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UK Court Refuses to Condemn US Drone Attacks

UK Court Refuses to Condemn US Drone Attacks

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Published by Terminal X
Appeal by Noor Khan
Appeal by Noor Khan

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Published by: Terminal X on Jan 22, 2014
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10/15/2014

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Neutral Citation Number: [2014] EWCA Civ 24 Case No: C1/2013/0139 IN THE COURT OF APPEAL (CIVIL DIVISION) ON APPEAL

FROM THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE, QUEEN’S BENCH DIVISION, DIVISIONAL COURT LORD JUSTICE MOSES AND MR JUSTICE SIMON CO25992012 Royal Courts o !usti"e #tran$% &on$on% WC2A 2&& 'ate: 20/01/2014 B !"# $ MASTER OF THE ROLLS LORD JUSTICE LA%S an$ LORD JUSTICE ELIAS ((((((((((((((((((((( B &' ($ THE QUEEN ON THE APPLICATION OF NOOR )HAN - ,(. THE SECRETAR/ OF STATE FOR FOREIGN AND COMMON%EALTH AFFAIRS ((((((((((((((((((((( ((((((((((((((((((((( M,#&1( C2,34 #+,1( QC, O+15 # J"( 0 ,(. R"4 #& M6C"#78".,+ )instru"te$ by L 192 D,: ; C"* or t+e A** ++,(& J,3 0 E,.1 QC, A(.# ' E.10 QC, M,+6"+3 S2,' QC ,(. ),# ( S& :( )instru"te$ by T# ,08#: S"+161&"#0* or t+e R 0*"(. (& ,earin- $ates: 2 an$ 3 'e"ember 2013 ((((((((((((((((((((( A** ++,(& R 0*"(. (&

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M,0& # "! &2 R"++0$ 14 0+e "laimant lives in 5irans+a+% Nort+ Wa6iristan A-en"y )7NWA8*% in t+e 2e$erally A$ministere$ 0ribal Areas o 9a:istan4 ,is at+er 3as a member o t+e lo"al !ir-a% a ;ea"e ul "oun"il o tribal el$ers 3+ose un"tions in"lu$e$ t+e settlin- o "ommer"ial $is;utes4 /n 1< 5ar"+% t+e "laimant=s at+er ;resi$e$ over a meetin- o t+e !ir-a +el$ out$oors at 'atta 1+el% NWA4 'urin- t+e "ourse o t+e meetin-% a missile 3as ire$ rom an unmanne$ air"ra t or 7$rone8 believe$ to +ave been o;erate$ by t+e ># Central ?ntelli-en"e A-en"y )7C?A8*4 0+e "laimant=s at+er 3as one o more t+an 40 ;eo;le 3+o 3ere :ille$4 ?n 2010% it 3as re;orte$ in several me$ia outlets% in"lu$in- The Sunday Times, on t+e basis o a brie in- sai$ to emanate rom o i"ial sour"es% t+at t+e @eneral Communi"ations ,ea$Auarters )7@C,.8*% an a-en"y or 3+i"+ t+e $e en$ant #e"retary o #tate is res;onsible% ;rovi$es 7lo"ational intelli-en"e8 to t+e ># aut+orities or use in $rone stri:es in various ;la"es% in"lu$in- 9a:istan4 /n 1B 'e"ember 2011% t+e "laimant=s soli"itors 3rote to t+e #e"retary o #tate see:in- "lari i"ation o t+e ;oli"ies an$ ;ra"ti"es o t+e >1 @overnment in relation to t+e ;assin- o in ormation to ># a-ents or use in $rone atta":s in 9a:istan4 /n B 2ebruary 2012% t+e 0reasury #oli"itor re;lie$ sayin- t+at it 3oul$ not be ;ossible to ma:e an eC"e;tion to t+e lon-(stan$in- ;oli"y o su""essive -overnments to -ive a 7neit+er "on irm nor $eny8 res;onse to Auestions about matters t+e ;ubli" $is"losure o 3+i"+ 3oul$ ris: $ama-in- im;ortant ;ubli" interests% in"lu$in- national se"urity an$ vital relations 3it+ international ;artners4 0+e "laimant t+en issue$ t+ese ;ro"ee$in-s "laimin- Du$i"ial revie3 o 7a $e"ision by t+e 'e en$ant to ;rovi$e intelli-en"e to t+e ># aut+orities or use in $rone stri:es in 9a:istan% amon- ot+er ;la"es84 0+e relie "laime$ 3as a $e"laration t+at: 7)a* A ;erson 3+o ;asses to an a-ent o t+e >nite$ #tates @overnment intelli-en"e on t+e lo"ation o an in$ivi$ual in 9a:istan% oreseein- a serious ris: t+at t+e in ormation 3ill be use$ by t+e Central ?ntelli-en"e A-en"y to tar-et or :ill t+at in$ivi$ual: )i* is not entitle$ to t+e $e en"e o immunityE an$ "ombatant

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)ii* a""or$in-ly may be liable un$er $omesti" "riminal la3 or soli"itin-% en"oura-in-% ;ersua$in- or ;ro;osin- a mur$er )"ontrary to s4 4 o t+e / en"es A-ainst t+e 9erson A"t 1FB1*% or "ons;ira"y to "ommit mur$er )"ontrary to s4 1% or 1A% o t+e Criminal &a3 A"t 19<<* or or ai$in-% abettin-% "ounsellin- or ;ro"urin- mur$er )"ontrary to s4 F o t+e A""essories an$ Abettors A"t 1FB1*E )b* A""or$in-ly t+e #e"retary o #tate +as no ;o3er to $ire"t or aut+orise @C,. o i"ers or ot+er Cro3n servants in

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t+e >nite$ 1in-$om to ;ass intelli-en"e in t+e "ir"umstan"es set out in )a* above4 )"* Alternatively% 3+ere a @C,. o i"er or ot+er Cro3n servant +as in ormation relatin- to t+e lo"ation o an in$ivi$ual% 3+om it :no3s or sus;e"ts t+e >nite$ #tates @overnment inten$s to tar-et or :ill% t+e o i"er may not ;ass t+e intelli-en"e to an a-ent o t+e >nite$ #tates @overnment i t+ere is a si-ni i"ant ris: t+at $oin- so 3oul$ a"ilitate t+e "ommission o a 3ar "rime or "rimes a-ainst +umanity "ontrary to t+e ?nternational Criminal Court A"t 20014 A""or$in-ly% be ore $ire"tin- or aut+orisin- t+e ;assino intelli-en"e relatin- to t+e lo"ation o su"+ an in$ivi$ual to an a-ent o t+e >nite$ #tates @overnment% t+e #e"retary o #tate must ormulate% ;ublis+ an$ a;;ly a la3 ul ;oli"y settin- out t+e "ir"umstan"es in 3+i"+ su"+ intelli-en"e may be trans erre$48

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0+e a;;li"ation or ;ermission to a;;ly or Du$i"ial revie3 3as $ismisse$ by t+e 'ivisional Court )5oses &! an$ #imon !* on 21 'e"ember 20124 0+e "laimant sou-+t leave to a;;eal an$ t+at a;;li"ation 3as $ire"te$ to be "onsi$ere$ by t+is "ourt in a rolle$ u; +earin- by 9it"+ or$ &!4 0+e re ormulate$ relie no3 "laime$ is or: 7)a* A $e"laration t+at a >1 national 3+o :ills a ;erson in a $rone stri:e in 9a:istan is not entitle$ to rely on t+e $e en"e o "ombatant immunity4 A""or$in-ly a @C,. o i"er or ot+er Cro3n servant in t+e >nite$ 1in-$om may "ommit an o en"e un$er ss4 44(4B o t+e #erious Crime A"t 200< )t+e 7200< A"t8* 3+en ;assin- lo"ational intelli-en"e to an a-ent o t+e ># @overnment or use in $rone stri:es in 9a:istan4 )b* ?n t+e alternative% t+e A;;ellant see:s a $e"laration t+at: )i* ?n "ir"umstan"es 3+ere a $e en"e o "ombatant immunity a;;lies% t+e ;assin- o lo"ational intelli-en"e by a @C,. o i"er or ot+er Cro3n servant in t+e >nite$ 1in-$om to an a-ent o t+e ># @overnment or use in $rone stri:es in 9a:istan may -ive rise to an o en"e un$er t+e ?nternational Criminal Court A"t 2001 )7?CCA 20018*4 A""or$in-ly% be ore $ire"tin- or aut+orisin- t+e ;assin- o intelli-en"e relatin- to t+e lo"ation o su"+ an in$ivi$ual to an a-ent o t+e ># @overnment% t+e #e"retary o #tate must ormulate% ;ublis+ an$ a;;ly a la3 ul ;oli"y settin- out t+e

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"ir"umstan"es in 3+i"+ su"+ intelli-en"e may be trans erre$48 <4 ?n or$er to un$erstan$ 3+y t+e ;rimary relie "laime$ is ormulate$ in t+is 3ay% it 3ill be ne"essary to "onsi$er t+e 200< A"t an$ in ;arti"ular t+e eCtra(territoriality ;rovisions "ontaine$ in #"+e$ule 44 0+e ;ur;ose or 3+i"+ t+e "laim is brou-+t is in or$er to establis+ t+at t+e re;orte$ ;oli"y an$ ;ra"ti"e o t+e >1 @overnment is unla3 ul4 ?n s+ort% it is t+e "laimant=s "ase t+at t+e ;oli"y an$ ;ra"ti"e involves reAuirin- @C,. o i"ers to en"oura-e an$/or assist t+e "ommission o mur$er "ontrary to se"tions 44 to 4B o t+e 200< A"t4 About a 3ee: be ore t+e +earin- be ore t+e 'ivisional Court% t+e #e"retary o #tate serve$ a ;ubli" interest immunity )79??8* "erti i"ate in res;e"t o t+e in ormation "ontaine$ in t+e sensitive anneC to a 3itness statement by 9aul 5orrison $ate$ 1B /"tober 20124 5r 5orrison 3as t+en t+e ,ea$ o t+e Counter 0errorism 'e;artment in t+e 2orei-n an$ Common3ealt+ / i"e4 0+e 'ivisional Court $i$ not "onsi$er t+e 9?? "erti i"ate4 ?nstea$% t+ey $e"i$e$ to a$Du$i"ate on t+e #e"retary o #tate=s t+res+ol$ obDe"tions to t+e "laim 3+i"+ 3ere t+at t+e "ourt s+oul$ re use ;ermission on t+e ;rin"i;al -roun$ t+at t+e issues raise$ 3ere non(Dusti"iable an$/or t+at it 3oul$ be a 3ron- eCer"ise o $is"retion to -rant relie 3+i"+ 3oul$ ne"essarily entail a "on$emnation o t+e a"tivities o t+e >nite$ #tates4 0+e "ourt u;+el$ t+ese obDe"tions an$ re use$ ;ermission to a;;ly or Du$i"ial revie34 5r 5artin C+amberlain .C% 3+o +as ar-ue$ t+is "ase 3it+ "ons;i"uous s:ill% says t+at% i t+e "laimant "an over"ome t+e t+res+ol$ obDe"tions% t+en t+e Auestion o +o3 t+e "laim "an be trie$ 3ill +ave to be "onsi$ere$ se;arately4 0+e "ourt 3ill t+en +ave to $e"i$e )i* 3+et+er to u;+ol$ t+e 9?? "erti i"ateE i so )ii* 3+et+er t+e "laim "an airly be trie$ 3it+out t+e material $enie$ to t+e "ourt by o;eration o 9??E an$ )iii* 3+et+er to ma:e a "lose$ material ;ro"e$ure $e"laration un$er se"tion B)1* o t+e !usti"e an$ #e"urity A"t 20134 5r C+amberlain em;+asises% t+ere ore% t+at t+e "ourt s+oul$ not assume t+at t+e "laim 3ill be $etermine$ on t+e same eCi-uous a"ts as are "urrently :no3n to t+e "laimant4 ,e says t+at t+is is im;ortant 3+en "onsi$erin- t+e #e"retary o #tate=s obDe"tion t+at t+e relie sou-+t by t+e "laimant 3oul$ be utile unless at t+is sta-e t+e "laimant "an i$enti y s;e"i i" o en"es t+at 3oul$ ne"essarily be "ommitte$ by -ivin- e e"t to a ;oli"y or ;ra"ti"e o s+arin- lo"ational intelli-en"e or use in $rone stri:es4 The Serious Crime Act 2007 104 0+e "laimant=s ;rimary "ase is base$ on t+e ;ro;osition t+at a @C,. o i"er 3+o ;asses lo"ational intelli-en"e may "ommit an o en"e un$er se"tions 44 to 4B o t+e 200< A"t4 He ore ? eC;lain t+e ar-ument% ? nee$ to re er to t+e relevant ;rovisions o t+e A"t4 9art 2 o t+e 200< A"t is entitle$ 7En"oura-in- or Assistin- Crime84 #e"tion 44 "on"erns 7intentionally en"oura-in- or assistin- an o en"e8E se"tion 4G 7en"oura-inor assistin- an o en"e believin- it 3ill be "ommitte$8E an$ se"tion 4B 7en"oura-inor assistin- o en"es believin- one or more 3ill be "ommitte$84 0+ese ;rovisions% 3+i"+ are by no means strai-+t or3ar$% $e ine t+e relevant a"tus reus an$ mens rea o t+e res;e"tive o en"es4 #e"tion G0 ;rovi$es t+at a ;erson is not -uilty o an o en"e un$er 9art 2 i +e a"ts reasonably4

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#e"tion G2 ;rovi$es: 7)1* ? a ;erson )'* :no3s or believes t+at 3+at +e anti"i;ates mi-+t ta:e ;la"e 3+olly or ;artly in En-lan$ or Wales% +e may be -uilty o an o en"e un$er se"tion 44% 4G or 4B no matter 3+ere +e 3as at any relevant time4 )2* ? it is not ;rove$ t+at ' :no3s or believes t+at 3+at +e anti"i;ates mi-+t ta:e ;la"e 3+olly or ;artly in En-lan$ or Wales% +e is not -uilty o an o en"e un$er se"tion 44% 4G or 4B unless ;ara-ra;+ 1% 2 or 3 o #"+e$ule 4 a;;lies48 /nly subse"tion )2* is a;;li"able +ere4 A""or$in-ly% t+e relevant ;rovisions o #"+e$ule 4 nee$ to be "onsi$ere$4

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#o ar as material% #"+e$ule 4 ;rovi$es: 71 )1* 0+is ;ara-ra;+ a;;lies i I )a* any relevant be+aviour o '=s ta:es ;la"e 3+olly or ;artly in En-lan$ an$ WalesE )b* ' :no3s or believes t+at 3+at +e anti"i;ates mi-+t ta:e ;la"e 3+olly or ;artly in a ;la"e outsi$e En-lan$ an$ WalesE an$ )"* eit+er I )i* t+e anti"i;ate$ o en"e is one t+at 3oul$ be triable un$er t+e la3 o En-lan$ an$ Wales i it 3ere "ommitte$ in t+at ;la"eE or )ii* i t+ere are relevant "on$itions% it 3oul$ be so triable i it 3ere "ommitte$ t+ere by a ;erson 3+o satis ie$ t+e "on$itions4 )2* 7Relevant "on$ition8 means a "on$ition t+at I )a* 'etermines )3+olly or in ;art* 3+et+er an o en"e "ommitte$ outsi$e En-lan$ an$ Wales is nonet+eless triable un$er t+e la3 o En-lan$ an$ WalesE an$ )b* Relates to t+e "iti6ens+i;% nationality or resi$en"e o t+e ;erson 3+o "ommits it4 2 )1* 0+is ;ara-ra;+ a;;lies i ( )a* 9ara-ra;+ 1 $oes not a;;lyE

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)b* Any relevant be+aviour o '=s ta:es ;la"e 3+olly or ;artly in En-lan$ an$ WalesE an$ )"* ' :no3s or believes t+at 3+at +e anti"i;ates mi-+t ta:e ;la"e 3+olly or ;artly in a ;la"e outsi$e En-lan$ an$ WalesE an$ )$* W+at ' anti"i;ates 3oul$ amount to an o en"e un$er t+e la3 in or"e in t+at ;la"e48 The claimant’s primary case 144 0+e ollo3in- is a summary o 5r C+amberlain=s submissions4 A >1 national 3+o 3it+ t+e reAuisite intent :ills a ;erson outsi$e En-lan$ an$ Wales is -uilty o mur$er in En-lis+ $omesti" la3 unless +e "an rely on a $e en"e available in En-lis+ la3 an$ +e may be trie$ +ere or t+e o en"e: see se"tion 9 o t+e / en"es A-ainst t+e 9erson A"t 1FB14 A >1 national 3+o :ills a ;erson in 9a:istan by means o a $rone stri:e is li:ely to be -uilty o mur$er unless +e "an rely on t+e $e en"e o "ombatant immunity4 0+e $e en"e o "ombatant immunity is $erive$ rom international la3% but is re"o-nise$ by En-lis+ national la3: see R v Gul (Mohammed [2012] EWCA Crim 2F0% [2012] Cr A;; R 3< ;ara 304 ?t is "lear t+at% on a ;lain rea$in- o ;ara 1 o #"+e$ule 4 to t+e 200< A"t% t+ere are t3o alternative "ir"umstan"es in 3+i"+ an o en"e o en"oura-in- or assistin- an a"t "ommitte$ in a ;la"e 3+olly or ;artly outsi$e En-lan$ an$ Wales "an be "ommitte$4 0+ese are eit+er )i* t+at t+e anti"i;ate$ o en"e is one t+at 3oul$ be triable un$er t+e la3 o En-lan$ an$ Wales i it 3ere "ommitte$ outsi$e En-lan$ an$ Wales% or )ii* i t+ere are relevant "on$itions% it 3oul$ be so triable i it 3ere "ommitte$ outsi$e En-lan$ an$ Wales by a ;erson 3+o satis ies t+e relevant "on$itions4 0+e 7relevant "on$ition8 is one 3+i"+ 7relates to t+e "iti6ens+i;% nationality or resi$en"e o t+e ;erson 3+o "ommits it84 5r C+amberlain submits% t+ere ore% t+at it is not ne"essary or t+e En-lis+ "ourt to in$ t+at t+e notional 7;rin"i;al8 +as "ommitte$ an o en"e triable in En-lan$ an$ Wales4 Rat+er% t+e Auestion is 3+et+er any "on$u"t 3+i"+ t+e >1 national is assistin- !ould be 3it+in t+e Duris$i"tion o t+e En-lis+ "ourt i" t+e notional ;rin"i;al 3ere a >1 national4 0+is "onstru"tion is su;;orte$ by t+e aut+ors o Simester and Sullivan’s Criminal #a! )Gt+ e$ 2013* at ; 3BF4 0+e #e"retary o #tate $oes not a""e;t t+is "onstru"tion% but +e a""e;ts t+at it is ar-uable4 5r An$re3 E$is .C submits t+at t+e mere use o "on$itional lan-ua-e is insu i"ient to s+o3 t+at 9arliament inten$e$ to $e;art rom t+e -eneral "ommon la3 ;osition t+at se"on$ary liability "an only arise in res;e"t o an o en"e "ommitte$ abroa$ i t+at o en"e is triable in En-lan$ an$ Wales4 ? in$ 5r C+amberlain=s submissions ;ersuasive% but ? $o not in$ it ne"essary to eC;ress a "on"lu$e$ vie3 about t+em4 ,e submits% on t+e basis o +is "onstru"tion% t+at t+e "laimant=s "ase $oes not reAuire a in$in- t+at any o i"ial o t+e >nite$ #tates +as "ommitte$ an o en"e allin- 3it+in t+e Duris$i"tion o t+e En-lis+ "ourt4 5r C+amberlain a$van"es a number o reasons 3+y it is unli:ely t+at a $e en"e o "ombatant immunity 3oul$ su""ee$ in En-lis+ la3 i it 3ere a$van"e$ by a >1 national 3+o 3as "+ar-e$ as a ;rin"i;al 3it+ t+e o en"e o mur$er by $rone stri:e )no ot+er $e en"e +as been su--este$ as a realisti" ;ossibility*4 ,e submits t+at t+e

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$e en"e 3oul$ not be available or several reasons4 2irst% C?A o i"ials are not members o t+e ># arme$ or"es an$ @C,. o i"ials are not members o t+e >1=s arme$ or"es4 0+ey "annot% t+ere ore% be "ombatants4 #e"on$ly% it +as never been su--este$ t+at t+ere is an arme$ "on li"t 3it+ 9a:istan4 ?n so ar as it is su--este$ t+at t+ere is an arme$ "on li"t 3it+ Al(.ae$a ta:in- ;la"e in A -+anistan an$ else3+ere% t+at is 3ron- be"ause )a* Al(.ae$a is not a su i"iently "o+erent -rou;into be "a;able o bein- a ;arty to an arme$ "on li"tE an$ )b* t+e a"ts o violen"e 3it+ 3+i"+ Al(.ae$a is asso"iate$ are too s;ora$i" to rea"+ t+e t+res+ol$ o violen"e reAuire$ to establis+ t+e eCisten"e o an arme$ "on li"t4 0+ir$ly% i t+ere is an arme$ "on li"t in 9a:istan bet3een t+e ># an$ t+ose 3+o are tar-ete$ by t+e $rone stri:es% it is o a non(international nature4 1F4 0+e ># vie3 is t+at t+e en-a-ement 3it+ Al(.ae$a is an arme$ "on li"t an$ t+at t+e $e en"e o "ombatant immunity is in ;rin"i;le available to ># o i"ers 3+o eCe"ute $rone stri:es in 9a:istan4 0+at vie3 3oul$ not% o "ourse% be bin$in- on our "ourts4 2or reasons t+at 3ill be"ome a;;arent% ? $o not in$ it ne"essary to eCamine t+ese ar-uments urt+er4 ? a""e;t t+at it is "ertainly not "lear t+at t+e $e en"e o "ombatant immunity 3oul$ be available to a >1 national 3+o 3as trie$ in En-lan$ an$ Wales 3it+ t+e o en"e o mur$er by $rone stri:e4 0o summarise% 5r C+amberlain submits t+at t+e ;ra"ti"e an$ ;oli"y o t+e #e"retary o #tate -ives rise to a ris: t+at @C,. o i"ials 3+o ;rovi$e lo"ational intelli-en"e to t+e ># are "ommittin- o en"es "ontrary to se"tion 44 to 4B o t+e 200< A"t4 ,e a""e;ts t+at in any in$ivi$ual "ase an o i"ial 3oul$ not be -uilty o an o en"e unless +e +a$ t+e reAuisite mens rea4 ,e also a""e;ts t+at in any in$ivi$ual "ase t+e se"tion G0 $e en"e o reasonableness mi-+t be available4 Hut +e says t+at t+ese issues 3+i"+ are li:ely to arise in in$ivi$ual "ases are not material or ;resent ;ur;oses be"ause t+is "laim "on"erns t+e la3 ulness o t+e ;oli"y an$ not t+e -uilt o in$ivi$ual o i"ials in ;arti"ular "ases4 5r C+amberlain=s un$amental ;oint is t+at t+is "ase is not "on"erne$ 3it+ t+e la3 ulness o $rone stri:es un$er ># la34 0+at is t+e ba":-roun$ a-ainst 3+i"+ t+e issues o Dusti"iability an$ $is"retion all to be "onsi$ere$4 $usticia%ility and discretion 224 ?n +is 3itness statement 5r 5orrison eC;lains 3+y in +is o;inion i t+e "ourt 3ere to -rant ;ermission to t+e "laimant to a;;ly or Du$i"ial revie3% 7t+e li:ely "onseAuen"e 3oul$ be serious +arm to t+e national se"urity an$ t+e international relations o t+e >nite$ 1in-$om48 ,e says t+at t+e >1=s bilateral relations+i;s 3it+ t+e ># an$ 9a:istan are "riti"al to t+e >1=s national se"urity as t+ey are bot+ :ey ;artners in e orts to "ombat t+e very real t+reat o terrorism a"e$ by t+e "iti6ens o all t+ree "ountries4 A :ey eature o international relations is t+at la3% ;oliti"s an$ $i;loma"y are boun$ to-et+er an$ t+e assertion o le-al ar-uments by a state is o ten re-ar$e$ as a ;oliti"al a"t4 0+e >1=s international allian"es "oul$ be $ama-e$ by t+e assertion o ar-uments un$er international la3 3+i"+ mi-+t a e"t t+e ;osition o t+ose states4 0+is is ;arti"ularly so sin"e t+is "ase raises $i i"ult le-al issues 7su"+ as t+e s"o;e o a state=s ri-+t un$er international la3 to use or"e in sel ($e en"e a-ainst non(state a"tors% 3+i"+ are t+e subDe"t o intense international le-al s"rutiny an$ $ebate84 0+e ris: o $ama-e 3oul$ be "om;oun$e$

194

204

214

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7by t+e a"t t+at t+e Court itsel % 3oul$ ne"essarily +ave to ma:e a series o $eterminations re-ar$in- t+e "on$u"t o t+e @overnments o t+ir$ #tates )bot+ t+e >nite$ #tates an$ 9a:istan*4 ?n ;arti"ular% t+e Court 3oul$ +ave to rea"+ "on"lusions as to 3+et+er t+e "on$u"t o t+e >nite$ #tates% an$ members o t+e ># A$ministration% amounte$ to serious violations o international la3 an$ "riminal la348 234 ,e also says: 7W+atever t+e in$in-s o t+e Court% an intervention by a Du$i"ial bo$y into t+is "om;leC an$ sensitive area o bilateral relations is liable to "om;li"ate t+e >1=s bilateral relations 3it+ bot+ t+e ># an$ 9a:istan% an$ t+ere is a "lear ris: o $ama-e to essential >1 interests48 An$: 70+ere is a stron- ris: t+at any in$in- or assum;tions by a >1 "ourt in t+is "ase 3oul$ "ause t+e ># to revisit an$ ;er+a;s substantially mo$i y t+e +istori" intelli-en"e s+arinrelations+i; an$ national se"urity "oo;eration48 244 5r !ames Ea$ie .C in a "are ul an$ "o-ent series o submissions ar-ues t+at% even i 5r C+amberlain=s "onstru"tion o t+e 200< A"t is "orre"t% t+ere are ;o3er ul reasons 3+y t+e "ourt s+oul$ re use ;ermission in t+is "ase4 ,e says t+at t+e "ourt s+oul$ re use to -rant ;ermission as a matter o $is"retion4 Hut +e also says t+at ;ermission s+oul$ be re use$ on t+e -roun$ t+at t+e "laim is not Dusti"iable4 ? s+all start 3it+ t+e Auestion o Dusti"iability4 ?t is "ommon -roun$ t+at our "ourt 3ill not $e"i$e 3+et+er t+e $rone stri:es "ommitte$ by ># o i"ials are la3 ul4 5oses &! state$ t+e ;rin"i;le "orre"tly in +is Du$-ment: 7144 ?t is ne"essary to eC;lain 3+y t+e "ourts 3oul$ not even "onsi$er% let alone resolve% t+e Auestion o t+e le-ality o >nite$ #tates= $rone stri:es4 0+e ;rin"i;le 3as eC;resse$ by 2uller C! in t+e >nite$ #tates #u;reme Court in &nderhill v 'ernande( )1F9<* 1BF ># 2G% 2G2: 7Every soverei-n state is boun$ to res;e"t t+e in$e;en$en"e o every ot+er soverei-n state% an$ t+e "ourts o one "ountry 3ill not sit in Du$-ment on t+e a"ts o t+e -overnment o anot+er $one 3it+in its o3n territory4 Re$ress o -rievan"es by reason o su"+ a"ts must be obtaine$ t+rou-+ t+e means o;en to be availe$ o by soverei-n ;o3ers as bet3een t+emselves8 )"ite$ 3it+ a;;roval in )uttes Gas and *il Co v 'ammer (+o,- [19F2] AC FFF% 933% an$ R v $ones (Mar.aret [200<] 1 AC 13B% 1B3*4

2G4

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1G4 0+e ;rin"i;le t+at t+e "ourts 3ill not sit in Du$-ment on t+e soverei-n a"ts o a orei-n state in"lu$es a ;ro+ibition a-ainst a$Du$i"ation u;on t+e 7le-ality% vali$ity or a""e;tability o su"+ a"ts% eit+er un$er $omesti" la3 or international la38 )/u!ait Air!ays Corporation v 0ra1i Air!ays Co (+os 2 and 3 [2002] 2 W&R 13G3% 13B2*4 0+e rationale or t+is ;rin"i;le% is% in ;art% oun$e$ u;on t+e ;ro;osition t+at t+e attitu$e an$ a;;roa"+ o one "ountry to t+e a"ts an$ "on$u"t o anot+er is a matter o +i-+ ;oli"y% "ru"ially "onne"te$ to t+e "on$u"t o t+e relations bet3een t+e t3o soverei-n ;o3ers4 0o eCamine an$ sit in Du$-ment on t+e "on$u"t o anot+er state 3oul$ im;eril relations bet3een t+e states ))uttes Gas 933*48 2B4 ?n 4u5os Capital Sarl v *$SC Rosne"t *il Co (+o 2 [2012] EWCA Civ FGG% [2013] 3 W&R 1329% t+e Court o A;;eal "onsi$ere$ many o t+e aut+orities in t+is area o t+e la34 Neit+er ;arty +as sou-+t to Auestion t+e "ourt=s analysis o t+e "ase(la34 0+ere is s"o;e or ar-ument as to 3+et+er t+e "ourts +ave no Duris$i"tion to sit in Du$-ment on t+e a"ts o t+e -overnment o anot+er "ountry )ie "annot $o so*E or 3+et+er t+ey !ill not $o so be"ause t+ose a"ts are not Dusti"iable4 Hut in my vie3 su"+ $istin"tions are o no ;ra"ti"al relevan"e +ere4 ? note t+at in )uttes Gas at ; 9312(@% &or$ Wilber or"e sai$: 7#o ? t+in: t+at t+e essential Auestion is 3+et+er% a;art rom su"+ ;arti"ular rules as ? +ave $is"usse$J4t+ere eCists in En-lis+ la3 a more -eneral ;rin"i;le t+at t+e "ourts 3ill not a$Du$i"ate u;on t+e transa"tions o orei-n soverei-n states4 0+ou-+ ? 3oul$ ;re er to avoi$ ar-ument on terminolo-y% it seems $esirable to "onsi$er t+is ;rin"i;le% i eCistin-% not as a variety o Ka"t o state= but one or Du$i"ial restraint or abstention48 2<4 0+e rationale or t+e rule +as been variously eC;resse$4 ?n *et6en v Central #eather Co )191F* 24B ># 29<% 303(304% in a ;assa-e "ite$ by RiC &! in 4u5os Clar:e ! sai$: 70+e ;rin"i;le t+at t+e "on$u"t o one in$e;en$ent -overnment "annot be su""ess ully Auestione$ in t+e "ourts o anot+erJ4rests at last u;on t+e +i-+est "onsi$erations o international "omity an$ eC;e$ien"y4 0o ;ermit t+e vali$ity o t+e a"ts o one soverei-n state to be re(eCamine$ an$ ;er+a;s "on$emne$ by t+e "ourts o anot+er 3oul$ very "ertainly Kim;eril t+e ami"able relations bet3een -overnments an$ veC t+e ;ea"e o nations4=8 2F4 None o t+is is in $is;ute in t+e ;resent "ase4 0+e ;rin"i;le is one 3+i"+ a;;lies save in eC"e;tional "ir"umstan"es4 /ne su"+ eC"e;tion is t+at it 3ill not a;;ly to orei-n a"ts o state 3+i"+ are in brea"+ o "learly establis+e$ rules o international la3 or are "ontrary to En-lis+ ;rin"i;les o ;ubli" ;oli"y% as 3ell as 3+ere t+ere is a -rave in rin-ement o +uman ri-+ts4

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Hut t+e "ourt 3ill also usually not sit in Du$-ment on t+e a"ts o a soverei-n state as a matter o $is"retion4 ?n R (Campai.n "or +uclear 7isarmament v 8rime Minister o" the &nited /in.dom [2002] EW,C 2<<< )A$min*% 12B ?&R <2<% CN' sou-+t ;ermission to a;;ly or Du$i"ial revie3% see:in- a $e"laration t+at it 3oul$ be unla3 ul un$er international la3 or t+e >nite$ 1in-$om to resort to or"e a-ainst ?raA 3it+out a res+ >nite$ Nations #e"urity Coun"il resolution aut+orisin- military a"tion4 0+e a;;li"ation 3as $ismisse$ by t+e 'ivisional Court4 0+e reasons or t+e $e"ision in"lu$e$ t+at t+e "ourt 3oul$ not embar: on t+e $etermination o an issue 3+i"+ 3oul$ be $ama-in- to t+e ;ubli" interest in t+e iel$ o international relations% national se"urity or $e en"e4 #imon Hro3n &! sai$ at ;ara 4<)ii*: 7W+et+er as a matter o Duri$i"al t+eory su"+ Du$i"ial abstinen"e is ;ro;erly to be re-ar$e$ as a matter o $is"retion or a matter o Duris$i"tion seems to me or ;resent ;ur;oses immaterial4 Eit+er 3ay% ? re-ar$ t+e substantive Auestion raise$ by t+e a;;li"ation to be non(Dusti"iable8

304

5auri"e 1ay ! sai$ at ;ara G0 t+at t+e 7international la38 -roun$ 3as more a;;ro;riately "ate-orise$ as -oin- to Duris$i"tion t+an Dusti"iability4 ,e $i$ not "onsi$er t+at t+e reason 3+y t+e a;;li"ation must ail 3as be"ause o an eCer"ise o Du$i"ial $is"retion4 Ri"+ar$s ! sai$ at ;aras GG to GF t+at +e 3as satis ie$ t+at t+e "laim s+oul$ be reDe"te$ on $is"retionary -roun$s4 2ar rom Dusti yin- t+e eC"e;tional eCer"ise o t+e "ourt=s Duris$i"tion to -rant an a$visory $e"laration% t+e "ir"umstan"es ma$e su"+ a "ourse ina;;ro;riate an$ "ontrary to t+e ;ubli" interest4 Hut +e also 3ent on at ;aras G9 to B1 to reDe"t t+e "laim on t+e -roun$ t+at it 3as not Dusti"iable4 ,e rea"+e$ t+at "on"lusion essentially or t+e same reasons as +e +a$ $e"i$e$ to reDe"t t+e "laim as a matter o $is"retion4 5oses &! sai$ at ;ara 20 o +is Du$-ment in t+e ;resent "ase t+at it $i$ not matter 3+et+er t+e Auestions 3+i"+ -o to t+e issue 3+et+er t+e "ourt s+oul$ +ear t+e a;;li"ation or Du$i"ial revie3 3ere to be re-ar$e$ as Auestions o ;rin"i;le or Auestions o $is"retion4 ? a-ree4 ,o3 $o t+ese ;rin"i;les a;;ly in t+e ;resent "aseL 5r C+amberlain a""e;ts t+at our "ourts "annot a$Du$i"ate on t+e Auestion o 3+et+er a C?A o i"ial 3+o eCe"utes a $rone stri:e is -uilty o mur$er or in$ee$ any ot+er o en"e4 ,is ar-ument is t+at t+e ;rin"i;les +ave no a;;li"ation +ere4 ,e is not as:in- t+e "ourt to sit in Du$-ment on t+e a"ts o C?A o i"ials eit+er by $e"larin- t+at t+ey are unla3 ul or by "on$emnint+em in any ot+er 3ay4 ,e is not invitin- t+e "ourt to a$Du$i"ate on t+e le-ality or a""e;tability o t+e a"ts o t+e C?A o i"ials eit+er un$er our $omesti" la3 or un$er international la34 ,e see:s relie on t+e basis t+at t+e a"ts o t+e C?A o i"ials% i" committed %y &/ nationals% 3oul$ be unla3 ul in En-lis+ la34 0+e assum;tion t+at t+e o;eration o $rone bombs by ># nationals is treate$ as i eCe"ute$ by >1 nationals is a ne"essary lin: in a "+ain o reasonin- 3+i"+ "om;rises )i* a in$in- t+at t+e a"t o t+e ;rin"i;al 3+o o;erates t+e bombs is mur$er in En-lis+ la3E )ii* a @C,. em;loyee 3+o en"oura-es or assists su"+ an a"t is liable as a se"on$ary ;arty to mur$er un$er se"tions 44 to 4B o t+e 200< A"tE an$ )iii* t+e #e"retary o #tate=s ;ra"ti"e an$ ;oli"y o ;rovi$in- lo"ational -ui$an"e is unla3 ul4 ?n s+ort% 5r C+amberlain says t+at 3+at t+e "ourt 3oul$ +ave to $etermine in or$er to -rant t+e ;rimary relie +e see:s is )i* t+e "orre"t "onstru"tion o t+e 200< A"t )a

314

324

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Auestion o $omesti" statutory inter;retation* an$ )ii* 3+et+er t+ere is an arme$ "on li"t in 9a:istan o a :in$ 3+i"+ -ives rise to "ombatant immunity un$er international la3 an$ 3+et+er o i"ials o @C,. or t+e C?A are ;ro;erly $es"ribe$ as la3 ul "ombatants in su"+ an arme$ "on li"t in En-lis+ la34 344 5oses &! eC;laine$ 3+y t+e "ourt "oul$ or 3oul$ not -rant relie in t+is "ase in t+e ollo3in- ort+ri-+t terms: 7GG4 0+ere is still less any in"entive to "onsi$er a $e"laration 3+en it is a;;re"iate$ 3+at it entails4 5r C+amberlain=s ;ro;osition% even i it is ri-+t% t+at a ;erson may be -uilty o se"on$ary liability or mur$er un$er ss444(4B% alt+ou-+ t+e ;rin"i;al "oul$ not% is no ans3er to t+e un$amental obDe"tion to t+e -rant o a $e"laration: t+at it involves% an$ 3oul$ be re-ar$e$ 7aroun$ t+e 3orl$8 )see #imon Hro3n &! in C+7 [3<]* as 7an eCorbitant arro-ation o a$Du$i"ative ;o3er8 in relation to t+e le-ality an$ a""e;tability o t+e a"ts o anot+er soverei-n ;o3er4 ?t is beyon$ Auestion t+at any "onsi$eration as to 3+et+er a @C,. em;loyee is -uilty o a "rime un$er 9art 2 o t+e #erious Crime A"t 200<% +ea$e$ 7ENCOURAGING OR ASSISTING CRIME= 3oul$ be re-ar$e$ by t+ose 3+o 3ere sai$ to +ave been en"oura-e$ or assiste$ as an a""usation a-ainst t+em o "riminal a"tivity an$% in t+e instant "ase% an a""usation o mur$er4 A ter all% t+at is t+e very nature o 5r Noor 1+an=s a""usation in 9a:istan4 No amount o learne$ an$ "om;leC analysis o t+e intersti"es o $omesti" "riminal le-islation 3oul$ or "oul$ $iminis+ t+at im;ression4 2or t+e reasons -iven by 5r 5orrison an$ #imon Hro3n &! in C+7% t+at "onseAuen"e is inevitable4 Even i t+e ar-ument o"usse$ on t+e status o t+e atta":s in Nort+ Wa6iristan )international arme$ "on li"t% arme$ "on li"t not o an international nature% ;re(em;tive sel ( $e en"e* or t+e ;ur;oses o "onsi$erin- 3+et+er t+e >nite$ 1in-$om em;loyee mi-+t +ave a $e en"e o "ombatant immunity% it 3oul$ -ive t+e im;ression t+at t+is "ourt 3as ;resumin- to Du$-e t+e a"tivities o t+e >nite$ #tates4 GB4 Hut% in any event% ? reDe"t t+e su--estion t+at t+e ar-ument "an be "on ine$ to an a"a$emi" $is"ussion as to t+e status o t+e "on li"t in Nort+ Wa6iristan4 0+e to;sy(turvy nature o t+e $e"laration sou-+t merely ;rovo:es t+e Auestion: o 3+at "rime is it sai$ t+e @C,. em;loyee may be -uiltyL #in"e it is sai$ to be a "rime o se"on$ary liability t+at inAuiry lea$s% ineCorably% to Auestions as to t+e "riminal a"tivity o t+e ;rin"i;als% em;loyees o t+e >nite$ #tates4 W+at is t+e "rime% 3+i"+ @C,. em;loyees may be a""use$ o assistin- or en"oura-in-L G<4 0+ese $i i"ulties are% to my min$% insu;erable4 0+e "laimant "annot $emonstrate t+at +is a;;li"ation 3ill avoi$%

J8.93 (& A**#"5 . 4: &2 6"8#& !"# 2,(.1(9 ."'(<

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$urin- t+e "ourse o t+e +earin- an$ in t+e Du$-ment% -ivina "lear im;ression t+at it is t+e >nite$ #tates= "on$u"t in Nort+ Wa6iristan 3+i"+ is also on trial4 ,e +as not oun$ any oot+ol$ ot+er t+an on t+e most ;re"arious -roun$ in $omesti" la3JJ8 3G4 ? a-ree 3it+ t+ese ;ara-ra;+s4 ?t is true t+at% i 5r C+amberlain=s "onstru"tion o se"tion G2 an$ #"+e$ule 4 o t+e 200< A"t is "orre"t% t+e "ourt 3ill not be as:e$ to ma:e any in$in- t+at C?A o i"ials are "ommittin- mur$er or a"tin- unla3 ully in some ot+er 3ay4 Nor 3ill t+e "ourt be as:e$ to say 3+et+er t+e ># ;oli"y o $rone bombin- is unla3 ul as a matter o ># la34 As a matter o stri"t le-al analysis% t+e "ourt 3ill be "on"erne$ 3it+ t+e +y;ot+eti"al Auestion o 3+et+er% subDe"t to t+e $e en"es available in En-lis+ la3% a >1 national 3+o :ills a ;erson in a $rone stri:e in 9a:istan is -uilty o mur$er4 0+e "ourt is reAuire$ to as: t+is +y;ot+eti"al Auestion be"ause% i 5r C+amberlain is ri-+t% t+at is 3+at t+e 200< A"t reAuires in or$er to -ive our "ourts Duris$i"tion to try ;ersons 3+o satis y t+e 7relevant "on$itions8 set out in ;ara 1 o #"+e$ule 44 Hut none o t+is "an $is-uise t+e a"t t+at in reality t+e "ourt 3ill be as:e$ to "on$emn t+e a"ts o t+e ;ersons 3+o o;erate t+e $rone bombs4 W+ilst or t+e ;ur;oses o t+e 200< A"t t+ese ;ersons are to be treate$ as i t+ey are >1 nationals% everyone :no3s t+at t+is is a le-al i"tion $evise$ by 9arliament in or$er to oun$ se"on$ary liability un$er se"tions 44 to 4B4 ?n reality% t+e ;ersons 3+o o;erate t+e $rones are C?A o i"ials an$ in $oin- so t+ey are im;lementin- t+e ;oli"y o t+e ># @overnment4 5r C+amberlain says t+at t+e a"t t+at a orei-n state may misinter;ret En-lis+ $omesti" la3 an$% as a result% eel t+at it is bein- a""use$ o somet+in- t+at it is not bein- a""use$ o % is no reason or t+e En-lis+ "ourt to re use to $e"i$e t+e issue4 ,e ar-ues t+at t+e "ourt "oul$ an$% it is to be assume$% 3oul$ ma:e it "lear in its Du$-ment t+at a in$in- o brea"+ o se"tions 44 to 4B o t+e 200< A"t $i$ not involve a in$in- t+at t+e assiste$ ;arty +a$ "ommitte$ an o en"e un$er En-lis+ la34 0+e a"t t+at t+e Du$-ment o t+e En-lis+ "ourt may be misun$erstoo$ by ;ersons in a orei-n state is not a -oo$ reason to re use ;ermission to a;;ly or Du$i"ial revie34 ?n my vie3% a in$in- by our "ourt t+at t+e notional >1 o;erator o a $rone bomb 3+i"+ "ause$ a $eat+ 3as -uilty o mur$er 3oul$ inevitably be un$erstoo$ )an$ ri-+tly un$erstoo$* by t+e ># as a "on$emnation o t+e >#4 ?n reality% it 3oul$ be un$erstoo$ as a in$in- t+at )i* t+e ># o i"ial 3+o o;erate$ t+e $rone 3as -uilty o mur$er an$ )ii* t+e ># ;oli"y o usin- $rone bombs in 9a:istan an$ ot+er "ountries 3as unla3 ul4 0+e a"t t+at our "ourts +ave no Duris$i"tion to ma:e in$in-s on eit+er o t+ese issues is besi$e t+e ;oint4 W+at matters is t+at t+e in$in-s 3oul$ be un$erstoo$ by t+e ># aut+orities as "riti"al o t+em4 Alt+ou-+ t+e in$in-s 3oul$ +ave no le-al e e"t% t+ey 3oul$ be seen as a serious "on$emnation o t+e ># by a "ourt o t+is "ountry4 ? 3oul$ rea"+ t+is "on"lusion 3it+out t+e bene it o t+e evi$en"e o 5r 5orrison4 ,is evi$en"e orti ies my "on"lusion4 ? say t+is $es;ite t+e a"t t+at +e $i$ not o"us ;re"isely on t+e e e"t o 5r C+amberlain=s ar-ument t+at t+e "ourt 3oul$ not be ma:in- a in$in- about ># o i"ials or t+eir -uilt o "riminal o en"es in ># la34 ?n my vie3% it is "lear rom t+e tenor o +is statement t+at +is o;inion 3oul$ not +ave been $i erent i +a$ o"use$ on t+at ;arti"ular ;oint4

3B4

3<4

3F4

J8.93 (& A**#"5 . 4: &2 6"8#& !"# 2,(.1(9 ."'(<

./0A/ 1+an v ## or 2orei-n an$ Common3eatl+ A airs

394

He ore ? leave t+is to;i"% ? nee$ to re er to Rahmatullah v Secretary o" State "or 7e"ence [2012] >1#C 4F% [2013] 1 AC B144 0+is is an aut+ority on 3+i"+ 5r C+amberlain ;la"es "onsi$erable relian"e4 0+e a;;li"ant in t+at "ase 3as "a;ture$ by Hritis+ or"es in ?raA an$ +an$e$ over to ># or"es 3+o $etaine$ +im at a ># airbase in A -+anistan4 A memoran$um o un$erstan$in- bet3een t+e @overnments o t+e >1 an$ t+e ># ;rovi$e$ t+at any ;risoner o 3ar trans erre$ by one ;o3er to t+e ot+er 3oul$ be returne$ on reAuest4 0+e a;;li"ant sou-+t a 3rit o +abeas "or;us $ire"te$ to t+e #e"retary o #tate on t+e -roun$s t+at +is $etention 3as unla3 ul an$ t+at% alt+ou-+ +e 3as $etaine$ by t+e >#% t+e #e"retary o #tate enDoye$ a su i"ient $e-ree o "ontrol over +im to brin- about +is release4 /ne o t+e ar-uments $e;loye$ in o;;osin- t+e a;;li"ation 3as t+at t+e issuin- o a 3rit o +abeas "or;us 3oul$ amount to an im;ermissible inter eren"e 3it+in t+e orbi$$en territory o t+e eCe"utive=s orei-n relations sin"e it 3oul$ involve t+e "ourt sittin- in Du$-ment on t+e a"ts o t+e >#4 9art o t+e ar-ument 3as t+at t+e $etention by t+e ># 3as unla3 ul sin"e it 3as in brea"+ o international Conventions )t+e @eneva Conventions*4 0+e #u;reme Court +el$ t+at t+e 3rit s+oul$ issue4 0+e basis o t+e $e"ision 3as t+at t+e >1 +a$ "ontrol o t+e "usto$y o t+e a;;li"ant4 0+e $etention o t+e a;;li"ant 3as% at least% ;rima a"ie unla3 ul as bein- in brea"+ o t+e @eneva Conventions );ara 3B% 40 an$ G3*4 At ;ara G3 o +is Du$-ment% &or$ 1err sai$: 70+is "ourt is not as:e$ to Ksit in Du$-ment on t+e a"ts o t+e -overnment o anot+er% $one 3it+in its o3n territory= as in &nderhill v 'ernande( )1F9<* 1BF ># 2G0% 2G24 0+e ille-ality in t+is "ase "entres on t+e >1=s obli-ations un$er t+e @eneva Conventions4 ?t $oes not reAuire t+e "ourt to eCamine 3+et+er t+e ># is in brea"+ o its international obli-ationsJJJ,ere t+ere 3as evi$en"e available to t+e >1 t+at 5r Ra+matulla+=s $etention 3as in a;;arent violation o @C44 0+e ille-ality rests not on 3+et+er t+e ># 3as in brea"+ o @C4% but on t+e ;ro;osition t+at% "ons"ious o t+ose a;;arent violations% t+e >1 3as boun$ to ta:e t+e ste;s reAuire$ by arti"le 4G o @C448

404

414

424

At ;ara <0% +e re;eate$ t+at t+e le-ality o t+e >#=s $etention o t+e a;;li"ant 3as not un$er s"rutiny4 Rat+er% it 3as t+e la3 ulness o t+e >1=s ina"tion in see:in- +is return t+at 3as in issue4 5r C+amberlain submits t+at t+e #u;reme Court +a$ little +esitation in enAuirin- into t+e le-ality o t+e a;;li"ant=s $etention by t+e ># @overnment4 ,o3ever% t+e "ourt 3as "are ul to say t+at% on t+e a"ts o t+at "ase% it 3as not bein- as:e$ to sit in Du$-ment on t+e a"ts o t+e >#4 0+ere 3as "lear ;rima a"ie evi$en"e t+at t+e a;;li"ant 3as bein- unla3 ully $etaine$4 Hut t+at "on"lusion $e;en$e$ on t+e e e"t o t+e @eneva Conventions% not on an eCamination o t+e le-al basis on 3+i"+ t+e ># mi-+t "laim to Dusti y t+e $etention: see ;ara G34 0+e "ourt a;;lie$ 3ell(establis+e$ ;rin"i;les to an unusual situation4 ? $o not "onsi$er t+at t+is $e"ision tells us anyt+in- as to +o3 t+ese ;rin"i;les s+oul$ be a;;lie$ in t+e very $i erent "ir"umstan"es t+at arise in t+e ;resent "ase4

434

J8.93 (& A**#"5 . 4: &2 6"8#& !"# 2,(.1(9 ."'(<

./0A/ 1+an v ## or 2orei-n an$ Common3eatl+ A airs

444

? 3oul$% t+ere ore% re use ;ermission to a;;eal in relation to t+e "laimant=s ;rimary "ase or t+e reasons -iven by 5oses &! at ;aras GG to G< o +is Du$-ment: see ;ara 3G above: an a;;li"ation or Du$i"ial revie3 3oul$ +ave no real ;ros;e"ts o su""ess4 5r Ea$ie submits t+at t+e "ourt s+oul$ in any event not -rant a $e"laration in t+is "ase be"ause t+is is not one o t+ose very eC"e;tional "ases 3+ere a "ivil "ourt 3ill -rant a $e"laration as to t+e "riminality o "on$u"t: see R (Rus%rid.er v Attorney General [2004] 1 AC 3G< a;;rovin- t+e observation by Mis"ount 'il+orne in 0mperial To%acco #td v Attorney General [19F1] AC <1F at ; <42C(': t+e a"ts s+oul$ be $etermine$ in% an$ in a""or$an"e 3it+ t+e ;ro"e$ures o % "riminal ;ro"ee$in-s4 5r Ea$ie submits in ;arti"ular t+at t+e Auestion 3+et+er t+e notional >1 national 3+o :ills a ;erson in a $rone stri:e in 9a:istan is entitle$ to rely on t+e $e en"e o "ombatant immunity is a"t(sensitiveE an$ t+is eature o t+e "ase is 7a a"tor o -reat im;ortan"e8 );er &or$ #teyn in Rus%rid.er at ;ara 23* 3+i"+ alone is su i"ient to ta:e it outsi$e t+e eC"e;tional "ate-ory4 ?n vie3 o my "on"lusion on t+e non(Dusti"iability/$is"retion issues 3+i"+ ? +ave $is"usse$ above% it is unne"essary or me to eC;ress a "on"lu$e$ vie3 on t+is issue )an$ ot+ers t+at 3ere $ebate$ be ore us*4 The claimant’s secondary case

4G4

4B4

4<4

0+e se"on$ary "ase is t+at% even i t+e a;;li"able la3 3as international +umanitarian la3 )an$ not or$inary $omesti" "riminal la3*% t+ere is -oo$ );ubli"ly available* evi$en"e t+at $rone stri:es in 9a:istan are bein- "arrie$ out in violation o international +umanitarian la3% be"ause t+e in$ivi$uals 3+o are bein- tar-ete$ are not $ire"tly ;arti"i;atin- in +ostilities an$/or be"ause t+e or"e use$ is neit+er ne"essary nor ;ro;ortionate4 A""or$in-ly% even i t+ey are not liable un$er se"tions 44 to 4B o t+e 200< A"t% t+ere is a si-ni i"ant ris: t+at @C,. o i"ers may be -uilty o "on$u"t an"illary to "rimes a-ainst +umanity an$/or 3ar "rimes% bot+ o 3+i"+ are statutory o en"es un$er se"tion G2 o t+e ?nternational Criminal Court A"t 2001 )7t+e 2001 A"t8*4 ?n t+ese "ir"umstan"es% 5r C+amberlain submits t+at% be ore $ire"tin- or aut+orisin- t+e ;assin- o intelli-en"e relatin- to t+e lo"ation o a tar-ete$ in$ivi$ual to an a-ent o t+e ># @overnment% t+e #e"retary o #tate s+oul$ ormulate% ;ublis+ an$ a;;ly a la3 ul ;oli"y settin- out t+e "ir"umstan"es in 3+i"+ su"+ intelli-en"e may be la3 ully trans erre$% 3+i"+ +e +as aile$ to $o4 ?t "an t+ere ore be seen t+at an essential buil$in- blo": in t+e se"on$ary "laim or a $e"laration t+at t+e #e"retary o #tate s+oul$ ormulate% ;ublis+ an$ a;;ly a la3 ul ;oli"y is t+at @C,. o i"ers may be "ommittin- o en"es un$er se"tion G2 o t+e 2001 A"t4 0+e elements o "rimes a-ainst +umanity an$ 3ar "rimes are i$enti ie$ in t+e 2001 A"t as su;;lemente$ by t+e 0nternational Criminal Court Act 2009 (:lements o" Crimes (+o 2 Re.ulations 2002;-2-<, 9aras <)1*)a* an$ )b* o arti"le < o t+e #"+e$ule to t+e Re-ulations s;e"i y t+e elements o t+e "rime a-ainst +umanity by mur$er or eCtermination: t+e atta": must be ;art o a 3i$es;rea$ or systemati" atta": a-ainst a "ivilian ;o;ulation or o a mass :illin- o members o a "ivilian ;o;ulation% an$ t+e ;er;etrator must :no3 it4 9aras F)2*)"*)i* an$ F)2*)e*)i* o arti"le F o t+e #"+e$ule s;e"i y t+e elements o 3ar "rimes: t+e atta": must be a-ainst a ;erson not ta:in- a $ire"t ;art in +ostilities an$ t+e ;er;etrator must inten$ t+at t+is is so4

4F4

494

J8.93 (& A**#"5 . 4: &2 6"8#& !"# 2,(.1(9 ."'(<

./0A/ 1+an v ## or 2orei-n an$ Common3eatl+ A airs

G04

As 5r E$is says% t+ere is some un"ertainty as to t+e mental element reAuire$ o a ;erson bein- ;rose"ute$ or "on$u"t 3+i"+ is 7an"illary8 to a 3ar "rime or a "rime a-ainst +umanity4 ? s+all assume t+at% in or$er to ren$er unla3 ul any "on$u"t by a notional @C,. o i"ial% +e or s+e must :no3 an$ inten$ t+at t+e re"i;ient 3ill use t+e in ormation in or$er to "ommit an a"t 3+i"+ is ;art o a 3i$es;rea$ or systemati" atta": a-ainst% or a mass :illin- o % a "ivilian ;o;ulation an$/or to atta": "ivilians 3+o are not ta:in- a $ire"t ;art in +ostilities in an on(-oin- arme$ "on li"t4 W+atever t+e ;re"ise mental element reAuire$ or t+e o en"e un$er se"tion G2 o t+e 2001 A"t may be% ? am satis ie$ t+at t+e se"on$ary "laim in t+is "ase oun$ers on t+e same ro": as t+e ;rimary "laim4 0+e "laimant is invitin- t+e "ourt to ma:e a in$in"on$emnin- t+e ;erson 3+o ma:es t+e $rone stri:e as -uilty o "ommittin- a "rime a-ainst +umanity an$/or a 3ar "rime4 #in"e t+at ;erson is a C?A o i"ial im;lementin- ># ;oli"y% su"+ a in$in- 3oul$ involve our "ourts sittin- in Du$-ment o t+e >#4 2or t+ese reasons% ? 3oul$ not -rant ;ermission to a;;eal in res;e"t o t+e se"on$ary "ase eit+er4 *verall conclusion

G14

G24

G34

?n t+e en$% $es;ite t+e attra"tive 3ay in 3+i"+ 5r C+amberlain +as ;resente$ +is ar-ument% ? "onsi$er t+at bot+ t+e ;rimary an$ se"on$ary "laims are un$amentally la3e$ or t+e same reason4 0+ere is no es"a;e rom t+e "on"lusion t+at% +o3ever t+e "laims are ;resente$% t+ey involve serious "riti"isms o t+e a"ts o a orei-n state4 ?t is only in "ertain establis+e$ "ir"umstan"es t+at our "ourts 3ill eC"e;tionally sit in Du$-ment o su"+ a"ts4 0+ere are no su"+ eC"e;tional "ir"umstan"es +ere4 ? 3oul$ re use ;ermission to a;;eal4 Alt+ou-+ t+is is a re usal o ;ermission to a;;eal% t+e Du$-ment may be "ite$ as a ;re"e$ent4 L"#. J80&16 L,'0$

G44

GG4

? a-ree4 L"#. J80&16 E+1,0$

GB4

? also a-ree4

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