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# Code: R7310406

R7
DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
(Electronics and Communication Engineering)

## B.Tech III Year I Semester (R07) Supplementary Examinations December/January 2013/14

Time: 3 hours
Answer any FIVE questions All questions carry equal marks ***** 1 (a) (b)

Max Marks: 80

## (c) 2 (a) (b) 3 (a) (b) (c) 4 (a) (b)

Explain law companding technique. The input to a Q step uniform quantizer ha s uniform probability density function over an interval (-a, a). Calculate the average signal power to quantization noise power ratio at the output. Compare PCM and FM communication systems. Assuming a PSK signaling scheme, find the threshold value of the SNRs at the input for the DM and PCM receivers. Compare DM and PCM systems. Consider using 4-ary FSK: Show that if the frequencies are separated by fS, then they are orthogonal signals and also find the bandwidth for this condition. Determine the ratio of bandwidths of 2-ary FSK and 4-ary when the frequencies are separated by fS. Find power spectral density of BFSK. Derive an expression to find the condition for the removal of ISI. Design a PAM system to transmit the output of a source emitting an equiprobable independent bit stream at a rate of 10,000 bits/sec. over an ideal low pass channel of width 5000 Hz and additive Gaussian noise with a power spectral density of 102 W/Hz. Error probability has to be maintained at (or) below 104. Define information rate. One of four possible messages Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4 having probabilities 1/8, 3/8, 3/8 and 1/8 respectively is transmitted. Calculate average information per message. State and explain the capacity of noisy channel. What is the difference between data rate and information rate? Draw and explain analog portion of the communication channel. A t-error-correcting code is said to be a perfect code if it is possible to form a standard array with all error patterns of t or fewer errors and no others as coset leaders. Show that a (7, 4) linear block code generated by G(x) =1 + x + x3 is a perfect code. Compare linear block codes, cyclic codes and convolution codes by giving their advantages and disadvantages. *****

5 (a) (b)