Chain Lal Ahuja, Rajaldas Ramrakhiani, Mahraj Kantesh Kumar Shringi, Gobindram Batheja, Bilandrai Chhabria, Mashhoque Mal Od and Achar Bhil. Gratitude is also expressed to Professor K.S.Nagpal, Professor Sukhdev Gurnani, Mr. Kanaya Lal Gurbuxani, Sunil Kumar Chhabria, Gulabrai Batheja, Chander Lal Nagdev and Sanjay Kumar Sagar. Finally, I would like to say my thanks to Dr.Shamsuddin Sheikh (Karachi), Asgher Ali Sheikh (Larkana) Ashfaque Hussain Sheikh (Shahdadkot) and Nisar Ahmed Wadho that enabled me to shape this Research Paper on the Hindu Community & their role in the development of Shahdadkot, Sindh.

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Hindi inscriptions on the interior of Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro (1620-1657 AD tom!s near Kam!er" Sindh#

Forewords…
Shahdadkot is the most populated town of Kambar-Shahdadkot district in Sindh, Pakistan. The Hindu Community of Shahdadkot has been serving in many fields such as Education, Health, Engineering, Business, Relief Work and Community Development for last many ages. From the pages of History, it comes into light that Hindu Community was socio-politicaly active during Kalhora (1701-1783) and Talpur (1783-1843) periods in Sindh. In A.D. 1840, the District of Koor Dato (Nalah Datah) was sold in contract for one season to Futteh Chund Lalwani of Hyderabad for Rs.1, 00,000, and he expended Rs.7, 000 on cleaning the canal which was infact a lifeline for the cultivation of lands of the area. Under the command of Mir Sher Muhammad Khan Talpur, his Governor of Shikarpur Nawab Jeth Mal Chhabria continued his efforts to instigate the people against British up to 1843-44. After leaving Shikarpur; he went to Sardar Ahmed Khan Mgasi, the Chief of Jhal Magsi and Nawab Wali Muhammad Chandio, the Chief of Ghaibidero for seeking assistance to expel the English from Sindh. Being a Hindu he didn’t fear and continued his journeys through Shahdadkot and Multan to aware people for independence. During Kalhora and Talpur periods, Hindus of Shahdadkot had trade ties with Kalat, Kabul, Kandhar and other Central Asian countries. During British Period (1843-1947), Diwan Edan Mal dug Edan Wah from Begari Cannal which irrigated thousands of acres of lands from Garhi Khairo to Bago Daro. A saint called Mohan Lal strived for Hindu Muslim Unity in 19th Century AD. It is therefore a fair is annually held over his remains and equally visited by Muslims and Hindus still today. Bhai Hiranand Tandai was a great philanthropist and God-father for the needy. Besides this, Diwan Chhatu Mal and Diwan Jhooro Mal built their residential forts around their agricultural lands in the north of Shahdadkot which are still monumental. Janji Mal and Sadoro Singh were some of the great landlords of this region. In olden days, majority of Hindu population was settled in Martin Abad which was a part of Shahdadkot town in the west. The area was named after J.R.Martin, who served as Deputy Commissioner Upper Sindh Frontier /Jacobabad District from 1910 to 1911 and again from 1912-1916 AD. Ground rent was being levied there since the year 1898-99 AD by the Collector of Larkana. Budhar Mal, Madan Mal and Anghu Mal had founded their villages in Shahdadkot taluka. A Rice husking factory with 200 store rooms was credited to Seth Sabaldas Ramrakhiani in 1920s. It was the second factory in the district which provided labour to the local people in the area. Seth Pirbhdas Tolani (1893-1988) was one of the richest landlords of Sindh. He was the president of Larkana Muncipality. His son Gopal was the Session Judge in Sindh. During partition he was put in jail because he had refused to leave Sindh. He came to Bomaby in 1949 where he was given the responsibility to build Gandhidham, a town in Kutch, in the province of Gujarat, India. He founded there, educational institutions, colleges, hostels, stadiums, eye hospitals and theaters. He also founded Tolani Chairtable Trust in 1960, which was renamed as Tolani Foundation in 1969. Tolani family had a rice factory and a village in Shahdadkot and Qubo Saeed Khan area. Nandu Tolani; a film-maker discovered Diviya Bharati in 1988. The Tolani family has been financing in Indian film industy since 1980s. Mehro Faqir Lalwani, Jhangal Faqir Lalwani, Punhoon Faqir Lalwani and Kundan Faqir Lalwani were considered highly experienced and expert local physicians who cured the suffering people from their diseases. It is said that Jhangal Faqir Lalani lmemorized Holy Quran by heart. Most of them lived in their own village near Meenhon Leghari taluka Shahdadkot. Their descendents live now in Raipur, Kolhapur and Nagpur in India. In early 20th Century AD, Gagan Faqir lived on the banks of Koor Dato near village Karira. His annual festival is also organized by both Hindus and Muslims. In 1929, Mahatma Gandhi toured in Sindh, collecting money and gathering new disciples for the independence movement. It is said that during this tour he visited village Buthi near Bahram, which was a large place having majority of Hindu inhabitants. It was the time when he learned that his grandson, 17 year’s Rasik, Harilal’s boy, lay dying in Delhi, but he continued his work. After him, Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was invited by the Muslim League leaders to visit Larkana. He was warmly welcomed by the people of Larkana and municipality members, on October 18, 1938. Before partition, Pandit Jawahir Lal Nehru also visited Larkana but some people hurled stones in order to insult him eventually his congregession dispersed in the city.

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Mahraj Gopi Krishan Shringi was the first Graduate of Shahdadkot. He was later on, elected as first Chairman of Shahdadkot Muncipality. He carried out relief works during the floods of 1942. After 1942 floods, he construted roads, developed drainage and water supply systems in the town. He also played his role in foundations of educational and social institutes in Shahdadkot. During 1948 flood, he constructed small bunds to protect the town with the help of Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi, Mehrullah Khan Sheikh and other citizens. Since 1945 a large number of Hindu familes started migrating from Shahdadkot, Sindh to India. Many of these families settled in the towns and cities like; Delhi, Bombay, Ahmed Abad, Agra, Ulhas Nagar, Raipur, Adipur, Katni, Gandhi Nagar,Chhatisgarh, Nagpur, Gandhidham, Ajmer Sharif, Bhopal, Gondia, Nainital, Pune, Indore, Kolhapur, Navsari, Dhamtari, Bhilai, Jalna, Jabalpur, Akola and Bilaspur. In 1947, there was turmoil and violence in the land and everyone feared. According to details, there were more than 300 shops, some 10 temples, 2 communal palces, countless godowns, buildings of muncipality, agriculture bank, and cremation place were property of Hindu Panchayat Shahdadkot but most of them had been occupied by the refugees later. Hindu Muslim Riots arose in Shahdadkot on 26 October 1956 which was nipped in the bud. Some of the illustrious personalities from Shahdadkot are as followed. Mahraj Sabhash Shringi did Ph.D from University of Cologne Germany in 1961. Mahraj Umesh Chander remained Assistant Commissioner of Delhi. The second mass migration of Shahdadkot Hindus began after the Indo-Pak War of 1965. First countrywise democratic elections were held in Pakistan in 1971. Mahraj Gopi Krishan Shringi and Comrade Illahi Bux Qureshi supported Mr. Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto during his election campaign. Mahraj Ashok Kumar has business of export in Madrid, Spain. Mahraj Kantesh Kumar also lives in Madrid, Spain and does Import & Export Business. Presently, Mahraj Jai Parkash alias Ramesh Kumar is President of Hindu Panchayat Shahdadkot. Where as Mahraj Rajender Kumar is a prominent landlord and social activist. While, Mr. Chain Lal Ahuja is pioneer engineer of modern infrastructure in Shahdadkot. Mr. Atturam Punjabi worked as Chief Engineer in OGDCL Islamabad. Haresh Kumar Ahuja, Kailash Kumar Nagdev and Mashooque Mal Ode are wellknown NGOs sector names today. Presently many Hindu businessmen, students and employers of Shahdadkot are living in United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia, America, Canada, Australia, Finland and other parts of the world. Before and after the creation of Pakistan, Mr.Gobindram, Mr. Gianchand, Mr. Sajan Mal, Mr. Tanu Mal, Mr. Budhar Mal Gurnani, Mr. Milan Mal, Mr. Sitaldas of Kamber, Mr. Sitaldas of Larkana, Mr. Professor Kanaya Lal Bodani , Professor Suresh Kumar Bodani , Mr. Naraindas Khiani, Mr. Sukhdev Gurnani, Mr. Kanaya Lal Gurbuxani, Mr. K.S.Nagpal, Dr. Sanjota Bai Ramrakhiani (Ph.D from Univerisuty of Karachi 2012) , Mr. Professor Partabrai Ahlyani, Mr. Adu Mal Advani, Mr. Dharampal Advani, Mr. Roopchand Advani, Mr. Raja Kailash Nagdev, Mr. Nand Lal Punjabi, Ramesh Lal Advani, Mrs. Urvashi , Ishwar Lal Nagdev, Sunil Kumar Chhabria, Mr.Pardeep Kumar Chawla, Chander Lal Nagdev have contributed in the field of education in Shahdadkot. Whille Dr. Roopchand (the bald), Dr. Chetu Mal Advani, Dr. Mandho Mal Advani, Dr. Parsram Talreja, Dr. Darshan Lal Advani, Dr. Amar Lal Punjabi, Dr. Gurudino Panjwani, Dr. Pawan Kumar Bodani, Dr. Gordhandas Advani, Dr. Parkash Kumar Sachdev, Dr. Shakuntala Batheja, Dr. Mahesh Kumar Gurnani, Dr.Rajesh Kumar Gurnani, Dr. Prem Kumar Punjabi, Dr. Rahul Kumar Sachdev and others have rendered their services in the field of health. Names of Mahraj Gopi Krishan Shringi, Haroo Mal Sundrani, Diwan Motio Mal and Comrade Rajaldas Ramrakhiani, Mahraj Kantesh Kumar, are some of the prominent social activists who have helped people time and again. Where as Veena Shringi, KS.Nagpal, Promila Shringi, Shalini Sagar Shringi, and Parkash Kumar Sarkash are wellknown literary figures. The Names of senior Advocates Mahraj Shanker Lal, Mr. Kanaya Lal Nagdev and Mr. Bhawandas are remembered with great honour and respects. On the other hand Sanwan, Mooraj and Teon are famous for their delicious sandwiches, Daal and Curds here. Presently, Mahraj Ramesh Lal Shringi and MNA Ramesh Lal Motanpota are leading Hindu politicians of Shahdadkot. There are approximately 300 Hindu familes residing at Shahdadkot. They more or less face difficulties such as insecurity, forced marriages of their girls in the name of Islam, harrasment, kidnapping, religious extremism, unemployment, extorsion and migration etc. Due to these elements many Hindu Communities do not see their future bright and successful so they have no other option but to migrate from here. The Government of Pakistan and elected MNAs and MPAs of Sindh especially Faryal Talpur, Mir Amir Ali Khan Magsi, Nawab Sardar Khan Chandio and Mir Nadir Ali Khan Magsi should to take solid measures on the warfooting bases to solve the issues of Hindu Community of Shahdadkot.

Best wishes, Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi Shahdadkot, Sindh, Pakistan.

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HINDU CASTES AND SECTS OF SHAHDADKOT, SINDH
(17013-2013) By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi
Foundation of Shahdadkot in 1713 AD The story of Shahdadkot Hindus begins with Brahmins. One of the descendants of Rishi Shringa or Shringi was settled in Kashmir and was a great saint. Afterwards his generation migrated to Multan in Mughal Days. When Kalhora rulers came into power under Mughal authority in Sindh, many Hindu families of Multan settled down in Chandka Pargannah or present Larkana District. In the days of Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro (1701-1719) irrigation system of Sindh especially Larkana was developed and in this way he ordered many of his courtiers, amirs and generals to dig long canals from River Indus to irrigate the barren lands. On this order Mian Dato Khuhawar, one of the courtiers, amirs and generals of Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro dug Kur Dato or Datey Ji Kur from Ghaar Wah in 1711. The main objective of this canal was to provide water to the north western lands of Larkana and thence to Gandawah. With the course of this canal countless new villages, towns and cities were founded and many forts were constructed to save them from the robbers of north. Mian Shahdad Khan Khuhawar also laid the foundation of a walled town which was named after him as Shahdadpur or Shahdadkot. According to some historical records Shahdadkot was founded in 1713. It was a major town between the rout of Larkana and Gandawah in those days. The famous Bolan Pass situated in the north of Gandawah which connected Sindh and Balochsitan with Afghanistan and beyond. Early Hindu Settlement in Shahdadkot 1713-14 AD According to latest information (January 2014), Shahdadkot was founded on the debris of a Hindu settlement. It was an important place between Jhukkar (Larkana) and Gandawah and said to be ruined by River Indus & Sirwah floods. It is said that Shahdad Khan Khuhawar encouraged scattered Hindu populations of that place to settle down in his newly construted walled town. He also asked them to continue their trade activities under Kalhora rule. Diwan Tharoo Mal Gurnani is said to be one of the earliest inhabitants of Shahdadkot town. He owned agricultural lands between Shahdadkot and Bahram. After him, his descendents named Khial Mal Gurnani, Doolahno Mal Gurnani, Gangoo Mal Gurnani and Seth Balu Mal Gurnani continued their business as moneylenders and bankers. Seth Balu Mal had a son called Seth Parsram alias Motiram. The later had three sons; 1) Seth Reejhu Mal 2) Parmanand and 3) Tarachand. Reejhu Mal had two sons Professor Sukhdev Gurnani and Jethanand Gurnani who still reside in Shahdadkot town. Approximately 40 Gurnani familes migrated from Shahdadkot to India in 1947. They are now settled at Kitni and Indore. The famous mathematician Budhar Mal Gurnani also belonged to this family. While Mata Lachhi Bai, the wife of Seth Parsram Gurnani lived a saintly life. Bhagat Kanwar Ram (1885-1939), celebrated Sindhi singer and poet considered her as his sister. Gurnanis descend from Shri Gurno Mal Dembla who migrated from Delhi to Sindh some 300 years ago. He settled in old Sukkur where he sought the patronage of the Muslim elite of Old Sukkur who were known as Pirzada; the caretakers of Shah Khairuddin shrine. After the Dembras (Dembla) the other Hindu Communities like the Chandwanis, Lalas, Bhatias, Ahujas, Shories and others settled at the same place.
Old Sukkur, SINDH

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Shahdadkot under Kalat Rule 1780-1794 AD He was also honoured by Mir Nasir Khan Noori, the Khan of Kalat between 1780 to 1794 when Koor Dato including Shahdadkot, Kamber and Nasirabad areas were in the Khanship of the Khan-e-Kalat. It is said that during this time Bibi Zainab, daughter of Mir Nasir Khan Noori resided in Shahdadkot along with her family and tribal chiefs.This valueable portion of Sindh was handed over by Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro, the last Kalhora prince of Sindh to Mir Nasir Khan Noori as compensasion in the murder of Mir Zarak Khan Zehri who was slain along with his 500 companions by Talpur Balochis in 1780 in the neighbourhood of Larkana. After the death of Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro in Rajanpur Punjab, Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Talpur decided to marry from Kalat State. Describing this story Sir Henry Pottinger (1816) tells that Mir Ghulam Ali Khan Talpur; the Ruler of Sindh had married the daughter of Bahram Khan Brahui. Mir Bahram Khan Brahui was the son of Mir Haji Khan and grand son of Mir Muhabat Khan, the Ruler of Kalat.This marriage took place with the efforts of Bibi Zainab Brahui, who was daughter of Mir Nasir Khan Noori. According to the History of Sindh compiled by Mirza Qalich Baig this marriage ceremony took place at Bhag, in the province of Kachhi Gandava. The number of guests is said tobe 40,000. The Amirs of Sindh reached Bhag through Larkana, Shahdadkot and Gundava route. Describing Chandooka/ Larkana district James says A portion to the west was in this reign, in A.D.1805, given to a Brahoee of wealth, whose daughter was married to the ruler of Sind, but was again resumed in A.D. 1816 . (Memoirs on Sind: Selections from the Records of the Bombay Government, No.XVII-New Series, Edited by R.Hughes Thomas, Bombay 1855, Page 711). Mir Ghulam Ali Talpur died in 1811AD. He founded Tando Ghulam Ali in Sindh. He was buried beside his elder brother Mir Fateh Ali Kahn Talpur near Hala. He had no children
The Shrine of Lakho Pir was bult by Mir Nasir Khan Noori, (1749-1817 AD) the Ruler of Kalat

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Lieutenant Robert Leech’s Report on Sindian Army 1837 AD According to Lieutenant Robert Leech in 1837 AD, The Jamalees are under two leaders, Shahoo under Meer Mahomed of Hyderabad, and Jafar Khan under Meer Naseer Khan; they can muster together 4000 men, they live on the borders of the Nara, they give their daughters in marriage to the Talpoors . (Page 72).This reference provides us important and valuable information regarding marriage ties of Jamalis of Shaho Jamali and Talpur Amirs of Sindh. Mir Shaho Khan Jamali had 2 large drums which were beaten at the time of battle. It is believed that Mir Shaho Khan Jamali died in 1838 because we don’t see his descrition in later records. After passing Larkana, Kamber, Dost Ali and Bahram, the Army of the Indus crossed through Shahdadkot in March 1839; The Scinde terreitroy terminates at Shadutpoor and the territories of the chief of Jull (the Moongasee Beloochees) commences at Shadeehur. Another description highlights Shahdadkot in this way, A pretty large village with 4 pucka wells, but at present (12th March 1839) completely deserted, on account of the depredations of the Beloochees from beyond the Runn, who on account of the absence of the Scindian Seapyess who had these villages in charge, (lately called to Hyderabad) had taken the opportunity of plundering. (Route from Larkhana in Scinde to Dadur, Via Jhull, Gundava, and Shoorun, Measured with Perambulator by the Head Draftsman of the Qr. Master General’s Office in the Month of March 1839: Routes and Stages in Scinde to and from Guzerat, Cutch, Jeysulmeer and Joudhpoor, Bombay 1846, Page 109) First Anglo Afghan War & Shahdadkot 1839 AD A letter sent to the Bombay Government to the Secret Committee, 16 April 1839 shows that, on the 4th ultimo, his Excellency Sir John Keane assumed command of the army of the Indus, and issued a general order, a copy of which is enclosed, The Bombay division marched from Larkhana on the 12th ultimo to Kunmur, 15 miles. On the 13th, to Dost Ali, 10 miles. On the 14th, to Shadodpore, 15 miles; halted on the 15th to prepare for crossing the Desert, which was accomplished on the night of the 16th, the distance being about 30 miles. This Desert is described to be a level, hard plain, with a few stunted bushes here and there, but without a blade of grass or sign of vegetation, and entirely devoid of water. The force halted on the 17th, and on 18th proceeded to Jhul, a distance of upwards of 20 miles. It again halted on the 21st reached Cutch Gundava, 12 miles, situated at the base of the Kelat Mountains. (Indian Papers: Papers relating to the War in Afghanistan, Presented to Parliament by her Majesty’s Command, Ordered by the House of Commons, 21 January 1840, Page 9). "The Third March brought us to Shadadpore: The country for the last twenty miles was more like the dry bed of a salt lagoon in an interval betwixt spring-tides, then an inland district; only two or three miserable villages were found in this dreary region, and even these were abandoned by the inhabitants, who, in ignorance of British discipline, apprehended the excesses of a native army. On the evening of the 14th General Willshire's brigade marched to cross the desert; some unlucky loss of road occasioned delay and fatigue, and the infantry brigade did not reach its destination till the next day at past two in the afternoon, having made ma march exceeding thirty miles". (Narrative of the Campaign of the Indus Army in Sind and Kaubool, by R.H.Kennedy, London 1840 Page 189) Lieutenant General Sir James Outram, 1st Baronet GCB KSI (29 January 1803 – 11 March 1863) was an English general who fought in the Indian Rebellion of 1857, and is considered a British hero. He fought in First Anglo Afghan War, Battle of Ghazni, Anglo Persian War, Battle of Khushab, Indian Rebellion of 1857 and Siege of Lucknow. He also served as Chief Commissioner of Oudh, India. Describing Larkana, Kamber, Dost Ali and Shahdadkot situation during first Anglo Afghan War he writes, 12th. Sir John Keane and staff marched with a detachment, consisting of Horse Artillery, 1st Bombay Cavalry, and a wing of the 19th Regiment Bombay N.I. to Kumbar, fifteen miles; until within three miles of the halting ground, the road generally threaded channel of a dry canal, except in a few places, where the sand was so heavy as to oblige us to ascend the sides, which are not less than thirty feet high, and mostly very steep: the average width of this canal is about sixty feet, and along both sides, there are innumerable wells, from which the water is raised by means of the Persian Wheel. There are several small villages on either bank and many visible also in the distance, but the intermediate country is chiefly covered with low tamarisk jungle. (Page 53)

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A flat-bottomed boat, about thirty feet in length, was lying in the dry bed of the canal, about the middle of our march-a proof that, when filled, it is navigable for this description of craft. A new feature in the landscape at Larkhana, and around every village on this march, presented itself, in the numerous date trees, which had no heretofore in any numbers appeared in our route through Sinde. The natives of this country have not acquired the art of tapping the date tree, nor does it appear to be of use in any way, the fruit never coming to maturity. (Page 54) He again writes that, 13th. Ten miles, over a level plain, as smooth as bowling-green, with scarcely any villages or cultivation, but occasionally exhibiting clumps of stunted tamarisk. Last night, about twenty of the Government camels were carried off by men hired to take care of them. We passed eight or ten dead camels, which had been left by the brigade that had preceded us; several of our own also died of a contagious disease, which appears to have broken out amongst them .(Page 54) "14th.A March of fourteen miles. Stayed in the rear to ascertain whether any more camels had been taken off during the night, and was glad to find that the precautions adopted since yesterday had proved effectual-no further desertion having taken place. The villages on this route, together with that at our encamping ground, have been deserted for the last two months from a dread of the Khelat Beloches who have ravaged this frontier, since it was left unprotected by the Sindian Garrisons Stationed for their protection, but who were summoned to Hyderabad when opposition to us was contemplated, and have not yet returned. The wells are few in number, and from not having been lately drawn the water is at first very bad, though it improves as it is taken out. Great difficulty is experienced in watering so many horses and camels, but we are nevertheless obliged to halt here in order to refresh the letter, previously to crossing a desert of thirty miles in extent which now lies before us. Curbee in abundance is found at all the deserted villages in the neighbourhood. By some accident the village unfortunately took fire, and being surrounded and filled with combustible matter, it was found impossible to subdue the flames, which blazed the whole night. Being totally without inhabitants, nothing of any value could have been destroyed, but the affair will doubtless be magnified by the tongue of report, and our credit in the country will suffer accordingly". (Rough Notes of the Campaign in Sinde and Afghanistan in 1838-39 by Captain James Outram, Bombay 1840, PP 45, 46 & 47). The above description of Captain James Outram tells us that Shahdadkot was the last town on Sindh border. Robert Leech says in 1837 that Shahdadkot was guarded by 1000 Jamali soldiers who belonged to Mir Sobdar Khan Talpur, the prince of Sindh. Their leader was Muhammad Hassan Jamali. In their absence, mountain robbers plundered it brutally. At the arrival of Outram there were 2 wells in Shahdadkot and on the same night it caught fire from the dry reeds of Curbi grown in the fields. In August 1839, after almost 30 years, Shah Shuja was again enthroned in Kabul. On November 13, 1839, while en route to India, the Bombay column attacked, as a form of reprisal, the Baluchi tribal fortress of Kalat, from where Baloch tribes had harassed and attacked British convoys during the move towards the Bolan Pass. After this incident Sir Charles Napier conquered Sindh in 1843. Describing Shahdadpur or Shahdadkot Lieutenant Hugh James says, To the west, on either bank of the Datah Canal, the marks of former cultivation are very striking. Shahdadpoor, on its west bank, was a large town, from which Lord Keane drew supplies for his army when advancing on Afghanistan, but now a ruin, and when I visited it in September 1846, an old Hindu was its sole occupant. Report on the Purguna of Chandookah in Upper Sindh Compiled by Lieutenant Hugh James 44th Regiment Bengal N.I, Late Deputy Collector Shikarpoor, Submitted to Government on the 31st December 1847, Page 713). According to Lieutenant Hugh James the people had evacuated their villages due to the fear of Cholera and had climbed up the Khirthar Mountains in the west. Two miles to the west of the mouth of the Shah is that of the Datah Canal, which takes its name from one Datah Kohawur, who excavated it in the reign of Noor Muhammad Kalhora, and of whom honorable mention will presently be made. It is finest artificial canal in Upper Sind, and flows in a north-westerly direction to the frontier of Kutchee. Thick belts of babool trees clothe its banks for many miles, and even now the cultivation there is extensive. Beyond, however, it is but the record of past prosperity, and north of Shahdadpoor not a beega is under tillage. In A.D. 1840, the District of Nalah Datah was sold in contract for one season to Futteh Chund for Rs.1, 00,000, and he expended Rs. 7,000 on cleaning the canal. Report on the Purguna of Chandookah in Upper Sindh Compiled by Lieutenant Hugh James 44th Regiment Bengal N.I, Late Deputy Collector Shikarpoor, Submitted to Government on the 31st December 1847, Page 717)

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1840 AD: Migration of Hindus from Village Tando Murad Ali Khuhawar to Shahdadkot According to his ancestral oral traditions, Ramesh Lal Shringi says that Mahraj Seeru Ram had assisted Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro and Mian Dato Khuhawar in excavating Kur Dato. It’s why the Kalhora rulers gave him some 3000 Jarebs of land in jagir. It comprised the lands of Tando Murad Ali Khuhawar, Raunti and Mairee Kalhora. Nearly all of the lands were located in the neighbourhood of Dargah Mian Shahal Muhammad Kalhoro (d 1658) in Kamber taluka of Larkana District. Mahraj Seeru Ram Shringi was a Brahman and used to perform religious ceremonies and rituals within his community. He spent most of his life time serving the people by social work in the days of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro, Main Muradyab Khan Kalhoro, Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro, Mian Attur Khan Kalhoro, Mian Ahmed Yar Khan Kalhoro, Mian Sarfaraz Khan Kalhoro, Mian Mehmud Khan Kalhoro, Mian Ghulam Nabi Khan Kalhoro and Mian Abdul Nabi Khan Kalhoro. In this was he was an eye witness of Kalhoro Rule from 1701 to 1783. During the Battle of Hallani Muhammad Hassan Khuhawar, the Commander in Chief of Kalhora Army was slain with his brother Muhammad Baqar Khuhawar, his son Sultan Khan Khuhawar and other 500 selected warriors. It is said that Ganhwar Khan Khuhawar and Bakhtawar Khan Khuhawar were also killed in this battle. The graves of these soldiers are located in the graveyard of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro near Daulatpur district Nawabshah, Sindh. After Kalhora defeat Khuhawars were expelled from their villages and lands. Some of them were imprisoned and some were dealt with hard hand. New settlements of Village Shaho Jamali and Village Karam Ali Jamali were founded in the north and south of Shahdadkot town. Some of the Kalhora, Khuhawar and Magsi tribesmen migrated with Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro towards Punjab and returned back to Sindh after his death. Mahraj Seeru Ram Shringi used to live in a small village of Tando Murad Ali Khuhawar, situated on the banks of Koor Dato. This village is located 25 Kilometers in the south-east of Shahdadkot in Deh Dhori Pir Bakhsh Khuhawar, taluka Miro Khan and was founded by one of the Amirs of the Talpur Rulers of Sindh, Sirai Murad Ali Khan Khuhawar. The famed Golo Khan Khuhawar was his brother. Their father was Sirai Sher Muhammad Khuhawar who was the son of Mian Punhoo Khuhawar. While Mian Punhoon Khuhawar was the son of Mian Dato Khan Kalhoro. Describing Mian Dato Khuhawar, Lieutenant Hugh James Near Shahdadpoor there is a pair of large millstones in a garden, about 4 feet in diameter. It is on the banks of the Datah Canal, so called from Datah Kohawur, a man as renowned for his wealth, and the canals dug by him, as for his unbounded liberality,-he was the Hatim Taee of Chandookah. It is related of him that no poor man passed his door unfed, and the above millstones are now considered sacred, for we are told that God was so pleased with his piety and liberality, that even a handful of grain was thrown in, the supply would flour was equal to all demands. They are approached with bare feet, and the precincts kept in cleanliness and good order . (Lieutenant Hugh James’s Report on the Purguna of Chandookah: December 1847, in Bombay Government Selections, No.XVII, New Series, Part II, Page726). The grave of Mian Dato Khuhawar is situated in the necropolis of Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro is Khuda Abad, district Dadu Sindh. Mian Dato Khuhawar had two sons; 1) Mian Punhoon Khuhawar and 2) Muhammad Pariyal Khuhawar. Mian Punhoon Khuhawar was blessed with a son who came to be known as Feroz Khan Khuhawar and he was father of Sirai Khanbahdur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar. During Kalhora Rule Shahdadkot was a flourishing town and it was connected with Larkana and Ganadava. In 1783, a fierce battle took place between Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro and Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur at Hallani. Mir Shaho Khan Jamali under the leadership of his tribal chief Mir Sobdar Khan Jamlali joined Talpur forces and fought with great bravery and swordsmanship. His brothers Hamal Khan, Bijar Khan, Eso Khan and Juwalan Khan did not take part in the battlefield. During battle he killed Sohoo Abdar, who was a beloved courtier of Mian Abdul Nabi Kalhoro. He seized his sword, armor and rifle. When Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur came to know this news he asked the proof from Mir Shaho Khan Jamali. The Mir took out the bleeding head from his horse bag and showed it to the victorious chief. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur demanded weapons of Sohoo Abdar from Mir Shaho Khan Jamali but he refused to hand over such belongings to him. Seeing bravery of Jamali chief, Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur bestowed upon him a Jagir in the north of Shahdadkot, where Shaho Jamali village stands today. When Mir Shaho Khan Jamali came to occupy this Jagir he kicked out Gadahi and Korai tribes who served the Kalhoras. The Jamalis also dealt Sindhi Khand tribe with hard hand. After

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this the Mir founded village Shaho Khan Jamali on the banks of Edan Wah and dug out a new canal named Hidav Wah to irrigate his Jagir lands. Mir Shaho Khan Jamali gave share of his Jagir to his brothers who didn’t take part in the battle of Halani. He also distributed lands among Chodha and Marri-Jarwar castes living in Shahdadkot. Mir Shaho Khan Jamali built a mud fort for his residence on 8 Jarebs. General John Jacob (1812-1858) has also mentioned Shaho Jamali in his book. Sirai Pir Bakhsh Khan Khuhawar, Sir John Keane & General John Jacob In 1840s Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar was a socio-political and public spirited landlord. He had close relations with LieutenantGeneral Sir John Keane (1781-1844) who was Commander In chief of the Bombay between 1833 and 1839. He was invested as a Knight Grand Cross, Order of the Bath (GCB) in 1839. He fought in the Afghanistan Campaign in 1839, when he captured Ghazni. He was created 1st Baron Keane, of Ghazni in Afghanistan and Cappoquin, co, Waterford (UK) on 23rd December 1839. Sir John Keane drew supplies from Shahdadkot for his Army on advancing towards Afghanistan, during first Anglo Afghan War in 1840. During that time Shahdadkot was badly hit by River Indus floods and everything was washed away in the whole area. Another important friend of Khanbahadur Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar-I, was General John Jacob (1812-1858) who established many out posts to protect Upper Sindh Frontier from mountain robbers. These outposts guarded border from 1839 to 1858 through Dost Ali, Shahdadkot, Garhi Khero, Rojhan, Khangarh (Jacobabad), Dilmurad, Garhi Hassan, Tangwani, Kandh Kot, Kumri and Kashmore posts. He constructed roads, bridges and canals to develop Jacobabad, Garhi Khero, Shahdadkot, Kamber and Larkana areas. He also brought peace and trade in a turmoil conditions in the land. General John Jacob died of ill health at Jacobabad on 6th December 1858 and was laid into rest in a graveyard located in the neighbourhood of the city. During Talpur Rule in Sindh, in 1839-40, River Indus overflowed from Chak/Shikarpur and inundated Tando Murad Ali khuhawar. It brought havoc destruction in Larkana or Kamber Shahdadkot districts. It continiuosly flowed from Village Mubarak Kalhoro/Bahram towards Manchhar Lake in Dadu district. It is told that such floods had destroyed above areas seven times earlier. According to Dr.R.H.Kennedy of Bomaby Army, the water around Shahdadpur or Shahdadkot was spread in 20 miles during 1840 floods. (See: Narrative of the Campaign of the Army of the Indus in Sind and Kaubool by Richard Hartley Kennedy, London 1840, Page 189). It was the time when Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar decided to settle in Shahdadkot under English protection. After some necessary arrangements Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar along with Mahraj Dewandas, Mahraj Kishoredas, Diwan Jhamat Mal, Diwan Radha Krishan, Seth Paroo Mal, Bhai Hiranand and Naraindas migrated to Shahdadkot from Village Tando Murad Ali khuhawar. Mahraj Dewandas and Mahraj Kishoredas were sons of Mahraj Seeru Ram Shringi who enjoyed great privileges under Talpur Rulers of Sindh (1783-1843) also. Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar settled in Shahdadkot with the support of the English Generals during River Indus floods of 1840. He encouraged downtrodden people to settle down in Shahdadkot as it was taking the shape of a peaceful and a commercial town then. It is said that Qazi, Lohar and Soomro families had also been settled in Shahdadkot at that time. In this way the people started constructing their houses, shops and worshiping places in the ruined town of the border. Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar also got constructed a mud fort for his family’s residence in the centre of the town. It was the time when Sindh was annexed by the British in 1843. Allama Muhammad Hashim Soomro (1844-1905) was born in Shahdadkot town. He left behind three sons 1) Moulana Muhammad Ibrahim 2) Maulana Muhammad Qasim and 3) Muhammad Saleh. First two of them settled in Garhi Yasin and established Medrassehs with the support of Pathans. History of Sibi, Kalat & Gandava from Alexander’s Invasion to the first Anglo Afghan War All local traditions assert that, the former rulers of Sibi, including Kalat were Hindus, who were called Sewa or Sewas. A tribe known as Sibi or Sibia is mentioned in the histories of Alexander the Great. The province of these people was called Sewistan later. Prior to Islam, Sibi seems to have formed a portion of an extensive Hindu Kingdom on the Indus, which at the time of its first contact with the

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Arabs was ruled over by Sahiras, whose capital was Alor near Sukkur in Sindh. He had appointed 4 Governors in his kingdom. This monarch was killed by Arabs in the Battle of Makran. After him the Kingdom passed in the hands of his son Rai Sahiras. Then the Government of Sindh fell into the hands of a Brahmin called Chach who was firstly assistant to Rais Sahasi’s secretary Ram. After resolving Makran affairs, King Chach is said to have marched from Armabela (Las Bela) through the Jhalawan to Kandabil, or the modern Gandava. Afterwards he encamped on the banks of the River Sini or Sibi, which may be identified with the Nari of present day. He is described as having compelled the inhabitants of this part of the country to pay him a tribute of a 100 horses and 1000 coins of money. The people of Kandabil gave one years tribute. A treaty was then made and the king returned to his capital Alor. Chach ruled Sindh for 40 years. He was succeded by his brother Chander. The first Muslim invasion of Sindh by Muahmmad Bin Qasim is recorded in 711 AD. During this time Dahar son of Chach ruled the country including Sibi, Gandava and Budhia. At the beginning of the 11th Century AD, Sibi and its neighbouring country formed part of Ghaznivid Empire under Mehmood of Ghazni, who captured Multan in 1004 AD. In the time of Sultan Nasirudin Kabacha (1225), who asserted his independencies in sindh during the reign of Altamash, the slave king of Delhi, Sibi is mentioned as forming one of the seven kingdoms of Sindh tributary to Multan and as being ruled by Rana Wakija, son of Punnu Channun (Chano), a petty Muslim feudatory of Hindu descent. By the year 1250 AD, the town of Sibi and its dependencies are said to have been held by Raja Sihrai, the head of the Langah tribe of Multan, who according to Tod, were Hindus by descent and a branch of the Solanki Rajputs. According to native writers these were a branch of the Jats. In 1470 AD, Sultan Hussain Mirza of Heart is said to have made over the terretories of Shal (Quetta), Pushang (Pishin) and Sibi to Amir Shujaudin Zunnun, the Arghoon, but according to the Ain-i-Akbari, the Siwi fort was conferred as a fief in 1488 on Shah Beg, the son of Shujaudin Zunnun Arghoon. About 1511 AD, Shah Beh Arghoon marched against Sibi to resume his fief and captured the town after a severe struggle. After rebuilding the fort, which he strongly garrisoned, Shah beg returned to Kandhar. He was, however, compelled to retire before Babar, and evacuating Kandhar made his headquarters at Shal and sibi. In 1517 he led an expedition into Sindh and defeating Jam Feroz, the son of Jam Nizamuddin alias Jam Nindo captured and sacked Thatta in January 1519. Shah Beg arghoon died in 1522 when leading another expedition against Gujrat and was succeeded by his son Mirza Shah Hassan Arghoon. In 1543-44 Shah Hussain Arghoon bestowed the Government of sibi on sultan Muhammad Khan, son of Mir Fazil Kokaltash, a favourite of his father. It was about this time that Humayun passed through Sibi on his retreat from India. Shah Hussain Arghoon died in 1554, and after his death his territory was divided between Mirza Isa Turkhan, who had been appointed Governor of Thatta and sultan Muhammad, the later retaining the territory of Bakhar. In 1573, Sultan Muhammad tendered his allegence to the Epmeror Akber, and his territory, hitherto held by him independently, was confirmed to him as a fief. Sultan Muhammad died in the following year and was succeeded as Governor of Bakhar by one Syed Muhammad. At this period Sibi appears to have come into the possession of the Pani tribe of Ghurgusht Pathans or Afghans, who had first begun to acquire power on the decay of the Arghoon rule. After the continuous expeditions of 1576 and 1587 the fort of Sibi was caprured by Akber in 1595. Mir Muhammad Masoom of Bakhar was then appointed as Governor of Sibi. In the time of Akber, Sibi was assessed to revenue as a mahal of the Bakhar Sarkar of the Multan province and paid 1,381,930 dirhams in cash and furnished a contingent of 500 cavalry and 1,500 infantry. During the reign of Jehangir and Shah Jehan, the province of Sewistan seems to have been kept in the utmost subjection but in the reign of Aurangzeb Prince Muhammad Muizzudin, grandson of the emperor was appointed as Governor of Multan province. He controlled disturbed state of the frontier districts of Multan and the Balochis. At this time Sibi and its dependencies were held by the chief of Pani Tribe Mirza Khan Baruzai, who received the title of Nawab and also administered the affairs of Upper Sindh. His son Nawab Bakhtiar Khan, who had been entrapped into opposing the Prince’s forces, was killed in 1700 AD. In 1712, Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro of Sindh was appointed Governor of Bakhar by Prince Muizzudin, who had succeeded to the throne of Delhi as Jahandar Shah, and received the title of Nawab and afterwards Khuda Yar Khan Abbassi. In 1730-31, Mir Abdullah Khan Brahui, the Khan of Kalat was killed while fighting with Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro, the son of Mian Yar Muhammad Kalhoro of Sindh. In 1739, the provinces west of Indus were annexed to the Persian Empire by Nadir Shah, and Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro was delivered over into the hands of Mohbat Khan Brahui of Kalat that he might avenge the death of his

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father. The Brahui chief however declined the commission of murder and Nadir Shah compelled the Kalhora prince to cede Kachhi or Kach Gandava to the Khan as equivalent or atonement for the blood of his father. Kachhi is accordingly always spoken of as having been acquired for Kalat by the blood of Abdullah Khan. (Balochistan District Gazetteer Series: Sibi District; Vol: III, Compiled by Major A. McConaghey & Assisted by Rai Sahib Diwan Jamiat Rai, Bombay 1907, Pages 22- 30) According to A.W.Hughes (1876) this ruler was confirmed by Nadir Shah. Later, he with but 1500 men, ventured to attack a large Sindhi force of 8000 men at a palce between Dhadhar and Mithri, in that district , and was slain there with 300 of his followers. On his death his son Mohbat Khan, one of the hostages in the camp of Nadir Shah, having received the usual Khilat, on honourary dress, from the monarch, at once proceeded to Kalat and assumed the government of Balochistan. Nadir Shah took two sons of Mian Noor Muhammad Kalhoro with him. They were Mian Muhammad Muradyab Kalhoro and Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro. After Nadir Shah’s death in 1747, Mohbat Khan Brahui made an incursion towards Kandhar, but the active successor to the Persian throne Ahmed Shah Abdali soon revenged this insult by invading the Baloch province of Sarawan and taking away with him the two brothers of the Kalat ruler, Mir Eltaz Khan and Mir Nasir Khan Noori as surrties for his future good behavior. Mohbat Khan was tyrannical to the chiefs of the country therefore they communicated with Ahmed Shah Abdali and Mir Nasir Khan Noori. On this Mohbat Khan was kept captive till his death in Kalat. His brother Mir Nasir Khan Noori being sent to Kalat to rule in his stead. After Nadir Shah’s death the Pani’s seized the opportunity to again acquire Sibi and Sangan. Mir Nasir Khan Noori encouraged Hindus to reside in his towns. He provided them grants for the maintenance of a Hindu temple and its priests in Kalat. He also constructed the shrine of Pir Lakho in Mulla Pass during his rule and provided some lands to the Barija Faqirs of this holy place. A festival was held on this shrine every year and Hindus from Sindh, Balochistan and the Punjab attended it with great love and respects. Allama Noor Muahmmad Ganjabvi was the Chief Qazi of the Kalat State in the reign of Mir Nasir Khan Noori. He accompanied Ahmad Shah Abdali and Mir Nasir Khan Noori to the Punjab in the winter of 1764-65, during the Afghan invader's seventh invasion. He has given an account of the Durrani's invasion. Mir Nasir Khan Noori died after a long and prosperious reign of 40 years. He left behind three sons; 1) Mehmud Khan 2) Mustafa Khan and 3) Muhammad Rahim Khan and two daughters named 1) Bibi Zainab and 2) Bibi Murad Khatoon. Mir Mehmud Khan succeeded his father in the Khanship of Kalat. Mustafa Khan and Rahim Khan were half brothers. It is said that when Rahim Khan’s mother died Mustafa Khan did not visit him for condolence. On third Mustafa Khan went for hunting excursion. Finding this Rahim Khan followed his brother with 50 or 60 armed men and shot him dead in Kachhi Gunadava. The corpse of Mustafa Khan was buried near Bhag and a tomb was constructed over his remains alittle to the north of the town. After this incident Rahim Khan fled towards Sindh. He collected a force and took possession of the eastern districs of Harand and Dajil presently situated in the Punjab. Soon he decided to get western hills and entered Kachhi Gandava, accompanied by a few followers. There, he was met by the troops of Mustafa Khan’s sister. Rahim Khan was overpowere and slain by Bibi Zainab at Panjnama near Gundava. He was buried by the side of the brother he had assassinated. Bibi Zainab was a people loving and daring lady. She was against her brother's policies and wanted to make Mir Mustafa Khan as a Khan of Kalat but her youngest brother Rahim Khan opposed her. Mir Mehmud Khan, the Khan of Kalat did not take notice of this incident. He was too indolent and resolute to follow his father’s vigorious footsteps, and at the later end of his reign is said to have become devoted to wine, and to have spent the greater part of his time in the company of dancing girls. His death, in 1821, is commonly reported to have occurred from over-indulgence and intemerence, but it is also though that he was carried off by poison, administered to him by one of his wives Bibi Ganjan, the mother of his successor, Mehrab khan, who was disgusted at the predilection shown by her husband for the dancing girls of sindh. (The Country of Balochistan: A.W.Hughes London 1877, Page 194). Mehrab Khan, the son of Mehmud Khan, showed at the first some vigour in his administration. After the successful installation of Shah Shujah, the bulk of the British forces began to leave. But as they did so, they took the opportunity to attack those tribes who had been raiding the supply trains and causing problems for the communications lines. Sir John Keane's retreating force stopped by Kalat to try and impose order on the unruly tribesmen there. On the 5th of November 1839 Major-General Willshire drove the defenders from nearby hills and stormed the fortress of Kalat. Mehrab Khan, with several of his chiefs’ fell fighting sword in hand, the loss of his troops

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exceeding 400. Of the rest, about 2000 were made prisoners; the British loss was 31 killed and 107 wounded. The chiefs killed were; Sardar Wali Muhammad Mengal, Mir Jaj Muhammad Mengal, Muhammad Ali Shahizai Mengal, Mir Abdul Karim Raisani, Sardar Asad Khan Raisani, Shahgasi Noor Muhammad, Arbab Khan Muhammad Dehwar, Diwan Bacha Ram, Sardar Dad Karim Shahwani, Sardar Shahbaz Khan Nichari, Badal Khan Nichari,and Fazil Muhammad Lehri. While Mula Muhammad Hussain, Naib Rahimdad and Akhund Muhammad Siddique and some 30 others surrendered in the fortress. They were taken to Shikarpur as captives and were sent to the fort of Bakhar. The British forces occupied Miri treasure which is said to be 12 Lakh Rupees of worth.They also seized jewels; swords, guns, and horses. Mir Nasir Khan II, Bibi Ganjan and Daroga Gul Muhammad moved to Nushki. Lieutenant Loveday pursued him to that place, and the young prince proceeded to Panjgur and thence to Kharan, where they were received by Azad Khan Naushirwani. In meanwhile the rule of Talpur Amirs ended with the conquest of Sindh by Sir Charles Napier in 1843. Mir Nasir Khan II (1840-1857); Hindus of Gandawah & their flee to Shahdadkot Shah Nawaz Khan, a cousin of Mir Nasir Khan II, was installed as new ruler of Kalat. Lieutenant Loveday of the 37th Regiment of Bengal Native Infantry was appointed as British Agent with the Kalat. He had 30 soldiers. He had been recently attached to the political agency of Shal (Quetta) as an Assistant to Captain Bean, accompanied Major general Willshire’s force, and on the fall of Kalat he was left there on the request of Shah Nawaz Khan. The districts of Mastung and Quetta, in the Sarawan Province and Kachhi Gandava were made over to Shah Shuja. While the districts of Harand and Dajal were already sold to Ranjit Singh by Syed Muhammad Sharif in the days of Mehrab Khan. The chiefs including Isa Khan of Wadd, Kamal Khan of Baghwan and Rashid Khan Zehri were friends of Shah Nawaz Khan and the British. Majority of the Balochis regarded the new order with aversion, and only awaited time and opportunity for putting the son of Mehrab Khan on the throne of his father. Kalat was ill supplied and its walls were very old to protect the capital. In July 1840, Mir Nasir Khan II succeeded in obtaining possesstion of the fortress of Kalat; the Brahui garrison having deserted the cause of Shah Nawaz Khan, who abdicted in favour of Mir nasir Khan II. Shah Nawaz Khan urged Lieutent Loveday to acoompany him but he refused to do so. Describing Loveday’s troubles A.W.Hughes says that Captain Charles Masson and Lieutenant Loveday both were removed to Mastung, whence Masson was sent to Quetta with letters to Captain Bean, Political Agent at Quetta.Though under obligations to return Masson was detained a prisoner by Captain Bean who apparently connected him with the disturbances in the Kalat. Loveday remained behind with his captors.
The fort of Kalat & Sir Charles Napier

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Hugh Murray writes in his History of British India that, Loveday, who was thus made prisoner, was very harshly treated, and at last barbarously murdered. Nusseer then advanced upon Dadur, an important British post, which he took, and plundered its magazines; but Major Boscawen came up next day and obliged him to retreat. Larger reinforcements arriving soon after, General Nott took the command, and marched upon Kelat, which he reached on the 3rd November, but found it abandoned by the enemy. At length, on the 1st December, Colonel Marshall from Kotra succeeded in surprising the enemy’s camp, and routed and dispesed his force . (History of British India by Hugh Murray, London 1850, Page 618). Dhadhar situated about 4 miles from the entrence of the Bolan Pass and it contained 5000 inhabitants at that time. From the 10th November 1840, until the 13th January 1841, the British forces never knew what a sound night’s rest was, nor free from being equipped and lying on their arms. Lieutenent Loveday was fastened and tied with a camel. His headless body being found chained to a camel seat. General John Jacob (1812-1858) wirites in his Sind Irregular Horse that, In September 1840, Lieutenant Curtis, with the headquarters of the regiment, arrived in Upper Scinde, having left a detachment of 50 men at Hyderabad. In October 1840 Lieutenant Curtis and Malcolm, with the headquarters of the regiment, 240 strong, joined the force under Major Boscawen, and served in the campaign against Meer Nusseer Khan, of Kelat, and the Brahooees. On 18th October 1840 the regiment having been sent in advance of the force from Burshooree towards Kunda, fell in with the enemy, attacked and pursued them from for a considerable distance towards Kotree. On 19th October 1840, engaged in affair with the Brahooees near Kunda, where a great number of the enemy, were slain, the S.I.Horse losing 4 men and 11 horses. On 2nd November engaged in the action near Dadur, when Meer Nusseer Khan with the whole Brahooee army, was driven from his position near the entrance of the Bolan pass, his whole force dispersed or destroyed, and himself forced to fly to the hills, abandoning his camp, baggage, &c.In the fight many men and horses of the S.I.Horse were killed and wounded. A detachment of 30 men of the regiment, under Lieutenant Vardon, routed a large party of Brahooees near Bhaugh. (Record Book of the Scinde Irregular Horse: Vol; I (1839-1851) London 1856, Page 4) It comes into light that a Hindu richman tried to save Lieutenant Lovedays life. A rich Hindu merchant, however, bribed the chiefs, with 2,000 Rupees to spare Loveday’s life. They then went forward, leaving their prisoner at Mastung. In a few days they returned, their forces dispersed, and the Khan, with one hundred men, went to Khilat, taking Loveday with him. (A Glance at Sind before Napier or Dry Leaves from Young Egypt by E.B.Eastwick, England 1849, 1851; Reprinted by Oxford University Press Karachi Pakistan 1973, Page 168). It is said that the above Hindu merchant belonged to Gandava area and he carried out his business in Sibi, Dhadar and Kalat. He also ran his business in Sindh. Mir Nasir Khan II imprisioned this merchant in the blame of betrayal. Describing conversion of Sheikh Community of Shahdadkot, as a Muslim from Hinduism, Mehrulah Khan Sheikh (1912-1991) says, According to some oral traditions of our family, it is said that when Mir Nasir Khan II, the Khan of Kalat attacked Sibi and Dhahdar, he impersined some Hindu Brahmins (Monks) on the charge of betrayal. While seeing this, my great grandfather named Diwan Hotaldas Chhabria and other notables of Hindu Community presented themselves to the Khan of Kalat as sureties on behalf of captives. When these Brahmins were set free from Kalat, they rushed to Sindh without informing the guaranteers or sureties. Eventually the guarnteers Hotaldas and others were held hostages by the ruler of Kalat.The caretakers of the people were Muslims who took great care of the detained persons so much so that there was no difference of eatables and relationship. It is told that after some time Mir Nasir Khan II, the Khan of Kalat ordered their release by taking pithy upon them and by sseing their submissive natute. When Hotaldas and his companions returned back to their homes honourably, their opponents spread rumors against them saying that they have taken meals in the hands of Muslims and lived with them for long time so they must be socially boycotted from the Hindu Community living in Gandava. In the meanwhile Hotaldas and others tried to convince his community heads by imploring and crying but they didn’t accept them as Hindus. They displayed great hatred against them and rejected their statements. It is supposed that the captives had been forcibly converted to Islam by Khan of Kalat in the prison.

Mir Khudad Khan, the Khan of Kalat (1863-1893) with his sons and view of Gundawah 1878 AD

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By the effort of Colonel Stacy, Mir Nasir Khan II was induced to submit to the British Government. He gave himself to up into the hands of Colonel Marshall near Kotra in the province of Gandava. On 6th October 1841 Mir Nasir Khan II was formally installed as Khan of Kalat by Major Outram, then in political charge of both Sindh and Balochistan. The ceremony was attended by Major Outram, Brigadier England and other British officials and Brahui chiefs. On 13th October 1841, Kaisoo, the man who put Lieutenant Loveday to death was brought in and made over for trial in the agency camp. Mir Nasir Khan II at first acknowledged Shah Shuja Durani as the paramount power in Baluchistan, but subsequent events in Kabul caused this undertaking to be annulled. In 1854, as a consequence of the European imbroglio with Russia, a formal treaty; the first of those with Kalat, was concluded with the British Government. Quarrels broke out between him and the chiefs and perhaps Mir Nasir Khan II died by poison in 1857. After the death of Mir Nasir Khan II, his half brother Mir Khudadad Khan was proclaimed the Khan of the Baloch in 1857. According to some of the oral traditions Mir Nasir Khan II behaved well with Hotaldas and other Hindus of Gandava and permitted them to foster trade. When the news of Mir Nasir Khan’s death arrived to them they collectively decided to run away from Ganadava. They thought that Mir Khudadad Khan, the new Khan of Kalat would interrogate in the murder of Mir Nasir Khan II. They would be treated harshly once gain by the Khan. At last some of them decided to settle down in Sindh for ever. In this way these poor familes of Hindus came to Shahdadkot where Sirai Pir Bakhsh Khan Khuhawar provided them shelter and protection. Now, they were neither Hindus nor Muslims. Continuing this story, Ashfaque Hussain Sheikh, SS Govt: Boys Higher Secondary School Qubo Saeed Khan, quoting her century old aunt says that, Our elders were Hindu traders of Gandava. They cultivated mustard crop in the Kachhi Plains after rainfalls. They pressed seeds of mustard plants and filled their clay jars for the sale at their shops. One day some one told them that the Khan of Kalat is going to attack them. Having listened this, they gathered their families and rushed towards Shahdadkot for safety. When the Khan of Kalat suddenly attacked their residences he couldn’t find any soul but their left over properties including jars of clay filled with oil. His Brahui tribesmen broke these jars into pieces with great anger and outrage. The oil of these jars is said to be flowed for 3 miles distance. When the Khan of Kalat left the place the servants of our elders dug out the hidden money and other valuables and fled to Jhal Magsi. After some time they also came to Shahdadkot and started their own business. River Indus floods: 1849 "22nd August, 1849". Sir, I have the honor to report that, on the 16th instant, I proceeded to Khyree Ghurree, with the intension of visiting all the posts on the western side of this frontier. On the night following, an unusual and even quite unprecedented fall of rain took place, which rendered the country for two days impassable, even for men on foot, and it is still so for horsemen. On the morning of 17th the water was standing more than two feet deep in the lines at Khyree Ghurree; and in a few hours the whole of these lines fell down, and were completely washed away. I had previously caused men and horses to leave the lines, and pitch where they could find dry spots on the tops of sand hillocks, which alone appeared above the water; so that no one was hurt. As for as the eye could reach nothing but water could be seen; and the whole desert between Khyree Ghurree and Rojaun was converted into a lake. Even now, after a lapse of six days, the water is nearly three feet deep in some parts of the road; while the mud still renders it very difficult ever for a cossid to get from one place to the other. It is my intension to return to Khanghur as soon as possible. I received information yesterday a strong body of Murrees has assembled in the hills for a predatory excursion on the border. I have the honor, &c., John Jacob, Major, Commanding the Frontier of Upper Scinde."(Sind Irregular Horse Vol: I, 1839-1851, London 1856).

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Arrival of Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan & Hindu families from Kanda Balochistan Village Kanda was a junction between Sindh and Balochistan since1840s. On 27 February 1842, Naik Munni Ram of Sindh Irregular Horse marched with a party of suwars from Bhag towards Kanda. He was attacked by Balochis and Jhok Qasim. Three of the Balochis were killed and several wounded in this affair. Kamber town of Upper Sindh Frontier was plundered by the Balochis in 1844. On 15th November 1844, Sir Charles Napier reached at Pokhran from Ghaibidero, Kamber. In January 1845, Sir Charles Napier along with General John Jacob, Mir Ali Murad Khan Talpur, Nawab Wali Muhammad Chandio (Chief of Ghaibidero) and Sardar Ahmed Khan Magsi (Chief of Jhal Magsi) marched against Dombkis, Jakhranis and Bugtis in Kachhi. On 4th May 1847, a party of Balochi horsemen crossed the desert at Garhi Khairo and carried off a number of camels in the neighbourhood of it. On the orders of Sir Charles Napier, Commanding the troops in Sindh, the post of Garhi Khairo was placed under the orders of General John Jacob. Shortly General John Jacob wrote to Sir Charles Napier that, There are, I understand, fifty Chandia horsemen, under command of Captain Fitzgerald, posted at Dost Ali; it would be a good arrangement were half of these men ordered to Khyree Ghuree, posting three of themmid way to Shahdadpoor to carry information. (Record Book of Sind Irregular Horse; Vol: I, 1839-1851, London 1856, Page 101). The Balochis continued inroads on the Sindh border and plundered villages, murdered their inhabitants and devastated the country. The raids by the Marris and Bughtis continued on Sindh Kalat border. Captain John Jacob reported in September 1848 that The whole province of Kachhi is being overrun by the Marris, and the peaceful inhabitants are fast leaving the country with their families and property to reside in Sind . Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar once again took initiatives to develop Shahdadkot town after the floods of 1849. Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan was Chief Justice (Qazi) and illustrious scholar in the court of Mehrab Khan, the Ruler of Kalat. He remained on the same position in the Khanship of Mir Nasir Khan II but in the early rule of Mir Khudadad Khan he resigned from his post due to the cruelty and behavior of Mir Khuhdadad Khan to him. At first, he moved towards Mian Hamid Huzoori Tunio (1798-1873) who was a highly reputed scholar in Miro Khan at that time. According to Faiz Muhammad Soomro (1966), Fahmida Naz Mughal (1974) and Mian Ahmed Din Mekan (1981) Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar, brought Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan, his bother Moulvi Khair Muhamad Mekan, other family members, disciples and Hindu traders from Miro Khan in 1272 A.H/ 1857 AD. The number of total familes is said to be 61 while there were 120 discilpes who learnt Holy Quran and Islamic education from Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan and his sons. Among them there were 9 families of the Hindus locally known as Punjabis these days. While the Muslim tribes and castes who accompanied Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan from Kanda to Shahdadkot were Qazi (Palal), Abra, Dool, Hajam (Mangi), Mochi (Channa), Unar, and Khokhar. Soon after, the Tunio tribesmen also came to Shahdadkot behind them. This little caravan came from Miro Khan to Shahdadkot on 140 bullock carts which were also arranged by Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar. He also made arrangements for their houses in the town. He facilitated Hindus in opening Shops and provided bullocks to Muslims to cultivate their lands. After some time, Mir Khudadad Khan realized his mistake and sent his Naib Pir Jan towards Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan but he refused to go back to Kanda Balochistan. Bibi Ganjan, the mother of Mir Khudadad Khan dug a well for travelers in the medressah of Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan. The well was closed by people later. Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan, his family members, disciples and Hindu traders lived in village Karira; 4 Kilometers in the south of Shahdadkot until their houses and market shops had been constructed. Sirai Muhammad Ali khan Khuhawar was the headman and chief landlord of Village Karira at that time. He was the eldest son of Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar. Mian Noor Muhammad Mekan was born in 1206 AH/ 1792 AD at village Kanda (Balochistan) and died in 1295 AH/ 1878 AD at Shahdadkot. He was buried beside his newly opened Medressah after his death. He had three sons; 1) Mian Gul Muhammad Mekan (died 1888) 2) Mian Ghulam Umer Mekan (died 1884) and 3) Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan (died 1905). Around 1883-84, Abdul Rauf Sheikh Mukhtiarkar of Shahdadkot contributed in the construction of three domed mosque which is still standing beside the burial chamber. The Hindus and Sheikhs of the town always supported these scholars. Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan died in 1905 AD. His shrine was constructed by Saindad Mastoi who was a chief disciple of Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan. Its construction work was started in 1907 and finnaly ened in 1910.

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A total number of 60,000 burnt bricks weresaid to be used in the construction of this shrine. While the Belgium Iron Garders were purchased from Karachi and brought to Shahdadkot from Larkana in boats through Koor Dato. While stone slabs of the graves had been brought from Sukkur. Moulvi Khair Muhammad Mekan had a son called Moulvi Faiz Muhammad Mekan. Indian Mutiny of 1857 & Revolts on Sindh Kalat border In the Indian Mutiny of 1857, Sardar Dilmurad Khan Khosa, Darya Khan Jakhrani and Syed Inayat Shah revolted against the British in Jacobabad Sindh. Soon they were arrested and sent to Andaman & Nicobar Islands in Indian Ocean and Aden as rebellion prisoners. Bahadur Khan Khoso (1845-1930) , the only son of Sardar Dilumrad Khan was a small boy and his mother Seza, a Jamali woman by tribe went to General John Jacob who ordered a piece of land to be given to the family near Dilmurad Wah in thul Taluka. He founded Bahadurpur village and constructed a beautiful Mosque in the east of Jacobabad city. Ghulam Ali Jakhrani was recognized as a chief of the Jakhrani tribe after his father Darya Khan’s capture. He resided in Village Janidera near Jacobabad, Sindh. No disturbances were recorded in Larkana area during 1857. Mir Sher Dil Khan & the Migration of Hindus from Kalat to Shahdadkot 1863 Mir Khudadad Khan, ascended throne in 1857. During his nominal rule, the British further atrengthened their grip on Balochistan, and the Baloch land was divided into three parts. Throughout Balochsitan, a state of anarchy prevailed because of uneding disputes between the tribal chiefs and the Khan. In this period, several Baloch tribes raised the flag of rebellion against the British and its protégé, the Khan. Soon after his inauguration as the Khan, Sardar Azad Khan Nosherwani, the ruler of Kharan, in collaboration with the rulers of Makran, attempted to install Mir Fateh Muhammad, the brother of desposed Khan, Mir Shah Nawaz Khan, on the throne of Kalat. In 1858, the Khan sent a force to Kharan and Makran to deal with the problem. Bibi Mehnaz, the wife of Mir Nasir Khan II, had gone to her father’s home at Kharan. She was daughter of Mir Azad Khan Nosherwani, Ruler of Kharan. Mir Khudad Khan wanted to marry Bib Mehnaz but she refused to do so. After sometimes Mir Khudadad Khan suddenly attacked on Kharan with large force. When Mir Azad Khan Nosherwani, could not resist Khan Khuhdad Khan, he went to Afghanistan for assistance. In his absence Bibi Mehnaz continued fighting form her fort with Khan of Kalat. On 7th day Khan of Kalat finally agreed for ceasefire. The Khan demanded the handover of the fugitives from the Afghan Governmnet, which was refused by the Afghans. It created a lot of tension between the Khan and the Afghan King after exchange of some heated correspondence. Mir Khudadad Khan put his uncle Mir Azam Khan and his son Mir Sher Dil Khan, the two claiments of the Kalat Government under house arrest in Kalat. However, Mir Sher Dil Khan succeeded in reciving the support of Sir John Malcolm, Mulla Muhammad Raisani, and Mir Taj Muhammad Zarakzai for him. While Mir Khudad Khan, along with tribal chiefs, was encamped at Gandava in Kachhi, an attempt was made on his life. On March 16, 1863, while on a horse ride, he was attacked by the contender to the throne of Kalat, Mir Sher Dil Khan. The Khan was critically injured by taking several satb wounds all over his body. While the Khan was recuperating in Gnadava, Sardars recognized Mir sher Dil Khan as the Khan of Kalat without a fight in 1863. Mir Khudadad Khan took refuge among Jamalis of Noor Wah in the vicinity of Shahdadkot & Garhi Khairo. Mir Sher Dil Khan tried to get recognition from Afghan King and the British Officials of Jacobabad but failed. After more than two years of struggle for the throne of Kalat, Mir Sher Dil Khan was killed while he was on his way to Kalat from kachhi in May 1864. After his death, Mir Khudadad Khan regained the rulership of the state. (The Baloch and Balochsitan by Naseer Dashti, 2012, Pages 232-234).

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According to Tufail Ahmed Pathan (Tarin) of Shahdadkot, Chhuto Khan Pathan was a Commander of Mir Sher Dil Khan, the Ruler of Kalat. After the assassination of Mir Sher Dil Khan left Kalat and settled at Shahdadkot. A family of Brahmin Hindus also came with him on his way to Sindh. After some time he moved towards Shikarpur where he succeeded in seeking a job with the efforts of Rahim Khan Khoso and entered in the English force. God blessed him with a son Sher Dil Khan in 1865. Sher Dil Khan Pathan was Jamadar at Kashmore Police Station in July 1917. Later on he was transferred to Shahdadkot and retired. He died at Shahdadkot in 1925 and was buried in the graveyard of Bhanbho Khan Khuhawar. Sher Dil Khan left behind a son Abdullah Khan (1896-1960). He was father of Amanullah Khan (1938-1993) and he was father of Tufail Ahmed Pathan who died in 2012 at Shahdadkot in a heart attack. He has a son Khalid Ahmed Pathan who lives beside Habib Mosque Shahdadkot. Population of Shahdadkot in 1874 Shahdadpur , a Government town in the Kambar taluka of the Larkano Deputy Collectorate in latitude 27 46 N. and longitude 68 E, distant about 30 miles north-north-west from Larkana. It is seated on the west bank of the Dato-Ji-Kur canal, and has road communication with Kamber, Garhi Khairo, Jamali and Hamal, and is the head-quarter station of a Tappedar. The town is situated in a barren tract, which, a short time after the conquest of the province by the British , was almost destitute of population, and is described as being more like the bed of a salt lagoon in an interval of spring tides, than an inland district. The population , in unmber under 700, comprises about 360 Musalmans of the Pirzadah, Kalhoro, Lashari, Siyal, Magsi, and Muhana tribes, the remainder being Hindus. The chief man of note in this place is Pir Bakhsh Kahawar, a very influential and public spirited Zamindar, who has done much towards raising this town to its former prosperity. At one time Shahdadpurwas a large place , from which Sir John Keane, when in Sind, drew supplies for his army, then on the point of advancing on Afghanistan, after that it fell into ruinous condition-so much so, that when Lieutenant James, the Deputy Collector of the Chandko district, visited it in 1846, an old Hindu was its only inhabitant.The town has a fair trade in wool, rice and grain of different kinds, but there are no manufacturers of any description in it. (A Gazetteer of the Province of Sindh Compiled by A. W. Hughes- F.R.G.S, F.S.S BOM.UNCOV .Civil Service London 1874 Pages 781-782). On 19 June 1874, River Indus floods brought destruction in Shikarpur, Larkana, Warisdino Machhi, Sanjer Bhatti and Karira. Shahdadkot Population in 1876 Shahdadpur , a Government town in the Kambar taluka of the Larkana Deputy Collectorate in latitude 27 46 N. and longitude 68 E, distant about 30 miles north-north-west from Larkana. It is seated on the west bank of the Dato-Ji-Kur canal, and has road communication with Kamber, Garhi Khairo, Jamali and Hamal, and is the head-quarter station of a Tapadar. The town is situated in a barren tract, which, a short time after the conquest of province by the British , was almost destitute of population, and is described as being more like the bed of a salt lagoon in an interval of spring tides, than an inland district. The population , in unmber about 783, comprises 464 Musalmans of the Pirzadah, Kalhoro, Lashari, Siyal, Magsi, and Muhana tribes, the remainder (319) being Hindus. The chief man of note in this place is Pir Bakhsh Kahawar, a very influential and public spirited Zamindar, who has done much towards raising this town to its former prosperity. At one time Shahdadpurwas a large place , from which Sir John Keane, when in Sind, drew supplies for his army, then on the point of advancing on Afghanistan, after that it fell into ruinous condition-so much so, that when Lieutenant James, the Deputy Collector of the Chandko district, visited it in 1846, an old Hindu was its only inhabitant.The town has a fair trade in wool, rice and grain of different kinds, but there are no manufacturers of any description in it. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind Compiled by A. W. Hughes- F.R.G.S, F.S.S BOM.UNCOV .Civil Service London 1876 Pages 769-770). The title of Khanbahadur was conferred upon Sirai Pir Bux Khan Khuhawar on 1st January 1877 at Delhi, on the occasion of proclamation of Queen Victoria, as empress of India. (See: The Golden Book of India by Roper Leth Bridge, K.C.I.E, London 1893, Page 420). He was alive between 1899 and 1903. He was buried in Dargah Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan in Shahdadkot. He married from Khuhawar, Ghaloo and Chandio castes. He left behind four sons; 1) Sirai Muhammad Ali Khan Khuhawar 2) Sirai Muhammad Bux Khan Khuhawar 3) Sirai Muhammad Pannah Khuhawar and 4) Sirai Gul Muhammad Khuhawar. Ramu Mal and Lekho Mal were famous moneylenders of Shahdadkot town in the years 1877-78. They owned 400 Jarebs of agricultural land in Kamber taluka.

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Notification of Shahdadpur (Shahdadkot) Taluka 1884 Bombay Castle, 16th January 1884. (B.G.G. dated 17th January 1884, pages 36-37) No. 414 A.- In exercise of the power confered by Section 7 of the Bombay Land Code, 1879, the Governor in Council is pleased to direct that on and after the 1st February 1884 the villages and lands hereinbelow mentioned , some of which at present appertain to the Kamber Taluka and some to the Sujawal Taluka of the Shikarpur District in the Province of Sind, shall form a new Taluka, which shall be called the Shahdadpur Taluka and shall be a part of the Upper Sindh Frontier District.
List of Villages in the Shahdadpur Taluka

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Saleh Drakhan Jiando Drakhan Datardino Mahesar Amirbakhsh Jalbani Bakhu Sial Bahadur Drakhan Jahankhan Jatoi Bahadur Bhati Allahrakhio Jarwar Mohbat Gopang Mir Muhammad Jalbani Mir Muhammad Jamali Budho Jamali Khaira Jamali Murad Ali Jamali Nabibakhsh Khand Ghulam Haidar Jarwar Gul Muhammad Jarwar Limo Junejo Sangar Bhati Ghulam Nabi Bhurguri Allahbakhsh Bhati Mirkhan Laghari Jamalkhan Laghari Khair Muhammad Laghari Muhammad Ali Khoso Ding (Dhing) Rakhio Kalhoro Jarwar Kario Gurgej Kario Sobdar Ahmedkhan Silra Kario Pathan

Name of Village

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35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

Kot Nabibakhsh Kur Kari Kario Mina Shahu Jamali Ghulam Muhammad Jamali Imambakhsh Jamali Sir Jari Kutria Belati Hazaro Wah Shah Wasayo Sando Mahmud Sadik Kot Karara Narpur (Noorpur) Shahdadpur Hamir Kalhora Kario Ahmed Khan Magti (Magsi) Gahwar

And all the lands known as the Sir Amani and all the lands in Ghaibi Dero Jaghir and in Kohistan not comprised in the Kambar Taluka of the Shikarpur District. (The Official Sind Gazette, January 1884, Pages 64 & 65)

Hindus of Shahdadkot converted to Islam by Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan (1844-1905) Mehrulah Khan Sheikh tells that, After efforts of many years of motivating they finally decided to convert Islam and adopted Muslim customs and traditions. In this way they all one after another turned Muslims. It is told that, seeing their willingness, Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan of Shahdadkot took great initiatives to convert them in the fold of Islam. It’s why most of the Sheikh Communitymen are said to be his disciples and followers. Initially these newly converted Muslims would keep two names; one as a Muslim, secondly as a Hindu. For example our well-known Sindhi poet Sheikh Lalchand alias Lal Muhammad Majrooh. This trend survived up to the partition of 1947. Now (1973), this tradition is abandoned by the Sheikh community. ( Lalchand (Lal Muhammad) Majrooh Ji Shaeri ; Monograph for M.A Sindhi Literature submitted by Fahmida Naz Mughal (Larkana) to University of Sindh Jamshoro, 4th October 1974, Pages 5 & 6). Mehrullah Khan Sheikh was born on May 16, 1912 at Shahdadkot. His father’s name was Premchand who was converted to Islam by Mian Ghulam Siddique Mekan. While his grandfather Kishanchand was a famous trader of Ganadava and Shahdadkot. He was descendent of Hotaldas. Premchand alias Prem Sheikh had five other sons also. Their names were 1) Nehal Khan 2) Qadir Bux 3) Taj Muhammad 4) Khuda Bux and 5) Illahi Bux.

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Mehrullah Khan Sheikh was president General Merchants Association Larkana. He knew Urdu, Arabic, Persian, English, Russian and German languages. He joined Indian National Congress and was pre president sident of Shahdadkot Congress Committee in 1930 at the age of 18. Later on he joined Muslim League during uring Simla Conference in 1946 and was Vice president of City Muslim League Shahdadkot before partition. He also remained as Provincial Councilor and member Peace Committee. He was a partner in his fathers firm Sheikh Prem & Sons Distributers and Dealers of Pakistan Tobacco Co. and of ICI. He also did relief work during floods of 1942 and 1948. 19 He died in 1991 91 at Larkana. He left behind three sons; 1) Barkat Ali 2) Akber Ali and 3) Asgher Ali. Surgeon Dr.Sikander Ali Sheikh, the first Vice-Chancellor Chancellor of Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical University Larkana (2009), Nazir Ahmed Sheikh, (PML-F Larkana), Mazhar Sheikh, (Rtd. DIG Sindh) and Abdul Latif Sheikh, Shahbaz Dino Sheikh and Dr.Karam Hussain Sheikh are kith & kins of Mehrullah Khan Sheikh. Diwan Notan Mal also belonged to this family who got filled a boat with cloth from Sukkur only in Rs.100. Rs.100 He was father of Tharo Khan Sheikh. A mosque is named after Haji Tharo Khan Sheikh in Shahdadkot. The earliest Sanjogi Sheikh Community of Shahdadkot was divided in Parmani, Prithiani, Punjabi, Goindani and Chhabria surnames. According to the Census of India, ndia, 1901, the total number of Sheikh Community living in Shahdadpur or Shahdadkot in the Upper Frontier /Jacobabad District was only 20 including 10 males and 10 females.(See (See Table XIII; Caste, Tribe, Race or Nationality. D.Sind Division, Division Upper Sind Frontier/Jacobabad District, Shahdadpur Taluka, Page 258) Table XIII; Caste, Tribe, Race or Nationality. D.Sind Division, Upper Sind Frontier/Jacobabad District, Shahdadpur (Shahdadkot) Taluka 1901 Sheikh (Muslaman)
Caste, Tribe or Race Males Females Sheikh 815 767 53 44 115 84 523 286 10 10 114 343 Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Males Females Total Jacobabad Kashmore Kandhkot Shahdadpur Thul

By the year of 1933, the number of Sanjogis had increased in Sindh. A newspaper The Straits Times reported under the title of Indian Race Mystry published that, Sanjogis, who number 60,000, cannot trace their history earlier than 200 years ago . Again it reads that, A theory advanced is that they are descendents of those Greeks who were left behind after the invasion of Alexander the Great and married some of the Indian women, thus accounting for the peculiarity of their features, which is not Indian. The Sanjogis, according to the last available census, comes principally from the Shahdadpur taluka of the Upper Sind Frontier, Larkana and Sukkur. They were forcebally converted to Islam under the Kalhora and Talpur rule in Sind not more than 150 years ago ago. The Hindus call them Sanjogis and the Mohammedans, Sheikhs. Their customs are either purely Hindu or purely Mussalman or a mixture of both, according to their environment. Thus in the Kakar takluka of Sukkur they are Nanakpanthis, follow Hindu customs, w worship orship Hindu gods and employ Sarsudh Brahmins as priests. Instead of Vedic they observe the Anand or Sikh form of marriage. In the Rohri division the main influence affecting the Sanjogis has been Mussalman. They call a Mulla for their ceremonies, perform nikah, worship no Hindu deities, and are disciples of Mussalman Murshids and Sayads and bury their dead in the Mohammedan position. In the Mehar and Kambar talukas there is an intermediate type following mixed Hindus and Mohammedan customs customs. (The Straits Times, mes, Singapore 24 May 1933, Page 14). Histroy shows that Hindu Muslim Riots continued from 1831 to 1930 in Sindh. In 1831-32 32 Seth Nau Mal Hotchand was forcibally circumcised by the Pirs of Nasarpur but Mir Murad Ali Khan Talpur Talpur, the ruler of Sindh librated him.

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In the Census of India 1911 Tables there was a Head Hindu-Mahomedan", which included Matias, Momnas, Imamshahi Sheikhs, Molesalams, Sanghars and Sanjogis. In the beginning these people were also given the name of Nao-Muslim in Shahdadkot. After the First World War of 1918 and Khilafat Movement (1920) many Sangogis under Indian National Congress and Muslim League platforms, were attached to social and political activities in Shahdadkot. A Nao Muslim Conference was organsed during this time. Nau Muslim Conferences were held (1923-27). A campaign of persuation was launched to convert Sanjogi Shaikhs back to Hinduism (1923-27). Hindus and Muslims clashed at Ratodero, Lakhi, Hyderabad, Bagirji, Larkana and other places of Sindh. Communal hartals (literallyshutting shops) and agitations were observed in Larkana on the calls of the Hindu Panchayat Larkana (March-April 1927) and the Sindh Muhammadan Association -13 January 1928 . ( Sindh’s Unwitting Involvement in All-india Politics: Indian Leaders calculated initiatives to make sindh a mere pawn in the game of Indian Power Politics (1923-1934) By Sahib Khan Channa, CAPS, Institute of Business Management, Karachi , Pakistab businesss Review October 2012, Page 463). It was the time when some of the Sanjgis went to Mukhi Goindram, Bhai Hiranand and Hindu Panchayat Shahdadkot for to be accepted but they clearly refused them to do so. After the opening of Sukkur Barrage in 1932, Hindu Sabha Shahdadkot was very active and was struggling for the poor Hindus employments in Sindh. Some other movements were also busy; The Hindu fundamentalists of the Shuddhi and Arya Samaj were also active at that time. (Partition India: The Case of Sindh; Migration, Violence and Peaceful Sindh by Ahmed Salim, 2004, Page 96) After the creation of Pakistan on 14th August 1947, some of the Sanjogis abandoned their will of being re-converted to Hinduism for ever. Muhammad Chhatal Fida Sheikh was a famous poet. Sir Shahnawaz Kahn Bhutto (1888-1957) Bhutto was married to Khursheed Begum, formerly Lakhi Bai, who was of a modest Hindu family. She converted from Hinduism to Islam before her marriage. Her brothers remained Hindu and eventually migrated to India. Their children included Zulfikar Ali Bhutto (1928-1979), the first elected Prime Minister of Pakistan, and a daughter called Mumtaz, who marriedBrigadier Muhammad Mustafa Khan Bahadur of the Sidi clan. Their first child, Sikandar, died from pneumonia at the age of seven in 1914, and their second child, Imdad Ali, died of cirrhosis at the age of thirty-nine in 1953. Sikanderabad in Taluka Qubo Saeed Khan (Shahdadkot) is named after Sikander Bhutto. The mother of Famous Sindhi poet Sheikh Ayaz was also a Hindu lady before her marriage. Table XIII; Caste, Tribe, Race or Nationality. D.Sind Division, Upper Sind Frontier/Jacobabad District, Shahdadpur (Shahdadkot) Taluka 1901 Hindu
Taluka M Shahdadpur 00 Bhil Fe 00 Brahman M 21 Fe 14 M 4 Dhed Fe 1 M 9 Khitri Fe 8 Lohana M 1566 Fe 1200 Rajput M 9 Fe 00 Sonar M 14 Fe 13 Minor M 109 Fe 43 M 1732 Total Fe 1279 3011 Grand Total

See Table XIII; Caste, Tribe, Race or Nationality. D.Sind Division, Upper Sind Frontier/Jacobabad District, Shahdadpur Taluka, Page 258) Hindus in Shahdadkot 1901 Castes & Surnames 1) Bhil 2) Brahman 3) Dhed 4) Khatri 5) Lohana 6) Rajput and 7) Sonara

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Describing the status of Shahdadkot Hindus, JW.Smyth says, Not only have the Hindus doubled the area of their holdings but it has been ascertained that at the end of 1919 they had an additional 3,868 acres of Muhammadan land morigaged to them and had secured leases of 54,923 acres besides. It is a fact that of the bigger Muhammadan Zamindars every few now manage their own estates.Their banya lessees or morgagees do it for them. He further says that, From a strictly agricultural point of view the passing of the land into Hindus’ hands is not an evil, since the Hindus put capital into it, and farm it better. There is every evidence of prosperity amongst the Hindus of the town of Shahdadkot. Elsewhere, with the exception of a few patches, the county presents and impoverished and melancholy appearance, whilst there are none of the flourishing villages and big houses, which are a conspicuous feature of Jacobabad taluka. (Revision Settlement Report of the Shahdadkot Taluka of the Upper Frontier District Compiled by J.W.Smyth, Deputy Commissioner Upper Sind Frontier District, Jacobabad 24th April 1920, Page 22) . JW.Smyth says, When Lieutenant James, Deputy Collector of Chandko district visited it in 1846, an old Hindu was its only occupant. It has however progressed under British rule and now contains a population of 2405. It has fine avenues of shady trees, a local fund garden, a District Bungalow, a Kacheri, Police Lines, a Dispensary, Vernacular School, Post Office and a Musafirkhana. The name of the town was changed in 1914 owing to the confusion caused by the existence of another town of the same name in Nawabshah district. A Kot belonging to the Khuhawars once existed on the site of the present town. (Gazetteer of the Province of Sind: Upper Sind Frontier/ Jacobabad District Compiled by J.W.Smyth Bombay 31-32, 1919, Page Caste, Tribe, Race or Nationality. D.Sind Division, Upper Sind Frontier/Jacobabad District, Shahdadpur (Shahdadkot) Taluka Census of 1911 Religion Taluka Shahdadpur Hindu 3200 Muslim 31732 Christian 00 Others 184 Total 35116

Lohana: 2878 and others 273, Hindus in Shahdadkot 1911-1924 Castes & Surnames 1) Amil 2) Dembra 3) Chhoda 4) Bhatia 5) Chhabria 6) Gosain 7) Khalsa 8) Nagdev 9) Thakar 10) Dodani 11) Panjwani 12) Jhalai 13) Lahr (Lahrwani) 14) Gurnani (Faqir)15) Chugh 16) Sundrani 17) Kachhela 18) Sadhuwani 19) Brahamchari 20) Ahuja 21) Khiani 22) Chawla 23) Basantani 24) Talreja 25) Nanwani 26) Sanwlani 27) Khathooria 28) Rai Khanghar 29) Katiara (Katari) 30) Doda 31) Pohoowani 32) Pamnani 33) Chandnani 34) Advani 35) Nargi 36) Balwani 37) Sanyasi 38) Punjabi 39) Doonheja 40) Jotwani 41) Mehrchandani 42) Bijlani 43) Kachhwani 44) Kukreja (Kukrai) 45) Haryani 46) Utradhi These Hindus familes, which were settled in Shahdadkot, had their social linkages with following villages, towns or locations; Larkana, Arazi (Dadu), Kandhkot, Jean Abro (Kamber), Jafferabad, Jhal Magsi, Langho, Sanjer Bhatti, Nasirabad, Silra, Budhar Ji Garhi, Kot Nabi Bux, Gathar, Bharmi, Shahi, Sando Mehmood (Bago Daro), Allahabad, Mubarakpur, Halani, Martin Abad, Mian Sahib (Shikarpur), Sijawal, Kamber, Khairodero, Banguldero, Ghaibidero, Ghouspur, Karira, Khairpur Nathan Shah, Joya, Wandh Bhanbho Khan Chandio, Gahi Raho, Dero Muhbat Jatoi, Dhadhar (Sibi) , Gandavah, Kndiaro, Tando misri khan Chandio, Hathiyari, Sehwan, Gandakha, Jacobabad, Rohri, Waleed (Larkana), Thul, and Gachal (Ratodero). (General Register Vernacular/ Main Primary School Shahdadkot from 1911-1924). Some notable Hindus in May 1927 were Mukhi Goindram, Seth Jhamat Mal, Seth Pirbho Mal, Seth Basho Mal, Seth Lalu Mal, Seth Hoondo Mal, Seth Jhooro Mal, Seth Hirdas Mal and Seth Deeal Sanjogi.

26

Nao-Muslim Sheikh Community of Shahdadpur (Shahdadkot in) from 1911 to 1947
S.No 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Dital Phundan Dital Tilu Hoondo Hmean Amul Baamno Tanu Ghano Holo Santu Afzal Bakhsho Mato Tolo Deeal Juma Mehro Gul Muhammad Gemon Gulo Khamiso Achar Safar Lalu Dino Mojo Name Father’s Name Sarang Jashan Mal Sojhro Mal Kewal Mal Motiyo Mal Muhbat Mal Mohan Baalo Nebhan Baalo Mal Nebhan Mal Thanwardas Mohandas Haroo Mal Pirmu Mal Nebhan Mal Somon Mal Arat Mal Prem Mal Sanwal Muhbat Somon Mal Sojhro Mal Saboo Edan Thadho Mal Chhango Jashan Caste Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Place of Birth Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Karira Karira Shahdadkot Karira Shahdadkot Date of Birth 3-8-1907 1-1-1907 10-1-1905 1-7-1905 10-1-1900 7-6-1902 1-12-1903 1-1-1904 1-1-1906 1-2-1907 1-3-1907 10-3-1911 12-10-1909 15-12-1903 12-2-1910 7-8-1910 15-1-1909 10-5-1910 1-8-1911 1-4-1911 1-5-1911 25-7-1911 25-8-1911 24-4-1910 1-7-1911 5-8-1913 15-2-1911 27-6-1912 Date of Leaving Vernacular School 10-7-1911 6-12-1911 28-4-1912 2-1-1913 9-7-1913 10-7-1913 5-12-1913 1-2-1914 3-1-1915 1-1-1915 18-1-1915 3-1-1916 3-1-1916 4-1-1916 1-3-1916 17-4-1916 7-6-1916 22-6-1916 25-9-1916 19-10-1916 20-3-1917 20-4-1917 2-1-1918 18-3-1918 18-3-1918 21-8-1918 20-12-1918 3-2-1919

27

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70

Amir Bux Tharo Waroo Mitho Chhatu Mehar Achar Haji Allahdino Kauro Walu Sadoro Razi Haji Allahrakhio Muhammad Bux Muhammad Usman Ghulam Nabi Pir Bux Qaim Khuda Bux Wazir Inayatullah Ghulam Qadir Muhammad Qasim Rajal (Mumtaz Hussain) Urs Raziquedino Ghulam Qadir Ghulam Hyder Sikander Sahibdino Muhammad Pannah Nadir Ali Kaki Bai Ghualm Muhammad Bhawan Ghous Bux Allah Dino Muhammad Yousif Karim Bux Bakht Hussain

Tagio Notan Sobho Sabhago Sahjoo Sabhago Muhbat Pinyo Jeeo Mal Santu Mal Somon Mal Bahro Budhar Nebhan Mal Pirmu Jeo Biland Phundan Gano Sahjal Prem Naraindas Amul Sabhago Hoondo Gobindram Milan Sadoro Fatan Sobho Hoondo Gobindram Saleh/Jhamandas Hoondal Lalchand Jeeal Gur Bux Sadharang Uderam Jhaman Milan Gobindram

Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi) Sheikh (Sanjogi)

Zakria Mahesar Karira Karira Karira Karira Karira Shahdadkot Zakria Mahesar Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadko Karira Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Chooharpur Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Zakria Mahesar Shahdadkot Kamber Shahdadkot Pathan Bakrani Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot Shahdadkot

16-7-1912 15-12-1907 1-1-1911 5-1-1911 25-12-1913 2-2-1915 13-3-1915 3-2-1916 7-5-1913 4-1-1916 2-8-1916 13-12-1913 22-1-1916 18-5-1917 13-1-1918 1-5-1927 20-3-1929 27-7-1929 1-71923 25-10-1926 10-1-1930 7-11-1929 1-1-1929 1-7-1928 1-3-1932 4-5-1931 1-2-1932 1-9-1931 12-8-1931 1-7-1932 9-7-1933 12-12-1932 18-5-1932 31-3-1937 1-12-1935 1-8-1934 17-9-1933 5-9-1933 22-5-1937 1-1-1936 22-3-1937 2-2-1940

27-9-1919 26-12-1919 26-12-1919 26-12-1919 26-12-1919 26-12-1919 2-6-1920 10-6-1920 12-7-1920 7-2-1921 28-12-1921 28-12-1921 1-8-1922 14-5-1923 25-1-1924 16-4-1934 1-11-1934 1-11-1934 10-12-1934 24-1-1935 31-1-1935 12-4-1935 10-3-1936 21-10-1936 3-3-1937 3-3-1937 19-5-1937 17-9-1937 13-9-1937 1-10-1935 30-9-1938 28-6-1939 31-5-1941 29-4-1942 12-2-1943 1-6-1943 4-2-1944 11-5-1944 22-5-1944 24-10-1944 19-10-1945 1-4-1947

SOURCE: GRs of Vernacular/ Government Main Primary School Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1947 Sati Devi Jetley was class fellow of Miss Fatima Jinnah. She married Mahraj Gopi Krishan in 1935 and died in 1999

28

Hindus in Shahdadkot 1934-1947 Castes & Surnames

View of old Hindu houses

1) Sikh 2) Sakhru 3) Udasi 4) Vaish 5) Bagri 6) Retai 7) Arya 8) Od 9) Masand 10) Lala 11) Mirchla (Faqir) 12) Bhat 13) Gorawani 14)

Tolani 15) Mangtani and 16) Relwani The Hindus familes, were socially linked with following villages, towns or locations; Dadu, Karachi, Kothi Kalhori and Rohri , Radhan (Dadu), Naitch, Wasayo Bhutto, Malook Mandi (Punjab), Abad (Kamber), Meenho Leghari, Quetta, Reti and Shikarpur. Some notable Hindus in 1934 were Seth Sabaldas S/o Janji Mal, Basar Mal S/o Sadoro Singh and Nidhal Bai w/o Jhooro Mal. Many Hindu familes migrated from villages to Shahdadkot town after the Riots of Masjid-e-Manzilgah in Sukkur, 1939-40. Most of the Retai Hindus came to Shahdadkot due to increasing insecurity. The Migration of Hndus from Shahdadkot, Sindh to the various towns and cities of India had been started from 1945. This process continues till this date. Tolani, Sadar/ Sadaru (Sadani), Chichra and Bhogri Hindus also lived in Shahdadkot before the partition. It was the time when Seth Anand Ram and Kewal Ram were members Taluka Local Board Shahdadkot. Where as Bhai Jethanand and Bhai Bhagwandas were District Local Board members from Shahdadkot in Upper Sindh Frontier District. Bhai Teju Ram and Paman Mal were arrested and sent to prison during freedom movement in 1931-32. The notables and members of Shahdadkot Muncipality in 1942 and 1946 were as follows; Seth Lalchand Punjabi, Seth Hirdas Mal, Mahraj Shanker Lal, Bhai Sabu Ram, Seth Satramdas Relwani, Seth Jaro Mal, Seth Waryaldas, Mahraj Aso Ram, Seth Bacho Mal, Mukhi Melho Mal, Seth Khialdas and Seth Sobho Mal Mangtani. Bhai Tula Ram was a famous Tabla Nawaz of Shahdadkot. (General Register Vernacular/ Main Primary School Shahdadkot from 1934-1947)
Lord Krishna and the Gopis on the ferry boat

29

Hindus in Shahdadkot 1950-1978 Castes & Surnames Gandhi 2) Sochi 3) Karira 4) Waleja 5) Darira 6) Boota/Buta 7) Ahal (Ahlyani) 8) Motanpota 9) Wadha 10) Lalwani 11) Nandwani 12) Gajoowani 13) Chinjani 14) Sachdev 15) Charyaipota (Charya) 16) Peswani 17) Koreja/ Kaurejai 18) Wariyani 19) Motwani 20) Mandheja (Mandhwani) 21) Pirthiani 22) Santani 23) Manglani 24) Kharli 25) Thakur 26) Sheenh (Sheenhani) 27) Waswani 28) But (Butani) 29) Tahaliyani 30) Dawra 31) Batheja/ Bathai 32) Tandai 33) and 34) Photani. (General Register Vernacular/ Main Primary School Shahdadkot from 1950-1978). Bhogri Hindus were known by their profession. They were socially connected with Jacobabad, Badah, Sukkur, Karira and other places. Hindus in Shahdadkot 1989-2014 Castes & Surnames 1) Jagwani 2) Shringi 3) Jetley 4) Palyani 5) 6) Balmiki 7) Albazzari 8) Motwani 9) Pitryani 10) Hasija 11) Walwani 12) Tekwani 13) Bodani 14) Dodani 15) Gidrai 16) Junjani 17) Lund 18) Sharma 19) Maheshwari 20) Kesuja 21) Gurbuxani 22) Kabrai 23) Panjukai 24) Belai 25) Buk/ Bukai 26) Bhojwani 27) Titrai 28) Makhija 29) Harijan 30) Chura 31) Rohra 32) Manchundia 33) Gangooja 34) Gandawahi 35) Gurgiani 36) Gianchandani 37) Tanuwani 38) Jasuja 39) Ochani (General Register Vernacular/ Main Primary School Shahdadkot from 1989-2013)

30

INDEX OF HINDU CASTES AND SECTS OF SHAHDADKOT, SINDH
By Sheikh Javed Ali Sindhi
S.NO 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 NAME OF CASTE Gurnani Brahmins Tandai Lohano Amil Dhed Khatri Rajput Sonara Dembra Chhoda Bhatia Chhabria Advani Gosain Khalsa Nagdev Thakar Dodani Doonheja Panjwani Doda (Dodeja) Nargi Lahr Jotwani Chugh Sundrani Kachhela Saduwani Pohoowani Balwani Mehrchandani Brahamchari Ahuja Khiani Chawla Basantani Talraja Pamnani Sanyasi Nanwani Sanwlani Khathuria Rai Khanghar Katiara Chandnani Punjabi Jhalai REMARKS Tharoo Mal Gurnani is said to be the descendent of Shri Gurno Mal Dembla who came from Delhi to Sindh during Mughal Period in18th Century The Brahmins Mahraj Kishoredas Shringi and Mahraj Dewandas Shringi migrated from Tando Murad Ali Khuhawar to Shahdadkot in 1840 Those Hndus who migrated from village Tando Murad Ali Khuhawar near Hakim Shah to Shahdadkot are called Tandai The Lohano may be divided into two great classes; 1st the Amils and the 2nd Soukars or Merchants, Shopkeepers and Agriculturists Amil or Mmanager who follows Ruler’s/ Government’s order; mostly came from Larkana, Hyderabad and Karachi According to the Census of India 1901 there were 5 Dedh Hindu residents in Shahdadkot town In 1901, there were 17 Khatri Hindus in Shahdadkot; Kishanchand Bewas Khatri lived at Larkana during 1946 The number of Rajputs in Shahdadkot was 9 during the Census of India 1901 A Sonaro is a mixed caste descended from a Brahmin father and Shudra mother; 27 Sonaras lived in Shahdadkot in the year 1901 The Dembra Hindus lived in Shahdadkot between 1911 to 1924; presently this Gothra lives in Jaipur, Delhi, Haryana and Banglore The people of this Gothra are found in Sri Ganga Nagar India and their caste is Hindu Arora Bhatia is a group of people and a caste found in Sindh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat Diwan Jeth Mal Chhabria was Governor of Shikarpur in 1843 under Talpur Amirs of Sindh The Advanis of Shahdadkot came from Village Reti (Qubo Saeed Khan) Village Barija and Village Kabar their ancestor was Adu Mal Multani Gosain renounce material pleasures to become a saint and live by collecting alms and looking after temples; were found between 1911-1924 The collective body of all initiated Sikhs represented by the five beloved-ones and can be called the Guru Panth, the embodiment of the Guru Hindus of Sindh worship Shiva, Hanuman, Nagdev (Serpent), Ramchandra and Durga Devi Thakkar, Thakker or Thakrar, Thakkar is a Lohana surname found primarily in the Indian state of Gujarat Their forefather Doda Singh migrated from Punjab to Sindh in the days of Maharaj Ranjit Singh and settled at Larkana, Kamber & Shahdadkot A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; currently resident in Sukkur area A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; the descendents of Diwan Panju Mal are called Panjwani A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; currently called Dodani means the descendents of Diwan Dodo Mal A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; Gothra Bhopal Lahr or Lahrwani Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; currently lives in Chandigarh India A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; some Chugh reside in Lar while others live in Punjab A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; Haroo Mal Sundrani sacrificed his life in TB for cleaning Shahdadkot in 1942 floods A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; the surname came from Kachho or Mountain area from the west A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; the descendents of Diwan Sadhu Mal; some live in Hyderabad & Naushehro Feroz A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; the descendents of Diwan Pohoo Mal A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; Diwan Balo Mal was their forefather A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; the surname of Kako Bheru Mal was Mehrchandani A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; Brahmacharya, a type of living as per Hindu Vedic Scriptures A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; in 711 AD many of the Ahujas moved to Punjab but returned during Kalhora period A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; the descendents of Diwan khial Mal A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924’ sometimes were called Chawlani, returned vback to Sindh in the days of Kalhora A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; also live in Adore, India A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; Hindu Arora caste A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; descendents of Diwan Paman Mal A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; The origins of sanyasis or Hindu mendicants is believed to be in the Vedic period A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; some of the Nanwanis live in Nagpur, India A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; descendents of Diwan Sanwal Mal A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; some of them lived in village Bharmi near Karira and Shahdadkot also live in Hisar A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; Rai Khanghar was the ruler of Kutch when these familes migrated to Sindh A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; Hindu Arora caste; also pronounced as Kataria found in Jabalpur, Bombay,Nagpur A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; descendets of Diwan Chandan Mal A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1911 to 1924; those who came from Punjab and settled in Kachhi Gandawah and migrated to Sind Those who came from Jhal Magsi Balochsitan are called Jhalai

31

49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102

Bijlani Kachwani Kukreja Haryani Utradhi Sikh Sakhroo Udasi Vaish Bagri Retai Arya Od Masand Sadar Tolani Chichra Lala Mirchla (Faqir) Bhatt Gorawani Gandhi Sochi Karira Buthai Waswani Waleja Darira Boota Ahal Wadha Motanpota Nandwani Gajoowani Chinjani Sharma Sachdev Charyaipota Peswani Kaureja Waryani Motwani But Mandheja Prithiani Santani Manglani Kharli Tahaliyani Waswani Thakur Dawra Batheja Photani

Bijlani Hindus live in Delhi, Noida and Bombay; Sangita Bijalani was born in 1960 in Mumbai in a Sindhi-speaking Motilal’s house Those who came from Kachho area or the descendents of Kachho Mal They are also called Kukrai ; Hindu Arora caste; some of them live in Kapurthala, India A Hindu caste came from Harayana, India Residents of Northern areas of Sindh A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1934-1938; Sikh is a follower of monotheistic religion that originated in the 16th century A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1934-1938; they came from Sukkur to Shahdadkot A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1934-1938; a sect of Sadhus who never get married A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1934-1938; they are landowners, traders and money-lenders. A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1934-1938; an outcaste surname; is a dialect of Rajasthani language of the Indo-Aryan famil A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1934-1938; those who came from Village Reti near Bhanri Ji Wandh A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1936-1943; Ara Samaj Movement was founded by Swami Dayananda on 7 April 1875. They live in Kot Shahbeg, Karam Khan Brohi, Imam Bux Jamali, Abdul Fattah Jarwar, Gul Hassan Magsi, Rasool Bux Qutio since1936 A Hindu Jat surname found in Shahdadkot from 1936-1943; now a days found in Meerut India A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1938-1947; they are also called Sadaru or Sadani in Sindhi A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1938-1947; Kaka Pirbhdas Tolani was one of the freatest landlords of Sindh A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1938-1947; Munjals, Lallas, Bhatias, Gajras, Gandhis and Chichras were from Multan. A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1938-1947; Lalas live in Rohri, originally came from Jaisalmir and progressed under Mughals A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1938-1947; they were saintly men A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1938-1947; Brahman Bhatts live in Gnadhidham, Bambay and Chandigarh India A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1938-1947; came from Gorawan Quetta Balochistan A Khatri surname found in Shahdadkot from 1931-1965; mostly came from Badeh town of Larkana district A caste of Hindu cobblers mostly found in Shahdadkot from 1931-1965; currently live in Kmaber A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; they came from Village Karira situated 4 Km in south east of Shahdadkot Those who came from Village Buthi near Bahram (Miro Khan) are called Buthai A Hindu caste lives in Bombay, Chittor and Delhi; descendents of Diwan Wasu Mal A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot in the year 1964 Darira Sindhi Hindus live in Raipur, India Buta; the descendents of Diwan Boota Singh (1715-1778 AD) who belonged to Kannauj India and later shifted to Multan Sometimes called as Ahlyani found between 1950-1978 A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; sometimes pronounced as Wadhwa found in Bilaspur, Nagpur and Madhya Pradesh A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; originally lived at Idan Wah, MNA Ramesh Lal of Shahdadkot belongs to this surname A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978 A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978 A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978 Sharma is a surname found in India and Nepal as a Surname or given name among Brahmins Sachdev Hindus live in Bhopal, Kota and Bombay, India Some times called Chariya or Charyai Hindus; found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978 found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; the descendents of Diwan Pesu Mal Also called Kaurejai Hindus; came from Village Kaureja, taluka Kamber found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; Bradi Waryani was a lecturer, MSc.SU, MPhil KU 2008 found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; Motu Mal came from Punjab and settled at Village Dost Ali in the south of Shahdadkot’ left Sindh in 1840 They are also called as Butani; some Butani Hindus live in Bhavnagar and Hisar India Mandheja are also called as Mandhwani who live in Kanpur, India found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; they are found in Pune, Bombay, Ulhasnagar, Ahmedabad and Jaipur, India found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; Santanis live in Bilaspur, India found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; some Manglanis are found in Amravati India Kharli is a Hindu Khashtriya caste found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; some of them live in Panaji India found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; descendents of Diwan Tahlio Mal, mostly found in Nagpur India found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; some of the Waswanis are located at Bhilwara and Jaipur in Rajasthan, found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; these reside in Aligarh, Haldwani and Ulhasnagar, India A Hindu Arora Caste found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; some live in Bikanir India A Hindu surname found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978; some of these people can be seen in Maharashtra India found in Shahdadkot from 1950-1978;

32

103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143

Jagwani Shringi Palyani Waryani Balmiki Albazzari Pitryani Hasija Walwani Tekwani Bodani Dodani Junjani Lund Maheshwari Kesuja Gurugyani Gianchandani Sheenh Tanwani Gurbuxani Bhojwani Makhija Rohra Manchundia Harijan Chura Gangooja Kabarai Panjukai Ramrakhiani Lalwani Nagpal Bajaj Jasuja Titrai Ochani Gidrai Bhil Jogi Bhangi

The descendents of Diwan Jagu Mal are called Jawani found in Beawar and Indore India A Brahman surname who live in Kashmir and India A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; a city in Himachal Pardes, India (Achpalyani) A village is named after this surname Untouchable caste in India before Independence; found in Shahdadkot from 1989-1997 Kabuli Bazzari Hindus live in Afghanistan; while Albazzari Hindus live in Shahdadkot these days A Hindu caste and surname A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; the people with this surname live in Indore India A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; Sunil Kumar Walwani is famous activist in Sindh A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; the people with this surname live in Indore India A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; the people with this surname live in Banswara, Rajasthan, India A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; the people with this surname live in Katni India A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; some of the tribesmen live in Rajasthan India, also called Jujani or Jhoojhani A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; Sami Chainrai Bacho Mal Lund (1743-1850) was a distinguished poet of Shikarpur A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; originally from Khandela, Rajasthan, India A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 1989-1997; Kesuja are Arora Hindu surname and came from Badeh town A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 2000-2001; a Hindu surname A Hind caste mostly licves in Baroda; Comrade Sobho Gianchandani is a great socio-political figure of Larkana A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 2004-2005’ also known as Sheenhani A Hindu caste found in Shahdadkot between 2009-2012’ , came from Larkana Mr. Kanaya Lal Gurbuxani is celebrated high school teacher of Govt: (Prov) High School Shahdadkot; came from Village Pir Jo Goth Naudero The descendents of Bhoju Mal ; mostly live in Raipur and Chhatisgarh India A Hindu Arora surname; they came from Multan and settled at Larkana, Naushehro Feroz and Khairpur Sindh Rohra Hindus live in Sukkur, Raipur, Jaipur and Bombay India The elder Diwan Adyo Mal Khatri belonged to Sitpur Punjab but came in the service of Mian Adam Shah Kalhoro in Sukkur Sindh Harijan means Children of God ; they are traditionally sweepers, washermen, and leatherworkers Chura’s occupation is sweeping, they are leggaly followers of Sikhism and secondly Chiristianity The descendents of Diwan Gangu Mal are called Gangooja Those who migrated from Vllage Kabar Balochistan are called Kabrai Those who migrated from Village Punjuk Balochistan are called Panjukai Seth Sabaldas Ramrakhiani was a great landlord of Shahdadkot taluka; originally came from Village Arain , Madeji District Shikarpur Meho Faqir, Punhoon Faqir, Jhangal Faqir and Kundan Faqir were Lalwanis; their descendents live in Raipur, Kolhapur and Nagpur Professor KS.Nagpal is one of the greatest educationists of Sindh; originally came from Ratodero Sindh A caste of Arora Hindus; initially came from Jhal Magsi Balochistan The descendents of Diwan Jasu Mal are called Jasuja; found in Dhamtari, Jabalpur and Jaipur India Titrai Hindus came from Garhi Khairo, District Jacobabad after River Indus floods in 2010 Ochanis live in Hubli and Pune India Gidrai Hindus came from Gandawah Balochistan to Shahdadkot Bhils are primarily an Adivasi people of Central India and are settled in village Mir Ji Nari and Silra A Hindu community and Snakecharmer by profession; mostly live in Sijawal taluka of Kamber Shahdadkot district Bhangi is an Indian caste that was previously treated as untouchable before its abolition upon independence.

(List Incomplete)

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General John Jacob of Jacobabad

Queen Victoira Monarch of United Kingdom

Sir C Charles harles James Napier

Mahatma Gandhi

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

Pandit Jawahir Lal Nehru

Mahraj Gopi Krishan Shringi

Kaka Pirbhdas Tolani (1893-1988)

Rajaldas Sabaldas Ramrakhiani

Kanaya Lal Gurbuxani

Professor K.S.Nagpal

Veena Shringi

34

MAHRAJ GOPI KRISHAN SHRINGI (1910-1992)

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