Manage WSH Risks In Construction Industries

LEARNER'S GUIDE

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Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide

Table of Contents Title of Topic Overview of Learner’s Guide Manage compliance issues in construction industries 1. WSH legal and other requirements relevant to construction industries Learning Activity 1 2. Communicating WSH legal and other requirements 3. Mandatory training for construction industries Learning Activity 2 4. Monitoring of WSH legal compliance issues Control and manage risks in construction industries 5. Main types of trades and working environment in construction industries 6. Hazards and control measures for construction works 6.1 Risk Management 6.2 Working at height 6.3 Working with hazardous substances Learning Activity 3 6.4 Working with tools, machinery and equipment Learning Activity 4 6.5 Material handling 6.6 Working in hot environment 6.7 Confined space Learning Activity 5 6.8 Piling 6.9 Formwork structures 6.10 Demolition 6.11 Excavation Learning Activity 6 7. Managing implementation of control measures Learning Activity 7 References Page 2 6 8 16 17 23 27 28 31 32 44 44 51 79 87 89 102 104 116 118 123 125 127 130 138 149 151 155 156
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Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide

Overview of Learner’s Guide
The work of WSH professionals revolve around managing the WSH risks and preventing harm to persons at the workplace. The Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) Professionals Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) aims to professionalise the WSH workforce by incorporating the world’s best practices and providing career upgrading pathways that are based on the competency requirements of different job levels. There are four (4) full qualifications in the WSH Professionals WSQ. These are: • Graduate Certificate in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) • Specialist Diploma in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) You are here • Advanced Certificate in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) • Certificate in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) The WSH Professionals WSQ is a national Continuing Education & Training (CET) framework jointly developed by the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA), the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) and the industry. The WSQ and the relevant competency standards have been validated by more than 360 industry representatives. The WSH Professionals WSQ Framework is based on typical WSH management system structure and model of Plan-Do-Check-Act. The competencies are grouped into the following categories: • Plan and review of WSH • Implement Operational Control of WSH • Check and take corrective/ preventive actions for WSH For further information in WSH professionals WSQ, refer to WDA website at: http://wsq.wda.gov.sg/GenericSkills/WSH+Professionals/ Specialist Diploma in WSH This qualification is one of the requirements necessary for registration as a WSH Officer under the Workplace Safety and Health Act. Upon registration, one can then practice as a WSH Officer as mentioned in the Act. After completing this level, you can move on to the next level, Graduate Certificate in WSH. Graduate Certificate in WSH - Persons at this level are at a professional and/or managerial level of practice, providing services either as an external third party to the company or within a company. They may be engaged as an independent party to evaluate WSH systems and performance that are not implemented and maintained by them. WSH is most likely their full-time responsibility. Manage WSH Risks in the Construction Industries This WSQ Level 5 Competency Unit is an elective unit of the following qualification/s: Specialist Diploma in Workplace Safety and Health. This unit covers the specific competency requirements for the WSH Professionals in construction industry. It would complement the core units in the WSH Professionals Framework that cover the general knowledge and skill in WSH legal and other requirements and risk control and management. This competency enables the learners to have the knowledge and skills to manage WSH risks in the construction industry. It focuses on imparting knowledge and skills in managing compliance issues in WSH legal and other requirements and the control and management of WSH risks in the construction industry. 2
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candidates are 3 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. or roles with substantial organizational responsibilities. speak and write English at a proficiency level equivalent to the Employability Skills System (ESS) Workplace Literacy level 6. Target Audience Potential participants of this ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’ could be WSH Officer / Professional / Advisor / Specialist / Manager / Engineer / Executive This elective competency unit in the WSH Professionals Framework covers the knowledge and skills in controls and management of WSH risks in the construction industry. activities. • Have basic knowledge of workplace processes. and “Control WSH Risks” useful. There are also competency units in other WSQ frameworks which cover control of WSH risks in certain specific industries and trades. “Identify WSH Hazards and Assess WSH Risks”. written exercises. While these modules are designed for people occupying managerial roles. discussions. Manage compliance issues in construction industries 2. Learners who would like to learn about more general knowledge and skills for coverage of wide range of WSH hazards and risks may find the core units such “Advise on WSH Legal Compliance Issues”. use of basic word processing and presentation software. observations. they are also relevant for small businesses operations and self-employed people.0 . Training and Assessment Guide (CTAG) for ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’. Assumed Skills and Knowledge Learners are assumed to: • Be able to listen. participants will be able to: 1. read. role play. The course duration is 19 hours and 30 minutes of training hours + 30 minutes of assessment.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide This Learner’s Guide is developed for ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’. risk assessment and risk control Course Objectives At the end of this course. practices procedures. Participants who have completed this module ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’ are required to undertake and successfully complete each of the assessment activities listed for the competency unit. There will be group activities designed for peer learning. case studies and workplace delivery / practices. • Possess basic knowledge and skills on WSH hazard identification. • Be able to manipulate numbers at a proficiency level equivalent to ESS Workplace Numeracy level 6 • Possess IT skills such as use of internet. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. As part of the assessments. This Guide presents the required duration. Control and manage WSH risks in construction industries Course component This course will be delivered via presentation. activities and resources needed to deliver each topic to meet the requirements stipulated in the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA) Curriculum. including those during normal conditions and emergency.

Assessment method(s) Oral Questions Work Assignment – Interview (Work Assignment to be submitted not later 2 weeks from the date of last training session.0 4 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Total time 20 minutes Deleted: one month Duration 10 minutes 30 minutes Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide required to submit a written report as part of the summative assessment followed by an interview session and oral questioning.

0 5 Deleted: _ .5 2. Communicate the control measures and implementation plan to the relevant stakeholders.9 2.1 2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Unit of Competency Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries A competent individual must be able to successfully perform the following: 1.5 Check daily workplace activities against legal and other requirements for construction industries. 2.8 2. Communicate and raise attention to the stakeholders on the hazards in accordance with organisational procedures.6 2.10 Establish the main types of trades and working environment that are related to construction industries. Report to management on status of implementation of control measurement Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Manage the mandatory training requirements in construction industries. Monitor and manage compliance issues with WSH legal and other requirements.7 2. Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for civil and structural works. Monitor the implementation and effectiveness of control measures.4 2. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Communicate legal and other requirements for construction industries to relevant stakeholders. Present proposed control measures to relevant stakeholders for formulation of implementation plan. Apply legal and other requirements for construction industries in formulating control measures of WSH risks on site. Control and manage WSH risks in construction industries 2.2 2.4 1.3 2. Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for Mechanical and Electrical works. Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for architectural and finishing works. Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for equipment and services works.2 1.1 1.3 1. Manage compliance issues in construction industries 1.

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it remains one of the riskier workplaces. Greater industry ownership of WSH outcomes. On 10 March 2005. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced a new reduced target for workplace fatalities to 1. Preventing accidents through higher penalties for poor safety management system.8 per 100. This would allow Singapore to have one of the best workplace records in the world.000 workers were killed locally in workplace accidents.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Introduction Over the past few decades. In April 2008.5 per 100.000 workers by 2018. the Minister for Manpower announced in Parliament the adoption of a new WSH framework to improve WSH standards and safety outcomes for Singapore. which claimed a total of 13 lives. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Singapore has achieved significant improvements in Workplace safety and health (WSH). making our fatality rate more than double that of the more developed countries. Although the construction industry continues to be an important sector of the Singapore economy.000 workers by 2015.0 7 Deleted: _ . around 5 out of every 100.2 accidents per million man-hours worked. our industrial accident rate has been stagnating at around 2. setting a target to halve the number of workrelated fatalities to 2. is a stern reminder that more needs to be done to protect our workers. Since 2000. In 2004. based on the progress made since 2004. The collapse of Nicoll Highway along with two other major industrial accidents in 2004. This is enshrined in the three key principles of the new framework: Reducing risks at source by requiring all stakeholders to eliminate or minimize the risks they create. Hence. A fundamental reform to the existing WSH framework was required to reach the standards of the developed countries. Deleted: Formatted: Centered Formatted: Centered Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. This new framework is designed to engender a paradigm shift in mindset where the focus is on reducing the risks and not just compliance to prescriptive rules.

• any drain. laying. The coverage of the WSH Act is as shown in the table below: Phase 1 2 Effective date st 1 March 2006 st 1 March 2008 st 3 1 September 2011 Workplaces Factories. WSH legal and other requirements relevant to construction industries This lesson is made up of 1 unit. The construction. inland navigation. Wharfs. Work of Engineering Construction means 1. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Arts. redecoration and external cleaning of the structure). 2. air-conditioning plant and ancillary ducting of a building. inspection. repair or maintenance of a building (including the re-wiring of any electrical installation. or • any underground electrical cable and communication cable. an intended building. maintenance. except open drains situated in domestic premises. Agriculture & Fishing. waterworks. repair. Shipyards. Wholesale & Retail Trade. gas or any other thing. structural alteration or repair (including re-pointing and repainting) or the demolition of any dock. Ship in harbour. Business Services. sewer. Sewerage and Waste Management. the replacement of any lift. Airport.0 8 Deleted: _ . repair or maintenance of any manhole. and the re-pointing. Information & Communications. the Workplace Safety and Health Act (WSHA) was enacted on 1 March 2006 replacing the Factories Act. The objective of this unit is to ‘Apply legal and other requirements for construction industries in formulating control measures of WSH risks on site’. cleaning or breaking up of any article • Adaptation of any article for sale for the purpose of trade or gain Among other premises. aqueduct. The new Act also marks a shift from a prescriptive legislative approach to a performance based liability regime. whether open or covered. tunnel. Veterinary. the WSH Act will be amended tentatively by 1st September 2011. The construction of any railway line or siding. and the laying of foundation of. Hotels & Restaurants. demolition or removal of — • any pipe-line for the conveyance of water. or • Preparation of the site for. Services allied to the Transportation of goods Education. inspection chamber. Construction. it also includes any premises where building operations or any work of engineering construction are carried on.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 1. Docks. A workplace includes any premises where people carry out work and includes a factory. bridge. and any other similar confined structure providing access to pipelines or underground electrical cables and communication cables. sump. Building operation means — • Construction. pipe-line. The inspection. • Demolition of a building. Public Administration. 3. Entertainment & Recreation To accommodate the coverage of all workplaces. structural alteration. repair. valve chamber. Factory means any premises within which workers are involved in: • Making of any article/part of any article • Alteration. sewerage works or gasholder. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Water Supply. harbour. Finance & Insurance Activities. Landscape care & Maintenance Services. 4. WSH Act To support the new WSH framework. Laboratories Healthcare. viaduct. The construction. reservoir. structural alteration.

Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. The reclamation of any land. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Deleted: ¶ Title Formatted Table Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. The construction of any road or car park. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted Table . Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt.. Line spacing: single All Workplaces All worksites All Workplaces All workplaces All Workplaces All workplaces - Factories Factories All Workplaces All Workplaces All Workplaces Factories Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Factories Act subsidiary legislations 9 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single All workplaces All workplaces All workplaces All workplaces Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 . Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. 6. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. [1] WSH subsidiary legislations The following are the subsidiary legislations issued under the WSH Act that is applicable to the construction industry: Title WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007 WSH (General Provisions) Regulations 2006 WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 WSH (First Aid) Regulations WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations 2006 WSH (Risk Management) Regulations 2006 WSH (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2006 WSH (Transitional Provision) Regulations 2006 WSH (Offences and Penalties) (Subsidiary Legislation under Section 67(14)) Regulations 2006 WSH (Registration of Factories) Regulations 2008 WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Committees) Regulations 2008 WSH (Abrasive Blasting) Regulations 2008 WSH (Explosive Powered Tools) Regulations 2009 WSH (Confined Spaces) Regulations 2009 WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009 WSH (Noise) Regulation 2011 WSH (Medical Examinations) Regulations 2011 WSH (Operations of Cranes) Regulations 2011 WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations 2011 Applicable to Factories Formatted: Space After: 6 pt.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 5.

The administrator can nominate up to two proxies to assist with OBLS transactions. Companies should declare that they have implemented risk management at the point of registration. From 1 March 2010 onwards. It replaces ‘The Factories (Building Operations and Work of Engineering Construction) Regulations’..Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Even though the Factories Act had been repealed. An administrator is needed to renew.0 10 Deleted: _ . the administrator must have a SingPass. a new administrator must be nominated and OSHD must be informed in writing. certificate of registration will be issued. The information includes the particulars of factory such as factory address. continue in force in factories as if made under this Act until it is revoked or repealed. Factories that cease operations must file for a termination of Registration / Notification. [2] Deleted: Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004 . [3] Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. any person who occupies or uses any premises as a factory without a valid certificate of registration of a factory or a factory permit is guilty of offence and is liable on conviction to the following: • A fine not exceeding $5." The following Factories subsidiary legislation will be reviewed tentatively by 1st September 2011 and promulgated as new Workplace Safety and Health subsidiary legislation. so far as it is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. Under Section 46 of the Workplace Safety and Health Act. All factories must keep their registration/notification particulars up to date.. • In the case of a continuing offence. When the administrator leaves the company.. Upon successful registration. Nomination of the proxies can be done via OSHD Online. under section 67(14) of the WSH Act. WSH (Construction) Regulations The WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 came into operation on 1st January 2008 and is applicable to all worksites.000 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or both. newly registered factories are also required to conduct Safety and Health Management System (SHMS) Audit / Review within 2 months from the commencement of operations. number of workers and contact details and the type of work carried out in the factory.Fees and Forms) Regulations Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order WSH (Registration of Factories) Regulations Occupiers of construction worksites must apply to the Commissioner for Workplace Safety and Health for one time factory registration of their worksites before commencement of operations.. To do so. update or terminate registration via OBLS. The regulations have the following parts which will be covered in other topics. to a further fine not exceeding $500 or to further imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 days or both for every day or part of the day during which the offence continues after conviction. • • • • • • • • • Part I Preliminary Part II Safety and Health Management Arrangement Part III Permit-to-Work System Part IV General Provisions Part V Electrical Safety Part VI Ladders Part VII Cantilevered and Material Platforms Part VIII Disposal of Materials Part IX Formwork Structures Applicable to Factories involving asbestos Factories Factories Formatted Table Deleted: Factories (Medical Examinations) Regulations . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Title Factories (Asbestos) Regulations Factories (Registration and Other Services . The application for registration must be made through the Online Business Licensing System (OBLS). "Any subsidiary legislation made under the repealed Act and in force immediately before the appointed day shall.

Issue of permit-to-work The project manager may issue a permit-to-work if he is satisfied that — 11 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Evaluation of permit-to-work On receipt of the application for a permit-to-work. • Tunnelling work. • Lifting operations involving tower.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • Part X Demolition Part XI Excavation and Tunnelling Works Part XII Compressed Air Environment Part XIII Explosives Part XIV Piling Part XV Cranes.No high-risk construction work without permit-to-work Any person who carries out any high-risk construction work without a issued permit-to-work shall be guilty of an offence. R 13 . either a workplace health and safety officer or a competent person).Permit to work system R 10 – Application Applies only to the following types of work that form part of any building operation or works of engineering construction (referred to as high-risk construction work): • Demolition work.Implementation of permit-to-work Occupier shall appoint a project manager (Project manager means the person who is stationed at a worksite and who has overall control of all the works carried out in the worksite. • Excavation and trenching work in a tunnel or hole in the ground exceeding 1. and • Work involving entry into a confined space. • Piling work. This shall not operate to interfere with or render unlawful any rescue work or other work necessary for the general safety of life or property. Employee’s Lifts and Material Handling Machinery Part XVI Miscellaneous Part III . Occupier shall ensure that the necessary safety precautions are taken and enforced when the work is being carried out. the safety assessor shall assess whether all reasonably practicable measures have been taken and inspect the site (including its surroundings) where the work is to be carried out together with the supervisor of the person. • Work on a scaffold where a person could fall more than 2 metres. R 12 .Application for permit-to-work An application for a permit-to-work shall be made by the supervisor of a person who is to carry out the work in such form and manner as may be required by the project manager. If the safety assessor is satisfied. R 14 .0 .5 metres depth. Occupier shall implement a permit-to-work system with due regard to the safety and health of persons carrying out the work. R 15 . mobile or crawler crane. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Safety assessor shall exercise all due diligence when performing his functions. he shall endorse the application for the permit-towork and forward the endorsed application to the project manager. Persons are informed of the hazards associated with the work and the precautions they have to take. It shall state the measures which will be taken to ensure the safety and health of persons who carry out the work and addressed to the project manager and submitted to the safety assessor. and includes any competent person appointed by the occupier in the event that the project manager is unable to perform his duties under these Regulations) and a safety assessor (Person appointed as a safety assessor shall be competent to perform the functions and duties. R 11 .

Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. shall be able to safely withstand any foreseeable load likely to be imposed on it during the construction or dismantling of the structure which the supporting structure supports. and of adequate strength for its intended purpose. R 19 . It shall be properly maintained and checked periodically for excessive corrosion. Where a supporting structure or its foundation will eventually form an integral part of the permanent structure designed by a professional engineer. health and welfare of the persons carrying out the work. no incompatible work which may pose a risk to the safety and health of other persons at work will be carried out at the same time in the same vicinity. a sketch of any area at the work area where the work is carried out and ensure that the copy is not removed until the date of expiry or date of revocation of the permit-towork or on completion of the work. after issuing a permit-to-work in respect of any high-risk construction work. Part IV – General Provisions R 20 . the workplace safety and health co-ordinator or the project manager. a fresh application shall be made. all reasonably practicable measures will or have been taken to ensure the safety and health of the persons who carry out or are to carry out the work. he may order the high-risk construction work to cease immediately and revoke the permit-to-work. including where reasonably practicable.Duty to report incompatible work Any work which is carried out at or in the vicinity of any high-risk construction work and which is likely to pose a risk to the safety or health of persons at work shall be treated as incompatible work. and all persons who are to carry out the work are informed of the hazards associated with it. The supervisor shall ensure that the measures necessary to ensure the safety and health of the person at work are taken and are in place at all times during the validity period of the permit-to-work and inform the project manager upon completion of the work.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • there has been a proper evaluation of the risks and hazards involved in the carrying out of the work based on the available information. The project manager shall retain a copy of the permit-to-work. good construction in accordance with the design. and if the work for which the permit-to-work is issued is not completed within the validity period.Structures and supports Every supporting structure including its foundation. R 18 .Posting of permit-to-work and supervisor's duty The supervisor shall clearly post a copy of the permit-to-work. R 16 . shall be of sound design. erosion.Monitoring of work The project manager shall continually review the progress of all high-risk construction work being carried out to ensure the safety. Unless revoked. the workplace safety and health officer. Every partially constructed or fully constructed supporting structure including its foundation. R 17 . health and welfare of persons at work in the worksite. a permit-to-work shall be valid for the period stated therein. is of the view that the carrying out of the high-risk construction work poses or is likely to pose a risk to the safety. Any person who is aware of any incompatible work shall immediately report to his supervisor.Revocation of permit-to-work If the project manager of a worksite who. physical deterioration or alteration so that its stability is not affected and that it is suitable and adequate to perform the function for which it is intended.0 12 Deleted: _ . whichever is the earlier. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The project manager shall exercise all due diligence when performing his function. it shall be the duty of the professional engineer who designed the permanent structure to ensure that the design of the supporting structure or its foundation is safe for its intended use and to endorse the design of the supporting structure or its foundation as safe for its intended use.

repaired or dismantled. export.¶ <#>Beyond the abovementioned periods. Public holidays.Lighting Sufficient and suitable lighting.0 . • hearing protection. Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations 2005 regulates the licensing requirements for flammable substances.¶ Approved Codes of Practices 13 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. maintained. erected.¶ <#>These include (a) full pay up to 14 days for outpatient medical leave. collapse or weaken due to wind pressure. rest days and non-working days should be excluded from the number of days of medical leave granted to the employee.000. death or occupational diseases contracted during employment. chimney or other structure or part of a structure shall be left unsecured or unshored in such condition that it may fall. whichever is reached earlier. The level of illumination provided by the emergency lighting shall be sufficient in intensity and distribution to allow for the safe evacuation or rescue of persons. used. installed.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 21 . Emergency lighting for use in the event of a power failure affecting the general lighting shall be provided and maintained. and • respiratory protection. • head protection. vibration or any work being carried out or in the vicinity. R 32 . use and disposal of radioactive materials and irradiating apparatus Work Injury Compensation Act and its subsidiary legislations Work Injury Compensation Act regulates workmen’s rights to compensation in the event of injury. re-positioned. whether natural or artificial shall be provided and maintained in every part of the worksite in which persons are at work or passing. or up to a cap of $25. altered. • fall protection.000 ¶ <#>The maximum compensation amount payable to the dependents of a deceased employee is $140. • foot protection. R 33 . Radiation Protection Act and its subsidiary legislations These Act and Regulations regulates by means of licensing.¶ <#>The permanent incapacity maximum compensation is $180.Stability of structures No wall. 2/3 salary is payable up to a maximum period of one year following the date of accident. import.000. It consists of the following parts: • • • • • • • • Part I Preliminary Part II General Provisions Part III Metal Scaffolds Part IV Timber Scaffolds Part V Suspended Scaffolds Part VI Other Scaffolds Part VII Approved Scaffold Contractors Part VIII Miscellaneous Deleted: Factories Deleted: Factories Formatted: Superscript Deleted: st May Deleted: 04 Deleted: any Deleted: factory Deleted: Approved Scaffold Contractor and Personnel Deleted: General Provisions Other legislation related to WSH WSH is also covered in other legislation and its subsidiary legislation such as Fire Safety Act and its subsidiary legislations Fire Safety Act and its subsidiary legislation regulates fire safety standards. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • hand protection.Personal Protective Equipment The employer or the principal carrying out any work which requires any protection shall provide and maintain the appropriate personal protective equipment to the person such as • eye protection. Deleted: <#>Medical expenses incurred within one year from the date of the accident. WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations The WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations came into operation on 10th September 2011 and apply to every workplace in which any scaffold is. and (b) full pay up to 60 days for hospitalization leave. is being or is to be constructed.

8. care and maintenance of hearing protectors (Formerly CP 76:1999) 2009 SS 550: Code of Practice for Installation. pits and other excavated areas SS 567: Code of Practice for factory layout — safety. 32. 31. 10. 21. 3.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide In accordance with section 40B(3) of the Workplace Safety and Health Act. 9. 12. 6. 17. 30. 24. use. 25. health and welfare considerations 1999¶ Deleted: <#>CP 84: Code of Practice for entry into and safe working in confined spaces 2000¶ Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The following ACOP are applicable to the construction industry 1. 23. Outdoor 2008 SS 531: Part 3: Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places. 34. 20. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 36. use and maintenance 1999 SS 508 – 1: Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas 2004 SS 508 – 3: Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Safety signs used in workplaces and public areas 2004 SS 510: Code of Practice for safety in welding and cutting (and other operations involving the use of heat) 2005 SS 511: Code of Practice for Diving Work 2010 SS 513 – 1: Personal protective equipment — Footwear — Safety footwear 2005 SS 513 – 2: 2005 Personal protective equipment — Footwear — Test methods for footwear 2005 SS 531: Part 1: Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places.0 . 18. 22. operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lift (Formerly CP 2) 2009 SS 553: Code of Practice for Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation in Buildings (Formerly CP 13) SS 554: Code of Practice for Indoor air quality for air-conditioned buildings 2009 SS 557: Code of Practice for Demolition (Formerly CP 11) 2010 SS 559:2010: Code of Practice for the safe use of tower cranes (Formerly CP62) SS 562: Code of Practice for Safety in trenches. 14. health and welfare considerations 2011 (Formerly CP 27) SS 568: Code of Practice for confined spaces 2011 (Formerly CP 84) SS 571: Code of Practice for energy lockout and tagout 2011 SS 586 : Hazard communication for hazardous chemicals and dangerous goods Part 1: Transport and storage of dangerous goods 2008 SS 586 : Hazard communication for hazardous chemicals and dangerous goods Part 2: Globally harmonised system of classification and labelling of chemicals — Singapore’s adaptations CP 14: Code of Practice for Scaffolds 1996 CP 20: Code of Practice for suspended scaffolds 1999 CP 23: Code of Practice for formwork 2000 CP 63: Code of Practice for the lifting of persons in work platforms suspended from cranes 1996 (2005) CP 79: Code of Practice for safety management system for construction worksites 1999 CP 88 – 1: Code of Practice for temporary electrical installations — Construction and building sites 2001 14 Deleted: <#>CP 27: Code of Practice for factory layout — safety. Indoor 2006 SS 531: Part 2: Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places. 19. 5. 2. 13. 7. 35. 16. Code of Practice for Working Safely at Height 2009 Code of Practice on WSH Risk Management 2011 SS 98: Industrial safety helmets 2005 SS 473 – 1: Personal eye-protectors — general requirements 1999 SS 473 – 2: Personal eye-protectors — selection. 26. and maintenance of respiratory protective devices (Formerly CP 74:1998) 2009 SS 549: Code of Practice for Selection. 11. The Approved Codes of Practice (ACOP) is intended to be used as a yardstick to assess whether reasonable practical measures have been taken in regards to the upkeep of safety and health standards at the workplace. 27. 28. use. 33. 4. Lighting requirements for safety and security of outdoor work places 2008 SS 536: Code of Practice for the safe use of mobile cranes (Formerly CP 37:2000) 2008 SS 537: Code of Practice for Safe Use of Machinery Part 1: General requirements 2008 SS 537: Code of Practice for Safe Use of Machinery Part 2: Woodworking machinery 2009 SS 548: Code of Practice for Selection. the Workplace Safety and Health Council has approved a new list of Codes of Practice with effect from 15th February 2011. 29. 15.

Singapore Civil Defence Force The Fire Code 2002 is issued by SCDF provides guidelines on fire safety requirements for temporary buildings in construction sites.g. safe work procedures which are documented and available in the workplace. Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management Systems – Guidelines for the implementation of SS 506: Part 1: 2009 (equivalent to BS 18002 : 2008) Fire Code. For e. etc. Construction worksites are required to implement a safety and health management system. • SS 506: Part 1: 2009. These guidelines meet with specific requirements for each work. Organisational internal WSH guidelines and requirements Organizational guidelines refer to instructions to employees on policy. These are standards and code of practices issued by the WSH Council. CP 101: Code of Practice for safe use of powered counterbalanced forklifts 2004 Other Requirements SS506 Occupational safety and health (OSH) management system Under the WSH subsidiary legislations.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 37. Other materials such as Technical Advisories and Guidelines provide useful references on recommended WSH practices. organizational quality requirements. Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System – Specification (equivalent to BS OHSAS 18001:2007). to enable an organisation to control its OSH risks and improve its OSH performance. • SS 506 : Part 2 : 2009. SS506 standards provide generic advice on the requirements and implementation of OSH management system. “Code of Practice for Working Safely at Height 2009” has been approved an ACoP. Industrial standards and practices Industrial standards and the practices are defined as best practices which may not be a mandatory requirement but to improve and adopt the industrial practice based on the various commercial interests of all the employees.0 15 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. These requirements are not limited with legislative requirements. Deleted: <#>CP 91: Code of Practice for lockout procedure 2001¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Singapore Standards and approved code of practice.

20 minutes Identify the applicable Acts.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 1 Group Exercise . Scaffolding 7. legislation and Singapore Standards associated with the following activities / items within the organization S/No Activities / items Forklift Applicable Acts / Regulations / Standards 1. Formwork 10. Confined Space 3. 2.0 16 Deleted: _ . Noise Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Lifting 8. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Acetylene 4. Excavation 9. Demolition 5. Hot works 6.

equipment or hazardous substance. a person can be an occupier. equipment or substances provided are safe for use. • ensure that the machinery. the Workplace Safety and Health Act aims to define areas to which they should pay attention in ensuring workplace safety. equipment or hazardous substances used at work in the workplace. developers and engineers designing and financing the project upstream. In a construction industry where WSH is an integral part of business. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. They are required to • provide proper information on the safe use of the machinery. For instance. • ensure that the machinery.0 17 Deleted: _ . The objective of this unit is to ‘Communicate legal and other requirements for construction industries to relevant stakeholders’. equipment or hazardous substance is safe for use. It starts with architects. including all statutory pressure vessels • Equipment or piping intended to contain corrosive. apparatus or fitting necessary to enable its use and operation Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Organisation Manufacturer Or Supplier Manufacturer Or Supplier is any person who manufactures or supplies machinery. Downstream processes include contractors and workers executing the actual construction work before the handover and maintenance of completed works. Construction work is a systemic process (see diagram below) involving a wide spectrum of industry players. Machinery and Equipment That Manufacturers And Suppliers Have Duties To Ensure Are Safe For Use • Bar-benders • Equipment or piping intended for operation under pressure.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 2. equipment or hazardous substance has been tested and examined so that it is safe for use. all stakeholders play a role in reducing safety and health risks. Stakeholder is any person or party who is affected by the Workplace Safety and Health Act. The Manufacturer Or Supplier shall ensure that any machinery. It is possible for a person to have multiple obligations. Communicating WSH legal and other requirements This lesson is made up of 1 unit. toxic or flammable substances • Equipment used for abrasive blasting. an employer and a principal at the same time in the same workplace. Based on the domains over which the various stakeholders have control. including any accessory.

the building itself or any item for use in the workplace. Contractor Contractor is any person engaged by another person or organization under a contract for service for the supply of labour or conduct of work at the workplace. as far as reasonably practicable. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. equipment. Developers In the construction value chain. Developers should ensure that tenders are awarded to contractors who have the capacity and resources to deliver their projects within the stipulated time without taking shortcuts. Developers can play an active role by addressing WSH risks during the construction phase through regular checks and dialogue sessions with their contractors. emit flammable gases • Teratogens • Toxic substances Installer Or Erector Of Machinery Installer Or Erector Of Machinery is any person who installs or erects machinery. As financiers of construction projects. installed or modified is safe and without health risks when properly used. developers have a big influence over the behaviour of downstream stakeholders. the developers are intimately involved in the construction project from acquisition through arranging financing to construction and ultimate sale or management of the property.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • Explosive powered tools Forklifts Lifting equipment Materials or components used for the construction of support structures Power presses Scaffolds and any materials or components used to erect them Welding equipment. etc. including any accessory. Clients The client is the owner of the premises for which the construction development is carried out. Developers can factor in WSH performance when selecting bidding contractors to compel them to improve WSH capabilities and performance. Designer consultants Designer consultant is a team of specialist consultant in the development being carried out and may include civil engineer. the machinery or equipment erected. apparatus or fitting necessary to enable its use Substances That Manufacturers And Suppliers Have Duties to Ensure Are Safe For Use • Carcinogens • Corrosive substances • Explosives • Flammable substances • Gases under pressure • Irritants • Mutagens • Organic peroxides • Oxidising substances • Pyrophoric substances • Self-heating substances • Self-reactive substances • Sensitizers • Substances hazardous to aquatic environment.0 18 Deleted: _ . • Substances which in contact with water. architects. They are required to take measures. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

lifting gear. the following items. In all other workplaces.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Employer / Principal Employer . • providing workers with adequate instruction. • any machinery. are their responsibility. In particular. equipment. Occupier In workplaces registered as a factory. as far as reasonably practicable. • developing and putting into practice control measures for dealing with emergencies. the occupier is the person who has control of the premises regardless of whether he is the owner of those premises. article or substance kept on the workplace. • Correctly use any personal protective equipment provided at work. lifting appliances and lifting machines located in the common area. Employers / Principals are required to take measures. • all entrances to or exits from the workplace. • Do not endanger oneself or others through unsafe behaviour. • Adhere to safe working procedures and principles introduced at the workplace. Principal . volunteer or any other person training or working under the employer such as an industrial attachment student. i. as far as reasonably practicable. information. substances and work processes at the workplace. The occupier may also be responsible for the common areas used by their employees and contractors.0 19 Deleted: _ . • ensuring safety in machinery. the occupier is the person who is the holder of the certificate of registration or factory permit.Any person who engages another person or organization to supply labour or perform work under some arrangement other than a contract of service. • any machinery or plant located in the common area. training and supervision. • hoists and lifts. plant. • electric generators and motors located in the common area. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.e. plant. equipment. including an employee. The occupier is required to take measures. articles. Supervisors The supervisor is the key man in any program to create and maintain interest in safety & health because he is directly responsible for translating management’s policies into action and for promoting safety activities among the employees. even if the person is not one of your employees. • maintaining safe work facilities and arrangements for the workers at work. • the workplace. ensure the following are safe and without risks to the health of any person within those premises. • Do not tamper with any safety device or undertake any wilful or reckless acts.Any person who employs another person to perform work under a contract of service. one employed under a contract of service. Individual Worker Worker is any person at work. if they are used by persons working at their workplace. protect the safety and health of employees or workers working under their direct control and all who may be affected by their work. This includes: • conducting risk assessments to remove or control risks to workers at the workplace. Foreman The foreman is the person who exercises control over workers Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • means of entry to or exit from the common area.

All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. an inspector may: • inspect. Self-Employed Person Self-Employed Person is any person who works but is not under a contract of service. assisted by Deputy Commissioners and appointed inspectors. resident engineers and clerk of works have to highlight WSH issues that would or have the potential to pose imminent dangers so that they can be adequately addressed promptly. Architect To reduce WSH risks during the construction and maintenance phases of the construction process.0 20 Deleted: _ . inspect and examine any workplace at any time to ensure workplace safety. any workplace for the purpose of analysis or test. The Commissioner may issue a Stop Work Order to require the specified work to cease until measures have been taken to ensure that the work can be carried out safely. and mitigate risks at the design stage. • take into custody any article in the workplace which is required for the purpose of an investigation or inquiry under the Act. Investigations Into A Workplace Accident Or Incident The Commissioner may order an investigation into any workplace accident or incident. • take samples of any material or substance found in. ensures that workplaces comply with safety and health regulations. as far as reasonably practicable. These persons are bound to state the truth and assist in the investigations. Suspension Of Certificates When necessary. The following are some measures that may be used to ensure compliance. Remedial Orders And Stop Work Orders The Commissioner may issue a Remedial Order to require an employer or occupier or any other person to remove any workplace risk or to comply with a safe work practice whether or not there is any immediate danger. Enforcement measures to ensure compliance The Commissioner for Workplace Safety and Health. designers and architects need to work closely with contractors and other stakeholders to identify potential construction and maintenance hazards. The residual risks must then be communicated to contractors so that these can be jointly managed. SelfEmployed Person is required to take measures. In the course of investigations. The inspector may also interview and record statements of persons about the accident or incident. the inspector may inspect the accident scene and workplace. Workplace Inspections Inspectors are empowered to enter.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Engineers To play their part in WSH adequately. the Commissioner may suspend any certificate. examine and make copies of any workplace documents. to ensure the safety and health of others such as members of the public. In order to do so. it is essential for project managers to have a good grasp of WSH to better comprehend and manage the WSH issues that their projects may encounter. This will be the primary tool that the Commissioner will use to require employers to improve their management of safety and health and the quality of risk assessment. • take photographs or video recordings to record the conditions and the processes carried out in the workplace. or being discharged from. Managers Project managers play a particularly important role in the management of WSH at their projects as they are overall in charge of the running of a construction project. Examples of certificates issued under the Act include Certificates of Factory Registration and certificates issued to authorised examiners. A Stop Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. As such.

000 for each day the offence continues $500.000 $1.. Prosecution action may be taken if payment is not received within a specified period.000 Corporate body Workers Deleted: ¶ Category of offender . whichever is lower. • or the offence was due to causes beyond control. Offences may be compounded to a sum not more than half the maximum fine prescribed for the offence or $5. Where in any proceedings for an offence under any provision in this Act. it was not reasonably practicable to prevent the contravention or accident.000 fine and /or 2 years jail $1 million $2..000.000 $30. The penalty is as shown below: Category of Offender Person who fails to comply with a Remedial Order If offence is continued after conviction Person who fails to comply with a Stop Work Order If offence is continued after conviction Maximum Fine $50. • or taken reasonable precautions and exercised due diligence where there was no specific legislation or guidelines. [4] Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. st Category of offender Individual persons 1 Offence $200.000 Additional of $5.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Work Order will be used in instances where severe lapses in safety and health conditions may cause immediate danger to the workers.000 fine and /or 2 years jail $500. duty to show to the courts: • compliance with the Act and/or its relevant subsidiary legislation. General penalties for offences The Workplace Safety and Health Act states a general maximum penalty for offences for which no penalty is prescribed under the Act. The penalties are shown in the tables below. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Prosecution The Commissioner may prosecute any offender for violation under the Act.000 and / or 2 years jail (for negligence) Repeat offenders $400. the onus is on the person to prove that it was not reasonably practicable to do more than what was in fact done to satisfy that duty or there was no better practicable means than was in fact used to satisfy that duty. i. If charged with an offence under the Act. • or compliance with the relevant approved code of practice or guidelines.000 Additional of $20.0 21 Deleted: _ .000 for each day the offence continues Maximum Imprisonment 12 months Conditions Either or both 12 months Either or both Composition Fines Composition fines are offered for offences at the Commissioner’s discretion. Failure to comply with either a Remedial Order or Stop Work Order is considered an offence.e.

an engineer. Briefings Briefings / tool box meetings are defined as giving detailed instructions. All decisions and follow-up actions shall be documented. • secretary who shall be the safety officer (if available) or a person.0 22 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. health and welfare of persons at work in the worksite.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Communication Legal and other requirements may be communicated to the various stakeholders through the following mode of communication: WSH committee meetings Under the WSH (WSH Committees) Regulations. The functions of safety committee are as follows: • To inspect the factory at least once a month • To inspect the factory after accident or dangerous occurrence • to assist in organising activities to promote safe conduct of work in factory The minutes of the meetings shall be properly recorded and maintained. Every meeting is should be presided by the project manager of the worksite. and attended by every person (being a supervisor. carried out in the worksite for the purpose of coordinating such works so as to ensure the safety. Personnel can be trained in the following areas: • • • • • WSH competency required at each function and level in the organization WSH induction programme On-going training for employees Training in local WSH arrangements Specific mandatory training Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a worksite to convene such site coordination meetings as are necessary with due regard to the progress of the works which are. It requires a practical demonstration that each employee has acquired the skill or knowledge related to the job. in which 50 or more persons are ordinarily at work is required to form a WSH Committee. Safety briefings shall also be carried out regularly for larger cohorts. The WSH committee shall meet atleast once a month. or are to be. Training sessions The legal requirements can be communicated to the respective stakeholder through external training such as mandatory training or internal training such as induction or task specific training. The committee shall include appointment of: • chairman who shall be a competent person on site. a workplace safety and health co-ordinator or a workplace safety and health officer) who is involved in any work or process being co-ordinated in the worksite and any other person who oversees any such work or process. Awareness sessions Awareness sessions are more of promotional programmes aimed to create a general awareness among the employees. The occupier shall ensure tool box meetings are conducted at stipulated intervals within work groups to effectively communicate and coordinate work instructions and to promote safe conduct of work. the occupier of a worksite. and • members who are representatives of persons at work and management staff. Training means more than providing information. Site coordination meeting Under WSH(Construction) Regs.

Under the WSH Act. • Employers. • Employers and principals are required to ensure that the person at work has adequate instruction. need of the learners and resources available within the organization. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. training and supervision as is necessary for that person to perform his work. To meet the identified training needs. temporary workers.0 Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Page Break 23 Deleted: _ . The ATP’s conducts mandatory WSH training programmes and non-accredited WSH courses. Training needs identification Training needs help to identify and remedy any shortfalls between the competency level currently possessed by the stakeholders and the required WSH competency required in order to achieve the organizations goals and objectives. supervisors and workers • Training and awareness programmes for contractors.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 3. Training can be conducted inhouse or externally depending on the learning outcomes. Mandatory training for construction industries This lesson is made up of 1 unit. information. Examples of in-house training include: • WSH induction • On the Job training • Ongoing training • Training for managers. supervisors and workers. Examples of external training include • Training in local WSH arrangements • Mandatory training • Training for managers. Training schedule Scheduling of mandatory training programs may involve the following • Scheduling dates for training considering the release from trainee’s dept. email and contact particulars of the ATPs for the various courses can be identified from the MOM’s website. work exigencies and workplace peak periods • Arranging for training registration such as coordination with the training institute / trainers and trainee • Applying for Skills Development Fund (SDF) • Arranging for participants presence such as replacement / rescheduling for any last minute change in the trainee’s schedule and sending reminders to the trainees to attend the scheduled training Training providers The address. visitors External training MOM accredits training providers (ATP) to ensure that the quality of the WSH training is maintained at all times. self-employed persons and principals give to persons (not being his employees) the prescribed information about such aspects of the way in which he conducts his undertaking as might affect their safety or health while those persons are at his workplace. suitable training programmes have to be identified. webpage. The objective of this unit is to ‘Manage the mandatory training requirements in construction industries’. Some of the other training providers include the following: • Singapore Environment Institute • Singapore Civil Defense Academy • Singapore Aviation Academy Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. In-house training This type of training is conducted in-house.

Classes or description of persons Workplace Safety and Health Auditors: Any person who is appointed to conduct audit on safety and health management system.g) Singapore Polytechnic / Ngee Ann Polytechnic Safety Coordinators Course OR Advance Certificate in WSH Industrial Audiometry Course Noise Monitoring Course Industrial Noise Control Course WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Reg 3(a)(i). risk assessment. risk assessment. work processes or workplace Audiometric Examiner: Any person who carries out audiometric examination of others Noise Monitoring Officer: Any person who is appointed to conduct noise monitoring at a workplace Noise Control Officer: Any person who is appointed to advise the occupier of a workplace on noise control measures Manhole Safety Assessors: Any person who is appointed to assess whether the manhole is safe for entry Confined Space Safety Assessors: Any person who is appointed to assess whether the confined space is safe for entry Explosive Powered Tools Operators: Any persons who operates an explosive power tool First-Aider: Any person who is appointed as a first-aider in a workplace Forklift Operators: Any person who drives or operates a forklift truck Mandatory Training courses Workshop for Safety Auditors OR Graduate Certificate in WSH Safety Officer Training Course OR Specialist Diploma in WSH Reference Criteria to be approved as an auditor ATP (e. work processes or workplace Workplace Safety and Health Officers: Any person who is appointed to conduct audit on safety and health management system. risk assessment.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Note: Only courses conducted by selected ATPs have been listed. work processes or workplace Workplace Safety and Health Coordinators: Any person who is appointed to conduct audit on safety and health management system.0 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. For full list of ATPs. WSH (Construction) Reg R6(3) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd WSH (Medical Examination) Reg R6(2) WSH (Noise) Reg R7(3) WSH (Noise) Reg R5(1) Siemens Medical Instruments Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Nanyang Technological University NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd BCA Academy / SCAL Academy NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Deleted: Factories Deleted: Factories Deleted: 6 Deleted: 2 Deleted: Factories Deleted: 4 Deleted: 5 Manhole Safety Assessor Course Confined Space Safety Assessor Course Explosive Powered Tools Operators' Course Occupational First Aid Course Forklift Driver’s Training Course WSH (Confined Space) Reg R9(b) WSH (Confined Space) Reg R9(b) WSH (Explosive Powered Tools) Reg 13 WSH (FirstAid) Reg R5(2) Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order WSH (Operation of Cranes) Reg R17(1) Deleted: General Provision Deleted: 25 Deleted: WSH (General Provision) Reg R25¶ Lifting Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a lifting supervisor for any lifting operation by a mobile or tower crane Lifting Supervisors Safety Course NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd 24 Deleted: Factories Deleted: 20 Deleted: 2 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. refer to MOM website.

re-position. 9 (2b) WSH (Construction) Reg R60(3) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Formwork Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a formwork supervisor to supervise the construction.0 25 Deleted: _ .g) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Deleted: Factories Deleted: 3 Deleted: Factories Signalmen Course Deleted: 2 Deleted: Factories Supervision of Metal Scaffold Erection Course Suspended Scaffold Supervisors' Course WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R6(1) SCAL Academy Deleted: Factories Metal Scaffold Erection Course WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R5 WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R5 NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd SCAL Academy Deleted: Factories Deleted: 8(4) Deleted: Factories Deleted: 7(1) Suspended Scaffold Riggers' Course Construction Supervisors: Any supervisor employed in the worksite Construction Safety Orientation Course (in various languages) Building Construction Supervisors Safety Course Formwork Safety Course for Supervisors WSH (Construction) Reg R9(1) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 reg. alteration or dismantling of a scaffold Suspended Scaffold Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a suspended scaffold supervisor to supervise the erection. installation. alter or dismantle a suspended scaffold Construction Workers: Any worker employed in manual work in the worksite Mandatory Training courses Rigger Course Reference WSH (Operation of Cranes) Reg R18(1) WSH (Operation of Cranes) Reg R19(1) WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R6(1) ATP (e. re-position. alteration or dismantling of a suspended scaffold Scaffold Erectors: Any person who is appointed as a scaffold erector to erect. alter or dismantle a scaffold Suspended Scaffold Erectors: Any person who is appointed as a suspended scaffold erector to erect. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. repositioning. erection. install. re-positioning. install. installation. alteration or dismantling of any formwork structure in a worksite Tunnelling Workers: Any person carries out any work in a tunnel in a worksite BCA Academy / SCAL Academy Construction Supervisors (Tunnelling): Any person carries out any work in a tunnel in a worksite Safety Orientation Course (Tunnelling) for Workers Building Construction Supervisors Safety Course (Tunnelling) WSH (Construction) Reg R88(b) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd WSH (Construction) Reg R88(b) SCAL Academy Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Classes or description of persons Riggers: Any person who is appointed as a rigger for any lifting operation by a mobile or tower crane Signalman: Any person who is appointed as a signalman for any lifting operation by a mobile or tower crane Scaffold Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a scaffold supervisor to supervise the erection.

0 26 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.The name of the training providers Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Schedule of training . for example theory and practical.The sequence in which the topics were conducted. Some of the records that can be maintained are: • • • • • Duration of training . lesson plan Type of training .The total hours of the training course.The dates and times of various topics that were covered under the training Sequence of training .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Classes or description of persons Man Lock / Medical Lock Attendant: Any person performing the role of a Man Lock / Medical Lock Attendant Mandatory Training courses Compressed Air Works Course (Man Lock and Medical Lock Attendant) Construction Safety Course for Project Managers Reference WSH (Construction) Reg R108(3)(c) ATP (e.g) Advanced Marine Pte Ltd Project Managers: Any person who is appointed as a project manager to be in charge of all construction activities in building and engineering construction worksites of a contract sum of $10 million or more Manhole Workers: Any worker who is carrying out work in manholes or confined spaces in building and engineering construction worksites Manhole Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a manhole supervisor to supervise work carried out in manholes or confined spaces in building and engineering construction worksites Top Management Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order bizSAFE level 1 bizSAFE level 2 bizSAFE level 4 NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Safety Orientation Course (Manhole) Safety Instruction Course (Manhole) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Risk Management Champion Workplace Safety & Health Management System Program Lead Workshop for CEO / Top Management Risk Management Course Workplace Safety & Health Management System Course NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Training records Training records help to document the training arrangements and should be maintained in accordance to the organizational procedures.Whether the training was conducted internally or externally Training providers .

Forklift operation 2. Lifting 5.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 2 Group Exercise . S/No Activities Personnel Training Course 1.20 minutes Identify the mandatory training required for the following activities. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Formwork Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 27 Deleted: _ . Scaffolding 4. Confined Space 3.

Employee lift or material handling machinery Frequency As required As required Prior to endorsing the PTW Monthly After erection / inclement weather Weekly / Before / During / After Casting After installing Before entry & 4 hourly After rain storm or other hazardincreasing occurrence Monthly Weekly Daily Before advancing a piling frame Before putting it into service for the first time Designated person First Aider Designated person Designated person Designated person Competent person Compliance audit Audit is a systematic examination to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable for achieving the organisation’s policy and objectives. The scope of the inspection can include Equipment and processes.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 4. etc.OHSAS18001. It is one of the tools to evaluate the effectiveness of the risk controls in place. The objective of inspections is to verify that safety provisions and practices conform to workplace rules and regulations and relevant statutory requirements. client audits.E Formwork Supervisor Confined assessor space Item to be inspected Site inspection Site inspection High risk construction activity Site inspection Scaffold Formwork shoring Reshoring Confined space Excavation First aid facilities Cantilevered / Material platform Piling equipment Ground Crane. Under the WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009. Monitoring of WSH legal compliance issues This lesson is made up of 2 units. etc. There are various types of audits such as • Management system audits . The objective of this units is to ‘Check daily workplace activities against legal and other requirements for construction industries’ and to ‘Monitor and manage compliance issues with WSH legal and other requirements’. Inspections Inspection is the act or process of inspecting or looking at carefully.0 28 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. SS506.to verify compliance with legislation • Corporate audit – internal audits to verify corporate compliance • Specific purpose audits – insurance audits. Workplace environment and Workplace practices using suitable checklists. Some of the mandatory inspection requirements are stipulated below: Inspection By WSH Coordinator WSH Officer PTW Assessor WSH Committee Scaffold Supervisor Formwork Supervisor / P. Where the contract sum of the any worksite is $30 million or more. the occupier to appoint a Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Compliance audits .

With the use of the compliance checklist. All Audits Corrective Action Request issued should be updated in the "Audit Corrective Action Request Status Log" by the Audit Team Member.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide workplace safety and health auditor to audit the safety and health management system of the worksite at least once every 6 months. ConSASS can be used for cross comparison between worksites in term of their effectiveness in managing workplace safety and health risks. response due date).g. Emailed to subscribers 2 to 3 times weekly. the Audit Team Member should hold a meeting with the Auditee's management to present audit findings. Tracking of new and amendment to legal requirements An organisation may incur significant liabilities for WSH legal non-compliance.Subscription to legal update services such as Singapore law watch and RIET allows the organization to keep track of legal updates. The process for compliance audit includes: • Preparing compliance checklist . Arranging for the audit schedule . the WSH Bulletin keeps WSH professional and interested stakeholders updated on recent WSH-related and developments. • • • • • • Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The first step in proactive approach to potential legal issues is to obtain the legal updates. stating the scope of audit as tabulated in the “Audit Plan” and explain how the audit will operate. Opening audit meetings .The schedule such as the date and time of the audit has to take into account the availability of all the stakeholders.The Audit Team Member shall have a formal opening meeting with the Auditee's representative prior to commencement of the audit. SPRING Singapore notifies through email service on issue of new Singapore standards. ConSASS provides a profile of the development status of each element of a worksite’s safety and health management system. advisories and Codes of Practices. Follow up on audit report and corrective/ preventive actions . interview and document review process to establish verification of compliance. Auditee should be informed of the next visit to follow-up on the corrective action issued. In this meeting. Electronic notification . The penalties for violating amended or new WSH legal and other requirements are extremely serious. Conduct of audit . the audit members carries out the inspection.The Audit Team Member should issue the "Audit Corrective Action Request" to the Auditee during the post-audit meeting. guidelines. The Auditee must take action on the reported non conformances and complete by the stipulated date (e. A copy to be given to the Audit Team Leader for his monitoring purposes. The Audit Plan shall be acknowledged by the Auditee. These can be obtained by the following means: • • Subscription on update service . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The helps management to better strategise the resources in order to elevate the standard and improve the effectiveness in managing a worksite’s safety and health risks.0 29 Deleted: _ . The Construction Safety Audit Scoring System (ConSASS) is an audit tool which provides an independent assessment of the safety and health management system at a worksite.Checklists can be with respect to a single activity or for the whole facility and prepared by competent personnel who has adequate knowledge on the legal requirements.At the end of the audit. Arranging for competent auditor . including the roll-out of new laws and regulations. Procedures have to be established for identification of new or amended legal and other requirements. Post-Audit Meeting . As an assessment tool.WSH Bulletin is a free electronic newsletter published by the Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) Council.The auditor should be qualified in terms of the subject and the auditing process. the attendees have to agree on the course of corrective action to be taken and timescale for implementation.

Industrial Associations and Professional Bodies Competent personnel / organization . etc Advising on actions to stay in compliance The organization has to comply with all the applicable legal requirements to avoid noncompliance.Government agencies. WSH Service providers such as training providers.Any changes in the legislation are also reflected in the Newspaper. etc • Training personnel • Registration / licensing of material. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Actions would include some of the following: • Reviewing and amending the affected documents • Reviewing and modifying workplace practices • Allocating resources such as manpower.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • Media . The compliance status should be communicated to the stakeholders and the non-compliance items are expected to be rectified promptly. television and radio. Advice on necessary actions needed to comply with new or amended WSH legal and other requirements may include: • Gather WSH legal and other requirements • Conduct gap analysis • Suggestion solutions • Follow-up on compliance status An action plan should be detailing the required actions. consultants. This can be achieved only if all the stakeholders within the organization know exactly what they are supposed to do in order to comply with legal requirements. equipment.0 30 Deleted: _ . WSH Auditors. etc • Awareness campaign Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Information on the progress of the compliance program should be provided and the stakeholders should be informed of the changes made to comply with the regulation.WSH Officers. time line and persons’ responsible. Relevant websites .

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 2.0 31 Deleted: _ . Control and manage risks in construction industries Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

Plastering Plastering involves the application of plaster on interior walls or ceilings for decorative purpose. The paints are water based or solvent based. glass block or concrete block. aluminium and may incorporate Overhead interior decoration Curtain wall / cladding A curtain wall is an outer non-structural wall that carries no vertical load made of lightweight material. Application is by brush.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 5. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. concrete. stone. or for aesthetic purposes. ceiling or roof loads. colour or other medium to a surface. Ceiling Ceiling refers to the upper interior of a room. Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide a skin or layer intended to control the infiltration of weather elements. The objective of this unit is to ‘Establish the main types of trades and working environment that are related to construction industries’. Road marking also involves painting and writing on the roads using paints. Painting and road marking Painting involves application of paints.0 32 Deleted: _ . Drains are constructed either by precast or cast in situ method. Roofing Roofing is the protective covering that forms the top of the building and may use different types of materials such as ceramic tiles. Pavement is a paved footpath for pedestrians and has kerbs at the edge. The main trades in construction industries may be classified as shown below. Drain Laying / pavement and kerb construction Drains remove surface and sub-surface water from an area and incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. Metal work Fabrication of metal structures such as metal grills. PVC. The materials are stacked up and bound together with mortar and cementing it. roller or spray. etc. Windows and doors Windows and door are prefabricated offsite and installed from the floor level. etc. Joinery Joinery involves making interior and exterior wooden doors. The ceiling may comprise of reinforced concrete. windows. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Main types of trades and working environment in construction industries This Lesson is made up of 1 unit. fencing. • • • • Architectural and Finishing Works Civil and structural works Mechanical and Electrical Works Equipment and special services Architectural and Finishing Works Wall and partition The wall may be constructed using brick. Interior partitions support floor. etc. Plaster is a mixture of lime or gypsum with sand and water. bookshelves. tables. stairs. metal. glass. pigments.

Interior decoration is the decoration of the inside of the rooms such as décor and furnishings. repair and interior decoration Modification to the existing structure which may use any of the trades listed. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 33 . Metal scaffolding Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. fitting. alterations. protecting and repairing concrete. roof. marble or stone finishes. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes or tubes. It is also used to provide access. Timber formwork and support systems Timber formwork and support systems are constructed to hold the concrete to be poured into the required shape. Concrete is used directly from the concrete pump or wheelbarrow and spread using shovels and rakes. etc. Steel reinforcement Steel reinforcement is positioning and securing steel reinforcing bars. finishing. foundation. The rebars are cut and bend to the desired shape. and the surface is smoothened using either a hand masonry trowel. Piling Piling is the process of installing piles to form the foundation of the structure. reinstating the roads after the work is completed and maintaining the roads periodically. welding and erection of steel members or components to form an integral part of any structural system of a building. Metal formwork and supporting systems Metal formwork and supporting structures are constructed to hold the concrete to be poured into the required shape. garden. Concrete repair and surface works Concrete repair and surface works involves placing. also known as rebar for the reinforced concrete works. etc. Sheet piling are used to form a retaining structure for excavation. Concreting Concreting involves casting of structure into required shape using concrete which is a construction material composed of cement. a long handed “bull float” or powered floats. Piles can be driven using piling machine or cast in situ method using bored piling. road reinstatement and maintenance Road works involves construction of roads. Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Flooring Flooring refers to the permanent covering on the floor and may use materials such as tiles. flower. Additions. tied together with wire. Structural steel works Structural steel works involves fabrication. aggregate and water. Civil and structural works Road works. opening of roads for pipe or cable installation. Waterproofing Applying or laying of material to waterproof any basement. The concrete is pumped using concrete pumps or using excavator buckets and vibrated. Horticulture and landscape Planting of tree. pipe and cable installation. wet area or walls in the interior or on the exterior of a building. plants.

compacting and stabilising soil and rock from collapse. water and sanitary pipings. Alternatively for smaller sites. etc. ventilation fans and its related ducting. sanitary and gas piping and sewerage works Installation of any gas. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. or any associated fittings for conveyance of gas. Plumbing. etc. silt removal contractor are engaged to remove the silted water. cooling towers. Cleaning and housekeeping services Cleaning and housekeeping services involves cleaning the worksite on a day to day basis. isolators. refrigeration and ventilation works Air conditioning involved installation of air-conditioning equipment. computerised. etc. stabilisation and earthwork services Soil investigation is the investigation the soil profile before the commencement of the construction activities. loosening. switch socket outlets. Electrical engineering works Installation of any wiring. industrial and process control system Building automation is a programmed. Stabilisation and earthwork services involves moving. This involves installation of machines and equipment for process automation. installation and maintenance of plant and equipment such as cranes. walls. shaping. cables. generators. hydrants. cable. cars. Building automation. excavator loaders. Lift escalator installation This involves installation of lift doors. power switches or any other fittings for transmission of electricity for lighting. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. soil and waste water disposal in a building. fire alarms. which is normally done by the main contractor. This involves manual cleaning and vacuuming using industrial vacuum pumps. intelligent network system to reduce energy and maintenance costs. Fire protection works Fire protection works involves installation of fire fighting equipments such as sprinklers.0 34 Deleted: _ . cooling or other similar purposes in a building. Desilting services The soiled water from the construction site is collected and desilted using water filtration system before being discharged into the public drain. trunking. piling rigs. bull dozers. extinguishers. refrigeration system.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Demolition Demolition is the tearing down of buildings or structures. telescopic handlers. Corrosion protection services Corrosion protection involves application of specialised coatings for metallic components to prevent corrosion. etc. Mechanical and Electrical Works Air conditioning. Soil investigation. Precast erectors Precast involves installation of precast components such as columns. excavators. hose reels. beams. depositing. conduit. Equipment and special services Construction plant and equipment services Construction plant and equipment services involves the supply. water distribution. heating. This is done in-house by the main contractor.

Subcontractors take various forms but they may be conveniently divided into two categories. suggestions. groups of tradesmen and workhands and are usually employed by the main contractor to undertake labour intensive work as formwork construction and finishing work. Domestic subcontractors refer to those to whom the main contractor sublets part of the work entirely at his own discretion. Pest control services During the construction. depending on the means by which the employer exercises his selection rights. tiling. for example. These are removed by general waste collectors on a periodic basis. pest control services are engaged to control pests such as rodents. The primary role of the WSH Officer is to assist their employers to discharge their statutory duties. The system of contracting can be divided into the direct labour system and the subcontracting system. Construction is a very dynamic process which involves working in different physical settings such as • • • • • • • • • • Working at height Working with tools. Working environments The construction sector has seen a rise in its contribution of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). labour only or both. Nominated subcontractors are in trades such as piling. sand. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The first is commonly termed “trade subcontractor”. aggregate are recycled by the main contractor or sold to other companies who use them as raw materials.0 35 Deleted: _ . worksites of contract sum of $10 million or more are required to appoint WSHO. fire fighting and prevention. air-conditioning. roofing. etc. Workplace Safety and Health Officers Under the Second Schedule of the WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007. in fact. Under the subcontracting system. mosquitoes. flies. excavation and piling. or conducting the risk assessment as instructed by the Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. machinery and equipment Working in confined space Working in hot conditions Excavation Demolition Piling Formwork Working with hazardous materials Material handling Typical workplace organisation Subcontractors Subcontracting is a prevalent feature of the Singapore construction industry where it is quite common for contractors to engage subcontractors. plumbing. and painting. They are also employed in trades where a large portion of their work requires special machinery and plant for a short duration. particularly in the area of identification of workplace safety and health risks and in recommending control measures. The phrase “to assist” used in regulation 7 could refer to advice. total contract value and in employment rate. They are. lifts. domestic subcontractors are commonly engaged in labour-intensive trades such as formwork. the subcontractor may supply materials only. and other specialized works.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Waste removal and recycling services Construction waste accumulated at the worksite are collected and stored at the construction skips. Some of the construction waste such as iron. The second category of subcontractors performs specialist work on site such as the construction of sheetpiles and installation of the air-conditioning or lift systems. The subcontractors may be nominated or named. In Singapore.

the occupier ought to provide him with the corresponding authority and resources for him to carry out his work properly. The WSH Officer is expected to exercise due diligence in the assessment of risks and recommendation of appropriate control measures particularly for blatant safety and health risks. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 36 Deleted: _ . Other duty holders This has been covered under CE1.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide occupier. the occupier of a worksite shall appoint a workplace safety and health co-ordinator where the contract sum of the building operation or works of engineering construction carried out therein is less than $10 million. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. While the WSH Officers can assist in the implementation of the control measures. It shall be the duty of a workplace safety and health co-ordinator to assist the occupier of the worksite to identify any unsafe condition in the worksite or unsafe work practice and to recommend reasonably practicable measures to remedy the unsafe condition or unsafe work practice and assist to implement such reasonably practicable measures. It could also include training other employees on risks assessment or the control measures. Workplace safety and health co-ordinator Under the WSH (Construction) Regulation.

Environmental Management System and OSHMS. which is valid for three years. Incident Investigation and Analysis 6.0 37 Deleted: _ . Safety Training 4. it shall be the duty of the occupier of a construction site to implement a SHMS for the purpose of ensuring the safety and health of persons at work in the workplace. SHMS provides for goal setting. which came into operation on 1st March 2010. planning and measuring performance. This has prompted the industry to integrate all the three management system into one as Integrated Management System (IMS) as all of adopt the Plan – Do – Check – Act cycle. • Resource savings as common elements such as policy. During the validity period of the certificate. Prior to that. In-house Safety Rules & Regulations 7. Thus. • SS506 / OHSAS 18001 standards • Safety Management Certification (SMC) for Small and Medium Enterprise. it was regulated under the WSH(Construction) Regulation. Emergency Preparedness OSHMS Contractors with a registration grade of A1. The specifications used for OSHMS certification is OHSAS 18001. Safe Work Practices 3. surveillance audits will be conducted to ensure that the certified firm continues to comply with the requirements of OHSAS 18001. It sets out clear management commitments. ISO 14000 . The SHMS shall be implemented in accordance with any relevant Singapore Standard relating to SHMS or such other standards. direction and approaches for workplace safety and health. it is not surprising that an increasing number of organisations are implementing SHMS. Safety Promotion 8. Group Meetings 5. Under the WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide WSH Management System SHMS is a systematic process for managing workplace safety and health. codes of practice or guidance issued or approved by the WSH Council. Companies can also choose to have integrated audits with the following benefits • Time savings as number of audit visits will not increase. B1 and B2 in BCA's Contractors Registry undertaking general building. Evaluation. which consists of 5 basic sections: • OSH Policy • Planning Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Selection & Control of Contractors 9. Safety and Health Policy 2. CP79 The elements of CP 79 are as follows: 1. Control of Movement & Use of Hazardous Chemicals 13. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Maintenance Regime 11. Occupational Health Programmes 14. internal audit and management review can be audited together. SHMS for worksites can be prepared based on • CP 79 : Code of Practice for Safety Management System in Construction Worksite. Safety and health management adds value to businesses by helping to improve overall performance. document control. records management. civil engineering and piling works are required to be certified to ISO 9000 – Quality Management System. and placing as much emphasis on achieving quality SHMS as they do in other key aspects of their business activities. Safety Inspections 10. A2. certificate will be issued. Upon successful audit. Risk Assessment 12.

Contractors registered under BCA Contractors Registry grades C1 and C2. The SMC enable firms to have clear assignment of responsibilities for their project staff and workers.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • o Hazard identification. non conformances and prevention Upon successful audit. certificate will be issued for three years. risk assessment and risk control o Legal and other requirement • Implementation and Operation o Structure and responsibility o Training. incidents. responsibility. surveillance audits will be conducted to ensure that the certified firm continues to comply with the requirements of SMC. CR10 (Precast Concrete Products) or CR12 (Soil Investigation & Stabilization) with grades L2 and above are required to obtain the BCA SMC certification to remain in these grades.0 38 Deleted: _ . accountability and authority o Competence. safety training and awareness. SMC consists of 5 basic requirements: • Occupational Health & Safety Policy • Planning o Planning for hazard identification. training and awareness o Communication. corrective action and preventive action o Control of records o Internal audit Management Review SMC In line with the Joint MND-MOM Review Committee on Construction Safety to extend safety awareness and promote safety culture in small and medium construction firms. Firms are required to formulate standard safety procedures on site including regular site and work areas inspections. The SMC was developed to help the small and medium contractors to plan for safety and manage their construction operations in a simple and systematic manner. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. During the validity period of the certificate. participation and consultation o Documentation o Control of documents o Operation control o Emergency preparedness and response Checking o Performance measurement and monitoring o Evaluation of compliance o Incident investigation. emergency preparedness. nonconformity. awareness and competence o Document control o Operation control o Emergency preparedness and response • Checking and Corrective Action o Performance monitoring o Accidents. Companies that are already certified with a valid OHSAS 18001 in either CW01 or CW02 are exempted from the SMC certification. risk assessment and determining controls o Legal and other requirement o Objectives and programmes Implementation and Operation o Resources. and under CR08 (Piling). roles. BCA has introduced a simplified version of the OHSMS Management system called the ‘Safety Management Certification System for Small and Medium Construction Firms (SMC).

with a fatality rate of 8. A significant proportion of these incidents were a result of falls from height. or where overhead work is being performed. In 2009. Reflecting the risks associated with working beneath cranes and scaffolds. Workplace Incidents and Injuries Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.000 workers in 2009. it is also one of the more hazardous and riskier workplaces. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. the sector accounted for more than one third of all workplace fatalities.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Workplace and WSH Cultural Settings Accident statistics in the construction sector Workplace Fatalities Although the construction sector continues to be an important sector of the Singapore economy. a total of 31 people were killed in incidents involving construction work. Over the past three years.0 39 Deleted: _ . mainly from inadequate protection from hazards such as open sides and floor openings at worksites. Struck by falling objects was the second highest incident type.1 per 100. struck by falling objects accounted for nearly one-third of the total construction fatalities in 2009.

This represents an injury rate of 741 per 100.000 workers. 14 were confirmed Noise-Induced Deafness (NID) cases.4 fatalities per 100. a decrease of 19 cases when compared to 33 cases in 2008. a decrease of 25 cases when compared to the previous year. 15 cases of confirmed Occupational Skin Diseases (OSD) were reported.0 40 Deleted: _ . up from 10 cases in the previous year. Occupational Disease In 2009.000 by 2018. 2. Of the reported cases in 2009. Strategies for the Construction Sector Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.000 workers by 2013 and less than 1. WSH2018 for the Construction Sector Long-term goal is to achieve a safe and healthy workplace with a vibrant WSH culture and zero injury in the construction sector.853 injuries occurred in the construction sector. • Workplace injury rate of less than 390 injuries per 100. Immediate goals for the construction sector are: • A workplace fatality rate of less than 3.8 fatalities per 100.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide The number of injuries in the construction sector is the highest compared to other sectors. which is above the national average of 446 and is one of the highest among all sectors.000 workers by 2013 and less than 200 injuries per 100. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.000 workers by 2018. In 2009. However. 31 confirmed Occupational Diseases (ODs) were reported in the construction sector.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide

Strategy 1: Building Strong Capabilities to Better Manage WSH • Individual Level o Management o Workers and Supervisors o WSH Professionals o Designers and Architects • Corporate Level o Self Investigation o Managing Main and Sub Contractors o Enhancing Risk Management (RM) o Cultivating WSH Culture Strategy 2: Creating a self-regulatory framework in order to promote greater industry ownership • Include Designers and Developers in the Regulatory Framework • Improved Management of Workplace Health Self Regulation • Setting Industry Standards Strategy 3: Promoting the Benefits of WSH and Integrating WSH into Business • Driving Improvements through Large Organizations • Assessment of Safety and Health Management Systems • Business Case Strategy 4: Creating / Building Partnerships • Coordination of Work • Industry-led Taskforces Refer to the WSH Council for the full document. Business under Surveillance Programme The objective of the Business under Surveillance (BUS) Programme is to engage companies through systemic interventions so as to prevent accidents, occupational diseases and improve the company's safety and health management and performance. Under this programme, companies that trigger the following events will first be placed under assessment: • Fatal accidents; • 19 Demerit Points or at the Warning Stage under the Demerit Point System; or • Demonstrated poor management of Workplace Safety and Health, e.g. poor site conditions resulting in Stop Work Order The assessment will review the implementation of the risk management as well as the strength of the management system. If the company failed the assessment, it will be placed into the BUS Programme and be subjected to close surveillance. During the surveillance phase, the company will be held accountable to an Action Plan and be subjected to frequent inspections and engagements to ensure that the plan is implemented accordingly. The company will exit from BUS upon fulfillment of Action Plan and having shown improvement in its safety and health performance and management. Demerit Points Scheme for the Construction Industry The demerit point scheme was introduced in 2000 as a means to encourage construction contractors with poor Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) records to improve on their performance. From 1 April 2007, the scheme has been calibrated in consultation with the industry-led Workplace Safety and Health Construction Advisory Sub-Committee to further raise WSH standards and allow companies committed to improving WSH performance sufficient opportunities to do so.

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Under the scheme, construction main contractors and sub-contractors will be issued with demerit points for breaches under the WSH Act and relevant subsidiary legislation. The number of demerit points awarded will depend on the severity of the infringement. A contractor that has received more than 18 demerit points within a 12-month period will receive a formal warning from the Ministry of Manpower (MOM), while the continued accumulation of demerit points will result in more stringent corrective actions. For example, if a worksite of a main contractor accumulates more than 18 demerit points, the worksite will have limited access to work permit holders for 6 months. If a contractor does not make improvements and continues to commit workplace safety and health offences, applications from the company for new and renewal of all types of work passes for all foreign employees will be rejected by MOM. A contractor that has been issued with demerit point(s) will be informed in writing by the Ministry. Each demerit point is valid for 12 months. The List of Construction Companies with Demerit Points is also available online. Severity Scenarios Demerit Points First Stage a) No demerit points for first 5 fines in each inspection b) 1 point per fine from the 6th fine onwards Second Stage a) No demerit points for first 3 fines in each inspection th b) 1 point per fine from the 4 fine onwards 5 10 8 8 12 18

Composition Fines Potential Harm

Stop Work Order (Partial) Stop Work Order (Full) Harm Accident that led to serious injuries to any person Dangerous occurrence Accident that led to death of one person Accident that led to death of more than one person

Severe Harm

Application to Main Contractors First A warning letter will be issued to the main contractor if the total points Stage: accumulated by the company exceed 18 demerit points within a 12-month rolling period. Second The following will apply to an individual worksite if the total points accumulated Stage: by the worksite exceed 18 demerit points: st · 6-month MYE freeze for 1 occurrence; · 12-month MYE freeze for 2nd occurrence (within 12 months of the 1st occurrence); and · 24-month MYE freeze for 3rd or subsequent occurrences (within 12 months of the previous occurrence) A main contractor will have its records cleared when all its worksites do not accumulate any demerit points for a rolling period of 12 months. Post A 24-month MYE freeze will be extended to all worksites under the company if Second 3 of its worksites have each accumulated more than 18 demerit points within Stage: any 12-month period i.e. the company's MYE has been frozen three times within a year. Applications from the company for new and renewal of all types of work passes for all foreign employees will also be rejected.
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Note: When the Man-Year Entitlement (MYE) allocated to a worksite is frozen, the MYE cannot be used by the company or its subcontractors for the employment of new nontraditional source (NTS) workers and the renewal of existing NTS workers. Application to Sub-Contractors First A warning letter will be issued to the sub-contractor if the total points Stage: accumulated by the company exceed 18 demerit points within a 12-month rolling period. Second The Ministry will reject applications from the company for new and renewal of Stage: all types of work passes for all foreign employees if the total points accumulated by the sub-contractor exceed 18 demerit points: st · 6 months for 1 occurrence; · 12 months for 2nd occurrence (within 12 months of the 1st infringement); and rd · 24 months for 3 or subsequent occurrences (within 12 months of the previous occurrence). A sub-contractor will have its records cleared when it does not accumulate any demerit points for a rolling period of 12 months.

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6. Hazards and control measures for construction works
This lesson is made up of 4 units. The objective of this unit is to • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for architectural and finishing works • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for civil and structural works. • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for Mechanical and Electrical works. • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for equipment and services works. 6.1 RISK MANAGEMENT In the new framework for occupational safety and health in Singapore, one of the major means of reducing risks at the workplace is by making stakeholders accountable for managing the risks they create. Risk assessment is a key instrument to reduce risk at the workplace. Employers, self-employed persons and principals (including contractors and subcontractors) have the responsibility of identifying safety and health hazards at the workplace and taking appropriate actions to eliminate the hazards or reduce the risks associated with the hazards. These requirements are specified in the Workplace Safety and Health (Risk Management) Regulations which took effect on 1 September 2006. Any employer, self-employed person or principal (including contractor and sub-contractor) under the Workplace Safety and Health (Risk Management) Regulations is required to: • Conduct a risk assessment for all work in the workplace. • Take reasonably practicable measures to eliminate or reduce safety and health risks. • Establish safe work procedures if the risks cannot be eliminated. • Specify the roles and responsibilities of persons involved in the implementation of risk control measures and safe work procedures. • Keep records of risk assessment. • Inform employees of the nature of the risks involved and any risk control measures or safe work procedures implemented. • Review or revise risk assessment. RM Process Risk assessment is the process of identifying safety and health hazards associated with work, assessing the level of risks involved, and prioritizing measures to control the hazards and reduce the risks. Risk management, like risk assessment, involves assessment of risks associated with any work activity or trade. However, it also includes control and monitoring of such risks, as well as communicating these risks. Risk assessment is never a one man show; it should be conducted by a multidisciplinary team who have a thorough knowledge of the work to be undertaken. Team members should include management staff, process or facility engineers, technical personnel, supervisors, production operators, maintenance staff and safety personnel if available. The risk assessment team should also include contractors/suppliers personnel who are involved with the work, whenever necessary. Unless the workplace or worksite is not ready, the risk assessment team should visit the workplace or worksite to ensure that all work areas are covered, including routine and nonroutine operations. Routine operations include activities such as preparatory and troubleshooting work activities. Non-routine operations include commissioning, repair and maintenance of plants. The team should also consider various environmental situations, e.g., weather and soil conditions, where these operations are carried out. 44
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Preparation Preparation involves gathering all the following information before start doing the risk assessment. Plant layout plan Process flowchart List of work activities in the process† List of chemicals, machinery and / or tools used Records of past incidents and accidents Relevant legislation, codes of practice or specifications Observations and interviews Inspection records Details of existing risk controls Health and safety audit reports Feedback from staff, clients, suppliers or other stakeholders Safe work procedures (SWPs) Other information such as safety data sheets (SDSs), manufacturer’s instruction manual Copies of any relevant previous risk assessments Inventory Form

Hazard Identification A ‘hazard’ is something that may cause harm or injury. Workplace hazards include physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical or ergonomic hazards. Based on the information gathered on the process, hazards can be identified for each work activity. Hazard identification is perhaps the most important step in risk assessment because hazards can only be controlled if they are identified. Hazard identification involves identifying the hazards associated with each work activity and the type of potential accidents/incidents that can result from the hazards.

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Hazard identification is then repeated for all work activities of the process. The aim is to spot hazards, brainstorm on all the possible types of accidents, incidents and/or ill-health that can occur due to the hazard(s), and identify potential victims or persons-at-risk. Typical types of accidents are: Fall from height Hit by falling object Slip / Trip / Falls Electrocution Asphyxiation Drowning OH diseases/illnesses (NID, dermatitis) Fire and explosion Struck by / hit against object Collapse of structure Soft tissue damage (sprains, strains) Persons at risks are those who are directly involved in operation, indirectly involved in the operation, visitors and members of the public. Risk Evaluation Risk is the likelihood that death, injury or illness might result because of the hazard. For example, if a person works at a 40 m height on a platform without any railing and safety harness, the risk of falling and getting killed is high. Risk evaluation is the process of estimating the risk levels of the identified hazards and if the risks can be accepted. This is used as a basis for prioritising actions to control identified hazards and thereby, minimising safety and health risks. Risk evaluation consists of: (1) Identifying existing risk control measures The presence of existing control measures should first be identified for each work activity of the process. By considering the effectiveness of the existing controls and the consequences that can occur should these controls fail; the risk of the activity can be assessed. Examples of risk control measures include engineering controls, SWPs and personal protective equipment (PPE). (2) Assessing potential severity of identified hazards Severity is the degree or extent of injury or harm caused by accidents/incidents arising from workplace hazards.

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on the controls in place. Therefore, in assigning the severity level, the existing controls should not be taken into account. (3) Determining likelihood of occurrence of accidents, incidents and/or ill health arising from identified hazards

To minimise the subjectivity of estimating likelihood, in addition to looking at existing controls, the following sources of information should be considered: • Past incident and accident records • Industry practice and experience • Relevant published literature (4) Assessing risk levels based on the severity and likelihood The risk level may be classified as low, medium or high and depends on the combination of severity and likelihood. To determine the risk level, select the appropriate row for Severity and the appropriate column for Likelihood; the cell where they intersect indicates the Risk Level. Risk Matrix

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Based on the risk level determined in the risk evaluation step, risk controls should be selected to reduce the risk level to an acceptable level. This can be done by reducing the Severity and/or Likelihood. As indicated in the risk matrix, when the risk level is High, effective and practicable risk controls must be implemented to reduce High Risk to at least Medium Risk. Table 4 shows the acceptability of risk and recommended actions for different risk levels, which can be used to guide the selection of risk controls.

Hierarchy of risk controls The control of hazards and reduction of risks can be accomplished by following the Hierarchy of Control Measures. These control measures are not usually mutually exclusive e.g. engineering controls can be implemented together with administrative controls like training and SWPs.

Elimination - Elimination of hazards refers to the total removal of the hazards and hence effectively making all the identified possible accidents, incidents and ill health impossible. This is a permanent solution and should be attempted in the first instance. If the hazard is eliminated, the risk associated of the hazard will be eliminated. E.g. Asbestos has been eliminated by ban from use due to its cancerous effects. Substitution - This involves replacing the hazard by one that presents a lower risk. E.g. Asbestos can be substituted with non-asbestos materials.
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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) . The success of this control depends critically on the protective equipment being chosen correctly. erecting a barrier to interrupt the transmission path between the worker and the hazard.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Engineering Controls . worn at all times and maintained properly.This should be used only as a last resort.g. after all other control measures have been considered.0 49 Deleted: _ . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.g. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. fitted correctly. E. Documentation should emphasise all the steps to be taken and the controls to be used in carrying out the activity safely. SWP. Administrative Controls . Isolation or containment of hazards. E. or as a short term contingency during emergency / maintenance / repair or as an additional protective measure. Permit-to-work systems. Inspection.These reduce or eliminate exposure to a hazard by adherence to procedures or instructions. scheduling of incompatible works etc. manual handling devices/equipment etc. These include structural changes to the work environment or work processes.Engineering controls are physical means that limit the hazard. machine guarding. Training.

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2 WORKING AT HEIGHT Work is performed at the edge of the building or near opening of the building.0 51 Deleted: _ . pieces of concrete wastes. R 51 – Method of removal of debris Any debris. buckets. and any opening of any chute (except the top opening) in the worksite is closed when not in use. Objects fall due to the following reasons:• Losing grip of the tool • Collision of the tool with other objects • Leaving objects lying loosely • Objects was not secured properly • Throwing objects down from height • Storing materials very close to the edge or opening. There are two main hazards while working at height namely falling from height hazards and falling objects hazards. Common objects falling from height are tools. R 50 – Accumulation of debris Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate so as to constitute a hazard in the worksite. In addition work at height equipment such as ladders.1 FALLING OBJECT HAZARDS While working at heights. the risk of struck by falling objects is very common. except at openings used for the receiving or discharging of material. containers.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. 6. R 30 . stacking or placing materials or equipment in a worksite should not be so close to any opening or edge of a floor. hoists or any other method which will not endanger any person in the worksite.2. R 52 – Floor openings for debris removal Every opening used for the removal of debris on every floor in the worksite which is not closed to access. the opening is so barricaded that no person has access to within a horizontal distance of 6 metres from any opening above through which debris is being dropped. metal scaffolds. are usually severe. scaffold. Injuries. R 53 – Chutes Any chute provided for the removal of materials in a worksite is entirely enclosed on all sides. timber scaffolds. especially on the head. suspended scaffolds and mobile elevated work platforms. Objects do not fall off by themselves. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. brick or other materials in the worksite shall be removed by means of chutes. Where it is impracticable to provide an enclosure.Protection against falling objects Adequate overhead protection should be provided in the worksite against objects that could fall on or otherwise hit persons.Storage and placement of materials and equipment Storing. timber and metal parts. is provided with an enclosure from floor to ceiling. • Overloading of debris Legal requirements WSH (Construction) Regulations R 24 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Reasonably practicable measures should be taken to prevent any person from entering or leaving the worksite by or through other means of entry and access. except the top or working floor. designated entry and access at the ground floor with adequate overhead protective cover for persons entering or leaving the building should be provided. R 25 . The working at height hazards exists in all the construction trades.Entry into building under construction Where a building under construction in the worksite is more than 2 storeys high. platform or structure as to endanger persons below the opening or edge.

R 55 – Debris collection area The discharge end of every chute shall be directed to a designated debris collection area.0 Deleted: ¶ 52 Deleted: _ . With the increased need for work activities to be carried out at height. • Ladders and stairs. adequate strength and rigidly supported throughout its length. sound material. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Formworks. The distance between the discharge end of the chute and the floor of the designated debris collection area shall not be more than 3 metres. R 56 – Design of chute by professional engineer Any chute exceeding 12 metres in height for use in the worksite is constructed. installed or repositioned in accordance with the design and drawings of the professional engineer who designed the chute. The debris collection area shall be within an enclosure fitted with a gate to effectively protect persons from the hazard of falling debris.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 54 – Construction of chutes Every chute in the worksite is of good construction. A warning notice indicating the hazard of falling debris shall be placed in a conspicuous position at the debris collection area. • The gate provided shall be kept closed unless removal of debris is taking place at the area. Common sources of hazards: • Scaffolds.2. and no person shall use any such chute unless a certificate has been issued in respect of it. • Floor and lift shaft openings. Risk Control Engineering control • overhead shelters • Cordoning areas where objects may fall • Toe-boards • Safety nets • Securing tools by means of a lanyard • Rubbish chutes • Skips Administrative Control • Good housekeeping • Warning signs Personal Protective Equipment • Safety helmet • Safety shoes 6. the exposure of workers to falling hazards also increases. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.2 FALLING HAZARDS Statistics have shown that 1 out of 3 fatalities at the workplace are attributed to workers falling from height. • Shall not apply where a skip or container with sides extending to height of at least 2 metres is placed directly below the chute as a debris collection area to collect the debris being discharged. • The enclosure for the debris collection area shall be constructed of materials of adequate strength up to a height of at least 2 metres. • Open sides of floors. Many more workers sustain serious injuries as a result of falls from height every year. and • Working platforms.

sound material and adequate strength to withstand the impact during the course of work. broken ground or profiled roof sheeting). extreme heat or high humidity.Falling hazards Every open side or opening into or through which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres shall be covered or guarded by effective guard-rails. WSH (Construction) Regulations R 22 . shall be securely fenced and provided with a secure handhold on each side of the opening or doorway. barrier or other similar means of fall prevention shall be • of good construction. and (b) if the staircase has 2 open sides. dusty or glazed). • Building materials. strong or gusty winds. whether by mechanical power or otherwise.Measures to be taken to prevent falls • All openings in floors shall be securely covered or fenced unless the nature of the work renders such covering or fencing impracticable. by means of a life line or otherwise for the safety harness or safety belt. oily. or very cold conditions.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Work Environments that Pose a Fall from Height Risk • Raised work surfaces such as slopes. shall be provided with a secure foothold and handhold at the place for ensuring his safety. which may lead to collapse. Where a safety harness or safety belt is provided. Legal Requirements WSH (General Provision) Regulations R 23 . load from lifting operation.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: factory Deleted: building 53 Deleted: _ . • Work surfaces cluttered with tools. other suitable means such as a safety harness or safety belt shall be provided for ensuring the safety of the person. • For every staircase which affords a means of exit from the workplace. • Overloading of working platform. it can also improve productivity. Such good practices not only result in a cleaner and safer workplace. Every guard-rail. • Any person who would be liable to fall a distance of more than 2 metres or into any substance which is likely to cause drowning or asphyxiation. • Unprotected edges. large tools. • Any open side of a staircase shall be guarded by the provision and maintenance of a lower rail or other effective means. • Struck by moving object or equipment e. shall be on both sides. work materials and debris – step on objects. there shall be sufficient and secured anchorage. which — (a) if the staircase has an open side.g. shall be on that side. • Workers working in adverse weather conditions – for example in rain. or equipment that need to be manually carried. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and the anchorage shall not be lower than the level of the working position of the person wearing the safety harness or safety belt. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • be placed on the inside of the uprights and secured so as to prevent accidental displacement. • Uneven work surfaces (for example. a substantial handrail shall be provided and maintained. barriers or other equally effective means to prevent fall. Where it is not reasonably practicable. • Slippery work surfaces (wet. The risk of falls due to tripping and slipping can be reduced by proper planning for material storage and good housekeeping. and • be placed so as to prevent the fall of any person. • Any fencing shall be properly maintained and be kept in position except when goods or materials are being hoisted or lowered at the opening or doorway. • Cramped work surfaces. • Every teagle opening or similar doorway used for hoisting or lowering goods or materials.

• Designated walkway • Proper housekeeping Personal Protective Equipment • Travel restraint systems • Individual fall arrest systems • Anti-slip footwear Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 31 . . • Drainage to drain the surface water • Gradient surface to let the water flow.Safe means of access and egress between different working levels in building or structures Where work is carried out by persons required to work between different levels of a building or structure. stairs.Hazards arising from protruding objects All passageways. Every guard-rail. platform or other elevated working surface shall be kept free from slipping hazards. • Physical barrier to prevent unauthorised access. Risk Control Elimination • Prefabricating wall frames horizontally before standing them up. stair.0 54 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Every guard-rail. • Implementing a fall protection plan • Maintain the floor in a dry condition. barrier or other similar means of fall prevention may be removed where free access is required for work actually in progress in the worksite. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Substitution • Using mobile elevated work platform (MEWP) instead of ladders for reaching high places. Administrative Controls • Prohibition of access . safe means of access to and egress from the different levels of the building or structure shall be ensured at all times. platform and other means of access or place of work and which may injure any person is removed or otherwise made safe. • Adequate signages to warn against access to the hazardous area. platforms and other means of access or places of work are kept free from debris or protruding objects or any other obstruction that could cause tripping and any sharp projection which is present in any passageway. • Using precast tilt-up concrete construction instead of concrete walls constructed in situ. and • Using paint rollers with extendable handles rather than working on a ladder.Marking out an area can be effective in making sure that people are not exposed to fall hazards. Engineering Control • Provision of slip resistant surfaces • Provision of perimeter guardrails for open sides and staircases • Guardrails for openings. R 26 . • Provide relevant information to employees • Adequate supervision to ensure that no worker enters a “No Entry” area. R 27 . barrier or other similar means of fall prevention which are removed shall be reinstated or replaced immediately when access of persons or movement of materials is not taking place at the open side or opening.Slipping hazards Any passageway or on any scaffold.

run. • Electrocution Legal requirements WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations R 2 Definitions "timber scaffold" means any scaffold which uses a timber roller as any of its member or component. Metal scaffolds. work platform. tripods or other similar movable contrivances. or (b) which enables persons to obtain access to or which enables materials to be taken to any place at which such work is performed.3 SCAFFOLD HAZARDS Scaffolds are used extensively in the construction industry for work at heights. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. and includes any suspended scaffold. folding step-ladders. Tower scaffolds and Cantilever scaffolds Tower scaffolds Scaffold means any temporary structure — (a) on or from which persons perform work in any workplace. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Trade Architectural and Finishing Works Civil and Structural Works Mechanical and Electrical Works Types of scaffolds Suspended scaffolds. ladder or step-ladder (other than an independent ladder or step-ladder which does not form part of such a structure) together with any guard-rail.2. Tower scaffolds and Timber Scaffolds Metal scaffold. tubular scaffold. gangway. Hazards of scaffolds • Unqualified erectors • Improper sequence of erection • Inadequate fall protection • Improper erection • Inadequate design • Soft ground • Uneven ground • Defective components • Poor housekeeping • Overloading • Inadequate ties • Inadequate bracing • Not levelled • Open sides • Debris on platforms • Electrical cables The potential accidents that could occur would be • Falling from height • Falling objects • Collapse of scaffolds. but does not include a lifting appliance. hanging scaffold. trestle scaffold. toeboard or other safeguards and all fixings.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: Factories 55 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. "trestle scaffold" means a scaffold in which the supports for the platform are any of the following which are self-supporting split heads. a lifting machine or a structure used merely to support such an appliance or such a machine or to support other plant or equipment.

Metal Scaffold "ledger" means a member which spans horizontally and ties a scaffold longitudinally and which acts as a support for putlogs or transoms. "independent tied scaffold" means a scaffold. or • any level at which a platform is constructed. means — • the vertical distance between the base of a scaffold and its first ledger. in relation to any scaffold. the work platform of which is supported from the base by 2 or more rows of standards and which. apart from the necessary ties. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. stands completely free of any building or other structure.0 56 Deleted: _ . “brace” or “bracing” means a member incorporated in a scaffold for stability. or any 2 consecutive ledgers. in relation to a scaffold. "bay" . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. "tie" means an assembly used to connect a scaffold to a rigid anchorage. means a plate for distributing the load from a standard. "putlog" means a horizontal member on which the board. means the portion of the scaffold between vertical supports (whether standards or supports from which that portion is suspended) which are adjacent longitudinally. "lift" . "standard" means a member used as a vertical support or column in the construction of a scaffold which transmits a load to the ground or any other solid construction. "base plate" .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide "frame or modular scaffold" means a scaffold manufactured in such a way that the geometry of the scaffold is pre-determined and the relative spacings of the principal members are fixed. in relation to a metal scaffold. plank or decking of a work platform is laid. "toe-board" means a member fastened above a work platform or workplace to prevent persons or materials from falling from the work platform or workplace. "sole plate" means a member used to distribute the load from the base plate or the standard of a scaffold to the supporting surface.

R 3 . passes and which is controlled either by friction grips or by turns of the rope around drums within the equipment. altered. in an independent tied scaffold.0 Deleted: ¶ 57 Deleted: _ . "climber" means a lifting equipment through which a suspension wire rope. installed. or one standard to another. Mast climber "suspended scaffold" means a scaffold suspended by means of ropes or chains and capable of being raised or lowered but does not include a boatswain’s chair or other similar appliance. is being or is to be constructed. re-positioned. "tubular scaffold" means a scaffold constructed from tubes and couplers.Application These Regulations shall apply to every workplace in which any scaffold is. maintained. the lower end of which is not anchored. erected.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide "transom" means a member placed horizontally and used to tie one ledger transversely to another. repaired or Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. used. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

R 9 . on or after 10th September 2011. The responsible person shall not appoint any person as a scaffold supervisor unless the person is one who has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner.Personal protective equipment for scaffold erectors It shall be the duty of the responsible person to provide to every scaffold erector involved in the construction. maintenance. in a workplace shall be of sound material. installation. repair or dismantling of a scaffold in a workplace. and suitable & for the purpose for which it is intended.0 58 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide dismantled. Any person who contravenes paragraph (2) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1. R 8 . Where the height of the scaffold extends beyond the uppermost permanent floor by 2 metres or more. erection. repaired or dismantled in a workplace except under the immediate supervision of a scaffold supervisor. installation. repair or dismantling of any scaffold in a workplace a safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device. erected or installed on structures or Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.000 and. erected. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. maintain. install. be erected such that it precedes the construction of the uppermost permanent floor of the building by not less than one metre above that floor. The scaffold erector who is involved in any work is to use the safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device provided to him. erection. erect. re-positioning. whether such work or use of the scaffold commences before. maintenance. installed. or a scaffold (other than a suspended scaffold. so far as is reasonably practicable. to a fine not exceeding $2. maintain. re-position. re-positioning.000. erect. repair or dismantle any scaffold. erection. alteration. re-positioned. R 5 . erection. alter. maintained. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ R 7 . R 6 . alteration. to equip him to be a scaffold supervisor. and sufficient & secured anchorage by means of an independent life line or other equally effective means. alteration. alteration. and every member or component thereof.Construction and materials It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every scaffold. in any workplace unless he is an approved scaffold contractor. re-positioning. is less than 4 metres in height. a trestle scaffold. alter.Scaffold Supervisor It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a scaffold supervisor before any construction. repair or dismantling of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no scaffold is constructed. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. “Excluded scaffold” means a tower scaffold. maintenance. and whom the responsible person reasonably believes is competent to perform the functions and duties of a scaffold supervisor. maintenance. altered.Supervision of construction. hanging scaffold or a scaffold erected on cantilever or jib supports) which. not being an excluded scaffold. free from patent defects. R 4 .Scaffold erectors It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no person is involved in the construction.Only approved scaffold contractor to construct. to equip him to perform the work of a scaffold erector. install.Foundation of scaffolds Every scaffold in a workplace shall be constructed. The occupier shall ensure that every scaffold erected at a building under construction. re-positioning. good construction and adequate strength. installation. reposition. when completed and excluding the handrails and their supports at the uppermost lift of the scaffold. repair or dismantling of a scaffold in a workplace unless he has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner. repair or dismantle certain scaffolds No person shall construct. installation. the occupier shall ensure that the scaffold shall be adequately supported to prevent its collapse Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ R 10 .

and made safe for use by any person. are installed within the scaffold. so as to prevent any vertical displacement of the foot. The joints in bracing members shall be lapped or spliced. Where a scaffold in a workplace is to be founded on soil. be spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 1.Transoms It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that transoms are located at or near the intersections of standards and ledgers of a scaffold in a workplace.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide foundations of adequate strength. fixed sufficiently close together to secure the stability of the scaffold. In the case of a timber scaffold. and of a length suitable to distribute the load. The ledgers of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall as far as possible. In the case of a scaffold in a workplace exceeding 15 metres in height or being erected on poorly drained soil. ship or other structure shall be used as support for any part of a scaffold in a workplace unless it is sufficiently stable. (A transverse bracing system need not be provided where vertical transverse frames are provided for the full height of the scaffold and at each pair of standards.8 metres.Stairs and ladders It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that stairs or ladders are provided to enable persons to gain access from one level of any scaffold in a workplace to another level. The occupier shall ensure that every designated access point is clearly marked with a sign or label. There shall be no cavity under the sole plate immediately below any standard of a scaffold in a workplace. and the frames are Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 14 .Scaffolds supported by buildings. R 16 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. ships or other structures No part of a building. R 12 . The foot of a standard of any frame or modular scaffold in a workplace shall be secured to a base plate so that it does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface. and of sound material and adequate strength to afford safe support. and be securely fastened to the standards. having regard to all the circumstances.Standards and ledgers It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the standards of a scaffold in a workplace shall be plumb where practicable. spaced not more than 1. the soil shall be adequately consolidated.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ 59 Deleted: _ . erected or installed to ensure that every scaffold shall have at least one designated access point from which a person may gain access onto the scaffold. be horizontal.Designated access point for scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace where a scaffold is constructed. R 13 . Longitudinal bracing members shall be continuous and fixed at approximately 45° to the horizontal.5 metres apart shall be constructed or erected in a workplace unless it has been approved in writing by the Commissioner. base plates shall bear upon sole plates that are of strength not less than 670 kgf per square metre. A standard of a scaffold in a workplace shall be placed on an adequate and secured sole plate in order that the foot of the standard does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface. Deleted: ¶ R 11 . and so far as is reasonably practicable. Where the floor or supporting structure is of sufficient rigidity to evenly distribute the load imposed upon it by the standard without causing any vertical displacement of the standard.Bracing It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that Every scaffold in a workplace shall be effectively braced by means of longitudinal and transverse bracing systems which shall extend from the base to the top of the scaffold. Overhanging eaves gutters shall not be used as supports for any part of a scaffold in a workplace unless they have been specially designed as walkways and are of adequate strength. Each lift shall be crossed by at least one longitudinal bracing member in every 10 metres length of the scaffold. and No metal scaffold with standards spaced more than 2. A transverse bracing system shall be provided at each end of the scaffold and at intervals of not more than 10 bays. The ledgers of a metal scaffold in a workplace shall be spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 2 metres. R 15 .5 metres apart. the provision of a sole plate under the standard shall not be necessary.

the vertical distance between any 2 work platforms shall not exceed 4 metres. R 17 . positioned so as to ensure stability of the scaffold. or in any other case. Where a metal scaffold is used in a workplace to support more than 4 persons in any bay. and in good condition. Every work platform provided under this regulation shall be closely boarded. and kept taut.Design by professional engineer It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a work platform and any support thereof in a workplace shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer where the work platform is used to provide footing for more than 2 persons in each bay.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide type-tested by a recognised testing body in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. so far as is reasonably practicable. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the work platform. the material shall be moved or deposited without imposing any violent shock. and not have any opening except to allow access to that work platform. adequate strength and suitable quality. rope and metal tube used for the suspension of a scaffold in a workplace. the load thereon shall be evenly distributed. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any work platform or support to take. The occupier of the workplace is to ensure that signboards are displayed at all times until the scaffold is dismantled. R 19 . A scaffold in a workplace shall not be overloaded and. all design Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. so far as is reasonably practicable. except a tower scaffold or a trestle scaffold. not more than 4 persons. or to support tools or materials exceeding 25 kgf in each bay.Work platforms It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that Work platforms in a workplace shall be provided at any place of work which does not afford a proper and secure foothold.Gear for suspension of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every chain. other than a suspended scaffold. used in any premises where building operations are being carried on. 220 kgf per square metre. Any chain. Every frame scaffold in a workplace shall be provided with horizontal bracings or lacings at intervals of not more than every 5 lifts. the scaffold shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. The maximum number of persons allowed in any bay of a timber or metal scaffold in a workplace shall be in the case of a timber scaffold. rope and lifting gear used for the suspension of a scaffold in a workplace shall be of sound material. not more than 2 persons. and in the case of a metal scaffold. R 18 .0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ 60 Deleted: _ . shall be properly and securely fastened to safe anchorage points and to the scaffold ledgers or other main supporting members. Work platforms shall be provided at intervals of not less than every alternate lift of any scaffold. and provide to any person who constructs or is to construct the work platform. support or metal scaffold according to his design. support or metal scaffold. and in the case of a metal scaffold. Every scaffold in a workplace that is suspended by means of chains or ropes shall be secured to prevent undue horizontal movement while it is used as a work platform. ship or other structure shall be as narrow as is reasonably practicable and shall not exceed 300 millimetres. Every work platform provided shall cover the lift of a scaffold throughout its entire length. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. not more than 4 persons. The distance between a work platform and any building. around the edge of the building at every uppermost permanent floor which is under construction. and in the case of a building under construction. It must be at least 500 millimeters wide. The maximum number of persons allowed on any work platform in any bay of a timber or metal scaffold in a workplace shall be in the case of a timber scaffold. approximately vertical. 75 kgf per square metre. When any material is transferred to or from a scaffold ing. not more than 8 persons. The maximum loading for persons and materials allowed on any work platform in any bay of a scaffold in a workplace shall be in the case of a timber scaffold.Loading requirements for scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that signboards stating the maximum permissible weight of tools and materials and the maximum number of persons permissible on each bay are prominently displayed at suitable locations on the scaffold in a workplace. R 20 . and unless approval is given in writing by the Commissioner. planked or decked.

thereafter. from the scaffold which may endanger the safety of any person. Any metal decking which forms part of a work platform in a workplace shall be provided with non-skid surfaces. The vertical distance between any 2 adjacent guard-rails and between any work platform or workplace and the guard-rail immediately above it shall not exceed 600 millimetres. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the work platform. planks or decking used in the construction of work platforms in a workplace shall be of uniform thickness.Boards. Deleted: ¶ Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. be capable of supporting a load of 670 kgf per square metre with due regard to the spacing of the supports. to ensure that all practicable measures shall be taken to protect the person from electric shock by electrical wires or equipment when using the scaffold. This regulation shall not apply to a trestle scaffold. R 24 . It shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace in which a scaffold is erected or installed to ensure that no work platform or support is used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. R 21 . erected or installed to ensure that no scaffold is used unless it has been inspected by a scaffold supervisor upon completion of its construction. The toe-boards and guard-rails provided shall be of sound material. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to any scaffold in the workplace. support or metal scaffold according to his design. erected or installed to remove any material.Toe-boards and guard-rails It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every side of a work platform or workplace from which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres shall be provided with toe-boards and 2 or more guard-rails.Overlay and screening nets It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that overlay or screening nets shall be used to envelope any timber or metal scaffold in a workplace which is erected on the outside of a building. The occupier of the workplace in which a scaffold is constructed. be placed so as to prevent the fall of any person or material. and produce the register for inspection upon request by an inspector. The height of toe-boards provided shall not be less than 90 millimetres. It shall be the duty of the scaffold supervisor to enter the results of every inspection into a register containing such details as may be required by the Commissioner. be placed on the inside of the uprights and secured so as to prevent any accidental displacement. The uppermost guard-rail provided shall be at least one metre above the work platform or workplace for which the guard-rail is provided. and provide the register to the occupier of the workplace.Scaffolds to be free of material which endanger safety It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is constructed. Any board or plank which forms part of a work platform in a workplace shall project beyond its end support to a distance of not less than 50 millimetres and not more than 4 times the thickness of the board or plank. at intervals of not more than 7 days immediately following the date of the last inspection by the scaffold supervisor.0 Deleted: ¶ ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ 61 Deleted: _ . erected or installed is to keep the register at the workplace. R 25 . R 26 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. erection or installation.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide documentation (including all relevant calculations. R 22 . planks and decking It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that all boards. good construction and adequate strength to withstand the impact during the course of work. and after exposure to weather conditions likely to have affected its strength or stability or to have displaced any part. and be flushed along their lengths and effectively secured to prevent tipping or uplift. including waste material or debris.Inspection of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is constructed. or a Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 23 .Measures against electrical hazards It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any scaffold in a workplace.000.

the portion of the scaffold from which the ties are removed shall be dismantled unless adequate measures are taken to ensure the stability of the scaffold. No person shall be permitted on a scaffold that is damaged or weakened except a scaffold erector who is carrying out the repair of the scaffold. Where any scaffold is unsafe for use.Approved metal scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no metal scaffold shall be erected or installed in a workplace unless it has been type-tested by a recognised testing body in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. erected. maintenance. from no part of which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres. Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. R 27 .Construction. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a metal scaffold is erected or installed to ensure the scaffold is not used unless the scaffold has been examined by the professional engineer after its erection or installation.0 . all design documentation (including all relevant calculations.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide scaffold. any accidental displacement. 62 Deleted: _ Deleted: Deleted: Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Any scaffold. a prominent warning notice or signs in a form readily understood by all persons indicating that the scaffold or part thereof is not to be used shall be affixed near any point at which the scaffold or part. so far as is reasonably practicable. Every scaffold shall be properly maintained and every part thereof shall be fixed. be erected or installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. as the case may be. The notice or label be in a form readily understood by the persons employed in the workplace. repair and dismantling of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is. R 29 . constructed. and provide to any person who erects or installs or is to erect or install the scaffold. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper erection or installation of the scaffold according to his design. is liable to be approached for the purpose of use. to immediately inform the occupier of the workplace in which the scaffold is erected or installed. or exceeding 30 metres in height in any workplace other than in a shipyard. installed or dismantled shall be allowed to be used unless it is made safe. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any metal scaffold take. that has been damaged or weakened shall be repaired as soon as reasonably practicable. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: R 28 . and it complies with such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose. erected or installed to ensure that No scaffold or part thereof which is partially constructed. erection. secured or placed in position so as to prevent. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who erects. and any member or component thereof. R30 . It shall be the duty of the occupier upon being informed of any defect in a scaffold to immediately take action to rectify the defect before the scaffold is used. It shall be the duty of the professional engineer. Where ties of a scaffold to a permanent structure have to be removed. the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer and the certificate are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. installs or uses the scaffold according to his design.Labelling of scaffolds after inspection It shall be the duty of the scaffold supervisor who carries out the inspection of a scaffold immediately after such inspection.000. and a certificate stating that the scaffold is safe for use has been obtained from the professional engineer. or is being. when he discovers any defect in a metal scaffold in the course of his examination or inspection .Design of certain metal scaffolds by professional engineer It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every metal scaffold exceeding 15 metres in height in any shipyard. and be displayed at every designated access point. and the scaffold has been inspected by a professional engineer at least once every 3 months to ensure that it is safe for use. so far as is reasonably practicable. display a notice or label indicating whether the scaffold is safe for use or otherwise.

at intermediate spacing of not more than 3 bays or 7. the wall. R 34 .000. Every tie shall be capable of withstanding a force of 1. where this is not practicable. beam or similar structural members.000 kgf applied in either direction along the length of the tie.Ties for metal scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every alternate lift and every uppermost lift of an independent tied metal scaffold in a workplace shall be effectively tied to the building or structure by means of ties.Adjustable base plates Where an adjustable base plate is used on a standard of a metal scaffold in a workplace and the adjustment exceeds 150 millimetres.Frame or modular scaffolds to be erected in one plane It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every frame or modular scaffold in a workplace is erected such that every lift is horizontal and in one plane. such spigots. The standards shall be securely held if they are connected by the spigots. and bear hard against. jointpins or sleeves. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ R 32 . R 31 . Ties other than tie tubes and couplers shall not be used without the approval in writing of the Commissioner. to both the inside and outside standards as close as possible to the junction of the standards and ledgers.6 millimetres. • each tie tube shall pass through the wall and be secured with 2 pieces of tube of minimum length of 300 millimetres and shall be attached one on each side of. jointpin or sleeve and the other standard does not exceed 1. and have such external or internal dimensions that the maximum difference of mating diameters in any part between the spigot. jointpins or sleeves shall be used to connect one standard of a metal scaffold in a workplace to another standard.0 Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: 63 Deleted: _ . Sleeves shall cover the end of the standard by at least 70 millimetres. Spigots and jointpins shall engage in the ends of the standards by at least 70 millimetres. pier. and the ends of the tie tubes shall be attached to the building or structure by one of the following methods: • the tie tubes shall form part of a yoke constructed of tubes and couplers which passes around and bears hard against the sides of a column. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. jointpins or sleeves are used to locate and connect one standard to another. Where spigots. or • each tie tube shall pass through ring bolts which shall be secured by casting in or being anchored in the wall. jointpins or sleeves shall permit full bearing over the whole bearing area at the ends of the standards.Spigots. the deviation from the perpendicular shall not exceed 15°. R 33 . in the case of an independent scaffold.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Any person who contravenes paragraph (3)(b) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. it shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the standard is tied longitudinally to the adjacent standard or standards at a height of not more than 460 millimetres above the supporting surface by right angle or swivel couplers.5 metres apart.Transoms for modular or tube-and-coupler scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every modular scaffold or tubeand-coupler scaffold in a workplace is provided with transverse horizontal members or transoms for each lift. jointpins or sleeves It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that Spigots. Ties shall be located no further than one bay from the ends of the independent tied metal scaffold and thereafter. R 35 . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • each tie tube shall be attached to a reveal tie not greater than 1. Every tie tube shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the scaffold and.5 metres in length but reveal ties shall not be used where a horizontal diagonal plan bracing is used. Every tie shall conform with the following: Tie tubes shall be attached by right angle couplers to the outside ledger or standard or. whichever is the lesser.

so far as is reasonably practicable.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 36 .Ties for timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a timber scaffold in a workplace shall be tied to a building or other structure by horizontal ties. Every timber scaffold in a workplace shall be securely tied and braced at the corners.Timber scaffolds not to be used in shipyards It shall be the duty of the occupier of a shipyard to ensure that no timber scaffold shall be used in the shipyard. Every standard of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall have a diameter of at least 50 millimetres throughout its length.0 . 64 Deleted: Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and rigidly anchored to the building or other structure at regular close intervals. The lashing required shall be done with strips not less than 1. No timber scaffold with a single row of standards shall be erected in a workplace. Ties made up of wires shall not be used. R 39 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a timber scaffold is erected to ensure that no scaffold with ties is used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector.000. R 38 . installs or uses the tie according to his design. Every timber roller used as a ledger or horizontal bracing. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs. Each tie shall pass through an opening or hole in the wall in the building or structure. R 37 . or other species of timber rollers which are of similar strength. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any frame scaffold in a workplace.Cross brace not to be used as means of access or egress It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any frame scaffold in a workplace. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any tie of a timber scaffold take.Materials for timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the Timber used for any scaffold in a workplace shall be of a suitable quality. to ensure that no cross brace on the frame scaffold shall be used as a means of access or egress by the person. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. durability and resilience as Bintangor rollers and which are approved in writing by the Commissioner. Timber used for any scaffold in a workplace shall comprise of Bintangor rollers. shall have the bark completely stripped off. Where it is not practicable to install any tie. transom or putlog in a scaffold in a workplace shall have a diameter of at least 38 millimetres at the tip. Transverse and longitudinal braces of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall be securely placed and lashed to the standards. and provide to any person who constructs or installs or is to construct or install the tie of the timber scaffold. and be secured at a right angle to another pole which shall be fixed firmly inside the building or structure.Construction of timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every timber scaffold in a workplace shall not exceed 15 metres in height. and shall not be painted or treated in any way such that defects in the wood cannot be seen easily. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction or installation of the tie according to his design. The members or components of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall be lashed using rattan strips or other material approved in writing by the Commissioner. the timber scaffold shall be tied to a building or other structure using ties which are constructed and installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. shall be in good condition. or by such other means which are approved in writing by the Commissioner. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ R 40 .8 metres in length with a minimum of 6 turns per strip. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2.

if winch drums are used. The suspension ropes are of galvanised wire ropes. R 42 . winches or any powered device shall be erected or installed in a workplace unless the suspended scaffold has been designed and constructed in accordance with a standard or code acceptable to the Commissioner. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any outrigger or overhead support for the suspended scaffold to take. good construction and adequate strength. so far as is reasonably practicable.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ 65 Deleted: _ . to ensure that no person shall enter or leave the cradle of a suspended scaffold unless it is at rest on the ground or at any level which affords a safe means of access or egress. The above paragraph shall not apply when the primary suspension wire-ropes are suspended from the outer end of the outriggers or other supports by means which preclude the displacement of the wire-rope from its point of suspension. the climbers. ship or other structure by anchor bolts or other similar means.Suspended scaffolds raised or lowered by climbers. and Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. or where such fixing is not reasonably practicable. winch and device.Suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no suspended scaffold shall be erected or installed in a workplace unless the outriggers or other supports are of adequate length and strength. It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. properly installed and supported. and provided with rope guards of adequate strength at the outer ends to prevent the ropes from being displaced from the outriggers. Wire ropes used to suspend the work platform shall be vertical and taut. the outriggers or other overhead supports for the suspended scaffold shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. securely attached to the outriggers or other supports and. and of such length that the platform is capable of being lowered to the ground or floor. winches or powered device It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that No suspended scaffold that is raised or lowered by climbers. and in the case of winches. unless the prior approval in writing of the Commissioner has been obtained. and records of such inspection and servicing are kept for each climber. winches or device shall be synchronised so that the work platform of the suspended scaffold is maintained level at all times. to ensure that no person shall enter or leave the cradle of a suspended scaffold unless it is at rest on the ground or at any level which affords a safe means of access or egress. Where the work platform of a suspended scaffold is supported by wire ropes. the points of suspension are at adequate horizontal distances from the building face. to the winch drums. adequately and securely anchored at the inner ends. and free from patent defects. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the outrigger or other overhead support for the suspended scaffold according to his design. the climbers. In the case of a suspended scaffold manufactured outside Singapore. The outriggers or overhead supports shall be spaced not more than 3. It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. The climbers. R 43 . the design of the suspended scaffold shall be certified by a professional engineer or a third-party inspection agency approved in writing by the Commissioner. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. winches or device is properly maintained.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 41 . securely fixed to a building. that there are at least 2 turns of the rope remaining on each winch drum. the hull of the ship or any other structure. winches or device is opened for inspection and servicing at least once in every 12 months to ensure that the drive mechanisms are in safe working order. of sound material.2 metres apart measured from the longitudinal centre line of one outrigger or support to such centre line of the adjacent outrigger or support. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Duration of use of timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a timber scaffold is erected to ensure that the timber scaffold shall be dismantled within a period of 9 months after its erection.

Safety device for suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every suspended scaffold in a workplace that is raised or lowered by climbers. clay.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 66 Deleted: _ . to take. sand. such measures as are necessary to ensure that no person below the age of 18 years operates a climber. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. winches or a powered device shall be provided at each suspension point with a safety rope with an automatic safety device mounted on it. so far as is reasonably practicable. The counter-balancing weight on any outrigger shall not be less than 3 times the weight necessary to balance the load on the projecting part of the outrigger when the suspended scaffold in a workplace is fully loaded. chippings or other aggregates shall not be used as counter-weights. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 45 . or a system is incorporated which operates automatically to support the platform and its load in the event of a failure of the primary suspension rope. climber or any part of the device or mechanism used for raising or lowering the suspended scaffold. engraved or embossed thereon.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide provide to any person who constructs or is to construct the outrigger or other overhead support for the suspended scaffold. winch.Age limit of operator It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. earth. Every portable counter-weight shall have its weight permanently and distinctly stamped. R48 . winch. in the event of a failure of one suspension wire rope. R 44 . It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a suspended scaffold is erected or installed to ensure that no suspended scaffold shall be used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. water or other liquids. the suspended scaffold and its attachments shall be erected or installed in accordance with the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer. powered device or mechanism used for raising or lowering a suspended scaffold.Suspended scaffolds counter-balanced by counter-weights It shall be the duty of the responsible person to in relation to a scaffold in a workplace.000. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. This shall not apply if the platform is supported on 2 independent suspension wire ropes at or near each end such that.Prohibition of overloading of suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a suspended scaffold is erected or installed to ensure that the suspended scaffold shall not at any time be loaded beyond the safe working load except in a test in the presence of an inspector or authorised examiner. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. Any person who contravenes paragraph (10) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. Where a suspended scaffold has been re-positioned or shifted from one location to another within the same workplace. The safety rope with the automatic safety device shall be capable of supporting the platform in the event of a failure of the primary suspension rope. R 46 . drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the outrigger or other overhead support for the suspended scaffold according to his design. R 47 . Every counter-weight shall be securely attached at the inner end of the outriggers to prevent any accidental displacement or tampering by any person. the other wire rope is capable of sustaining the weight of the platform and its load and preventing it from tilting.Prevention of sway It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the work platform of a suspended scaffold in a workplace shall be securely fastened to the building or other structure in such a manner and at such intervals as to prevent the platform from swaying.

to ensure that no more than 2 work platforms shall be used on a tower scaffold in the workplace at any one time. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. be used only on a firm and even surface. It shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace to ensure that the notice is displayed at all times until the suspended scaffold is dismantled. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace. the bearers shall pass through the wall. R 51 . and be securely fastened on the other side of the wall. The height of a tower scaffold in a workplace. The cantilever or jib supports used to support the scaffold shall have outriggers of adequate length and cross section. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1. It shall be the duty of the person who uses any suspended scaffold in a workplace to use the safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device provided to him. “cantilever or jib support” includes any structure. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace.Notice to be displayed in suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to prominently display a notice in the cradle of a suspended scaffold in a workplace that is in a form readily understood by any person stating the safe working load of the suspended scaffold. shall not exceed 8 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. adequately weighted at the base. Any tower scaffold which can be moved on casters shall be constructed with due regard to its stability and. the casters are locked to hold the tower scaffold in position while the person is on the tower scaffold. including a bracket or beam. the scaffold shall be effectively tied to the building or a rigid structure so as to prevent toppling.0 Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Formatted: Font: Italic Formatted: Font: Italic Formatted: Font: Italic Formatted: Font: Italic 67 Deleted: _ . and sufficient and secured anchorage by means of an independent life line or other equally effective means. excluding the handrails and their supports at the uppermost lift of the scaffold. Where the height of a tower scaffold in a workplace. Where a work platform in a workplace rests on bearers that let into a wall at one end and it does not have other support. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace. It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace. if necessary. and be provided with a positive locking device on each caster to hold the scaffold in position.Personal protective equipment for users of suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. to provide to the person a safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device.Scaffolds and work platforms erected on cantilever or jib supports It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a scaffold in a workplace that is erected on cantilever or jib supports shall be adequately supported.Tower scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the height of a tower scaffold erected or installed on board a ship in a shipyard shall not exceed 4 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. that projects beyond a fulcrum or point of attachment and that is not supported directly from the ground or floor below. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ R 52 .000 and. exceeds 3 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. and be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer.000. fixed and anchored on the supports to prevent displacement. to ensure that no tower scaffold is moved except by applying force at or near the base. to a fine not exceeding $2. Design of cantilever or jib supports by professional engineer R 53 – Design of cantilever or jib supports by professional engineer Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and reminding the person to attach his safety harness to a secured anchorage at all times. stating the maximum number of persons allowed to be in the suspended scaffold.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R49 . R 50 . It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace. and no person remains on the tower scaffold when it is being moved. be of adequate strength. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction.

all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. so far as is reasonably practicable. ship or other structure. ship or structure to prevent lateral movement or sway. R 54 .000.Personal protective equipment for users of hanging scaffolds It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any hanging scaffold in a workplace. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs a hanging scaffold to take. and provide to any person who constructs or is to construct the cantilever or jib support. Stairs or ladders shall be placed in such a manner as to prevent any person from falling. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any hanging scaffold in a workplace.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs a cantilever or jib support. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a hanging scaffold is constructed or installed to ensure that no hanging scaffold is used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is erected on cantilever or jib supports to ensure that the scaffold is not used unless the scaffold (including the cantilever or jib support) has been examined by the professional engineer after its erection or installation. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction or installation of the hanging scaffold according to his design. and provided with safe means of access to and egress from its platform by means of stairs or ladders. R 55 . and provide to any person who is constructs or installs or is to construct or install the hanging scaffold. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the cantilever or jib support according to his design. installs or uses the hanging scaffold according to his design. constructed Deleted: ¶ Deleted: – Deleted: Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. and a certificate stating that the scaffold is safe for use has been obtained from the professional engineer. to provide to the person a safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device. constructed so that the work platform is in a horizontal plane. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs. the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer and the certificate are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. and the scaffold has been inspected by a professional engineer at least once every 3 months to ensure that it is safe for use. so far as is reasonably practicable. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the cantilever or jib support according to his design.Hanging scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a hanging scaffold in a workplace shall be constructed before being hung into position on a building. It shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace upon being informed of any defect in a scaffold to immediately take action to rectify the defect before the scaffold is used. and sufficient and secured anchorage by means of an independent life line or other equally effective means. A hanging scaffold from which a person may fall more than 2 metres shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. to take.000. 68 Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: – Deleted: .0 . It shall be the duty of the professional engineer. when he discovers any defect in a scaffold in the course of his examination or inspection to immediately inform the occupier of the workplace in which the scaffold is erected or installed. and shall not rise to a vertical distance of more than 3 metres between landings. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. securely anchored to the hull or any other part of the building. It shall be the duty of the person who uses any hanging scaffold in a workplace to use the safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device provided to him.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1. Where a certificate of approval is cancelled. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the trestle scaffold according to his design. cease to be. or is contravening or has contravened any condition of the certificate of approval. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a trestle scaffold is constructed or erected to ensure that no trestle scaffold used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. R 58 . Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2.Trestle scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no trestle scaffold in a workplace shall be constructed with more than 3 tiers.000.Suspension or cancellation of certificate The Commissioner may suspend or cancel the certificate of approval of any approved scaffold contractor if the Commissioner is satisfied that the approved scaffold contractor has obtained the certificate of approval by means of fraud. he shall give the applicant notice in writing of the reasons for his refusal. or refuse to approve the application. A certificate of approval shall not be transferable.Application for approval to be approved scaffold contractor A firm or company may apply to the Commissioner for his approval to act as an approved scaffold contractor. information. and be accompanied by such particulars. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. statements and documents as the Commissioner may require.Certificate of approval On receipt of an application the Commissioner may issue to the applicant a certificate of approval. the firm or company to which the certificate of approval was issued shall immediately cease to be. an approved scaffold contractor.Production of certificate of approval It shall be the duty of any approved scaffold contractor to produce his certificate of approval for inspection upon request by an inspector. be in such form and manner as the Commissioner may require. Where the Commissioner refuses to approve the applicant to act as an approved scaffold contractor. An application shall be accompanied by a non-refundable fee of $150.000 and. subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. false representation or the concealment of any material fact. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a scaffold platform unless the width of the platform is such as to leave sufficient clear space for the transport of materials. R 60 . or have a work platform more than 4. R 56 .5 metres above the ground or floor or other surfaces upon which the scaffold is erected. an approved scaffold contractor. and provide to any person who is constructs or is to construct the trestle scaffold. Where a certificate of approval is suspended the firm or company to which the certificate of approval was issued shall. to a fine not exceeding $2. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. so far as is reasonably practicable. The Commissioner may at any time vary or revoke any of the conditions of a certificate of approval or impose new conditions. during the period of suspension. and the trestles or uprights are firmly attached to the platform and adequately braced to prevent displacement. to a fine not exceeding $5. and cease to act as. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. R 59 . and cease to act as.000.000. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a suspended scaffold. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the trestle scaffold according to his design. R 57 . It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs a trestle scaffold to take.0 Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 59 Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 69 Deleted: _ .000 and.

...... Notwithstanding that the suspension or cancellation has not taken effect. [5] ... [43] . [56] .. [13] .. [19] ... All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. between the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation and the date the suspension or cancellation takes effect (both dates inclusive)... erect.Offence Any person who contravenes regulation 4(1)... [28] . [17] . [53] ..... [52] ... [6] .. [48] ..0 70 Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted .....Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: R 3 Application . [15] . [29] . alter.. [55] ... [14] .. [39] . [45] . [40] .... [57] ... [41] . or sending it by registered post to... install. shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $20... [7] . construct... [12] ...... [10] . [38] ..... [8] ...... [58] . [59] R 61 ..... [36] .. The suspension or cancellation of the certificate of approval shall take effect 21 days after the date of the service of the notice on the approved scaffold contractor or. [49] . [20] .. [22] .. A notice of suspension or cancellation may be served on any firm or company by leaving it at... appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. [25] ... [44] . [21] .... [34] . within 21 days of the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation..... R 62 . [16] .. [51] . or any provision of these Regulations which imposes a duty on him for which no penalty is expressly provided. [9] . re-position.. the last known business address... any approved scaffold contractor whose certificate of approval is suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner shall not... [46] . [11] . maintain.. [37] . the Commissioner shall inform the approved scaffold contractor concerned by notice in writing of such suspension or cancellation..Notice of suspension or cancellation of certificate When the Commissioner has suspended or cancelled the certificate of approval. [54] .... [24] . [27] .... [42] . [33] . An approved scaffold contractor whose certificate of approval has been suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner under regulation 60 may..........000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both. [26] ... [47] . repair or dismantle any scaffold referred to in a workplace. [35] . if an appeal against the suspension or cancellation of the certificate of approval has been made to the Minister on the date the Minister dismisses the appeal.... [32] . [30] . Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. [31] .... [18] ..... [23] . [50] .

that projects beyond a fulcrum or point of attachment and that is not supported directly from the ground or floor below. ¶ ¶ No work platform resting on bearers let into a wall at one end and which does not have other support shall be used unless the bearers pass through the wall and are of adequate strength and securely fastened on the other side of the wall. materials or equipment at height. struck by moving vehicles 71 Deleted: Other scaffolds¶ ¶ R 57 Scaffold and work platform erected on cantilever or jib support “cantilever or jib support” includes any structure. toe-boards. Mobile elevated work platforms are available in a wide variety of types and sizes. ¶ ¶ R 58 Scaffold supported by buildings or other structures No part of a building or other structure shall be used as support for any part . They include scissor lifts and boom lifts as shown below. caught in between structures. falling objects and collapse of MEWP.2. Substitution • Use mobile elevated work platform Engineering control • All the components of the scaffold such as guardrails. Some are designed for hard flat surfaces only.. electrocution. screen nets • Barricades during erection / dismantling Administrative Control • Erected by a qualified erectors • Safe work procedure • Comply with legal requirements • Inspected by scaffold supervisor • P. safe to use • Permit to work • Stop work during adverse weather • Good housekeeping • Suspend cables on non insulated materials • Work in pairs • Erect according to safe sequence.E inspection before usage • Supervision by scaffold supervisor Personal Protective Equipment • Safety harness • Safety helmet • Safety shoes 6. base plates. fixed and anchored on the support to prevent displacement. Hazards of MEWP • Untrained operator • Uneven ground surface • Unclear controls • Adverse weather conditions • Defective equipment • Contact with overhead structures / electrical lines • Vehicular hazards The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Risk Control Elimination • Eliminate the need to work at height by working from the ground. There are battery powered and internal combustion engine types. and ¶ <#>the cantilever or jib support has outriggers of adequate length and cross section and is constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. access. • P. The protected platform is used to position persons at work areas.. E design requirement • Signage – SWL. scissor or articulating equipment used to position personnel. bracings.0 . Mobile elevated work platforms consist of a platform surrounded by an edge protection system. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. [70] Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Deleted: ¶ Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. while others are designed for operation on rough terrain. ¶ ¶ No cantilever or jib support shall be used unless — ¶ <#>the scaffold is adequately supported. ties.4 MOBILE ELEVATED WORK PLATFORM (MEWP) HAZARDS A mobile elevated work platform is any telescoping. including a bracket or beam. sole plates.

• Follow the Land Transport Authority (LTA) . ladders or any other devices on the work platforms for the purpose of achieving additional height or reach is strictly prohibited. Personnel required to climb out of an elevated boom lift onto an elevated facility structure shall utilise 100 percent tie-off procedures during the transition from the boom lift cage to the elevated work location. Anchoring to nearby poles or equipment outside the work platform is prohibited.Code of Practice for Traffic Control at Work Zone while working on the roads . placement of warning lights. signage and traffic controllers Personal Protective Equipment • Operators working in boom lifts should wear a suitably anchored safety harness.re-directing of traffic flow. (i. • Luminous vests to enhance visibility while working near roads Deleted: ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. personnel must anchor to a fall rated facility anchorage point prior to disconnecting their lanyard attached to the aerial boom lift cage).0 72 Deleted: _ . • Marked with a safe working load limit or maximum rate capacity notice • Operators of boom lifts should be properly trained and competent for the job. • Should only be used on a solid level surface • A pre-operation inspection must be performed by the operator before usage. • Sufficient clearance should be maintained between structures and electrical lines. • There must be no unauthorised alteration or modification of the mobile elevated work platform or any of its safety devices or functions. • Should not be used in high wind conditions or where there is risk of lightning. • The use of planks.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Risk Control Engineering Control • Cordoning of work area • installation of truck mounted attenuator (TMA) while working on roads more than 70km/h Administrative Control • Inspected by an Authorised Examiner at once in every 6 months.e.

Hazards • Inadequate cage design • Movement of crane • Not wearing harness • Adverse weather conditions • Contact with overhead structures / electrical lines • Vehicular hazards The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height. • Marked with a safe working load limit or maximum rate capacity notice • Total weight of loaded platform shall not > 50% of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the crane • No. • The suspended cage and crane should only be accessed by qualified personnel. Personnel shall be considered as weighing 100 kg (including tools) each. • Mobile cranes should be blocked at all times when using a suspended cage. to provide a working area for a person who is elevated by. of personnel allowed on the platform shall not exceed 2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. • Lifting and lowering speed shall not exceed 0. please refer to Approved Code of Practice Singapore Standard CP 63: 1996 (2005) – Code of Practice for the Lifting of Persons in Work Platforms Suspended from Cranes. Crane operator to remain at control at all times when personnel are in the platform.5 m/s. For detailed guidance on the use of suspended cages. • Persons should only access the suspended cage when the suspended cage is not suspended and the surrounding area has space to provide access to or from the suspended cage. • Sufficient clearance should be maintained between structures and electrical lines.Code of Practice for Traffic Control at Work Zone while working on the roads . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 73 Deleted: _ .re-directing of traffic flow. designed for attachment to a crane. • Communication shall be maintained with personnel throughout the lifting operation. • The crane’s free fall facility should not be operated in the hoist motion while the crane is supporting a suspended cage carrying people. • Should not be used in high wind conditions or where there is risk of lightning. • cordoning of work area • installation of truck mounted attenuator (TMA) while working on roads more than 70km/h Administrative Control • Inspected by an Authorised Examiner at once in every 6 months. • Should only be used on a solid level surface • Follow the Land Transport Authority (LTA) . signage and traffic controllers Personal Protective Equipment • People using the suspended cage should wear a safety harness and lanyard anchored to the crane hook. • People using the suspended cage should only be allowed to enter or leave the suspended cage from the ground or solid construction.2. Suspended cages consist of a platform surrounded by an edge protection system. and works from the cage. • Luminous vests to enhance visibility while working near roads Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Risk Control Engineering Control • Design and construction of the work platform shall be in accordance to CP63. • Tag lines shall be used where practical. placement of warning lights.5 SUSPENDED CAGE HAZARDS Suspended cages are personnel carrying devices.

there shall be provided a safety cage or other practicable measures to prevent fall of persons. If such fixing is impracticable. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 43 .Landing place Every ladder or run of ladders used by any person carrying out any work which rises a vertical distance of over 9 metres shall.g. Substitution • A step platform is a safer alternative to a step ladder. be provided with an intermediate landing place so that the vertical distance between any 2 successive landing places shall not exceed 9 metres. e. the ladder shall be held in place by a person. Every ladder in a worksite shall be positioned and securely fixed when used by any person carrying out any work so as to prevent slipping. • atleast one meter above the place of landing • maintain three points of contact at all times. Engineering control • Securing the ladder at the top and / or bottom Administrative control • Another person to hold the ladder • Safe work procedure • Inspection programme • Proper angle of placement . Every landing place shall be provided with sufficient and suitable guard-rails to prevent falls.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. level and firm. R 44 . R 45 .0 74 Deleted: _ .6 LADDER HAZARDS Ladders are used in most of the trades.2.Construction Ensure that the ladder is of good construction. Risk Control Elimination • Use mobile elevated work platforms. two feet and one hand or two hands and one foot. The hazards of ladders are as follows: • • • • • • • • Uneven ground surface Defective ladders Unstable ladders Unsecured ladders Wrong method of climbing Carrying materials while climbing Performing heavy duty works Standing on top rung Deleted: ¶ The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height. and of sufficient strength to safely support the ladder and any person or load intended to be placed on it.Resting surface and prevention against slipping The surface upon which any ladder rests or bears upon when used by a person using a ladder to carry out any work in a worksite shall be stable. swaying or sagging. if practicable.approximately a quarter of the vertical height of the ladder. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. sound material and adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used. Where a vertical ladder used by any person carrying out any work in a worksite rises a vertical distance of more than 3 metres.

sufficient and secured anchorage for the attachment of safety harness in the course of the person's work shall be provided. fiberglass. Risk Control Engineering Control • Provision of a safe means of access for getting to and from the roof before commencing work by means of ladder access tower.slip resistant footwear 6. hoist or staircase. • Sloping roofs • Deteriorated materials • Inadequate access • Adverse weather • Unprotected edges The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height and falling objects resulting in injuries and fatalities.7 ROOF WORK HAZARDS The hazards for working on roofs are as follows: • fragile and brittle roofs constructed from moulded or fabricated materials such as cellulose cement roof sheets. Person shall be protected against any sliding or fall from the roof. • Work is carried out from a working platform that is located and constructed to allow work to be performed safely • Provision of anchorage points • Catch platforms 75 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Use a 2-person team to transport ladders that are greater than 2m in height Personal Protective Equipment • Anti. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R23 . The person shall use the protection provided against sliding or fall from the roof. glass. acrylic or other similar synthetic materials.2.Work on roofs Where any person carries out any work on any roof from which he is liable to fall off or through a distance of more than 2 metres.0 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • Step and trestle ladders should only be used when they are in the fully open position. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

and • Is designed to restrict the travelling range of a person wearing the safety harness or belt so that the person cannot get into a position where the person could fall off an edge of a surface or through a surface. • Installation and removal of perimeter guard-rail systems. Anchorage points should be designed for additional loading should more than one person be using the system. and • Installation and removal of television aerials and other similar communication equipment.8 FALL PROTECTION SYSTEM HAZARDS Travel Restraint Systems A travel restraint system is a system that: • Consists of a safety harness or belt. each of which is attached to a static line or anchorage point.2. Travel restraint systems are generally only suitable for work such as the following: • Roof inspection (not on fragile roofs). • The worker is informed that it is a fragile or brittle roofing. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Training and instruction has been provided to workers on precautions to be taken. including replacement of some isolated parts of the roof.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Administrative Control • Before the roofing work is carried out. if there is a possibility of the rope grab (or similar) coming off the end of the rope. attached to one or more lanyards. • There is another person present at all times when work is being performed on a brittle roof in case there is an emergency. If the system consists of ropes that require their effective length to be adjusted to prevent a fall occurring. • Painting and cleaning. • Training in rescue techniques has been provided and rescue equipment is readily available for use at the workplace. • Installations of skylights and ventilation fixtures. • Warning signs are displayed at access points to any work area where fragile material is present.0 76 Deleted: _ . the rope should be suitably terminated. the method of adjusting the rope length should be by means of a lockable cam device or similar. The anchorage points must be able to withstand the full weight of the person using it without failure. • Minor repair work. • Warning signs are fixed securely in a position where they will be clearly visible to persons Personal Protective Equipment • An adequate fall arrest system is installed and used 6. the brittle or fragile areas are identified and the stability of the structure and soundness of the roof is assessed. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Pointing up tiles or fitting ridge capping metal roofs.

The line is connected to a fixed anchorage point at each end. synthetic webbing or synthetic rope. They may also be used where the working platform is not stable. for example in suspended scaffolds. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. usually as part of a lanyard assembly. Hazards of Fall Arrest Systems ‘Swing back’ – In a fall. A lanyard assembly should be as short as reasonably practicable. to which a lanyard can be attached. They can be used where workers are required to carry out their work near an unprotected edge such as rigging and dismantling. following the perimeter edge of the roof. the use of an individual fall arrest system should be reassessed.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Individual Fall Arrest Systems Individual fall arrest systems are intended to safely stop a worker from falling an uncontrolled distance and to reduce the impact of the fall. A fall arrest static line is a horizontal or vertical line of a fall arrest system. If there is a risk of a swing back occurring. If the worker falls. steel wire rope. particularly from a perpendicular edge. Individual fall arrest systems are an assembly of interconnected components consisting of a harness connected to an anchorage point or anchorage system either directly or by means of a lanyard. The line can be made of metal tube. If the arrest line is too long. A lanyard is a line used. A fall arrest harness is an assembly of interconnected shoulder and leg straps with or without a body belt designed to spread the load over the body and to prevent the wearer from falling out of the assembly. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. to connect a fall arrest harness to an anchorage point or static line. the worker will swing back into the building structure and collide with any obstructions in the path of the swing. The energy absorber may be a separate item or manufactured into the lanyard. metal rod. ‘Swing down’ – In a swing down. A personal energy absorber is used in conjunction with a fall arrest harness and lanyard to reduce the deceleration force imposed by a suddenly arrested fall and correspondingly reduces loading on the anchorage. the arrest line extends diagonally from the anchor point. the worker will drop and hit the ground or the arrest line may break when contacting the edge of the roof and result in the worker hitting the ground.0 77 Deleted: _ . the fall arrest line will slide back along the perimeter until it is at a right angle with the edge of the roof.

when working in areas where falls over short distances are possible. In the event of a fall. It is Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 78 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Height clearance . The allowable free fall distance for individual fall arrest systems should be limited to not more than 1. it must be removed from service and not used again. A person should not use a fall arrest system unless there is at least one other person present on site who is trained to conduct rescue operations in the event of a fall. The inspection of fall arrest systems by a competent person should be conducted periodically. in less than 10mins). Safety distance is usually taken as 1m. Anchoring of lanyards to guard-rails of scaffolding should be avoided where possible. Once a fall arrest system has been used to arrest a fall. This is necessary to prevent further injury. the worker must be rescued as soon as possible(if possible. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.8m. This 5m might be more than the actual height of the fall. Therefore.2kN per person attached). sag in life line and the shock absorber fully extended may be more than 5m in total.For a person falling from height. a short lanyard or retractable fall arrest block should be considered. the combined length of the lanyard. unless the guard-rail is designed to be able to withstand the force generated by a falling person (about 22.

oxygen. Adequate warning notices in languages understood by all persons specifying the nature of the danger should be placed at entrances to any workroom and appropriate locations. solvents. Liquid. petrol. occupier shall obtain MSDS. paints. Supplier shall provide SDS with accurate and adequate information. adhesives. one must know the inherent properties of chemicals which depends on the following: • Chemical and physical properties • Frequency of usage • Amount of materials used • Physical state – Solid. silica Refrigerants. welding fumes. abrasives. it shall be the duty of the seller or any agent of the seller who caused or procured the sale to provide the buyer with a SDS for the substance that gives accurate and adequate information on the substance. diesel. Deleted: M Deleted: <#>Identity .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. diesel.3 WORKING WITH HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Hazardous substances are used extensively in most of the trades as shown below: Trade Architectural Hazardous substances Cement. grouting materials. Gas Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. adhesives. CP or guidance as is issued or approved by the Council.Chemical product and company identification¶ <#>Hazards identification – Safety & Health¶ <#>Composition/information on ingredients¶ <#>First-aid measures¶ <#>Fire-fighting measures¶ <#>Accidental release measures¶ <#>Handling and storage¶ <#>Exposure controls/personal protection¶ <#>Physical and chemical properties¶ <#>Stability and reactivity¶ <#>Toxicological information¶ <#>Ecological information¶ <#>Disposal considerations¶ <#>Transport information¶ <#>Regulatory information¶ <#>Other information¶ Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Civil M& E Equipment & Special services Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 41 – Hazardous Substances Occupier shall ensure that hazardous substances are placed under the control of a competent person who has adequate knowledge of their properties and their dangers. sealants. welding fumes Deleted: H Deleted: S Deleted: should be Deleted: workers Deleted: factory Deleted: It shall be easily understood by all persons and warn of the hazards of the substance. hydraulic oil. asbestos. and conforms with any SS relating to safety data sheets or such other standards. used. of any hazardous substance that is in a consumer package and that is intended for retail sale. welding fumes. asphalt. stored. handled or stored. water proofing chemicals. asphalt.Safety Data Sheet Where any hazardous substance is used. acids. acetylene. Where any hazardous substance is sold to any person for use in a workplace. formwork oil. Hazards To assess the hazard potential of a chemical. handling or storage in a workplace. grease. pesticides. or the sale for use in a workplace. handled or disposed without any risk to others. silica Cement. paints. plastering. The above shall not apply in respect of the use.Warning Labels Warning labels shall be affixed one or more labels on containers of hazardous substances that conforms with SS or WSH Council CP. R 43 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. pesticides.0 Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Deleted: ¶ ¶ 79 Deleted: _ . welding fumes Anti-termite. assess information and take precautionary measures and make it available to workers. LPG. solvents. “container” means anything in or by which substances are or have been wholly or partly encased. blasting chemicals. Persons at work in a workplace who are liable to be exposed should be warned of hazards involved and precautionary measures to take. and includes a container that is transported or distributed as part of a larger consolidated container that consists of a number of identical consumer packages. It shall specify the precautionary measures to take when dealing with the substance. covered or packed. fire fighting gases. bentonite. “consumer package” means a container that is intended for retail display and sale to households or offices. All hazardous substances should be kept. R 42 .

Other than fire and explosion hazards. adhesives. An undetected leak in a confined area could displace enough air to suffocate a person e.1 PHYSICAL HAZARDS Gases under Pressure Gases under pressure / compressed gases are commonly used in cylinders.acetylene Tubing and containers may explode if put under high pressure. explosions release energy very rapidly typically in the order of microseconds.3. Many undergo dangerous chemical reactions if they contact incompatible chemicals such as oxidizing materials. E. At normal room temperatures.LPG • Non-liquefied . Compressed gas cylinders are heavy and awkward to handle. They are: • Physical hazards • Health hazards 6. E. flammable liquids can give off enough vapour to form burnable mixtures with air. Explosions also result in a rapid release of pressure or shock waves. Explosive chemicals are further classified into high and low explosive as per the rates of decomposition. As a result. Even many detections show that such chemical also cause disorders of living hormones. solvents.oxygen • Dissolved gases . Oxygen and. fires also produce smoke and toxic gases such as carbon monoxide which is odourless and a chemical asphyxiant. Fires tend to release energy slowly and the rate is controlled by the diffusion rate of either the fuel or oxygen. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. some flammable gases can also pose health hazards and be reactive.g oxygen Fire is a complex set of chemical reactions in which fuel combines with oxygen and an ignition source to produce heat. Flammable gases The gas can easily form a flammable mixture with air. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does. diesel. Apart from heat generation. A falling cylinder can cause serious injury and if the valve is knocked off. Flammable gases can displace air. water proofing chemicals.0 80 Deleted: _ . In order for fire to occur. the cylinder can become a rocket Explosive Explosive chemicals create immediate threats to the health and safety. or if they are stored improperly. generally by providing oxygen. Flammable liquid fires burn very fast. acetylene Flammable Liquids Flammable Liquids are having a flashpoint of not more than 93C. The 3 major groups of compressed gases are • Liquefied . It is classified according to flashpoint and initial boiling point. On the other hand. hydraulic oil. they can be a serious fire hazard.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide There are 2 types of hazards associated with hazardous substances. the 3 key elements must be present – Fuel. Oxidizing Gases Oxidizing gases are gases that may.g LPG. petrol. Ignition source.g paints.

tank or vessel until the metal has cooled sufficiently to prevent any risk of igniting the substance. tank or vessel or any part of it. acetylene. vapour or substance that may escape is of such a character and is to such an extent as to be liable to explode on ignition. gas. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. wood. petrol. any explosive or flammable substance shall be subjected to — • any welding. overheated electrical equipment. tar. smoking. or • any operation involving the application of heat for the purpose of taking apart or removing the plant.Precautions with regard to explosive or flammable dust. cutting.0 . electrical arcs Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 22 . No explosive or flammable substance shall be allowed to enter the plant. R 37 Prevention of Fire All reasonably practical steps shall be taken to keep sources of heat or ignition separate from flammable materials in the workplace or any process carried on at the workplace that 81 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. gas. • by exclusion or effective enclosure of possible sources of ignition. or has contained. vapour substance Where any process in a plant used in a workplace gives rise to dust. tank or vessel in a workplace that contains. • any cutting operation which involves the application of heat. until all reasonably practicable steps have been taken to remove the substance and any fumes arising from it. • by removal or prevention of accumulation of the dust. or • by the use of suitable flame-proof equipment No plant. naked flames. asphalt. vapour or substance that may escape into any place of work and the dust. thinners. gas. timber. grinding. paper. brazing or soldering operation. rubber. cardboards Air Chain reaction HEAT Welding. all reasonably practical steps shall be taken to prevent such an explosion — • by enclosure of the plant used in the process. vapour or substance. plastics.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Fire Triangle Flammable and Combustible Paints. or to render the substance and fumes non-explosive and nonflammable and inspection and certification by a competent person. gas. diesel.

There shall be effective warning devices that — • are capable of being operated without exposing any person to undue risk. Administrative Control • Apply controls from safety data sheets. Risk Control The basic fire prevention is to prevent the three components of the fire triangle from coming together. Every exit affording means of escape in case of fire or giving access to such means of escape shall be conspicuously marked with an exit sign of an adequate size.Safety Provisions in the case of fire There shall be provided in a workplace such means of escape in case of fire for the persons at work in the workplace as may be reasonably required in the circumstances of each case and which shall be properly maintained and kept free from obstruction.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide gives rise to any flammable gas or vapour.g. by blowers if necessary • Use fire safety containers. There shall be provided and maintained in a workplace means of extinguishing fire which shall — • be readily accessible. Except in the case of sliding doors. • Eliminate ignition sources Substitution • Use substance that is not flammable such as water based paint instead of solvent based paint. Engineering Control • Maximise natural ventilation through doors and windows. • Use brush or roller for solvent painting instead of spraying.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory 82 Deleted: _ . Elimination • Eliminate the use of the chemicals. • Bond and ground to minimise static electricity build-up. • Use spark proof or non-sparking tools and materials should be used where flammable materials are likely to be present. all exit doors shall be constructed to open outwards. • Use high flash point chemicals instead of low flash point chemicals. • are maintained and tested at least once every month. • Separate incompatible chemicals • Label all containers Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Use forced ventilation e. • Chain up cylinders • Grounding • Provision of fire resistant partition. • be adequate and suitable having regard to the circumstances of each case. and • be tested by a competent person at such regular intervals as the Commissioner may determine. All exit doors from the workplace. R 38 . Effective steps shall be taken to ensure that all the persons at work in the workplace are familiar with the means of escape in case of fire and their use and the routine to be followed in case of fire. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • give warning in case of fire. and • are clearly audible throughout the workplace. • Use safety cabinets for storage. any room in the workplace or any building or enclosure in which the workplace is situated shall only be locked or fastened in such a manner that the door can easily and immediately be opened from the inside. The contents of any room in which persons are at work shall be so arranged or disposed that there is a free passageway for all persons at work in the room to a means of escape in case of fire.

Irritant An irritant is not corrosive but causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. sealant and primer. hardeners. Some of the irritants are also sensitisers. sensitisation or enter blood vessel and transported to the various parts of the body. an irritant can cause inflammation of the skin. polishing. Chemicals enter the body through 3 main routes of entry.g carbon monoxide.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • Implement safe work procedures Proper inspection before usage. curing agents. • Skin – Liquid chemicals enters the body through contact. its tissues and cells of oxygen leading to loss of consciousness and even death e. gloves. sulphuric acid. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Sensitiser A sensitiser can cause a proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the substance. Keep the quantity of materials to a minimum. Asphyxiant An asphyxiant can deprive a living organism. certain paints. or irreversible alterations in.0 83 Deleted: _ . Usually. safety shoes. sweeping and cleaning and leads to Silicosis. Provision of fire fighting appliances Designated storage area Prohibit or control smoking Signage at the storage areas. e. living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. grinding. acetylene. demolition. gases and dusts. They are: • Inhalation – Respiratory system is the most important route for chemical vapours. 6.g some of the hardeners. Personal Protective Equipment • Use fire resistant clothing.g hydrochloric acid. e. solvents. Silica is dust from hacking. It may have no effect. waterproofing compounds. etc. paints. e. etc Lung Damage These are caused by chemical dust particle such as silica and asbestos. eye irritation or irritation to the respiratory system. Irritation. Gas detection in confined spaces Training on use of hazardous materials Provision of fire alarms Follow legal requirements Apply hot work permit Store cylinders upright. epoxy. certain surface retarder.g.g most of the grouting compounds.2 HEALTH HAZARDS The following are the health hazards arising from construction chemicals: Corrosive A corrosive substance is one that causes visible destruction of. etc Carcinogen A substance is considered to be carcinogen if it has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and found to cause cancer or suspected to cause cancer. etc. sealants. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Particles less than 5 microns enter lungs.3. e. Asbestos is present in old buildings and are encountered during demolition works.

R 40 – Permissible exposure levels of toxic substances No person in the workplace is exposed to toxic substances in excess of the permissible exposure levels (PEL) specified in the first schedule. fibres. whereas PEL (Short Term) . The effects of Toxic Substances are as follows: • Acute effects – effects within a short duration due to high concentration and may cause illness.g. It may cause irreversible damage and can be identified by medical screening • Reversible Effect – effects that are temporary and disappears if exposure to the chemical ceases e. disease or death • Chronic effects – effects over a longer duration due to low concentration exposure frequently in excess of Permissible exposure levels. is absorbed and transported to the various targeted organs of the body where harm is effected Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 39 . No stationary internal combustion engine is allowed unless exhaust gas is conducted out.g. where PELs for more than 600 substances are specified. Competent person to exercise due diligence in carrying out the test and records of tests shall be kept for 5 years Commissioner may require workplace occupier to engage competent person to monitor. odour.Toxic dust. fumes and other contaminants should be prevented from accumulation. handled. damaging effect on the body. even if exposure to the chemical ceases e.15 min exposure during any work day 84 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • Ingestion – Solids and liquid chemical can enter the body through contaminated food and utensils. used or given off shall be tested by a competent person at sufficient intervals to ensure that toxic or irritating dusts. fume or other contaminants by using personal sampling equipment Requirements in this section shall not apply if impracticable. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. fumes. fume or contaminants.0 . oil mist. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. exposure to corrosive chemicals such as acid • Local Effect – effects that causes harm at the point of contact or entry • Systemic Effect – the chemicals enters the body. Air-supplied breathing apparatus shall be supplied with air • of comfortable temperature and humidity for breathing • suitably treated to remove any material. test or assess the environment of any workplace for potential health hazards and to take air samples in the breathing zone of the persons exposed to dust. PEL (Long Term) is for 8 hr exposure & 40 hr work week. Control measures include • isolate work or process from workers • enclose work or process to prevent workers’ contact • provide ventilation to dilute contaminants • conduct work or process wet • provide local exhaust ventilation (LEV) to remove contaminants at source of emission All toxic dust and waste accumulation shall be washed or vacuum clean to prevent airborne. fumes or other contaminants Toxic dust. mists or vapours are not present in quantities liable to injure the health of persons employed. vapour. or suitable air-supplied breathing apparatus is provided. Employees should be protected against inhalation of dust. gases. exposure to irritants • Irreversible Effect – effects that are permanent and lasting. The atmosphere of any workplace in which toxic substances are manufactured.

bitumen or creosote. 28. 16. employer must keep the records for > 5 yr & submit records to commissioner when required. 12. 22.mercury. 6. perchloroethylene. PCE ¶ Deleted: factory Deleted: F Deleted: F Deleted: F Formatted: Font: Arial. Deleted: . 2. 9. 14. • the use or handling of or exposure to tar. DWD to report results of medical examinations to employer. 10. 13. 7. • exposure to excessive noise. Aniline poisoning Anthrax Arsenical poisoning Asbestosis Barotrauma Beryllium poisoning Byssinosis Cadmium poisoning Carbamate poisoning Compressed air illness or its sequelae. cadmium. 11.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide WSH (Medical Examinations) Regulations These regulations apply to workplaces in which persons are employed in any occupation involving: • the use or handling or exposure to the fumes. 31. Employer must arrange for medical examinations & workers must submit themselves for examinations. organophosphates or vinyl chloride monomer. 23. 26.25". including dysbaric osteonecrosis Cyanide poisoning Diseases caused by ionizing radiation Diseases caused by excessive heat Hydrogen Sulphide poisoning Lead poisoning Leptospirosis Liver angiosarcoma Manganese poisoning Mercurial poisoning Mesothelioma Noise-induced deafness Occupational asthma Occupational skin cancers Occupational skin diseases Organophosphate poisoning Phosphorus poisoning Poisoning by benzene or a homologue of benzene Poisoning by carbon monoxide gas Poisoning by carbon disulphide Poisoning by oxides of nitrogen Poisoning from halogen derivatives of hydrocarbon compounds rd Deleted: Factories Deleted: factories Formatted: Font: Arial. Commissioner may exempt factories or persons from the requirements of regulations WSH Act 3 Schedule The following occupational diseases requires to be reported: 1. 10 pt Formatted: Indent: Left: 0. lead. 20. • the use or handling of or exposure to the dust of asbestos. Deleted: . 3. fumes or vapour of benzene. • the use or handling of or exposure to the liquid. 27. 19.0 85 Deleted: _ . Employer must keep registers of workers. 4. Space After: 0 pt Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Font color: Auto Deleted: . 29. raw cotton or silica. pitch. Deleted: . 21. or • any work in a compressed air environment No person shall be employed unless certified fit by a designated workplace doctor (DWD) not later than 3 months after commencing work and 3 days before work in compressed air. Employer must facilitate DWD’s visit.dust or vapour of arsenic. 30. 17. Formatted: Font: Arial Deleted: vinyl chloride. 24. 8. 25. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 5. DWD may recommend suspension from work temporarily or permanently. Deleted: . manganese. 18. trichloroethylene. 15. organophosphates or any of their compounds. TCE. Every person to be periodically examined on the types & frequency of examination are specified in the 1st Schedule.

¶ <#>Occupational asthma. Personal Protective Equipment • Use chemical resistant PPE such as apron. ¶ <#>Mesothelioma. ¶ <#>Toxic anaemia. ¶ <#>Asbestosis. ¶ <#>Cadmium poisoning. Administrative Control • Apply controls from safety data sheets. ¶ <#>Chronic benzene poisoning. • Use premix concrete to eliminate dust Substitution • Asbestos has been substituted with fibre glass. 34. mineral oil or paraffin or any compound. ¶ <#>Byssinosis. ¶ <#>Poisoning from halogen derivatives of hydrocarbon compounds. safety gloves. ¶ <#>Mercurial poisoning.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 32. • Implement a permit to work system. • Solvent based paints can be substituted with water based paints. • Maximise natural ventilation through doors and windows. ¶ <#>Phosphorous poisoning. • Gas testing • Training on use of hazardous materials • Follow legal requirements • Medical examination • Housekeeping • Prohibition of eating and drinking at the work areas. ¶ <#>Liver angiosarcoma. ¶ <#>Arsenical poisoning. Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb Silicosis Toxic anaemia Toxic hepatitis. ¶ <#>Carbamate poisoning.¶ Formatted: English (Singapore) Risk Control Elimination • Asbestos has been eliminated. safety shoes and respirators. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. 35. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. ¶ <#>Anthrax. Deleted: ¶ <#>Aniline poisoning. ¶ <#>Chrome ulceration. ¶ <#>Compressed air illness. • Reduce exposure time by rest breaks or job rotation. ¶ <#>Hydrogen sulphide poisoning. pitch. ¶ <#>Manganese poisoning. ¶ <#>Epitheliomatous ulceration (Due to tar. ¶ <#>Cyanide poisoning. Engineering Control • Enclosure or isolation of the process or person.0 86 Deleted: _ . product or residue of any such substance). ¶ <#>Organophosphate poisoning. 33. safety glass. ¶ <#>Beryllium poisoning. • Provide forced / local exhaust ventilation • Wetting method for asbestos and cement • Use tools to reduce contact • Use appropriate containers. ¶ <#>Repetitive strain disorder of the upper limb. • Education and training • Proper dilution technique – add acid to water. or ¶ <#>Toxic hepatitis. bitumen. ¶ <#>Lead poisoning. ¶ <#>Silicosis. ¶ <#>Occupational skin diseases. ¶ <#>Noise-induced deafness. • Separate incompatible chemicals • Wash with water when contact with skin • Implement safe work procedures • Designated storage area • Signage at the storage areas. ¶ <#>Barotrauma. ¶ <#>Carbon bisulphide poisoning.

Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified. Use the RA form.30 minutes • • • • • • Select an architectural trade.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 3 Group Exercise . Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities. Process Work Activities Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 87 Deleted: _ . Identify the type of controls.

All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 88 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

• tripping hazard falling on the same level Risk Control Engineering control • Store tools in containers Administrative control • Select the right tool • Inspection and maintenance • Supervision • Training Personal Protective Equipment • Safety goggles • Safety gloves 6. Defective handles or blunt tools Using the wrong tools – screw driver instead of chisel Using tools incorrectly Using modified tools Unaware of hazards Tools left lying on the floor – step on objects The potential accidents that may arise are as follows: • tools flying off and falling onto other workers • tools slipping from the operational point and striking the user. knives. crowbars. MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT 6. The hazards are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Projectiles escaping from the surface Substandard tools Substandard projectiles Incompatible projectiles Incompatible charges Wrong charges used Unqualified operator Unauthorised repair Use in dangerous environment Use on wrong materials Unsafe operation Misfires Unsafe storage of charges Defective tools The accidents would be ‘Struck by projectiles’ resulting in injuries and fatality. hammers.Tools may shatter during use.4.0 . screwdrivers. pliers.2 EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOL HAZARDS Explosive powered tools are used to fasten projectiles onto surfaces.4 WORKING WITH TOOLS. 89 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.1 HAND TOOL HAZARDS Hand tools are used at all times for most of the construction works such planers. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. shovels. The hazards are • • • • • • Improper maintenance .4. etc. chisels.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6.

R 11 .Colour to indicate strength of charge No charge shall be used in a tool unless the charge is marked.Protective shield or device Where a tool is a direct acting tool.Inspection of tools The tool is not used unless • It has been inspected. rivet. • “direct acting tool” means a tool in which the driving force on the projectile comes directly from compressed gases from a charge. pin. • “projectile” means any stud. it shall have a protective shield or device attached to its muzzle end in such a manner to effectively arrest the escape of ant stray projectile and any other object or particle liberated by the discharge end of the tool.Only operator to use tool The person who uses the tool shall be qualified to be an operator. names and addresses of each of the respective owners and users of the tools shall be kept and maintained. • It is free from any patent defect. sound material and adequate strength. R 10 . R 14 . nail or other object driven against. adapted or intended to be used with the device. examined and maintained by an authorised person (a manufacturer of tools. projectiles or charges for use in a tool. • “tool” means any explosive powered tool from which a projectile may be driven against. into or through any substance by means of a charge. • “indirect acting tool” means a tool in which the driving force from a charge is transmitted indirectly onto the projectile via a piston.General requirements for tools No tool shall be used unless it is of good construction. and includes every attachment or accessory used. R 8 . either at the top or at the bottom. dowel.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Legislation Workplace Safety and Health (Explosive Powered Tools) Regulations R 2 .Information to be engraved. printed or placed on tools “DO NOT REMOVE THIS TOOL FROM THE WORK SURFACE FOR AT LEAST 10 SECONDS AFTER IT HAS FAILED TO FIRE”. but does not include a firearm within the meaning of the Arms and Explosives Act (Cap. The serial number and model identification of the tool are permanently and legibly engraved or embossed upon the tool. R 13 . into or through any substance by means of a tool. embossed. printed or placed on tools The following notice is permanently embossed.Projectiles and charges to be compatible with tools No projectile or charge shall be used with tool unless it is of a standard or quality that compatible with the specification of the manufacturer of the tool. screw. spike.0 90 Deleted: _ . R 6 . or any person authorised by the manufacturer of a tool to repair the tool) in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The outer edge of the shield or device is not at any point closer to the centre of the muzzle end of the barrel than a distance of 50 mm.Record of tools A record of the type and serial number of every tool. R 9 . is free from patent defects and is in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. with a colour indicating the strength of the charge in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner.Definitions • “charge” means an explosive charge. 13) or a side wall coring gun used in exploratory bore hole work R 5 .

0 91 Deleted: _ .Personal protective equipment The person. projectiles and charges not to be used No tool. R 17 . R 18 . R 15 . to be suited to tool No projectile. or in any document supplied by the manufacturer of the tool. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 25 . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. No tool shall be used for any purpose other than that for which it was made.Use of tools on roof The tool shall not be used on any roof unless the area beneath the person has been cleared and is kept clear of a distance of 6 metres in every direction from the spot beneath the place where the person is working. R 24 . well-balanced position that will prevent tilting or misalignment of the tool at the time of firing • The tool is placed on the substance into which a projectile is driven in such a manner that the protective shield or device will effectively arrest the escape of stray particles and any other object or particle discharged by the firing of the tool. breech plug. Utmost care shall be exercised to avoid injury. charge. advice or recommendation which appears on the tool or its container.Barrel extensions No barrel extension shall be used on a direct acting tool unless there is protective shield or device attached to the extension.Compliance with manufacturer’s instructions The use of the tool shall comply with any instruction. R 23 .Limitation on use of charges The charge shall not be in excess of that necessary and of such strength which will cause the whole of the projectile to pass through the substance on which the tool is to be used. Repairing shall conform to manufacturer’s specifications. The operator has inspected the tool in accordance with its manufacturer’s instructions before use. R 19 . suitable head protection and such other personal protective equipment or devices as are capable of protecting a person from injury.Repair of tools No person. at least once in every 3 years. other than an authorised person.Projectiles. in accordance with a standard acceptable to the Commissioner. projectile or charge shall be used unless it complies with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. any other person who assists in the use of the tool and any other person who are subjected to the risk of injury from the tool shall be provided with suitable eye protection.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • It has been inspected and tested by a recognised testing body.Handling of tools The muzzle end of the tool shall be pointed away from the operator and any other persons.. adapted or intended. barrel extension or adaptor shall be used with a tool unless it is of a type suited for use with the tool. shall repair a tool. R 16 .Use of tools in dangerous environment The tool shall not be used • In the presence of any explosive or flammable gas. etc.Discharging of tools The tool shall not be discharged unless • The operator is in a safe. unless such are contrary to these Regulations. dust or vapour • In any compressed air environment • In any place where the charge is likely to be explode or be rendered dangerous by the presence of heat. R 21 .Defective tools. R 20 . charges. R 22 .

or within 50 millimetres. glazed brick. Engineering Control • Protective shield • Barricades to prevent unauthorised entry Administrative Control • MOM approved tools Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. glass. the tool shall be carefully examined to remove any piece of projectile or explosive charge and any other foreign matter that may be present. R 27 . or any other markings in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. R 29 .Tools to be kept clean After each firing of the tool. in the case of a direct acting tool. the tool shall be unloaded or placed in such a position as to eliminate the possibility of a person being injured in the event of the charge exploding subsequently.0 92 Deleted: _ . that the use of the tool is unsafe. of an edge of a structure of which the brick. in the case of an indirect acting tool. or within 10 millimetres. The tool shall not be carried from place to place while it is loaded. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. marble. • so close to the edge of any substance. as either to risk cracking or breaking the substance or to risk the escape of the projectile from the substance. in the case of a direct acting tool. thin slate or any other substance that is readily shattered. • into tiles. R 28 . R 32 . R 26 . • into concrete or reinforced concrete. unless the tool is required for use. If the charge does not explode within that time. of the edge of any exposed steel reinforcement. concrete or similar substance that is within 75 millimetres.Storage of charges The charge shall be kept in a securely locked container marked with the words “EXPLOSIVE CHARGES”. steel hardened by heat treatment.Firing into certain materials forbidden No tool shall be used for driving a projectile — • into high tensile steel. the tool shall be held in the firing position for at least 10 seconds. cast iron or any other substance of a hardness that a projectile is not designed to penetrate. concrete or substance forms a part. or to any hole in the substance. in the case of an indirect acting tool. R 31 . inspection or repair. or • into any brick. R 30 .Loading and carrying of tools The tool shall not be loaded other than at the place where it is to be used.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide The distance between any part of the outer edge of the shield or device and the centre of the muzzle end of the barrel shall be less than 50mm.Free flying projectile prohibited The tool shall not be fired in such a manner as to cause a projectile to fly free. granite. where any initial trial has shown that the aggregate is of such hardness.Procedure in case of misfire Where the charge fails to explode. • within 15 millimetres.Storage of tools Tool shall be kept in a securely locked container at all times. Risk Control Elimination / Substitution • Substitute with alternate equipment and tools such as pneumatic tools with electrical tools. terracotta. or the reinforcing is so positioned. unless the tool cannot be unloaded by reason of any mechanical failure or misfire.

vibrators. generators. ventilation fans.0 93 Deleted: _ . spray painting equipment. table saws. drills. chain saw.4. sanders. pumps. jack hammers.3 MECHANICAL HAZARDS Some of the machinery used in construction are bar benders.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Coloured charges to indicate varying strengths Record of tools Inspection of tools Repair only by authorised agency Evaluation of the surface on which the tool is to be used Use in accordance to operation manual Qualified operators Implement safe work procedures Training on safe work procedure Follow legal requirements Maintenance of the equipment and tools Supervision on safe use Enforcement on safe use Warning sign on the tools Proper storage Personal Protective Equipment • Safety gloves • Safety helmet 6. compactors. sprains. chippers. Powered tools on the other hand operate on electricity and pneumatic as shown below: • Electrical – radial saws. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. mixers. Industrial vacuum and lifting appliances. punctures. grinders. compressors. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. fractures and crush injuries. cuts. • Pneumatic – breakers. bar cutters. vibrators The following mechanical hazards exist in construction tools and machinery: • Crushing • Shearing • Cutting • Entanglement • Drawing in • Impact • Stabbing and puncture • Friction and abrasion • High pressure fluid injection • Struck by materials ejected from the machinery • Struck by ejected parts of the machinery The hazards may be attributed to the following: • Using the wrong tools • Using tools and equipment incorrectly • Unaware of hazards • Using tools without authorisation • Improperly maintained tools • Running of hoses and cables The injuries may be amputations.

apparatus or lighting fitting which consumes or utilises electricity in its operation or use. R 13 Removal of fencing from machinery Fencing or other effective devices may be removed while the part of machinery is in motion for any examination of the machinery or part of the machinery or any lubrication or adjustment. wheel. equipment or electrical installation in the workplace is fully instructed on the lock-out procedures for that work before commencing that work. acquainted with the dangers of moving machinery and wears clothing with no loose ends. and includes any cable. machinery. • conspicuously marked with its safe working pressure. or is firmly held by a person stationed at the foot of the ladder. appliance. system of fast and loose pulleys. cleaning. Lock-out procedures shall be established and implemented relating to the inspection. wind. motor. is liable to cause bodily injury to any person. machinery. if inadvertently activated or energised. R 16 Lock-out procedures Lock-out procedures means a set of procedures to— • ensure that all energy sources to the relevant plant. Prime mover” means every engine. R 12 Electric generator. Any ladder or work platform in use for the carrying out such works is securely fixed or lashed. equipment or electrical installation from being inadvertently activated or energised. Efficient devices or appliances shall be provided and maintained to promptly cut off power from the transmission machinery.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory 94 Deleted: _ . pulley. driving-belt or other device by which the motion of a prime mover is transmitted to or received by any machine or appliance. repair or maintenance of any plant. disconnected or discharged. R 31 Air receivers Every air receiver shall be • of sound construction and properly maintained. machinery. water. clutch. wire and other device necessary to enable it to be connected to a source of electricity supply. instructed as to the steps to be taken in case of an emergency. trained. motor or other appliance which provides mechanical energy derived from steam. R 11 Prime movers Every flywheel connected to a prime mover and every moving part of the prime mover is securely fenced. the combustion of fuel or other source of energy. transmission machinery or other machinery in the workplace is securely fenced unless the dangerous parts is safe to every person or made safe by effective means. repair or maintenance of any plant.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 2 Definitions Transmission machinery means every shaft. equipment or electrical installation are isolated. motor. equipment or electrical installation. electricity. Electrical equipment means any machine. • constructed to withstand the maximum pressure obtained from the compressor Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. transmission machinery etc Every dangerous part (including any flywheel) of any electric generator. R 15 Construction and maintenance of fencing or other safeguards All fencing or other safeguards shall be of substantial construction. Every person carrying out any inspection. is immediately available within sight or hearing of the person carrying out such works. Such works shall be carried out by a person who is 20 years of age. cleaning. and • prevent any part of the plant. Another person. coupling. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. drum. machinery. properly maintained and kept in position and properly adjusted to render the machinery safe for any person while the parts required to be fenced or safeguarded are in motion or in use.

• Unregistered passenger vehicles used within construction sites . and • Other equipment . fitted with an accurate pressure gauge indicating the pressure in the receiver. Engineering Control • Machine guarding • Barricades around the machine to prevent unauthorised entry • Locking the machinery to prevent unauthorised operation • Lock out procedures • Dead man’s switch on powered tools. telescopic handlers • Compaction equipment . • Pedestrians in the vicinity of the equipment.Scrapers. • Speeding. hoists. compactors • Mobile Elevated Work Platforms (MEWP) .Piling equipment. forklifts. • Use hand tools such as push sticks for circular saw.4 VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT HAZARDS Workplace traffic is an integral part of operations for the construction industry. • Untrained operators • Lifting of persons on the equipment. examined by an authorised examiner at least once every 2 years. mobile crane.scissor lifts and boom lifts. lorry loader.rollers. • Moving parts of the equipment. • Material handling equipment – tower crane. Administrative Control • Use in accordance to operation manual • Trained and authorised operators • Implement safe work procedures • Training on safe work procedure • Periodic Maintenance • Supervision on safe use • Enforcement on safe use • Warning sign on the tools and machinery • Drawing the tools and keys only by authorised operators • Proper laying of cables / hoses Personal Protective Equipment • Gloves • Goggles 6. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. trucks. trucks. bob cat. breakers. graders.0 95 Deleted: _ . • Whip lashes arrestor for air hoses. Various types of vehicles and equipment are used at the worksite such as: • Earth moving equipment . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. bulldozers. shovel loader. excavators.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • fitted with a suitable safety valve so adjusted as to permit the air to escape as soon as the safe working pressure is exceeded.4. Concrete pumps The hazards related to vehicles / equipment operations are • Unauthorised operation. Risk Control Substitution • Substitute with alternate machinery and tools such as pneumatic tools with electrical tools. dumpers • Demolition equipment – Crushers.

g. pedestrian walkways.0 96 . Every runway and ramp for motor vehicles in the worksite is constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. public road or any other place where public vehicular traffic may cause danger to any person who carries out the work. without thread markings. Blind spot Poor lighting If not managed well. junctions. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 28 Vehicular hazards Where any work is performed over. strength. • Keep pedestrians out of the path of transport vehicles by setting up physical barriers to barricade the workplace Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. slippery and uneven ground and potholes. Any vehicle used shall be of good construction and roadworthy. the worksite shall be barricaded. and Electrocution (Battery operated). workplace traffic can pose high risks to persons in the workplace. No person in the worksite shall use any such runway or ramp for motor vehicles in the worksite unless a certificate has been issued in respect of it. R 29 Runways and ramps Every runway and ramp in the worksite is adequately constructed and securely braced and supported in relation to the span. loading/unloading bays. No person shall drive a vehicle of any class or description in a worksite unless he has obtained the authorisation of the occupier of the worksite to do so.g. • Proper securing mechanism is in place if a mobile ramp is being used. Tyres in bad condition e. Workers are struck by equipment and vehicles while performing work with the potential to cause fatalities or serious injuries. on or in close proximity to a street. the traffic is specially controlled by designated persons. • Adequate lighting should be provided for all workplaces such as along internal roads. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Poor ground conditions e.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • Travelling on gradients. Risk Control Elimination • Implement one way traffic Substitution • Use alternate access for pedestrians Engineering Control • Locking the equipment to prevent unauthorised operation • Loose goods should be properly secured by suitable means to ensure that the goods do not topple in the process. Falling loads. • Provision of ramps of adequate width. gradient and traction. Overloading.g. overhead obstruction and blind corners. etc. Suitable warning signs and warning lights shall be set up to direct traffic away from the worksite and where necessary. The person does not drive the vehicle unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers likely to arise in connection therewith and the precautions to be observed and has received sufficient training to operate or drive the vehicle. Obstruction in the path e.

• Exposed wire. doorways. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Electrical burns.5 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS Electricity is a serious workplace hazard which can lead to serious consequences such as severe injuries and death. • Convex mirrors should also be erected for blind corners • Erect speed limit signs and boundary lines • Provide and maintain adequate lighting and • Maintain good ground conditions along internal roads • Provide highly visible markings and/or signage to warn against any obstruction. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. traffic cross-flows and blind spots. Types of electrical hazards include: • Improper wiring • Defective equipment. • Electrocution. • Use in accordance to operation manual • Implement safe work procedures • Training on safe work procedure • Maintenance of the equipment • Supervision on safe use • Enforcement on safe use • Drawing keys only by authorised operators • Designated parking areas • Removal of keys when not in operation • Display warning lights • Horns Personal Protective Equipment • Highly visible reflective vests • Safety shoes • Additional personal protective equipment 6. edges or drains at workplaces. • Implement workplace traffic rules and regulations • Pre-operation checks on their transport vehicles. Workers are exposed to electrical dangers during electrical installations or when operating machineries and power tools. • Implement no reversing • Provision of qualified Banksman/Signaller. • Overloaded circuits. plugs or extension cords. and • Provide pedestrian crossings.4. Types of electrical incidents include: • Electric shock. low height. • Fire/explosions. • Briefing for drivers on site traffic rules. • Wet/damp conditions • Misuse of electrical equipment • Unauthorised repairs. • Damage to machineries.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Administrative Control • Trained operators • Authorisation of operators • Implement workplace traffic layout/routes • Maintain a safe distance from transport vehicles during use • Enhance visibility by minimising intersections.0 97 Deleted: _ . • Damaged electrical cords.

WSH (Construction) Regulations R 34 Electrical power circuits Before any work is carried out. other than the current carrying part. • provided with adequate protection to withstand the wear and tear to which it may be subjected. Any exposed metal part of the electrical installation. Electrical appliance or current carrying equipment shall be effectively earthed where these have provisions made for earthing. No bare wires or other uninsulated live conductors are located at any place where a person may work or pass.0 98 Deleted: _ . Any exposed metal part of the electrical appliance or current carrying equipment. unless such wires or conductors are effectively insulated or guarded by a fence or other barrier or the person working or passing is an electrical worker licensed to carry out such electrical works on the wires or conductors. no electric wiring or cable shall be left or laid on the ground or the floor unless it is — • of the weather-proof type. It shall be used and maintained in such manner so that it is safe to use. which is liable to become energised in the event of a failure in the insulation shall be effectively earthed. the hazards involved and the protective measures to be taken. R 36 Bare wires and exposed live conductors Electrical installation shall be effectively earthed where these have provisions made for earthing. sound material and free from defects. Except for flexible cables. other than the current carrying part. Where there is any such electrical power circuit. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and • maintained in good and safe working order. the worksite shall be inspected to ascertain whether there is • any electrical power circuit which any person may come into contact with in the course of his work and • any tool or machine which is connected to any electrical power circuit and which any person may come into contact with in the course of his work. which is liable to become energised in the event of a failure in the insulation shall be effectively earthed. shovels or other similar equipment and be at least 5 metres above the ground level. All elevated power lines shall have a sufficient vertical clearance where they cross highways. No person shall be permitted to work where he may come into contact with any part of an electrical power circuit unless — • he has been advised of the location of the electrical power circuit.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Legal requirements WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 14 Electrical installation and equipment Every electrical installation and electrical equipment shall be of good construction. and • he is protected against electric shock by de-energizing the circuit and earthing or by guarding it with effective insulation or other means. cranes. appropriate warning signs understood by the persons carrying out the work shall be clearly posted and maintained at the place where the circuit. R 35 Installation of electric wiring and power lines All electric wiring in a worksite shall be supported on proper insulators and not be looped over nails or brackets. access roads or areas travelled by trucks. tool or machine. All reasonably practicable measures are taken to protect any person against the risks of electric shock arising from or in connection with the use at work of any electrical installation or equipment. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. tool or machine is located.

electric hand-held tools and inspection lamps and lights are used underground or in a confined space — • the electricity supply for lighting and electric hand-held tools shall be provided by means of a step-down transformer having a secondary voltage not exceeding 110 volts centre point earthed. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 41 Distribution board and socket-outlet assembly Circuit breakers used for the final circuits of any distribution board and socket-outlet assembly in the worksite shall be housed in an enclosure. Risk Control Substitution • Substitute with alternate equipment and tools such as electrical tools with pneumatic tools.0 99 Deleted: _ . R 40 Industrial plug and socket-outlet Plug and socket-outlet used for connecting any electrical equipment to a temporary electrical installation shall be of heavy duty industrial type.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 37 Residual current circuit breakers and overcurrent protective devices Effective residual current circuit breakers are installed for all temporary electrical installations to provide earth leakage protection. • Provision of residual current circuit breaker • Provision of fuses • Reduced voltage supply • Use of flame proof equipment • Lock the distribution boards to prevent unauthorised tampering. Overcurrent protective devices with the appropriate ratings are installed in the distribution board to provide overcurrent or shortcircuit protection. R 39 Welding sets Alternating current welding sets shall be fitted with an effective voltage limiting device or shock preventor. • Use in accordance to operation manual Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 38 Prohibition on use of fuse No fuse shall be used in the final circuit of any electrical installation. Engineering • Proper grounding for electrical equipment • Barricades around the machine to prevent unauthorised entry • Lock out procedures • Dead man’s switch on powered tools. R 42 Electrical installations and equipment used underground or in confined space Where any lighting. and • to be of weather-proof construction. and • the electric hand-held tools and inspection lamps and lights shall be operated at a voltage not exceeding 55 volts between the conductor and earth. The enclosure is constructed so as — • to fully enclose all live electrical parts within the enclosure. • to allow any of the circuit breakers to be switched on or off without having to open the enclosure. • Design of incompatible plugs and socket for different voltages • Use of reduced voltage • Using double insulated tools • Using low voltage shock preventor on ac welding equipment Administrative Control • Monthly inspection of electrical equipment and installation by a licensed electrical worker.

dB(A) Maximum duration per day 85 88 91 94 Risk Control Substitution • Replacing noisy machinery with less noisier ones. Grinding and drilling machine. 110V yellow. The sources of noise include Piling machine. Bar-bending machine. Heavy vehicle.6 NOISE HAZARD Noise is the number one Occupational disease in Singapore. etc. Compressor. The WSH (Noise) Regulations stipulates a Permissible Exposure Levels for noise as follows: Sound pressure level. 400V red Provide adequate distribution boards Pre-use inspection Personal Protective Equipment • Electrical resistant gloves • Electrical resistant safety shoes 6. Generator. • Electrical tools instead of pneumatic tools.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • Trained and authorised operators Implement safe work procedures Training on safe work procedure Follow legal requirements Periodic maintenance of the equipment and tools Maintenance carried out by qualified electricians Supervision on safe use Enforcement on safe use Warning sign on the equipment.0 Deleted: Factories 8 hours 4 hours 2 hours 1 hour 100 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Metal formworks. temporary hearing loss and permanent hearing loss. High pressure water jet. Engineering Control • Isolate noise sources • Construct acoustical enclosures to contain the noise • Erect noise barriers to contain noise • Install mufflers at intake and exhaust opening Administrative Control • Locate noisy sources away • Operate pneumatic tools at optimum air pressure Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. tools and environment Drawing the tools and keys only by authorised operators Colour coding for different voltages – 55V White. 230V Blue. Pneumatic chipper.4. interference. The effects of noise include annoyance. • Bored piling instead of impact type of piling • Precasting instead of concreting • PUB power instead of portable generator • Electric diamond cutter instead of pneumatic breaker • Use automated machine instead of using jack hammer. Concrete vibrator.

Lubricate moving parts Reduce kinetic energy and potential energy Warning sign on the equipment. replace worn parts. so far as is reasonably practicable.g. trucks and tractors • High frequency (hand and arm). effective means to reduce the vibration.000 cycles per second e. It may develop into vibration white fingers. irritation. tighten loose parts. • Lubricate moving parts • Training of workers • Enforcement Personal Protective Equipment • Anti-vibration gloves 101 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.g. 16 to 10. replace worn parts.0 . swelling and bluish fingers may occur. Risk Control Elimination • Use mechanical equipment instead of tools Substitution • Use a lower vibration tool Engineering Control • Vibration isolators • Ergonomic designed tools Administrative Control • Optimum hand grip force • Reduce driving force • Maintain machinery e. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. pneumatic drill or chisel The effects of vibration include tiredness. sharpening of cutting tools • Limit the duration of exposure by job rotation or rest periods • Operate tools at optimum speed • Maintain machinery e. tighten loose parts.4. Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 9 Reduction of vibration Where persons are at work in any process or operation which involves exposure to vibration which may constitute a risk to their health. giddy. to provide.7 VIBRATION HAZARDS Vibration can be categorized as • Low frequency (whole body). tools and environment Implement hearing conservation programme Training of workers Enforcement Personal Protective Equipment • Hearing protectors 6.g. 3 to 14 cycles per second e. balancing of rotating parts. where numbness.g.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • Reduce exposure time Maintain machinery e. dizzy and nausea.g.

0 102 Deleted: _ . Identify the type of controls. Process Work Activities Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Use the RA form. Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 4 Group Exercise . Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified.30 minutes • • • • • • Select an equipment and services trade.

All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 103 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Suggested Answers Answers can vary depending on the trade selected. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

refrigeration and ventilation. Steel beams and columns. R 134 Strength and stability Crane. R 136 Thorough examination and inspection Before any crane. Metal formworks. • set out the safe loads for various lengths of jib at various angles and radial distances. fixtures. cables. switch gears. couplers. Pre-cast piles. steel casing. sockets Fire protection – extinguishers. bobcats and excavators • Lifting equipment such as lifting machine and appliances • Cantilevered work platforms • Manual lifting Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations. Brooms. Precast panels Equipment for Air con. the safe loads with and without the use of outriggers shall be specified. windows . mancage. Others . ceiling boards cladding materials. concrete blocks. sewage. fibre glass Metal & Timber Scaffolding materials. ladders. tiles. plywood. fire sprinklers. tapes. a capacity chart shall be provided. unless it is furnished by the manufacturer or builder of the crane. sludge. cables.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. and • be prepared and certified by an authorised examiner. soil. gates. soil. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. skips. doors. switches. roofing sheets. rollers. Tar. Plants. vinyl sheets.5 MATERIAL HANDLING The following materials are handled in the various trades: Trade Architectural Materials bricks.generators. debris Material handling – lifting gears Material handling aides – wheel barrow. jacks. employee's lift or material handling machinery shall be of good construction. Pipes. hydrants Plumbing materials . granite. rebars. Crane or material handling machinery. Control panels. R 135 Capacity chart Where the capacity of the crane used in a worksite is variable. grass. glass.barricades. pallet jack. precast drains. free from patent defects and properly maintained. kerbs. Where outriggers are provided. insulation. smoke detectors. distribution boards. Wastes. marbles. employee's lift or material handling machinery is put into service for the first time in the worksite it shall be thoroughly examined and inspected by a competent 104 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. as the case may be.PVC / metal pipes Lifts. trolley. pipes. hollow blocks. brush. shall be positioned and operated as to be stable. Biological agents – sewage Civil M& E Equipment & Special services Materials are moved using the following methods: • Hoists and lifts • Material handling machinery such as forklifts. nails. waste water. bolts & nuts. The capacity chart shall — • be posted and maintained in the crane which is clearly visible to the operator. duct sheets Equipment for Electrical works .0 . trees. steel cables. sound material and adequate strength. grills. aggregate.

hoisting machinery. the cage cannot be raised or lowered unless all the gates are closed. Every hoistway and liftway shall be efficiently protected by a substantial enclosure fitted with interlocking gates. each rope or chain and its attachments being capable of carrying the whole weight of the cage or platform and its maximum working load and efficient devices shall be provided and maintained which will support the cage or platform with its maximum working load in the event of a breakage of the ropes or chains or any of their attachments. R 138 Prohibition on riding on loads No person shall ride on the loads. it prevent any person falling down the way or coming into contact with any moving parts of the hoist or lift. Every cage shall. The gates cannot be opened except when the cage or platform is at the landing and the cage or platform cannot be moved away from the landing until the gate is closed.1 HOISTS AND LIFTS HAZARDS Hoists and lifts are constructed during the civil phase for access to the building and also to transfer building materials to higher levels. material handling machinery or excavating machinery. such examination and test shall be conducted by an authorised examiner. Where the cage or platform of the lift is suspended by rope or chain the cage or platform shall be separately connected with at least 2 ropes or chains. In the case of a crane or an employee's lift. Efficient automatic devices shall be provide and maintained to prevent the cage or platform from over-running. on each side from which access is afforded to a landing. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 137 Handling of suspended loads Reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that suspended load from crane or material handling machinery is not moved over any person. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. and will come to rest when a gate is opened. skips. such that when the gates are shut. cars. The safe working load (SWL) of the hoist or lift must be conspicuously showed on the hoist and shall not be exceeded. The main hazards associated with hoists and lifts are as follows: • • • • Overloading leading to collapse of the hoists and lifts Falling from height during access Falling materials Wrong operation Legislation WSH (General Provision) Regulations R 19 Hoists and lifts Hoist or lift shall be tested and examined after installation and thoroughly examined by an authorized examiner once every six months. buckets. R 138 Cranes or machinery at rest No load shall be left suspended on the crane or material handling machinery when it is not in use. For lifting operations loads that have a tendency to swing or turn freely during hoisting shall be controlled by tag-lines.5.0 105 Deleted: _ . Every hoist or lift and every enclosure shall be so constructed as to prevent any part of any person or any goods carried in the hoist or lift being trapped between any part of the hoist or lift and any fixed structure or the counterbalance weight and any other moving part of the hoist or lift. slings or hooks of the any crane. 6.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide person. be fitted with a gate with efficient devices to ensure that. when persons or goods are in the cage.

Lifting gear shall not be loaded beyond its safe working load. Serious injuries can be inflicted even during execution of lifting operations involving light or small loads. The hazards are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Wrong lifting gears Defective lifting gears Improper rigging method Uneven ground Soft ground Unsafe lifting operations Overloading of crane Defective limit switches Over derricking Over hoisting Swinging load Adverse weather The potential accidents would be struck by the load and collapse of crane. R 21 Lifting appliances and lifting machine Every lifting appliance and lifting machine must be examined by an authorized examiner at least once every 12 months.0 106 Deleted: _ . Administrative Control • Certification by authorised examiner • Signage on safe working load • Designated operator 6. adequate strength and free from patent defect and properly maintained. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The common misconception is that the risk involved is directly proportional to the weight or size of the load being lifted. No person other than the lift car attendant moves the car of the employee's lift or opens the car door or gate of the employee's lift. crab and winch shall be provided with a readily accessible and efficient brake or other safety device which will prevent the fall of the suspended load and by which the load can be effectively controlled while being lowered. However past cases had proven otherwise. Risk Control Engineering Control • Enclosure • Interlocked gates • Automatic devices to prevent over running • Provision of 2 ropes. Lifting gear must be of good construction. sound material.5.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide WSH (Construction) Regulations. Every crane. Legislation WSH (General Provision) Regulations R 20 Lifting Gears Every lifting gear except fibre ropes or fibre rope slings must be examined by an authorized examiner at least once every 12 months.2 LIFTING EQUIPMENT HAZARDS Lifting operations are considered to be a high-risk activity that requires careful planning prior to commencement of work. R 140 Operators of employee's lift No employee's lift is operated in the worksite unless it is in the charge of a designated person stationed in the car as its attendant. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

beam. All rails on which a travelling crane moves. Worksites using crane for lifting must be properly co-ordinated to prevent unnecessary mishaps.Definitions “approved crane contractor” means any firm or company which is the holder of a valid certificate of approval issued by the Commissioner under regulation 22.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Every hand winch shall be fitted with an efficient pawl capable of sustaining the safe working load. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial. chain or wire. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. shall have an accurate indicator. framework or other structure. 10 pt. adequately supported or suspended. every part of a stage. Lifting appliance or lifting machine shall be of good mechanical construction. that shows the radius of the jib at any time and the safe working load corresponding to that radius. WSH (Operation of Cranes) Regulations R 2 . Italic Formatted: Font: Not Bold. If any person at work in a workplace is not on or near the wheel tracks of an overhead travelling crane but is in a place above floor level where he would be liable to be struck by an overhead travelling crane. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial. • have an even running surface. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 10 pt 107 Deleted: _ . and • be properly maintained. If any person at work at any place in a workplace is on or near the wheel tracks of an overhead travelling crane where he would be liable to be struck by the crane. or by any other means not solely involving a travelling motion of the crane. A lifting machine shall not be operated except by a person trained and competent to operate that machine or a person under training who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: Factories Formatted: Font: Not Bold. sound material and adequate strength and properly maintained. In the case of a jib crane so constructed that the safe working load may be varied by the raising or lowering of the jib. shall be of good construction. Every rope. “crane” means a machine incorporating an elevated structural member or jib beneath which suspended loads may be moved vertically (whether upwards or downwards) or horizontally or both. which must be placed so as to be clearly visible to the driver of the jib crane. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. Not Bold. Every lifting appliance and lifting machine shall be adequately and securely supported. pole or other article of plant supporting any part of the lifting appliance or lifting machine. effective measures shall be taken to warn him of the approach of the crane unless the work of the person is so connected with or dependent on the movements of the crane as to make the warning unnecessary. No lifting appliance or lifting machine shall be loaded beyond its safe working load except by an authorised examiner or an inspector for the purpose of testing such lifting appliance or lifting machine. • be properly laid. lifting appliances and lifting machines shall be kept. No person below the age of 18 years shall be at work operating any lifting machine driven by mechanical power or giving signals to the operator of any lifting machine. Every lifting appliance and lifting machine shall be conspicuously marked with its safe working load or loads and a distinctive number or other means of identification. its lifting and reaching capacity and the circumstances of its use. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. having regard to the nature of the lifting appliance. and every track on which the carriage of a transporter or runway moves shall — • be of proper size and adequate strength. effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the crane does not approach within 6 metres of that place. or by any load carried by the crane. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. and every mast. R 22 Register of lifting gears A register of lifting gears. sound material and adequate strength. either by slewing the machine or derricking the jib.

is employed. in the opinion of the Commissioner. or he possesses any other equivalent qualification Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. If required by the Commissioner. and produces a current medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner certifying that he is medically fit to operate a lorry loader R 6 . 10 pt Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide “lorry loader” means a lorry incorporating an articulator arm mounted on the lorry which is used for loading. R 3 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 276) authorising him to drive a mobile crane of a class or description permitted by the licence. or is to be. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. R 4 – Lifting Plan Where any lifting operation involving the use of any crane is carried out in a workplace by a crane operator. “responsible person”. other than a registered crane operator. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. “tower crane” means a crane which has a vertical or near vertical tower designed to be free standing up to a height specified by the Commissioner and includes any crane of a type shown in the Second Schedule.Application for registration to be crane operator A person may apply to the Commissioner for his approval to register as a crane operator. 10 pt. Deleted: . Not Bold. he has. crawler or on wheels and includes any crane of a type shown in the First Schedule. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial.Application These Regulations shall apply to any workplace in which a crane is in use. Upon receiving an application. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial. it shall be the duty of the responsible person to establish and implement a lifting plan which shall be in accordance with the generally accepted principles of safe and sound practice. unloading and lifting of materials or goods. operated by a person means — (a) the employer of the person. in relation to a workplace where a crane is. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial. issue the person with a certificate of registration to act as a crane operator subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose. and accompanied by the appropriate fee and such fee shall not be refundable. but he shall not operate the mobile crane unless he he is the holder of a driving licence issued under the Road Traffic Act (Cap. may drive a mobile crane in a workplace if he is the holder of a driving licence issued under the Road Traffic Act (Cap.0 Formatted: Font: Arial. permitted or made to operate a mobile crane (not being a lorry loader) or tower crane in a workplace. he Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ 108 Deleted: _ . 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the lifting plan is made available for inspection upon request by an inspector. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. An application shall be in such form and manner as the Commissioner may determine. No person shall operate a lorry loader unless he has successfully completed a training course.Requirements for registration as crane operator A person may register as a crane operator if he satisfies the Commissioner that he has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner on the operation of a mobile crane or tower crane. 10 pt Formatted: No bullets or numbering Formatted: Font: Not Bold. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. A person. Deleted: i Deleted: if required by the Commissioner. the Commissioner may. Italic Formatted: Font: Not Bold. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: . whether or not he is also a registered crane operator. sufficient experience in operating a mobile crane or tower crane and has passed a proficiency test acceptable to the Commissioner. R 5 . 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. acceptable to the Commissioner. “registered crane operator” means any person who is the holder of a valid certificate of registration issued by the Commissioner under regulation 6. “mobile crane” means a crane mounted on a truck. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: No bullets or numbering Formatted: Font: Arial. R 7 . on the operation of a lorry loader. It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no person. or (b) the principal under whose direction the person operates the crane. or refuse to approve the application. he attends re-training on the operation of a lorry loader and successfully completes such re-training.Only registered crane operator to operate a mobile crane and tower crane No person shall operate a mobile crane (not being a lorry loader) or tower crane in a workplace unless he is a registered crane operator. 276) authorising him to drive a mobile crane of a class or description permitted by the licence.

The conditions referred to may include any one or all of the following: requiring an applicant to attend a refresher course acceptable to the Commissioner on the operation of a mobile crane or a tower crane. or refuse the application for renewal if the Commissioner is satisfied that the applicant is no longer a fit and proper person to be registered as a crane operator.Certificate of registration A certificate of registration to act as a crane operator shall. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction.0 109 Deleted: _ . Where a certificate of registration is lost. requiring an applicant to produce a current medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner which certifies that the applicant is medically fit to operate a mobile crane or tower crane. It shall be the duty of a registered crane operator upon becoming aware of any medical condition which may render him unfit to operate a mobile crane or a tower crane to inform the Commissioner of such medical condition without undue delay.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide acceptable to the Commissioner. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. An application to the Commissioner shall be supported by such documentary proof that the certificate of registration issued earlier is lost. be valid for a period of 2 years from the date of registration or for such shorter period as the Commissioner may specify in the certificate of registration. destroyed or defaced.Production of certificate of registration upon request It shall be the duty of a registered crane operator to produce his certificate of registration for inspection upon request by an inspector.000. The Commissioner may require an applicant to produce a current medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner which certifies that the applicant is medically fit to operate a mobile crane or tower crane. A certificate of registration shall not be transferable. Any renewal fee paid shall not be refundable. false representation or the concealment of any material fact.000 and. to a fine not exceeding $2. R 10 . Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1. R 11 .Conditions for renewal of registration as crane operator The Commissioner may impose such conditions for the renewal of registration as a crane operator as he thinks fit. or has failed to comply with any of the duties set out in these Regulations. Upon receiving an application for the renewal of registration the Commissioner may renew the certificate of registration to act as a crane operator for a period of 2 years or for such shorter period as the Commissioner may specify in the certificate of registration. has been certified by a registered medical practitioner to be unfit to operate a mobile crane or a tower crane. R 9 . and shall be accompanied by the appropriate fee. R 8 .Suspension and cancellation of registration The Commissioner may suspend or cancel the registration of any registered crane operator if the Commissioner is satisfied that the registered crane operator has obtained his registration under these Regulations by means of fraud. R 12 . unless the registration is earlier cancelled. The Commissioner shall not register an applicant who has been certified by a registered medical practitioner to be unfit to operate a mobile crane or tower crane.Renewal of registration An application by a person for the renewal of his certificate of registration to act as a crane operator shall be made in such form and manner as the Commissioner may determine. the holder of the certificate may apply to the Commissioner for a replacement certificate on payment of the appropriate fee. requiring an applicant to pass a proficiency test acceptable to the Commissioner for crane operation. R 13 .Register of crane operators The Commissioner shall keep an up-to-date register of all persons registered as crane operators. destroyed or defaced.

to carry out operational tests on all limiting and indicating devices under no load conditions before any lifting operation is carried out and shall enter the results of such tests in a log book or log-sheet. • not to engage in any act or manoeuvre which is not in accordance with safe and sound practice. he shall report this to the lifting supervisor. The notice of suspension or cancellation may be served on any person by delivering it to him. if an appeal against the suspension or cancellation of registration has been made to the Minister. A registered crane operator whose registration has been suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner may.5" Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.000. • not to use the crane for any operation for which it is not intended. in particular the ground surface on which a mobile crane is to be operated. any registered crane operator whose registration is suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner shall not. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. between the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation and the date the suspension or cancellation takes effect (both dates inclusive). in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. The suspension or cancellation shall take effect 21 days after the date of the service of the notice on the registered crane operator or. not to hoist any load unless he has received a clear signal from a signalman. and 110 Deleted: ¶ Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.Surrender of certificate A registered crane operator shall immediately surrender to the Commissioner his certificate of registration when the suspension or cancellation takes effect. including pulling or dragging a load. • not to hoist any object if he is unable to ascertain the weight of the load. the Commissioner shall inform the registered crane operator concerned by notice in writing of such suspension or cancellation. • to ensure that any outrigger when it is required is fully extended and secured.25" + Tab after: 0" + Indent at: 0.Notice of suspension and cancellation of registration When the Commissioner has suspended or cancelled the registration of a registered crane operator. R 14 .0 . on the date the Minister dismisses the appeal. • not to hoist any load if there is any obstruction in the path of manoeuvre and if there is any such obstruction. Notwithstanding that the suspension or cancellation has not taken effect.Duties of crane operator It shall be the duty of a crane operator • before the start of every workshift. • to ascertain whether the ground conditions. appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5. operate a mobile crane (not being a lorry loader) or a tower crane. his last known residential address. or sending it by registered post to. • to ensure that any stationary truck mounted or wheel mounted crane is adequately and securely blocked while it is on a slope. he shall report this immediately to the lifting supervisor. • not to manoeuvre or hold any suspended load over any public road or public area unless that road or area has been cordoned off. R 16 . and if he is of the opinion that it is not safe for travel or any lifting operation. are safe for travel or any lifting operation. • not to carry out any lifting operation unless he has been briefed by the lifting supervisor on the lifting plan.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Any person who contravenes this shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1.000 and. within 21 days of the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation. to a fine not exceeding $2. • not to operate a mobile crane or a tower crane within 3 metres of any live overhead power line.000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or to both. R 15 . or by leaving it at.

riggers and signalmen on the lifting plan. Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: ¶ R 17 . appointed riggers and appointed signalmen participate in any lifting operation involving the use of a mobile crane or a tower crane. No person shall rig up loads for any lifting operation by a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is a rigger.25" + Tab after: 0" + Indent at: 0. R 19 . to supervise all lifting operation by a mobile crane or tower crane in accordance with the lifting plan.0 Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0. and report any defect in the lifting gear to the lifting supervisor. • to ensure that the ground conditions are safe for any lifting operation to be performed by any mobile crane. stable and balanced. ensure that only proper lifting gears are used in conjunction with the sling. It shall be the duty of the lifting supervisor • to co-ordinate all lifting activities. • ensure that the load to be lifted is secure. and to ensure that the rigger who is appointed is attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a rigger. It shall be the duty of the responsible person not to appoint any person as a rigger in a workplace unless the person has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner to equip him to be a rigger. • ascertain the weight of the load which is to be lifted and inform the crane operator of the weight of the load.Appointment and duties of lifting supervisor It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a lifting supervisor before any lifting operation involving the use of any crane is carried out in a workplace. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. It shall be the duty of a rigger appointed to • check the slings to be used for slinging the loads to ensure that the slings are of good construction. • ensure that an adequate number of legs of the sling are used and that the slinging angle is correct so as to prevent the sling from being overloaded during the hoisting.5" Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 111 Deleted: _ . and • if any unsatisfactory or unsafe conditions are reported to him by any crane operator or rigger. R 18 . • to ensure that only registered crane operators. adequate strength and free from patent defect.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • to report any failure or malfunction of the crane to the lifting supervisor and to make an appropriate entry of the failure or malfunction in the log book or log-sheet of the crane. • place adequate padding at the edges of the load which come in contact with the sling so as to prevent the sling from being damaged.Appointment and duties of rigger It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a rigger before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out in the workplace by a crane operator. • ensure that any loose load (which includes any stone. in the opinion of the responsible person. It shall be the duty of the responsible person not to appoint any person as a signalman in a workplace unless the person has successfully completed a training Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.25" + Tab after: 0" + Indent at: 0. It shall be the duty of the responsible person not to appoint any person as a lifting supervisor for any lifting operation involving the use of a crane in a workplace unless the person is one who has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner to equip him to become a lifting supervisor. brick or tile) is placed in a receptacle to prevent the load or part thereof from falling during the lifting operation. sound and suitable material.5" Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0. such relevant experience in lifting operations for a period of not less than one year before the appointment as a lifting supervisor. and has. to brief all crane operators. take such measures to rectify the unsatisfactory or unsafe condition or otherwise ensure that any lifting operation is carried out safely.Appointment and duties of signalman It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a signalman before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out in a workplace by a crane operator.

A certificate of approval may. or is contravening or has contravened any condition subject to which the certificate was issued.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide course acceptable to the Commissioner to equip him to be a signalman. be renewed by the Commissioner for such period as the Commissioner may determine. from the date immediately following that on which. be valid for a period of 2 years from the date of the approval or for such shorter period as the Commissioner may specify in the certificate of approval. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. or refuse to approve the application. to a fine not exceeding $5. R 24 . repair.Suspension or cancellation of certificate The Commissioner may suspend or cancel the certificate of approval issued to any approved crane contractor if the Commissioner is satisfied that the approved crane contractor has obtained the certificate of approval under these Regulations by means of fraud. R 22 . unless the repair affects the safe operation of the crane. unless the approval for the firm or company to act as an approved crane contractor is earlier cancelled. R 25 . and to ensure that the signalman who is appointed is attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a signalman. and accompanied by such particulars. R 23 . repair. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2.Production of certificate of approval upon request It shall be the duty of an approved crane contractor to produce his certificate of approval for inspection upon request by an inspector. the Commissioner may issue to the applicant a certificate of approval. on payment of the renewal fee. The suspension or cancellation shall take effect 21 days after the date of the service of the notice on the approved crane contractor or. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.000 and. information. The Commissioner may at any time vary or revoke any of the existing conditions imposed or impose new conditions. on the date the Minister dismisses the appeal.Certificate of approval On receipt of an application.000.Notice of suspension or cancellation of certificate When the Commissioner has suspended or cancelled the certificate of approval the Commissioner shall inform the approved crane contractor concerned by notice in writing of such suspension or cancellation. he shall give the applicant notice in writing of the reasons for his refusal. alter or dismantle a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is an approved crane contractor. subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 112 Deleted: _ . Notwithstanding that the Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. in such form and manner as the Commissioner may require. the certificate of approval would have expired.Only approved crane contractor to install. and to the repair of any non-load bearing part of a crane.Application for approval to be approved crane contractor A firm or company may apply to the Commissioner for approval to act as an approved crane contractor. This paragraph shall not apply to the installation or dismantling of a fly jib. No person shall give signal to the crane operator unless he is an appointed signalman. false representation or the concealment of any material fact. if an appeal against the suspension or cancellation of the certificate of approval has been made to the Minister. It shall be the duty of the signalman to ensure or verify with the rigger that the load is properly rigged up before he gives a clear signal to the crane operator to lift the load. An application shall be accompanied by the appropriate fee and such fee shall not be refundable. R 21 . alter or dismantle mobile crane or tower crane No person shall install. and give correct and clear signals to guide the crane operator in the manoeuvre of the load safely to its destination R 20 . statements and documents as the Commissioner may require. but for its renewal. Where the Commissioner refuses to approve the applicant to act as an approved crane contractor. A certificate of approval for a firm or company to act as an approved crane contractor shall.

. 17(1)... etc. Engineering Control • Cordon off the lifting area.). [108] . [79] Formatted Formatted Deleted: factory Formatted Formatted ... [96] .. • Loose materials (e. and ensure that the crane is installed....... it shall be the duty of the approved crane contractor to ensure that the installation.. repaired. • Deployment of outrigger fully to distribute the load... [100] .g.. alteration and dismantling of the mobile crane or tower crane. [72] .. hard core and timber mats for crane footing. R 27 . 14(3). • Provision of steel plates.. any approved crane contractor whose certificate of approval is suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner shall not.. (2) (4) or (5).0 Formatted Deleted: Revocation¶ Formatted Formatted Formatted .... Risk Control Elimination • Stopping the lifting operation during adverse weather condition and poor lighting condition.) should be placed inside a container... [117] ... [120] .g.. [81] Deleted: if he is the holder of .... (2). repairs. [99] ...... repair. 16.. [91] . • Tagline for controlling the swing of the load. repair. [101] . repair. [77] Deleted: in which a crane.. [88] . [121] 113 Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted .... [86] . and the crane is not used unless it has been tested and certified... [103] . alteration or dismantling of any mobile crane or tower crane is under the immediate supervision of an authorised examiner. [113] .. [110] . etc. bricks.. 19(1). [92] . a [84] Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted ....Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: Deleted: ¶ suspension or cancellation has not taken effect.000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both. [93] .. [82] ... or are properly secured by other means (e.. appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final... All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2... [107] . [102] . [104] .... [78] . rigger and signal man. [94] . [97] . overhoisting and over derricking. • Provision of limit switches for overloading.. [118] . [76] . [85] . before he installs.... [83] ... 25(3). or sending it by registered post to. bolts.. (3) or (4). (2) or (3).. [112] . install.Duties of approved crane contractor It shall be the duty of an approved crane contractor to obtain a manufacturer’s manual which contains instructions on the safe procedures for the installation. • Application of permit to work for lifting • Implement a lifting plan – generic for frequent or routine lifting operations and specific for complex lifting Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.. [80] . appliances and machine. An approved crane contractor whose certificate of approval has been suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner may. Where the manual referred to is not available. R 28 – Offence Any person who contravenes regulation 4(1) or (2). [74] Deleted: The Factories (Operation of .. alter or dismantle a mobile crane or tower crane. [73] .. mobile . 26(1) or (2) or 27 shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $20... • Training for lifting supervisor. [71] . nets. [119] . Administrative Control • Certification for lifting gears.... [114] . • Appointment of lifting supervisor.. altered or dismantled in accordance with the instructions contained in such manual. the last known business address. [89] .. [111] . repair. alteration and dismantling of a mobile crane or tower crane the crane is tested and certified safe by an authorised examiner for the operations for which it is intended..... [95] . [106] . rigger and signal man. [105] . pallets.. (3) or (4)..Duties of owner of mobile crane and tower crane It shall be the duty of the owner of any mobile crane or tower crane to ensure that after every installation.. (2). alters or dismantles any mobile crane or tower crane....... Substitution • Use alternative material handling equipment such as forklift.. R 26 . A notice of suspension or cancellation may be served on any firm or company by leaving it at. 5(1)... [87] .. [115] .... within 21 days of the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation. between the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation and the date the suspension or cancellation takes effect (both dates inclusive). [109] . 20(1)... [90] . [98] . 18(1).. [116] .. [75] Formatted Formatted Deleted: factory Formatted ...

• Different coloured helmet 6. Supervision by lifting supervisor. Materials or equipment shall not remain on a cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite for a period longer than is necessary for loading or unloading.3 CANTILEVERED AND MATERIAL PLATFORMS HAZARDS Cantilever and material platforms are constructed for transferring building material to the intermediate floors by means of crane.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • Implement safe work procedures Briefing on the lifting plan. Sign boards showing the safe working load of a cantilevered platform or material platform used shall be prominently displayed at suitable locations at the platform. installed or repositioned in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer who designed the platform. R 47 Guard-rails and toe-boards Every open side of a cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite from which any person could fall more than 2 metres shall be provided with guard-rails and toeboards. Use of walkie-talkie for communication. The cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite shall not be loaded beyond its safe working load except by an inspector or a professional engineer when testing the platform. Maintenance programme on all lifting equipment. No person shall use any such cantilevered platform or material platform in the worksite unless a certificate has been issued in respect of it. safe work practices. Pre-use checks on lifting gears. Any cantilevered platform or material platform shall be designed such that it is capable of bearing a load of at least twice its safe working load and constructed. Personal Protective Equipment • High visibility vest for signalman and rigger.000 kilogrammes or more.5. it shall be constructed to open inwards to the platform. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The main hazards are as follows: • • • Overloading leading to collapse of the platform Falling from height during access Falling materials Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 46 Cantilevered and material platform The requirements shall apply to any cantilevered platform erected for the purposes of loading and unloading of any material or equipment and any material platform which is used for the purposes of loading and unloading of any material or equipment and is subjected to a load weighing 1. Where any gate is provided in place of guard-rails at the outer edge of a cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Approval from LTA for work near MRT. Ascertain the weight of the load prior to lifting. Inspection by crane operator using operator checklist and recording in log book.0 114 Deleted: _ . Ground assessment and soil investigation reports.

has to be done manually. fractures. muscle injuries. Wire rope clips shall not be used for terminating such rope. R 49 Inspection by designated person Every cantilevered platform or material platform shall be inspected by a designated person at least once every 7 days. muscular hernia. Risk Control Engineering Control • Guardrails • Toe-boards Administrative Control • Adequate design • Certification by authorised examiner • Signage on safe working load 6. The hazards of manual handling are as follows: • • • • • • • • • Improper manual handling Improper posture Heavy objects Carrying long distances Sharp edges on the load Slippery objects Long objects Loads without handles Obstruction by the load Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Accidents related to manual material handling can result in a variety of injuries such as spinal injuries. as in tight areas or within a floor under construction. The result of the inspection shall be entered by the designated person into a register. bruises and cuts. upper limb disorders. back injuries. • Attach handles to get a better grasp • Level the floor Administrative Control • Rearrange the storage to minimise bending.4 MANUAL HANDLING HAZARDS Material movement that cannot be done by machines. Any unsafe condition discovered during the inspection shall be rectified immediately. sprains. Risk Control Elimination • Use mechanical methods such as forklifts and cranes to eliminate manual handling Substitution • Use mechanical aids to minimise manual handling. Engineering Control • Provide lighting • Reduce the load into smaller sizes.0 115 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 48 Use of wire rope No wire rope shall be used as a load bearing element in a cantilevered platform unless it is terminated with eyes that have been fitted with thimbles. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.5.

or heat cramps. the sweating mechanism may also fail. unconscious and lose control of his bladder and bowel functions. replacement of the fluid and electrolytes (through drinking water or isotonic “sports drinks”) and massaging the affected muscles. that it affects the blood flow to vital organs. Apart from the hot weather outdoors. Other symptoms include headaches. It commonly presents as a sensation of “feeling weak”. or other hand protectors must be used to prevent hand injuries. alcohol consumption Heavy work load Fast rate of work (fast or slow) Strenuous type of work (strenuous or sedentary) Heavy clothing High temperature High humidity inadequate ventilation Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Deleted: Page Break Heat stress can result in heat disorders such as heat stroke. cooling of the body and active replacement of fluids and electrolytes. Transfer the worker to a shady or air-conditioned area (if available).0 116 Deleted: _ .6 WORKING IN HOT ENVIRONMENT Workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. remove extra layers of clothing and sponge the person down with a wet towel or cloth while fanning him. It is often the result of doing heavy physical work resulting in fluid and electrolyte losses caused by heavy sweating. In some cases. The most common symptom is the tonic contraction of muscles (“cramping”) which usually happens in the legs. the core temperature may continue to increase to cause heat stroke. The hazards for heat stress are • • • • • • • • • • • Lack of heat acclimatisation for workers coming from cold countries. Restore circulation by laying him down and elevating the legs about 30 cm (1 foot) above ground. workers are also exposed to ultra violet radiations. hand leathers. Heat Stroke When the body is unable to remove extra heat. Personal factors such as older age.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • Use additional workers to assist in carrying the load. Heat Cramps Heat cramps is one of the earliest signs of heat stress. Treatment is through cessation of physical activity. resulting in a “hot body” that is not sweating. The affected person may be incoherent or unable to talk clearly. The worker would be sweating heavily and his body temperature would usually be higher than normal. As the Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Heat Exhaustion Heat exhaustion occurs when the loss of water and electrolytes from the body is so high. dizziness or fainting. blurring of vision and abdominal pain. 6. This can be treated by rest. Dehydration Medically ill workers or recovering from illnesses or on certain medications. Introduce rest breaks Introduce job rotation. Training Safe work procedure Training Personal Protective Equipment • Gloves. obesity. Clear the pathway Limit the weight that can be carried. Replacement of fluids by drinking may not be adequate and intravenous administration of fluids (in a hospital) may be necessary. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. heat exhaustion.

death will occur. • Use blowers to provide ventilation. lifting equipment and power tools) should be used to reduce physical workload. or have headaches. man-lock or medical lock in a worksite shall not exceed 29ºC and the relative humidity shall not exceed 85%. They should always attempt to cool the body as long as there is the slightest suspicion that the worker is suffering from heat stress.g. Transfer the worker to a shady or air-conditioned area (if available). arrangement should be made to call for an ambulance and evacuate the worker to a hospital. In the treatment of heat stroke. Reasonable practicable measures have to be taken by the occupier to ensure that persons at work in the workplace are protected from excessive temperatures and harmful radiations. and so on. Engineering Control • Shaded areas (e. • Workers who are ill should report to their supervisors and see a doctor before starting work to assess their fitness to work. Workers who feel unwell.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide body temperature rises. dizzy. • Workers returning from prolonged illness should consult a doctor before going back to work. remove extra layers of clothing and sponge him down with a wet towel or cloth while fanning him. damage will occur to the vital organs of the body. headache. • Heavy physical work or work under the sun should be scheduled to the cooler parts of the day (early morning or late afternoon) where possible.ports drinks”) and massaging the affected muscles. where possible. WSH (Construction) Regulations R 98 Temperature and humidity In a compressed air environment (e. the first important step is to cool the body. As the above is being done. • Cool shaded rest areas should be provided for workers to have their breaks away from heat.0 Deleted: factory 117 Deleted: _ . specify that the temperature in any working chamber.increasing from 2 hours per day to the full work duration over 14 days. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. kidney and liver.. and painful cramps. should seek immediate attention. First aiders should not use absence or presence of sweating as a guide to diagnosis and initiate treatment. such as the brain. Heat stroke must be suspected as one of the causes if a worker collapses at the workplace.. If the worker is conscious and if it is possible. sore throat. Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 10 Protection against excessive heat or cold and harmful radiation. temporary shelters) should be provided for workers who have to spend a significant amount of time under the sun.g. Administrative Control • Heat Acclimatisation for new workers . Restore circulation by laying him down and elevating the legs about 30cm (1 foot) above ground. he should be encouraged to drink water. Workers with these symptoms should seek medical attention. First aiders and workers themselves must be alert to the early signs and symptoms of heat stress. If not treated quickly. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. cough. Risk Control Substitution • Mechanical aids (e. without signs of external injury. The signs and symptoms of heat stress can change in a worker.. • Worksites can implement daily checks for symptoms of flu and cold such as blocked nose.g. during tunnelling works).

Under severe conditions. physical contact with moving or rotating parts and falling. the duration of rest period must be increased. pipe. • Electrocution Legislation Workplace Safety and Health (Confined Spaces) Regulations R 2 Definitions Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. vat. • Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from harmful gases. 5 minutes of rest with every 25 minutes of work should be adopted under moderately hot conditions. • Conditions can change very quickly. or asphyxiating. Personal Protective Equipment • Workers should wear loose-fitting light-coloured clothing while working in the hot environment and hats can be used. • Self-rescue by entrant is more difficult. low illumination. humidity. repair. Workers should also be encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle with a well-balanced diet with sufficient intake of nutrients and vitamins in their diets. risk factors. • Drowning arising from an increase in level of liquid. silo.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • Alternate work and rest periods.7 CONFINED SPACE People enter a confined space for cleaning. corrosive. symptoms and seriousness of heat-related disorders. flue or any other enclosed space. manhole. size or means. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Working in confined spaces is more hazardous than working in other workplaces because: • The entrances/exits of confined spaces might not allow the entrant to evacuate effectively if there is a flood or collapse of free-flowing material. • The space outside the confined space can impact on the conditions inside the confined space and vice versa. Chemical Hazards include conditions such as fumes and dust which affect the air in the confined space and can be flammable. vapours or fumes. excessive noise. toxic. extreme temperatures. All workers must be educated on the dangers of complacency. maintenance. free flowing solids or lack of oxygen. tank. The interior configuration of a confined space often restricts the movement of people or equipment within it. adequate sleep and exercise. pit.0 Deleted: Page Break 118 Deleted: _ . for example. A “confined space” is any chamber. if they or their fellow workers feel unwell. Cool drinking water should also be provided at the rest areas. • Heat-related disorders. These spaces are not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy and often have a restricted entrance or exit by way of location. inspection. 6. construction or rescue. loose materials. and access difficulty. Physical Hazards include conditions such as mechanised equipment. the preventive measures they can take and the importance of immediate reporting to their supervisors and seeing a doctor. or • Work activities may introduce hazards not present initially. • Natural ventilation alone is often not sufficient to maintain breathable quality air because the interior configuration of some confined spaces does not allow air movement to circulate. Workers should work with their fellow workers as buddies and watch out for symptoms of heat stroke for each other. The types of injuries relevant to confined space accidents include: • Injuries arising from fire and explosion. Workers should avoid the excessive intake of coffee and alcohol. • Rescue of the victim is more difficult. if appropriate.

0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory 119 Deleted: _ . the opening to the confined space shall be barricaded or guarded by railings or other effective means. “Responsible person”. Deleted: ¶ “Hazardous atmosphere” means an atmosphere where — • the level of oxygen in the atmosphere is not within the range of 19. or is likely to be reduced to be inadequate. pit. in which — • dangerous gases. flue or other enclosed space. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. or • there is a risk of engulfment by material. and directed to the area where a person is or will be present in the confined space.5% by volume. The air supply for the ventilation shall be from a source free from contaminants.5% to 23. “Confined space” means any chamber. “Competent person” means a person who has sufficient experience and training to perform the work required to be carried out. manhole. R 8 Ventilation in confined space Adequate and effective ventilation shall be maintained in the confined space for the purposes of entry into and work in the confined space. R 7 Lighting in confined space Sufficient and suitable lighting shall be ensured for entry into or work in the confined space. in relation to a person entering or working in a confined space. R 4 Record of confined spaces in workplace Where a fixed and stationary confined space is sited in a workplace. for sustaining life. vapours or fumes are liable to be present to such an extent as to involve a risk of fire or explosion. R 5 Access to and egress from confined space Reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that the means of entry into and egress from any confined space are safe and without risks to the health of every person entering or leaving the same. the exhaust air Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. tank. means his employer or the principal under whose direction he enters or works in the confined space. pipe. description and location of the confined space shall be recorded and informed to persons who are liable to be exposed to the hazards of the confined space. vat. the entrance cover of the confined space shall not be removed unless the confined space is depressurised and rendered safe for opening. When such entrance cover is removed. of the existence and hazards of the confined space. R 3 Application These Regulations shall apply in relation to confined spaces in workplaces. • the level of flammable gas or vapour in the atmosphere is 10% or more of its lower explosive limit. • the supply of air is inadequate.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide “Authorised manager” means an authorised manager appointed under regulation 9 and includes any other person appointed to perform the duties of an authorised manager by the responsible person. Where exhaust ventilation is used. silo. R 6 Opening of entrance cover of confined space If a confined space which contains any substance under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. or • the levels of toxic substances in the atmosphere exceed the permissible exposure levels as specified in the First Schedule to the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions) Regulations (Rg 1). or persons being overcome thereby. to prevent any person or object from falling into the confined space. “Entry” means ingress by a person into a confined space which occurs when the person’s head passes through an opening into the confined space.

If the authorised manager issues the permit. he shall endorse the application for the confined space entry permit and forward the endorsed application to the authorised manager for the confined space. flammable gas or vapour. and its period of validity. • all reasonably practicable measures have been taken to ensure the safety and health of persons who will be entering or working in the confined space. a sketch of the area within the confined space Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 9 Implementation of confined space entry permit Authorised manager. the purpose of entry. including where reasonably practicable. he shall retain a copy of the issued permit. where applicable. is wearing a safety harness with a rope securely attached and there is a confined space attendant keeping watch outside the confined space who is provided with the means to pull such person out of the confined space in an emergency. It shall state the measures which will be taken to ensure the safety and health of persons who enter or carry out the work in the confined space and addressed to the authorised manager and submitted to the confined space safety assessor. • has been authorised to enter or work in the confined space by the authorised manager for the confined space. R 12 Evaluation of confined space entry permit On receipt of the application for a confined space entry permit.0 120 Deleted: _ . R 13 Issue of confined space entry permit The authorised manager may issue a confined space entry permit in respect of entry into or work in the confined space if the authorised manager is satisfied that — • there is no hazardous atmosphere present • the confined space is adequately ventilated. He shall — • use a suitable and properly calibrated instrument. A confined space entry permit shall be issued which specifies the description. If the confined space work is not completed within the validity of the permit. location. R 10 No entry into or work in confined space without evaluation and confined space entry permit No person shall enter or work in a confined space without a permit. R 11 Application for confined space entry permit for all confined space works An application for a confined space entry permit shall be made in such form and manner as may be required by the authorised manager. R 14 Posting of confined space entry permit The supervisor shall clearly post a copy of the permit at the entrance to the confined space. and toxic gas or vapour. • conduct the test in a manner that will not endanger himself or others. If satisfied that entry into or work in a confined space can be carried out with due regard to the safety and health of persons. He shall exercise due diligence. • conduct the test in the following sequence: oxygen. vapours or any other dangerous substances into the confined space. a fresh application shall be made. confined space safety assessor and confined space attendant for the confined space shall be appointed. the confined space safety assessor shall test the atmosphere of the confined space prior to entry by any person into the confined space.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide from the ventilation system shall be exhausted to a location outside the confined space where it does not present a hazard to any person. This shall not apply if the person — • is wearing a suitable breathing apparatus. • effective steps have been taken to prevent any ingress of dangerous gases. the results of the gas testing. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. He shall exercise due diligence. and • record the results of the test in the confined space entry permit. and • where reasonably practicable.

All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. or • person entering or working in the confined space has left the confined space after achieving the purpose of the entry or completing the work. R 15 Monitoring to ensure safety and health of worker during entry into or work in confined space The responsible person and the authorised manager shall ensure that all measures necessary to ensure his safety and health are taken and in place at all times during his entry into. R 20 Display of name or identification badge The person entering a confined space shall display his name and identification badge.0 Deleted: ¶ 121 Deleted: _ . “Incompatible work” means work which is carried out at or in the vicinity of any work carried out in the confined space and which is likely to pose a risk to the safety and health of persons present in the confined space. All records shall be kept for not less than 2 years from the date it is made. He shall ensure that the copy of the permit is not removed until the — • date of expiry of the permit. R 16 Periodic testing of atmosphere The atmosphere in the confined space shall be tested by a confined space safety assessor at such intervals as is necessary to evaluate the safety and health of the person entering or working in the confined space. if the work is likely to pose a risk to the safety and health of persons entering or working in the confined space. The confined space safety assessor shall record the results of the tests.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide where the entry is to be made or work is to be conducted. The responsible person shall ensure that he does the same. as the case may be. • an evaluation is made to determine how the hazardous atmosphere developed. He shall order all persons to leave the confined space immediately and all work in the confined space to cease immediately. stay or work in the confined space. R 19 Warning sign The occupier shall clearly post a notice at the entrance to the confined space to warn persons of the hazards of the confined space unless a copy of the confined space entry permit is posted there or there is no entrance which persons may use to enter the confined space.at the entrance to the confined space. as the case may be. The responsible person shall inform the authorised manager when the person entering or working in the confined space has left the confined space after achieving the purpose of the entry or completing the work. the workplace safety and health officer. whichever is the earliest. and • no person re-enters the confined space until a new confined space entry permit is issued by the authorised manager. • revocation of the permit. If there are 2 or more persons present in the confined space. the workplace safety and health coordinator or the authorised manager for the confined space. R 17 Duty to report incompatible work Any person who is aware of any work which is incompatible to the confined space work shall report to his supervisor. at least one of them continuously monitors the atmosphere in the confined space with a suitable gas detector and if a hazardous atmosphere in a confined space is detected by the tests or continuous monitoring — • all persons in the confined space shall vacate the confined space immediately. He may revoke a confined space entry permit in respect of a confined space if he is satisfied that the confined space work has been completed or cannot be continued for a significant period of time. and revoke the confined space entry permit. R 18 Review and revocation of confined space entry permit The authorised manager shall review and assess the need for entry into or work in the confined space on a daily basis and revoke the permit if he thinks fit to do so. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

R 22 Appointment and duties of confined space attendant The responsible person shall appoint a confined space attendant. properly maintained. • appoint persons to carry out rescue work and ensure that such persons have first received adequate training in rescue operation including first-aid and the proper use of personal protective equipment and other equipment necessary for carrying out a rescue operation in the confined space. responsible persons. and • ensure that there is sufficient supply of suitable breathing apparatus.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 21 Training of workers and supervisors The responsible person shall ensure that workers and supervisors have first receive adequate safety and health training prior to confined space entry. authorised managers. The confined space attendant shall remain outside the confined space in order to — • monitor persons entering into and working in the confined space. R 23 Rescue operation The responsible person shall • establish a written rescue plan for the purpose of rescuing persons in the confined space in the event of an emergency. entrants. Administrative Control • Removal of sludge • Gas testing • Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere • Establish safe work procedures • Implementation of confined space entry permit • Mandatory Training for workers. Risk Control Elimination / Substitution • Use a vacuum machine and an extended hose to suck out the sludge instead of having workers enter the confined space to manually remove it. The competent person shall exercise all due diligence when making the examination and to record every examination. permit applicants. suitable rescue equipment and suitable reviving apparatus which are kept readily available. and • alert the persons appointed to carry out rescue work in the event of an emergency. Engineering Control • Lockout & Tagout (LOTO) • Forced ventilation • Exhaust ventilation • Lighting • Barricades to cordon off the space. supervisors and confined space assessors • Inhouse training for confined space attendants. • maintain regular contact with the persons in the confined space and when necessary assist them to evacuate should the need arise. and thoroughly examined by a competent person (a person who has sufficient experience and training to perform the work required to be carried out) at least once a month or at such other intervals as the Commissioner may require. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. safety harness and ropes.0 Deleted: ¶ 122 Deleted: _ . rescuers • Supervision • Warning sign posted at the confined space • Posting of permit • Control of entrants • Inspection of the confined space • Maintenance of equipment Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The responsible person shall ensure that such records are kept for at least 2 years from the date it is made.

Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards. • Rescue equipment Learning Activity 5 Group Exercise . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Use the RA form.30 minutes • • • • • • Select a mechanical and electrical trade. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Process Work Activities Deleted: ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Personal Protective Equipment • Respiratory protection • Other protection as deemed by the nature of the works. Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities.0 123 Deleted: _ . Identify the type of controls. Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 124 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

If the pile testing system is in a stable condition and is safe for approach.Stability of adjacent structures Before carrying out any piling work which may affect the stability of any structure within the worksite. Reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to warn persons not to approach the pile test area in a worksite.Pile testing The testing of piles in a worksite shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a designated person. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 132 . The professional engineer who oversees its construction shall ensure that it is constructed in accordance with the design and issue a certificate stating that the underpinning. R 132 .Pile driver not in use When the pile driver is not in use. sheet piling. provide all design documentation. person shall be allowed to approach a pile test area while the process of increasing or decreasing test loading is not in progress under the specific instruction of the designated person. No person shall be allowed to approach a pile test area while the process of increasing or decreasing test loading is being carried out.8 PILING The hazards of piling are: • Inadequate access on the piling frame • Presence of underground utilities • Unqualified operator • Noise • Ground vibration • Soft ground • Presence of workers in the operational zone • Unsafe pile testing The potential accidents that may arise are: • Falling from height • Damage to utilities • Noise induced hearing loss • Damage to adjacent structures • Collapse of piling rig • Struck by piles / hammer • Collapse of kentlege Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 129 .0 125 Deleted: _ . the ground of the worksite shall be inspected by a designated person.Footing Before placing or advancing a piling frame. and made firm and level by suitable means where necessary. the hammer shall be choked or blocked in the leads or lowered to the ground.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6.Inspection Piling equipment shall be inspected daily by a designated person before the start of any piling work for the day and that every defect is corrected before the piling equipment is used. bracing or other means of shoring in accordance with the design of a professional engineer and a certificate has been issued stating that it is safe for its intended use. the structure shall be adequately supported by underpinning. R 131 . R 130 . After Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. bracing or other means of shoring is safe for its intended use. The professional engineer who designs the underpinning. bracing or other means of shoring to support any structure shall ensure that his design can be executed safely. sheet piling. sheet piling.

0 126 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide placing or advancing a piling frame. Personal protective Equipment • Hearing protection Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. an inspection and correction of the footing shall be carried out to ensure stability. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Risk Control Engineering control • Steel plates for the piling rig • Proper ladder for access • Use of tagline Administrative control • Vibration monitoring • Certification of piling rig by authorised examiner • Qualified operator • Supervision • Permit to work • Inspection by designated person • Control of access into the operational area.

• safe means of access to and around the formwork structure shall be provided for the purpose of inspection. No formwork structure shall be constructed.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • suitable and safe for the purpose for which it is intended. • free from patent defect. erection. good construction and adequate strength. erected. does not collapse. skin disease and collapse of formwork Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 58 General requirement Every formwork structure shall be — • of sound material. All shores for the formwork structure shall be of adequate size and spacing. erection. Where a formwork structure in a worksite is of 2 or more tiers. No person shall be appointed as a formwork supervisor unless he has received adequate safety and health training to familiarise him with the hazards associated with the construction. sole plates shall be provided. and no part of the formwork structure shall be loaded as to render it unsafe to any person.0 . R 60 Appointment of formwork supervisor A formwork supervisor shall be appointed to supervise the construction. live and impact loads imposed on the structure with a minimum safety factor of 2. alteration or dismantling of the formwork structure and the precautions to be observed. Shores shall be properly seated top and bottom and shall be secured in place to prevent displacement. 127 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. alteration or dismantling of any formwork structure in a worksite. All reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that any new or existing formwork structure or any part of such a structure which may become unstable or is in temporary state of weakness or instability due to the carrying out of construction or erection work. Where the shores rest upon the ground. No load is to be applied to unsecured structures except as permitted by the design documentation. and • every designated access point shall be clearly marked with a sign or label. R 59 Supports and shores Horizontal and diagonal bracing shall be provided in both longitudinal and transverse directions. frames or shores — • the tiers.9 FORMWORK STRUCTURES The hazards of formwork structures are • • • • • • • Open sides inadequate access Inadequate design Unsafe sequence of erection & dismantling overloading Exposure to concrete Nails from stripped formworks – step on objects The potential accidents would be falling from elevated work surfaces. altered or dismantled in a worksite except under the immediate supervision of a formwork supervisor. frames or shores shall be securely and effectively connected vertically. Every formwork structure shall be capable of sustaining the total dead. and • properly braced or tied together so as to maintain position and shape. and be made safe for use by any person using the access point. as may be necessary to provide stability and rigidity to any formwork structure unless the formwork structure has been designed to be stable and rigid without the bracing.

R 66 Dismantling Dismantling of a formwork structure shall not commence until the concrete is set.E design / drawings kept at the worksite and produced for inspection upon request by an inspector. • to make an inspection of the formwork structure upon the completion of the formwork structure to ensure that the formwork structure is in accordance with the design and drawings for that formwork structure. The formwork supervisor shall regularly inspect a formwork structure in a worksite during the placement of concrete to monitor the stability and soundness of the formwork structure.E designed formwork structure shall be used unless certified by the P. No P. • consists of any formwork which is supported by shores constructed in 2 or more tiers.0 128 Deleted: _ . cut or otherwise made safe. seated. R 62 Register It shall be the duty of the formwork supervisor to enter the results of every inspection into a register and to keep the register of such inspections. R 63 Design and construction of formwork structure Formwork structure to be P. wall. The professional engineer who oversees the construction of a formwork structure shall ensure that the formwork structure is constructed in accordance with the design and issues a certificate stating that the formwork structure is safe for its intended use. so far as is reasonably practicable.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 61 Duties of formwork supervisor It shall be the duty of a formwork supervisor — • to take. R 65 Concrete work Placement of concrete shall not be carried out in such manner as to affect the stability of the formwork structure. placement of concrete shall not commence unless the formwork structure. braced and tied so as to maintain its position and shape. or • consists of any formwork where the thickness of the slab or beam to be cast in the formwork exceeds 300 millimetres. R 67 Steel reinforcement Steel reinforcement for any column.E designed. wire ties and other form of accessories not necessary to subsequent work shall be pulled.E designed formwork to be reviewed and endorsed by a P. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. such measures as are necessary to ensure that during the erection of a formwork structure. Where a formwork structure is designed by a professional engineer.E R 64 Duties of professional engineer on formwork structure The professional engineer who designs a formwork structure shall ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the formwork structure and provides all design documentation. P. connected. including any alteration thereto. Materials dismantled from the formwork structure shall be removed promptly or stock-piled in areas where persons are not required to work or pass. floor or any other structure shall be adequately supported to prevent collapse. Alterations on a P.E. has been inspected and certified by the professional engineer. No person shall be in the vicinity of a formwork structure in a worksite during the placement of concrete unless his presence is incidental to the concrete work in progress. all the components of the formwork structure are properly erected. Protruding nails. and • to immediately notify the occupier of the worksite upon discovering any unsafe condition during any inspection. when it — • exceeds 9 metres in height. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

Risk Control Elimination / Substitution • Use precast components Engineering control • Provision of shores and reshores • Provision of access • Provision of supports for vertical columns Administrative control • Design. The reshoring shall be properly seated top and bottom and shall be secured in place to prevent displacement. sole plates shall be provided.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 68 Reshoring Reshoring shall be provided when necessary to safely support slabs and beams after a formwork structure is dismantled. The reshoring shall be inspected by the formwork supervisor and the results of the inspection shall be entered by the formwork supervisor into a register.0 129 Deleted: _ . or where such slabs or beams are subjected to any superimposed load due to any construction work above.E • Inspection and supervision by formwork supervisor • Adopt proper sequence of work to prevent falling hazard • Removing nails from the stripped formwork Personal Protective Equipment • Safety harness Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. inspection and certification by P. Where the reshores rest upon the ground.

10 DEMOLITION Improper handling of demolition of buildings or structures gives rise to many hazards. and all gas. steam and other supply lines shall be shut off and capped. Masonry shall neither be loosened nor permitted to fall in a worksite in such masses as to endanger the structural stability of any floor or structural support. R 72 Removal of load bearing structures Where any demolition work in a worksite involves the removal of any column. No wall. bracing or such other means as may be necessary to ensure the stability of the adjacent structure and to prevent the structure or other property from collapsing is provided. Where there is a possibility that an adjacent structure is unsafe or will become unsafe because of demolition operations in a worksite. it shall be the duty of the occupier of the worksite to ensure that the work is carried out with due regard to the integrity of the remaining structure. beams and all other structures adjacent to the structure which are to be demolished shall be determined. gas or electric lines during demolition in a worksite. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. no demolition shall be performed unless sheet piling. water.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. or be weakened Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. beam. water. shoring. R 71 Protection of adjacent structures Before and during the demolition of any structure in a worksite. the stability of the walls. and in accordance with the method statement prepared by a professional engineer. weaknesses in building materials and overloading Presence of asbestos-containing materials Dust Step on objects The potential accidents would be • Falling from elevated work surfaces • Electrocution • Falling objects injuring workers and public • Collapse of workers • collapse of any part of the building or structure • Asbestosis • Silicosis Legal requirements WSH (Construction) Regulations R 70 Preparation of demolition work Before commencing any demolition work in a worksite all glass and claddings on the exterior of the building to be demolished shall be removed. electric. floor or other load bearing structure. These hazards include: • • • • • • • • • Inadequate lighting Open sides Electrical lines Unsafe debris handling Confined space Instability to structural members due to improper removal of bracing members. R 73 Demolition of walls.0 130 Deleted: _ . ceilings. Where it is necessary to maintain any power. etc. such lines shall be so re-located or protected with substantial coverings so as to protect them from damage and to afford safety to every person. partitions. Demolition of walls and partitions in a worksite shall proceed in a systematic manner and all work above each tier of floor beams shall be completed before the safety of its supports is impaired. slabs. chimney or other structure or part of a structure which is being demolished in a worksite shall be left in such a condition that it may fall or collapse inadvertently.

where persons are liable to fall more than 2 meters. R 74 Access to floor There shall be provided at all times safe access to and egress from every building in the worksite in the course of demolition by means of entrances. stairways or ladder runs which shall be so protected as to safeguard the persons using them from falling material. Engineering surveys should include structural stability. catch platforms and warning signs Where demolition operations are being carried out in a worksite. etc. a zone of demolition shall be maintained within 8 metres of the line of travel of the bucket. and a zone of demolition having a radius of at least one and a half times the height of the structure or portion thereof being so demolished shall be maintained around the points of impact. catch platforms shall be provided and maintained except where an exterior built-up scaffold provides equivalent protection. • Sufficient lighting should be provided where persons are at work. existing services and the presence of hazardous substances. diverted or protected prior to the commencement of any demolition works. No person other than any person essential to the demolition work in a worksite shall be permitted to enter a zone of demolition which shall be provided with substantial barricades. R 76 Mechanical method of demolition Where a swinging weight is used in demolition operations in a worksite the building or structure or remaining portion thereof shall be not more than 24 metres in height. there shall be maintained in the area into which affected persons may fall an adequate zone of demolition to ensure the safety of the person. Where other mechanical contrivances are being used for the demolition work in a worksite. • Machinery can also be lowered by means of a mobile crane or other methods proposed by a Professional Engineer • Proper working platforms and footholds should be provided for manual demolition. steel ramps) should be used for floor to floor movement of machinery. • Services / utilities should be capped.g. should be guarded by effective guardrails. Average luminance at passageways should be a minimum of 50lux. • Proper ramps of appropriate design (e. • Adequate shores and/or braces should be installed to support unstable structures. R 75 Barricades. • Catch platforms should be provided where exterior walls or roofs are being demolished. During the demolition of an exterior masonry wall or a roof in a worksite. Where any demolition work in a worksite is carried out with the use of hand-tools safe footing in the form of sound flooring or scaffolds shall be provided for persons working on an exterior wall. Engineering Control • Hoardings and covered walkways should be provided in conjunction with catch platforms to guide pedestrian flow and protect pedestrian traffic against falling debris.0 131 Deleted: _ . and walls or partitions shall not be left standing more than one storey above the uppermost floor on which persons are working. Where a clamshell bucket is being used for the demolition work in a worksite. the Safe Working Load (SWL). a substantial barricade with signs to warn persons from unauthorised entry into the worksite shall be erected along every sidewalk or thoroughfare bordering the demolition operations. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. taking into account debris Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide due to wind pressure. hallways. vibration or other causes. In assessing the structural stability of the building or structure to be demolished. Administrative Control • Engineering surveys should be carried out prior to commencement of demolition work. • All open sides or openings. Risk Control Substitution • Wetting the surface to be demolished to control dust. barriers.

A permit to work system should be implemented for the demolition works. typically issued at a per floor basis. fibrous anthophyllite or a mixture containing any of those minerals.10. Appropriate warning signs should be posted. Asbestos was used widely in a variety of building materials including floor tiles. repair. approach to demolition and elements that require specialised methods of removal. However during removal. • Goggles • Hearing protection devices • Safety harness • Gloves • Appropriate respirators for dust or chemicals • Protective clothing 6. Glass and cladding on external walls should be removed prior to commencement of any demolition works. it should be assumed that asbestos-containing materials are present. A debris management system indicating the method of disposal. chrysotile. to ensure that every floor is adequately inspected prior to commencement of demolition. or an asbestos survey can be conducted to ascertain that the building/structure to be demolished does not contain asbestos As-built drawings to indicate the structural members Planning for demolition work and selecting appropriate method(s) of demolition and equipment to be used. Personal Protective Equipment • Safety boots • Safety helmets. renovation. should be determined by a Professional Engineer. Limiting the level of accumulation of debris All demolition equipment should be operated by competent persons with appropriate training. maintenance and alteration works.0 132 Deleted: _ . ceiling tiles.1 ASBESTOS HAZARDS Asbestos means crocidolite. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The use of asbestos has been banned in Singapore buildings since 1989. weight of machinery and/or other anticipated dead and live loads. Appointing a competent person experienced in demolition work to assess and inspect the structure to be demolished during the course of the demolition work. amosite. No unauthorised entry should be permitted. movement of debris from floor to floor and to the holding area and transportation of debris should be prepared. Operators and staff involved in the demolition works should be well informed and well versed with how works are to be carried out. the sequence of such works and the safety precautions to be taken prior to the commencement of works. Supervision is needed to ensure that only those workers who have received training and instructions are authorised to carry out the work. workers are exposed to asbestos. Safe means of access and egress should be provided from different levels of buildings or structures. Caution should be taken to ensure that floors are not loaded up to a level which exceeds the SWL To verify if asbestos-containing materials are present in the building(s) /structure(s) to be demolished. Maintaining the security of the site. If unsure. demolition. asbestos-cement pipes or sheets. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The method statement for demolition works should clearly indicate the sequence of demolition. refuse chutes and fire resistant structures. dismantling. Workers involved in demolition works must be provided with appropriate training and instructions to carry out demolition works safely. Comply with scaffolding and asbestos safety requirements.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • accumulation.

work benches. except a process in connection with which asbestos dust cannot be given off. he shall give not less than 28 days’ notice of the process or such shorter notice to MOM. inside walls. apparatuses. employer. Exposure to asbestos causes occupational diseases such as Asbestosis (scarring and fibrosis of the lung tissues). ledges and other internal surfaces of any part of a factory shall. The results of every such examination and test shall be signed by the person making or responsible and kept available for a period of two years after it is made. occupier and person shall take reasonable steps to ascertain whether any process undertaken in the factory involves asbestos or any article composed wholly or partly of asbestos. All respiratory protective equipment and protective clothing provided shall • be properly maintained. the analysis and examination of materials or articles involved in the process undertaken. be kept in a clean state and free from asbestos waste and dust. there shall be provided for each person suitable respiratory protective equipment. The symptoms generally appear after 20 years of exposure. • well maintained and inspected at least once a month. so far as is practicable. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. other plant and equipment. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 4 Obligations under Regulations Every contractor and every employer who is undertaking any process involving asbestos shall comply with the requirements of these Regulations.0 133 Deleted: _ . partitions. R 7 Exhaust ventilation Exhaust ventilation equipment shall be • provided except if it is safe for persons working in the factory • kept in use to produce an exhaust draught which prevents the entry into the air of any workplace of asbestos dust. where necessary. • be used by the persons for whom they are provided • be provided for the use of another person unless it has been thoroughly cleaned and disinfected since last being worn. employer. Mesothelioma (cancer of the thin membrane lining of the chest. ceilings. abdomen and gastrointestinal cancer) and Lung cancer. Legislation Factories (Asbestos) Regulations R 3 Application These Regulations shall apply to every process involving asbestos or any article composed wholly or partly of asbestos. The steps to be taken shall include. all external surfaces of exhaust ventilation equipment. to ascertain whether process in factory involves asbestos Every contractor. all floors. R 5 Contractor. R 6 Notifications Before a person first begins to undertake any process involving asbestos in a factory. and protective clothing. • thoroughly examined and tested by a competent person at least once in every 12 months.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Asbestos fibres enter the body by inhalation of airborne dust or by ingestion and become embedded in the tissues of the respiratory or digestive systems. R 8 Protective equipment Where it is impracticable to provide exhaust ventilation. etc. R 9 Duty to keep clean All machinery. The user shall be fully instructed in the proper use of that equipment.

The washing and cleaning of all protective clothing shall be carried out at the facilities provided. and in carrying out any cleaning. as far as is practicable. R 12 Cleaning equipment All cleaning equipment used for cleaning shall be properly maintained and have all external surfaces kept in a clean state and free from asbestos waste and dust. R 18 Restriction on employment of young persons No person under the age of 18 years shall be employed in any process or in a part of a factory into which asbestos dust from any such process carried on in the factory would otherwise be liable to escape. which prevent the escape of asbestos dust therefrom. when stored. So far as is practicable. • Person shall be fully instructed in the proper use of that equipment. R14 Distribution. be kept in accommodation for storage provided except when it is necessary for them to be removed for cleaning or replacement. R11 Cleaning where cleaning by dustless method is impracticable Protective clothing and suitable respiratory protective equipment • shall be provided for and used. Adequate and suitable facilities shall be provided and maintained for the washing and cleaning of all protective clothing.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 10 Cleaning by dustless method The cleaning shall be by means of vacuum cleaning equipment so designed and constructed and so used. R 13 Storage All loose asbestos in a factory shall. received into a factory except in suitably closed receptacles. be kept in such receptacles. the same protective clothing shall (until it becomes necessary to replace it) be available for use by an employee on each occasion on which he requires to wear it. or shall be distributed within a factory except in such receptacles or in a totally enclosed system of conveyance. when not required for use. shall be cleaned forthwith. protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment Suitable and separate accommodation in a conveniently accessible location shall be provided for the use of employees when putting on or taking off respiratory protective equipment and protective clothing provided and for the storage of such equipment and clothing when they are not in use. when not in use. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. that asbestos dust neither escapes nor is discharged into the air of a workplace. Any surface on which asbestos waste or dust is deposited as a result of the carrying out of cleaning. and all asbestos waste in a factory shall. which prevent the escape of asbestos dust therefrom. be kept in a room separated from any workplace in suitably closed receptacles. or by some other suitable method so. R 17 Cleaning of protective clothing All protective clothing provided shall be washed and cleaned at suitable intervals. • Shall be provided for the use of another person unless it has been thoroughly cleaned and disinfected since last being worn. All protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment which have been provided for the use of employees shall. not being a surface of the cleaning equipment used. R 16 Accommodation for. and use of.0 134 Deleted: _ . etc No loose asbestos or asbestos waste shall be despatched from or. R 15 Marking of receptacles All such receptacles shall be clearly and boldly marked with the words “Asbestos — do not inhale dust” or with other words in other languages having the same meaning and readily understood by those persons handling the receptacles or working in the factory.

Engineering Control • Barricades to prevent unauthorised entry into the work area. • Enclose the work area and seal off all outlets. • Medical examination of workers • Remove non asbestos material from the work area to prevent contamination. ceiling.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Risk Control Elimination • Asbestos has been eliminated from use.do not inhale dust” • Storage of used protective equipment and clothing • All protective clothing must be regularly cleaned in adequate and suitable facilities • No worker under the age of 18 years • Establish asbestos work area • Only workers who are doing the work are allowed to enter • No eating and drinking in the work area. It can be found only in existing structures when it is being demolished. • In case of doubt. • Warning sign • Provision of shower facilities • Housekeeping Personal Protective Equipment • Wear respirators with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. fireproofing and insulation materials. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. repair or re-decoration is carried out • Information regarding the presence or absence of asbestos can be obtained from existing building plans. maintained • All loose asbestos to be kept in separate room • Dispatched only in closed receptacles or in a totally enclosed system of transfer • Keep factory clean and free from asbestos waste and dust by vacuum cleaning equipment or other methods preventing dust from escaping or discharged into the air • Suitable & separate accommodation for putting on and taking off protective clothing & respiratory protection equipment Administrative Control • Notification / Declaration of asbestos containing material during worksite registration when demolition. acoustic. • Full body protective clothing • Goggles Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. respirators. should be sent to a competent laboratory for identification of asbestos. suspected materials. • Wet the surface to prevent release of fibres. • Implement safe work procedures • Training on safe work procedure. RA • Follow legal requirements • Exhaust ventilation to be inspected monthly and thoroughly examined by competent person every 12 months • All receptacles shall be clearly and boldly marked with “Asbestos . • Exhaust ventilation provided to prevent entry of asbestos dust into the workplace. such as roofing. Substitution • Substitution of asbestos with other materials such as fibre glass.0 135 Deleted: _ .

10. Metallic instruments shall not be used for opening packages of explosives in a worksite. understood by persons involved in the work relating to the handling or use of explosives. R 120 Size of holes Any drilled hole to hold any cartridge of explosives shall be of sufficient size. R 117 Smoking. R 121 Removing cartridge wrappers Dynamites are not removed from their original wrappers before being loaded into the bored holes. 117 and 118. Smoking.0 136 Deleted: _ . The hazards are • Mishandling of explosives • Open lights • Smoking • Unsafe opening of packages • Drilling onto unexploded explosives • Forcing cartridges into holes • Presence of personnel during blasting • Inadequate supervision • Misfires • Adverse weather • Inadequate warning before the blast The potential accident would be explosion resulting in injuries and fatalities.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Appropriate warning signs of the prohibitions. etc. shall be posted and maintained at every place where the explosives are kept or stored.5 metres distance from any explosive magazine.2 EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS Explosives are used for minor demolition works under controlled conditions. R 119 Deepening holes No drilling of holes shall be carried out if the hole has at any time contained explosives. open lights and flame or spark producing devices shall be prohibited in or around the explosive magazine or storage enclosure. all persons are in such positions which do not expose them to risk of injury from the explosion or from flying materials caused by the explosion. R 118 Opening packages Packages of explosives shall not be opened at any point less than 15. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. to comply with requirements 116. open lights. Reasonably practicable steps shall be taken to ensure that. Cartridges of explosives of the proper size shall be selected so that every cartridge can be easily inserted to the bottom of the drilled hole without forcing or ramming. R 116 Handling of explosives Explosives shall not be handled or used except in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and by or under the immediate control of a designated person with adequate knowledge of the dangers connected with their use. when a charge is fired in a worksite. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 115 General duty on employer and principal It shall be the duty of the employer or the principal carrying out work in a worksite which involves the handling or use of explosives.

The designated person shall appoint the necessary personnel to dispose of the misfired charge. R 125 Warning and retreat Before the firing of any blast. and determine the safe and proper method of its disposal. It shall not be carried out within dangerous proximity to drilling or any other operations in the worksite. any handling or use of explosives shall be stopped immediately. and there shall be immediate evacuation of all persons in the area where the explosives are being handled or used to a place of safety in a proper location as determined by the designated person. R 126 Return to blast area No person shall return from such safe distance or safe shelter until permitted to do so by the blaster as announced by audible or visible signal. No blast shall be fired while any person is in the danger zone. a warning distinctly audible to all persons shall be sounded within the danger zone. R 128 Operations during thunderstorm In the event of a thunderstorm. shall enter the danger zone until the misfired charge is disposed of. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. and to immediately report any misfire to the designated person. other than a person appointed to dispose misfired charges. • Comply with legal requirements Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 127 Misfires When there is a misfire of any blast. Risk control Elimination / Substitution • Use alternate methods of demolition Engineering Control • Cordon off the area Administrative Control • Control of open lights and smoking • Safe work procedure • Audible warning prior to blast • Inspection by blaster for misfires.0 137 Deleted: _ . every person in the danger zone shall retire to a safe distance or a safe shelter. When the warning is sounded. No person. The blaster who fired the blast shall examine the blast area for evidence of misfired charges immediately following the blast. R 123 Loading and tamping Only a hardwood rod free from any metal part is used for loading and tamping of explosives.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 122 Loading near other operations The loading of holes with explosives shall be carried out under the direct supervision of a blaster. all persons within the danger zone shall retire to a safe distance or to a safe shelter.

• to prevent any person being struck by an object. Where the depth of any excavation in a worksite exceeds 4 metres.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. The open side of any excavation in a worksite which exceeds 2 metres in depth shall be provided with adequate guard-rails to prevent persons from falling into the excavation. such as an excavating machine or by any material dislodged by the machine. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and • to prevent any person inhaling. or any structures adjoining or over areas to be excavated. • to prevent any person falling into the excavation. Excavated material or other superimposed loads shall be so placed away from the edge of the excavation in a worksite to prevent the materials or other loads from falling into the excavation.5 metres or where the banks are undercut. carbon monoxide or another impurity of the air in the excavation. During any excavation work in a worksite. bracing or other means of shoring) shall be provided to prevent collapse of the excavation.0 138 Deleted: _ . or cause the banks to slip or cause the upheaval of the excavation bed. or any structures adjoining or over areas to be excavated. no work (other than excavation or shoring operations) shall be carried out inside the excavation until after a certificate has been issued in respect of the shoring for that excavation. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. adequate shoring (by underpinning. No shoring shall be required if the excavation in the worksite has been examined and certified by a professional engineer to be safe without any shoring. adequate shoring shall be made or erected in accordance with the design of a professional engineer to prevent collapse of the excavation. sheet piling. or otherwise being exposed to. Where the depth of any excavation in a worksite exceeds 4 metres.11 EXCAVATION The hazards of excavation are • Open sides / Inadequate access • Unsupported sides / Inadequate shoring • Presence of underground utilities / Unqualified operator • Presence of hazardous atmosphere • Presence of ground water / Raining / Rupture of underground water pipes • Presence of adjacent structures • Materials stored near to the edge of the excavation • Presence of workers in the operational zone of the excavator / Unqualified operator • Vehicles / Equipment close to the edge of the excavation The potential accident would be • Falling into the excavation • Collapse of excavation • Damage to utilities • Collapse of person • Flooding • Collapse of structures • Falling objects • Struck by excavator • Vehicles / Equipment topple Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 77 General requirements on excavation work Where the depth of any excavation in a worksite exceeds 1. all reasonably practicable measures shall be taken • to prevent any person being trapped by the collapse of the excavation.

The professional engineer who oversee the construction of the shoring shall ensure that the shoring is constructed in accordance with the design and issue a certificate stating that the shoring is safe for its intended use. such measures as are necessary to ensure that any inspection carried out is conducted properly. the project manager of the worksite may order that all works within the excavation cease immediately and revoke any permit-to-work issued for such work. Risk Control Engineering Control • Provide shoring for the excavation • Provide shoring for adjacent structures • Provide barricades • Cordon off the operational area to prevent entry by unauthorised personnel.0 139 Deleted: _ . Administrative Control • Engage a Licensed Cable Detection Worker (LCDW) to check for the presence of underground electricity cables. so far as is reasonably practicable. Personal Protective Equipment • Safety helmet for all personnel • High visibility vest for banksman Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.5m depth. R 79 Access and egress from excavation where any excavation work is carried out to ensure that safe access to and egress from the excavation in the worksite is provided where persons are required to work in the excavation. • Provision of water pumps. sewers and gas pipes • Obtain relevant services layout plans • Dig trial holes manually to ascertain the layout • Apply permit to work for excavation/trench that exceeds 1. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Upon being informed.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Notices shall be put up at appropriate and conspicuous positions to warn persons about the excavation in a worksite. the designated person shall immediately inform the project manager of the worksite of the unsafe condition. It shall be the duty of the designated person to take. R 78 Duties of professional engineers on excavation The professional engineer who designs the shoring for an excavation shall ensure that his design can be executed safely and provide all design documentations. • Inspection by designated person • Provision of banksman to direct the operation and control access. • Provide signage to warn pedestrians and vehicles. • Walkie talkie for banksman • Brief personnel on the location of services • Provide ground markers above the services. telecommunication cables. The excavation in a worksite and its vicinity shall be inspected by a designated person after every rain storm or other hazard-increasing occurrence. • Place materials away from the edge of the excavation. and the access or egress is sufficient in numbers and installed in such locations so as to be readily accessible. Where any inspection reveals that the excavation in the worksite is not safe for entry. • Provide staircase for access • Provide stoppers for vehicles / equipment. • Gas testing for hazardous atmospheres. water mains.

Where the shaft in a worksite exceeds 24 metres in depth. segments or steel sets. Air that has passed through any underground oil or fuel storage areas shall not be used for ventilation in the tunnel. fixture or equipment within the tunnel. All combustible materials shall. be kept away from such lift and access way. face and walls of the work area in the tunnel shall be examined and tested before the start of the tunnelling works and thereafter at regular intervals to ensure that it is safe for persons at work in the tunnel.0 140 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Emergency generators are provided to ensure adequate illumination of the tunnels and work areas in the event of a failure in the power supply. Where persons have to descend in a shaft. All tunnels or shafts in a worksite shall be properly designed and constructed to prevent the collapse of the shaft or surrounding earth. R 82 Ventilation All work areas in a free air tunnel shall be provided with appropriate ventilation system to ensure adequate supply of fresh air. as far as is reasonably practicable. and to prevent any person being trapped by the collapse of the tunnel or being struck by an object falling into the tunnel. supports by means of rock bolts. R 84 Access to and egress from tunnel or shafts Safe access to and egress from any tunnel shall be provided.11. Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. shot-creting. or other measures.5% oxygen by volume. All reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that the air in the tunnel where a person has to work is free from flammable gases and vapours and contains at least 19. Adequate clearance or refuge area shall be provided and maintained to prevent workers from being caught in between or struck by any part of any vehicle.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6.1 TUNNELLING HAZARDS The hazards of tunnelling are: • Inadequate access • Inadequate shoring • Presence of underground utilities • Presence of hazardous atmosphere • Presence of ground water / Raining / Rupture of underground water pipes • Presence of adjacent structures • Presence of workers in the operational zone of the tunnel equipment The potential accident would be • Falling into the shaft • Collapse of tunnel • Damage to utilities • Collapse of person • Flooding • Collapse of structures • Struck by tunnel equipment Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 81 Stability of tunnelling work All reasonably practicable measures such as shoring.5% oxygen by volume. shall be taken to ensure the stability of the tunnel. a lift shall be provided for the transport of men and materials. and to prevent flooding. and not more than 23. an alternate means of egress from the shaft shall be provided for emergency purposes. The roof. R 83 Illumination level All areas in the tunnel shall be adequately illuminated.

• Only fire resistant hydraulic hoses shall be used in hydraulically activated machinery and equipment used in the tunnel. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Gasoline or liquefied petroleum gases or other highly flammable substances shall not be used in the tunnel without the approval of the project manager of the worksite. shall be provided at intervals of 100 metres along the tunne including outside the portal or at the top of the shaft and maintained at all times. Sufficient suitable breathing apparatus shall be provided and maintained for use by persons employed to work in a tunnel.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Proper control of ingress and egress of persons to and from any tunnel under construction in the worksite shall be exercised. the use. R 88 Training Any person who carries out any work in a tunnel shall receive adequate safety and health training to familiarise himself with the hazards associated with such work and the precautions to be observed. such as a telephone network. R 86 Means of communications Effective and reliable means of communication. at least 2 such persons shall possess the training. Notices to warn persons against unauthorised entry shall be displayed at all points of entry to the tunnel. • All hydraulic lines shall be protected by insulation or other screening where there is a risk of burning through human contact. • No petrol driven internal combustion engine shall be used in a tunnel. • Hydraulic oils with flashpoints which are lower than the working temperatures in the tunnel shall not be used in the worksite. R 87 Tampering with fittings Appropriate control measures shall be implemented to prevent any unauthorised person from tampering with fittings. Any code of audio and visual signals used shall be conspicuously displayed near the entrances to the worksite and such other locations as may be necessary to bring it to the attention of all persons concerned. R 85 Plant and ancillary equipment • All plant and ancillary equipment necessary for the conduct of work in any excavation or within a tunnel in the worksite shall. magazines. be of appropriate design and construction. • Oil. • Only flameproof equipment shall be used whenever there is danger of the presence of flammable or explosive gases. lighting. electricity or any monitoring system used in connection with any work in the tunnels in the worksite. resuscitation.0 141 Deleted: _ . so far as is reasonably practicable. A chart listing the names of persons working in the tunnel and their location of work shall be displayed at the main entrance to the tunnel and be regularly updated. R 89 Rescue team Where 25 or more persons have to work underground at any one time. and • All gasoline or liquefied petroleum gases or highly flammable substances used in the tunnel shall be removed immediately after use. valves or other controls regulating air supply. • No diesel engine shall be used in a tunnel unless it is so constructed that no air enters the engine without first being cleaned. sufficient capacity. care and limitations of breathing apparatus and the use and maintenance of fire fighting equipment. safe and without risks to health and adequately maintained. safety chains or wires. grease or fuel stored in the tunnel shall be kept in tightly sealed containers in fire resistant areas at safe distances from explosives. • Only high pressure hydraulic hoses and coupling shall be used in the tunnel and such hoses shall be properly protected. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. electrical installations and away from the bottom of shafts. Where more than 4 but not more than 24 persons have to work underground at any time. • All supply lines to pneumatic tools used within a tunnel in the worksite shall be fitted with water traps and where appropriate. at least 5 such persons shall be trained in rescue procedures. and no fumes or sparks shall be emitted by the engine.

Workers would be exposed to compressed air which can be intermittent in such cases. It may be used in the working space in front of the TBM to allow maintenance work to be carried out on the machine face or allow workers to manually remove obstructions. workers can then enter the compressed air tunnel. At least one joint exercise for fire and rescue purposes together with the Singapore Civil Defence Force shall be conducted.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 90 Fire-fighting facilities and procedure Adequate and appropriate fire-fighting facilities including a fire alarm system connected to the ground level shall be provided. obese and older workers may be at higher risk • High pressures exceeding one bar (greater risk with higher pressures) • Long working hours in compressed air. The factors below may be associated with a higher risk of developing compressed air illness: • Medical unfitness. Compressed air may also be used in the tunnel itself where there are workers working and conventional TBM are being used.2 COMPRESSED AIR ENVIRONMENT HAZARDS Compressed air is used in the construction of a tunnel to prevent entry of ground water into the tunnel. in consultation with Singapore Civil Defence Force. for example. workers would be required to enter the man-lock again where the air pressure would be slowly reduced in stages to atmospheric pressure before they are allowed out of the man-lock (decompression procedure). In this case. When the desired pressure is reached. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The procedure that is to be followed in the event of an outbreak of fire shall be displayed at prominent positions both inside and outside every tunnel. A fire drill shall be held at least once in every 3 months.11. the air pressure can be slowly increased to the desired pressure inside the compressed air portion of the tunnel (compression procedure). Every person employed in the tunnel shall receive instruction on the procedure. Working in a compressed air environment may result in diseases related to the changes in the air pressure. for example. more workers would be exposed to the compressed air and its associated health risks. boulders or old piles. for example.0 142 Deleted: _ . Risk Control Substitution • Use open excavation method Engineering Control • Provision of shoring • Provision of alternate ventilation system • Provision of lighting with emergency lighting • Provision of access • Use of fire resistant materials • Provision of alternate power source • Segregated access for personnel in the tunnel Administrative Control • Implement Safe system of work • Warning notices • Maintenance of plant and ancillary equipment • Means of communications • Maintenance of records • Training of personnel • Comply with legal requirements • Implement permit to work system • Provision of rescue team 6. those working for more than four hours Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Once inside the man-lock. When coming out of the compressed air tunnel. Access to the compressed air portion of the tunnel is through a chamber called the ‘manlock’.

these gases are released in the form of bubbles. Compressed air illness is a result of obstruction or effects due to gas bubbles formed in the blood stream giving rise to the symptoms of decompression sickness. • of sufficient capacity. and • the evacuation procedure in case of an emergency. a person would be unable to clear during compression which may rupture the ear drum resulting in pain. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. more of the gases in the air (mainly nitrogen and oxygen) get dissolved into the blood and tissues. If the eustachian tubes are too small or blocked as a result of infection such as flu or allergy. work in or leave the compressed air environment in the worksite except in accordance with a safe system of work which. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 91 Safe system of work No person shall enter. • fire and explosion hazards. It is commonly encountered during compression. When the ambient air pressure is reduced too fast. Barotrauma The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the throat (where it is open to the atmosphere). Barotrauma may also affect the sinuses (air passages) or more seriously the lungs. the body tissues and blood are fully saturated with air. it is essential that the pressure on either side of the ear drum be equalised by performing the Valsalva manoeuvre of blowing against the pinched nose and swallowing. • safe and without risk to health. so far as is reasonably practicable. discharge and deafness. the nitrogen gas can accumulate within the body. The notice shall also inform persons of — • the danger of not undergoing proper compression and decompression.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • Failure to follow proper decompression procedure Multiple entries for supervisors and engineers Lack of acclimatisation for new workers Lack of adequate rest between shifts The risk of working in compressed air would be compressed air illness and barotrauma. R 93 Safe system of work A notice shall be displayed at the entrance to the compressed air environment warning persons against unauthorised entry into the compressed air environment. This is called barotrauma where the tissue is damaged resulting from contraction or expansion of gas containing spaces within the body due to the changing pressures. During compression. No oxy-acetylene shall be used in the compressed air environment. R 94 Use of bulkhead No bulkhead for retaining compressed air within a tunnel shall be used unless it has been approved by the Commissioner. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. however. R 95 Plant and ancillary equipment Every plant and ancillary equipment necessary for the conduct of work in the compressed air environment shall be — • of appropriate design and construction. is safe and without risk to health. Compressed Air Illness At normal atmospheric pressure (1kg/cm2). and • adequately maintained.0 143 Deleted: _ . This shall not apply to a bulkhead which forms an integral part of a tunnelling or boring machine. When the body is subjected to increased air pressure. The oxygen is readily utilised by the body.

R 99 Means of communications Effective and reliable means of communication. • the working chamber side of the man-lock near the door. shall be provided in every working chamber. In a compressed air environment — • all high and low pressure air supply lines shall be equipped with check valves. • the man and medical lock attendants' station. such as a telephone network. R 97 Power source Every low pressure air compressor shall be provided with at least 2 independent and separate sources of power supply which shall be capable of supplying power to operate the air compressor and its ancillary systems automatically when one source of power supply fails. in good working order. R 98 Temperature and humidity The temperature in any working chamber. The total capacity of the low pressure air compressors shall be sufficient to maintain the pressure in the air locks and working chambers to cater for emergencies. At least 2 low pressure feedlines with regulating valves shall be provided for every working chamber and at least one of them shall extend to within 30 metres of the working face of the tunnel. at a place where there are no fumes. man-lock or medical lock shall not exceed 29°C and the relative humidity shall not exceed 85%. the measured concentrations in parts per million shall be corrected to the atmospheric pressure. A lock attendant shall be appointed to record the readings of the thermometer at least once in every 4 hours in the lock attendant's register. The air intake for all air compressors of the air supply shall be located. The concentrations of toxic airborne contaminants in a compressed air environment in a worksite shall not exceed the permissible exposure levels in parts per million specified in the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions) Regulations (Rg 1). Where measurements are made to determine the concentrations of toxic airborne contaminants in a compressed air environment. • low pressure air shall be maintained and regulated automatically. and • the first-aid station. No transformer shall be used in a compressed air environment unless the transformer is of the dry type. and • low pressure air shall be provided with manually operated control valves. exhaust gases or other air contaminants. and the corrected concentrations shall not exceed the permissible exposure levels specified in the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions) Regulations. an additional air main shall be provided.0 144 Deleted: _ . shall be maintained at all times and such means of communication shall connect the following locations: • the working chamber at the face of an excavation. • the interior of each chamber of the man-lock. A reserve supply of compressed air shall be made available at all times for every man-lock and medical lock. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • the compressor plant. Instrumentation or gauges indicating the pressure in a working chamber shall be provided near the air compressor and at the site office. as far as is reasonably practicable. Alternate use from one independent source of power supply to the other shall be made once fortnightly to ensure that the equipment may be operated from either source of supply.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 96 Supply of air There shall be an adequate supply of compressed air to a working chamber. R 100 Appointment of competent person for compressed air works Sufficient number of competent persons shall be present on site to supervise the execution of work in a compressed air environment at all times when such work is being Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. A wet and dry bulb thermometer. Every air main supplying the working chamber or air lock shall be protected against accidental damage and where it is not practicable to provide such protection.

• the employment is not for more than half an hour on any one occasion. No gauge attendant shall take charge of the air control valves of more than one heading unless they are in the same location. R 104 Prohibition on consumption of alcohol and smoking Where work in a compressed air environment is carried out — • no person shall consume alcohol or smoke while at work in the compressed air environment. Every person who has been issued an identification badge shall wear the badge at all times while at work. R 101 Identification badges Identification badges containing relevant particulars shall be issued to any person who is employed in the compressed air environment for the guidance of others should the person be taken ill after leaving work. a suitably constructed and equipped man-lock shall be provided for each tunnel.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide carried out. No person shall carry out any work in a compressed air environment at a pressure exceeding 3. • there is an interval of not less than 11/2 hours between each such employment. The total period of time in a day which the person spends in a compressed air environment shall not in any subsequent day be increased by more than one hour on each subsequent day. R 105 Man-locks Where work is carried out in any compressed air tunnel. The air controls of each caisson shall be under the charge of a gauge attendant. R 102 Conditions for person working in compressed air environment Every person who is employed in a compressed air environment in the worksite shall spend not less than 12 consecutive hours at atmospheric pressure in any 24-hour period. • no person shall carry cigarettes. This regulation shall not apply to any person who is a supervisor of works being carried out in a compressed air environment or who is engaged in maintenance work in a compressed air environment provided that — • the person shall not be so employed on more than 5 occasions in any 24-hour period. and • no person who has consumed alcohol shall be allowed to undergo compression in any lock in the worksite other than in a medical lock. chest infection.5 bars except in an emergency. Competent persons shall be appointed as gauge attendants who shall at all times be in control of the control valve plant and be in attendance at the site when any person is employed in the compressed air environment. The period of time a person spends in a compressed air environment shall include the time spent by the person in the man-lock for compression and decompression. R 103 Condition for multiple entries in compressed air environment No person who has undergone 3 decompressions from a pressure exceeding one bar in any 24-hour period preceding the time he is to enter a compressed air environment shall carry out any work in compressed air except for the purpose of carrying out rescue work. The man-locks shall be Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and • the maximum pressure at which that person is so employed does not exceed 2 bars.0 145 Deleted: _ . Suitably qualified and experienced persons shall be appointed who shall at all times be in control of the air supply plant and be in attendance at the site when any person is employed in the compressed air environment. No person suffering from a cold. cigarette lighters. A person who has not carried out any work in a compressed air environment for more than 14 consecutive days shall not carry out such work in a compressed air environment exceeding one bar for more than 4 hours in one day. sore throat or ear ache shall carry out any work in a compressed air environment unless the person has been medically examined and certified fit by a medical practitioner. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. matches or other sources of ignition into the compressed air environment. A person who has never worked in a compressed air environment before shall not be employed in compressed air work unless he is accompanied by a person who had previously worked in a compressed air environment.

In an emergency. R 109 Attendance at man-lock A man-lock attendant shall be in attendance at a man-lock at all times when any person is in the man-lock or in a working chamber to which the man-lock affords direct or indirect access. A medical lock shall not be used for any purpose other than for a therapeutic purpose and for the training and testing of persons for fitness to work in a compressed air environment.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide sufficiently strong to withstand any air pressure. A notice which can be easily read and understood by any person employed to work in the man-lock shall be affixed in each man-lock to indicate — • the precautions to be taken during his compression or decompression and after decompression. No person shall be employed as a man-lock or medical lock attendant unless he has — • been certified to be medically fit by a medical practitioner. including any ancillary equipment in the medical lock. R 106 Compression and decompression procedure and use of man-lock Except in an emergency. Every medical lock shall be — • situated as near as possible to the man-lock. Each man-lock attendant station shall be provided with a first-aid box. • equipped with such facilities and medicines in readiness for use at any time. decompression and compressed air illness and with the keeping of records. a materials lock may be used for the compression and decompression of persons and a record of such use and particulars of the emergency shall be made. No person shall be employed as a man-lock or medical lock attendant for more than 12 consecutive hours in any period of 24 hours. The manlock attendant shall — • maintain a lock attendant's register. Provision shall be made to enable any person inside the man-lock or working chamber to control the doors of the man-lock or working chamber in order to leave the man-lock or working chamber in the case of an emergency.0 146 Deleted: _ . compression of persons before they enter a working chamber in a worksite and decompression of persons who are leaving a working chamber shall be carried out only in a man-lock. and • carry out the compression and decompression of persons in a compressed air environment in accordance with the approved procedures. • been trained in first-aid. R 108 Man-lock and medical lock attendants Every man-lock and medical lock shall be under the charge of a lock attendant. • of an appropriate size and shall comprise at least 2 compartments so that one of the compartments can be entered into whilst the other is under pressure. internal or external. The manlock shall be maintained in working order and in a clean state at all times. and • received adequate training to familiarise him with the hazards associated with compression. and • maintained in working order and in a clean state at all times. Compression and decompression of persons working in a compressed air environment shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures approved by the Commissioner. R 107 Medical locks Where more than 100 persons are employed in a compressed air environment exceeding one bar. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. to which the structure may be subjected whilst in use and in an emergency. The man-lock shall be of adequate size to accommodate all persons likely to use the lock at any one time. Except in the case of an emergency. a suitably constructed and equipped medical lock shall be provided for every 100 persons or less and maintained. A man-lock shall not be used for any purpose other than for the compression or decompression of persons. and • the maximum number of persons who may be accommodated in the man-lock. no person shall operate the controls for the opening and closing of the doors of the man-lock and working chamber unless he has been authorised by the lock attendant.

R 114 Training of personnel Any person who carries out any work in a compressed air environment shall receive adequate safety and health training to familiarise himself with the hazards associated with such work and the precautions to be observed. A first-aid room shall be provided and readily available at the worksite. A copy of every lock attendant's register maintained shall be kept for a period of 3 years after its making. home address and occupation of each employee employed in a compressed air environment shall be prepared and kept. Arrangements shall be made to ensure that all records of pressures and other relevant information regarding conditions in the man-lock and working chamber are accessible to the medical lock attendant at any time when the records and information are required by him. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. humidity. R 111 Appointment of medical practitioner Where any work is carried out in a compressed air environment. adequate and suitable facilities shall be provided for the persons to rest in the worksite. date of birth. R 113 Maintenance of records A register showing the name. work permit number.0 147 Deleted: _ . No medical practitioner shall be appointed unless the medical practitioner is suitably qualified and familiar with the problems associated with work in a compressed air environment and the medical aspects of that work and has been registered with the Commissioner as a designated workplace doctor. a medical practitioner shall be appointed for the purpose of supervising medical lock attendants and attending to and treating persons suffering from compressed air illness and other conditions arising from work in a compressed air environment at all times. Risk Control Elimination • Prohibition on consumption of alcohol and smoking Engineering Control • Provision of alternate ventilation system • Provision of lighting with emergency lighting • Use of fire resistant materials • Provision of alternate power source • Provision of resting facilities and first-aid room Administrative Control • Implement Safe system of work • Warning notices • Maintenance of plant and ancillary equipment • Measuring and Monitoring temperature. passport number. R 112 Resting facilities and first-aid room Where persons employed in a compressed air environment are required to remain at the worksite for one hour or more after decompression from pressures exceeding one bar. identity card number.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 110 Attendance at medical lock A medical lock attendant shall be in attendance at the medical lock — • when any person is employed in a compressed air environment at a pressure exceeding one bar. nationality. air quality • Means of communications Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and • during the period of 24 hours immediately after the last decompression of a person in a man-lock from a pressure exceeding one bar has taken place. • when any person is being treated in the medical lock.

All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 148 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • Appointment of competent person for compressed air works Provision of identification badges Implementing proper compression and decompression procedure Maintenance of records Training of personnel Comply with legal requirements Medical surveillance Medical fitness Close monitoring Reporting of illnesses to the supervisors Log books to record entry Implement permit to work system Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards. Process Work Activities Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Identify the type of controls.30 minutes • • • • • • Select a civil and structural trade.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 6 Group Exercise . Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified. Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities.0 149 Deleted: _ . Use the RA form. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

0 150 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

if the risk control involves the use of safety harnesses and lanyards (a type of PPE). The Risk Assessment Form can be used for record keeping. date and designations of the persons conducting risk assessment • Signature. Once all the risk controls are selected.0 151 Deleted: _ . • Monitor the implementation and effectiveness of control measures. They should be informed of the following: • the nature of the risk involved. and possible types of accident or incident • Existing risk control measures • Risk level for each hazard • Recommendations on additional risk controls required • Persons involved in implementing the measures on risk reduction • Signatures. the risk assessment team needs to identify the action officers and follow-up dates. one of the residual risks is that the workers may not anchor the lanyards to protect themselves. The risk assessment team should ensure that residual risks are acceptable and manageable and highlight the residual risks of each of the controls. associated with machinery. implement the recommended risk control measures as soon as possible. • applicable safe work procedures. For example. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. the risk assessment team may highlight training (administrative control) as a further measure to ensure that residual risks are further minimised. The SWPs should include the safety precautions to be taken in the course of work and during an emergency. The records should include the following information: • Names and designations of risk assessment team members • Inventory of work activities by process or location. communication amongst stakeholders at every step is essential. Every employer.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 7. The objective of this unit is to • Communicate and raise attention to the stakeholders on the hazards in accordance with organisational procedures. In this case. date and designation of management approving or endorsing the assessment Communication Throughout the risk management process. The results of risk assessment must be approved and endorsed by the top management. • Present proposed control measures to relevant stakeholders for formulation of implementation plan. • Hazards identification for each work activity. self-employed person and principal (including contractor and sub-contractor) must take all reasonably practicable steps to inform his employees or any other persons at the workplace who may be exposed to safety and health risk. A written description of the risk assessment must be kept for reference for 3 years. The employer should as far as is practicable. • the measures implemented to control the risk. as well as the provision of PPE. SWPs for work which may pose safety and health risks should be established and implemented. • Communicate the control measures and implementation plan to the relevant stakeholders. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Arising from the risk assessment. Managing implementation of control measures This Lesson is made up of 5 units. training and reviewing. equipment and chemical. All risk assessment records should be concise and kept in a register. • Report to management on status of implementation of control measurement Implementation Residual risks are the remaining risks after implementation of risk controls.

coordination meetings. • Raise safety concerns. Employee participation enables the employee to contribute on how the work can be undertaken safely. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Employees should be encouraged to: • Ask questions. Reports and email Internal safety circulars and bulletins can be notified through intranet & email to reach the target audience in the shortest time. Employees can provide suggestions about how to solve WSH problems. • Make safety recommendations. The results of the risk assessment can be shared in these meetings. Examples of meetings include WSH committee meetings. One-on-one discussions This is a briefing conducted by the immediate supervisor to his subordinate. It allows for dialogue between the members. Relevant parties feedback sessions Feedback sessions help to gather feedback from the employees on the control measures implemented. Communication of control measures to relevant stakeholders. team meetings. Small group meetings Meeting is an assembly of individuals to debate certain issues and take decisions. These meeting would be appropriate to tackle specific work groups or trades. The stakeholders have been covered in earlier topics. the employees or other persons who may be at risk must be informed accordingly. • Be a part of the problem-solving process. etc. which may include: Organisation such as • Suppliers • Clients • Developers • Designer consultants • Contractors Individual such as • Workers • Supervisors • Foreman • Engineers • Architect • Managers The mode of communication can be through the following: WSH committee meetings One of the key functions of the WSH committee meetings is to promote safe conduct of work.0 152 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The disadvantage could be the literacy level of the employees and the availability of time and resources such as computers to access them. This would be appropriate when the supervisor wants to coach his subordinates on the safe method of work and on the job training.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Whenever the risk assessment is revised. or when there is a significant change in work practices or procedures.

All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.e. For organizations with established WSH management systems. the adequacy of resources can be at least partially evaluated by comparing the planned achievement of WSH objectives with actual results. first aid. instruments. etc Financial . The plan should include a time line of implementation and responsibilities of persons implementing the safety and health control measures. risk evaluation and risk control) when conducting a risk assessment review. While employers are required to review their plans every three years. Resources needed Management should ensure that adequate resources are available for the implementation of the risk controls. Evaluation Regular auditing is required to ensure that risk control measures are functioning effectively. Deleted: ¶ Resources can be considered adequate if they are sufficient to carry out the risk control programmes and activities.g getting the necessary space for training. The effectiveness of the control measures should be evaluated using the following criteria: Reduced WSH risks The implementation of the corrective and preventive action would translate to better risk controls bringing about a reduction in risk levels. Work in progress The plan should be monitored regularly until all the measures are implemented. • • • • • Manpower .g getting the necessary equipment such as training equipment. space. etc.e. Equipment and tools allocation . demonstration.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Monitoring The implementation of the control measures should be monitored through one of the following: Schedule of implementation An action plan should be prepared to implement the measures.the availability of time in terms of implementation with respect to the production schedule considering the allocated resources.setting aside a budget for safety to acquire the necessary manpower. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. etc. WSH professionals. etc. equipment. Robustness This indicates whether the corrective and preventive actions would be strong enough to withstand the shortcomings. For example from a medium risk to a low risk level. The resources needed would be.allocating necessary competent persons to assist in the implementation such as trainers. a review should take place whenever: • New information on safety and health risks surfaces. including performance measurement and monitoring. • There are changes to the area of work and / or • After any accident / incident. Time .0 153 Deleted: _ . The risk assessment team should undertake the same 3 steps (hazard identification. This can be done by maintaining an updated list of daily activities on site. evacuation. Regular review of the risk assessment plan is critical. Space allocation . The new risk levels should be evaluated and the risk assessments updated accordingly.

etc or manual e. Ease of use This indicates whether the actions are user friendly and thereby resulting in better compliance levels. Reporting The management should be updated on the status of implementation of control measurement. types of training attended. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Training records – Employees have to be trained upon changes to risk assessments. Operator could be missing one step under the SOPs. This would reflect the outstanding action items and the corresponding action officer.g through records. etc.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Reliability This indicates whether the corrective and preventive actions would fail from the required norms due to certain factors such as environmental conditions. Reproducibility This indicates whether the actions can be repeated at other areas with the same robustness and reliability. • Creating hazards elsewhere – This evaluates whether the actions may bring down the risk level but may pose as a hazards somewhere else. The closure of actions items can be informed by person in charge through one-on-one basis or through the consultation and communication process.0 154 Deleted: _ . The records would indicate the number of personnel trained in a particular training programme and how many more have to be trained. which the organisation may not prefer.Depending on the area of control such as process and physical areas. Risk assessment register – The non-conformances would require a review in the risk assessments and hence require to be updated. effectiveness of training. etc.g Microsoft Access. Outlook. relevant personnel should be assigned to close the corrective / preventive actions. The list of safe work procedures would reflect the update. the duration of training. which may include: Tracking the implementation of corrective / preventive actions The implementation of corrective / preventive actions can be tracked using appropriate action items tracking methods which include computer programmes e. The risk assessment register would reflect the update. Any side-effects • Interference with productivity – This evaluates if the actions reduces the productivity level and cause a loss in business. This can be further be verified through inspection and document reviews. e. This would reflect the company’s training status. The time frame for the completion of the corrective / preventive actions should be agreed as well.g. The training records would indicate the number of persons trained. Persons affected by the non-conformances or audit findings Persons responsible for taking corrective and/or preventive actions . Safe work procedures – Changes in risk assessment would require a review in the safe work procedures and hence require to be updated. Deleted: ¶ ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ L Learning Activity 7 Group Exercise . 9. 8. Deleted: ¶ ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 155 Deleted: _ . 2. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.30 minutes Choose any 10 risk controls and identify how would you communicate the following to the various stakeholders? S/No Risk Controls Communication Ways to monitor Evaluate effectiveness 1. 3. 10. 6. 5. 4. 7.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide References Texts • Reese.0 156 Deleted: _ . Charles D.sg/workplace-safetyhealth/Pages/default.gov.wshc. ISBN 1566702976. Lewis Publishers. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Websites • Ministry of Manpower – http://www. (1999).sg/wps/portal/resources?action=infoStopHome&openMenu=-1 Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.mom. Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health.aspx • Workplace Safety and Health Council https://www.

0 157 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 158 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

Page 9: [1] Deleted Kader 5/16/2012 4:09:00 PM Title WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007 WSH (General Provisions) Regulations 2006 WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 WSH (First Aid) Regulations 2006 Applicable to Factories Factories and owners of pressure vessels All worksites Factories.000 Maximum Imprisonment 2 years Conditions Either or both . steam engine or internal combustion engine 5/16/2012 4:11:00 PM Page 10: [3] Deleted Kader Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004 Page 21: [4] Deleted Kader Factories with scaffolds 5/16/2012 4:24:00 PM Category of offender Individual persons Maximum Fine $200. mobile crane and tower crane Factories with steam boiler. premises within airport All workplaces Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act All workplaces Factories Factories Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act Factories WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations 2006 WSH (Risk Management) Regulations 2006 WSH (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2006 WSH (Transitional Provision) Regulations 2006 WSH (Offences and Penalties) (Subsidiary Legislation under Section 67(14)) Regulations 2006 WSH (Registration of Factories) Regulations 2008 WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Committees) Regulations 2008 WSH (Abrasive Blasting) Regulations 2008 WSH (Explosive Powered Tools) Regulations 2009 WSH (Confined Spaces) Regulations 2009 WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009 Page 10: [2] Deleted Kader 5/16/2012 4:11:00 PM Factories (Medical Examinations) Regulations Factories (Noise) Regulations Factories (Operations of Cranes) Regulations Factories (Persons-In-Charge) Regulations Factories with exposure to certain chemicals. excessive noise. laboratories. compressed air Factories with excessive noise Factories involving crane. ship in harbour.

N.Savings and transitional provision Notwithstanding the revocation of the Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004. re-positioned. used. immediately before 10th September 2011.000 st 1 conviction $1. use. alteration or dismantling of the scaffold are complied with. installation. repaired or dismantled. The employer. and co-operate with the occupier and the person who employs or engages him in ensuring that the requirements of these Regulations are complied with. repositioning. alteration or dismantling of any scaffold shall — ensure that every provision of these Regulations relating to his role is complied with. installation. .000 Maximum Imprisonment Conditions $400. installed. The approved scaffold contractor and every person who engages an approved scaffold contractor shall ensure that the requirements of these Regulations relating to the erection.000 2 years Either or both $1 million Page 70: [5] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:19:00 PM R 63 . re-positioned. whose employee uses any scaffold or part of a scaffold to perform work. No.Revocation The Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004 (G. S 19/2004) are revoked. altered or dismantled by an approved scaffold contractor and in accordance with these Regulations. every person who. altered. R 4 Obligation under Regulations The occupier shall ensure that the scaffold is erected. Every person employed or engaged in connection with the erection. to shall ensure that the scaffold is used by the employee in accordance with these Regulations.000 nd 2 or subsequent conviction $2. is registered as an approved scaffold contractor shall be deemed to be an approved scaffold contractor under these Regulations. maintained. and cease to be an approved scaffold contractor on the expiry of its registration as an approved scaffold contractor as if these Regulations had not been made Page 70: [6] Deleted Owner 5/21/2012 1:14:00 PM R 3 Application Apply to any factoryworkplace in which any scaffold is erected. installed. repositioning.Category of offender Corporate body Workers For failure to use personal protective equipment or misuse of any safety appliance Repeat offenders nd For a 2 or subsequent Individual conviction for the same offence that causes the death of Corporate another person body Maximum Fine $500. R 64 .

as far as practicable. altered or dismantled by a qualified suspended scaffold rigger. free from patent defects. R 7 Scaffold erectors and suspended scaffold riggers Every suspended scaffold shall be erected. good construction and adequate strength. Every scaffold shall be properly maintained and every part thereof shall be fixed. Every scaffold erector and suspended scaffold rigger shall be provided with a safety harness attached to a shock absorbing device and use the safety harness provided. and suitable and safe for the purpose for which it is intended. re-positioned. altered or dismantled except by an approved scaffold contractor. A work platform and any support thereof shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer where the work platform is used to provide footing for more than 2 persons in each bay or to support tools or materials exceeding 25 kgf in each bay. re-positioned. installed. repositioned. In the case of a timber scaffold. altered or dismantled in accordance with these Regulations. altered or dismantled by a qualified scaffold erector. the scaffold shall be adequately supported to prevent collapse. Every work platform provided shall cover the lift of a scaffold throughout its entire length. R 10 Work platforms Work platforms shall be provided at any place of work which does not afford a proper and secure foothold and in the case of a building under construction. The vertical distance between any 2 work platforms shall not exceed 4 metres. not more than 2 persons shall work on a work platform in . Every scaffold exceeding 4 metres shall be erected. when completed and excluding the handrails and their supports at the uppermost lift of the scaffold. installed. Where the height of the scaffold extends beyond the uppermost permanent floor by 2 metres or more. No scaffold exceeding 4 metres or suspended scaffold shall be erected. R 8 Construction and materials Every scaffold and every member or component thereof shall be of sound material. at least 500 millimetres wide. installed. An approved scaffold contractor shall employ or engage only qualified scaffold supervisors. 220 kgf per square metre. Work platforms shall be provided at intervals of not less than every alternate lift of any scaffold. altered or dismantled except under the immediate supervision of a scaffold supervisor. installed. secured or placed in position so as to prevent. re-positioned. any accidental displacement. around the edge of the building at every uppermost permanent floor which is under construction. be erected such that it precedes the construction of the uppermost permanent floor of the building by not less than 1 metre above that floor.R 5 Approved scaffold contractor No scaffold (other than a tower scaffold and a trestle scaffold) shall be erected. installed. Every work platform shall be closely boarded. as far as practicable. planked or decked and if it is used to provide footing for not more than 3 persons and support tools and materials not exceeding 25 kgf per bay of a scaffold. R 9 Scaffold to precede permanent floor Every scaffold erected at a building under construction shall. is less than 4 metres in height. 75 kgf per square metre or in any other case. This does not apply to a scaffold which. The maximum loading for persons and materials on any work platform in any bay of a scaffold shall be in the case of a timber scaffold. except a tower scaffold or a trestle scaffold. R 6 Scaffold supervisor The scaffold supervisor shall be a qualified person and ensure that the scaffold is erected. scaffold erectors and suspended scaffold riggers. re-positioned.

placed on the inside of the uprights and secured so as to prevent accidental displacement. extend at least 600 millimetres beyond the end of the wall or work area. The toe-boards and guardrails provided shall be — of good construction. not more than 4 persons shall work on a work platform in any bay. In the case of a metal scaffold. No person shall be permitted on a scaffold that is damaged or weakened except for a scaffold erector who is carrying out repairs thereto. R 17 Stairs and ladders Stairs or ladders shall be provided to enable persons to gain access from one level of any scaffold to another. Where a metal scaffold is used to support more than 4 persons in any bay. and . R 18 Toe-boards and guard-rails Every side of a work platform or workplace from which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres shall be provided with toe-boards and 2 or more guard-rails. R 13 Scaffold to be free of substances which endanger safety Any material. sound material and adequate strength to withstand the impact during the course of work. In the case of a metal scaffold. R 11 Boards. The distance between a work platform and any building or other structure shall be as narrow as practicable and shall not exceed 300 millimetres. including concrete waste or other debris. R 12 Number of persons allowed in each bay In the case of a timber scaffold.any bay. where practicable. Any board or plank which forms part of a work platform shall project beyond its end support to a distance of not less than 50 millimetres and not more than 4 times the thickness of the board or plank unless it is effectively secured to prevent tipping or uplift. R 16 Opening only for access There shall be no opening in any work platform except to allow access to that work platform. which may endanger the safety of any person shall be removed from the scaffold. and be flushed along their lengths and secured. not more than 8 persons shall be allowed in any bay. planks and decking All boards. be capable of supporting a load of 670 kgf per square metre with due regard to the spacing of the supports. R 15 Repair of damaged scaffold Any scaffold and any member or component thereof that has been damaged or weakened shall be immediately repaired. Any metal decking which forms part of a work platform shall be provided with non-skid surfaces. as far as practicable. Adequate safety measures shall be taken to ensure the safety of the scaffold erector carrying out the repairs. the scaffold shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. Signboards stating the maximum permissible weight of tools and materials and the maximum number of persons permissible on each bay shall be prominently displayed at suitable locations on the work platforms. the work platform at such wall or work area shall. planks or decking used in the construction of work platforms shall — be of uniform thickness. R 14 Work at end of wall or work area Where work has to be done at the end of a wall or work area. be installed within the scaffold. not more than 4 persons shall be allowed in any bay. Stairs or ladders provided shall.

the soil shall be well-consolidated. The joints in bracing members shall be lapped or spliced. A standard shall be placed on an adequate and secured sole plate in order that the foot of the standard does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface so as to prevent any vertical displacement of the foot. horizontal.5 metres apart shall be used unless its use has been approved by the MOM in writing.8 metres. There shall be no cavity under the sole plate immediately below any standard.5 metres apart in the case of a timber scaffold. The ledgers of a timber scaffold shall be — as far as possible.5 metres apart in the case of a metal scaffold. R 22 Foundation of scaffold A scaffold shall be constructed on structures or foundations of adequate strength. The height of toe-boards shall not be less than 90 millimetres. In the case of a scaffold exceeding 15 metres in height or being erected on poorly drained soil. Every lift shall be crossed by at least one longitudinal bracing member in every 10 metres length of the scaffold. Where a scaffold is to be founded on soil. R 23 Scaffold not to be overloaded A scaffold shall not be overloaded and. and securely fastened to the standards. the load thereon shall be evenly . Longitudinal bracing members shall be continuous and fixed at approximately 45° to the horizontal. the provision of a sole plate under the standard shall not be necessary. R 21 Transoms Transoms shall be located at or near the intersections of standards and ledgers. Every frame scaffold shall be provided with horizontal bracings or lacings at intervals of not more than every 5 lifts. having regard to all the circumstances. A transverse bracing system shall be provided at each end of the scaffold and at intervals of not more than 10 bays. Transverse bracing system may be omitted where vertical transverse frames are provided for the full height of the scaffold and at each pair of standards and the frames are of a type approved by MOM. R 19 Standards and ledgers The standards of a scaffold shall be — plumb where practicable. The ledgers of a metal scaffold shall be spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 2 metres. as far as practicable. spaced not more than 1. The foot of a standard of any frame or modular scaffold shall be secured to a base plate so that it does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface. base plates shall bear upon sole plates of strength not less than 670 kgf per square metre and of a length suitable to distribute the load. fixed sufficiently close together to secure the stability of the scaffold.placed so as to prevent the fall of any person or material. Where the floor or supporting structure is of sufficient rigidity to evenly distribute the load imposed upon it by the standard without causing any vertical displacement of the standard. spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 1. The vertical distance between any 2 adjacent guard-rails or any work platform or workplace and the guard-rail immediately above it shall not exceed 600 millimetres. The uppermost guard-rail shall be at least one metre above the work platform or workplace for which the guard-rail is provided. R 20 Bracing Every scaffold shall be effectively braced by means of longitudinal and transverse bracing systems which shall extend from the base to the top of the scaffold. and spaced not more than 2. No metal scaffold with standards spaced more than 2.

and since exposure to weather conditions likely to have affected its strength or stability or to have displaced any part. R 29 Overlay and screening nets Overlay or screening nets shall be used to envelope any timber or metal scaffold which is erected on the outside of a building. is liable to be approached for the purpose of use. display a notice or label indicating whether the scaffold is safe for use or otherwise. The scaffold supervisor shall enter the results of any inspection into a register. the first-mentioned employer shall. R 27 Inspection of scaffold Except for trestle scaffold. the portion from which the ties are removed shall be dismantled unless adequate measures are taken to ensure the stability of the scaffold.distributed. he shall notify the occupier of the factoryworkplace in which the scaffold is installed and the occupier shall take immediate steps to rectify the defect. R 24 Scaffold used by persons employed by different employers Where a scaffold or part thereof is to be used by or on behalf of an employer other than the employer for whose employee it was first erected. before such use. the material shall be moved or deposited without imposing any violent shock. When any defect on a scaffold is discovered by the first-mentioned employer. R 26 Measures against electrical hazards All practicable measures shall be taken to protect any person working on a scaffold from electric shock by electrical wires or equipment. as the case may be. . and without prejudice to any such obligations imposed upon him by these Regulations. take immediate steps to satisfy himself that the provisions of these Regulations have been complied with. R 28 Labelling and marking of scaffold The scaffold supervisor who carries out the inspection of a scaffold shall. Where ties of a scaffold to a permanent structure have to be removed. or a prominent warning notice in languages or signs understood by all persons indicating that the scaffold or part thereof is not to be used is affixed near any point at which the scaffold or part. All designated access points shall be clearly marked with a sign or label and made safe for use by any person. No person shall use any scaffold unless a notice or label is displayed at the designated access point indicating that the scaffold is safe for use with the exception of scaffold erector who is carrying out any repair on a scaffold or a scaffold supervisor who is carrying out any inspection of a scaffold. The notice or label shall be in languages or signs easily understood by the persons and displayed at every designated access point. R 25 Designated access point for scaffold Every scaffold shall have at least one designated access point from which a person may gain access onto the scaffold. immediately after such inspection. R 30 Erection and dismantling No scaffold or part thereof which is partly erected or dismantled shall be allowed to remain in such a condition that it is capable of being used unless — the scaffold complies with these Regulations. When any material is transferred to or from a scaffold. scaffold shall be inspected by a scaffold supervisor — within the 7 days immediately preceding the use of the scaffold. This shall not apply to a tower scaffold.

jointpin or sleeve and the other standard does not exceed 1. R 33 Metal scaffold to be constructed in accordance with design and drawings of professional engineer Every metal scaffold exceeding 30 metres in height in any factoryworkplace other than in a shipyard shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. and the scaffold or support. has been examined after installation by the professional engineer and a certificate stating that the scaffold or support is safe for use has been obtained from the professional engineer. the standard shall be tied longitudinally to the adjacent standard or standards at a . Sleeves shall cover the end of the standard by at least 70 millimetres. Spigots and jointpins shall engage in the ends of the standards by at least 70 millimetres. jointpins or sleeves Spigots. jointpins or sleeves shall permit full bearing over the whole bearing area at the ends of the standards and have such external or internal dimensions that the maximum difference of mating diameters in any part between the spigot. jointpins or sleeves are used to locate and connect one standard to another. as the case may be. Ties shall be located no further than one bay from the ends of the scaffold and thereafter.000 kgf applied in either direction along the length of the tie. R 37 Adjustable base plates Where an adjustable base plate is used on a standard and the adjustment exceeds 150 millimetres. jointpins or sleeves. R 35 Transoms for modular or tube-and-coupler scaffolds A modular scaffold or tube-and-coupler scaffold shall be provided with transverse horizontal members or transoms for each lift. jointpins or sleeves shall be used to connect one standard to another. he shall immediately inform the occupier of the factoryworkplace in which the scaffold or support is installed. a copy of the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer and the certificate are kept available at the factoryworkplace. Metal Scaffolds R 32 Approved metal scaffold No metal scaffold shall be used unless it is of a type approved by MOM. Every tie shall be capable of withstanding a force of 1. The occupier shall take action to rectify the defect before the scaffold or support is used. has been inspected by a professional engineer at least once every 3 months to ensure that it is safe for use. Where spigots.R 31 Scaffold and other supports designed by professional engineer No scaffold or support designed by a professional engineer shall be used unless — the scaffold or support.5 metres apart. such spigots. R 36 Spigots. Every tie tube shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the scaffold and where this is not practicable. the deviation from the perpendicular shall not exceed 15°. Ties other than tie tubes and couplers shall not be used. at intermediate spacing of not more than 3 bays or 7.6 millimetres. R 34 Ties for metal scaffold Every alternate lift and every uppermost lift of an independent tied metal scaffold shall be effectively tied to the building or structure by means of ties. whichever is the lesser. When the professional engineer discovers any defect in a scaffold or support. The standards shall be securely held if they are connected by the spigots. as the case may be.

Suspended scaffold R 45 Suspended scaffold The outriggers or other supports are — of adequate length and strength.height of not more than 460 millimetres above the supporting surface by right angle or swivel couplers. Timber used for any scaffold shall comprise Bintangor rollers or other species of timber rollers which are of similar strength. securely fixed to a building. R 44 Dismantling of timber scaffold A timber scaffold shall be dismantled within a period of 9 months after erection. R 39 Cross brace not to be used as means of access or egress No cross brace on a frame scaffold shall be used as a means of access or egress. R 42 Construction of timber scaffold Every timber scaffold shall not exceed 15 metres in height. Each tie shall pass through an opening or hole in the wall in the building and be secured at a right angle to another pole which shall be fixed firmly inside the building. durability and resilience as Bintangor rollers. Timber Scaffolds R 41 Timber scaffold Timber used for any scaffold — shall be of a suitable quality. Transverse and longitudinal braces of timber scaffold shall be securely placed and lashed to the standards. Ties made up of wires shall not be used.8 metres in length with a minimum of 6 turns per strip. Every timber scaffold shall be securely tied and braced at the corners and rigidly anchored to the building at regular close intervals. and shall not be painted or treated in any way so that defects in the wood cannot be seen easily. R 38 Frame or modular scaffolds to be erected in one plane Frame or modular scaffolds shall be erected such that lifts are horizontal and in one plane. the timber scaffold shall be tied to a building using ties which are constructed and installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. shall be in good condition. and provided with rope guards of adequate strength at the outer ends to prevent the ropes from being displaced from the outriggers except when the primary suspension ropes are suspended from the outer end of the outriggers or other supports by means which preclude the displacement of the ropes from their points of suspension . properly installed and supported. ship or other structure by anchor bolts or other similar means. R 43 Ties for timber scaffold A timber scaffold shall be tied to a building by horizontal ties. Where it is impracticable to install any tie. Every timber roller used as a ledger or horizontal bracing. Every standard shall be at least 50 millimetres diameter throughout its length. adequately and securely anchored at the inner ends. transom or putlog shall be at least 38 millimetres diameter at the tip. shall have the bark completely stripped off. The members or components of a timber scaffold shall be lashed using rattan strips or other material not less than 1. No timber scaffold with a single row of standards shall be erected or used. or where such fixing is not reasonably practicable.

the outriggers or other overhead supports should be constructed in accordance with the design of a professional engineer. Ropes are securely attached to the outriggers or other supports and if winch drums are used. Ropes shall be capable of being lowered to the ground or floor. Boards. the design of the suspended scaffold shall be endorsed by a professional engineer or a third party inspection agency approved by the Ministry of Manpower. Every scaffold suspended by means of chains or ropes shall be secured to prevent undue horizontal movement while it is used as a work platform. The winches or climbers shall be synchronised so that the work platform of the suspended scaffold is maintained level at all times. Any chain. Where wire ropes are used for supporting the work platform of a suspended scaffold. Where a suspended scaffold has been re-positioned or shifted from one location to another within the same factoryworkplace. suitable quality and in good condition.The points of suspension are at adequate horizontal distances from the building face or any other structure.2 metres apart measured from the longitudinal centre line of one outrigger or support to such centre of the adjacent outrigger or support. approximately vertical. unless prior written approval has been obtained form the Ministry of Manpower. The edge of the platform is as close as practicable to the work area and in no case shall the distance between the platform and the work area be more than 460 millimetres. the suspended scaffold and its attachments shall be installed in accordance to the design and drawings endorsed by a professional engineer. to the winch drums. The outriggers or overhead supports shall be spaced at not more than 3. R 46 Suspended scaffold raised or lowered by winches or climbers No suspended scaffold raised or lowered by winches or climbers shall be used unless: It has been designed and constructed in accordance with a Standard or Code acceptable to the Ministry of Manpower. there are at least 2 turns of the rope remaining on each winch drum. R 48 Overloading of suspended scaffold . rope or metal tube used for the suspension of a scaffold other than a suspended scaffold shall be — properly and securely fastened to safe anchorage points and to the scaffold ledgers or other main supporting members. The suspension ropes are galvanised wires of good construction. adequate strength and free from patent defects. The platform is at least 500 millimetres and not more than 750 millimetres in width unless measures have been taken to prevent transverse tilting of the platform. rope or lifting gear used for the suspension of a scaffold shall be of sound material. The climbers or winches have been opened for inspection and servicing at least once every 12 months to ensure that the drive mechanisms are in safe working order. In the case of a suspended scaffold manufactured outside Singapore. It has been tested by an authorized examiner after installation (thereafter it is tested by an authorized examiner at least once in every period of six months). Wire ropes used to suspend the work platform shall be vertical and taut. R 47 Gear for suspension of scaffold Every chain. and kept taut. and in the case of winches. positioned so as to ensure stability of the scaffold. The climber or winches have been properly maintained. adequate strength. and records of such inspection and servicing shall be kept for each climber and winch. sound material. planks or decking used as platforms are capable of supporting a load of 670 kgf per square metre with due regard to the spacing of the supports.

excluding the handrails and their supports at the . sand. the other wire rope is capable of sustaining the weight of the platform and its load and preventing it from tilting. which shall be attached to a secure anchorage at all times. Every portable counter-weight shall have its weight permanently and distinctly stamped. No person shall permit. instruct or direct any person under 18 years of age to operate the suspended scaffold R 53 Duties of persons in suspended scaffold Every person in a suspended scaffold shall wear a safety harness. The safety device should be able to support the platform in the event of the failure of the suspension rope. The maximum number of persons which is allowed to be in the suspended scaffold. R 55 Safety device for suspended scaffold Suspended scaffold should be provided with automatic safety device mounted on safety wire rope at each suspension point. climber or any part of the mechanism. chippings or other aggregates should riot be used as counter-weights. earth. a notice in languages or signs understood by any person in the cradle: The safe working load of the suspended scaffold. R 54 Notice in suspended scaffold There shall be prominently displayed in the cradle of every suspended scaffold. or a system is incorporated which operates automatically to support the platform and its load in the event of a failure of the primary suspension rope. which affords a safe means of access or egress. R 52 Age limit of operator No person under the age of 18 years shall operate a climber. engraved or embossed. Tower Scaffolds R 56 Tower scaffold The height of a tower scaffold shall not exceed 8 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. R 49 Suspended scaffold counter-balanced by counter-weights Water or other liquids. R 50 Weight of counter-balance Counter-weight should be at least 3 times the weight required to balance the weight of the suspended scaffold when fully loaded plus the load of the projecting part of the outriggers and suspending ropes. No person shall enter or leave the cradle of a suspended scaffold unless it is at rest on the ground or at any level. This shall not apply if the platform is supported on 2 independent suspension wire ropes at or near each end such that in the event of a failure of one suspension wire rope. winch or mechanism used for raising or lowering a suspended scaffold. Where the height of a tower scaffold. R 51 Prevention of sway The work platform of a suspended scaffold shall be securely fastened to the building or structure in such a manner and at such intervals so as to prevent the platform from swaying. Every counter-weight shall be securely attached at the inner end of the outrigger to prevent any accidental displacement or tampering by any person.A suspended scaffold shall not be loaded beyond the safe working load at any time unless during testing by authorized examiner. and Notice of the above to include a reminder to the persons in the cradle to attach their safety harnesses to secure anchorage at all times. clay. winch.

Any tower scaffold which can be moved on casters shall be — constructed with due regard to its stability and. Page 70: [7] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [7] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [8] Formatted Unknown Font color: Red Page 70: [9] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [10] Formatted Unknown Font color: Red Page 70: [11] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [11] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [12] Formatted Unknown Font color: Red Page 70: [13] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [13] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM . No person shall remain on a tower scaffold when it is being moved. and provided with casters having a positive locking device to hold the scaffold in position. the scaffold shall be effectively tied to the building or a rigid structure so as to prevent toppling. adequately weighted at the base. used only on a firm and even surface. No more than 2 work platforms shall be used on a tower scaffold at any time. if necessary. No tower scaffold shall be moved except by applying force at or near the base. exceeds 3 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold.uppermost lift of the scaffold.

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no trestle scaffold shall be constructed with more than 3 tiers or used if it has a work platform more than 4. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a suspended scaffold. Page 113: [71] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font: Italic Page 113: [72] Formatted Kader 5/24/2012 2:37:00 PM Font: Arial. Overhanging eaves gutters shall not be used as supports for any part of a scaffold unless they have been specially designed as walkways and are of adequate strength. fixed and anchored on the support to prevent displacement. No work platform resting on bearers let into a wall at one end and which does not have other support shall be used unless the bearers pass through the wall and are of adequate strength and securely fastened on the other side of the wall. Italic Page 113: [73] Formatted Kader 5/24/2012 2:37:00 PM Normal Page 113: [74] Formatted Kader 5/24/2012 2:37:00 PM . R 60 Trestle scaffold Unless constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer.Page 70: [69] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 71: [70] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:09:00 PM Other scaffolds R 57 Scaffold and work platform erected on cantilever or jib support “cantilever or jib support” includes any structure.5 metres above the ground or floor or other surfaces upon which the scaffold is erected. R 58 Scaffold supported by buildings or other structures No part of a building or other structure shall be used as support for any part of a scaffold unless it is sufficiently stable and of sound material and sufficient strength to afford safe support. that projects beyond a fulcrum or point of attachment and that is not supported directly from the ground or floor below. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a scaffold platform unless the width of the platform is such as to leave sufficient clear space for the transport of materials and the trestles or uprights are firmly attached to the platform and adequately braced to prevent displacement. and the cantilever or jib support has outriggers of adequate length and cross section and is constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. No cantilever or jib support shall be used unless — the scaffold is adequately supported. 10 pt. Not Bold. including a bracket or beam.

10 pt Page 113: [75] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:36:00 PM The Factories (Operation of Cranes) Regulations (Cap. R 29 .Savings and transitional provision Every person who. "mobile crane" means a crane mounted on a truck. derricking the jib or by any other means not solely involving a travelling motion of the crane. Rg 10).Font: Arial. "tower crane" means a crane which has a vertical or near vertical tower designed to be free standing up to a height and includes any crane of a type shown in the Second Schedule. crawler or on wheels and includes any crane of a type shown in the First Schedule. R 4 Registration of crane operators No person shall operate a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is registered as a crane operator and is the holder of a valid certificate. or an approved crane contractor approved under the repealed Factories (Operation of Cranes) Regulations. and such registration or approval shall expire on the day it would have expired if these Regulations had not been enacted R 2 Definitions "crane" means a machine incorporating an elevated structural member or jib beneath which suspended loads may be moved vertically (whether upwards or downwards) or horizontally or both. is a crane operator registered under the repealed Factories (Operation of Cranes) Regulations (Cap. A person may drive a mobile crane in a . Rg 10) are revoked. shall be deemed to be registered or approved under regulations 7 and 22 of these Regulations respectively. immediately before 10th September 2011. 104. mobile crane or tower crane is employed. R 3 Application These Regulations shall apply to any Page 113: [76] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [77] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [77] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [78] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [79] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:36:00 PM in which a crane. 104. either by slewing the machine.

shall not use the crane for any operation for which it is not intended. A person may operate a lorry loader comprising of an articulator arm fitted onto a lorry which is used primarily for the purpose of transporting materials or goods. shall ensure that any outrigger when it is required is fully extended and secured.Page 113: [80] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [81] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [81] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [82] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [82] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [83] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [84] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:36:00 PM if he is the holder of a driving licence issued under the Road Traffic Act (Cap. in particular the ground surface on which a mobile crane is to be operated. shall ascertain whether the ground conditions. R 16 Duties of crane operator Any person operating a crane -shall not carry out any lifting operation unless a lifting supervisor is present or has approved the carrying out of such operation. he shall report this to the lifting supervisor. shall report any failure or malfunction of the crane to the lifting supervisor and shall make an appropriate entry in the log-book or log-sheet of the crane. shall not engage in any act or manoeuvre which is not in accordance with safe and sound practice. and if he is of the opinion that it is not safe for travel or any lifting operation. including pulling or dragging a load. are safe for travel or any lifting operation. carry out operational tests on all limit switches under no load conditions before any lifting operation is carried out and shall enter the results of such tests in a log-book or log-sheet. shall not manoeuvre or hold any suspended load over any public road or public area unless that road or area has been cordoned off. shall before the start of every workshift. . 276) authorising him to drive a mobile crane of a class or description permitted by the licence.

unless the repair affects the safe operation of the crane. shall not hoist any load if there is any obstruction in the path of manoeuvre and if there is any such obstruction. he shall report this immediately to the lifting supervisor. and report any defect in the lifting gear to the lifting supervisor. R 18 Appointment and duties of rigger No person shall rig up loads for any lifting operation by a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is a rigger appointed by an occupier. No person shall be appointed as a rigger unless he has successfully completed an approved training course. This shall not apply to the installation or dismantling of a fly jib and to the repair of any non-load bearing part of a crane. testing and dismantling of mobile crane or tower crane No person shall install. shall not hoist any load unless he has received a clear signal from a signalman when this is required under regulation 19. altered or dismantled in accordance with the instructions contained in such manual. alter or dismantle a mobile crane or a tower crane unless he is an approved crane contractor. A rigger shall be attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a rigger. an approved crane contractor shall install. ensure that only proper lifting gears are used in conjunction with the sling. An occupier shall appoint a rigger before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out. shall not hoist any object if he is unable to ascertain the weight of the object. and shall not operate a mobile crane or a tower crane within 3 metres of any live overhead power line. ensure that any loose load including stones. repair. adequate strength and free from patent defect. ensure that the load to be lifted is secure. The owner of any mobile crane or tower crane shall ensure that the crane is tested and certified safe by an authorised examiner for the operations for which it is intended before use. stable and balanced. repair. No person shall be appointed as a signalman unless he has successfully completed an approved training course. repair. bricks or tiles. R 17 Installation.shall ensure that any stationary truck mounted or wheel mounted crane is adequately and securely blocked while it is on a slope. R 19 Appointment and duties of signalman An occupier shall appoint a signalman before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out. Where the manual is not available. A signalman shall -- . alteration and dismantling of the mobile crane or tower crane and ensure that the crane is installed. sound and suitable material. ensure that an adequate number of legs of the sling are used and that the slinging angle is correct so as to prevent the sling from being overloaded during the hoisting. A signalman shall be attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a signalman. alteration. alter or dismantle any mobile crane or tower crane under the immediate supervision of an authorised examiner. ascertain the weight of the load which is to be lifted and inform the crane operator of the weight of the load. A rigger shall -check the slings to be used for slinging the loads to ensure that the slings are of good construction. is placed in a receptacle to prevent the load or part thereof from falling during the lifting operation. An approved crane contractor shall obtain a manufacturer's manual which contains instructions on the safe procedures for the installation. repaired. place adequate padding at the edges of the load which come in contact with the sling so as to prevent the sling from being damaged. repair.

brief all crane operators. No person shall be appointed as a lifting supervisor for any lifting operation involving the use of a mobile crane or tower crane unless he has successfully completed an approved training course and relevant experience in lifting operations for at least one year.ensure or verify with the rigger that the load is properly rigged up before he gives a clear signal to the crane operator to lift the load. riggers and signalmen on the safe lifting procedures referred to in sub-paragraph (d). Page 113: [85] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [86] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [87] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [88] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [88] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [89] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [90] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM . ensure that the ground conditions are safe for any lifting operation to be performed by any mobile crane. ensure that there is a set of safe lifting procedures for any lifting operation by a mobile crane or a tower crane. A lifting supervisor shall -co-ordinate all lifting activities. ensure that only registered crane operators. R 20 Appointment and duties of lifting supervisor An occupier shall appoint a lifting supervisor before any lifting operation involving the use of any crane. and give correct and clear signals to guide the crane operator in the manoeuvre of the load safely to its destination. unless he is present to supervise a lifting operation. take such measures to rectify the unsatisfactory or unsafe condition or otherwise ensure that any lifting operation is carried out safely. mobile crane or tower crane is carried out. and if any unsatisfactory or unsafe conditions are reported to him by any crane operator or rigger. appointed riggers and appointed signalmen participate in any lifting operation involving the use of a mobile crane or a tower crane.

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3 Working with hazardous substances Learning Activity 3 6.0 1 Deleted: _ .11 Excavation Learning Activity 6 7.2 Working at height 6.4 Working with tools.5 Material handling 6. Monitoring of WSH legal compliance issues Control and manage risks in construction industries 5. Communicating WSH legal and other requirements 3. Managing implementation of control measures Learning Activity 7 References Page 2 6 8 16 17 23 27 28 31 32 44 44 51 79 87 89 102 104 116 118 123 125 127 130 138 149 151 155 156 Deleted: 9 Deleted: 6 Deleted: 17 Deleted: 24 Deleted: 28 Deleted: 29 Deleted: 2 Deleted: 3 Deleted: 5 Deleted: 5 Deleted: 2 Deleted: 76 Deleted: 84 Deleted: 86 Deleted: 99 Deleted: 01 Deleted: 10 Deleted: 1 Deleted: 3 Deleted: 18 Deleted: 20 Deleted: 22 Deleted: 125 Deleted: 33 Deleted: 44 Deleted: 4 Deleted: 6 Deleted: 50 Deleted: 7 Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. WSH legal and other requirements relevant to construction industries Learning Activity 1 2.7 Confined space Learning Activity 5 6. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Hazards and control measures for construction works 6.1 Risk Management 6. Mandatory training for construction industries Learning Activity 2 4.8 Piling 6. Main types of trades and working environment in construction industries 6.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Table of Contents Title of Topic Overview of Learner’s Guide Manage compliance issues in construction industries 1. machinery and equipment Learning Activity 4 6.9 Formwork structures 6.6 Working in hot environment 6.10 Demolition 6.

This unit covers the specific competency requirements for the WSH Professionals in construction industry. The WSH Professionals WSQ Framework is based on typical WSH management system structure and model of Plan-Do-Check-Act.sg/GenericSkills/WSH+Professionals/ Specialist Diploma in WSH This qualification is one of the requirements necessary for registration as a WSH Officer under the Workplace Safety and Health Act. The competencies are grouped into the following categories: • Plan and review of WSH • Implement Operational Control of WSH • Check and take corrective/ preventive actions for WSH For further information in WSH professionals WSQ. After completing this level. Graduate Certificate in WSH. The WSQ and the relevant competency standards have been validated by more than 360 industry representatives.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Overview of Learner’s Guide The work of WSH professionals revolve around managing the WSH risks and preventing harm to persons at the workplace. you can move on to the next level. Upon registration. They may be engaged as an independent party to evaluate WSH systems and performance that are not implemented and maintained by them. Manage WSH Risks in the Construction Industries This WSQ Level 5 Competency Unit is an elective unit of the following qualification/s: Specialist Diploma in Workplace Safety and Health. WSH is most likely their full-time responsibility.Persons at this level are at a professional and/or managerial level of practice. It focuses on imparting knowledge and skills in managing compliance issues in WSH legal and other requirements and the control and management of WSH risks in the construction industry. refer to WDA website at: http://wsq. the Ministry of Manpower (MOM) and the industry.0 .wda. one can then practice as a WSH Officer as mentioned in the Act. 2 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. This competency enables the learners to have the knowledge and skills to manage WSH risks in the construction industry. These are: • Graduate Certificate in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) • Specialist Diploma in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) You are here • Advanced Certificate in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) • Certificate in Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) The WSH Professionals WSQ is a national Continuing Education & Training (CET) framework jointly developed by the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA). The Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) Professionals Workforce Skills Qualifications (WSQ) aims to professionalise the WSH workforce by incorporating the world’s best practices and providing career upgrading pathways that are based on the competency requirements of different job levels. There are four (4) full qualifications in the WSH Professionals WSQ. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. providing services either as an external third party to the company or within a company. It would complement the core units in the WSH Professionals Framework that cover the general knowledge and skill in WSH legal and other requirements and risk control and management.gov. Graduate Certificate in WSH .

The course duration is 19 hours and 30 minutes of training hours + 30 minutes of assessment.0 . use of basic word processing and presentation software. and “Control WSH Risks” useful. practices procedures.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide This Learner’s Guide is developed for ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’. candidates are 3 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Learners who would like to learn about more general knowledge and skills for coverage of wide range of WSH hazards and risks may find the core units such “Advise on WSH Legal Compliance Issues”. Target Audience Potential participants of this ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’ could be WSH Officer / Professional / Advisor / Specialist / Manager / Engineer / Executive This elective competency unit in the WSH Professionals Framework covers the knowledge and skills in controls and management of WSH risks in the construction industry. Manage compliance issues in construction industries 2. • Have basic knowledge of workplace processes. • Possess basic knowledge and skills on WSH hazard identification. While these modules are designed for people occupying managerial roles. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Participants who have completed this module ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’ are required to undertake and successfully complete each of the assessment activities listed for the competency unit. written exercises. activities. Training and Assessment Guide (CTAG) for ‘Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries’. There are also competency units in other WSQ frameworks which cover control of WSH risks in certain specific industries and trades. There will be group activities designed for peer learning. read. • Be able to manipulate numbers at a proficiency level equivalent to ESS Workplace Numeracy level 6 • Possess IT skills such as use of internet. This Guide presents the required duration. discussions. role play. risk assessment and risk control Course Objectives At the end of this course. case studies and workplace delivery / practices. activities and resources needed to deliver each topic to meet the requirements stipulated in the Singapore Workforce Development Agency (WDA) Curriculum. Assumed Skills and Knowledge Learners are assumed to: • Be able to listen. As part of the assessments. Control and manage WSH risks in construction industries Course component This course will be delivered via presentation. they are also relevant for small businesses operations and self-employed people. “Identify WSH Hazards and Assess WSH Risks”. observations. including those during normal conditions and emergency. or roles with substantial organizational responsibilities. participants will be able to: 1. speak and write English at a proficiency level equivalent to the Employability Skills System (ESS) Workplace Literacy level 6.

0 4 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide required to submit a written report as part of the summative assessment followed by an interview session and oral questioning. Assessment method(s) Oral Questions Work Assignment – Interview (Work Assignment to be submitted not later 2 weeks from the date of last training session. Total time 20 minutes Deleted: one month Duration 10 minutes 30 minutes Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

8 2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Unit of Competency Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries A competent individual must be able to successfully perform the following: 1. Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for Mechanical and Electrical works. Monitor the implementation and effectiveness of control measures. Monitor and manage compliance issues with WSH legal and other requirements.5 Check daily workplace activities against legal and other requirements for construction industries. 2. Manage the mandatory training requirements in construction industries.2 2. Control and manage WSH risks in construction industries 2.4 1. Manage compliance issues in construction industries 1. Communicate the control measures and implementation plan to the relevant stakeholders.7 2.9 2. Present proposed control measures to relevant stakeholders for formulation of implementation plan.2 1.1 1.10 Establish the main types of trades and working environment that are related to construction industries. Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for equipment and services works.3 1.5 2. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.1 2.6 2. Communicate legal and other requirements for construction industries to relevant stakeholders.0 5 Deleted: _ . Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for architectural and finishing works.4 2. Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for civil and structural works. Communicate and raise attention to the stakeholders on the hazards in accordance with organisational procedures. Report to management on status of implementation of control measurement Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.3 2. Apply legal and other requirements for construction industries in formulating control measures of WSH risks on site.

Manage compliance issues in construction industries Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Page Break 1.0 6 Deleted: _ .

our industrial accident rate has been stagnating at around 2. Singapore has achieved significant improvements in Workplace safety and health (WSH). Preventing accidents through higher penalties for poor safety management system. Hence. The collapse of Nicoll Highway along with two other major industrial accidents in 2004. This would allow Singapore to have one of the best workplace records in the world. around 5 out of every 100.2 accidents per million man-hours worked. In 2004. the Minister for Manpower announced in Parliament the adoption of a new WSH framework to improve WSH standards and safety outcomes for Singapore. Deleted: Formatted: Centered Formatted: Centered Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Although the construction industry continues to be an important sector of the Singapore economy.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Introduction Over the past few decades. A fundamental reform to the existing WSH framework was required to reach the standards of the developed countries. Greater industry ownership of WSH outcomes. On 10 March 2005. it remains one of the riskier workplaces. setting a target to halve the number of workrelated fatalities to 2. which claimed a total of 13 lives. This is enshrined in the three key principles of the new framework: Reducing risks at source by requiring all stakeholders to eliminate or minimize the risks they create. Since 2000. In April 2008.8 per 100.0 7 Deleted: _ .000 workers by 2015. based on the progress made since 2004. This new framework is designed to engender a paradigm shift in mindset where the focus is on reducing the risks and not just compliance to prescriptive rules. is a stern reminder that more needs to be done to protect our workers.000 workers by 2018. making our fatality rate more than double that of the more developed countries. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong announced a new reduced target for workplace fatalities to 1.000 workers were killed locally in workplace accidents.5 per 100.

Hotels & Restaurants. WSH Act To support the new WSH framework. it also includes any premises where building operations or any work of engineering construction are carried on. Agriculture & Fishing. A workplace includes any premises where people carry out work and includes a factory. sump. 2. structural alteration. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Ship in harbour. Work of Engineering Construction means 1. the replacement of any lift. waterworks. inspection chamber. structural alteration. Building operation means — • Construction. repair. valve chamber. repair or maintenance of a building (including the re-wiring of any electrical installation. Wharfs. repair or maintenance of any manhole. The inspection. or • any underground electrical cable and communication cable. demolition or removal of — • any pipe-line for the conveyance of water. and the re-pointing. tunnel. structural alteration or repair (including re-pointing and repainting) or the demolition of any dock. maintenance. or • Preparation of the site for. Shipyards. 3. gas or any other thing. pipe-line. Finance & Insurance Activities. aqueduct. bridge. sewer. Entertainment & Recreation To accommodate the coverage of all workplaces. except open drains situated in domestic premises. Construction. Wholesale & Retail Trade. harbour. The coverage of the WSH Act is as shown in the table below: Phase 1 2 Effective date st 1 March 2006 st 1 March 2008 st 3 1 September 2011 Workplaces Factories. Business Services. Services allied to the Transportation of goods Education. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Veterinary. an intended building. Docks. The construction. The construction of any railway line or siding. inspection. repair. • any drain. • Demolition of a building. laying. sewerage works or gasholder. The construction. cleaning or breaking up of any article • Adaptation of any article for sale for the purpose of trade or gain Among other premises. The new Act also marks a shift from a prescriptive legislative approach to a performance based liability regime. Laboratories Healthcare. Factory means any premises within which workers are involved in: • Making of any article/part of any article • Alteration. Information & Communications. Landscape care & Maintenance Services. inland navigation. WSH legal and other requirements relevant to construction industries This lesson is made up of 1 unit. the WSH Act will be amended tentatively by 1st September 2011. whether open or covered. Public Administration.0 8 Deleted: _ . Water Supply. Airport. 4. redecoration and external cleaning of the structure). reservoir. viaduct. Sewerage and Waste Management.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 1. and the laying of foundation of. The objective of this unit is to ‘Apply legal and other requirements for construction industries in formulating control measures of WSH risks on site’. the Workplace Safety and Health Act (WSHA) was enacted on 1 March 2006 replacing the Factories Act. Arts. air-conditioning plant and ancillary ducting of a building. and any other similar confined structure providing access to pipelines or underground electrical cables and communication cables.

Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. The construction of any road or car park. 6. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt.. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted Table . Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. The reclamation of any land. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 5. Deleted: ¶ Title Formatted Table Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single All Workplaces All worksites All Workplaces All workplaces All Workplaces All workplaces - Factories Factories All Workplaces All Workplaces All Workplaces Factories Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt.. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. [1] WSH subsidiary legislations The following are the subsidiary legislations issued under the WSH Act that is applicable to the construction industry: Title WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007 WSH (General Provisions) Regulations 2006 WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 WSH (First Aid) Regulations WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations 2006 WSH (Risk Management) Regulations 2006 WSH (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2006 WSH (Transitional Provision) Regulations 2006 WSH (Offences and Penalties) (Subsidiary Legislation under Section 67(14)) Regulations 2006 WSH (Registration of Factories) Regulations 2008 WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Committees) Regulations 2008 WSH (Abrasive Blasting) Regulations 2008 WSH (Explosive Powered Tools) Regulations 2009 WSH (Confined Spaces) Regulations 2009 WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009 WSH (Noise) Regulation 2011 WSH (Medical Examinations) Regulations 2011 WSH (Operations of Cranes) Regulations 2011 WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations 2011 Applicable to Factories Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single All workplaces All workplaces All workplaces All workplaces Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Factories Act subsidiary legislations 9 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Line spacing: single Formatted: Line spacing: single Formatted: Space After: 6 pt. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 .

The administrator can nominate up to two proxies to assist with OBLS transactions. newly registered factories are also required to conduct Safety and Health Management System (SHMS) Audit / Review within 2 months from the commencement of operations.000 or imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or both. so far as it is not inconsistent with the provisions of this Act. • • • • • • • • • Part I Preliminary Part II Safety and Health Management Arrangement Part III Permit-to-Work System Part IV General Provisions Part V Electrical Safety Part VI Ladders Part VII Cantilevered and Material Platforms Part VIII Disposal of Materials Part IX Formwork Structures Applicable to Factories involving asbestos Factories Factories Formatted Table Deleted: Factories (Medical Examinations) Regulations ..Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Even though the Factories Act had been repealed.0 10 Deleted: _ . the administrator must have a SingPass. WSH (Construction) Regulations The WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 came into operation on 1st January 2008 and is applicable to all worksites. An administrator is needed to renew. any person who occupies or uses any premises as a factory without a valid certificate of registration of a factory or a factory permit is guilty of offence and is liable on conviction to the following: • A fine not exceeding $5.. a new administrator must be nominated and OSHD must be informed in writing. The information includes the particulars of factory such as factory address.. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2." The following Factories subsidiary legislation will be reviewed tentatively by 1st September 2011 and promulgated as new Workplace Safety and Health subsidiary legislation. Upon successful registration. number of workers and contact details and the type of work carried out in the factory. Factories that cease operations must file for a termination of Registration / Notification. When the administrator leaves the company.. All factories must keep their registration/notification particulars up to date. update or terminate registration via OBLS. "Any subsidiary legislation made under the repealed Act and in force immediately before the appointed day shall. The regulations have the following parts which will be covered in other topics. • In the case of a continuing offence. Title Factories (Asbestos) Regulations Factories (Registration and Other Services . Nomination of the proxies can be done via OSHD Online. certificate of registration will be issued. From 1 March 2010 onwards.Fees and Forms) Regulations Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order WSH (Registration of Factories) Regulations Occupiers of construction worksites must apply to the Commissioner for Workplace Safety and Health for one time factory registration of their worksites before commencement of operations. It replaces ‘The Factories (Building Operations and Work of Engineering Construction) Regulations’. To do so. Under Section 46 of the Workplace Safety and Health Act. to a further fine not exceeding $500 or to further imprisonment for a term not exceeding 7 days or both for every day or part of the day during which the offence continues after conviction. continue in force in factories as if made under this Act until it is revoked or repealed. The application for registration must be made through the Online Business Licensing System (OBLS). [2] Deleted: Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004 . [3] Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. under section 67(14) of the WSH Act. Companies should declare that they have implemented risk management at the point of registration.

• Piling work. Safety assessor shall exercise all due diligence when performing his functions. and includes any competent person appointed by the occupier in the event that the project manager is unable to perform his duties under these Regulations) and a safety assessor (Person appointed as a safety assessor shall be competent to perform the functions and duties.Issue of permit-to-work The project manager may issue a permit-to-work if he is satisfied that — 11 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Evaluation of permit-to-work On receipt of the application for a permit-to-work. he shall endorse the application for the permit-towork and forward the endorsed application to the project manager. Employee’s Lifts and Material Handling Machinery Part XVI Miscellaneous Part III . R 11 . • Tunnelling work. R 12 . and • Work involving entry into a confined space.No high-risk construction work without permit-to-work Any person who carries out any high-risk construction work without a issued permit-to-work shall be guilty of an offence. the safety assessor shall assess whether all reasonably practicable measures have been taken and inspect the site (including its surroundings) where the work is to be carried out together with the supervisor of the person. • Excavation and trenching work in a tunnel or hole in the ground exceeding 1. R 15 . • Work on a scaffold where a person could fall more than 2 metres. either a workplace health and safety officer or a competent person). Occupier shall ensure that the necessary safety precautions are taken and enforced when the work is being carried out. R 14 . Persons are informed of the hazards associated with the work and the precautions they have to take. mobile or crawler crane. It shall state the measures which will be taken to ensure the safety and health of persons who carry out the work and addressed to the project manager and submitted to the safety assessor. If the safety assessor is satisfied. This shall not operate to interfere with or render unlawful any rescue work or other work necessary for the general safety of life or property. • Lifting operations involving tower. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Implementation of permit-to-work Occupier shall appoint a project manager (Project manager means the person who is stationed at a worksite and who has overall control of all the works carried out in the worksite.0 .Permit to work system R 10 – Application Applies only to the following types of work that form part of any building operation or works of engineering construction (referred to as high-risk construction work): • Demolition work.Application for permit-to-work An application for a permit-to-work shall be made by the supervisor of a person who is to carry out the work in such form and manner as may be required by the project manager. Occupier shall implement a permit-to-work system with due regard to the safety and health of persons carrying out the work.5 metres depth.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • Part X Demolition Part XI Excavation and Tunnelling Works Part XII Compressed Air Environment Part XIII Explosives Part XIV Piling Part XV Cranes. R 13 .

It shall be properly maintained and checked periodically for excessive corrosion.Structures and supports Every supporting structure including its foundation. Every partially constructed or fully constructed supporting structure including its foundation. a permit-to-work shall be valid for the period stated therein. physical deterioration or alteration so that its stability is not affected and that it is suitable and adequate to perform the function for which it is intended. erosion. all reasonably practicable measures will or have been taken to ensure the safety and health of the persons who carry out or are to carry out the work. after issuing a permit-to-work in respect of any high-risk construction work. Unless revoked. no incompatible work which may pose a risk to the safety and health of other persons at work will be carried out at the same time in the same vicinity. The supervisor shall ensure that the measures necessary to ensure the safety and health of the person at work are taken and are in place at all times during the validity period of the permit-to-work and inform the project manager upon completion of the work.Posting of permit-to-work and supervisor's duty The supervisor shall clearly post a copy of the permit-to-work. and if the work for which the permit-to-work is issued is not completed within the validity period. is of the view that the carrying out of the high-risk construction work poses or is likely to pose a risk to the safety. including where reasonably practicable. it shall be the duty of the professional engineer who designed the permanent structure to ensure that the design of the supporting structure or its foundation is safe for its intended use and to endorse the design of the supporting structure or its foundation as safe for its intended use. R 16 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Where a supporting structure or its foundation will eventually form an integral part of the permanent structure designed by a professional engineer.Monitoring of work The project manager shall continually review the progress of all high-risk construction work being carried out to ensure the safety. health and welfare of persons at work in the worksite.0 12 Deleted: _ . the workplace safety and health co-ordinator or the project manager.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • there has been a proper evaluation of the risks and hazards involved in the carrying out of the work based on the available information. the workplace safety and health officer. and of adequate strength for its intended purpose. and all persons who are to carry out the work are informed of the hazards associated with it. Any person who is aware of any incompatible work shall immediately report to his supervisor. whichever is the earlier.Revocation of permit-to-work If the project manager of a worksite who. shall be of sound design. shall be able to safely withstand any foreseeable load likely to be imposed on it during the construction or dismantling of the structure which the supporting structure supports.Duty to report incompatible work Any work which is carried out at or in the vicinity of any high-risk construction work and which is likely to pose a risk to the safety or health of persons at work shall be treated as incompatible work. good construction in accordance with the design. The project manager shall exercise all due diligence when performing his function. R 17 . The project manager shall retain a copy of the permit-to-work. a fresh application shall be made. he may order the high-risk construction work to cease immediately and revoke the permit-to-work. R 19 . a sketch of any area at the work area where the work is carried out and ensure that the copy is not removed until the date of expiry or date of revocation of the permit-towork or on completion of the work. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. health and welfare of the persons carrying out the work. R 18 . Part IV – General Provisions R 20 .

All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. collapse or weaken due to wind pressure. and • respiratory protection. chimney or other structure or part of a structure shall be left unsecured or unshored in such condition that it may fall. The level of illumination provided by the emergency lighting shall be sufficient in intensity and distribution to allow for the safe evacuation or rescue of persons. altered. whichever is reached earlier. • foot protection. and (b) full pay up to 60 days for hospitalization leave.000.000. or up to a cap of $25. rest days and non-working days should be excluded from the number of days of medical leave granted to the employee. is being or is to be constructed. Public holidays. Emergency lighting for use in the event of a power failure affecting the general lighting shall be provided and maintained. • hearing protection.000 ¶ <#>The maximum compensation amount payable to the dependents of a deceased employee is $140.¶ Approved Codes of Practices 13 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. repaired or dismantled. WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations The WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations came into operation on 10th September 2011 and apply to every workplace in which any scaffold is. maintained. vibration or any work being carried out or in the vicinity. export.¶ <#>The permanent incapacity maximum compensation is $180. Fire Safety (Petroleum & Flammable Materials) Regulations 2005 regulates the licensing requirements for flammable substances. import. 2/3 salary is payable up to a maximum period of one year following the date of accident. death or occupational diseases contracted during employment.0 . Deleted: <#>Medical expenses incurred within one year from the date of the accident. • fall protection. Radiation Protection Act and its subsidiary legislations These Act and Regulations regulates by means of licensing. whether natural or artificial shall be provided and maintained in every part of the worksite in which persons are at work or passing.Lighting Sufficient and suitable lighting.Personal Protective Equipment The employer or the principal carrying out any work which requires any protection shall provide and maintain the appropriate personal protective equipment to the person such as • eye protection. R 33 .Stability of structures No wall.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 21 . • head protection.¶ <#>Beyond the abovementioned periods. installed. It consists of the following parts: • • • • • • • • Part I Preliminary Part II General Provisions Part III Metal Scaffolds Part IV Timber Scaffolds Part V Suspended Scaffolds Part VI Other Scaffolds Part VII Approved Scaffold Contractors Part VIII Miscellaneous Deleted: Factories Deleted: Factories Formatted: Superscript Deleted: st May Deleted: 04 Deleted: any Deleted: factory Deleted: Approved Scaffold Contractor and Personnel Deleted: General Provisions Other legislation related to WSH WSH is also covered in other legislation and its subsidiary legislation such as Fire Safety Act and its subsidiary legislations Fire Safety Act and its subsidiary legislation regulates fire safety standards. erected. • hand protection. used. re-positioned.¶ <#>These include (a) full pay up to 14 days for outpatient medical leave. use and disposal of radioactive materials and irradiating apparatus Work Injury Compensation Act and its subsidiary legislations Work Injury Compensation Act regulates workmen’s rights to compensation in the event of injury. R 32 .

Indoor 2006 SS 531: Part 2: Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places. 14. 22. 25. 29. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. health and welfare considerations 1999¶ Deleted: <#>CP 84: Code of Practice for entry into and safe working in confined spaces 2000¶ Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. 11. 13. use. Lighting requirements for safety and security of outdoor work places 2008 SS 536: Code of Practice for the safe use of mobile cranes (Formerly CP 37:2000) 2008 SS 537: Code of Practice for Safe Use of Machinery Part 1: General requirements 2008 SS 537: Code of Practice for Safe Use of Machinery Part 2: Woodworking machinery 2009 SS 548: Code of Practice for Selection. Code of Practice for Working Safely at Height 2009 Code of Practice on WSH Risk Management 2011 SS 98: Industrial safety helmets 2005 SS 473 – 1: Personal eye-protectors — general requirements 1999 SS 473 – 2: Personal eye-protectors — selection. 20. The Approved Codes of Practice (ACOP) is intended to be used as a yardstick to assess whether reasonable practical measures have been taken in regards to the upkeep of safety and health standards at the workplace. 35. 12. the Workplace Safety and Health Council has approved a new list of Codes of Practice with effect from 15th February 2011. 18. 23. pits and other excavated areas SS 567: Code of Practice for factory layout — safety. 5. 10. 28. care and maintenance of hearing protectors (Formerly CP 76:1999) 2009 SS 550: Code of Practice for Installation. 30. operation and maintenance of electric passenger and goods lift (Formerly CP 2) 2009 SS 553: Code of Practice for Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation in Buildings (Formerly CP 13) SS 554: Code of Practice for Indoor air quality for air-conditioned buildings 2009 SS 557: Code of Practice for Demolition (Formerly CP 11) 2010 SS 559:2010: Code of Practice for the safe use of tower cranes (Formerly CP62) SS 562: Code of Practice for Safety in trenches. 16. 6. use. 27. 8. 4. 31. 7. 24. and maintenance of respiratory protective devices (Formerly CP 74:1998) 2009 SS 549: Code of Practice for Selection. 9. 32.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide In accordance with section 40B(3) of the Workplace Safety and Health Act. Outdoor 2008 SS 531: Part 3: Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places. 34. 17. health and welfare considerations 2011 (Formerly CP 27) SS 568: Code of Practice for confined spaces 2011 (Formerly CP 84) SS 571: Code of Practice for energy lockout and tagout 2011 SS 586 : Hazard communication for hazardous chemicals and dangerous goods Part 1: Transport and storage of dangerous goods 2008 SS 586 : Hazard communication for hazardous chemicals and dangerous goods Part 2: Globally harmonised system of classification and labelling of chemicals — Singapore’s adaptations CP 14: Code of Practice for Scaffolds 1996 CP 20: Code of Practice for suspended scaffolds 1999 CP 23: Code of Practice for formwork 2000 CP 63: Code of Practice for the lifting of persons in work platforms suspended from cranes 1996 (2005) CP 79: Code of Practice for safety management system for construction worksites 1999 CP 88 – 1: Code of Practice for temporary electrical installations — Construction and building sites 2001 14 Deleted: <#>CP 27: Code of Practice for factory layout — safety. 36. 2. The following ACOP are applicable to the construction industry 1. 19. 3. 21. 15. 26. use and maintenance 1999 SS 508 – 1: Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas 2004 SS 508 – 3: Graphical symbols — Safety colours and safety signs — Safety signs used in workplaces and public areas 2004 SS 510: Code of Practice for safety in welding and cutting (and other operations involving the use of heat) 2005 SS 511: Code of Practice for Diving Work 2010 SS 513 – 1: Personal protective equipment — Footwear — Safety footwear 2005 SS 513 – 2: 2005 Personal protective equipment — Footwear — Test methods for footwear 2005 SS 531: Part 1: Code of Practice for Lighting of Work Places. 33.0 .

to enable an organisation to control its OSH risks and improve its OSH performance. SS506 standards provide generic advice on the requirements and implementation of OSH management system. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. These are standards and code of practices issued by the WSH Council. Singapore Standards and approved code of practice. Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management System – Specification (equivalent to BS OHSAS 18001:2007).g. These requirements are not limited with legislative requirements. “Code of Practice for Working Safely at Height 2009” has been approved an ACoP. These guidelines meet with specific requirements for each work. Deleted: <#>CP 91: Code of Practice for lockout procedure 2001¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. etc.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 37. • SS 506: Part 1: 2009. organizational quality requirements. • SS 506 : Part 2 : 2009. Construction worksites are required to implement a safety and health management system. Organisational internal WSH guidelines and requirements Organizational guidelines refer to instructions to employees on policy. CP 101: Code of Practice for safe use of powered counterbalanced forklifts 2004 Other Requirements SS506 Occupational safety and health (OSH) management system Under the WSH subsidiary legislations. Industrial standards and practices Industrial standards and the practices are defined as best practices which may not be a mandatory requirement but to improve and adopt the industrial practice based on the various commercial interests of all the employees. Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management Systems – Guidelines for the implementation of SS 506: Part 1: 2009 (equivalent to BS 18002 : 2008) Fire Code. safe work procedures which are documented and available in the workplace. For e.0 15 Deleted: _ . Other materials such as Technical Advisories and Guidelines provide useful references on recommended WSH practices. Singapore Civil Defence Force The Fire Code 2002 is issued by SCDF provides guidelines on fire safety requirements for temporary buildings in construction sites.

legislation and Singapore Standards associated with the following activities / items within the organization S/No Activities / items Forklift Applicable Acts / Regulations / Standards 1. Noise Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 1 Group Exercise . Lifting 8.0 16 Deleted: _ . Hot works 6. Acetylene 4.20 minutes Identify the applicable Acts. Formwork 10. Scaffolding 7. Confined Space 3. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Demolition 5. Excavation 9. 2.

a person can be an occupier. equipment or hazardous substance has been tested and examined so that it is safe for use. including all statutory pressure vessels • Equipment or piping intended to contain corrosive. equipment or substances provided are safe for use. It is possible for a person to have multiple obligations.0 17 Deleted: _ . They are required to • provide proper information on the safe use of the machinery.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 2. Machinery and Equipment That Manufacturers And Suppliers Have Duties To Ensure Are Safe For Use • Bar-benders • Equipment or piping intended for operation under pressure. the Workplace Safety and Health Act aims to define areas to which they should pay attention in ensuring workplace safety. apparatus or fitting necessary to enable its use and operation Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Stakeholder is any person or party who is affected by the Workplace Safety and Health Act. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. equipment or hazardous substances used at work in the workplace. It starts with architects. • ensure that the machinery. Organisation Manufacturer Or Supplier Manufacturer Or Supplier is any person who manufactures or supplies machinery. In a construction industry where WSH is an integral part of business. equipment or hazardous substance is safe for use. equipment or hazardous substance. toxic or flammable substances • Equipment used for abrasive blasting. an employer and a principal at the same time in the same workplace. • ensure that the machinery. Based on the domains over which the various stakeholders have control. The Manufacturer Or Supplier shall ensure that any machinery. developers and engineers designing and financing the project upstream. Communicating WSH legal and other requirements This lesson is made up of 1 unit. all stakeholders play a role in reducing safety and health risks. The objective of this unit is to ‘Communicate legal and other requirements for construction industries to relevant stakeholders’. Construction work is a systemic process (see diagram below) involving a wide spectrum of industry players. For instance. Downstream processes include contractors and workers executing the actual construction work before the handover and maintenance of completed works. including any accessory.

Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Developers can play an active role by addressing WSH risks during the construction phase through regular checks and dialogue sessions with their contractors. Designer consultants Designer consultant is a team of specialist consultant in the development being carried out and may include civil engineer. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. apparatus or fitting necessary to enable its use Substances That Manufacturers And Suppliers Have Duties to Ensure Are Safe For Use • Carcinogens • Corrosive substances • Explosives • Flammable substances • Gases under pressure • Irritants • Mutagens • Organic peroxides • Oxidising substances • Pyrophoric substances • Self-heating substances • Self-reactive substances • Sensitizers • Substances hazardous to aquatic environment. As financiers of construction projects. the developers are intimately involved in the construction project from acquisition through arranging financing to construction and ultimate sale or management of the property.0 18 Deleted: _ . etc. Clients The client is the owner of the premises for which the construction development is carried out. as far as reasonably practicable.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • Explosive powered tools Forklifts Lifting equipment Materials or components used for the construction of support structures Power presses Scaffolds and any materials or components used to erect them Welding equipment. developers have a big influence over the behaviour of downstream stakeholders. including any accessory. • Substances which in contact with water. Developers can factor in WSH performance when selecting bidding contractors to compel them to improve WSH capabilities and performance. emit flammable gases • Teratogens • Toxic substances Installer Or Erector Of Machinery Installer Or Erector Of Machinery is any person who installs or erects machinery. installed or modified is safe and without health risks when properly used. Contractor Contractor is any person engaged by another person or organization under a contract for service for the supply of labour or conduct of work at the workplace. Developers should ensure that tenders are awarded to contractors who have the capacity and resources to deliver their projects within the stipulated time without taking shortcuts. the building itself or any item for use in the workplace. equipment. They are required to take measures. Developers In the construction value chain. the machinery or equipment erected. architects.

including an employee. • any machinery or plant located in the common area. • all entrances to or exits from the workplace. • Do not endanger oneself or others through unsafe behaviour. • Adhere to safe working procedures and principles introduced at the workplace. i. Employers / Principals are required to take measures. • developing and putting into practice control measures for dealing with emergencies. one employed under a contract of service. volunteer or any other person training or working under the employer such as an industrial attachment student. • ensuring safety in machinery.Any person who employs another person to perform work under a contract of service. training and supervision. Principal . plant. as far as reasonably practicable. plant. • any machinery. information. articles.0 19 Deleted: _ . The occupier may also be responsible for the common areas used by their employees and contractors. In all other workplaces.Any person who engages another person or organization to supply labour or perform work under some arrangement other than a contract of service. article or substance kept on the workplace.e. Individual Worker Worker is any person at work. • means of entry to or exit from the common area. the following items. ensure the following are safe and without risks to the health of any person within those premises. protect the safety and health of employees or workers working under their direct control and all who may be affected by their work. as far as reasonably practicable. • Do not tamper with any safety device or undertake any wilful or reckless acts. The occupier is required to take measures. lifting appliances and lifting machines located in the common area. even if the person is not one of your employees. Supervisors The supervisor is the key man in any program to create and maintain interest in safety & health because he is directly responsible for translating management’s policies into action and for promoting safety activities among the employees. lifting gear. Occupier In workplaces registered as a factory. the occupier is the person who has control of the premises regardless of whether he is the owner of those premises. are their responsibility. • maintaining safe work facilities and arrangements for the workers at work. substances and work processes at the workplace. • electric generators and motors located in the common area. • the workplace. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. equipment. if they are used by persons working at their workplace. In particular. Foreman The foreman is the person who exercises control over workers Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. This includes: • conducting risk assessments to remove or control risks to workers at the workplace. • Correctly use any personal protective equipment provided at work. • hoists and lifts. the occupier is the person who is the holder of the certificate of registration or factory permit.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Employer / Principal Employer . equipment. • providing workers with adequate instruction.

Enforcement measures to ensure compliance The Commissioner for Workplace Safety and Health. Remedial Orders And Stop Work Orders The Commissioner may issue a Remedial Order to require an employer or occupier or any other person to remove any workplace risk or to comply with a safe work practice whether or not there is any immediate danger. These persons are bound to state the truth and assist in the investigations.0 20 Deleted: _ . any workplace for the purpose of analysis or test. an inspector may: • inspect. The Commissioner may issue a Stop Work Order to require the specified work to cease until measures have been taken to ensure that the work can be carried out safely. • take photographs or video recordings to record the conditions and the processes carried out in the workplace. assisted by Deputy Commissioners and appointed inspectors. The following are some measures that may be used to ensure compliance. This will be the primary tool that the Commissioner will use to require employers to improve their management of safety and health and the quality of risk assessment. Managers Project managers play a particularly important role in the management of WSH at their projects as they are overall in charge of the running of a construction project. Workplace Inspections Inspectors are empowered to enter. • take samples of any material or substance found in. the inspector may inspect the accident scene and workplace. The residual risks must then be communicated to contractors so that these can be jointly managed. inspect and examine any workplace at any time to ensure workplace safety. Architect To reduce WSH risks during the construction and maintenance phases of the construction process. as far as reasonably practicable. As such. or being discharged from. SelfEmployed Person is required to take measures. it is essential for project managers to have a good grasp of WSH to better comprehend and manage the WSH issues that their projects may encounter. designers and architects need to work closely with contractors and other stakeholders to identify potential construction and maintenance hazards. the Commissioner may suspend any certificate. In the course of investigations. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. ensures that workplaces comply with safety and health regulations. Investigations Into A Workplace Accident Or Incident The Commissioner may order an investigation into any workplace accident or incident. Self-Employed Person Self-Employed Person is any person who works but is not under a contract of service.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Engineers To play their part in WSH adequately. resident engineers and clerk of works have to highlight WSH issues that would or have the potential to pose imminent dangers so that they can be adequately addressed promptly. A Stop Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. In order to do so. Examples of certificates issued under the Act include Certificates of Factory Registration and certificates issued to authorised examiners. and mitigate risks at the design stage. • take into custody any article in the workplace which is required for the purpose of an investigation or inquiry under the Act. The inspector may also interview and record statements of persons about the accident or incident. examine and make copies of any workplace documents. Suspension Of Certificates When necessary. to ensure the safety and health of others such as members of the public.

[4] Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Where in any proceedings for an offence under any provision in this Act.000. • or the offence was due to causes beyond control. duty to show to the courts: • compliance with the Act and/or its relevant subsidiary legislation..0 21 Deleted: _ .000 and / or 2 years jail (for negligence) Repeat offenders $400.000 fine and /or 2 years jail $1 million $2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Work Order will be used in instances where severe lapses in safety and health conditions may cause immediate danger to the workers.000 for each day the offence continues Maximum Imprisonment 12 months Conditions Either or both 12 months Either or both Composition Fines Composition fines are offered for offences at the Commissioner’s discretion. The penalty is as shown below: Category of Offender Person who fails to comply with a Remedial Order If offence is continued after conviction Person who fails to comply with a Stop Work Order If offence is continued after conviction Maximum Fine $50. whichever is lower.000 $30.000 for each day the offence continues $500. Offences may be compounded to a sum not more than half the maximum fine prescribed for the offence or $5.000 Corporate body Workers Deleted: ¶ Category of offender .000 $1.000 fine and /or 2 years jail $500. • or taken reasonable precautions and exercised due diligence where there was no specific legislation or guidelines. • or compliance with the relevant approved code of practice or guidelines.e.000 Additional of $5. General penalties for offences The Workplace Safety and Health Act states a general maximum penalty for offences for which no penalty is prescribed under the Act. the onus is on the person to prove that it was not reasonably practicable to do more than what was in fact done to satisfy that duty or there was no better practicable means than was in fact used to satisfy that duty.000 Additional of $20. st Category of offender Individual persons 1 Offence $200. Prosecution action may be taken if payment is not received within a specified period. Failure to comply with either a Remedial Order or Stop Work Order is considered an offence. it was not reasonably practicable to prevent the contravention or accident. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. If charged with an offence under the Act. The penalties are shown in the tables below. Prosecution The Commissioner may prosecute any offender for violation under the Act.. i.

It requires a practical demonstration that each employee has acquired the skill or knowledge related to the job. Briefings Briefings / tool box meetings are defined as giving detailed instructions. Every meeting is should be presided by the project manager of the worksite. or are to be. and attended by every person (being a supervisor. Personnel can be trained in the following areas: • • • • • WSH competency required at each function and level in the organization WSH induction programme On-going training for employees Training in local WSH arrangements Specific mandatory training Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. a workplace safety and health co-ordinator or a workplace safety and health officer) who is involved in any work or process being co-ordinated in the worksite and any other person who oversees any such work or process. Safety briefings shall also be carried out regularly for larger cohorts. in which 50 or more persons are ordinarily at work is required to form a WSH Committee. The occupier shall ensure tool box meetings are conducted at stipulated intervals within work groups to effectively communicate and coordinate work instructions and to promote safe conduct of work. All decisions and follow-up actions shall be documented. carried out in the worksite for the purpose of coordinating such works so as to ensure the safety. the occupier of a worksite.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Communication Legal and other requirements may be communicated to the various stakeholders through the following mode of communication: WSH committee meetings Under the WSH (WSH Committees) Regulations. Training means more than providing information. health and welfare of persons at work in the worksite. Training sessions The legal requirements can be communicated to the respective stakeholder through external training such as mandatory training or internal training such as induction or task specific training. The WSH committee shall meet atleast once a month.0 22 Deleted: _ . • secretary who shall be the safety officer (if available) or a person. The functions of safety committee are as follows: • To inspect the factory at least once a month • To inspect the factory after accident or dangerous occurrence • to assist in organising activities to promote safe conduct of work in factory The minutes of the meetings shall be properly recorded and maintained. Awareness sessions Awareness sessions are more of promotional programmes aimed to create a general awareness among the employees. and • members who are representatives of persons at work and management staff. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a worksite to convene such site coordination meetings as are necessary with due regard to the progress of the works which are. The committee shall include appointment of: • chairman who shall be a competent person on site. Site coordination meeting Under WSH(Construction) Regs. an engineer. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

In-house training This type of training is conducted in-house. training and supervision as is necessary for that person to perform his work.0 Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Page Break 23 Deleted: _ . supervisors and workers • Training and awareness programmes for contractors. To meet the identified training needs. self-employed persons and principals give to persons (not being his employees) the prescribed information about such aspects of the way in which he conducts his undertaking as might affect their safety or health while those persons are at his workplace. Training can be conducted inhouse or externally depending on the learning outcomes. Some of the other training providers include the following: • Singapore Environment Institute • Singapore Civil Defense Academy • Singapore Aviation Academy Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Under the WSH Act. temporary workers. • Employers. Examples of in-house training include: • WSH induction • On the Job training • Ongoing training • Training for managers. webpage. visitors External training MOM accredits training providers (ATP) to ensure that the quality of the WSH training is maintained at all times. Mandatory training for construction industries This lesson is made up of 1 unit. Training schedule Scheduling of mandatory training programs may involve the following • Scheduling dates for training considering the release from trainee’s dept.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 3. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The objective of this unit is to ‘Manage the mandatory training requirements in construction industries’. supervisors and workers. suitable training programmes have to be identified. Examples of external training include • Training in local WSH arrangements • Mandatory training • Training for managers. information. email and contact particulars of the ATPs for the various courses can be identified from the MOM’s website. • Employers and principals are required to ensure that the person at work has adequate instruction. work exigencies and workplace peak periods • Arranging for training registration such as coordination with the training institute / trainers and trainee • Applying for Skills Development Fund (SDF) • Arranging for participants presence such as replacement / rescheduling for any last minute change in the trainee’s schedule and sending reminders to the trainees to attend the scheduled training Training providers The address. Training needs identification Training needs help to identify and remedy any shortfalls between the competency level currently possessed by the stakeholders and the required WSH competency required in order to achieve the organizations goals and objectives. need of the learners and resources available within the organization. The ATP’s conducts mandatory WSH training programmes and non-accredited WSH courses.

work processes or workplace Audiometric Examiner: Any person who carries out audiometric examination of others Noise Monitoring Officer: Any person who is appointed to conduct noise monitoring at a workplace Noise Control Officer: Any person who is appointed to advise the occupier of a workplace on noise control measures Manhole Safety Assessors: Any person who is appointed to assess whether the manhole is safe for entry Confined Space Safety Assessors: Any person who is appointed to assess whether the confined space is safe for entry Explosive Powered Tools Operators: Any persons who operates an explosive power tool First-Aider: Any person who is appointed as a first-aider in a workplace Forklift Operators: Any person who drives or operates a forklift truck Mandatory Training courses Workshop for Safety Auditors OR Graduate Certificate in WSH Safety Officer Training Course OR Specialist Diploma in WSH Reference Criteria to be approved as an auditor ATP (e.0 . Classes or description of persons Workplace Safety and Health Auditors: Any person who is appointed to conduct audit on safety and health management system. work processes or workplace Workplace Safety and Health Officers: Any person who is appointed to conduct audit on safety and health management system. refer to MOM website. risk assessment. risk assessment.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Note: Only courses conducted by selected ATPs have been listed.g) Singapore Polytechnic / Ngee Ann Polytechnic Safety Coordinators Course OR Advance Certificate in WSH Industrial Audiometry Course Noise Monitoring Course Industrial Noise Control Course WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Reg 3(a)(i). WSH (Construction) Reg R6(3) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd WSH (Medical Examination) Reg R6(2) WSH (Noise) Reg R7(3) WSH (Noise) Reg R5(1) Siemens Medical Instruments Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Nanyang Technological University NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd BCA Academy / SCAL Academy NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Deleted: Factories Deleted: Factories Deleted: 6 Deleted: 2 Deleted: Factories Deleted: 4 Deleted: 5 Manhole Safety Assessor Course Confined Space Safety Assessor Course Explosive Powered Tools Operators' Course Occupational First Aid Course Forklift Driver’s Training Course WSH (Confined Space) Reg R9(b) WSH (Confined Space) Reg R9(b) WSH (Explosive Powered Tools) Reg 13 WSH (FirstAid) Reg R5(2) Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order WSH (Operation of Cranes) Reg R17(1) Deleted: General Provision Deleted: 25 Deleted: WSH (General Provision) Reg R25¶ Lifting Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a lifting supervisor for any lifting operation by a mobile or tower crane Lifting Supervisors Safety Course NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd 24 Deleted: Factories Deleted: 20 Deleted: 2 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. For full list of ATPs. risk assessment. work processes or workplace Workplace Safety and Health Coordinators: Any person who is appointed to conduct audit on safety and health management system.

re-positioning. re-position. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. repositioning. re-position. installation.0 25 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Classes or description of persons Riggers: Any person who is appointed as a rigger for any lifting operation by a mobile or tower crane Signalman: Any person who is appointed as a signalman for any lifting operation by a mobile or tower crane Scaffold Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a scaffold supervisor to supervise the erection. install. alter or dismantle a scaffold Suspended Scaffold Erectors: Any person who is appointed as a suspended scaffold erector to erect. 9 (2b) WSH (Construction) Reg R60(3) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Formwork Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a formwork supervisor to supervise the construction. alteration or dismantling of any formwork structure in a worksite Tunnelling Workers: Any person carries out any work in a tunnel in a worksite BCA Academy / SCAL Academy Construction Supervisors (Tunnelling): Any person carries out any work in a tunnel in a worksite Safety Orientation Course (Tunnelling) for Workers Building Construction Supervisors Safety Course (Tunnelling) WSH (Construction) Reg R88(b) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd WSH (Construction) Reg R88(b) SCAL Academy Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.g) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Deleted: Factories Deleted: 3 Deleted: Factories Signalmen Course Deleted: 2 Deleted: Factories Supervision of Metal Scaffold Erection Course Suspended Scaffold Supervisors' Course WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R6(1) SCAL Academy Deleted: Factories Metal Scaffold Erection Course WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R5 WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R5 NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd SCAL Academy Deleted: Factories Deleted: 8(4) Deleted: Factories Deleted: 7(1) Suspended Scaffold Riggers' Course Construction Supervisors: Any supervisor employed in the worksite Construction Safety Orientation Course (in various languages) Building Construction Supervisors Safety Course Formwork Safety Course for Supervisors WSH (Construction) Reg R9(1) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 reg. alteration or dismantling of a suspended scaffold Scaffold Erectors: Any person who is appointed as a scaffold erector to erect. alter or dismantle a suspended scaffold Construction Workers: Any worker employed in manual work in the worksite Mandatory Training courses Rigger Course Reference WSH (Operation of Cranes) Reg R18(1) WSH (Operation of Cranes) Reg R19(1) WSH (Scaffolds) Reg R6(1) ATP (e. erection. install. installation. alteration or dismantling of a scaffold Suspended Scaffold Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a suspended scaffold supervisor to supervise the erection.

0 26 Deleted: _ . lesson plan Type of training . for example theory and practical.The dates and times of various topics that were covered under the training Sequence of training .The name of the training providers Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.The sequence in which the topics were conducted. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Some of the records that can be maintained are: • • • • • Duration of training . Schedule of training .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Classes or description of persons Man Lock / Medical Lock Attendant: Any person performing the role of a Man Lock / Medical Lock Attendant Mandatory Training courses Compressed Air Works Course (Man Lock and Medical Lock Attendant) Construction Safety Course for Project Managers Reference WSH (Construction) Reg R108(3)(c) ATP (e.Whether the training was conducted internally or externally Training providers .g) Advanced Marine Pte Ltd Project Managers: Any person who is appointed as a project manager to be in charge of all construction activities in building and engineering construction worksites of a contract sum of $10 million or more Manhole Workers: Any worker who is carrying out work in manholes or confined spaces in building and engineering construction worksites Manhole Supervisors: Any person who is appointed as a manhole supervisor to supervise work carried out in manholes or confined spaces in building and engineering construction worksites Top Management Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order Factories (Safety Training Courses) Order bizSAFE level 1 bizSAFE level 2 bizSAFE level 4 NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Safety Orientation Course (Manhole) Safety Instruction Course (Manhole) NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Risk Management Champion Workplace Safety & Health Management System Program Lead Workshop for CEO / Top Management Risk Management Course Workplace Safety & Health Management System Course NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd NTUC LearningHub Pte Ltd Training records Training records help to document the training arrangements and should be maintained in accordance to the organizational procedures.The total hours of the training course.

20 minutes Identify the mandatory training required for the following activities. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Lifting 5.0 27 Deleted: _ . Forklift operation 2. Formwork Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. S/No Activities Personnel Training Course 1.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 2 Group Exercise . Scaffolding 4. Confined Space 3.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 4. The scope of the inspection can include Equipment and processes.0 28 Deleted: _ .E Formwork Supervisor Confined assessor space Item to be inspected Site inspection Site inspection High risk construction activity Site inspection Scaffold Formwork shoring Reshoring Confined space Excavation First aid facilities Cantilevered / Material platform Piling equipment Ground Crane. It is one of the tools to evaluate the effectiveness of the risk controls in place. There are various types of audits such as • Management system audits . etc. • Compliance audits . client audits. Under the WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009. Where the contract sum of the any worksite is $30 million or more.to verify compliance with legislation • Corporate audit – internal audits to verify corporate compliance • Specific purpose audits – insurance audits. Monitoring of WSH legal compliance issues This lesson is made up of 2 units. etc. the occupier to appoint a Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The objective of this units is to ‘Check daily workplace activities against legal and other requirements for construction industries’ and to ‘Monitor and manage compliance issues with WSH legal and other requirements’.OHSAS18001. Employee lift or material handling machinery Frequency As required As required Prior to endorsing the PTW Monthly After erection / inclement weather Weekly / Before / During / After Casting After installing Before entry & 4 hourly After rain storm or other hazardincreasing occurrence Monthly Weekly Daily Before advancing a piling frame Before putting it into service for the first time Designated person First Aider Designated person Designated person Designated person Competent person Compliance audit Audit is a systematic examination to determine whether activities and related results conform to planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable for achieving the organisation’s policy and objectives. SS506. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Inspections Inspection is the act or process of inspecting or looking at carefully. Workplace environment and Workplace practices using suitable checklists. The objective of inspections is to verify that safety provisions and practices conform to workplace rules and regulations and relevant statutory requirements. Some of the mandatory inspection requirements are stipulated below: Inspection By WSH Coordinator WSH Officer PTW Assessor WSH Committee Scaffold Supervisor Formwork Supervisor / P.

As an assessment tool. Auditee should be informed of the next visit to follow-up on the corrective action issued. The Audit Plan shall be acknowledged by the Auditee.Subscription to legal update services such as Singapore law watch and RIET allows the organization to keep track of legal updates. The process for compliance audit includes: • Preparing compliance checklist . The Auditee must take action on the reported non conformances and complete by the stipulated date (e. guidelines. advisories and Codes of Practices. Post-Audit Meeting . Emailed to subscribers 2 to 3 times weekly. Follow up on audit report and corrective/ preventive actions . The penalties for violating amended or new WSH legal and other requirements are extremely serious. Arranging for competent auditor . the Audit Team Member should hold a meeting with the Auditee's management to present audit findings.The auditor should be qualified in terms of the subject and the auditing process. Arranging for the audit schedule . The Construction Safety Audit Scoring System (ConSASS) is an audit tool which provides an independent assessment of the safety and health management system at a worksite.At the end of the audit.The Audit Team Member shall have a formal opening meeting with the Auditee's representative prior to commencement of the audit.g. Tracking of new and amendment to legal requirements An organisation may incur significant liabilities for WSH legal non-compliance. The first step in proactive approach to potential legal issues is to obtain the legal updates. stating the scope of audit as tabulated in the “Audit Plan” and explain how the audit will operate. the attendees have to agree on the course of corrective action to be taken and timescale for implementation. SPRING Singapore notifies through email service on issue of new Singapore standards. A copy to be given to the Audit Team Leader for his monitoring purposes. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. In this meeting. response due date).0 29 Deleted: _ . These can be obtained by the following means: • • Subscription on update service . All Audits Corrective Action Request issued should be updated in the "Audit Corrective Action Request Status Log" by the Audit Team Member. the audit members carries out the inspection.The schedule such as the date and time of the audit has to take into account the availability of all the stakeholders. ConSASS can be used for cross comparison between worksites in term of their effectiveness in managing workplace safety and health risks. The helps management to better strategise the resources in order to elevate the standard and improve the effectiveness in managing a worksite’s safety and health risks.With the use of the compliance checklist. including the roll-out of new laws and regulations.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide workplace safety and health auditor to audit the safety and health management system of the worksite at least once every 6 months. interview and document review process to establish verification of compliance. • • • • • • Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Procedures have to be established for identification of new or amended legal and other requirements. Conduct of audit . the WSH Bulletin keeps WSH professional and interested stakeholders updated on recent WSH-related and developments.The Audit Team Member should issue the "Audit Corrective Action Request" to the Auditee during the post-audit meeting.WSH Bulletin is a free electronic newsletter published by the Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) Council. Opening audit meetings . ConSASS provides a profile of the development status of each element of a worksite’s safety and health management system. Electronic notification .Checklists can be with respect to a single activity or for the whole facility and prepared by competent personnel who has adequate knowledge on the legal requirements.

WSH Officers. Actions would include some of the following: • Reviewing and amending the affected documents • Reviewing and modifying workplace practices • Allocating resources such as manpower. Advice on necessary actions needed to comply with new or amended WSH legal and other requirements may include: • Gather WSH legal and other requirements • Conduct gap analysis • Suggestion solutions • Follow-up on compliance status An action plan should be detailing the required actions.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • Media .Any changes in the legislation are also reflected in the Newspaper. Information on the progress of the compliance program should be provided and the stakeholders should be informed of the changes made to comply with the regulation. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. WSH Service providers such as training providers. WSH Auditors. etc • Awareness campaign Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. consultants. The compliance status should be communicated to the stakeholders and the non-compliance items are expected to be rectified promptly. Relevant websites . television and radio.Government agencies. etc Advising on actions to stay in compliance The organization has to comply with all the applicable legal requirements to avoid noncompliance.0 30 Deleted: _ . Industrial Associations and Professional Bodies Competent personnel / organization . time line and persons’ responsible. etc • Training personnel • Registration / licensing of material. This can be achieved only if all the stakeholders within the organization know exactly what they are supposed to do in order to comply with legal requirements. equipment.

0 31 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Control and manage risks in construction industries Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 2.

windows. glass. fencing. Drains are constructed either by precast or cast in situ method. Main types of trades and working environment in construction industries This Lesson is made up of 1 unit. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The ceiling may comprise of reinforced concrete. aluminium and may incorporate Overhead interior decoration Curtain wall / cladding A curtain wall is an outer non-structural wall that carries no vertical load made of lightweight material. The main trades in construction industries may be classified as shown below.0 32 Deleted: _ . stairs. colour or other medium to a surface. Plastering Plastering involves the application of plaster on interior walls or ceilings for decorative purpose. tables. concrete. metal. Drain Laying / pavement and kerb construction Drains remove surface and sub-surface water from an area and incorporate geotextile filters that retain and prevent fine grains of soil from passing into and clogging the drain. ceiling or roof loads. Interior partitions support floor. Cladding is the application of one material over another to provide a skin or layer intended to control the infiltration of weather elements. Painting and road marking Painting involves application of paints. Windows and doors Windows and door are prefabricated offsite and installed from the floor level. etc. The materials are stacked up and bound together with mortar and cementing it. glass block or concrete block. etc. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. etc. bookshelves. roller or spray. PVC. Road marking also involves painting and writing on the roads using paints. or for aesthetic purposes. The objective of this unit is to ‘Establish the main types of trades and working environment that are related to construction industries’. Joinery Joinery involves making interior and exterior wooden doors. Pavement is a paved footpath for pedestrians and has kerbs at the edge.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 5. Ceiling Ceiling refers to the upper interior of a room. • • • • Architectural and Finishing Works Civil and structural works Mechanical and Electrical Works Equipment and special services Architectural and Finishing Works Wall and partition The wall may be constructed using brick. stone. pigments. Metal work Fabrication of metal structures such as metal grills. The paints are water based or solvent based. Roofing Roofing is the protective covering that forms the top of the building and may use different types of materials such as ceramic tiles. Application is by brush. Plaster is a mixture of lime or gypsum with sand and water.

garden. wet area or walls in the interior or on the exterior of a building. aggregate and water. pipe and cable installation. Additions. plants. protecting and repairing concrete. It is usually a modular system of metal pipes or tubes. marble or stone finishes. and the surface is smoothened using either a hand masonry trowel. Timber formwork and support systems Timber formwork and support systems are constructed to hold the concrete to be poured into the required shape. tied together with wire. alterations. Metal formwork and supporting systems Metal formwork and supporting structures are constructed to hold the concrete to be poured into the required shape. also known as rebar for the reinforced concrete works. foundation. Structural steel works Structural steel works involves fabrication. Steel reinforcement Steel reinforcement is positioning and securing steel reinforcing bars. Interior decoration is the decoration of the inside of the rooms such as décor and furnishings. Civil and structural works Road works. welding and erection of steel members or components to form an integral part of any structural system of a building. Piles can be driven using piling machine or cast in situ method using bored piling. roof. a long handed “bull float” or powered floats. etc. Metal scaffolding Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to support people and material in the construction or repair of buildings and other large structures. Piling Piling is the process of installing piles to form the foundation of the structure. fitting. repair and interior decoration Modification to the existing structure which may use any of the trades listed. etc. Sheet piling are used to form a retaining structure for excavation. The concrete is pumped using concrete pumps or using excavator buckets and vibrated. Waterproofing Applying or laying of material to waterproof any basement. Horticulture and landscape Planting of tree. Concrete is used directly from the concrete pump or wheelbarrow and spread using shovels and rakes. Concreting Concreting involves casting of structure into required shape using concrete which is a construction material composed of cement. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. flower.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Flooring Flooring refers to the permanent covering on the floor and may use materials such as tiles. finishing. The rebars are cut and bend to the desired shape.0 33 . opening of roads for pipe or cable installation. Concrete repair and surface works Concrete repair and surface works involves placing. Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. road reinstatement and maintenance Road works involves construction of roads. reinstating the roads after the work is completed and maintaining the roads periodically. It is also used to provide access.

soil and waste water disposal in a building. Mechanical and Electrical Works Air conditioning. fire alarms. Plumbing. piling rigs. bull dozers. excavator loaders. loosening. cooling towers. This is done in-house by the main contractor. telescopic handlers. etc. etc. cooling or other similar purposes in a building. switch socket outlets. Desilting services The soiled water from the construction site is collected and desilted using water filtration system before being discharged into the public drain. Building automation. hydrants. cable. walls. Corrosion protection services Corrosion protection involves application of specialised coatings for metallic components to prevent corrosion. or any associated fittings for conveyance of gas. Alternatively for smaller sites. Precast erectors Precast involves installation of precast components such as columns. stabilisation and earthwork services Soil investigation is the investigation the soil profile before the commencement of the construction activities. extinguishers. depositing. shaping. etc. refrigeration system. water distribution. cars.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Demolition Demolition is the tearing down of buildings or structures. installation and maintenance of plant and equipment such as cranes. This involves installation of machines and equipment for process automation. Equipment and special services Construction plant and equipment services Construction plant and equipment services involves the supply. Cleaning and housekeeping services Cleaning and housekeeping services involves cleaning the worksite on a day to day basis. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. industrial and process control system Building automation is a programmed. Fire protection works Fire protection works involves installation of fire fighting equipments such as sprinklers. compacting and stabilising soil and rock from collapse. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. heating. ventilation fans and its related ducting. intelligent network system to reduce energy and maintenance costs. excavators.0 34 Deleted: _ . isolators. computerised. cables. hose reels. etc. Electrical engineering works Installation of any wiring. beams. generators. refrigeration and ventilation works Air conditioning involved installation of air-conditioning equipment. Soil investigation. silt removal contractor are engaged to remove the silted water. power switches or any other fittings for transmission of electricity for lighting. This involves manual cleaning and vacuuming using industrial vacuum pumps. which is normally done by the main contractor. Stabilisation and earthwork services involves moving. trunking. water and sanitary pipings. Lift escalator installation This involves installation of lift doors. conduit. sanitary and gas piping and sewerage works Installation of any gas.

worksites of contract sum of $10 million or more are required to appoint WSHO. domestic subcontractors are commonly engaged in labour-intensive trades such as formwork. excavation and piling. lifts. In Singapore. Under the subcontracting system. particularly in the area of identification of workplace safety and health risks and in recommending control measures. pest control services are engaged to control pests such as rodents. The second category of subcontractors performs specialist work on site such as the construction of sheetpiles and installation of the air-conditioning or lift systems. Nominated subcontractors are in trades such as piling. The primary role of the WSH Officer is to assist their employers to discharge their statutory duties. labour only or both. They are also employed in trades where a large portion of their work requires special machinery and plant for a short duration. These are removed by general waste collectors on a periodic basis. suggestions. Construction is a very dynamic process which involves working in different physical settings such as • • • • • • • • • • Working at height Working with tools. and other specialized works. the subcontractor may supply materials only. Pest control services During the construction.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Waste removal and recycling services Construction waste accumulated at the worksite are collected and stored at the construction skips. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. tiling. fire fighting and prevention. groups of tradesmen and workhands and are usually employed by the main contractor to undertake labour intensive work as formwork construction and finishing work. The phrase “to assist” used in regulation 7 could refer to advice. total contract value and in employment rate. roofing. aggregate are recycled by the main contractor or sold to other companies who use them as raw materials.0 35 Deleted: _ . Domestic subcontractors refer to those to whom the main contractor sublets part of the work entirely at his own discretion. in fact. Some of the construction waste such as iron. They are. sand. machinery and equipment Working in confined space Working in hot conditions Excavation Demolition Piling Formwork Working with hazardous materials Material handling Typical workplace organisation Subcontractors Subcontracting is a prevalent feature of the Singapore construction industry where it is quite common for contractors to engage subcontractors. The first is commonly termed “trade subcontractor”. Working environments The construction sector has seen a rise in its contribution of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). depending on the means by which the employer exercises his selection rights. Workplace Safety and Health Officers Under the Second Schedule of the WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007. plumbing. air-conditioning. Subcontractors take various forms but they may be conveniently divided into two categories. flies. for example. and painting. The subcontractors may be nominated or named. mosquitoes. The system of contracting can be divided into the direct labour system and the subcontracting system. etc. or conducting the risk assessment as instructed by the Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

It could also include training other employees on risks assessment or the control measures. the occupier ought to provide him with the corresponding authority and resources for him to carry out his work properly. the occupier of a worksite shall appoint a workplace safety and health co-ordinator where the contract sum of the building operation or works of engineering construction carried out therein is less than $10 million. It shall be the duty of a workplace safety and health co-ordinator to assist the occupier of the worksite to identify any unsafe condition in the worksite or unsafe work practice and to recommend reasonably practicable measures to remedy the unsafe condition or unsafe work practice and assist to implement such reasonably practicable measures.0 36 Deleted: _ . The WSH Officer is expected to exercise due diligence in the assessment of risks and recommendation of appropriate control measures particularly for blatant safety and health risks.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide occupier. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Workplace safety and health co-ordinator Under the WSH (Construction) Regulation. While the WSH Officers can assist in the implementation of the control measures. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Other duty holders This has been covered under CE1.

Maintenance Regime 11. Emergency Preparedness OSHMS Contractors with a registration grade of A1. Group Meetings 5. • SS506 / OHSAS 18001 standards • Safety Management Certification (SMC) for Small and Medium Enterprise. which consists of 5 basic sections: • OSH Policy • Planning Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. direction and approaches for workplace safety and health. During the validity period of the certificate. In-house Safety Rules & Regulations 7. The SHMS shall be implemented in accordance with any relevant Singapore Standard relating to SHMS or such other standards. SHMS for worksites can be prepared based on • CP 79 : Code of Practice for Safety Management System in Construction Worksite.0 37 Deleted: _ . This has prompted the industry to integrate all the three management system into one as Integrated Management System (IMS) as all of adopt the Plan – Do – Check – Act cycle. Companies can also choose to have integrated audits with the following benefits • Time savings as number of audit visits will not increase. Risk Assessment 12. The specifications used for OSHMS certification is OHSAS 18001. It sets out clear management commitments. • Resource savings as common elements such as policy. certificate will be issued. Incident Investigation and Analysis 6. Prior to that. SHMS provides for goal setting. surveillance audits will be conducted to ensure that the certified firm continues to comply with the requirements of OHSAS 18001. CP79 The elements of CP 79 are as follows: 1. ISO 14000 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Safety and Health Policy 2. which is valid for three years. Safety Promotion 8. B1 and B2 in BCA's Contractors Registry undertaking general building. A2. internal audit and management review can be audited together. Safety Training 4. Occupational Health Programmes 14. Thus. Under the WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009. Selection & Control of Contractors 9. records management.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide WSH Management System SHMS is a systematic process for managing workplace safety and health. Control of Movement & Use of Hazardous Chemicals 13. it shall be the duty of the occupier of a construction site to implement a SHMS for the purpose of ensuring the safety and health of persons at work in the workplace. it is not surprising that an increasing number of organisations are implementing SHMS. document control. codes of practice or guidance issued or approved by the WSH Council. Safety and health management adds value to businesses by helping to improve overall performance. civil engineering and piling works are required to be certified to ISO 9000 – Quality Management System. and placing as much emphasis on achieving quality SHMS as they do in other key aspects of their business activities. planning and measuring performance. which came into operation on 1st March 2010. Safe Work Practices 3. it was regulated under the WSH(Construction) Regulation. Evaluation. Safety Inspections 10.Environmental Management System and OSHMS. Upon successful audit.

risk assessment and determining controls o Legal and other requirement o Objectives and programmes Implementation and Operation o Resources. non conformances and prevention Upon successful audit. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The SMC was developed to help the small and medium contractors to plan for safety and manage their construction operations in a simple and systematic manner. awareness and competence o Document control o Operation control o Emergency preparedness and response • Checking and Corrective Action o Performance monitoring o Accidents. BCA has introduced a simplified version of the OHSMS Management system called the ‘Safety Management Certification System for Small and Medium Construction Firms (SMC).Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • o Hazard identification. nonconformity. responsibility. Companies that are already certified with a valid OHSAS 18001 in either CW01 or CW02 are exempted from the SMC certification. safety training and awareness. SMC consists of 5 basic requirements: • Occupational Health & Safety Policy • Planning o Planning for hazard identification. certificate will be issued for three years. roles. accountability and authority o Competence. corrective action and preventive action o Control of records o Internal audit Management Review SMC In line with the Joint MND-MOM Review Committee on Construction Safety to extend safety awareness and promote safety culture in small and medium construction firms.0 38 Deleted: _ . incidents. surveillance audits will be conducted to ensure that the certified firm continues to comply with the requirements of SMC. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Contractors registered under BCA Contractors Registry grades C1 and C2. risk assessment and risk control o Legal and other requirement • Implementation and Operation o Structure and responsibility o Training. participation and consultation o Documentation o Control of documents o Operation control o Emergency preparedness and response Checking o Performance measurement and monitoring o Evaluation of compliance o Incident investigation. Firms are required to formulate standard safety procedures on site including regular site and work areas inspections. and under CR08 (Piling). CR10 (Precast Concrete Products) or CR12 (Soil Investigation & Stabilization) with grades L2 and above are required to obtain the BCA SMC certification to remain in these grades. training and awareness o Communication. emergency preparedness. During the validity period of the certificate. The SMC enable firms to have clear assignment of responsibilities for their project staff and workers.

In 2009.0 39 Deleted: _ . Reflecting the risks associated with working beneath cranes and scaffolds. or where overhead work is being performed. Over the past three years. mainly from inadequate protection from hazards such as open sides and floor openings at worksites. A significant proportion of these incidents were a result of falls from height. struck by falling objects accounted for nearly one-third of the total construction fatalities in 2009.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Workplace and WSH Cultural Settings Accident statistics in the construction sector Workplace Fatalities Although the construction sector continues to be an important sector of the Singapore economy. it is also one of the more hazardous and riskier workplaces. a total of 31 people were killed in incidents involving construction work.1 per 100.000 workers in 2009. Workplace Incidents and Injuries Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. the sector accounted for more than one third of all workplace fatalities. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Struck by falling objects was the second highest incident type. with a fatality rate of 8.

000 workers by 2013 and less than 1. a decrease of 25 cases when compared to the previous year. 15 cases of confirmed Occupational Skin Diseases (OSD) were reported. WSH2018 for the Construction Sector Long-term goal is to achieve a safe and healthy workplace with a vibrant WSH culture and zero injury in the construction sector. • Workplace injury rate of less than 390 injuries per 100. In 2009. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 2.000 by 2018.0 40 Deleted: _ . However. a decrease of 19 cases when compared to 33 cases in 2008. 31 confirmed Occupational Diseases (ODs) were reported in the construction sector.000 workers by 2013 and less than 200 injuries per 100. which is above the national average of 446 and is one of the highest among all sectors. Immediate goals for the construction sector are: • A workplace fatality rate of less than 3.8 fatalities per 100.853 injuries occurred in the construction sector.000 workers. This represents an injury rate of 741 per 100.000 workers by 2018. Strategies for the Construction Sector Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Occupational Disease In 2009. 14 were confirmed Noise-Induced Deafness (NID) cases. up from 10 cases in the previous year.4 fatalities per 100.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide The number of injuries in the construction sector is the highest compared to other sectors. Of the reported cases in 2009.

• 19 Demerit Points or at the Warning Stage under the Demerit Point System.0 41 Deleted: _ . companies that trigger the following events will first be placed under assessment: • Fatal accidents. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. the company will be held accountable to an Action Plan and be subjected to frequent inspections and engagements to ensure that the plan is implemented accordingly. The company will exit from BUS upon fulfillment of Action Plan and having shown improvement in its safety and health performance and management. Under this programme. During the surveillance phase. it will be placed into the BUS Programme and be subjected to close surveillance. Demerit Points Scheme for the Construction Industry The demerit point scheme was introduced in 2000 as a means to encourage construction contractors with poor Workplace Safety and Health (WSH) records to improve on their performance. poor site conditions resulting in Stop Work Order The assessment will review the implementation of the risk management as well as the strength of the management system. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Business under Surveillance Programme The objective of the Business under Surveillance (BUS) Programme is to engage companies through systemic interventions so as to prevent accidents.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Strategy 1: Building Strong Capabilities to Better Manage WSH • Individual Level o Management o Workers and Supervisors o WSH Professionals o Designers and Architects • Corporate Level o Self Investigation o Managing Main and Sub Contractors o Enhancing Risk Management (RM) o Cultivating WSH Culture Strategy 2: Creating a self-regulatory framework in order to promote greater industry ownership • Include Designers and Developers in the Regulatory Framework • Improved Management of Workplace Health Self Regulation • Setting Industry Standards Strategy 3: Promoting the Benefits of WSH and Integrating WSH into Business • Driving Improvements through Large Organizations • Assessment of Safety and Health Management Systems • Business Case Strategy 4: Creating / Building Partnerships • Coordination of Work • Industry-led Taskforces Refer to the WSH Council for the full document.g. the scheme has been calibrated in consultation with the industry-led Workplace Safety and Health Construction Advisory Sub-Committee to further raise WSH standards and allow companies committed to improving WSH performance sufficient opportunities to do so. e. occupational diseases and improve the company's safety and health management and performance. If the company failed the assessment. From 1 April 2007. or • Demonstrated poor management of Workplace Safety and Health.

the company's MYE has been frozen three times within a year. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The List of Construction Companies with Demerit Points is also available online. the worksite will have limited access to work permit holders for 6 months. If a contractor does not make improvements and continues to commit workplace safety and health offences. Severity Scenarios Demerit Points First Stage a) No demerit points for first 5 fines in each inspection b) 1 point per fine from the 6th fine onwards Second Stage a) No demerit points for first 3 fines in each inspection th b) 1 point per fine from the 4 fine onwards 5 10 8 8 12 18 Composition Fines Potential Harm Stop Work Order (Partial) Stop Work Order (Full) Harm Accident that led to serious injuries to any person Dangerous occurrence Accident that led to death of one person Accident that led to death of more than one person Severe Harm Application to Main Contractors First A warning letter will be issued to the main contractor if the total points Stage: accumulated by the company exceed 18 demerit points within a 12-month rolling period. while the continued accumulation of demerit points will result in more stringent corrective actions. A contractor that has been issued with demerit point(s) will be informed in writing by the Ministry. Post A 24-month MYE freeze will be extended to all worksites under the company if Second 3 of its worksites have each accumulated more than 18 demerit points within Stage: any 12-month period i.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Under the scheme. For example. Applications from the company for new and renewal of all types of work passes for all foreign employees will also be rejected. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. construction main contractors and sub-contractors will be issued with demerit points for breaches under the WSH Act and relevant subsidiary legislation. Second The following will apply to an individual worksite if the total points accumulated Stage: by the worksite exceed 18 demerit points: st · 6-month MYE freeze for 1 occurrence. if a worksite of a main contractor accumulates more than 18 demerit points.0 42 Deleted: _ . applications from the company for new and renewal of all types of work passes for all foreign employees will be rejected by MOM. The number of demerit points awarded will depend on the severity of the infringement.e. A contractor that has received more than 18 demerit points within a 12-month period will receive a formal warning from the Ministry of Manpower (MOM). and · 24-month MYE freeze for 3rd or subsequent occurrences (within 12 months of the previous occurrence) A main contractor will have its records cleared when all its worksites do not accumulate any demerit points for a rolling period of 12 months. · 12-month MYE freeze for 2nd occurrence (within 12 months of the 1st occurrence). Each demerit point is valid for 12 months.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Note: When the Man-Year Entitlement (MYE) allocated to a worksite is frozen. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 43 Deleted: _ . Application to Sub-Contractors First A warning letter will be issued to the sub-contractor if the total points Stage: accumulated by the company exceed 18 demerit points within a 12-month rolling period. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Second The Ministry will reject applications from the company for new and renewal of Stage: all types of work passes for all foreign employees if the total points accumulated by the sub-contractor exceed 18 demerit points: st · 6 months for 1 occurrence. · 12 months for 2nd occurrence (within 12 months of the 1st infringement). the MYE cannot be used by the company or its subcontractors for the employment of new nontraditional source (NTS) workers and the renewal of existing NTS workers. and rd · 24 months for 3 or subsequent occurrences (within 12 months of the previous occurrence). A sub-contractor will have its records cleared when it does not accumulate any demerit points for a rolling period of 12 months.

like risk assessment. supervisors.1 RISK MANAGEMENT In the new framework for occupational safety and health in Singapore. it also includes control and monitoring of such risks. Risk assessment is a key instrument to reduce risk at the workplace. • Inform employees of the nature of the risks involved and any risk control measures or safe work procedures implemented. it should be conducted by a multidisciplinary team who have a thorough knowledge of the work to be undertaken. maintenance staff and safety personnel if available. involves assessment of risks associated with any work activity or trade. The team should also consider various environmental situations. • Establish safe work procedures if the risks cannot be eliminated. Non-routine operations include commissioning. Routine operations include activities such as preparatory and troubleshooting work activities. • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for equipment and services works.. • Keep records of risk assessment. production operators. However. Team members should include management staff. process or facility engineers. • Specify the roles and responsibilities of persons involved in the implementation of risk control measures and safe work procedures. as well as communicating these risks. Unless the workplace or worksite is not ready. one of the major means of reducing risks at the workplace is by making stakeholders accountable for managing the risks they create. including routine and nonroutine operations. self-employed person or principal (including contractor and sub-contractor) under the Workplace Safety and Health (Risk Management) Regulations is required to: • Conduct a risk assessment for all work in the workplace. The risk assessment team should also include contractors/suppliers personnel who are involved with the work. weather and soil conditions. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Hazards and control measures for construction works This lesson is made up of 4 units. Any employer. • Take reasonably practicable measures to eliminate or reduce safety and health risks. Employers. and prioritizing measures to control the hazards and reduce the risks. 6. These requirements are specified in the Workplace Safety and Health (Risk Management) Regulations which took effect on 1 September 2006. repair and maintenance of plants.0 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. assessing the level of risks involved. where these operations are carried out. technical personnel. self-employed persons and principals (including contractors and subcontractors) have the responsibility of identifying safety and health hazards at the workplace and taking appropriate actions to eliminate the hazards or reduce the risks associated with the hazards. RM Process Risk assessment is the process of identifying safety and health hazards associated with work. 44 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Risk assessment is never a one man show.g. • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for Mechanical and Electrical works. e. The objective of this unit is to • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for architectural and finishing works • Identify and evaluate WSH hazards and recommend control measures for civil and structural works. whenever necessary. the risk assessment team should visit the workplace or worksite to ensure that all work areas are covered. • Review or revise risk assessment. Risk management.

Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Preparation Preparation involves gathering all the following information before start doing the risk assessment. hazards can be identified for each work activity. clients. codes of practice or specifications Observations and interviews Inspection records Details of existing risk controls Health and safety audit reports Feedback from staff. mechanical. Workplace hazards include physical. biological.0 45 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. electrical or ergonomic hazards. Hazard identification is perhaps the most important step in risk assessment because hazards can only be controlled if they are identified. Based on the information gathered on the process. machinery and / or tools used Records of past incidents and accidents Relevant legislation. Plant layout plan Process flowchart List of work activities in the process† List of chemicals. suppliers or other stakeholders Safe work procedures (SWPs) Other information such as safety data sheets (SDSs). manufacturer’s instruction manual Copies of any relevant previous risk assessments Inventory Form Hazard Identification A ‘hazard’ is something that may cause harm or injury. Hazard identification involves identifying the hazards associated with each work activity and the type of potential accidents/incidents that can result from the hazards. chemical.

(2) Assessing potential severity of identified hazards Severity is the degree or extent of injury or harm caused by accidents/incidents arising from workplace hazards. incidents and/or ill-health that can occur due to the hazard(s). Examples of risk control measures include engineering controls. the risk of falling and getting killed is high. SWPs and personal protective equipment (PPE). minimising safety and health risks.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Hazard identification is then repeated for all work activities of the process. and identify potential victims or persons-at-risk. Risk evaluation is the process of estimating the risk levels of the identified hazards and if the risks can be accepted. This is used as a basis for prioritising actions to control identified hazards and thereby. The aim is to spot hazards. if a person works at a 40 m height on a platform without any railing and safety harness. amputation or fatal injury) that may result from the hazard. injury or illness might result because of the hazard. dermatitis) Fire and explosion Struck by / hit against object Collapse of structure Soft tissue damage (sprains.g. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. the risk of the activity can be assessed. By considering the effectiveness of the existing controls and the consequences that can occur should these controls fail. visitors and members of the public. brainstorm on all the possible types of accidents. For example. strains) Persons at risks are those who are directly involved in operation. Risk Evaluation Risk is the likelihood that death. Typical types of accidents are: Fall from height Hit by falling object Slip / Trip / Falls Electrocution Asphyxiation Drowning OH diseases/illnesses (NID. cancer. As the severity of the hazard refers to the intrinsic or inherent nature of the adverse effect (e. it does not depend 46 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. indirectly involved in the operation.0 . Risk evaluation consists of: (1) Identifying existing risk control measures The presence of existing control measures should first be identified for each work activity of the process.

Therefore. (3) Determining likelihood of occurrence of accidents. select the appropriate row for Severity and the appropriate column for Likelihood. the cell where they intersect indicates the Risk Level.0 47 Deleted: _ . in assigning the severity level. the existing controls should not be taken into account. To determine the risk level. in addition to looking at existing controls. medium or high and depends on the combination of severity and likelihood. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide on the controls in place. the following sources of information should be considered: • Past incident and accident records • Industry practice and experience • Relevant published literature (4) Assessing risk levels based on the severity and likelihood The risk level may be classified as low. incidents and/or ill health arising from identified hazards To minimise the subjectivity of estimating likelihood. Risk Matrix Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

As indicated in the risk matrix.g. E.g.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Based on the risk level determined in the risk evaluation step. Elimination . risk controls should be selected to reduce the risk level to an acceptable level.Elimination of hazards refers to the total removal of the hazards and hence effectively making all the identified possible accidents. which can be used to guide the selection of risk controls. These control measures are not usually mutually exclusive e. Substitution . This can be done by reducing the Severity and/or Likelihood. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.This involves replacing the hazard by one that presents a lower risk. Table 4 shows the acceptability of risk and recommended actions for different risk levels. incidents and ill health impossible. Asbestos has been eliminated by ban from use due to its cancerous effects. E. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 48 Deleted: _ . Asbestos can be substituted with non-asbestos materials. If the hazard is eliminated. effective and practicable risk controls must be implemented to reduce High Risk to at least Medium Risk.g. Hierarchy of risk controls The control of hazards and reduction of risks can be accomplished by following the Hierarchy of Control Measures. the risk associated of the hazard will be eliminated. when the risk level is High. This is a permanent solution and should be attempted in the first instance. engineering controls can be implemented together with administrative controls like training and SWPs.

Training. machine guarding. erecting a barrier to interrupt the transmission path between the worker and the hazard. after all other control measures have been considered. E. or as a short term contingency during emergency / maintenance / repair or as an additional protective measure. E. These include structural changes to the work environment or work processes. fitted correctly. manual handling devices/equipment etc. SWP. Documentation should emphasise all the steps to be taken and the controls to be used in carrying out the activity safely.g. Permit-to-work systems. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The success of this control depends critically on the protective equipment being chosen correctly. Isolation or containment of hazards. worn at all times and maintained properly.This should be used only as a last resort.These reduce or eliminate exposure to a hazard by adherence to procedures or instructions.g. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Engineering controls are physical means that limit the hazard. scheduling of incompatible works etc.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Engineering Controls . Inspection. Administrative Controls . Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) .0 49 Deleted: _ .

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Risk Assessment Form Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 50 Deleted: _ .

R 51 – Method of removal of debris Any debris. Common objects falling from height are tools. especially on the head. except the top or working floor. except at openings used for the receiving or discharging of material. designated entry and access at the ground floor with adequate overhead protective cover for persons entering or leaving the building should be provided.2. suspended scaffolds and mobile elevated work platforms. are usually severe. Injuries. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Protection against falling objects Adequate overhead protection should be provided in the worksite against objects that could fall on or otherwise hit persons.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. 6. R 30 . scaffold. and any opening of any chute (except the top opening) in the worksite is closed when not in use. R 52 – Floor openings for debris removal Every opening used for the removal of debris on every floor in the worksite which is not closed to access.0 51 Deleted: _ . Where it is impracticable to provide an enclosure. timber and metal parts. the risk of struck by falling objects is very common. Reasonably practicable measures should be taken to prevent any person from entering or leaving the worksite by or through other means of entry and access.Entry into building under construction Where a building under construction in the worksite is more than 2 storeys high. pieces of concrete wastes. In addition work at height equipment such as ladders. Objects fall due to the following reasons:• Losing grip of the tool • Collision of the tool with other objects • Leaving objects lying loosely • Objects was not secured properly • Throwing objects down from height • Storing materials very close to the edge or opening. Objects do not fall off by themselves. metal scaffolds. R 50 – Accumulation of debris Debris shall not be allowed to accumulate so as to constitute a hazard in the worksite. buckets. R 25 . brick or other materials in the worksite shall be removed by means of chutes. containers. the opening is so barricaded that no person has access to within a horizontal distance of 6 metres from any opening above through which debris is being dropped. The working at height hazards exists in all the construction trades. platform or structure as to endanger persons below the opening or edge. R 53 – Chutes Any chute provided for the removal of materials in a worksite is entirely enclosed on all sides.1 FALLING OBJECT HAZARDS While working at heights. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. timber scaffolds. stacking or placing materials or equipment in a worksite should not be so close to any opening or edge of a floor. There are two main hazards while working at height namely falling from height hazards and falling objects hazards. hoists or any other method which will not endanger any person in the worksite.2 WORKING AT HEIGHT Work is performed at the edge of the building or near opening of the building.Storage and placement of materials and equipment Storing. • Overloading of debris Legal requirements WSH (Construction) Regulations R 24 . is provided with an enclosure from floor to ceiling.

With the increased need for work activities to be carried out at height. sound material. • Ladders and stairs. R 56 – Design of chute by professional engineer Any chute exceeding 12 metres in height for use in the worksite is constructed. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Formworks. A warning notice indicating the hazard of falling debris shall be placed in a conspicuous position at the debris collection area.0 Deleted: ¶ 52 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The distance between the discharge end of the chute and the floor of the designated debris collection area shall not be more than 3 metres. installed or repositioned in accordance with the design and drawings of the professional engineer who designed the chute.2 FALLING HAZARDS Statistics have shown that 1 out of 3 fatalities at the workplace are attributed to workers falling from height.2. Risk Control Engineering control • overhead shelters • Cordoning areas where objects may fall • Toe-boards • Safety nets • Securing tools by means of a lanyard • Rubbish chutes • Skips Administrative Control • Good housekeeping • Warning signs Personal Protective Equipment • Safety helmet • Safety shoes 6. and • Working platforms. • The gate provided shall be kept closed unless removal of debris is taking place at the area. • Shall not apply where a skip or container with sides extending to height of at least 2 metres is placed directly below the chute as a debris collection area to collect the debris being discharged. Common sources of hazards: • Scaffolds.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 54 – Construction of chutes Every chute in the worksite is of good construction. • The enclosure for the debris collection area shall be constructed of materials of adequate strength up to a height of at least 2 metres. the exposure of workers to falling hazards also increases. • Open sides of floors. adequate strength and rigidly supported throughout its length. R 55 – Debris collection area The discharge end of every chute shall be directed to a designated debris collection area. Many more workers sustain serious injuries as a result of falls from height every year. • Floor and lift shaft openings. and no person shall use any such chute unless a certificate has been issued in respect of it. The debris collection area shall be within an enclosure fitted with a gate to effectively protect persons from the hazard of falling debris.

shall be on both sides.Falling hazards Every open side or opening into or through which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres shall be covered or guarded by effective guard-rails. or equipment that need to be manually carried. large tools. The risk of falls due to tripping and slipping can be reduced by proper planning for material storage and good housekeeping. Where a safety harness or safety belt is provided. • Any fencing shall be properly maintained and be kept in position except when goods or materials are being hoisted or lowered at the opening or doorway. • Unprotected edges. and the anchorage shall not be lower than the level of the working position of the person wearing the safety harness or safety belt. barrier or other similar means of fall prevention shall be • of good construction. by means of a life line or otherwise for the safety harness or safety belt. • Building materials. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Any open side of a staircase shall be guarded by the provision and maintenance of a lower rail or other effective means. other suitable means such as a safety harness or safety belt shall be provided for ensuring the safety of the person. • Cramped work surfaces. Legal Requirements WSH (General Provision) Regulations R 23 . • Any person who would be liable to fall a distance of more than 2 metres or into any substance which is likely to cause drowning or asphyxiation.g. and • be placed so as to prevent the fall of any person. Where it is not reasonably practicable. • Slippery work surfaces (wet. which may lead to collapse. • Struck by moving object or equipment e. a substantial handrail shall be provided and maintained. • For every staircase which affords a means of exit from the workplace. or very cold conditions. extreme heat or high humidity. whether by mechanical power or otherwise. Such good practices not only result in a cleaner and safer workplace. shall be provided with a secure foothold and handhold at the place for ensuring his safety. strong or gusty winds. oily. which — (a) if the staircase has an open side. it can also improve productivity. shall be on that side. shall be securely fenced and provided with a secure handhold on each side of the opening or doorway. load from lifting operation.Measures to be taken to prevent falls • All openings in floors shall be securely covered or fenced unless the nature of the work renders such covering or fencing impracticable. barriers or other equally effective means to prevent fall. • be placed on the inside of the uprights and secured so as to prevent accidental displacement.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Work Environments that Pose a Fall from Height Risk • Raised work surfaces such as slopes. broken ground or profiled roof sheeting). • Uneven work surfaces (for example. there shall be sufficient and secured anchorage. • Overloading of working platform. dusty or glazed). and (b) if the staircase has 2 open sides. work materials and debris – step on objects. • Work surfaces cluttered with tools. WSH (Construction) Regulations R 22 . • Workers working in adverse weather conditions – for example in rain. • Every teagle opening or similar doorway used for hoisting or lowering goods or materials.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: factory Deleted: building 53 Deleted: _ . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. sound material and adequate strength to withstand the impact during the course of work. Every guard-rail.

stairs. Every guard-rail. • Implementing a fall protection plan • Maintain the floor in a dry condition. and • Using paint rollers with extendable handles rather than working on a ladder. Risk Control Elimination • Prefabricating wall frames horizontally before standing them up. platform or other elevated working surface shall be kept free from slipping hazards. platform and other means of access or place of work and which may injure any person is removed or otherwise made safe. R 31 .0 54 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. . Substitution • Using mobile elevated work platform (MEWP) instead of ladders for reaching high places. barrier or other similar means of fall prevention which are removed shall be reinstated or replaced immediately when access of persons or movement of materials is not taking place at the open side or opening. • Provide relevant information to employees • Adequate supervision to ensure that no worker enters a “No Entry” area. • Adequate signages to warn against access to the hazardous area. stair. safe means of access to and egress from the different levels of the building or structure shall be ensured at all times. • Using precast tilt-up concrete construction instead of concrete walls constructed in situ. Administrative Controls • Prohibition of access .Marking out an area can be effective in making sure that people are not exposed to fall hazards. barrier or other similar means of fall prevention may be removed where free access is required for work actually in progress in the worksite. R 27 . platforms and other means of access or places of work are kept free from debris or protruding objects or any other obstruction that could cause tripping and any sharp projection which is present in any passageway. • Designated walkway • Proper housekeeping Personal Protective Equipment • Travel restraint systems • Individual fall arrest systems • Anti-slip footwear Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Engineering Control • Provision of slip resistant surfaces • Provision of perimeter guardrails for open sides and staircases • Guardrails for openings. • Drainage to drain the surface water • Gradient surface to let the water flow.Slipping hazards Any passageway or on any scaffold. R 26 .Hazards arising from protruding objects All passageways. • Physical barrier to prevent unauthorised access.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Every guard-rail.Safe means of access and egress between different working levels in building or structures Where work is carried out by persons required to work between different levels of a building or structure.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. toeboard or other safeguards and all fixings. tripods or other similar movable contrivances. and includes any suspended scaffold. tubular scaffold. or (b) which enables persons to obtain access to or which enables materials to be taken to any place at which such work is performed. Tower scaffolds and Timber Scaffolds Metal scaffold. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. ladder or step-ladder (other than an independent ladder or step-ladder which does not form part of such a structure) together with any guard-rail. work platform. Trade Architectural and Finishing Works Civil and Structural Works Mechanical and Electrical Works Types of scaffolds Suspended scaffolds. gangway. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. run.3 SCAFFOLD HAZARDS Scaffolds are used extensively in the construction industry for work at heights. Hazards of scaffolds • Unqualified erectors • Improper sequence of erection • Inadequate fall protection • Improper erection • Inadequate design • Soft ground • Uneven ground • Defective components • Poor housekeeping • Overloading • Inadequate ties • Inadequate bracing • Not levelled • Open sides • Debris on platforms • Electrical cables The potential accidents that could occur would be • Falling from height • Falling objects • Collapse of scaffolds. a lifting machine or a structure used merely to support such an appliance or such a machine or to support other plant or equipment.2. but does not include a lifting appliance. trestle scaffold. folding step-ladders. • Electrocution Legal requirements WSH (Scaffolds) Regulations R 2 Definitions "timber scaffold" means any scaffold which uses a timber roller as any of its member or component. "trestle scaffold" means a scaffold in which the supports for the platform are any of the following which are self-supporting split heads. hanging scaffold. Tower scaffolds and Cantilever scaffolds Tower scaffolds Scaffold means any temporary structure — (a) on or from which persons perform work in any workplace.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: Factories 55 Deleted: _ . Metal scaffolds.

Metal Scaffold "ledger" means a member which spans horizontally and ties a scaffold longitudinally and which acts as a support for putlogs or transoms. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. "independent tied scaffold" means a scaffold. apart from the necessary ties.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide "frame or modular scaffold" means a scaffold manufactured in such a way that the geometry of the scaffold is pre-determined and the relative spacings of the principal members are fixed. the work platform of which is supported from the base by 2 or more rows of standards and which. in relation to any scaffold. or any 2 consecutive ledgers. means a plate for distributing the load from a standard. "putlog" means a horizontal member on which the board. "lift" . "standard" means a member used as a vertical support or column in the construction of a scaffold which transmits a load to the ground or any other solid construction. stands completely free of any building or other structure. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. "sole plate" means a member used to distribute the load from the base plate or the standard of a scaffold to the supporting surface. plank or decking of a work platform is laid. “brace” or “bracing” means a member incorporated in a scaffold for stability. in relation to a metal scaffold.0 56 Deleted: _ . "bay" . or • any level at which a platform is constructed. means the portion of the scaffold between vertical supports (whether standards or supports from which that portion is suspended) which are adjacent longitudinally. means — • the vertical distance between the base of a scaffold and its first ledger. "tie" means an assembly used to connect a scaffold to a rigid anchorage. "toe-board" means a member fastened above a work platform or workplace to prevent persons or materials from falling from the work platform or workplace. "base plate" . in relation to a scaffold.

passes and which is controlled either by friction grips or by turns of the rope around drums within the equipment. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. re-positioned. altered. the lower end of which is not anchored. used. erected. is being or is to be constructed. or one standard to another.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide "transom" means a member placed horizontally and used to tie one ledger transversely to another. R 3 .0 Deleted: ¶ 57 Deleted: _ . repaired or Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. "tubular scaffold" means a scaffold constructed from tubes and couplers. "climber" means a lifting equipment through which a suspension wire rope. maintained.Application These Regulations shall apply to every workplace in which any scaffold is. in an independent tied scaffold. installed. Mast climber "suspended scaffold" means a scaffold suspended by means of ropes or chains and capable of being raised or lowered but does not include a boatswain’s chair or other similar appliance.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide

dismantled, whether such work or use of the scaffold commences before, on or after 10th September 2011. R 4 - Only approved scaffold contractor to construct, erect, install, re-position, alter, maintain, repair or dismantle certain scaffolds No person shall construct, erect, install, reposition, alter, maintain, repair or dismantle any scaffold, not being an excluded scaffold, in any workplace unless he is an approved scaffold contractor. “Excluded scaffold” means a tower scaffold; a trestle scaffold; or a scaffold (other than a suspended scaffold, hanging scaffold or a scaffold erected on cantilever or jib supports) which, when completed and excluding the handrails and their supports at the uppermost lift of the scaffold, is less than 4 metres in height. R 5 - Scaffold erectors It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no person is involved in the construction, erection, installation, re-positioning, alteration, maintenance, repair or dismantling of a scaffold in a workplace unless he has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner, to equip him to perform the work of a scaffold erector. R 6 - Scaffold Supervisor It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a scaffold supervisor before any construction, erection, installation, re-positioning, alteration, maintenance, repair or dismantling of a scaffold in a workplace. The responsible person shall not appoint any person as a scaffold supervisor unless the person is one who has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner, to equip him to be a scaffold supervisor; and whom the responsible person reasonably believes is competent to perform the functions and duties of a scaffold supervisor.
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R 7 - Personal protective equipment for scaffold erectors It shall be the duty of the responsible person to provide to every scaffold erector involved in the construction, erection, installation, re-positioning, alteration, maintenance, repair or dismantling of any scaffold in a workplace a safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device; and sufficient & secured anchorage by means of an independent life line or other equally effective means. The scaffold erector who is involved in any work is to use the safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device provided to him. Any person who contravenes paragraph (2) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1,000 and, in the case of a second or subsequent conviction, to a fine not exceeding $2,000. R 8 - Supervision of construction, erection, installation, re-positioning, alteration, maintenance, repair or dismantling of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no scaffold is constructed, erected, installed, re-positioned, altered, maintained, repaired or dismantled in a workplace except under the immediate supervision of a scaffold supervisor. R 9 - Construction and materials It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every scaffold, and every member or component thereof, in a workplace shall be of sound material, good construction and adequate strength; free from patent defects; and suitable & for the purpose for which it is intended. The occupier shall ensure that every scaffold erected at a building under construction, so far as is reasonably practicable, be erected such that it precedes the construction of the uppermost permanent floor of the building by not less than one metre above that floor. Where the height of the scaffold extends beyond the uppermost permanent floor by 2 metres or more, the occupier shall ensure that the scaffold shall be adequately supported to prevent its collapse
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foundations of adequate strength. Where a scaffold in a workplace is to be founded on soil, the soil shall be adequately consolidated. In the case of a scaffold in a workplace exceeding 15 metres in height or being erected on poorly drained soil, base plates shall bear upon sole plates that are of strength not less than 670 kgf per square metre; and of a length suitable to distribute the load. There shall be no cavity under the sole plate immediately below any standard of a scaffold in a workplace.
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R 11 - Scaffolds supported by buildings, ships or other structures No part of a building, ship or other structure shall be used as support for any part of a scaffold in a workplace unless it is sufficiently stable, and of sound material and adequate strength to afford safe support. Overhanging eaves gutters shall not be used as supports for any part of a scaffold in a workplace unless they have been specially designed as walkways and are of adequate strength. R 12 - Designated access point for scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace where a scaffold is constructed, erected or installed to ensure that every scaffold shall have at least one designated access point from which a person may gain access onto the scaffold. The occupier shall ensure that every designated access point is clearly marked with a sign or label; and made safe for use by any person. R 13 - Stairs and ladders It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that stairs or ladders are provided to enable persons to gain access from one level of any scaffold in a workplace to another level; and so far as is reasonably practicable, are installed within the scaffold. R 14 - Standards and ledgers It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the standards of a scaffold in a workplace shall be plumb where practicable; fixed sufficiently close together to secure the stability of the scaffold, having regard to all the circumstances. In the case of a timber scaffold, spaced not more than 1.5 metres apart; and No metal scaffold with standards spaced more than 2.5 metres apart shall be constructed or erected in a workplace unless it has been approved in writing by the Commissioner. A standard of a scaffold in a workplace shall be placed on an adequate and secured sole plate in order that the foot of the standard does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface, so as to prevent any vertical displacement of the foot. Where the floor or supporting structure is of sufficient rigidity to evenly distribute the load imposed upon it by the standard without causing any vertical displacement of the standard, the provision of a sole plate under the standard shall not be necessary. The foot of a standard of any frame or modular scaffold in a workplace shall be secured to a base plate so that it does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface. The ledgers of a metal scaffold in a workplace shall be spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 2 metres. The ledgers of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall as far as possible, be horizontal; be spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 1.8 metres; and be securely fastened to the standards. R 15 - Transoms It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that transoms are located at or near the intersections of standards and ledgers of a scaffold in a workplace. R 16 - Bracing It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that Every scaffold in a workplace shall be effectively braced by means of longitudinal and transverse bracing systems which shall extend from the base to the top of the scaffold. The joints in bracing members shall be lapped or spliced. Longitudinal bracing members shall be continuous and fixed at approximately 45° to the horizontal. Each lift shall be crossed by at least one longitudinal bracing member in every 10 metres length of the scaffold. A transverse bracing system shall be provided at each end of the scaffold and at intervals of not more than 10 bays. (A transverse bracing system need not be provided where vertical transverse frames are provided for the full height of the scaffold and at each pair of standards; and the frames are
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type-tested by a recognised testing body in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. Every frame scaffold in a workplace shall be provided with horizontal bracings or lacings at intervals of not more than every 5 lifts. R 17 - Gear for suspension of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every chain, rope and lifting gear used for the suspension of a scaffold in a workplace shall be of sound material, adequate strength and suitable quality, and in good condition. Any chain, rope and metal tube used for the suspension of a scaffold in a workplace, other than a suspended scaffold, shall be properly and securely fastened to safe anchorage points and to the scaffold ledgers or other main supporting members; positioned so as to ensure stability of the scaffold; approximately vertical; and kept taut. Every scaffold in a workplace that is suspended by means of chains or ropes shall be secured to prevent undue horizontal movement while it is used as a work platform. R 18 - Work platforms It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that Work platforms in a workplace shall be provided at any place of work which does not afford a proper and secure foothold; and in the case of a building under construction, around the edge of the building at every uppermost permanent floor which is under construction. Work platforms shall be provided at intervals of not less than every alternate lift of any scaffold, except a tower scaffold or a trestle scaffold, used in any premises where building operations are being carried on; and unless approval is given in writing by the Commissioner, the vertical distance between any 2 work platforms shall not exceed 4 metres. Every work platform provided shall cover the lift of a scaffold throughout its entire length. Every work platform provided under this regulation shall be closely boarded, planked or decked. It must be at least 500 millimeters wide; and not have any opening except to allow access to that work platform. The distance between a work platform and any building, ship or other structure shall be as narrow as is reasonably practicable and shall not exceed 300 millimetres. R 19 - Loading requirements for scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that signboards stating the maximum permissible weight of tools and materials and the maximum number of persons permissible on each bay are prominently displayed at suitable locations on the scaffold in a workplace. The occupier of the workplace is to ensure that signboards are displayed at all times until the scaffold is dismantled. A scaffold in a workplace shall not be overloaded and, so far as is reasonably practicable, the load thereon shall be evenly distributed. When any material is transferred to or from a scaffold ing, the material shall be moved or deposited without imposing any violent shock. The maximum loading for persons and materials allowed on any work platform in any bay of a scaffold in a workplace shall be in the case of a timber scaffold, 75 kgf per square metre; or in any other case, 220 kgf per square metre. The maximum number of persons allowed on any work platform in any bay of a timber or metal scaffold in a workplace shall be in the case of a timber scaffold, not more than 2 persons; and in the case of a metal scaffold, not more than 4 persons. The maximum number of persons allowed in any bay of a timber or metal scaffold in a workplace shall be in the case of a timber scaffold, not more than 4 persons; and in the case of a metal scaffold, not more than 8 persons. R 20 - Design by professional engineer It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a work platform and any support thereof in a workplace shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer where the work platform is used to provide footing for more than 2 persons in each bay; or to support tools or materials exceeding 25 kgf in each bay. Where a metal scaffold is used in a workplace to support more than 4 persons in any bay, the scaffold shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any work platform or support to take, so far as is reasonably practicable, such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the work platform, support or metal scaffold according to his design; and provide to any person who constructs or is to construct the work platform, support or metal scaffold, all design
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documentation (including all relevant calculations, drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the work platform, support or metal scaffold according to his design. It shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace in which a scaffold is erected or installed to ensure that no work platform or support is used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector.
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Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2,000. R 21 - Boards, planks and decking It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that all boards, planks or decking used in the construction of work platforms in a workplace shall be of uniform thickness; be capable of supporting a load of 670 kgf per square metre with due regard to the spacing of the supports; and be flushed along their lengths and effectively secured to prevent tipping or uplift. Any metal decking which forms part of a work platform in a workplace shall be provided with non-skid surfaces. Any board or plank which forms part of a work platform in a workplace shall project beyond its end support to a distance of not less than 50 millimetres and not more than 4 times the thickness of the board or plank. R 22 - Toe-boards and guard-rails It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every side of a work platform or workplace from which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres shall be provided with toe-boards and 2 or more guard-rails. The toe-boards and guard-rails provided shall be of sound material, good construction and adequate strength to withstand the impact during the course of work; be placed on the inside of the uprights and secured so as to prevent any accidental displacement; be placed so as to prevent the fall of any person or material. The uppermost guard-rail provided shall be at least one metre above the work platform or workplace for which the guard-rail is provided. The height of toe-boards provided shall not be less than 90 millimetres. The vertical distance between any 2 adjacent guard-rails and between any work platform or workplace and the guard-rail immediately above it shall not exceed 600 millimetres. R 23 - Overlay and screening nets It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that overlay or screening nets shall be used to envelope any timber or metal scaffold in a workplace which is erected on the outside of a building. R 24 - Scaffolds to be free of material which endanger safety It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is constructed, erected or installed to remove any material, including waste material or debris, from the scaffold which may endanger the safety of any person. R 25 - Measures against electrical hazards It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any scaffold in a workplace; or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to any scaffold in the workplace, to ensure that all practicable measures shall be taken to protect the person from electric shock by electrical wires or equipment when using the scaffold. R 26 - Inspection of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is constructed, erected or installed to ensure that no scaffold is used unless it has been inspected by a scaffold supervisor upon completion of its construction, erection or installation; thereafter, at intervals of not more than 7 days immediately following the date of the last inspection by the scaffold supervisor; and after exposure to weather conditions likely to have affected its strength or stability or to have displaced any part. It shall be the duty of the scaffold supervisor to enter the results of every inspection into a register containing such details as may be required by the Commissioner; and provide the register to the occupier of the workplace. The occupier of the workplace in which a scaffold is constructed, erected or installed is to keep the register at the workplace; and produce the register for inspection upon request by an inspector. This regulation shall not apply to a trestle scaffold; or a
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scaffold, from no part of which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres. Any person who contravenes this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2,000. R 27 - Labelling of scaffolds after inspection It shall be the duty of the scaffold supervisor who carries out the inspection of a scaffold immediately after such inspection, display a notice or label indicating whether the scaffold is safe for use or otherwise. The notice or label be in a form readily understood by the persons employed in the workplace; and be displayed at every designated access point.
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R 28 - Construction, erection, maintenance, repair and dismantling of scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is, or is being, constructed, erected or installed to ensure that No scaffold or part thereof which is partially constructed, erected, installed or dismantled shall be allowed to be used unless it is made safe. Where any scaffold is unsafe for use, a prominent warning notice or signs in a form readily understood by all persons indicating that the scaffold or part thereof is not to be used shall be affixed near any point at which the scaffold or part, as the case may be, is liable to be approached for the purpose of use. Every scaffold shall be properly maintained and every part thereof shall be fixed, secured or placed in position so as to prevent, so far as is reasonably practicable, any accidental displacement. Any scaffold, and any member or component thereof, that has been damaged or weakened shall be repaired as soon as reasonably practicable. No person shall be permitted on a scaffold that is damaged or weakened except a scaffold erector who is carrying out the repair of the scaffold. Where ties of a scaffold to a permanent structure have to be removed, the portion of the scaffold from which the ties are removed shall be dismantled unless adequate measures are taken to ensure the stability of the scaffold. R 29 - Approved metal scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no metal scaffold shall be erected or installed in a workplace unless it has been type-tested by a recognised testing body in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner; and it complies with such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose. R30 - Design of certain metal scaffolds by professional engineer It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every metal scaffold exceeding 15 metres in height in any shipyard; or exceeding 30 metres in height in any workplace other than in a shipyard, be erected or installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any metal scaffold take, so far as is reasonably practicable, such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who erects, installs or uses the scaffold according to his design; and provide to any person who erects or installs or is to erect or install the scaffold, all design documentation (including all relevant calculations, drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper erection or installation of the scaffold according to his design. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a metal scaffold is erected or installed to ensure the scaffold is not used unless the scaffold has been examined by the professional engineer after its erection or installation, and a certificate stating that the scaffold is safe for use has been obtained from the professional engineer; the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer and the certificate are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector; and the scaffold has been inspected by a professional engineer at least once every 3 months to ensure that it is safe for use. It shall be the duty of the professional engineer, when he discovers any defect in a metal scaffold in the course of his examination or inspection , to immediately inform the occupier of the workplace in which the scaffold is erected or installed. It shall be the duty of the occupier upon being informed of any defect in a scaffold to immediately take action to rectify the defect before the scaffold is used. 62
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Any person who contravenes paragraph (3)(b) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2,000. R 31 - Ties for metal scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every alternate lift and every uppermost lift of an independent tied metal scaffold in a workplace shall be effectively tied to the building or structure by means of ties. Ties shall be located no further than one bay from the ends of the independent tied metal scaffold and thereafter, at intermediate spacing of not more than 3 bays or 7.5 metres apart, whichever is the lesser. Ties other than tie tubes and couplers shall not be used without the approval in writing of the Commissioner. Every tie shall conform with the following: Tie tubes shall be attached by right angle couplers to the outside ledger or standard or, in the case of an independent scaffold, to both the inside and outside standards as close as possible to the junction of the standards and ledgers; and the ends of the tie tubes shall be attached to the building or structure by one of the following methods: • the tie tubes shall form part of a yoke constructed of tubes and couplers which passes around and bears hard against the sides of a column, pier, beam or similar structural members; • each tie tube shall pass through the wall and be secured with 2 pieces of tube of minimum length of 300 millimetres and shall be attached one on each side of, and bear hard against, the wall; • each tie tube shall be attached to a reveal tie not greater than 1.5 metres in length but reveal ties shall not be used where a horizontal diagonal plan bracing is used; or • each tie tube shall pass through ring bolts which shall be secured by casting in or being anchored in the wall. Every tie tube shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the scaffold and, where this is not practicable, the deviation from the perpendicular shall not exceed 15°. Every tie shall be capable of withstanding a force of 1,000 kgf applied in either direction along the length of the tie.
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R 32 - Transoms for modular or tube-and-coupler scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every modular scaffold or tubeand-coupler scaffold in a workplace is provided with transverse horizontal members or transoms for each lift. R 33 - Spigots, jointpins or sleeves It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that Spigots, jointpins or sleeves shall be used to connect one standard of a metal scaffold in a workplace to another standard. Where spigots, jointpins or sleeves are used to locate and connect one standard to another, such spigots, jointpins or sleeves shall permit full bearing over the whole bearing area at the ends of the standards; and have such external or internal dimensions that the maximum difference of mating diameters in any part between the spigot, jointpin or sleeve and the other standard does not exceed 1.6 millimetres. Spigots and jointpins shall engage in the ends of the standards by at least 70 millimetres. Sleeves shall cover the end of the standard by at least 70 millimetres. The standards shall be securely held if they are connected by the spigots, jointpins or sleeves. R 34 - Adjustable base plates Where an adjustable base plate is used on a standard of a metal scaffold in a workplace and the adjustment exceeds 150 millimetres, it shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the standard is tied longitudinally to the adjacent standard or standards at a height of not more than 460 millimetres above the supporting surface by right angle or swivel couplers. R 35 - Frame or modular scaffolds to be erected in one plane It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every frame or modular scaffold in a workplace is erected such that every lift is horizontal and in one plane.
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R 36 - Cross brace not to be used as means of access or egress It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any frame scaffold in a workplace; or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any frame scaffold in a workplace, to ensure that no cross brace on the frame scaffold shall be used as a means of access or egress by the person. R 37 - Timber scaffolds not to be used in shipyards It shall be the duty of the occupier of a shipyard to ensure that no timber scaffold shall be used in the shipyard. R 38 - Materials for timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the Timber used for any scaffold in a workplace shall be of a suitable quality; shall be in good condition; shall have the bark completely stripped off; and shall not be painted or treated in any way such that defects in the wood cannot be seen easily. Timber used for any scaffold in a workplace shall comprise of Bintangor rollers; or other species of timber rollers which are of similar strength, durability and resilience as Bintangor rollers and which are approved in writing by the Commissioner. Every standard of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall have a diameter of at least 50 millimetres throughout its length. Every timber roller used as a ledger or horizontal bracing, transom or putlog in a scaffold in a workplace shall have a diameter of at least 38 millimetres at the tip. The members or components of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall be lashed using rattan strips or other material approved in writing by the Commissioner. The lashing required shall be done with strips not less than 1.8 metres in length with a minimum of 6 turns per strip. R 39 - Construction of timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every timber scaffold in a workplace shall not exceed 15 metres in height. No timber scaffold with a single row of standards shall be erected in a workplace. Every timber scaffold in a workplace shall be securely tied and braced at the corners; and rigidly anchored to the building or other structure at regular close intervals. Transverse and longitudinal braces of a timber scaffold in a workplace shall be securely placed and lashed to the standards.

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R 40 - Ties for timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a timber scaffold in a workplace shall be tied to a building or other structure by horizontal ties. Each tie shall pass through an opening or hole in the wall in the building or structure; and be secured at a right angle to another pole which shall be fixed firmly inside the building or structure. Where it is not practicable to install any tie, the timber scaffold shall be tied to a building or other structure using ties which are constructed and installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer; or by such other means which are approved in writing by the Commissioner. Ties made up of wires shall not be used. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any tie of a timber scaffold take, so far as is reasonably practicable, such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs, installs or uses the tie according to his design; and provide to any person who constructs or installs or is to construct or install the tie of the timber scaffold, all design documentation (including all relevant calculations, drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction or installation of the tie according to his design. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a timber scaffold is erected to ensure that no scaffold with ties is used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2,000. 64

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All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 43 . Where the work platform of a suspended scaffold is supported by wire ropes. unless the prior approval in writing of the Commissioner has been obtained.Suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no suspended scaffold shall be erected or installed in a workplace unless the outriggers or other supports are of adequate length and strength. winches or device is opened for inspection and servicing at least once in every 12 months to ensure that the drive mechanisms are in safe working order. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the outrigger or other overhead support for the suspended scaffold according to his design.Duration of use of timber scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a timber scaffold is erected to ensure that the timber scaffold shall be dismantled within a period of 9 months after its erection. the climbers. It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. properly installed and supported. and free from patent defects. securely attached to the outriggers or other supports and. to ensure that no person shall enter or leave the cradle of a suspended scaffold unless it is at rest on the ground or at any level which affords a safe means of access or egress. The outriggers or overhead supports shall be spaced not more than 3. of sound material. the points of suspension are at adequate horizontal distances from the building face. and records of such inspection and servicing are kept for each climber. securely fixed to a building. that there are at least 2 turns of the rope remaining on each winch drum. winches or device is properly maintained. winches or any powered device shall be erected or installed in a workplace unless the suspended scaffold has been designed and constructed in accordance with a standard or code acceptable to the Commissioner. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. and in the case of winches. the outriggers or other overhead supports for the suspended scaffold shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. winches or powered device It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that No suspended scaffold that is raised or lowered by climbers. winch and device. and of such length that the platform is capable of being lowered to the ground or floor.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 41 . The above paragraph shall not apply when the primary suspension wire-ropes are suspended from the outer end of the outriggers or other supports by means which preclude the displacement of the wire-rope from its point of suspension.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ 65 Deleted: _ . so far as is reasonably practicable. Wire ropes used to suspend the work platform shall be vertical and taut. to the winch drums. R 42 . The climbers. winches or device shall be synchronised so that the work platform of the suspended scaffold is maintained level at all times. The suspension ropes are of galvanised wire ropes. the climbers. It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. In the case of a suspended scaffold manufactured outside Singapore. the design of the suspended scaffold shall be certified by a professional engineer or a third-party inspection agency approved in writing by the Commissioner. good construction and adequate strength. the hull of the ship or any other structure. and provided with rope guards of adequate strength at the outer ends to prevent the ropes from being displaced from the outriggers. ship or other structure by anchor bolts or other similar means. adequately and securely anchored at the inner ends. and Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. or where such fixing is not reasonably practicable. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs any outrigger or overhead support for the suspended scaffold to take. to ensure that no person shall enter or leave the cradle of a suspended scaffold unless it is at rest on the ground or at any level which affords a safe means of access or egress.Suspended scaffolds raised or lowered by climbers. if winch drums are used.2 metres apart measured from the longitudinal centre line of one outrigger or support to such centre line of the adjacent outrigger or support.

Every portable counter-weight shall have its weight permanently and distinctly stamped. to take. in the event of a failure of one suspension wire rope. The counter-balancing weight on any outrigger shall not be less than 3 times the weight necessary to balance the load on the projecting part of the outrigger when the suspended scaffold in a workplace is fully loaded. Any person who contravenes paragraph (10) shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. the suspended scaffold and its attachments shall be erected or installed in accordance with the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer. winch. earth. R 44 .Age limit of operator It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. R48 . or a system is incorporated which operates automatically to support the platform and its load in the event of a failure of the primary suspension rope. such measures as are necessary to ensure that no person below the age of 18 years operates a climber. The safety rope with the automatic safety device shall be capable of supporting the platform in the event of a failure of the primary suspension rope. R 47 . chippings or other aggregates shall not be used as counter-weights. so far as is reasonably practicable.Prohibition of overloading of suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a suspended scaffold is erected or installed to ensure that the suspended scaffold shall not at any time be loaded beyond the safe working load except in a test in the presence of an inspector or authorised examiner.Prevention of sway It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the work platform of a suspended scaffold in a workplace shall be securely fastened to the building or other structure in such a manner and at such intervals as to prevent the platform from swaying. clay.Safety device for suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that every suspended scaffold in a workplace that is raised or lowered by climbers. sand.000. engraved or embossed thereon. winches or a powered device shall be provided at each suspension point with a safety rope with an automatic safety device mounted on it. This shall not apply if the platform is supported on 2 independent suspension wire ropes at or near each end such that. climber or any part of the device or mechanism used for raising or lowering the suspended scaffold. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. winch. R 45 .0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 66 Deleted: _ . the other wire rope is capable of sustaining the weight of the platform and its load and preventing it from tilting. water or other liquids. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. Where a suspended scaffold has been re-positioned or shifted from one location to another within the same workplace.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide provide to any person who constructs or is to construct the outrigger or other overhead support for the suspended scaffold. R 46 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a suspended scaffold is erected or installed to ensure that no suspended scaffold shall be used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector.Suspended scaffolds counter-balanced by counter-weights It shall be the duty of the responsible person to in relation to a scaffold in a workplace. Every counter-weight shall be securely attached at the inner end of the outriggers to prevent any accidental displacement or tampering by any person. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the outrigger or other overhead support for the suspended scaffold according to his design. powered device or mechanism used for raising or lowering a suspended scaffold.

000 and. fixed and anchored on the supports to prevent displacement. shall not exceed 8 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. stating the maximum number of persons allowed to be in the suspended scaffold. It shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace to ensure that the notice is displayed at all times until the suspended scaffold is dismantled. and reminding the person to attach his safety harness to a secured anchorage at all times. be of adequate strength. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ R 52 . and no person remains on the tower scaffold when it is being moved. The height of a tower scaffold in a workplace. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace. and be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. Design of cantilever or jib supports by professional engineer R 53 – Design of cantilever or jib supports by professional engineer Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.000.Scaffolds and work platforms erected on cantilever or jib supports It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a scaffold in a workplace that is erected on cantilever or jib supports shall be adequately supported. adequately weighted at the base. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1. be used only on a firm and even surface. R 51 . The cantilever or jib supports used to support the scaffold shall have outriggers of adequate length and cross section. It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace. to ensure that no more than 2 work platforms shall be used on a tower scaffold in the workplace at any one time. to a fine not exceeding $2.Notice to be displayed in suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to prominently display a notice in the cradle of a suspended scaffold in a workplace that is in a form readily understood by any person stating the safe working load of the suspended scaffold. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace. the scaffold shall be effectively tied to the building or a rigid structure so as to prevent toppling. “cantilever or jib support” includes any structure. if necessary. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace. and be provided with a positive locking device on each caster to hold the scaffold in position. including a bracket or beam. to ensure that no tower scaffold is moved except by applying force at or near the base. R 50 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R49 . and be securely fastened on the other side of the wall. Where a work platform in a workplace rests on bearers that let into a wall at one end and it does not have other support.0 Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Formatted: Font: Italic Formatted: Font: Italic Formatted: Font: Italic Formatted: Font: Italic 67 Deleted: _ . Any tower scaffold which can be moved on casters shall be constructed with due regard to its stability and. and sufficient and secured anchorage by means of an independent life line or other equally effective means. the bearers shall pass through the wall. to provide to the person a safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device. exceeds 3 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. It shall be the duty of the person who uses any suspended scaffold in a workplace to use the safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device provided to him. that projects beyond a fulcrum or point of attachment and that is not supported directly from the ground or floor below. the casters are locked to hold the tower scaffold in position while the person is on the tower scaffold. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any tower scaffold in a workplace.Personal protective equipment for users of suspended scaffolds It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any suspended scaffold in a workplace.Tower scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the height of a tower scaffold erected or installed on board a ship in a shipyard shall not exceed 4 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. Where the height of a tower scaffold in a workplace. excluding the handrails and their supports at the uppermost lift of the scaffold.

to provide to the person a safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device. so far as is reasonably practicable. the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer and the certificate are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. 68 Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: – Deleted: . such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs. and shall not rise to a vertical distance of more than 3 metres between landings.000. Stairs or ladders shall be placed in such a manner as to prevent any person from falling. and the scaffold has been inspected by a professional engineer at least once every 3 months to ensure that it is safe for use. and sufficient and secured anchorage by means of an independent life line or other equally effective means.0 . securely anchored to the hull or any other part of the building. when he discovers any defect in a scaffold in the course of his examination or inspection to immediately inform the occupier of the workplace in which the scaffold is erected or installed. R 55 . installs or uses the hanging scaffold according to his design. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a scaffold is erected on cantilever or jib supports to ensure that the scaffold is not used unless the scaffold (including the cantilever or jib support) has been examined by the professional engineer after its erection or installation. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the cantilever or jib support according to his design. It shall be the duty of the person who uses any hanging scaffold in a workplace to use the safety harness attached with a shock absorbing device provided to him. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the cantilever or jib support according to his design. constructed Deleted: ¶ Deleted: – Deleted: Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. or the principal under whose direction any person uses or is to use any hanging scaffold in a workplace. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs a hanging scaffold to take. constructed so that the work platform is in a horizontal plane. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 54 . It shall be the duty of the professional engineer. so far as is reasonably practicable. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a hanging scaffold is constructed or installed to ensure that no hanging scaffold is used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. It shall be the duty of the occupier of the workplace upon being informed of any defect in a scaffold to immediately take action to rectify the defect before the scaffold is used. and provide to any person who is constructs or installs or is to construct or install the hanging scaffold.Personal protective equipment for users of hanging scaffolds It shall be the duty of the employer of any person who uses or is to use any hanging scaffold in a workplace. ship or structure to prevent lateral movement or sway. and a certificate stating that the scaffold is safe for use has been obtained from the professional engineer. drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction or installation of the hanging scaffold according to his design. A hanging scaffold from which a person may fall more than 2 metres shall be constructed and installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. ship or other structure. to take. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. and provide to any person who constructs or is to construct the cantilever or jib support. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. and provided with safe means of access to and egress from its platform by means of stairs or ladders.Hanging scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that a hanging scaffold in a workplace shall be constructed before being hung into position on a building.000.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs a cantilever or jib support.

000. an approved scaffold contractor.0 Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 59 Deleted: Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 69 Deleted: _ . or refuse to approve the application. and be accompanied by such particulars. Where a certificate of approval is cancelled. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. R 60 .Suspension or cancellation of certificate The Commissioner may suspend or cancel the certificate of approval of any approved scaffold contractor if the Commissioner is satisfied that the approved scaffold contractor has obtained the certificate of approval by means of fraud.000 and. information. an approved scaffold contractor. to a fine not exceeding $2. It shall be the duty of a professional engineer who designs a trestle scaffold to take. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a scaffold platform unless the width of the platform is such as to leave sufficient clear space for the transport of materials. or have a work platform more than 4. he shall give the applicant notice in writing of the reasons for his refusal. to a fine not exceeding $5. It shall be the duty of the occupier of a workplace in which a trestle scaffold is constructed or erected to ensure that no trestle scaffold used unless the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer are kept available at the workplace for inspection by an inspector. statements and documents as the Commissioner may require. during the period of suspension. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a suspended scaffold. R 57 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1. and cease to act as. An application shall be accompanied by a non-refundable fee of $150. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.000 and. cease to be. or is contravening or has contravened any condition of the certificate of approval. R 58 . drawings and construction procedures) as is necessary to facilitate the proper construction of the trestle scaffold according to his design. all design documentation (including all relevant calculations. the firm or company to which the certificate of approval was issued shall immediately cease to be. A certificate of approval shall not be transferable.5 metres above the ground or floor or other surfaces upon which the scaffold is erected. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. so far as is reasonably practicable. false representation or the concealment of any material fact. R 56 . subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose. The Commissioner may at any time vary or revoke any of the conditions of a certificate of approval or impose new conditions. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Certificate of approval On receipt of an application the Commissioner may issue to the applicant a certificate of approval. Where a certificate of approval is suspended the firm or company to which the certificate of approval was issued shall. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2.Application for approval to be approved scaffold contractor A firm or company may apply to the Commissioner for his approval to act as an approved scaffold contractor.Production of certificate of approval It shall be the duty of any approved scaffold contractor to produce his certificate of approval for inspection upon request by an inspector.000. such measures to ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the trestle scaffold according to his design. Where the Commissioner refuses to approve the applicant to act as an approved scaffold contractor.Trestle scaffolds It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no trestle scaffold in a workplace shall be constructed with more than 3 tiers. R 59 . and the trestles or uprights are firmly attached to the platform and adequately braced to prevent displacement. and cease to act as. and provide to any person who is constructs or is to construct the trestle scaffold. be in such form and manner as the Commissioner may require.000.

.. [20] . [39] ..... or any provision of these Regulations which imposes a duty on him for which no penalty is expressly provided.. erect...... [8] ... [32] . alter.. appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. [37] . [29] . [59] R 61 ... [23] .. [7] .Notice of suspension or cancellation of certificate When the Commissioner has suspended or cancelled the certificate of approval. [27] . [25] . [31] .... An approved scaffold contractor whose certificate of approval has been suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner under regulation 60 may..... shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $20.Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: R 3 Application . any approved scaffold contractor whose certificate of approval is suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner shall not.. [17] .. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2... [47] .. [19] .. Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd... [12] .. [22] ...... [9] . [54] ..... install. [26] .. or sending it by registered post to.. construct... [33] ..... [5] ... [35] .Offence Any person who contravenes regulation 4(1).. [51] . [38] .. if an appeal against the suspension or cancellation of the certificate of approval has been made to the Minister on the date the Minister dismisses the appeal. R 62 . [56] . [53] ... [55] .... [57] .. maintain.. [11] . [30] ... re-position. [10] ... [50] .. [46] . within 21 days of the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation.. [44] ...... between the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation and the date the suspension or cancellation takes effect (both dates inclusive). [16] ..... [41] .. [21] . [24] . [42] ... [48] . [43] .... [15] .. [18] . repair or dismantle any scaffold referred to in a workplace.. A notice of suspension or cancellation may be served on any firm or company by leaving it at... [45] .. [6] . [36] ......... [52] . The suspension or cancellation of the certificate of approval shall take effect 21 days after the date of the service of the notice on the approved scaffold contractor or. [34] .000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both. the Commissioner shall inform the approved scaffold contractor concerned by notice in writing of such suspension or cancellation.. [58] .....0 70 Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted . Notwithstanding that the suspension or cancellation has not taken effect.. [40] ... [49] . [28] ... [14] . [13] .. the last known business address....

¶ ¶ R 58 Scaffold supported by buildings or other structures No part of a building or other structure shall be used as support for any part . struck by moving vehicles 71 Deleted: Other scaffolds¶ ¶ R 57 Scaffold and work platform erected on cantilever or jib support “cantilever or jib support” includes any structure. caught in between structures.2. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. falling objects and collapse of MEWP.4 MOBILE ELEVATED WORK PLATFORM (MEWP) HAZARDS A mobile elevated work platform is any telescoping. There are battery powered and internal combustion engine types. E design requirement • Signage – SWL. The protected platform is used to position persons at work areas. scissor or articulating equipment used to position personnel. ¶ ¶ No cantilever or jib support shall be used unless — ¶ <#>the scaffold is adequately supported. access. Substitution • Use mobile elevated work platform Engineering control • All the components of the scaffold such as guardrails. safe to use • Permit to work • Stop work during adverse weather • Good housekeeping • Suspend cables on non insulated materials • Work in pairs • Erect according to safe sequence. while others are designed for operation on rough terrain. Some are designed for hard flat surfaces only. sole plates..0 . and ¶ <#>the cantilever or jib support has outriggers of adequate length and cross section and is constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. electrocution. toe-boards. materials or equipment at height.. Hazards of MEWP • Untrained operator • Uneven ground surface • Unclear controls • Adverse weather conditions • Defective equipment • Contact with overhead structures / electrical lines • Vehicular hazards The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height. Mobile elevated work platforms are available in a wide variety of types and sizes. fixed and anchored on the support to prevent displacement. • P. that projects beyond a fulcrum or point of attachment and that is not supported directly from the ground or floor below.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Risk Control Elimination • Eliminate the need to work at height by working from the ground. including a bracket or beam.E inspection before usage • Supervision by scaffold supervisor Personal Protective Equipment • Safety harness • Safety helmet • Safety shoes 6. bracings. [70] Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Formatted: Font color: Red Deleted: ¶ Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. They include scissor lifts and boom lifts as shown below. ties. Mobile elevated work platforms consist of a platform surrounded by an edge protection system. screen nets • Barricades during erection / dismantling Administrative Control • Erected by a qualified erectors • Safe work procedure • Comply with legal requirements • Inspected by scaffold supervisor • P. base plates. ¶ ¶ No work platform resting on bearers let into a wall at one end and which does not have other support shall be used unless the bearers pass through the wall and are of adequate strength and securely fastened on the other side of the wall.

e.0 72 Deleted: _ . • There must be no unauthorised alteration or modification of the mobile elevated work platform or any of its safety devices or functions.Code of Practice for Traffic Control at Work Zone while working on the roads . (i. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Marked with a safe working load limit or maximum rate capacity notice • Operators of boom lifts should be properly trained and competent for the job. • Should only be used on a solid level surface • A pre-operation inspection must be performed by the operator before usage.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Risk Control Engineering Control • Cordoning of work area • installation of truck mounted attenuator (TMA) while working on roads more than 70km/h Administrative Control • Inspected by an Authorised Examiner at once in every 6 months. • Sufficient clearance should be maintained between structures and electrical lines. Anchoring to nearby poles or equipment outside the work platform is prohibited. ladders or any other devices on the work platforms for the purpose of achieving additional height or reach is strictly prohibited. • Luminous vests to enhance visibility while working near roads Deleted: ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Should not be used in high wind conditions or where there is risk of lightning. • Follow the Land Transport Authority (LTA) . Personnel required to climb out of an elevated boom lift onto an elevated facility structure shall utilise 100 percent tie-off procedures during the transition from the boom lift cage to the elevated work location.re-directing of traffic flow. personnel must anchor to a fall rated facility anchorage point prior to disconnecting their lanyard attached to the aerial boom lift cage). • The use of planks. signage and traffic controllers Personal Protective Equipment • Operators working in boom lifts should wear a suitably anchored safety harness. placement of warning lights.

of personnel allowed on the platform shall not exceed 2. Hazards • Inadequate cage design • Movement of crane • Not wearing harness • Adverse weather conditions • Contact with overhead structures / electrical lines • Vehicular hazards The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height.5 SUSPENDED CAGE HAZARDS Suspended cages are personnel carrying devices. please refer to Approved Code of Practice Singapore Standard CP 63: 1996 (2005) – Code of Practice for the Lifting of Persons in Work Platforms Suspended from Cranes. placement of warning lights. designed for attachment to a crane. Suspended cages consist of a platform surrounded by an edge protection system. Personnel shall be considered as weighing 100 kg (including tools) each. • Lifting and lowering speed shall not exceed 0.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. • Communication shall be maintained with personnel throughout the lifting operation. and works from the cage.Code of Practice for Traffic Control at Work Zone while working on the roads . • Persons should only access the suspended cage when the suspended cage is not suspended and the surrounding area has space to provide access to or from the suspended cage. • Should not be used in high wind conditions or where there is risk of lightning. • Mobile cranes should be blocked at all times when using a suspended cage. • The suspended cage and crane should only be accessed by qualified personnel. • Tag lines shall be used where practical. • Sufficient clearance should be maintained between structures and electrical lines.0 73 Deleted: _ . Risk Control Engineering Control • Design and construction of the work platform shall be in accordance to CP63. • People using the suspended cage should only be allowed to enter or leave the suspended cage from the ground or solid construction. For detailed guidance on the use of suspended cages.5 m/s. signage and traffic controllers Personal Protective Equipment • People using the suspended cage should wear a safety harness and lanyard anchored to the crane hook. • Marked with a safe working load limit or maximum rate capacity notice • Total weight of loaded platform shall not > 50% of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the crane • No. • Luminous vests to enhance visibility while working near roads Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • cordoning of work area • installation of truck mounted attenuator (TMA) while working on roads more than 70km/h Administrative Control • Inspected by an Authorised Examiner at once in every 6 months.2. Crane operator to remain at control at all times when personnel are in the platform. • The crane’s free fall facility should not be operated in the hoist motion while the crane is supporting a suspended cage carrying people. • Should only be used on a solid level surface • Follow the Land Transport Authority (LTA) . to provide a working area for a person who is elevated by.re-directing of traffic flow. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

Resting surface and prevention against slipping The surface upon which any ladder rests or bears upon when used by a person using a ladder to carry out any work in a worksite shall be stable. R 44 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. Engineering control • Securing the ladder at the top and / or bottom Administrative control • Another person to hold the ladder • Safe work procedure • Inspection programme • Proper angle of placement . the ladder shall be held in place by a person. Risk Control Elimination • Use mobile elevated work platforms. Every landing place shall be provided with sufficient and suitable guard-rails to prevent falls. Every ladder in a worksite shall be positioned and securely fixed when used by any person carrying out any work so as to prevent slipping.6 LADDER HAZARDS Ladders are used in most of the trades.g.2. there shall be provided a safety cage or other practicable measures to prevent fall of persons. level and firm. R 45 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. if practicable. two feet and one hand or two hands and one foot.Landing place Every ladder or run of ladders used by any person carrying out any work which rises a vertical distance of over 9 metres shall. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Where a vertical ladder used by any person carrying out any work in a worksite rises a vertical distance of more than 3 metres. and of sufficient strength to safely support the ladder and any person or load intended to be placed on it.0 74 Deleted: _ . Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 43 . The hazards of ladders are as follows: • • • • • • • • Uneven ground surface Defective ladders Unstable ladders Unsecured ladders Wrong method of climbing Carrying materials while climbing Performing heavy duty works Standing on top rung Deleted: ¶ The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height. swaying or sagging. Substitution • A step platform is a safer alternative to a step ladder. sound material and adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used. If such fixing is impracticable. e.approximately a quarter of the vertical height of the ladder. be provided with an intermediate landing place so that the vertical distance between any 2 successive landing places shall not exceed 9 metres. • atleast one meter above the place of landing • maintain three points of contact at all times.Construction Ensure that the ladder is of good construction.

sufficient and secured anchorage for the attachment of safety harness in the course of the person's work shall be provided. • Sloping roofs • Deteriorated materials • Inadequate access • Adverse weather • Unprotected edges The potential accidents that could occur would be falling from height and falling objects resulting in injuries and fatalities. Person shall be protected against any sliding or fall from the roof. Risk Control Engineering Control • Provision of a safe means of access for getting to and from the roof before commencing work by means of ladder access tower.7 ROOF WORK HAZARDS The hazards for working on roofs are as follows: • fragile and brittle roofs constructed from moulded or fabricated materials such as cellulose cement roof sheets. acrylic or other similar synthetic materials. • Work is carried out from a working platform that is located and constructed to allow work to be performed safely • Provision of anchorage points • Catch platforms 75 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R23 .2. Use a 2-person team to transport ladders that are greater than 2m in height Personal Protective Equipment • Anti. hoist or staircase. The person shall use the protection provided against sliding or fall from the roof. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Work on roofs Where any person carries out any work on any roof from which he is liable to fall off or through a distance of more than 2 metres.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • Step and trestle ladders should only be used when they are in the fully open position.slip resistant footwear 6.0 . glass. fiberglass.

and • Installation and removal of television aerials and other similar communication equipment. and • Is designed to restrict the travelling range of a person wearing the safety harness or belt so that the person cannot get into a position where the person could fall off an edge of a surface or through a surface. each of which is attached to a static line or anchorage point. • Training and instruction has been provided to workers on precautions to be taken. • Training in rescue techniques has been provided and rescue equipment is readily available for use at the workplace. • Warning signs are displayed at access points to any work area where fragile material is present. The anchorage points must be able to withstand the full weight of the person using it without failure. if there is a possibility of the rope grab (or similar) coming off the end of the rope. the method of adjusting the rope length should be by means of a lockable cam device or similar. If the system consists of ropes that require their effective length to be adjusted to prevent a fall occurring. the brittle or fragile areas are identified and the stability of the structure and soundness of the roof is assessed. • Painting and cleaning.8 FALL PROTECTION SYSTEM HAZARDS Travel Restraint Systems A travel restraint system is a system that: • Consists of a safety harness or belt. Anchorage points should be designed for additional loading should more than one person be using the system. • Installations of skylights and ventilation fixtures. including replacement of some isolated parts of the roof. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Warning signs are fixed securely in a position where they will be clearly visible to persons Personal Protective Equipment • An adequate fall arrest system is installed and used 6.0 76 Deleted: _ . attached to one or more lanyards. the rope should be suitably terminated. • The worker is informed that it is a fragile or brittle roofing. • Installation and removal of perimeter guard-rail systems. Travel restraint systems are generally only suitable for work such as the following: • Roof inspection (not on fragile roofs). • Pointing up tiles or fitting ridge capping metal roofs.2. • Minor repair work.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Administrative Control • Before the roofing work is carried out. • There is another person present at all times when work is being performed on a brittle roof in case there is an emergency.

A lanyard assembly should be as short as reasonably practicable. A lanyard is a line used. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. A personal energy absorber is used in conjunction with a fall arrest harness and lanyard to reduce the deceleration force imposed by a suddenly arrested fall and correspondingly reduces loading on the anchorage. Individual fall arrest systems are an assembly of interconnected components consisting of a harness connected to an anchorage point or anchorage system either directly or by means of a lanyard. ‘Swing down’ – In a swing down. The line is connected to a fixed anchorage point at each end. If the arrest line is too long. for example in suspended scaffolds. the fall arrest line will slide back along the perimeter until it is at a right angle with the edge of the roof. The line can be made of metal tube. synthetic webbing or synthetic rope. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. metal rod. They may also be used where the working platform is not stable. the arrest line extends diagonally from the anchor point. They can be used where workers are required to carry out their work near an unprotected edge such as rigging and dismantling. Hazards of Fall Arrest Systems ‘Swing back’ – In a fall. If the worker falls. the worker will swing back into the building structure and collide with any obstructions in the path of the swing. steel wire rope. to connect a fall arrest harness to an anchorage point or static line. following the perimeter edge of the roof. A fall arrest harness is an assembly of interconnected shoulder and leg straps with or without a body belt designed to spread the load over the body and to prevent the wearer from falling out of the assembly. A fall arrest static line is a horizontal or vertical line of a fall arrest system. The energy absorber may be a separate item or manufactured into the lanyard. particularly from a perpendicular edge. usually as part of a lanyard assembly. the use of an individual fall arrest system should be reassessed. the worker will drop and hit the ground or the arrest line may break when contacting the edge of the roof and result in the worker hitting the ground. to which a lanyard can be attached. If there is a risk of a swing back occurring.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Individual Fall Arrest Systems Individual fall arrest systems are intended to safely stop a worker from falling an uncontrolled distance and to reduce the impact of the fall.0 77 Deleted: _ .

This 5m might be more than the actual height of the fall. In the event of a fall.2kN per person attached). The inspection of fall arrest systems by a competent person should be conducted periodically.8m. The allowable free fall distance for individual fall arrest systems should be limited to not more than 1. the combined length of the lanyard. Anchoring of lanyards to guard-rails of scaffolding should be avoided where possible.For a person falling from height. a short lanyard or retractable fall arrest block should be considered. in less than 10mins). it must be removed from service and not used again. unless the guard-rail is designed to be able to withstand the force generated by a falling person (about 22. Once a fall arrest system has been used to arrest a fall.0 78 Deleted: _ . Therefore. A person should not use a fall arrest system unless there is at least one other person present on site who is trained to conduct rescue operations in the event of a fall. It is Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. This is necessary to prevent further injury. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. the worker must be rescued as soon as possible(if possible.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Height clearance . when working in areas where falls over short distances are possible. Safety distance is usually taken as 1m. sag in life line and the shock absorber fully extended may be more than 5m in total.

it shall be the duty of the seller or any agent of the seller who caused or procured the sale to provide the buyer with a SDS for the substance that gives accurate and adequate information on the substance. welding fumes. welding fumes. acetylene. Hazards To assess the hazard potential of a chemical. Liquid. handling or storage in a workplace. Deleted: M Deleted: <#>Identity . Where any hazardous substance is sold to any person for use in a workplace. asbestos. abrasives. asphalt. plastering. “container” means anything in or by which substances are or have been wholly or partly encased. adhesives. of any hazardous substance that is in a consumer package and that is intended for retail sale. pesticides. hydraulic oil. occupier shall obtain MSDS.3 WORKING WITH HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Hazardous substances are used extensively in most of the trades as shown below: Trade Architectural Hazardous substances Cement. covered or packed. CP or guidance as is issued or approved by the Council. grease. diesel. R 42 .Safety Data Sheet Where any hazardous substance is used. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. paints. acids. blasting chemicals.Chemical product and company identification¶ <#>Hazards identification – Safety & Health¶ <#>Composition/information on ingredients¶ <#>First-aid measures¶ <#>Fire-fighting measures¶ <#>Accidental release measures¶ <#>Handling and storage¶ <#>Exposure controls/personal protection¶ <#>Physical and chemical properties¶ <#>Stability and reactivity¶ <#>Toxicological information¶ <#>Ecological information¶ <#>Disposal considerations¶ <#>Transport information¶ <#>Regulatory information¶ <#>Other information¶ Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Civil M& E Equipment & Special services Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 41 – Hazardous Substances Occupier shall ensure that hazardous substances are placed under the control of a competent person who has adequate knowledge of their properties and their dangers. used. asphalt. and conforms with any SS relating to safety data sheets or such other standards. sealants.Warning Labels Warning labels shall be affixed one or more labels on containers of hazardous substances that conforms with SS or WSH Council CP. Gas Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. formwork oil. silica Cement. solvents. adhesives. LPG. Supplier shall provide SDS with accurate and adequate information. The above shall not apply in respect of the use.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. stored. pesticides. “consumer package” means a container that is intended for retail display and sale to households or offices. assess information and take precautionary measures and make it available to workers. handled or stored. welding fumes Deleted: H Deleted: S Deleted: should be Deleted: workers Deleted: factory Deleted: It shall be easily understood by all persons and warn of the hazards of the substance. It shall specify the precautionary measures to take when dealing with the substance. petrol. diesel. handled or disposed without any risk to others. fire fighting gases. and includes a container that is transported or distributed as part of a larger consolidated container that consists of a number of identical consumer packages. paints. Adequate warning notices in languages understood by all persons specifying the nature of the danger should be placed at entrances to any workroom and appropriate locations. bentonite. welding fumes Anti-termite. solvents. Persons at work in a workplace who are liable to be exposed should be warned of hazards involved and precautionary measures to take. one must know the inherent properties of chemicals which depends on the following: • Chemical and physical properties • Frequency of usage • Amount of materials used • Physical state – Solid. All hazardous substances should be kept. R 43 . grouting materials. oxygen. or the sale for use in a workplace. water proofing chemicals.0 Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Formatted: Font: Arial Deleted: ¶ ¶ 79 Deleted: _ . silica Refrigerants.

The 3 major groups of compressed gases are • Liquefied . E. A falling cylinder can cause serious injury and if the valve is knocked off. At normal room temperatures.acetylene Tubing and containers may explode if put under high pressure. they can be a serious fire hazard. Explosions also result in a rapid release of pressure or shock waves. petrol.g LPG.oxygen • Dissolved gases . fires also produce smoke and toxic gases such as carbon monoxide which is odourless and a chemical asphyxiant. acetylene Flammable Liquids Flammable Liquids are having a flashpoint of not more than 93C.1 PHYSICAL HAZARDS Gases under Pressure Gases under pressure / compressed gases are commonly used in cylinders. Flammable gases can displace air. Many undergo dangerous chemical reactions if they contact incompatible chemicals such as oxidizing materials. solvents.3.0 80 Deleted: _ . generally by providing oxygen. flammable liquids can give off enough vapour to form burnable mixtures with air. Ignition source. Oxidizing Gases Oxidizing gases are gases that may. cause or contribute to the combustion of other material more than air does. E. hydraulic oil. explosions release energy very rapidly typically in the order of microseconds. diesel. the cylinder can become a rocket Explosive Explosive chemicals create immediate threats to the health and safety. Flammable liquid fires burn very fast. On the other hand. the 3 key elements must be present – Fuel. In order for fire to occur. Fires tend to release energy slowly and the rate is controlled by the diffusion rate of either the fuel or oxygen. Oxygen and.g oxygen Fire is a complex set of chemical reactions in which fuel combines with oxygen and an ignition source to produce heat. adhesives. Flammable gases The gas can easily form a flammable mixture with air.LPG • Non-liquefied . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide There are 2 types of hazards associated with hazardous substances. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. It is classified according to flashpoint and initial boiling point. Other than fire and explosion hazards. Explosive chemicals are further classified into high and low explosive as per the rates of decomposition. some flammable gases can also pose health hazards and be reactive. An undetected leak in a confined area could displace enough air to suffocate a person e. Compressed gas cylinders are heavy and awkward to handle.g paints. Apart from heat generation. water proofing chemicals. Even many detections show that such chemical also cause disorders of living hormones. or if they are stored improperly. They are: • Physical hazards • Health hazards 6. As a result.

gas. cardboards Air Chain reaction HEAT Welding.Precautions with regard to explosive or flammable dust. paper. gas. overheated electrical equipment. until all reasonably practicable steps have been taken to remove the substance and any fumes arising from it. petrol. cutting. or • by the use of suitable flame-proof equipment No plant. brazing or soldering operation. any explosive or flammable substance shall be subjected to — • any welding. acetylene. vapour or substance. timber. • by removal or prevention of accumulation of the dust. naked flames. or to render the substance and fumes non-explosive and nonflammable and inspection and certification by a competent person. tank or vessel until the metal has cooled sufficiently to prevent any risk of igniting the substance. wood.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Fire Triangle Flammable and Combustible Paints. gas. all reasonably practical steps shall be taken to prevent such an explosion — • by enclosure of the plant used in the process. thinners. tar. R 37 Prevention of Fire All reasonably practical steps shall be taken to keep sources of heat or ignition separate from flammable materials in the workplace or any process carried on at the workplace that 81 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. gas. or has contained. asphalt. tank or vessel or any part of it. tank or vessel in a workplace that contains. electrical arcs Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 22 . rubber. • any cutting operation which involves the application of heat.0 . No explosive or flammable substance shall be allowed to enter the plant. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. vapour substance Where any process in a plant used in a workplace gives rise to dust. vapour or substance that may escape into any place of work and the dust. • by exclusion or effective enclosure of possible sources of ignition. or • any operation involving the application of heat for the purpose of taking apart or removing the plant. diesel. grinding. smoking. plastics. vapour or substance that may escape is of such a character and is to such an extent as to be liable to explode on ignition.

• Use brush or roller for solvent painting instead of spraying. all exit doors shall be constructed to open outwards.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory 82 Deleted: _ . • Use spark proof or non-sparking tools and materials should be used where flammable materials are likely to be present.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide gives rise to any flammable gas or vapour. There shall be effective warning devices that — • are capable of being operated without exposing any person to undue risk. There shall be provided and maintained in a workplace means of extinguishing fire which shall — • be readily accessible. Except in the case of sliding doors. any room in the workplace or any building or enclosure in which the workplace is situated shall only be locked or fastened in such a manner that the door can easily and immediately be opened from the inside. Every exit affording means of escape in case of fire or giving access to such means of escape shall be conspicuously marked with an exit sign of an adequate size. and • are clearly audible throughout the workplace. Engineering Control • Maximise natural ventilation through doors and windows. • Use high flash point chemicals instead of low flash point chemicals.g. by blowers if necessary • Use fire safety containers. • Use forced ventilation e. R 38 . • Chain up cylinders • Grounding • Provision of fire resistant partition. Risk Control The basic fire prevention is to prevent the three components of the fire triangle from coming together. • Use safety cabinets for storage. • Eliminate ignition sources Substitution • Use substance that is not flammable such as water based paint instead of solvent based paint. Effective steps shall be taken to ensure that all the persons at work in the workplace are familiar with the means of escape in case of fire and their use and the routine to be followed in case of fire. Administrative Control • Apply controls from safety data sheets.Safety Provisions in the case of fire There shall be provided in a workplace such means of escape in case of fire for the persons at work in the workplace as may be reasonably required in the circumstances of each case and which shall be properly maintained and kept free from obstruction. The contents of any room in which persons are at work shall be so arranged or disposed that there is a free passageway for all persons at work in the room to a means of escape in case of fire. • are maintained and tested at least once every month. • be adequate and suitable having regard to the circumstances of each case. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. All exit doors from the workplace. and • be tested by a competent person at such regular intervals as the Commissioner may determine. Elimination • Eliminate the use of the chemicals. • Bond and ground to minimise static electricity build-up. • Separate incompatible chemicals • Label all containers Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • give warning in case of fire.

Some of the irritants are also sensitisers. Irritation. gloves. gases and dusts. hardeners.g carbon monoxide. eye irritation or irritation to the respiratory system. Personal Protective Equipment • Use fire resistant clothing. It may have no effect. solvents. demolition. etc Lung Damage These are caused by chemical dust particle such as silica and asbestos. certain paints.g hydrochloric acid. They are: • Inhalation – Respiratory system is the most important route for chemical vapours. 6. Keep the quantity of materials to a minimum. Asbestos is present in old buildings and are encountered during demolition works. waterproofing compounds. etc. Particles less than 5 microns enter lungs. Gas detection in confined spaces Training on use of hazardous materials Provision of fire alarms Follow legal requirements Apply hot work permit Store cylinders upright. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Asphyxiant An asphyxiant can deprive a living organism. Usually. certain surface retarder. Chemicals enter the body through 3 main routes of entry. • Skin – Liquid chemicals enters the body through contact. epoxy. sealants. sensitisation or enter blood vessel and transported to the various parts of the body. an irritant can cause inflammation of the skin. sulphuric acid. its tissues and cells of oxygen leading to loss of consciousness and even death e. grinding. sealant and primer. e. living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. curing agents.2 HEALTH HAZARDS The following are the health hazards arising from construction chemicals: Corrosive A corrosive substance is one that causes visible destruction of. e. e.g most of the grouting compounds. sweeping and cleaning and leads to Silicosis. acetylene. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. safety shoes. or irreversible alterations in.0 83 Deleted: _ . polishing.3.g. Irritant An irritant is not corrosive but causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. Silica is dust from hacking. paints. Provision of fire fighting appliances Designated storage area Prohibit or control smoking Signage at the storage areas. e.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • Implement safe work procedures Proper inspection before usage. etc Carcinogen A substance is considered to be carcinogen if it has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and found to cause cancer or suspected to cause cancer. Sensitiser A sensitiser can cause a proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction in normal tissue after repeated exposure to the substance. etc.g some of the hardeners.

It may cause irreversible damage and can be identified by medical screening • Reversible Effect – effects that are temporary and disappears if exposure to the chemical ceases e. exposure to corrosive chemicals such as acid • Local Effect – effects that causes harm at the point of contact or entry • Systemic Effect – the chemicals enters the body. fume or contaminants. fibres. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. fumes and other contaminants should be prevented from accumulation. test or assess the environment of any workplace for potential health hazards and to take air samples in the breathing zone of the persons exposed to dust. mists or vapours are not present in quantities liable to injure the health of persons employed. handled. damaging effect on the body. or suitable air-supplied breathing apparatus is provided. exposure to irritants • Irreversible Effect – effects that are permanent and lasting.0 . The atmosphere of any workplace in which toxic substances are manufactured. oil mist. vapour. even if exposure to the chemical ceases e. Control measures include • isolate work or process from workers • enclose work or process to prevent workers’ contact • provide ventilation to dilute contaminants • conduct work or process wet • provide local exhaust ventilation (LEV) to remove contaminants at source of emission All toxic dust and waste accumulation shall be washed or vacuum clean to prevent airborne. Air-supplied breathing apparatus shall be supplied with air • of comfortable temperature and humidity for breathing • suitably treated to remove any material. The effects of Toxic Substances are as follows: • Acute effects – effects within a short duration due to high concentration and may cause illness. used or given off shall be tested by a competent person at sufficient intervals to ensure that toxic or irritating dusts.15 min exposure during any work day 84 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. No stationary internal combustion engine is allowed unless exhaust gas is conducted out. odour. Employees should be protected against inhalation of dust. carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide.g. is absorbed and transported to the various targeted organs of the body where harm is effected Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 39 .Toxic dust. fumes or other contaminants Toxic dust. fumes. fume or other contaminants by using personal sampling equipment Requirements in this section shall not apply if impracticable. whereas PEL (Short Term) . disease or death • Chronic effects – effects over a longer duration due to low concentration exposure frequently in excess of Permissible exposure levels. PEL (Long Term) is for 8 hr exposure & 40 hr work week. gases. R 40 – Permissible exposure levels of toxic substances No person in the workplace is exposed to toxic substances in excess of the permissible exposure levels (PEL) specified in the first schedule.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • Ingestion – Solids and liquid chemical can enter the body through contaminated food and utensils. where PELs for more than 600 substances are specified. Competent person to exercise due diligence in carrying out the test and records of tests shall be kept for 5 years Commissioner may require workplace occupier to engage competent person to monitor.g.

6. DWD may recommend suspension from work temporarily or permanently. 2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide WSH (Medical Examinations) Regulations These regulations apply to workplaces in which persons are employed in any occupation involving: • the use or handling or exposure to the fumes. Every person to be periodically examined on the types & frequency of examination are specified in the 1st Schedule. • the use or handling of or exposure to tar. lead. 14. 29. • exposure to excessive noise. TCE. 12. 23. Deleted: . 25. 8. DWD to report results of medical examinations to employer. Deleted: . 11. Formatted: Font: Arial Deleted: vinyl chloride. Space After: 0 pt Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. PCE ¶ Deleted: factory Deleted: F Deleted: F Deleted: F Formatted: Font: Arial. fumes or vapour of benzene. 18. employer must keep the records for > 5 yr & submit records to commissioner when required. 3. Employer must arrange for medical examinations & workers must submit themselves for examinations.25". • the use or handling of or exposure to the liquid. Font color: Auto Deleted: . 4. organophosphates or vinyl chloride monomer. bitumen or creosote. Deleted: . 17. 28. Employer must facilitate DWD’s visit. raw cotton or silica. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 16. 5. 22. 31. 21. Aniline poisoning Anthrax Arsenical poisoning Asbestosis Barotrauma Beryllium poisoning Byssinosis Cadmium poisoning Carbamate poisoning Compressed air illness or its sequelae. 30. 26. including dysbaric osteonecrosis Cyanide poisoning Diseases caused by ionizing radiation Diseases caused by excessive heat Hydrogen Sulphide poisoning Lead poisoning Leptospirosis Liver angiosarcoma Manganese poisoning Mercurial poisoning Mesothelioma Noise-induced deafness Occupational asthma Occupational skin cancers Occupational skin diseases Organophosphate poisoning Phosphorus poisoning Poisoning by benzene or a homologue of benzene Poisoning by carbon monoxide gas Poisoning by carbon disulphide Poisoning by oxides of nitrogen Poisoning from halogen derivatives of hydrocarbon compounds rd Deleted: Factories Deleted: factories Formatted: Font: Arial. 13. manganese.mercury. Deleted: . 10. 9. perchloroethylene. 24. trichloroethylene. cadmium.0 85 Deleted: _ . 15. 27. 10 pt Formatted: Indent: Left: 0. pitch. organophosphates or any of their compounds. 7. • the use or handling of or exposure to the dust of asbestos. or • any work in a compressed air environment No person shall be employed unless certified fit by a designated workplace doctor (DWD) not later than 3 months after commencing work and 3 days before work in compressed air. Employer must keep registers of workers. Commissioner may exempt factories or persons from the requirements of regulations WSH Act 3 Schedule The following occupational diseases requires to be reported: 1.dust or vapour of arsenic. 20. 19.

¶ <#>Occupational skin diseases. ¶ <#>Barotrauma. ¶ <#>Lead poisoning. Engineering Control • Enclosure or isolation of the process or person. ¶ <#>Liver angiosarcoma. ¶ <#>Asbestosis. Deleted: ¶ <#>Aniline poisoning. ¶ <#>Noise-induced deafness. • Use premix concrete to eliminate dust Substitution • Asbestos has been substituted with fibre glass. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. ¶ <#>Organophosphate poisoning. ¶ <#>Carbamate poisoning. bitumen. • Provide forced / local exhaust ventilation • Wetting method for asbestos and cement • Use tools to reduce contact • Use appropriate containers. Musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb Silicosis Toxic anaemia Toxic hepatitis. • Solvent based paints can be substituted with water based paints. ¶ <#>Manganese poisoning. • Implement a permit to work system. ¶ <#>Epitheliomatous ulceration (Due to tar. or ¶ <#>Toxic hepatitis. Personal Protective Equipment • Use chemical resistant PPE such as apron. ¶ <#>Phosphorous poisoning.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 32. • Maximise natural ventilation through doors and windows. • Education and training • Proper dilution technique – add acid to water. ¶ <#>Byssinosis.0 86 Deleted: _ . ¶ <#>Mercurial poisoning. 34. safety shoes and respirators. ¶ <#>Repetitive strain disorder of the upper limb. mineral oil or paraffin or any compound. safety gloves. product or residue of any such substance). ¶ <#>Silicosis. ¶ <#>Chrome ulceration. ¶ <#>Mesothelioma. ¶ <#>Occupational asthma. ¶ <#>Arsenical poisoning. • Separate incompatible chemicals • Wash with water when contact with skin • Implement safe work procedures • Designated storage area • Signage at the storage areas. 33. ¶ <#>Anthrax. safety glass.¶ Formatted: English (Singapore) Risk Control Elimination • Asbestos has been eliminated. • Reduce exposure time by rest breaks or job rotation. Administrative Control • Apply controls from safety data sheets. ¶ <#>Hydrogen sulphide poisoning. • Gas testing • Training on use of hazardous materials • Follow legal requirements • Medical examination • Housekeeping • Prohibition of eating and drinking at the work areas. ¶ <#>Cadmium poisoning. pitch. ¶ <#>Cyanide poisoning. ¶ <#>Chronic benzene poisoning. ¶ <#>Poisoning from halogen derivatives of hydrocarbon compounds. ¶ <#>Toxic anaemia. ¶ <#>Carbon bisulphide poisoning. ¶ <#>Compressed air illness. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 35. ¶ <#>Beryllium poisoning.

Process Work Activities Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Use the RA form. Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards. Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified.0 87 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 3 Group Exercise . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Identify the type of controls.30 minutes • • • • • • Select an architectural trade. Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities.

0 88 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

shovels. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.1 HAND TOOL HAZARDS Hand tools are used at all times for most of the construction works such planers. MACHINERY & EQUIPMENT 6.0 . etc.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6.4.Tools may shatter during use. The hazards are • • • • • • Improper maintenance .4 WORKING WITH TOOLS. The hazards are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Projectiles escaping from the surface Substandard tools Substandard projectiles Incompatible projectiles Incompatible charges Wrong charges used Unqualified operator Unauthorised repair Use in dangerous environment Use on wrong materials Unsafe operation Misfires Unsafe storage of charges Defective tools The accidents would be ‘Struck by projectiles’ resulting in injuries and fatality. hammers. chisels. knives. screwdrivers. pliers. Defective handles or blunt tools Using the wrong tools – screw driver instead of chisel Using tools incorrectly Using modified tools Unaware of hazards Tools left lying on the floor – step on objects The potential accidents that may arise are as follows: • tools flying off and falling onto other workers • tools slipping from the operational point and striking the user. 89 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. crowbars.4.2 EXPLOSIVE POWERED TOOL HAZARDS Explosive powered tools are used to fasten projectiles onto surfaces. • tripping hazard falling on the same level Risk Control Engineering control • Store tools in containers Administrative control • Select the right tool • Inspection and maintenance • Supervision • Training Personal Protective Equipment • Safety goggles • Safety gloves 6.

rivet. printed or placed on tools The following notice is permanently embossed. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Information to be engraved.Projectiles and charges to be compatible with tools No projectile or charge shall be used with tool unless it is of a standard or quality that compatible with the specification of the manufacturer of the tool. R 14 . dowel. either at the top or at the bottom. it shall have a protective shield or device attached to its muzzle end in such a manner to effectively arrest the escape of ant stray projectile and any other object or particle liberated by the discharge end of the tool. or any person authorised by the manufacturer of a tool to repair the tool) in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. adapted or intended to be used with the device. and includes every attachment or accessory used. into or through any substance by means of a charge.Definitions • “charge” means an explosive charge. 13) or a side wall coring gun used in exploratory bore hole work R 5 .Inspection of tools The tool is not used unless • It has been inspected. pin. • “indirect acting tool” means a tool in which the driving force from a charge is transmitted indirectly onto the projectile via a piston. printed or placed on tools “DO NOT REMOVE THIS TOOL FROM THE WORK SURFACE FOR AT LEAST 10 SECONDS AFTER IT HAS FAILED TO FIRE”. • “projectile” means any stud. into or through any substance by means of a tool. is free from patent defects and is in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. R 10 . examined and maintained by an authorised person (a manufacturer of tools.General requirements for tools No tool shall be used unless it is of good construction.Only operator to use tool The person who uses the tool shall be qualified to be an operator. R 8 .Colour to indicate strength of charge No charge shall be used in a tool unless the charge is marked.Protective shield or device Where a tool is a direct acting tool. nail or other object driven against. • “direct acting tool” means a tool in which the driving force on the projectile comes directly from compressed gases from a charge. R 9 . but does not include a firearm within the meaning of the Arms and Explosives Act (Cap. spike. screw. projectiles or charges for use in a tool.Record of tools A record of the type and serial number of every tool. The serial number and model identification of the tool are permanently and legibly engraved or embossed upon the tool.0 90 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • “tool” means any explosive powered tool from which a projectile may be driven against. • It is free from any patent defect. names and addresses of each of the respective owners and users of the tools shall be kept and maintained.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Legislation Workplace Safety and Health (Explosive Powered Tools) Regulations R 2 . R 11 . R 6 . embossed. with a colour indicating the strength of the charge in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. R 13 . The outer edge of the shield or device is not at any point closer to the centre of the muzzle end of the barrel than a distance of 50 mm. sound material and adequate strength.

Discharging of tools The tool shall not be discharged unless • The operator is in a safe. R 22 ..Barrel extensions No barrel extension shall be used on a direct acting tool unless there is protective shield or device attached to the extension. dust or vapour • In any compressed air environment • In any place where the charge is likely to be explode or be rendered dangerous by the presence of heat. R 16 . adapted or intended. R 21 . other than an authorised person. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Personal protective equipment The person. Repairing shall conform to manufacturer’s specifications. R 25 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • It has been inspected and tested by a recognised testing body. R 23 . in accordance with a standard acceptable to the Commissioner. R 18 . Utmost care shall be exercised to avoid injury. barrel extension or adaptor shall be used with a tool unless it is of a type suited for use with the tool. at least once in every 3 years.Defective tools. suitable head protection and such other personal protective equipment or devices as are capable of protecting a person from injury. any other person who assists in the use of the tool and any other person who are subjected to the risk of injury from the tool shall be provided with suitable eye protection. R 17 . well-balanced position that will prevent tilting or misalignment of the tool at the time of firing • The tool is placed on the substance into which a projectile is driven in such a manner that the protective shield or device will effectively arrest the escape of stray particles and any other object or particle discharged by the firing of the tool. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Projectiles. R 20 . R 19 . R 15 . breech plug. advice or recommendation which appears on the tool or its container. The operator has inspected the tool in accordance with its manufacturer’s instructions before use. or in any document supplied by the manufacturer of the tool. No tool shall be used for any purpose other than that for which it was made. shall repair a tool. projectiles and charges not to be used No tool.Handling of tools The muzzle end of the tool shall be pointed away from the operator and any other persons.Limitation on use of charges The charge shall not be in excess of that necessary and of such strength which will cause the whole of the projectile to pass through the substance on which the tool is to be used. charges. etc. R 24 .Compliance with manufacturer’s instructions The use of the tool shall comply with any instruction. unless such are contrary to these Regulations. charge.Use of tools in dangerous environment The tool shall not be used • In the presence of any explosive or flammable gas.0 91 Deleted: _ .Use of tools on roof The tool shall not be used on any roof unless the area beneath the person has been cleared and is kept clear of a distance of 6 metres in every direction from the spot beneath the place where the person is working. projectile or charge shall be used unless it complies with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. to be suited to tool No projectile.Repair of tools No person.

R 29 . glazed brick. marble. cast iron or any other substance of a hardness that a projectile is not designed to penetrate. the tool shall be unloaded or placed in such a position as to eliminate the possibility of a person being injured in the event of the charge exploding subsequently.Storage of charges The charge shall be kept in a securely locked container marked with the words “EXPLOSIVE CHARGES”. If the charge does not explode within that time. in the case of an indirect acting tool.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide The distance between any part of the outer edge of the shield or device and the centre of the muzzle end of the barrel shall be less than 50mm. of the edge of any exposed steel reinforcement. R 30 . The tool shall not be carried from place to place while it is loaded.Storage of tools Tool shall be kept in a securely locked container at all times. in the case of an indirect acting tool. of an edge of a structure of which the brick. R 27 . the tool shall be held in the firing position for at least 10 seconds. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Loading and carrying of tools The tool shall not be loaded other than at the place where it is to be used. R 28 . in the case of a direct acting tool. steel hardened by heat treatment. unless the tool cannot be unloaded by reason of any mechanical failure or misfire. or the reinforcing is so positioned. thin slate or any other substance that is readily shattered.0 92 Deleted: _ . or • into any brick. terracotta. in the case of a direct acting tool. or to any hole in the substance. that the use of the tool is unsafe.Free flying projectile prohibited The tool shall not be fired in such a manner as to cause a projectile to fly free. or within 10 millimetres. • into tiles. glass. or any other markings in accordance with a standard or specification acceptable to the Commissioner. or within 50 millimetres.Firing into certain materials forbidden No tool shall be used for driving a projectile — • into high tensile steel. where any initial trial has shown that the aggregate is of such hardness. R 32 . Engineering Control • Protective shield • Barricades to prevent unauthorised entry Administrative Control • MOM approved tools Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. unless the tool is required for use.Procedure in case of misfire Where the charge fails to explode. granite. • within 15 millimetres. R 26 . • so close to the edge of any substance. concrete or substance forms a part. concrete or similar substance that is within 75 millimetres. R 31 . inspection or repair. Risk Control Elimination / Substitution • Substitute with alternate equipment and tools such as pneumatic tools with electrical tools. the tool shall be carefully examined to remove any piece of projectile or explosive charge and any other foreign matter that may be present.Tools to be kept clean After each firing of the tool. • into concrete or reinforced concrete. as either to risk cracking or breaking the substance or to risk the escape of the projectile from the substance.

drills. bar cutters.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Coloured charges to indicate varying strengths Record of tools Inspection of tools Repair only by authorised agency Evaluation of the surface on which the tool is to be used Use in accordance to operation manual Qualified operators Implement safe work procedures Training on safe work procedure Follow legal requirements Maintenance of the equipment and tools Supervision on safe use Enforcement on safe use Warning sign on the tools Proper storage Personal Protective Equipment • Safety gloves • Safety helmet 6. mixers. Powered tools on the other hand operate on electricity and pneumatic as shown below: • Electrical – radial saws. fractures and crush injuries. punctures. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. table saws. chain saw. chippers.4. • Pneumatic – breakers. ventilation fans. jack hammers. compactors. compressors. generators. vibrators. grinders. spray painting equipment.0 93 Deleted: _ . pumps. Industrial vacuum and lifting appliances. cuts. sprains. vibrators The following mechanical hazards exist in construction tools and machinery: • Crushing • Shearing • Cutting • Entanglement • Drawing in • Impact • Stabbing and puncture • Friction and abrasion • High pressure fluid injection • Struck by materials ejected from the machinery • Struck by ejected parts of the machinery The hazards may be attributed to the following: • Using the wrong tools • Using tools and equipment incorrectly • Unaware of hazards • Using tools without authorisation • Improperly maintained tools • Running of hoses and cables The injuries may be amputations. sanders.3 MECHANICAL HAZARDS Some of the machinery used in construction are bar benders.

• conspicuously marked with its safe working pressure. R 11 Prime movers Every flywheel connected to a prime mover and every moving part of the prime mover is securely fenced. and includes any cable. coupling. • constructed to withstand the maximum pressure obtained from the compressor Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. motor. if inadvertently activated or energised. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. drum. clutch. instructed as to the steps to be taken in case of an emergency. pulley. driving-belt or other device by which the motion of a prime mover is transmitted to or received by any machine or appliance. transmission machinery or other machinery in the workplace is securely fenced unless the dangerous parts is safe to every person or made safe by effective means. R 12 Electric generator. Every person carrying out any inspection. properly maintained and kept in position and properly adjusted to render the machinery safe for any person while the parts required to be fenced or safeguarded are in motion or in use. Any ladder or work platform in use for the carrying out such works is securely fixed or lashed. Lock-out procedures shall be established and implemented relating to the inspection.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory 94 Deleted: _ . and • prevent any part of the plant. Another person. R 13 Removal of fencing from machinery Fencing or other effective devices may be removed while the part of machinery is in motion for any examination of the machinery or part of the machinery or any lubrication or adjustment. transmission machinery etc Every dangerous part (including any flywheel) of any electric generator. equipment or electrical installation are isolated. apparatus or lighting fitting which consumes or utilises electricity in its operation or use. disconnected or discharged. Such works shall be carried out by a person who is 20 years of age. equipment or electrical installation.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 2 Definitions Transmission machinery means every shaft. Electrical equipment means any machine. machinery. repair or maintenance of any plant. repair or maintenance of any plant. machinery. is liable to cause bodily injury to any person. equipment or electrical installation in the workplace is fully instructed on the lock-out procedures for that work before commencing that work. Prime mover” means every engine. motor. motor or other appliance which provides mechanical energy derived from steam. electricity. cleaning. Efficient devices or appliances shall be provided and maintained to promptly cut off power from the transmission machinery. appliance. wheel. is immediately available within sight or hearing of the person carrying out such works. wind. the combustion of fuel or other source of energy. system of fast and loose pulleys. R 31 Air receivers Every air receiver shall be • of sound construction and properly maintained. cleaning. equipment or electrical installation from being inadvertently activated or energised. water. R 15 Construction and maintenance of fencing or other safeguards All fencing or other safeguards shall be of substantial construction. machinery. trained. or is firmly held by a person stationed at the foot of the ladder. wire and other device necessary to enable it to be connected to a source of electricity supply. R 16 Lock-out procedures Lock-out procedures means a set of procedures to— • ensure that all energy sources to the relevant plant. acquainted with the dangers of moving machinery and wears clothing with no loose ends. machinery.

forklifts. examined by an authorised examiner at least once every 2 years. and • Other equipment . • Whip lashes arrestor for air hoses. mobile crane. trucks. • Untrained operators • Lifting of persons on the equipment.0 95 Deleted: _ . compactors • Mobile Elevated Work Platforms (MEWP) . Risk Control Substitution • Substitute with alternate machinery and tools such as pneumatic tools with electrical tools. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • fitted with a suitable safety valve so adjusted as to permit the air to escape as soon as the safe working pressure is exceeded. • Pedestrians in the vicinity of the equipment. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Various types of vehicles and equipment are used at the worksite such as: • Earth moving equipment . • Material handling equipment – tower crane. Concrete pumps The hazards related to vehicles / equipment operations are • Unauthorised operation. trucks. Engineering Control • Machine guarding • Barricades around the machine to prevent unauthorised entry • Locking the machinery to prevent unauthorised operation • Lock out procedures • Dead man’s switch on powered tools.Piling equipment. lorry loader. • Unregistered passenger vehicles used within construction sites . excavators. fitted with an accurate pressure gauge indicating the pressure in the receiver. • Moving parts of the equipment. bob cat. shovel loader.4 VEHICLES & EQUIPMENT HAZARDS Workplace traffic is an integral part of operations for the construction industry. telescopic handlers • Compaction equipment . • Speeding. dumpers • Demolition equipment – Crushers. bulldozers. Administrative Control • Use in accordance to operation manual • Trained and authorised operators • Implement safe work procedures • Training on safe work procedure • Periodic Maintenance • Supervision on safe use • Enforcement on safe use • Warning sign on the tools and machinery • Drawing the tools and keys only by authorised operators • Proper laying of cables / hoses Personal Protective Equipment • Gloves • Goggles 6.4.rollers. • Use hand tools such as push sticks for circular saw. breakers.Scrapers. graders.scissor lifts and boom lifts. hoists.

the traffic is specially controlled by designated persons. gradient and traction. • Adequate lighting should be provided for all workplaces such as along internal roads. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 28 Vehicular hazards Where any work is performed over. workplace traffic can pose high risks to persons in the workplace. and Electrocution (Battery operated). All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Tyres in bad condition e. Poor ground conditions e. loading/unloading bays. overhead obstruction and blind corners. Any vehicle used shall be of good construction and roadworthy. slippery and uneven ground and potholes. without thread markings. junctions. strength. R 29 Runways and ramps Every runway and ramp in the worksite is adequately constructed and securely braced and supported in relation to the span.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • Travelling on gradients. Overloading. • Proper securing mechanism is in place if a mobile ramp is being used. Risk Control Elimination • Implement one way traffic Substitution • Use alternate access for pedestrians Engineering Control • Locking the equipment to prevent unauthorised operation • Loose goods should be properly secured by suitable means to ensure that the goods do not topple in the process. No person in the worksite shall use any such runway or ramp for motor vehicles in the worksite unless a certificate has been issued in respect of it.g. Falling loads. Blind spot Poor lighting If not managed well. Suitable warning signs and warning lights shall be set up to direct traffic away from the worksite and where necessary. on or in close proximity to a street. etc. Workers are struck by equipment and vehicles while performing work with the potential to cause fatalities or serious injuries. • Provision of ramps of adequate width. pedestrian walkways. Every runway and ramp for motor vehicles in the worksite is constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer.g. The person does not drive the vehicle unless he has been fully instructed as to the dangers likely to arise in connection therewith and the precautions to be observed and has received sufficient training to operate or drive the vehicle.g.0 96 . the worksite shall be barricaded. public road or any other place where public vehicular traffic may cause danger to any person who carries out the work. • Keep pedestrians out of the path of transport vehicles by setting up physical barriers to barricade the workplace Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Obstruction in the path e. No person shall drive a vehicle of any class or description in a worksite unless he has obtained the authorisation of the occupier of the worksite to do so.

Types of electrical hazards include: • Improper wiring • Defective equipment. • Damage to machineries. • Briefing for drivers on site traffic rules. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. plugs or extension cords. • Convex mirrors should also be erected for blind corners • Erect speed limit signs and boundary lines • Provide and maintain adequate lighting and • Maintain good ground conditions along internal roads • Provide highly visible markings and/or signage to warn against any obstruction. • Wet/damp conditions • Misuse of electrical equipment • Unauthorised repairs. • Electrical burns. • Damaged electrical cords. • Implement workplace traffic rules and regulations • Pre-operation checks on their transport vehicles.4. • Fire/explosions. edges or drains at workplaces. Types of electrical incidents include: • Electric shock. doorways.5 ELECTRICAL HAZARDS Electricity is a serious workplace hazard which can lead to serious consequences such as severe injuries and death. traffic cross-flows and blind spots. • Use in accordance to operation manual • Implement safe work procedures • Training on safe work procedure • Maintenance of the equipment • Supervision on safe use • Enforcement on safe use • Drawing keys only by authorised operators • Designated parking areas • Removal of keys when not in operation • Display warning lights • Horns Personal Protective Equipment • Highly visible reflective vests • Safety shoes • Additional personal protective equipment 6. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Workers are exposed to electrical dangers during electrical installations or when operating machineries and power tools.0 97 Deleted: _ . • Exposed wire. • Overloaded circuits.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Administrative Control • Trained operators • Authorisation of operators • Implement workplace traffic layout/routes • Maintain a safe distance from transport vehicles during use • Enhance visibility by minimising intersections. low height. • Implement no reversing • Provision of qualified Banksman/Signaller. and • Provide pedestrian crossings. • Electrocution.

the hazards involved and the protective measures to be taken. shovels or other similar equipment and be at least 5 metres above the ground level. No bare wires or other uninsulated live conductors are located at any place where a person may work or pass. sound material and free from defects. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and • he is protected against electric shock by de-energizing the circuit and earthing or by guarding it with effective insulation or other means. no electric wiring or cable shall be left or laid on the ground or the floor unless it is — • of the weather-proof type. and • maintained in good and safe working order. appropriate warning signs understood by the persons carrying out the work shall be clearly posted and maintained at the place where the circuit. Electrical appliance or current carrying equipment shall be effectively earthed where these have provisions made for earthing. other than the current carrying part.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Legal requirements WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 14 Electrical installation and equipment Every electrical installation and electrical equipment shall be of good construction. Any exposed metal part of the electrical installation. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Where there is any such electrical power circuit. other than the current carrying part. the worksite shall be inspected to ascertain whether there is • any electrical power circuit which any person may come into contact with in the course of his work and • any tool or machine which is connected to any electrical power circuit and which any person may come into contact with in the course of his work. Any exposed metal part of the electrical appliance or current carrying equipment. R 36 Bare wires and exposed live conductors Electrical installation shall be effectively earthed where these have provisions made for earthing. Except for flexible cables. tool or machine is located. unless such wires or conductors are effectively insulated or guarded by a fence or other barrier or the person working or passing is an electrical worker licensed to carry out such electrical works on the wires or conductors. which is liable to become energised in the event of a failure in the insulation shall be effectively earthed.0 98 Deleted: _ . It shall be used and maintained in such manner so that it is safe to use. WSH (Construction) Regulations R 34 Electrical power circuits Before any work is carried out. No person shall be permitted to work where he may come into contact with any part of an electrical power circuit unless — • he has been advised of the location of the electrical power circuit. • provided with adequate protection to withstand the wear and tear to which it may be subjected. R 35 Installation of electric wiring and power lines All electric wiring in a worksite shall be supported on proper insulators and not be looped over nails or brackets. All reasonably practicable measures are taken to protect any person against the risks of electric shock arising from or in connection with the use at work of any electrical installation or equipment. tool or machine. which is liable to become energised in the event of a failure in the insulation shall be effectively earthed. cranes. All elevated power lines shall have a sufficient vertical clearance where they cross highways. access roads or areas travelled by trucks.

and • the electric hand-held tools and inspection lamps and lights shall be operated at a voltage not exceeding 55 volts between the conductor and earth.0 99 Deleted: _ . • Provision of residual current circuit breaker • Provision of fuses • Reduced voltage supply • Use of flame proof equipment • Lock the distribution boards to prevent unauthorised tampering. R 40 Industrial plug and socket-outlet Plug and socket-outlet used for connecting any electrical equipment to a temporary electrical installation shall be of heavy duty industrial type. R 42 Electrical installations and equipment used underground or in confined space Where any lighting. R 38 Prohibition on use of fuse No fuse shall be used in the final circuit of any electrical installation. • to allow any of the circuit breakers to be switched on or off without having to open the enclosure. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 39 Welding sets Alternating current welding sets shall be fitted with an effective voltage limiting device or shock preventor. and • to be of weather-proof construction. Engineering • Proper grounding for electrical equipment • Barricades around the machine to prevent unauthorised entry • Lock out procedures • Dead man’s switch on powered tools. electric hand-held tools and inspection lamps and lights are used underground or in a confined space — • the electricity supply for lighting and electric hand-held tools shall be provided by means of a step-down transformer having a secondary voltage not exceeding 110 volts centre point earthed. Risk Control Substitution • Substitute with alternate equipment and tools such as electrical tools with pneumatic tools. • Design of incompatible plugs and socket for different voltages • Use of reduced voltage • Using double insulated tools • Using low voltage shock preventor on ac welding equipment Administrative Control • Monthly inspection of electrical equipment and installation by a licensed electrical worker. R 41 Distribution board and socket-outlet assembly Circuit breakers used for the final circuits of any distribution board and socket-outlet assembly in the worksite shall be housed in an enclosure.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 37 Residual current circuit breakers and overcurrent protective devices Effective residual current circuit breakers are installed for all temporary electrical installations to provide earth leakage protection. Overcurrent protective devices with the appropriate ratings are installed in the distribution board to provide overcurrent or shortcircuit protection. The enclosure is constructed so as — • to fully enclose all live electrical parts within the enclosure. • Use in accordance to operation manual Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

temporary hearing loss and permanent hearing loss. Engineering Control • Isolate noise sources • Construct acoustical enclosures to contain the noise • Erect noise barriers to contain noise • Install mufflers at intake and exhaust opening Administrative Control • Locate noisy sources away • Operate pneumatic tools at optimum air pressure Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. 400V red Provide adequate distribution boards Pre-use inspection Personal Protective Equipment • Electrical resistant gloves • Electrical resistant safety shoes 6.6 NOISE HAZARD Noise is the number one Occupational disease in Singapore. dB(A) Maximum duration per day 85 88 91 94 Risk Control Substitution • Replacing noisy machinery with less noisier ones. Bar-bending machine. Compressor. Metal formworks. • Electrical tools instead of pneumatic tools. The WSH (Noise) Regulations stipulates a Permissible Exposure Levels for noise as follows: Sound pressure level. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Bored piling instead of impact type of piling • Precasting instead of concreting • PUB power instead of portable generator • Electric diamond cutter instead of pneumatic breaker • Use automated machine instead of using jack hammer. 230V Blue. interference. etc. Heavy vehicle. The effects of noise include annoyance.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • Trained and authorised operators Implement safe work procedures Training on safe work procedure Follow legal requirements Periodic maintenance of the equipment and tools Maintenance carried out by qualified electricians Supervision on safe use Enforcement on safe use Warning sign on the equipment. The sources of noise include Piling machine. Grinding and drilling machine. Concrete vibrator. tools and environment Drawing the tools and keys only by authorised operators Colour coding for different voltages – 55V White. Generator. High pressure water jet. 110V yellow.4. Pneumatic chipper.0 Deleted: Factories 8 hours 4 hours 2 hours 1 hour 100 Deleted: _ .

replace worn parts. effective means to reduce the vibration.0 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Lubricate moving parts Reduce kinetic energy and potential energy Warning sign on the equipment. irritation. so far as is reasonably practicable. 3 to 14 cycles per second e. sharpening of cutting tools • Limit the duration of exposure by job rotation or rest periods • Operate tools at optimum speed • Maintain machinery e. giddy. where numbness.g.4. replace worn parts.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • Reduce exposure time Maintain machinery e. Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 9 Reduction of vibration Where persons are at work in any process or operation which involves exposure to vibration which may constitute a risk to their health. to provide. tools and environment Implement hearing conservation programme Training of workers Enforcement Personal Protective Equipment • Hearing protectors 6.g.000 cycles per second e.g.g. tighten loose parts. dizzy and nausea. 16 to 10. Risk Control Elimination • Use mechanical equipment instead of tools Substitution • Use a lower vibration tool Engineering Control • Vibration isolators • Ergonomic designed tools Administrative Control • Optimum hand grip force • Reduce driving force • Maintain machinery e. tighten loose parts. • Lubricate moving parts • Training of workers • Enforcement Personal Protective Equipment • Anti-vibration gloves 101 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.7 VIBRATION HAZARDS Vibration can be categorized as • Low frequency (whole body). trucks and tractors • High frequency (hand and arm). pneumatic drill or chisel The effects of vibration include tiredness. balancing of rotating parts. It may develop into vibration white fingers. swelling and bluish fingers may occur.g.

Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified.0 102 Deleted: _ .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 4 Group Exercise . Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards. Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities.30 minutes • • • • • • Select an equipment and services trade. Use the RA form. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Process Work Activities Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Identify the type of controls.

Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 103 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Suggested Answers Answers can vary depending on the trade selected.

5 MATERIAL HANDLING The following materials are handled in the various trades: Trade Architectural Materials bricks. Tar. fire sprinklers. steel casing. Others . grass. Steel beams and columns. hydrants Plumbing materials . bobcats and excavators • Lifting equipment such as lifting machine and appliances • Cantilevered work platforms • Manual lifting Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations. Plants. as the case may be. skips. windows . cables. pallet jack. Wastes. shall be positioned and operated as to be stable.PVC / metal pipes Lifts.barricades.generators. soil. the safe loads with and without the use of outriggers shall be specified. roofing sheets. trolley. sound material and adequate strength. Metal formworks. vinyl sheets. The capacity chart shall — • be posted and maintained in the crane which is clearly visible to the operator. kerbs. distribution boards. steel cables. Pipes. glass. trees. tapes. precast drains. insulation. ladders. Brooms. employee's lift or material handling machinery is put into service for the first time in the worksite it shall be thoroughly examined and inspected by a competent 104 Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. sludge. Precast panels Equipment for Air con. concrete blocks. cables. mancage. waste water. • set out the safe loads for various lengths of jib at various angles and radial distances. rebars. debris Material handling – lifting gears Material handling aides – wheel barrow. jacks. smoke detectors. employee's lift or material handling machinery shall be of good construction. plywood. R 136 Thorough examination and inspection Before any crane. ceiling boards cladding materials. aggregate. nails. fixtures. grills. doors. switches. pipes. marbles. refrigeration and ventilation. granite. gates. duct sheets Equipment for Electrical works . R 134 Strength and stability Crane. Where outriggers are provided. Biological agents – sewage Civil M& E Equipment & Special services Materials are moved using the following methods: • Hoists and lifts • Material handling machinery such as forklifts.0 . Control panels. bolts & nuts. fibre glass Metal & Timber Scaffolding materials. tiles. sockets Fire protection – extinguishers. a capacity chart shall be provided. free from patent defects and properly maintained. Pre-cast piles. and • be prepared and certified by an authorised examiner. switch gears. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. unless it is furnished by the manufacturer or builder of the crane. hollow blocks. soil.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. Crane or material handling machinery. couplers. R 135 Capacity chart Where the capacity of the crane used in a worksite is variable. brush. rollers. sewage.

For lifting operations loads that have a tendency to swing or turn freely during hoisting shall be controlled by tag-lines. 6. it prevent any person falling down the way or coming into contact with any moving parts of the hoist or lift. Every hoistway and liftway shall be efficiently protected by a substantial enclosure fitted with interlocking gates. The gates cannot be opened except when the cage or platform is at the landing and the cage or platform cannot be moved away from the landing until the gate is closed. hoisting machinery. the cage cannot be raised or lowered unless all the gates are closed. and will come to rest when a gate is opened. The main hazards associated with hoists and lifts are as follows: • • • • Overloading leading to collapse of the hoists and lifts Falling from height during access Falling materials Wrong operation Legislation WSH (General Provision) Regulations R 19 Hoists and lifts Hoist or lift shall be tested and examined after installation and thoroughly examined by an authorized examiner once every six months. each rope or chain and its attachments being capable of carrying the whole weight of the cage or platform and its maximum working load and efficient devices shall be provided and maintained which will support the cage or platform with its maximum working load in the event of a breakage of the ropes or chains or any of their attachments. In the case of a crane or an employee's lift. R 138 Prohibition on riding on loads No person shall ride on the loads.1 HOISTS AND LIFTS HAZARDS Hoists and lifts are constructed during the civil phase for access to the building and also to transfer building materials to higher levels. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. when persons or goods are in the cage. Where the cage or platform of the lift is suspended by rope or chain the cage or platform shall be separately connected with at least 2 ropes or chains.0 105 Deleted: _ . on each side from which access is afforded to a landing. Every cage shall. buckets. such examination and test shall be conducted by an authorised examiner. material handling machinery or excavating machinery. R 137 Handling of suspended loads Reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that suspended load from crane or material handling machinery is not moved over any person. cars. skips. Efficient automatic devices shall be provide and maintained to prevent the cage or platform from over-running. slings or hooks of the any crane.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide person. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. such that when the gates are shut. Every hoist or lift and every enclosure shall be so constructed as to prevent any part of any person or any goods carried in the hoist or lift being trapped between any part of the hoist or lift and any fixed structure or the counterbalance weight and any other moving part of the hoist or lift. R 138 Cranes or machinery at rest No load shall be left suspended on the crane or material handling machinery when it is not in use. The safe working load (SWL) of the hoist or lift must be conspicuously showed on the hoist and shall not be exceeded. be fitted with a gate with efficient devices to ensure that.5.

Legislation WSH (General Provision) Regulations R 20 Lifting Gears Every lifting gear except fibre ropes or fibre rope slings must be examined by an authorized examiner at least once every 12 months. Risk Control Engineering Control • Enclosure • Interlocked gates • Automatic devices to prevent over running • Provision of 2 ropes. R 140 Operators of employee's lift No employee's lift is operated in the worksite unless it is in the charge of a designated person stationed in the car as its attendant. Lifting gear must be of good construction. No person other than the lift car attendant moves the car of the employee's lift or opens the car door or gate of the employee's lift. sound material. Every crane. crab and winch shall be provided with a readily accessible and efficient brake or other safety device which will prevent the fall of the suspended load and by which the load can be effectively controlled while being lowered. Serious injuries can be inflicted even during execution of lifting operations involving light or small loads. adequate strength and free from patent defect and properly maintained. The hazards are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Wrong lifting gears Defective lifting gears Improper rigging method Uneven ground Soft ground Unsafe lifting operations Overloading of crane Defective limit switches Over derricking Over hoisting Swinging load Adverse weather The potential accidents would be struck by the load and collapse of crane.0 106 Deleted: _ . R 21 Lifting appliances and lifting machine Every lifting appliance and lifting machine must be examined by an authorized examiner at least once every 12 months. Lifting gear shall not be loaded beyond its safe working load. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. However past cases had proven otherwise.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide WSH (Construction) Regulations. Administrative Control • Certification by authorised examiner • Signage on safe working load • Designated operator 6.5. The common misconception is that the risk involved is directly proportional to the weight or size of the load being lifted.2 LIFTING EQUIPMENT HAZARDS Lifting operations are considered to be a high-risk activity that requires careful planning prior to commencement of work. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

and every mast. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Every hand winch shall be fitted with an efficient pawl capable of sustaining the safe working load. A lifting machine shall not be operated except by a person trained and competent to operate that machine or a person under training who is under the direct supervision of a qualified person. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt. sound material and adequate strength and properly maintained. effective measures shall be taken to warn him of the approach of the crane unless the work of the person is so connected with or dependent on the movements of the crane as to make the warning unnecessary. either by slewing the machine or derricking the jib. Every lifting appliance and lifting machine shall be conspicuously marked with its safe working load or loads and a distinctive number or other means of identification. • be properly laid. lifting appliances and lifting machines shall be kept. If any person at work in a workplace is not on or near the wheel tracks of an overhead travelling crane but is in a place above floor level where he would be liable to be struck by an overhead travelling crane. effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the crane does not approach within 6 metres of that place. that shows the radius of the jib at any time and the safe working load corresponding to that radius. and every track on which the carriage of a transporter or runway moves shall — • be of proper size and adequate strength. chain or wire. Lifting appliance or lifting machine shall be of good mechanical construction. 10 pt 107 Deleted: _ . and • be properly maintained.Definitions “approved crane contractor” means any firm or company which is the holder of a valid certificate of approval issued by the Commissioner under regulation 22. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. shall have an accurate indicator. “crane” means a machine incorporating an elevated structural member or jib beneath which suspended loads may be moved vertically (whether upwards or downwards) or horizontally or both. All rails on which a travelling crane moves. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. framework or other structure. Italic Formatted: Font: Not Bold. WSH (Operation of Cranes) Regulations R 2 . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. adequately supported or suspended. R 22 Register of lifting gears A register of lifting gears. No person below the age of 18 years shall be at work operating any lifting machine driven by mechanical power or giving signals to the operator of any lifting machine. having regard to the nature of the lifting appliance.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory Deleted: Factories Formatted: Font: Not Bold. Every rope. or by any load carried by the crane. pole or other article of plant supporting any part of the lifting appliance or lifting machine. No lifting appliance or lifting machine shall be loaded beyond its safe working load except by an authorised examiner or an inspector for the purpose of testing such lifting appliance or lifting machine. In the case of a jib crane so constructed that the safe working load may be varied by the raising or lowering of the jib. beam. every part of a stage. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. • have an even running surface. shall be of good construction. Worksites using crane for lifting must be properly co-ordinated to prevent unnecessary mishaps. sound material and adequate strength. or by any other means not solely involving a travelling motion of the crane. which must be placed so as to be clearly visible to the driver of the jib crane. its lifting and reaching capacity and the circumstances of its use. Not Bold. If any person at work at any place in a workplace is on or near the wheel tracks of an overhead travelling crane where he would be liable to be struck by the crane. Every lifting appliance and lifting machine shall be adequately and securely supported.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide “lorry loader” means a lorry incorporating an articulator arm mounted on the lorry which is used for loading. R 7 . No person shall operate a lorry loader unless he has successfully completed a training course. R 5 . other than a registered crane operator. R 4 – Lifting Plan Where any lifting operation involving the use of any crane is carried out in a workplace by a crane operator.0 Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: No bullets or numbering Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: . in the opinion of the Commissioner. crawler or on wheels and includes any crane of a type shown in the First Schedule. Upon receiving an application. “responsible person”. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: . unloading and lifting of materials or goods. but he shall not operate the mobile crane unless he he is the holder of a driving licence issued under the Road Traffic Act (Cap. issue the person with a certificate of registration to act as a crane operator subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose. Deleted: . A person. 10 pt. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: No bullets or numbering Formatted: Font: Not Bold. in relation to a workplace where a crane is. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Italic Formatted: Font: Not Bold. and accompanied by the appropriate fee and such fee shall not be refundable. permitted or made to operate a mobile crane (not being a lorry loader) or tower crane in a workplace. he has. he attends re-training on the operation of a lorry loader and successfully completes such re-training. whether or not he is also a registered crane operator. or (b) the principal under whose direction the person operates the crane. Not Bold. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. “registered crane operator” means any person who is the holder of a valid certificate of registration issued by the Commissioner under regulation 6. and produces a current medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner certifying that he is medically fit to operate a lorry loader R 6 . “tower crane” means a crane which has a vertical or near vertical tower designed to be free standing up to a height specified by the Commissioner and includes any crane of a type shown in the Second Schedule. An application shall be in such form and manner as the Commissioner may determine. It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that no person. acceptable to the Commissioner. 276) authorising him to drive a mobile crane of a class or description permitted by the licence.Application These Regulations shall apply to any workplace in which a crane is in use. or refuse to approve the application. is employed.Requirements for registration as crane operator A person may register as a crane operator if he satisfies the Commissioner that he has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner on the operation of a mobile crane or tower crane. on the operation of a lorry loader. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial. It shall be the duty of the responsible person to ensure that the lifting plan is made available for inspection upon request by an inspector. Deleted: i Deleted: if required by the Commissioner. or he possesses any other equivalent qualification Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Application for registration to be crane operator A person may apply to the Commissioner for his approval to register as a crane operator. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. “mobile crane” means a crane mounted on a truck. sufficient experience in operating a mobile crane or tower crane and has passed a proficiency test acceptable to the Commissioner. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. may drive a mobile crane in a workplace if he is the holder of a driving licence issued under the Road Traffic Act (Cap. it shall be the duty of the responsible person to establish and implement a lifting plan which shall be in accordance with the generally accepted principles of safe and sound practice. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. or is to be. R 3 .Only registered crane operator to operate a mobile crane and tower crane No person shall operate a mobile crane (not being a lorry loader) or tower crane in a workplace unless he is a registered crane operator. he Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ 108 Deleted: _ . the Commissioner may. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. 276) authorising him to drive a mobile crane of a class or description permitted by the licence. If required by the Commissioner. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial. operated by a person means — (a) the employer of the person. Italic Formatted: Font: Arial. 10 pt Formatted: Font: Arial.

0 109 Deleted: _ . R 12 . requiring an applicant to produce a current medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner which certifies that the applicant is medically fit to operate a mobile crane or tower crane. unless the registration is earlier cancelled.000.Production of certificate of registration upon request It shall be the duty of a registered crane operator to produce his certificate of registration for inspection upon request by an inspector. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. false representation or the concealment of any material fact. be valid for a period of 2 years from the date of registration or for such shorter period as the Commissioner may specify in the certificate of registration. or has failed to comply with any of the duties set out in these Regulations. destroyed or defaced.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide acceptable to the Commissioner. The conditions referred to may include any one or all of the following: requiring an applicant to attend a refresher course acceptable to the Commissioner on the operation of a mobile crane or a tower crane.Conditions for renewal of registration as crane operator The Commissioner may impose such conditions for the renewal of registration as a crane operator as he thinks fit. Any renewal fee paid shall not be refundable. R 11 . It shall be the duty of a registered crane operator upon becoming aware of any medical condition which may render him unfit to operate a mobile crane or a tower crane to inform the Commissioner of such medical condition without undue delay. The Commissioner shall not register an applicant who has been certified by a registered medical practitioner to be unfit to operate a mobile crane or tower crane. The Commissioner may require an applicant to produce a current medical certificate from a registered medical practitioner which certifies that the applicant is medically fit to operate a mobile crane or tower crane. A certificate of registration shall not be transferable. the holder of the certificate may apply to the Commissioner for a replacement certificate on payment of the appropriate fee. and shall be accompanied by the appropriate fee. R 10 . R 13 . Upon receiving an application for the renewal of registration the Commissioner may renew the certificate of registration to act as a crane operator for a period of 2 years or for such shorter period as the Commissioner may specify in the certificate of registration. Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Suspension and cancellation of registration The Commissioner may suspend or cancel the registration of any registered crane operator if the Commissioner is satisfied that the registered crane operator has obtained his registration under these Regulations by means of fraud.000 and. to a fine not exceeding $2. or refuse the application for renewal if the Commissioner is satisfied that the applicant is no longer a fit and proper person to be registered as a crane operator. An application to the Commissioner shall be supported by such documentary proof that the certificate of registration issued earlier is lost. has been certified by a registered medical practitioner to be unfit to operate a mobile crane or a tower crane. R 8 .Register of crane operators The Commissioner shall keep an up-to-date register of all persons registered as crane operators. Where a certificate of registration is lost.Renewal of registration An application by a person for the renewal of his certificate of registration to act as a crane operator shall be made in such form and manner as the Commissioner may determine. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1.Certificate of registration A certificate of registration to act as a crane operator shall. R 9 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. destroyed or defaced. requiring an applicant to pass a proficiency test acceptable to the Commissioner for crane operation.

within 21 days of the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation. to carry out operational tests on all limiting and indicating devices under no load conditions before any lifting operation is carried out and shall enter the results of such tests in a log book or log-sheet. any registered crane operator whose registration is suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner shall not.000 and.000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 6 months or to both. on the date the Minister dismisses the appeal. R 14 . • not to hoist any load if there is any obstruction in the path of manoeuvre and if there is any such obstruction. or by leaving it at.25" + Tab after: 0" + Indent at: 0. The suspension or cancellation shall take effect 21 days after the date of the service of the notice on the registered crane operator or. in particular the ground surface on which a mobile crane is to be operated. • not to carry out any lifting operation unless he has been briefed by the lifting supervisor on the lifting plan. are safe for travel or any lifting operation. R 16 . R 15 . • not to hoist any object if he is unable to ascertain the weight of the load. if an appeal against the suspension or cancellation of registration has been made to the Minister. or sending it by registered post to. The notice of suspension or cancellation may be served on any person by delivering it to him. the Commissioner shall inform the registered crane operator concerned by notice in writing of such suspension or cancellation. • not to operate a mobile crane or a tower crane within 3 metres of any live overhead power line. between the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation and the date the suspension or cancellation takes effect (both dates inclusive). Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $5. he shall report this immediately to the lifting supervisor. including pulling or dragging a load.Surrender of certificate A registered crane operator shall immediately surrender to the Commissioner his certificate of registration when the suspension or cancellation takes effect.000. • to ensure that any outrigger when it is required is fully extended and secured. • to ascertain whether the ground conditions. • not to manoeuvre or hold any suspended load over any public road or public area unless that road or area has been cordoned off. he shall report this to the lifting supervisor. and 110 Deleted: ¶ Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0. Notwithstanding that the suspension or cancellation has not taken effect. • not to use the crane for any operation for which it is not intended. operate a mobile crane (not being a lorry loader) or a tower crane.5" Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Duties of crane operator It shall be the duty of a crane operator • before the start of every workshift. • not to engage in any act or manoeuvre which is not in accordance with safe and sound practice. not to hoist any load unless he has received a clear signal from a signalman. his last known residential address. to a fine not exceeding $2. and if he is of the opinion that it is not safe for travel or any lifting operation. appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Any person who contravenes this shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $1.0 .Notice of suspension and cancellation of registration When the Commissioner has suspended or cancelled the registration of a registered crane operator. A registered crane operator whose registration has been suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner may. • to ensure that any stationary truck mounted or wheel mounted crane is adequately and securely blocked while it is on a slope.

• ensure that an adequate number of legs of the sling are used and that the slinging angle is correct so as to prevent the sling from being overloaded during the hoisting.Appointment and duties of lifting supervisor It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a lifting supervisor before any lifting operation involving the use of any crane is carried out in a workplace. and • if any unsatisfactory or unsafe conditions are reported to him by any crane operator or rigger.25" + Tab after: 0" + Indent at: 0. • ascertain the weight of the load which is to be lifted and inform the crane operator of the weight of the load. and has. and to ensure that the rigger who is appointed is attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a rigger. appointed riggers and appointed signalmen participate in any lifting operation involving the use of a mobile crane or a tower crane. It shall be the duty of the responsible person not to appoint any person as a rigger in a workplace unless the person has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner to equip him to be a rigger.Appointment and duties of signalman It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a signalman before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out in a workplace by a crane operator. It shall be the duty of the lifting supervisor • to co-ordinate all lifting activities.0 Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0. No person shall rig up loads for any lifting operation by a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is a rigger.25" + Tab after: 0" + Indent at: 0. It shall be the duty of the responsible person not to appoint any person as a lifting supervisor for any lifting operation involving the use of a crane in a workplace unless the person is one who has successfully completed a training course acceptable to the Commissioner to equip him to become a lifting supervisor. riggers and signalmen on the lifting plan. stable and balanced. R 19 . Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: ¶ R 17 .5" Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Formatted: Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0. • ensure that the load to be lifted is secure.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • to report any failure or malfunction of the crane to the lifting supervisor and to make an appropriate entry of the failure or malfunction in the log book or log-sheet of the crane. brick or tile) is placed in a receptacle to prevent the load or part thereof from falling during the lifting operation. It shall be the duty of a rigger appointed to • check the slings to be used for slinging the loads to ensure that the slings are of good construction. adequate strength and free from patent defect. to supervise all lifting operation by a mobile crane or tower crane in accordance with the lifting plan.5" Formatted: No bullets or numbering Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 111 Deleted: _ . • place adequate padding at the edges of the load which come in contact with the sling so as to prevent the sling from being damaged. in the opinion of the responsible person. sound and suitable material. • to ensure that only registered crane operators. It shall be the duty of the responsible person not to appoint any person as a signalman in a workplace unless the person has successfully completed a training Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. take such measures to rectify the unsatisfactory or unsafe condition or otherwise ensure that any lifting operation is carried out safely. to brief all crane operators. and report any defect in the lifting gear to the lifting supervisor. R 18 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. ensure that only proper lifting gears are used in conjunction with the sling.Appointment and duties of rigger It shall be the duty of the responsible person to appoint a rigger before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out in the workplace by a crane operator. • ensure that any loose load (which includes any stone. • to ensure that the ground conditions are safe for any lifting operation to be performed by any mobile crane. such relevant experience in lifting operations for a period of not less than one year before the appointment as a lifting supervisor.

and to the repair of any non-load bearing part of a crane. R 23 . This paragraph shall not apply to the installation or dismantling of a fly jib. alter or dismantle a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is an approved crane contractor. false representation or the concealment of any material fact.Certificate of approval On receipt of an application. Any person who contravenes this paragraph shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $2. be valid for a period of 2 years from the date of the approval or for such shorter period as the Commissioner may specify in the certificate of approval. unless the approval for the firm or company to act as an approved crane contractor is earlier cancelled. alter or dismantle mobile crane or tower crane No person shall install. unless the repair affects the safe operation of the crane. and accompanied by such particulars. Where the Commissioner refuses to approve the applicant to act as an approved crane contractor.Notice of suspension or cancellation of certificate When the Commissioner has suspended or cancelled the certificate of approval the Commissioner shall inform the approved crane contractor concerned by notice in writing of such suspension or cancellation. on the date the Minister dismisses the appeal. on payment of the renewal fee. and give correct and clear signals to guide the crane operator in the manoeuvre of the load safely to its destination R 20 . the certificate of approval would have expired. repair. if an appeal against the suspension or cancellation of the certificate of approval has been made to the Minister. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Production of certificate of approval upon request It shall be the duty of an approved crane contractor to produce his certificate of approval for inspection upon request by an inspector.Application for approval to be approved crane contractor A firm or company may apply to the Commissioner for approval to act as an approved crane contractor. R 24 . he shall give the applicant notice in writing of the reasons for his refusal. in the case of a second or subsequent conviction. be renewed by the Commissioner for such period as the Commissioner may determine. It shall be the duty of the signalman to ensure or verify with the rigger that the load is properly rigged up before he gives a clear signal to the crane operator to lift the load. subject to such conditions as the Commissioner may think fit to impose. repair. R 22 . in such form and manner as the Commissioner may require. or is contravening or has contravened any condition subject to which the certificate was issued. from the date immediately following that on which.000 and. A certificate of approval for a firm or company to act as an approved crane contractor shall. R 21 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide course acceptable to the Commissioner to equip him to be a signalman. the Commissioner may issue to the applicant a certificate of approval. and to ensure that the signalman who is appointed is attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a signalman. statements and documents as the Commissioner may require. The suspension or cancellation shall take effect 21 days after the date of the service of the notice on the approved crane contractor or. The Commissioner may at any time vary or revoke any of the existing conditions imposed or impose new conditions. to a fine not exceeding $5. No person shall give signal to the crane operator unless he is an appointed signalman. Notwithstanding that the Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.000.Suspension or cancellation of certificate The Commissioner may suspend or cancel the certificate of approval issued to any approved crane contractor if the Commissioner is satisfied that the approved crane contractor has obtained the certificate of approval under these Regulations by means of fraud. information.0 Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Deleted: 112 Deleted: _ . R 25 . An application shall be accompanied by the appropriate fee and such fee shall not be refundable. or refuse to approve the application. but for its renewal.Only approved crane contractor to install. A certificate of approval may.

.. appliances and machine. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2... repairs. • Training for lifting supervisor. 5(1).. [119] . [75] Formatted Formatted Deleted: factory Formatted ... etc. (2) or (3).. [94] . 18(1). Where the manual referred to is not available. alteration or dismantling of any mobile crane or tower crane is under the immediate supervision of an authorised examiner...... [71] . [109] .. [77] Deleted: in which a crane.. [114] .. repair.. rigger and signal man...... [106] . (2)... 14(3)... between the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation and the date the suspension or cancellation takes effect (both dates inclusive). [111] . [112] . the last known business address. • Deployment of outrigger fully to distribute the load. An approved crane contractor whose certificate of approval has been suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner may. overhoisting and over derricking.... 17(1). (2).. • Tagline for controlling the swing of the load... [107] . • Provision of limit switches for overloading.. R 26 .Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: Deleted: ¶ suspension or cancellation has not taken effect... [93] . [81] Deleted: if he is the holder of . alteration and dismantling of a mobile crane or tower crane the crane is tested and certified safe by an authorised examiner for the operations for which it is intended.. 26(1) or (2) or 27 shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine not exceeding $20.. [108] . etc. [104] . [82] . or sending it by registered post to. R 28 – Offence Any person who contravenes regulation 4(1) or (2). R 27 .. alter or dismantle a mobile crane or tower crane..... [76] . • Loose materials (e. [97] . repair. • Application of permit to work for lifting • Implement a lifting plan – generic for frequent or routine lifting operations and specific for complex lifting Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.. [113] .. [88] . 19(1).. repair. appeal to the Minister whose decision shall be final. any approved crane contractor whose certificate of approval is suspended or cancelled by the Commissioner shall not. [100] . [116] . rigger and signal man..... • Provision of steel plates. [99] . (2) (4) or (5).. nets. install..g. [89] . Administrative Control • Certification for lifting gears. [110] . altered or dismantled in accordance with the instructions contained in such manual..... repair.. 25(3).. alteration and dismantling of the mobile crane or tower crane.. [85] . pallets.. Engineering Control • Cordon off the lifting area. [83] . [117] ..g. [86] . and ensure that the crane is installed...Duties of owner of mobile crane and tower crane It shall be the duty of the owner of any mobile crane or tower crane to ensure that after every installation..Duties of approved crane contractor It shall be the duty of an approved crane contractor to obtain a manufacturer’s manual which contains instructions on the safe procedures for the installation. or are properly secured by other means (e..) should be placed inside a container... • Appointment of lifting supervisor... [105] .. Substitution • Use alternative material handling equipment such as forklift. [102] .. [101] .. and the crane is not used unless it has been tested and certified... a [84] Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted . before he installs. [79] Formatted Formatted Deleted: factory Formatted Formatted ..... [121] 113 Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted Formatted . (3) or (4).. [74] Deleted: The Factories (Operation of . 16.... [73] ... mobile . [115] .. Risk Control Elimination • Stopping the lifting operation during adverse weather condition and poor lighting condition. [98] . 20(1).).000 or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding 2 years or to both.... [87] . A notice of suspension or cancellation may be served on any firm or company by leaving it at.. [90] . [96] . [72] .... [78] . hard core and timber mats for crane footing... [103] . it shall be the duty of the approved crane contractor to ensure that the installation. [120] . bolts.. within 21 days of the date of the service of the notice of suspension or cancellation.. [80] . bricks. alters or dismantles any mobile crane or tower crane.... [95] . [118] .. repaired... (3) or (4). [92] .0 Formatted Deleted: Revocation¶ Formatted Formatted Formatted .. [91] .

Any cantilevered platform or material platform shall be designed such that it is capable of bearing a load of at least twice its safe working load and constructed. R 47 Guard-rails and toe-boards Every open side of a cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite from which any person could fall more than 2 metres shall be provided with guard-rails and toeboards. No person shall use any such cantilevered platform or material platform in the worksite unless a certificate has been issued in respect of it.000 kilogrammes or more.5. Approval from LTA for work near MRT. The cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite shall not be loaded beyond its safe working load except by an inspector or a professional engineer when testing the platform. Maintenance programme on all lifting equipment. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 114 Deleted: _ . Sign boards showing the safe working load of a cantilevered platform or material platform used shall be prominently displayed at suitable locations at the platform. Use of walkie-talkie for communication.3 CANTILEVERED AND MATERIAL PLATFORMS HAZARDS Cantilever and material platforms are constructed for transferring building material to the intermediate floors by means of crane. Materials or equipment shall not remain on a cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite for a period longer than is necessary for loading or unloading. Inspection by crane operator using operator checklist and recording in log book. Pre-use checks on lifting gears. it shall be constructed to open inwards to the platform. Personal Protective Equipment • High visibility vest for signalman and rigger. installed or repositioned in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer who designed the platform. Ascertain the weight of the load prior to lifting. Ground assessment and soil investigation reports. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Supervision by lifting supervisor. The main hazards are as follows: • • • Overloading leading to collapse of the platform Falling from height during access Falling materials Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 46 Cantilevered and material platform The requirements shall apply to any cantilevered platform erected for the purposes of loading and unloading of any material or equipment and any material platform which is used for the purposes of loading and unloading of any material or equipment and is subjected to a load weighing 1.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • Implement safe work procedures Briefing on the lifting plan. safe work practices. Where any gate is provided in place of guard-rails at the outer edge of a cantilevered platform or material platform used in a worksite. • Different coloured helmet 6.

R 49 Inspection by designated person Every cantilevered platform or material platform shall be inspected by a designated person at least once every 7 days. The result of the inspection shall be entered by the designated person into a register. Risk Control Engineering Control • Guardrails • Toe-boards Administrative Control • Adequate design • Certification by authorised examiner • Signage on safe working load 6. Any unsafe condition discovered during the inspection shall be rectified immediately.5. muscular hernia. sprains. as in tight areas or within a floor under construction. Engineering Control • Provide lighting • Reduce the load into smaller sizes.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 48 Use of wire rope No wire rope shall be used as a load bearing element in a cantilevered platform unless it is terminated with eyes that have been fitted with thimbles. Risk Control Elimination • Use mechanical methods such as forklifts and cranes to eliminate manual handling Substitution • Use mechanical aids to minimise manual handling.4 MANUAL HANDLING HAZARDS Material movement that cannot be done by machines. • Attach handles to get a better grasp • Level the floor Administrative Control • Rearrange the storage to minimise bending. back injuries. Wire rope clips shall not be used for terminating such rope.0 115 Deleted: _ . Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. upper limb disorders. muscle injuries. fractures. The hazards of manual handling are as follows: • • • • • • • • • Improper manual handling Improper posture Heavy objects Carrying long distances Sharp edges on the load Slippery objects Long objects Loads without handles Obstruction by the load Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Accidents related to manual material handling can result in a variety of injuries such as spinal injuries. bruises and cuts. has to be done manually. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

This can be treated by rest. The hazards for heat stress are • • • • • • • • • • • Lack of heat acclimatisation for workers coming from cold countries. unconscious and lose control of his bladder and bowel functions. or heat cramps. The affected person may be incoherent or unable to talk clearly. Other symptoms include headaches.0 116 Deleted: _ .6 WORKING IN HOT ENVIRONMENT Workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. remove extra layers of clothing and sponge the person down with a wet towel or cloth while fanning him. replacement of the fluid and electrolytes (through drinking water or isotonic “sports drinks”) and massaging the affected muscles. As the Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. It commonly presents as a sensation of “feeling weak”. Replacement of fluids by drinking may not be adequate and intravenous administration of fluids (in a hospital) may be necessary. the sweating mechanism may also fail. workers are also exposed to ultra violet radiations. cooling of the body and active replacement of fluids and electrolytes. In some cases. 6. or other hand protectors must be used to prevent hand injuries. Clear the pathway Limit the weight that can be carried. It is often the result of doing heavy physical work resulting in fluid and electrolyte losses caused by heavy sweating. heat exhaustion. The most common symptom is the tonic contraction of muscles (“cramping”) which usually happens in the legs. Dehydration Medically ill workers or recovering from illnesses or on certain medications. that it affects the blood flow to vital organs. Heat Stroke When the body is unable to remove extra heat. The worker would be sweating heavily and his body temperature would usually be higher than normal. Heat Cramps Heat cramps is one of the earliest signs of heat stress.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • Use additional workers to assist in carrying the load. Apart from the hot weather outdoors. Personal factors such as older age. Introduce rest breaks Introduce job rotation. alcohol consumption Heavy work load Fast rate of work (fast or slow) Strenuous type of work (strenuous or sedentary) Heavy clothing High temperature High humidity inadequate ventilation Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Deleted: Page Break Heat stress can result in heat disorders such as heat stroke. Training Safe work procedure Training Personal Protective Equipment • Gloves. Heat Exhaustion Heat exhaustion occurs when the loss of water and electrolytes from the body is so high. dizziness or fainting. blurring of vision and abdominal pain. obesity. Restore circulation by laying him down and elevating the legs about 30 cm (1 foot) above ground. Transfer the worker to a shady or air-conditioned area (if available). the core temperature may continue to increase to cause heat stroke. Treatment is through cessation of physical activity. resulting in a “hot body” that is not sweating. hand leathers.

g. arrangement should be made to call for an ambulance and evacuate the worker to a hospital.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide body temperature rises. First aiders should not use absence or presence of sweating as a guide to diagnosis and initiate treatment. and painful cramps. • Workers who are ill should report to their supervisors and see a doctor before starting work to assess their fitness to work.. The signs and symptoms of heat stress can change in a worker. where possible. Workers with these symptoms should seek medical attention. • Workers returning from prolonged illness should consult a doctor before going back to work. and so on. • Heavy physical work or work under the sun should be scheduled to the cooler parts of the day (early morning or late afternoon) where possible. or have headaches. Administrative Control • Heat Acclimatisation for new workers .. • Cool shaded rest areas should be provided for workers to have their breaks away from heat. lifting equipment and power tools) should be used to reduce physical workload. damage will occur to the vital organs of the body. without signs of external injury.ports drinks”) and massaging the affected muscles. death will occur. WSH (Construction) Regulations R 98 Temperature and humidity In a compressed air environment (e. As the above is being done. Reasonable practicable measures have to be taken by the occupier to ensure that persons at work in the workplace are protected from excessive temperatures and harmful radiations. First aiders and workers themselves must be alert to the early signs and symptoms of heat stress. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. remove extra layers of clothing and sponge him down with a wet towel or cloth while fanning him. sore throat.. cough. temporary shelters) should be provided for workers who have to spend a significant amount of time under the sun. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. In the treatment of heat stroke. kidney and liver. specify that the temperature in any working chamber.g. They should always attempt to cool the body as long as there is the slightest suspicion that the worker is suffering from heat stress. he should be encouraged to drink water. Heat stroke must be suspected as one of the causes if a worker collapses at the workplace. If not treated quickly. man-lock or medical lock in a worksite shall not exceed 29ºC and the relative humidity shall not exceed 85%. • Use blowers to provide ventilation. Transfer the worker to a shady or air-conditioned area (if available). headache. the first important step is to cool the body. Restore circulation by laying him down and elevating the legs about 30cm (1 foot) above ground. such as the brain. Legislation WSH (General Provisions) Regulations R 10 Protection against excessive heat or cold and harmful radiation.increasing from 2 hours per day to the full work duration over 14 days. Risk Control Substitution • Mechanical aids (e. • Worksites can implement daily checks for symptoms of flu and cold such as blocked nose. Workers who feel unwell. dizzy. should seek immediate attention. Engineering Control • Shaded areas (e.g. If the worker is conscious and if it is possible.0 Deleted: factory 117 Deleted: _ . during tunnelling works).

6. the duration of rest period must be increased. Under severe conditions. Working in confined spaces is more hazardous than working in other workplaces because: • The entrances/exits of confined spaces might not allow the entrant to evacuate effectively if there is a flood or collapse of free-flowing material. construction or rescue. risk factors. physical contact with moving or rotating parts and falling. symptoms and seriousness of heat-related disorders.0 Deleted: Page Break 118 Deleted: _ . • The space outside the confined space can impact on the conditions inside the confined space and vice versa. extreme temperatures. inspection. and access difficulty. • Conditions can change very quickly. pipe. Personal Protective Equipment • Workers should wear loose-fitting light-coloured clothing while working in the hot environment and hats can be used. for example. The interior configuration of a confined space often restricts the movement of people or equipment within it. All workers must be educated on the dangers of complacency. size or means. vapours or fumes. the preventive measures they can take and the importance of immediate reporting to their supervisors and seeing a doctor. • Rescue of the victim is more difficult. Physical Hazards include conditions such as mechanised equipment. Workers should avoid the excessive intake of coffee and alcohol. • Self-rescue by entrant is more difficult. low illumination.7 CONFINED SPACE People enter a confined space for cleaning. loose materials. corrosive. • Loss of consciousness or asphyxiation arising from harmful gases. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Natural ventilation alone is often not sufficient to maintain breathable quality air because the interior configuration of some confined spaces does not allow air movement to circulate. These spaces are not primarily designed or intended for human occupancy and often have a restricted entrance or exit by way of location. • Electrocution Legislation Workplace Safety and Health (Confined Spaces) Regulations R 2 Definitions Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. pit. Cool drinking water should also be provided at the rest areas. silo. The types of injuries relevant to confined space accidents include: • Injuries arising from fire and explosion. • Drowning arising from an increase in level of liquid. Chemical Hazards include conditions such as fumes and dust which affect the air in the confined space and can be flammable. if appropriate. manhole. toxic. tank. adequate sleep and exercise. excessive noise. or asphyxiating. Workers should work with their fellow workers as buddies and watch out for symptoms of heat stroke for each other. vat. humidity. flue or any other enclosed space. 5 minutes of rest with every 25 minutes of work should be adopted under moderately hot conditions. maintenance. • Heat-related disorders. repair. if they or their fellow workers feel unwell. or • Work activities may introduce hazards not present initially. free flowing solids or lack of oxygen.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • Alternate work and rest periods. Workers should also be encouraged to adopt a healthy lifestyle with a well-balanced diet with sufficient intake of nutrients and vitamins in their diets. A “confined space” is any chamber.

means his employer or the principal under whose direction he enters or works in the confined space. the opening to the confined space shall be barricaded or guarded by railings or other effective means. “Confined space” means any chamber. or • there is a risk of engulfment by material. in which — • dangerous gases. Deleted: ¶ “Hazardous atmosphere” means an atmosphere where — • the level of oxygen in the atmosphere is not within the range of 19. R 8 Ventilation in confined space Adequate and effective ventilation shall be maintained in the confined space for the purposes of entry into and work in the confined space. R 3 Application These Regulations shall apply in relation to confined spaces in workplaces. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. or • the levels of toxic substances in the atmosphere exceed the permissible exposure levels as specified in the First Schedule to the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions) Regulations (Rg 1).5% to 23. pipe. for sustaining life. description and location of the confined space shall be recorded and informed to persons who are liable to be exposed to the hazards of the confined space. the entrance cover of the confined space shall not be removed unless the confined space is depressurised and rendered safe for opening.5% by volume. silo. R 5 Access to and egress from confined space Reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that the means of entry into and egress from any confined space are safe and without risks to the health of every person entering or leaving the same. in relation to a person entering or working in a confined space. The air supply for the ventilation shall be from a source free from contaminants. to prevent any person or object from falling into the confined space. “Entry” means ingress by a person into a confined space which occurs when the person’s head passes through an opening into the confined space. or is likely to be reduced to be inadequate.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide “Authorised manager” means an authorised manager appointed under regulation 9 and includes any other person appointed to perform the duties of an authorised manager by the responsible person. When such entrance cover is removed. the exhaust air Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. “Responsible person”. R 7 Lighting in confined space Sufficient and suitable lighting shall be ensured for entry into or work in the confined space. pit. vat. tank. or persons being overcome thereby. “Competent person” means a person who has sufficient experience and training to perform the work required to be carried out. • the level of flammable gas or vapour in the atmosphere is 10% or more of its lower explosive limit. and directed to the area where a person is or will be present in the confined space. R 6 Opening of entrance cover of confined space If a confined space which contains any substance under pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. of the existence and hazards of the confined space. vapours or fumes are liable to be present to such an extent as to involve a risk of fire or explosion. manhole. flue or other enclosed space. Where exhaust ventilation is used. • the supply of air is inadequate. R 4 Record of confined spaces in workplace Where a fixed and stationary confined space is sited in a workplace.0 Deleted: factory Deleted: factory 119 Deleted: _ .

He shall — • use a suitable and properly calibrated instrument. and toxic gas or vapour. including where reasonably practicable. R 14 Posting of confined space entry permit The supervisor shall clearly post a copy of the permit at the entrance to the confined space. is wearing a safety harness with a rope securely attached and there is a confined space attendant keeping watch outside the confined space who is provided with the means to pull such person out of the confined space in an emergency. a fresh application shall be made. he shall retain a copy of the issued permit. • conduct the test in a manner that will not endanger himself or others. the purpose of entry. he shall endorse the application for the confined space entry permit and forward the endorsed application to the authorised manager for the confined space. vapours or any other dangerous substances into the confined space. the results of the gas testing. R 13 Issue of confined space entry permit The authorised manager may issue a confined space entry permit in respect of entry into or work in the confined space if the authorised manager is satisfied that — • there is no hazardous atmosphere present • the confined space is adequately ventilated. He shall exercise due diligence. If the authorised manager issues the permit.0 120 Deleted: _ . R 9 Implementation of confined space entry permit Authorised manager. and its period of validity. • all reasonably practicable measures have been taken to ensure the safety and health of persons who will be entering or working in the confined space. and • where reasonably practicable. confined space safety assessor and confined space attendant for the confined space shall be appointed. • effective steps have been taken to prevent any ingress of dangerous gases. location. and • record the results of the test in the confined space entry permit. A confined space entry permit shall be issued which specifies the description. • conduct the test in the following sequence: oxygen. a sketch of the area within the confined space Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. flammable gas or vapour. R 10 No entry into or work in confined space without evaluation and confined space entry permit No person shall enter or work in a confined space without a permit. If the confined space work is not completed within the validity of the permit. If satisfied that entry into or work in a confined space can be carried out with due regard to the safety and health of persons. He shall exercise due diligence. the confined space safety assessor shall test the atmosphere of the confined space prior to entry by any person into the confined space.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide from the ventilation system shall be exhausted to a location outside the confined space where it does not present a hazard to any person. where applicable. R 12 Evaluation of confined space entry permit On receipt of the application for a confined space entry permit. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 11 Application for confined space entry permit for all confined space works An application for a confined space entry permit shall be made in such form and manner as may be required by the authorised manager. • has been authorised to enter or work in the confined space by the authorised manager for the confined space. This shall not apply if the person — • is wearing a suitable breathing apparatus. It shall state the measures which will be taken to ensure the safety and health of persons who enter or carry out the work in the confined space and addressed to the authorised manager and submitted to the confined space safety assessor.

“Incompatible work” means work which is carried out at or in the vicinity of any work carried out in the confined space and which is likely to pose a risk to the safety and health of persons present in the confined space. R 15 Monitoring to ensure safety and health of worker during entry into or work in confined space The responsible person and the authorised manager shall ensure that all measures necessary to ensure his safety and health are taken and in place at all times during his entry into. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 17 Duty to report incompatible work Any person who is aware of any work which is incompatible to the confined space work shall report to his supervisor. as the case may be. The confined space safety assessor shall record the results of the tests. • an evaluation is made to determine how the hazardous atmosphere developed. or • person entering or working in the confined space has left the confined space after achieving the purpose of the entry or completing the work. if the work is likely to pose a risk to the safety and health of persons entering or working in the confined space. whichever is the earliest. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 18 Review and revocation of confined space entry permit The authorised manager shall review and assess the need for entry into or work in the confined space on a daily basis and revoke the permit if he thinks fit to do so. R 16 Periodic testing of atmosphere The atmosphere in the confined space shall be tested by a confined space safety assessor at such intervals as is necessary to evaluate the safety and health of the person entering or working in the confined space. The responsible person shall inform the authorised manager when the person entering or working in the confined space has left the confined space after achieving the purpose of the entry or completing the work. All records shall be kept for not less than 2 years from the date it is made.0 Deleted: ¶ 121 Deleted: _ . the workplace safety and health officer. R 20 Display of name or identification badge The person entering a confined space shall display his name and identification badge. stay or work in the confined space. the workplace safety and health coordinator or the authorised manager for the confined space. He shall order all persons to leave the confined space immediately and all work in the confined space to cease immediately. He may revoke a confined space entry permit in respect of a confined space if he is satisfied that the confined space work has been completed or cannot be continued for a significant period of time. as the case may be.at the entrance to the confined space. • revocation of the permit. and revoke the confined space entry permit. If there are 2 or more persons present in the confined space. The responsible person shall ensure that he does the same. He shall ensure that the copy of the permit is not removed until the — • date of expiry of the permit. at least one of them continuously monitors the atmosphere in the confined space with a suitable gas detector and if a hazardous atmosphere in a confined space is detected by the tests or continuous monitoring — • all persons in the confined space shall vacate the confined space immediately. and • no person re-enters the confined space until a new confined space entry permit is issued by the authorised manager.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide where the entry is to be made or work is to be conducted. R 19 Warning sign The occupier shall clearly post a notice at the entrance to the confined space to warn persons of the hazards of the confined space unless a copy of the confined space entry permit is posted there or there is no entrance which persons may use to enter the confined space.

and • alert the persons appointed to carry out rescue work in the event of an emergency. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The responsible person shall ensure that such records are kept for at least 2 years from the date it is made. responsible persons. Engineering Control • Lockout & Tagout (LOTO) • Forced ventilation • Exhaust ventilation • Lighting • Barricades to cordon off the space. • appoint persons to carry out rescue work and ensure that such persons have first received adequate training in rescue operation including first-aid and the proper use of personal protective equipment and other equipment necessary for carrying out a rescue operation in the confined space. The confined space attendant shall remain outside the confined space in order to — • monitor persons entering into and working in the confined space. Risk Control Elimination / Substitution • Use a vacuum machine and an extended hose to suck out the sludge instead of having workers enter the confined space to manually remove it. • maintain regular contact with the persons in the confined space and when necessary assist them to evacuate should the need arise. R 22 Appointment and duties of confined space attendant The responsible person shall appoint a confined space attendant. R 23 Rescue operation The responsible person shall • establish a written rescue plan for the purpose of rescuing persons in the confined space in the event of an emergency. permit applicants. rescuers • Supervision • Warning sign posted at the confined space • Posting of permit • Control of entrants • Inspection of the confined space • Maintenance of equipment Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The competent person shall exercise all due diligence when making the examination and to record every examination. properly maintained. safety harness and ropes. and thoroughly examined by a competent person (a person who has sufficient experience and training to perform the work required to be carried out) at least once a month or at such other intervals as the Commissioner may require.0 Deleted: ¶ 122 Deleted: _ . supervisors and confined space assessors • Inhouse training for confined space attendants. suitable rescue equipment and suitable reviving apparatus which are kept readily available. and • ensure that there is sufficient supply of suitable breathing apparatus.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 21 Training of workers and supervisors The responsible person shall ensure that workers and supervisors have first receive adequate safety and health training prior to confined space entry. authorised managers. Administrative Control • Removal of sludge • Gas testing • Continuous monitoring of the atmosphere • Establish safe work procedures • Implementation of confined space entry permit • Mandatory Training for workers. entrants.

Deleted: ¶ Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ Process Work Activities Deleted: ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Use the RA form.30 minutes • • • • • • Select a mechanical and electrical trade. Identify the type of controls. Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards. Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Personal Protective Equipment • Respiratory protection • Other protection as deemed by the nature of the works.0 123 Deleted: _ . Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities. • Rescue equipment Learning Activity 5 Group Exercise .

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6.8 PILING The hazards of piling are: • Inadequate access on the piling frame • Presence of underground utilities • Unqualified operator • Noise • Ground vibration • Soft ground • Presence of workers in the operational zone • Unsafe pile testing The potential accidents that may arise are: • Falling from height • Damage to utilities • Noise induced hearing loss • Damage to adjacent structures • Collapse of piling rig • Struck by piles / hammer • Collapse of kentlege Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 129 - Stability of adjacent structures Before carrying out any piling work which may affect the stability of any structure within the worksite, the structure shall be adequately supported by underpinning, sheet piling, bracing or other means of shoring in accordance with the design of a professional engineer and a certificate has been issued stating that it is safe for its intended use. The professional engineer who designs the underpinning, sheet piling, bracing or other means of shoring to support any structure shall ensure that his design can be executed safely, provide all design documentation. The professional engineer who oversees its construction shall ensure that it is constructed in accordance with the design and issue a certificate stating that the underpinning, sheet piling, bracing or other means of shoring is safe for its intended use. R 130 - Inspection Piling equipment shall be inspected daily by a designated person before the start of any piling work for the day and that every defect is corrected before the piling equipment is used. R 131 - Pile driver not in use When the pile driver is not in use, the hammer shall be choked or blocked in the leads or lowered to the ground. R 132 - Pile testing The testing of piles in a worksite shall be conducted under the direct supervision of a designated person. Reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to warn persons not to approach the pile test area in a worksite. No person shall be allowed to approach a pile test area while the process of increasing or decreasing test loading is being carried out. If the pile testing system is in a stable condition and is safe for approach, person shall be allowed to approach a pile test area while the process of increasing or decreasing test loading is not in progress under the specific instruction of the designated person. R 132 - Footing Before placing or advancing a piling frame, the ground of the worksite shall be inspected by a designated person; and made firm and level by suitable means where necessary. After
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placing or advancing a piling frame, an inspection and correction of the footing shall be carried out to ensure stability. Risk Control Engineering control • Steel plates for the piling rig • Proper ladder for access • Use of tagline Administrative control • Vibration monitoring • Certification of piling rig by authorised examiner • Qualified operator • Supervision • Permit to work • Inspection by designated person • Control of access into the operational area. Personal protective Equipment • Hearing protection

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6.9 FORMWORK STRUCTURES The hazards of formwork structures are • • • • • • • Open sides inadequate access Inadequate design Unsafe sequence of erection & dismantling overloading Exposure to concrete Nails from stripped formworks – step on objects

The potential accidents would be falling from elevated work surfaces, skin disease and collapse of formwork Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 58 General requirement Every formwork structure shall be — • of sound material, good construction and adequate strength; • free from patent defect; • suitable and safe for the purpose for which it is intended; and • properly braced or tied together so as to maintain position and shape. Every formwork structure shall be capable of sustaining the total dead, live and impact loads imposed on the structure with a minimum safety factor of 2. Where a formwork structure in a worksite is of 2 or more tiers, frames or shores — • the tiers, frames or shores shall be securely and effectively connected vertically; • safe means of access to and around the formwork structure shall be provided for the purpose of inspection; and • every designated access point shall be clearly marked with a sign or label; and be made safe for use by any person using the access point. All reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that any new or existing formwork structure or any part of such a structure which may become unstable or is in temporary state of weakness or instability due to the carrying out of construction or erection work, does not collapse. No load is to be applied to unsecured structures except as permitted by the design documentation, and no part of the formwork structure shall be loaded as to render it unsafe to any person. R 59 Supports and shores Horizontal and diagonal bracing shall be provided in both longitudinal and transverse directions, as may be necessary to provide stability and rigidity to any formwork structure unless the formwork structure has been designed to be stable and rigid without the bracing. Shores shall be properly seated top and bottom and shall be secured in place to prevent displacement. Where the shores rest upon the ground, sole plates shall be provided. All shores for the formwork structure shall be of adequate size and spacing. R 60 Appointment of formwork supervisor A formwork supervisor shall be appointed to supervise the construction, erection, alteration or dismantling of any formwork structure in a worksite. No person shall be appointed as a formwork supervisor unless he has received adequate safety and health training to familiarise him with the hazards associated with the construction, erection, alteration or dismantling of the formwork structure and the precautions to be observed. No formwork structure shall be constructed, erected, altered or dismantled in a worksite except under the immediate supervision of a formwork supervisor. 127
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R 61 Duties of formwork supervisor It shall be the duty of a formwork supervisor — • to take, so far as is reasonably practicable, such measures as are necessary to ensure that during the erection of a formwork structure, all the components of the formwork structure are properly erected, seated, connected, braced and tied so as to maintain its position and shape; • to make an inspection of the formwork structure upon the completion of the formwork structure to ensure that the formwork structure is in accordance with the design and drawings for that formwork structure; and • to immediately notify the occupier of the worksite upon discovering any unsafe condition during any inspection. R 62 Register It shall be the duty of the formwork supervisor to enter the results of every inspection into a register and to keep the register of such inspections. R 63 Design and construction of formwork structure Formwork structure to be P.E designed, when it — • exceeds 9 metres in height; • consists of any formwork which is supported by shores constructed in 2 or more tiers; or • consists of any formwork where the thickness of the slab or beam to be cast in the formwork exceeds 300 millimetres, P.E design / drawings kept at the worksite and produced for inspection upon request by an inspector. No P.E designed formwork structure shall be used unless certified by the P.E. Alterations on a P.E designed formwork to be reviewed and endorsed by a P.E R 64 Duties of professional engineer on formwork structure The professional engineer who designs a formwork structure shall ensure that his design can be executed safely by any person who constructs or uses the formwork structure and provides all design documentation. The professional engineer who oversees the construction of a formwork structure shall ensure that the formwork structure is constructed in accordance with the design and issues a certificate stating that the formwork structure is safe for its intended use. R 65 Concrete work Placement of concrete shall not be carried out in such manner as to affect the stability of the formwork structure. Where a formwork structure is designed by a professional engineer, placement of concrete shall not commence unless the formwork structure, including any alteration thereto, has been inspected and certified by the professional engineer. No person shall be in the vicinity of a formwork structure in a worksite during the placement of concrete unless his presence is incidental to the concrete work in progress. The formwork supervisor shall regularly inspect a formwork structure in a worksite during the placement of concrete to monitor the stability and soundness of the formwork structure. R 66 Dismantling Dismantling of a formwork structure shall not commence until the concrete is set. Materials dismantled from the formwork structure shall be removed promptly or stock-piled in areas where persons are not required to work or pass. Protruding nails, wire ties and other form of accessories not necessary to subsequent work shall be pulled, cut or otherwise made safe. R 67 Steel reinforcement Steel reinforcement for any column, wall, floor or any other structure shall be adequately supported to prevent collapse.

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R 68 Reshoring Reshoring shall be provided when necessary to safely support slabs and beams after a formwork structure is dismantled, or where such slabs or beams are subjected to any superimposed load due to any construction work above. The reshoring shall be properly seated top and bottom and shall be secured in place to prevent displacement. Where the reshores rest upon the ground, sole plates shall be provided. The reshoring shall be inspected by the formwork supervisor and the results of the inspection shall be entered by the formwork supervisor into a register. Risk Control Elimination / Substitution • Use precast components Engineering control • Provision of shores and reshores • Provision of access • Provision of supports for vertical columns Administrative control • Design, inspection and certification by P.E • Inspection and supervision by formwork supervisor • Adopt proper sequence of work to prevent falling hazard • Removing nails from the stripped formwork Personal Protective Equipment • Safety harness

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6.10 DEMOLITION Improper handling of demolition of buildings or structures gives rise to many hazards. These hazards include: • • • • • • • • • Inadequate lighting Open sides Electrical lines Unsafe debris handling Confined space Instability to structural members due to improper removal of bracing members, weaknesses in building materials and overloading Presence of asbestos-containing materials Dust Step on objects

The potential accidents would be • Falling from elevated work surfaces • Electrocution • Falling objects injuring workers and public • Collapse of workers • collapse of any part of the building or structure • Asbestosis • Silicosis Legal requirements WSH (Construction) Regulations R 70 Preparation of demolition work Before commencing any demolition work in a worksite all glass and claddings on the exterior of the building to be demolished shall be removed; and all gas, electric, water, steam and other supply lines shall be shut off and capped. Where it is necessary to maintain any power, water, gas or electric lines during demolition in a worksite, such lines shall be so re-located or protected with substantial coverings so as to protect them from damage and to afford safety to every person. R 71 Protection of adjacent structures Before and during the demolition of any structure in a worksite, the stability of the walls, ceilings, slabs, beams and all other structures adjacent to the structure which are to be demolished shall be determined. Where there is a possibility that an adjacent structure is unsafe or will become unsafe because of demolition operations in a worksite, no demolition shall be performed unless sheet piling, shoring, bracing or such other means as may be necessary to ensure the stability of the adjacent structure and to prevent the structure or other property from collapsing is provided. R 72 Removal of load bearing structures Where any demolition work in a worksite involves the removal of any column, beam, floor or other load bearing structure, it shall be the duty of the occupier of the worksite to ensure that the work is carried out with due regard to the integrity of the remaining structure; and in accordance with the method statement prepared by a professional engineer. R 73 Demolition of walls, partitions, etc. Demolition of walls and partitions in a worksite shall proceed in a systematic manner and all work above each tier of floor beams shall be completed before the safety of its supports is impaired. Masonry shall neither be loosened nor permitted to fall in a worksite in such masses as to endanger the structural stability of any floor or structural support. No wall, chimney or other structure or part of a structure which is being demolished in a worksite shall be left in such a condition that it may fall or collapse inadvertently; or be weakened
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barriers. Risk Control Substitution • Wetting the surface to be demolished to control dust. steel ramps) should be used for floor to floor movement of machinery. hallways. R 74 Access to floor There shall be provided at all times safe access to and egress from every building in the worksite in the course of demolition by means of entrances. • Services / utilities should be capped.g. During the demolition of an exterior masonry wall or a roof in a worksite. In assessing the structural stability of the building or structure to be demolished. • Sufficient lighting should be provided where persons are at work. Where any demolition work in a worksite is carried out with the use of hand-tools safe footing in the form of sound flooring or scaffolds shall be provided for persons working on an exterior wall. a substantial barricade with signs to warn persons from unauthorised entry into the worksite shall be erected along every sidewalk or thoroughfare bordering the demolition operations. catch platforms shall be provided and maintained except where an exterior built-up scaffold provides equivalent protection. • Machinery can also be lowered by means of a mobile crane or other methods proposed by a Professional Engineer • Proper working platforms and footholds should be provided for manual demolition. • Proper ramps of appropriate design (e. where persons are liable to fall more than 2 meters. Where a clamshell bucket is being used for the demolition work in a worksite. • Catch platforms should be provided where exterior walls or roofs are being demolished.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide due to wind pressure. a zone of demolition shall be maintained within 8 metres of the line of travel of the bucket. the Safe Working Load (SWL).0 131 Deleted: _ . Average luminance at passageways should be a minimum of 50lux. and walls or partitions shall not be left standing more than one storey above the uppermost floor on which persons are working. diverted or protected prior to the commencement of any demolition works. R 75 Barricades. etc. catch platforms and warning signs Where demolition operations are being carried out in a worksite. Administrative Control • Engineering surveys should be carried out prior to commencement of demolition work. existing services and the presence of hazardous substances. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. should be guarded by effective guardrails. there shall be maintained in the area into which affected persons may fall an adequate zone of demolition to ensure the safety of the person. and a zone of demolition having a radius of at least one and a half times the height of the structure or portion thereof being so demolished shall be maintained around the points of impact. R 76 Mechanical method of demolition Where a swinging weight is used in demolition operations in a worksite the building or structure or remaining portion thereof shall be not more than 24 metres in height. Where other mechanical contrivances are being used for the demolition work in a worksite. stairways or ladder runs which shall be so protected as to safeguard the persons using them from falling material. Engineering Control • Hoardings and covered walkways should be provided in conjunction with catch platforms to guide pedestrian flow and protect pedestrian traffic against falling debris. taking into account debris Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • All open sides or openings. Engineering surveys should include structural stability. • Adequate shores and/or braces should be installed to support unstable structures. No person other than any person essential to the demolition work in a worksite shall be permitted to enter a zone of demolition which shall be provided with substantial barricades. vibration or other causes.

Workers involved in demolition works must be provided with appropriate training and instructions to carry out demolition works safely. Appropriate warning signs should be posted. Caution should be taken to ensure that floors are not loaded up to a level which exceeds the SWL To verify if asbestos-containing materials are present in the building(s) /structure(s) to be demolished. renovation. ceiling tiles. should be determined by a Professional Engineer. Comply with scaffolding and asbestos safety requirements. Safe means of access and egress should be provided from different levels of buildings or structures. typically issued at a per floor basis. Personal Protective Equipment • Safety boots • Safety helmets.1 ASBESTOS HAZARDS Asbestos means crocidolite. A permit to work system should be implemented for the demolition works. movement of debris from floor to floor and to the holding area and transportation of debris should be prepared. demolition. The method statement for demolition works should clearly indicate the sequence of demolition. A debris management system indicating the method of disposal. Limiting the level of accumulation of debris All demolition equipment should be operated by competent persons with appropriate training. Maintaining the security of the site.0 132 Deleted: _ . If unsure. Appointing a competent person experienced in demolition work to assess and inspect the structure to be demolished during the course of the demolition work. refuse chutes and fire resistant structures.10. or an asbestos survey can be conducted to ascertain that the building/structure to be demolished does not contain asbestos As-built drawings to indicate the structural members Planning for demolition work and selecting appropriate method(s) of demolition and equipment to be used. asbestos-cement pipes or sheets. The use of asbestos has been banned in Singapore buildings since 1989. weight of machinery and/or other anticipated dead and live loads. chrysotile. No unauthorised entry should be permitted. Glass and cladding on external walls should be removed prior to commencement of any demolition works. it should be assumed that asbestos-containing materials are present. approach to demolition and elements that require specialised methods of removal. Supervision is needed to ensure that only those workers who have received training and instructions are authorised to carry out the work.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • accumulation. dismantling. Operators and staff involved in the demolition works should be well informed and well versed with how works are to be carried out. to ensure that every floor is adequately inspected prior to commencement of demolition. Asbestos was used widely in a variety of building materials including floor tiles. amosite. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. However during removal. the sequence of such works and the safety precautions to be taken prior to the commencement of works. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • Goggles • Hearing protection devices • Safety harness • Gloves • Appropriate respirators for dust or chemicals • Protective clothing 6. repair. fibrous anthophyllite or a mixture containing any of those minerals. maintenance and alteration works. workers are exposed to asbestos.

The results of every such examination and test shall be signed by the person making or responsible and kept available for a period of two years after it is made.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Asbestos fibres enter the body by inhalation of airborne dust or by ingestion and become embedded in the tissues of the respiratory or digestive systems. ledges and other internal surfaces of any part of a factory shall. the analysis and examination of materials or articles involved in the process undertaken. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. where necessary. occupier and person shall take reasonable steps to ascertain whether any process undertaken in the factory involves asbestos or any article composed wholly or partly of asbestos.0 133 Deleted: _ . Mesothelioma (cancer of the thin membrane lining of the chest. • thoroughly examined and tested by a competent person at least once in every 12 months. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. employer. The steps to be taken shall include. R 4 Obligations under Regulations Every contractor and every employer who is undertaking any process involving asbestos shall comply with the requirements of these Regulations. Legislation Factories (Asbestos) Regulations R 3 Application These Regulations shall apply to every process involving asbestos or any article composed wholly or partly of asbestos. to ascertain whether process in factory involves asbestos Every contractor. All respiratory protective equipment and protective clothing provided shall • be properly maintained. he shall give not less than 28 days’ notice of the process or such shorter notice to MOM. abdomen and gastrointestinal cancer) and Lung cancer. ceilings. • be used by the persons for whom they are provided • be provided for the use of another person unless it has been thoroughly cleaned and disinfected since last being worn. inside walls. The symptoms generally appear after 20 years of exposure. R 8 Protective equipment Where it is impracticable to provide exhaust ventilation. other plant and equipment. R 5 Contractor. R 6 Notifications Before a person first begins to undertake any process involving asbestos in a factory. R 9 Duty to keep clean All machinery. there shall be provided for each person suitable respiratory protective equipment. apparatuses. etc. and protective clothing. except a process in connection with which asbestos dust cannot be given off. partitions. • well maintained and inspected at least once a month. be kept in a clean state and free from asbestos waste and dust. work benches. employer. The user shall be fully instructed in the proper use of that equipment. all floors. R 7 Exhaust ventilation Exhaust ventilation equipment shall be • provided except if it is safe for persons working in the factory • kept in use to produce an exhaust draught which prevents the entry into the air of any workplace of asbestos dust. Exposure to asbestos causes occupational diseases such as Asbestosis (scarring and fibrosis of the lung tissues). all external surfaces of exhaust ventilation equipment. so far as is practicable.

and use of. Any surface on which asbestos waste or dust is deposited as a result of the carrying out of cleaning. R 17 Cleaning of protective clothing All protective clothing provided shall be washed and cleaned at suitable intervals. R 16 Accommodation for. R 18 Restriction on employment of young persons No person under the age of 18 years shall be employed in any process or in a part of a factory into which asbestos dust from any such process carried on in the factory would otherwise be liable to escape. the same protective clothing shall (until it becomes necessary to replace it) be available for use by an employee on each occasion on which he requires to wear it. be kept in such receptacles. The washing and cleaning of all protective clothing shall be carried out at the facilities provided. Adequate and suitable facilities shall be provided and maintained for the washing and cleaning of all protective clothing. be kept in a room separated from any workplace in suitably closed receptacles. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. which prevent the escape of asbestos dust therefrom. or by some other suitable method so. be kept in accommodation for storage provided except when it is necessary for them to be removed for cleaning or replacement. when not required for use. protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment Suitable and separate accommodation in a conveniently accessible location shall be provided for the use of employees when putting on or taking off respiratory protective equipment and protective clothing provided and for the storage of such equipment and clothing when they are not in use. not being a surface of the cleaning equipment used. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. and in carrying out any cleaning.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 10 Cleaning by dustless method The cleaning shall be by means of vacuum cleaning equipment so designed and constructed and so used. All protective clothing and respiratory protective equipment which have been provided for the use of employees shall. when stored. R 15 Marking of receptacles All such receptacles shall be clearly and boldly marked with the words “Asbestos — do not inhale dust” or with other words in other languages having the same meaning and readily understood by those persons handling the receptacles or working in the factory. • Shall be provided for the use of another person unless it has been thoroughly cleaned and disinfected since last being worn. shall be cleaned forthwith. received into a factory except in suitably closed receptacles.0 134 Deleted: _ . • Person shall be fully instructed in the proper use of that equipment. which prevent the escape of asbestos dust therefrom. or shall be distributed within a factory except in such receptacles or in a totally enclosed system of conveyance. and all asbestos waste in a factory shall. R 12 Cleaning equipment All cleaning equipment used for cleaning shall be properly maintained and have all external surfaces kept in a clean state and free from asbestos waste and dust. R11 Cleaning where cleaning by dustless method is impracticable Protective clothing and suitable respiratory protective equipment • shall be provided for and used. etc No loose asbestos or asbestos waste shall be despatched from or. as far as is practicable. when not in use. So far as is practicable. R 13 Storage All loose asbestos in a factory shall. R14 Distribution. that asbestos dust neither escapes nor is discharged into the air of a workplace.

ceiling. Engineering Control • Barricades to prevent unauthorised entry into the work area. • Implement safe work procedures • Training on safe work procedure.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Risk Control Elimination • Asbestos has been eliminated from use. suspected materials. • Exhaust ventilation provided to prevent entry of asbestos dust into the workplace.do not inhale dust” • Storage of used protective equipment and clothing • All protective clothing must be regularly cleaned in adequate and suitable facilities • No worker under the age of 18 years • Establish asbestos work area • Only workers who are doing the work are allowed to enter • No eating and drinking in the work area. acoustic. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. maintained • All loose asbestos to be kept in separate room • Dispatched only in closed receptacles or in a totally enclosed system of transfer • Keep factory clean and free from asbestos waste and dust by vacuum cleaning equipment or other methods preventing dust from escaping or discharged into the air • Suitable & separate accommodation for putting on and taking off protective clothing & respiratory protection equipment Administrative Control • Notification / Declaration of asbestos containing material during worksite registration when demolition. RA • Follow legal requirements • Exhaust ventilation to be inspected monthly and thoroughly examined by competent person every 12 months • All receptacles shall be clearly and boldly marked with “Asbestos . repair or re-decoration is carried out • Information regarding the presence or absence of asbestos can be obtained from existing building plans.0 135 Deleted: _ . • In case of doubt. fireproofing and insulation materials. • Enclose the work area and seal off all outlets. such as roofing. Substitution • Substitution of asbestos with other materials such as fibre glass. • Medical examination of workers • Remove non asbestos material from the work area to prevent contamination. • Full body protective clothing • Goggles Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. respirators. • Warning sign • Provision of shower facilities • Housekeeping Personal Protective Equipment • Wear respirators with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. • Wet the surface to prevent release of fibres. should be sent to a competent laboratory for identification of asbestos. It can be found only in existing structures when it is being demolished.

shall be posted and maintained at every place where the explosives are kept or stored. R 120 Size of holes Any drilled hole to hold any cartridge of explosives shall be of sufficient size. to comply with requirements 116. all persons are in such positions which do not expose them to risk of injury from the explosion or from flying materials caused by the explosion. R 119 Deepening holes No drilling of holes shall be carried out if the hole has at any time contained explosives. R 117 Smoking. when a charge is fired in a worksite. The hazards are • Mishandling of explosives • Open lights • Smoking • Unsafe opening of packages • Drilling onto unexploded explosives • Forcing cartridges into holes • Presence of personnel during blasting • Inadequate supervision • Misfires • Adverse weather • Inadequate warning before the blast The potential accident would be explosion resulting in injuries and fatalities. Smoking.5 metres distance from any explosive magazine. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 115 General duty on employer and principal It shall be the duty of the employer or the principal carrying out work in a worksite which involves the handling or use of explosives. R 118 Opening packages Packages of explosives shall not be opened at any point less than 15. Reasonably practicable steps shall be taken to ensure that.0 136 Deleted: _ . open lights and flame or spark producing devices shall be prohibited in or around the explosive magazine or storage enclosure. R 116 Handling of explosives Explosives shall not be handled or used except in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and by or under the immediate control of a designated person with adequate knowledge of the dangers connected with their use.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. Metallic instruments shall not be used for opening packages of explosives in a worksite.2 EXPLOSIVE HAZARDS Explosives are used for minor demolition works under controlled conditions. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. etc. Cartridges of explosives of the proper size shall be selected so that every cartridge can be easily inserted to the bottom of the drilled hole without forcing or ramming. Appropriate warning signs of the prohibitions. R 121 Removing cartridge wrappers Dynamites are not removed from their original wrappers before being loaded into the bored holes. understood by persons involved in the work relating to the handling or use of explosives.10. 117 and 118. open lights. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

R 126 Return to blast area No person shall return from such safe distance or safe shelter until permitted to do so by the blaster as announced by audible or visible signal. any handling or use of explosives shall be stopped immediately. R 127 Misfires When there is a misfire of any blast. The blaster who fired the blast shall examine the blast area for evidence of misfired charges immediately following the blast. R 123 Loading and tamping Only a hardwood rod free from any metal part is used for loading and tamping of explosives. • Comply with legal requirements Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 128 Operations during thunderstorm In the event of a thunderstorm.0 137 Deleted: _ . all persons within the danger zone shall retire to a safe distance or to a safe shelter. It shall not be carried out within dangerous proximity to drilling or any other operations in the worksite. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. R 125 Warning and retreat Before the firing of any blast.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 122 Loading near other operations The loading of holes with explosives shall be carried out under the direct supervision of a blaster. No person. and there shall be immediate evacuation of all persons in the area where the explosives are being handled or used to a place of safety in a proper location as determined by the designated person. every person in the danger zone shall retire to a safe distance or a safe shelter. The designated person shall appoint the necessary personnel to dispose of the misfired charge. Risk control Elimination / Substitution • Use alternate methods of demolition Engineering Control • Cordon off the area Administrative Control • Control of open lights and smoking • Safe work procedure • Audible warning prior to blast • Inspection by blaster for misfires. and determine the safe and proper method of its disposal. When the warning is sounded. shall enter the danger zone until the misfired charge is disposed of. a warning distinctly audible to all persons shall be sounded within the danger zone. No blast shall be fired while any person is in the danger zone. and to immediately report any misfire to the designated person. other than a person appointed to dispose misfired charges.

No shoring shall be required if the excavation in the worksite has been examined and certified by a professional engineer to be safe without any shoring.0 138 Deleted: _ . all reasonably practicable measures shall be taken • to prevent any person being trapped by the collapse of the excavation. or any structures adjoining or over areas to be excavated. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. or any structures adjoining or over areas to be excavated. The open side of any excavation in a worksite which exceeds 2 metres in depth shall be provided with adequate guard-rails to prevent persons from falling into the excavation. carbon monoxide or another impurity of the air in the excavation.11 EXCAVATION The hazards of excavation are • Open sides / Inadequate access • Unsupported sides / Inadequate shoring • Presence of underground utilities / Unqualified operator • Presence of hazardous atmosphere • Presence of ground water / Raining / Rupture of underground water pipes • Presence of adjacent structures • Materials stored near to the edge of the excavation • Presence of workers in the operational zone of the excavator / Unqualified operator • Vehicles / Equipment close to the edge of the excavation The potential accident would be • Falling into the excavation • Collapse of excavation • Damage to utilities • Collapse of person • Flooding • Collapse of structures • Falling objects • Struck by excavator • Vehicles / Equipment topple Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 77 General requirements on excavation work Where the depth of any excavation in a worksite exceeds 1. • to prevent any person being struck by an object. • to prevent any person falling into the excavation. Excavated material or other superimposed loads shall be so placed away from the edge of the excavation in a worksite to prevent the materials or other loads from falling into the excavation. Where the depth of any excavation in a worksite exceeds 4 metres. and • to prevent any person inhaling.5 metres or where the banks are undercut. bracing or other means of shoring) shall be provided to prevent collapse of the excavation. During any excavation work in a worksite. adequate shoring (by underpinning. or cause the banks to slip or cause the upheaval of the excavation bed. or otherwise being exposed to. no work (other than excavation or shoring operations) shall be carried out inside the excavation until after a certificate has been issued in respect of the shoring for that excavation. adequate shoring shall be made or erected in accordance with the design of a professional engineer to prevent collapse of the excavation. Where the depth of any excavation in a worksite exceeds 4 metres. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. such as an excavating machine or by any material dislodged by the machine. sheet piling.

Personal Protective Equipment • Safety helmet for all personnel • High visibility vest for banksman Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Risk Control Engineering Control • Provide shoring for the excavation • Provide shoring for adjacent structures • Provide barricades • Cordon off the operational area to prevent entry by unauthorised personnel. • Provision of water pumps. • Gas testing for hazardous atmospheres. R 78 Duties of professional engineers on excavation The professional engineer who designs the shoring for an excavation shall ensure that his design can be executed safely and provide all design documentations. The professional engineer who oversee the construction of the shoring shall ensure that the shoring is constructed in accordance with the design and issue a certificate stating that the shoring is safe for its intended use. It shall be the duty of the designated person to take. telecommunication cables. The excavation in a worksite and its vicinity shall be inspected by a designated person after every rain storm or other hazard-increasing occurrence.5m depth. Where any inspection reveals that the excavation in the worksite is not safe for entry. water mains. the project manager of the worksite may order that all works within the excavation cease immediately and revoke any permit-to-work issued for such work. • Provide signage to warn pedestrians and vehicles. R 79 Access and egress from excavation where any excavation work is carried out to ensure that safe access to and egress from the excavation in the worksite is provided where persons are required to work in the excavation. Administrative Control • Engage a Licensed Cable Detection Worker (LCDW) to check for the presence of underground electricity cables. • Inspection by designated person • Provision of banksman to direct the operation and control access. • Provide staircase for access • Provide stoppers for vehicles / equipment.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Notices shall be put up at appropriate and conspicuous positions to warn persons about the excavation in a worksite. • Place materials away from the edge of the excavation. sewers and gas pipes • Obtain relevant services layout plans • Dig trial holes manually to ascertain the layout • Apply permit to work for excavation/trench that exceeds 1. so far as is reasonably practicable. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 139 Deleted: _ . • Walkie talkie for banksman • Brief personnel on the location of services • Provide ground markers above the services. Upon being informed. the designated person shall immediately inform the project manager of the worksite of the unsafe condition. and the access or egress is sufficient in numbers and installed in such locations so as to be readily accessible. such measures as are necessary to ensure that any inspection carried out is conducted properly.

Where the shaft in a worksite exceeds 24 metres in depth. R 83 Illumination level All areas in the tunnel shall be adequately illuminated. Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.5% oxygen by volume. an alternate means of egress from the shaft shall be provided for emergency purposes. supports by means of rock bolts. Where persons have to descend in a shaft. and not more than 23. shot-creting. Adequate clearance or refuge area shall be provided and maintained to prevent workers from being caught in between or struck by any part of any vehicle. fixture or equipment within the tunnel. a lift shall be provided for the transport of men and materials.5% oxygen by volume. All combustible materials shall.0 140 .Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 6. R 82 Ventilation All work areas in a free air tunnel shall be provided with appropriate ventilation system to ensure adequate supply of fresh air. shall be taken to ensure the stability of the tunnel. or other measures. and to prevent any person being trapped by the collapse of the tunnel or being struck by an object falling into the tunnel. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. All reasonably practicable measures shall be taken to ensure that the air in the tunnel where a person has to work is free from flammable gases and vapours and contains at least 19. face and walls of the work area in the tunnel shall be examined and tested before the start of the tunnelling works and thereafter at regular intervals to ensure that it is safe for persons at work in the tunnel. and to prevent flooding. be kept away from such lift and access way.11.1 TUNNELLING HAZARDS The hazards of tunnelling are: • Inadequate access • Inadequate shoring • Presence of underground utilities • Presence of hazardous atmosphere • Presence of ground water / Raining / Rupture of underground water pipes • Presence of adjacent structures • Presence of workers in the operational zone of the tunnel equipment The potential accident would be • Falling into the shaft • Collapse of tunnel • Damage to utilities • Collapse of person • Flooding • Collapse of structures • Struck by tunnel equipment Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 81 Stability of tunnelling work All reasonably practicable measures such as shoring. Air that has passed through any underground oil or fuel storage areas shall not be used for ventilation in the tunnel. segments or steel sets. R 84 Access to and egress from tunnel or shafts Safe access to and egress from any tunnel shall be provided. The roof. All tunnels or shafts in a worksite shall be properly designed and constructed to prevent the collapse of the shaft or surrounding earth. as far as is reasonably practicable. Emergency generators are provided to ensure adequate illumination of the tunnels and work areas in the event of a failure in the power supply.

Sufficient suitable breathing apparatus shall be provided and maintained for use by persons employed to work in a tunnel. Notices to warn persons against unauthorised entry shall be displayed at all points of entry to the tunnel. care and limitations of breathing apparatus and the use and maintenance of fire fighting equipment. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. magazines. Any code of audio and visual signals used shall be conspicuously displayed near the entrances to the worksite and such other locations as may be necessary to bring it to the attention of all persons concerned. safety chains or wires. • All hydraulic lines shall be protected by insulation or other screening where there is a risk of burning through human contact. be of appropriate design and construction. • Gasoline or liquefied petroleum gases or other highly flammable substances shall not be used in the tunnel without the approval of the project manager of the worksite. lighting. electricity or any monitoring system used in connection with any work in the tunnels in the worksite. • All supply lines to pneumatic tools used within a tunnel in the worksite shall be fitted with water traps and where appropriate. resuscitation. • Only flameproof equipment shall be used whenever there is danger of the presence of flammable or explosive gases. R 89 Rescue team Where 25 or more persons have to work underground at any one time. R 88 Training Any person who carries out any work in a tunnel shall receive adequate safety and health training to familiarise himself with the hazards associated with such work and the precautions to be observed. • Hydraulic oils with flashpoints which are lower than the working temperatures in the tunnel shall not be used in the worksite. valves or other controls regulating air supply. R 86 Means of communications Effective and reliable means of communication. such as a telephone network. and no fumes or sparks shall be emitted by the engine. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. A chart listing the names of persons working in the tunnel and their location of work shall be displayed at the main entrance to the tunnel and be regularly updated. Where more than 4 but not more than 24 persons have to work underground at any time. sufficient capacity. • No diesel engine shall be used in a tunnel unless it is so constructed that no air enters the engine without first being cleaned. electrical installations and away from the bottom of shafts.0 141 Deleted: _ . • Only high pressure hydraulic hoses and coupling shall be used in the tunnel and such hoses shall be properly protected. safe and without risks to health and adequately maintained. • No petrol driven internal combustion engine shall be used in a tunnel. the use. and • All gasoline or liquefied petroleum gases or highly flammable substances used in the tunnel shall be removed immediately after use.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Proper control of ingress and egress of persons to and from any tunnel under construction in the worksite shall be exercised. shall be provided at intervals of 100 metres along the tunne including outside the portal or at the top of the shaft and maintained at all times. • Only fire resistant hydraulic hoses shall be used in hydraulically activated machinery and equipment used in the tunnel. at least 2 such persons shall possess the training. R 87 Tampering with fittings Appropriate control measures shall be implemented to prevent any unauthorised person from tampering with fittings. R 85 Plant and ancillary equipment • All plant and ancillary equipment necessary for the conduct of work in any excavation or within a tunnel in the worksite shall. • Oil. at least 5 such persons shall be trained in rescue procedures. grease or fuel stored in the tunnel shall be kept in tightly sealed containers in fire resistant areas at safe distances from explosives. so far as is reasonably practicable.

Risk Control Substitution • Use open excavation method Engineering Control • Provision of shoring • Provision of alternate ventilation system • Provision of lighting with emergency lighting • Provision of access • Use of fire resistant materials • Provision of alternate power source • Segregated access for personnel in the tunnel Administrative Control • Implement Safe system of work • Warning notices • Maintenance of plant and ancillary equipment • Means of communications • Maintenance of records • Training of personnel • Comply with legal requirements • Implement permit to work system • Provision of rescue team 6. In this case. Once inside the man-lock. The procedure that is to be followed in the event of an outbreak of fire shall be displayed at prominent positions both inside and outside every tunnel. boulders or old piles.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 90 Fire-fighting facilities and procedure Adequate and appropriate fire-fighting facilities including a fire alarm system connected to the ground level shall be provided. When coming out of the compressed air tunnel. more workers would be exposed to the compressed air and its associated health risks. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Workers would be exposed to compressed air which can be intermittent in such cases. the air pressure can be slowly increased to the desired pressure inside the compressed air portion of the tunnel (compression procedure). The factors below may be associated with a higher risk of developing compressed air illness: • Medical unfitness. for example. obese and older workers may be at higher risk • High pressures exceeding one bar (greater risk with higher pressures) • Long working hours in compressed air.11. workers would be required to enter the man-lock again where the air pressure would be slowly reduced in stages to atmospheric pressure before they are allowed out of the man-lock (decompression procedure).2 COMPRESSED AIR ENVIRONMENT HAZARDS Compressed air is used in the construction of a tunnel to prevent entry of ground water into the tunnel. Every person employed in the tunnel shall receive instruction on the procedure. in consultation with Singapore Civil Defence Force. for example. Compressed air may also be used in the tunnel itself where there are workers working and conventional TBM are being used. A fire drill shall be held at least once in every 3 months. Working in a compressed air environment may result in diseases related to the changes in the air pressure. for example. Access to the compressed air portion of the tunnel is through a chamber called the ‘manlock’.0 142 Deleted: _ . When the desired pressure is reached. workers can then enter the compressed air tunnel. those working for more than four hours Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. It may be used in the working space in front of the TBM to allow maintenance work to be carried out on the machine face or allow workers to manually remove obstructions. At least one joint exercise for fire and rescue purposes together with the Singapore Civil Defence Force shall be conducted.

R 93 Safe system of work A notice shall be displayed at the entrance to the compressed air environment warning persons against unauthorised entry into the compressed air environment. During compression. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The oxygen is readily utilised by the body. • safe and without risk to health. Barotrauma may also affect the sinuses (air passages) or more seriously the lungs. the nitrogen gas can accumulate within the body. so far as is reasonably practicable.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • Failure to follow proper decompression procedure Multiple entries for supervisors and engineers Lack of acclimatisation for new workers Lack of adequate rest between shifts The risk of working in compressed air would be compressed air illness and barotrauma. When the body is subjected to increased air pressure. The notice shall also inform persons of — • the danger of not undergoing proper compression and decompression. it is essential that the pressure on either side of the ear drum be equalised by performing the Valsalva manoeuvre of blowing against the pinched nose and swallowing. R 94 Use of bulkhead No bulkhead for retaining compressed air within a tunnel shall be used unless it has been approved by the Commissioner. This shall not apply to a bulkhead which forms an integral part of a tunnelling or boring machine. and • adequately maintained. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. If the eustachian tubes are too small or blocked as a result of infection such as flu or allergy. This is called barotrauma where the tissue is damaged resulting from contraction or expansion of gas containing spaces within the body due to the changing pressures. the body tissues and blood are fully saturated with air. discharge and deafness. work in or leave the compressed air environment in the worksite except in accordance with a safe system of work which. these gases are released in the form of bubbles. It is commonly encountered during compression. Compressed air illness is a result of obstruction or effects due to gas bubbles formed in the blood stream giving rise to the symptoms of decompression sickness. R 95 Plant and ancillary equipment Every plant and ancillary equipment necessary for the conduct of work in the compressed air environment shall be — • of appropriate design and construction.0 143 Deleted: _ . is safe and without risk to health. Barotrauma The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the throat (where it is open to the atmosphere). however. and • the evacuation procedure in case of an emergency. Compressed Air Illness At normal atmospheric pressure (1kg/cm2). No oxy-acetylene shall be used in the compressed air environment. a person would be unable to clear during compression which may rupture the ear drum resulting in pain. • of sufficient capacity. Legislation WSH (Construction) Regulations R 91 Safe system of work No person shall enter. • fire and explosion hazards. When the ambient air pressure is reduced too fast. more of the gases in the air (mainly nitrogen and oxygen) get dissolved into the blood and tissues.

such as a telephone network. Instrumentation or gauges indicating the pressure in a working chamber shall be provided near the air compressor and at the site office. R 99 Means of communications Effective and reliable means of communication. • low pressure air shall be maintained and regulated automatically. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. • the compressor plant.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 96 Supply of air There shall be an adequate supply of compressed air to a working chamber. The air intake for all air compressors of the air supply shall be located. The total capacity of the low pressure air compressors shall be sufficient to maintain the pressure in the air locks and working chambers to cater for emergencies. No transformer shall be used in a compressed air environment unless the transformer is of the dry type. A reserve supply of compressed air shall be made available at all times for every man-lock and medical lock. Alternate use from one independent source of power supply to the other shall be made once fortnightly to ensure that the equipment may be operated from either source of supply. • the interior of each chamber of the man-lock. at a place where there are no fumes. R 98 Temperature and humidity The temperature in any working chamber. shall be provided in every working chamber. shall be maintained at all times and such means of communication shall connect the following locations: • the working chamber at the face of an excavation. R 97 Power source Every low pressure air compressor shall be provided with at least 2 independent and separate sources of power supply which shall be capable of supplying power to operate the air compressor and its ancillary systems automatically when one source of power supply fails. in good working order. Where measurements are made to determine the concentrations of toxic airborne contaminants in a compressed air environment. the measured concentrations in parts per million shall be corrected to the atmospheric pressure. • the working chamber side of the man-lock near the door. A wet and dry bulb thermometer. In a compressed air environment — • all high and low pressure air supply lines shall be equipped with check valves. and the corrected concentrations shall not exceed the permissible exposure levels specified in the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions) Regulations. At least 2 low pressure feedlines with regulating valves shall be provided for every working chamber and at least one of them shall extend to within 30 metres of the working face of the tunnel. man-lock or medical lock shall not exceed 29°C and the relative humidity shall not exceed 85%. The concentrations of toxic airborne contaminants in a compressed air environment in a worksite shall not exceed the permissible exposure levels in parts per million specified in the Workplace Safety and Health (General Provisions) Regulations (Rg 1). • the man and medical lock attendants' station. R 100 Appointment of competent person for compressed air works Sufficient number of competent persons shall be present on site to supervise the execution of work in a compressed air environment at all times when such work is being Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. exhaust gases or other air contaminants. and • low pressure air shall be provided with manually operated control valves. Every air main supplying the working chamber or air lock shall be protected against accidental damage and where it is not practicable to provide such protection. and • the first-aid station. as far as is reasonably practicable.0 144 Deleted: _ . an additional air main shall be provided. A lock attendant shall be appointed to record the readings of the thermometer at least once in every 4 hours in the lock attendant's register.

A person who has not carried out any work in a compressed air environment for more than 14 consecutive days shall not carry out such work in a compressed air environment exceeding one bar for more than 4 hours in one day. sore throat or ear ache shall carry out any work in a compressed air environment unless the person has been medically examined and certified fit by a medical practitioner. matches or other sources of ignition into the compressed air environment. Suitably qualified and experienced persons shall be appointed who shall at all times be in control of the air supply plant and be in attendance at the site when any person is employed in the compressed air environment. R 101 Identification badges Identification badges containing relevant particulars shall be issued to any person who is employed in the compressed air environment for the guidance of others should the person be taken ill after leaving work. • no person shall carry cigarettes. a suitably constructed and equipped man-lock shall be provided for each tunnel. cigarette lighters. A person who has never worked in a compressed air environment before shall not be employed in compressed air work unless he is accompanied by a person who had previously worked in a compressed air environment. The air controls of each caisson shall be under the charge of a gauge attendant. Every person who has been issued an identification badge shall wear the badge at all times while at work. and • no person who has consumed alcohol shall be allowed to undergo compression in any lock in the worksite other than in a medical lock. and • the maximum pressure at which that person is so employed does not exceed 2 bars. No person shall carry out any work in a compressed air environment at a pressure exceeding 3. This regulation shall not apply to any person who is a supervisor of works being carried out in a compressed air environment or who is engaged in maintenance work in a compressed air environment provided that — • the person shall not be so employed on more than 5 occasions in any 24-hour period. R 105 Man-locks Where work is carried out in any compressed air tunnel. • the employment is not for more than half an hour on any one occasion. • there is an interval of not less than 11/2 hours between each such employment. The period of time a person spends in a compressed air environment shall include the time spent by the person in the man-lock for compression and decompression. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide carried out. chest infection. The man-locks shall be Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. The total period of time in a day which the person spends in a compressed air environment shall not in any subsequent day be increased by more than one hour on each subsequent day. R 104 Prohibition on consumption of alcohol and smoking Where work in a compressed air environment is carried out — • no person shall consume alcohol or smoke while at work in the compressed air environment. No gauge attendant shall take charge of the air control valves of more than one heading unless they are in the same location. Competent persons shall be appointed as gauge attendants who shall at all times be in control of the control valve plant and be in attendance at the site when any person is employed in the compressed air environment. No person suffering from a cold.5 bars except in an emergency. R 102 Conditions for person working in compressed air environment Every person who is employed in a compressed air environment in the worksite shall spend not less than 12 consecutive hours at atmospheric pressure in any 24-hour period. R 103 Condition for multiple entries in compressed air environment No person who has undergone 3 decompressions from a pressure exceeding one bar in any 24-hour period preceding the time he is to enter a compressed air environment shall carry out any work in compressed air except for the purpose of carrying out rescue work.0 145 Deleted: _ .

The manlock shall be maintained in working order and in a clean state at all times. internal or external. compression of persons before they enter a working chamber in a worksite and decompression of persons who are leaving a working chamber shall be carried out only in a man-lock. decompression and compressed air illness and with the keeping of records.0 146 Deleted: _ . Except in the case of an emergency. including any ancillary equipment in the medical lock. and • carry out the compression and decompression of persons in a compressed air environment in accordance with the approved procedures. A notice which can be easily read and understood by any person employed to work in the man-lock shall be affixed in each man-lock to indicate — • the precautions to be taken during his compression or decompression and after decompression. R 107 Medical locks Where more than 100 persons are employed in a compressed air environment exceeding one bar. to which the structure may be subjected whilst in use and in an emergency. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. In an emergency. a suitably constructed and equipped medical lock shall be provided for every 100 persons or less and maintained. R 108 Man-lock and medical lock attendants Every man-lock and medical lock shall be under the charge of a lock attendant. • of an appropriate size and shall comprise at least 2 compartments so that one of the compartments can be entered into whilst the other is under pressure. Every medical lock shall be — • situated as near as possible to the man-lock. A medical lock shall not be used for any purpose other than for a therapeutic purpose and for the training and testing of persons for fitness to work in a compressed air environment. The manlock attendant shall — • maintain a lock attendant's register.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide sufficiently strong to withstand any air pressure. Compression and decompression of persons working in a compressed air environment shall be carried out in accordance with the procedures approved by the Commissioner. no person shall operate the controls for the opening and closing of the doors of the man-lock and working chamber unless he has been authorised by the lock attendant. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. and • the maximum number of persons who may be accommodated in the man-lock. a materials lock may be used for the compression and decompression of persons and a record of such use and particulars of the emergency shall be made. A man-lock shall not be used for any purpose other than for the compression or decompression of persons. R 106 Compression and decompression procedure and use of man-lock Except in an emergency. The man-lock shall be of adequate size to accommodate all persons likely to use the lock at any one time. and • received adequate training to familiarise him with the hazards associated with compression. No person shall be employed as a man-lock or medical lock attendant for more than 12 consecutive hours in any period of 24 hours. and • maintained in working order and in a clean state at all times. • equipped with such facilities and medicines in readiness for use at any time. • been trained in first-aid. Each man-lock attendant station shall be provided with a first-aid box. R 109 Attendance at man-lock A man-lock attendant shall be in attendance at a man-lock at all times when any person is in the man-lock or in a working chamber to which the man-lock affords direct or indirect access. No person shall be employed as a man-lock or medical lock attendant unless he has — • been certified to be medically fit by a medical practitioner. Provision shall be made to enable any person inside the man-lock or working chamber to control the doors of the man-lock or working chamber in order to leave the man-lock or working chamber in the case of an emergency.

work permit number. R 113 Maintenance of records A register showing the name. identity card number. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Risk Control Elimination • Prohibition on consumption of alcohol and smoking Engineering Control • Provision of alternate ventilation system • Provision of lighting with emergency lighting • Use of fire resistant materials • Provision of alternate power source • Provision of resting facilities and first-aid room Administrative Control • Implement Safe system of work • Warning notices • Maintenance of plant and ancillary equipment • Measuring and Monitoring temperature. home address and occupation of each employee employed in a compressed air environment shall be prepared and kept. Arrangements shall be made to ensure that all records of pressures and other relevant information regarding conditions in the man-lock and working chamber are accessible to the medical lock attendant at any time when the records and information are required by him. air quality • Means of communications Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. R 114 Training of personnel Any person who carries out any work in a compressed air environment shall receive adequate safety and health training to familiarise himself with the hazards associated with such work and the precautions to be observed. A copy of every lock attendant's register maintained shall be kept for a period of 3 years after its making. and • during the period of 24 hours immediately after the last decompression of a person in a man-lock from a pressure exceeding one bar has taken place. No medical practitioner shall be appointed unless the medical practitioner is suitably qualified and familiar with the problems associated with work in a compressed air environment and the medical aspects of that work and has been registered with the Commissioner as a designated workplace doctor.0 147 Deleted: _ . R 112 Resting facilities and first-aid room Where persons employed in a compressed air environment are required to remain at the worksite for one hour or more after decompression from pressures exceeding one bar.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide R 110 Attendance at medical lock A medical lock attendant shall be in attendance at the medical lock — • when any person is employed in a compressed air environment at a pressure exceeding one bar. date of birth. A first-aid room shall be provided and readily available at the worksite. nationality. humidity. a medical practitioner shall be appointed for the purpose of supervising medical lock attendants and attending to and treating persons suffering from compressed air illness and other conditions arising from work in a compressed air environment at all times. passport number. R 111 Appointment of medical practitioner Where any work is carried out in a compressed air environment. • when any person is being treated in the medical lock. adequate and suitable facilities shall be provided for the persons to rest in the worksite.

Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide • • • • • • • • • • • • Appointment of competent person for compressed air works Provision of identification badges Implementing proper compression and decompression procedure Maintenance of records Training of personnel Comply with legal requirements Medical surveillance Medical fitness Close monitoring Reporting of illnesses to the supervisors Log books to record entry Implement permit to work system Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.0 148 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.

30 minutes • • • • • • Select a civil and structural trade. Recommend appropriate controls for each of the hazards identified. Use the RA form.0 149 Deleted: _ . Choose any 1 process in that trade and list all the work activities. Process Work Activities Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Learning Activity 6 Group Exercise . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Choose any 1 activity and identify atleast 2 hazards. Identify the type of controls.

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implement the recommended risk control measures as soon as possible. The objective of this unit is to • Communicate and raise attention to the stakeholders on the hazards in accordance with organisational procedures. the risk assessment team needs to identify the action officers and follow-up dates.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide 7. Arising from the risk assessment. In this case. The risk assessment team should ensure that residual risks are acceptable and manageable and highlight the residual risks of each of the controls. self-employed person and principal (including contractor and sub-contractor) must take all reasonably practicable steps to inform his employees or any other persons at the workplace who may be exposed to safety and health risk. • Hazards identification for each work activity. • Communicate the control measures and implementation plan to the relevant stakeholders. SWPs for work which may pose safety and health risks should be established and implemented. as well as the provision of PPE. • Present proposed control measures to relevant stakeholders for formulation of implementation plan. The employer should as far as is practicable. • the measures implemented to control the risk.0 151 Deleted: _ . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. The Risk Assessment Form can be used for record keeping. A written description of the risk assessment must be kept for reference for 3 years. and possible types of accident or incident • Existing risk control measures • Risk level for each hazard • Recommendations on additional risk controls required • Persons involved in implementing the measures on risk reduction • Signatures. The records should include the following information: • Names and designations of risk assessment team members • Inventory of work activities by process or location. • Monitor the implementation and effectiveness of control measures. Once all the risk controls are selected. one of the residual risks is that the workers may not anchor the lanyards to protect themselves. They should be informed of the following: • the nature of the risk involved. The SWPs should include the safety precautions to be taken in the course of work and during an emergency. training and reviewing. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Every employer. if the risk control involves the use of safety harnesses and lanyards (a type of PPE). the risk assessment team may highlight training (administrative control) as a further measure to ensure that residual risks are further minimised. equipment and chemical. The results of risk assessment must be approved and endorsed by the top management. date and designations of the persons conducting risk assessment • Signature. associated with machinery. • Report to management on status of implementation of control measurement Implementation Residual risks are the remaining risks after implementation of risk controls. • applicable safe work procedures. All risk assessment records should be concise and kept in a register. Managing implementation of control measures This Lesson is made up of 5 units. communication amongst stakeholders at every step is essential. For example. date and designation of management approving or endorsing the assessment Communication Throughout the risk management process.

This would be appropriate when the supervisor wants to coach his subordinates on the safe method of work and on the job training. Communication of control measures to relevant stakeholders. Reports and email Internal safety circulars and bulletins can be notified through intranet & email to reach the target audience in the shortest time. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.0 152 Deleted: _ . The results of the risk assessment can be shared in these meetings. The disadvantage could be the literacy level of the employees and the availability of time and resources such as computers to access them. The stakeholders have been covered in earlier topics. the employees or other persons who may be at risk must be informed accordingly. Employee participation enables the employee to contribute on how the work can be undertaken safely. team meetings. which may include: Organisation such as • Suppliers • Clients • Developers • Designer consultants • Contractors Individual such as • Workers • Supervisors • Foreman • Engineers • Architect • Managers The mode of communication can be through the following: WSH committee meetings One of the key functions of the WSH committee meetings is to promote safe conduct of work. One-on-one discussions This is a briefing conducted by the immediate supervisor to his subordinate. These meeting would be appropriate to tackle specific work groups or trades. Small group meetings Meeting is an assembly of individuals to debate certain issues and take decisions. • Raise safety concerns. etc. Examples of meetings include WSH committee meetings. Relevant parties feedback sessions Feedback sessions help to gather feedback from the employees on the control measures implemented. • Make safety recommendations. Employees should be encouraged to: • Ask questions. It allows for dialogue between the members. coordination meetings. Employees can provide suggestions about how to solve WSH problems. or when there is a significant change in work practices or procedures.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Whenever the risk assessment is revised. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. • Be a part of the problem-solving process.

• • • • • Manpower .the availability of time in terms of implementation with respect to the production schedule considering the allocated resources. Space allocation . This can be done by maintaining an updated list of daily activities on site. evacuation.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Monitoring The implementation of the control measures should be monitored through one of the following: Schedule of implementation An action plan should be prepared to implement the measures. Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. Regular review of the risk assessment plan is critical.g getting the necessary equipment such as training equipment.e. space. For organizations with established WSH management systems. The effectiveness of the control measures should be evaluated using the following criteria: Reduced WSH risks The implementation of the corrective and preventive action would translate to better risk controls bringing about a reduction in risk levels. The risk assessment team should undertake the same 3 steps (hazard identification. While employers are required to review their plans every three years. Resources needed Management should ensure that adequate resources are available for the implementation of the risk controls. Work in progress The plan should be monitored regularly until all the measures are implemented. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. etc. a review should take place whenever: • New information on safety and health risks surfaces.e. instruments.g getting the necessary space for training. risk evaluation and risk control) when conducting a risk assessment review. For example from a medium risk to a low risk level. etc Financial . Robustness This indicates whether the corrective and preventive actions would be strong enough to withstand the shortcomings. including performance measurement and monitoring. Equipment and tools allocation . first aid. etc.allocating necessary competent persons to assist in the implementation such as trainers.setting aside a budget for safety to acquire the necessary manpower. Time . The plan should include a time line of implementation and responsibilities of persons implementing the safety and health control measures. Evaluation Regular auditing is required to ensure that risk control measures are functioning effectively. equipment. demonstration. • There are changes to the area of work and / or • After any accident / incident. WSH professionals. etc. The resources needed would be.0 153 Deleted: _ . the adequacy of resources can be at least partially evaluated by comparing the planned achievement of WSH objectives with actual results. The new risk levels should be evaluated and the risk assessments updated accordingly. Deleted: ¶ Resources can be considered adequate if they are sufficient to carry out the risk control programmes and activities.

This would reflect the company’s training status. Reproducibility This indicates whether the actions can be repeated at other areas with the same robustness and reliability. Any side-effects • Interference with productivity – This evaluates if the actions reduces the productivity level and cause a loss in business. Ease of use This indicates whether the actions are user friendly and thereby resulting in better compliance levels. This would reflect the outstanding action items and the corresponding action officer. effectiveness of training. the duration of training. Deleted: ¶ ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. which may include: Tracking the implementation of corrective / preventive actions The implementation of corrective / preventive actions can be tracked using appropriate action items tracking methods which include computer programmes e. This can be further be verified through inspection and document reviews. • Creating hazards elsewhere – This evaluates whether the actions may bring down the risk level but may pose as a hazards somewhere else. The list of safe work procedures would reflect the update.g through records. e. Reporting The management should be updated on the status of implementation of control measurement. Risk assessment register – The non-conformances would require a review in the risk assessments and hence require to be updated. Training records – Employees have to be trained upon changes to risk assessments. The records would indicate the number of personnel trained in a particular training programme and how many more have to be trained. etc or manual e. The closure of actions items can be informed by person in charge through one-on-one basis or through the consultation and communication process. relevant personnel should be assigned to close the corrective / preventive actions. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. Operator could be missing one step under the SOPs. etc.Depending on the area of control such as process and physical areas. The risk assessment register would reflect the update.g. types of training attended. Outlook.0 154 Deleted: _ . Safe work procedures – Changes in risk assessment would require a review in the safe work procedures and hence require to be updated. which the organisation may not prefer.g Microsoft Access. etc.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Reliability This indicates whether the corrective and preventive actions would fail from the required norms due to certain factors such as environmental conditions. The time frame for the completion of the corrective / preventive actions should be agreed as well. The training records would indicate the number of persons trained. Persons affected by the non-conformances or audit findings Persons responsible for taking corrective and/or preventive actions .

5.0 155 Deleted: _ . 8.30 minutes Choose any 10 risk controls and identify how would you communicate the following to the various stakeholders? S/No Risk Controls Communication Ways to monitor Evaluate effectiveness 1. 2. 4. 3. 6. 9. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2. 7. Deleted: ¶ ¶ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd. 10.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ ¶ L Learning Activity 7 Group Exercise .

gov. Websites • Ministry of Manpower – http://www.sg/workplace-safetyhealth/Pages/default.0 156 Deleted: _ .mom. ISBN 1566702976. Handbook of OSHA Construction Safety and Health. All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide References Texts • Reese.wshc. Lewis Publishers. (1999). Charles D.sg/wps/portal/resources?action=infoStopHome&openMenu=-1 Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.aspx • Workplace Safety and Health Council https://www.

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0 158 . All rights reserved LHUB_WSH Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries_v2.Manage WSH Risks in Construction Industries Learner’s Guide Deleted: _ Copyright © 2012 NTUC Learning Hub Pte Ltd.

steam engine or internal combustion engine 5/16/2012 4:11:00 PM Page 10: [3] Deleted Kader Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004 Page 21: [4] Deleted Kader Factories with scaffolds 5/16/2012 4:24:00 PM Category of offender Individual persons Maximum Fine $200. ship in harbour. premises within airport All workplaces Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act All workplaces Factories Factories Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act Workplaces covered under the First Schedule of the Act Factories WSH (Incident Reporting) Regulations 2006 WSH (Risk Management) Regulations 2006 WSH (Composition of Offences) Regulations 2006 WSH (Transitional Provision) Regulations 2006 WSH (Offences and Penalties) (Subsidiary Legislation under Section 67(14)) Regulations 2006 WSH (Registration of Factories) Regulations 2008 WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Committees) Regulations 2008 WSH (Abrasive Blasting) Regulations 2008 WSH (Explosive Powered Tools) Regulations 2009 WSH (Confined Spaces) Regulations 2009 WSH (Safety and Health Management System and Auditing) Regulations 2009 Page 10: [2] Deleted Kader 5/16/2012 4:11:00 PM Factories (Medical Examinations) Regulations Factories (Noise) Regulations Factories (Operations of Cranes) Regulations Factories (Persons-In-Charge) Regulations Factories with exposure to certain chemicals.Page 9: [1] Deleted Kader 5/16/2012 4:09:00 PM Title WSH (Workplace Safety and Health Officers) Regulations 2007 WSH (General Provisions) Regulations 2006 WSH (Construction) Regulations 2007 WSH (First Aid) Regulations 2006 Applicable to Factories Factories and owners of pressure vessels All worksites Factories. mobile crane and tower crane Factories with steam boiler.000 Maximum Imprisonment 2 years Conditions Either or both . excessive noise. compressed air Factories with excessive noise Factories involving crane. laboratories.

and cease to be an approved scaffold contractor on the expiry of its registration as an approved scaffold contractor as if these Regulations had not been made Page 70: [6] Deleted Owner 5/21/2012 1:14:00 PM R 3 Application Apply to any factoryworkplace in which any scaffold is erected.000 st 1 conviction $1. installation.000 2 years Either or both $1 million Page 70: [5] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:19:00 PM R 63 .000 nd 2 or subsequent conviction $2. to shall ensure that the scaffold is used by the employee in accordance with these Regulations. and co-operate with the occupier and the person who employs or engages him in ensuring that the requirements of these Regulations are complied with. repositioning. . is registered as an approved scaffold contractor shall be deemed to be an approved scaffold contractor under these Regulations. S 19/2004) are revoked. maintained.Savings and transitional provision Notwithstanding the revocation of the Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004. altered or dismantled by an approved scaffold contractor and in accordance with these Regulations. alteration or dismantling of any scaffold shall — ensure that every provision of these Regulations relating to his role is complied with. R 64 . re-positioned. No. The approved scaffold contractor and every person who engages an approved scaffold contractor shall ensure that the requirements of these Regulations relating to the erection. whose employee uses any scaffold or part of a scaffold to perform work. repositioning. use. installed.N. every person who.Revocation The Factories (Scaffolds) Regulations 2004 (G. installation. repaired or dismantled. Every person employed or engaged in connection with the erection. re-positioned. used.000 Maximum Imprisonment Conditions $400. immediately before 10th September 2011. installed. alteration or dismantling of the scaffold are complied with.Category of offender Corporate body Workers For failure to use personal protective equipment or misuse of any safety appliance Repeat offenders nd For a 2 or subsequent Individual conviction for the same offence that causes the death of Corporate another person body Maximum Fine $500. R 4 Obligation under Regulations The occupier shall ensure that the scaffold is erected. The employer. altered.

Where the height of the scaffold extends beyond the uppermost permanent floor by 2 metres or more. and suitable and safe for the purpose for which it is intended. In the case of a timber scaffold. Every scaffold erector and suspended scaffold rigger shall be provided with a safety harness attached to a shock absorbing device and use the safety harness provided. around the edge of the building at every uppermost permanent floor which is under construction. good construction and adequate strength. installed. re-positioned. at least 500 millimetres wide. when completed and excluding the handrails and their supports at the uppermost lift of the scaffold. scaffold erectors and suspended scaffold riggers. as far as practicable. altered or dismantled by a qualified suspended scaffold rigger. be erected such that it precedes the construction of the uppermost permanent floor of the building by not less than 1 metre above that floor. No scaffold exceeding 4 metres or suspended scaffold shall be erected. Every scaffold shall be properly maintained and every part thereof shall be fixed. re-positioned. free from patent defects. R 7 Scaffold erectors and suspended scaffold riggers Every suspended scaffold shall be erected. installed. altered or dismantled by a qualified scaffold erector. 220 kgf per square metre. R 10 Work platforms Work platforms shall be provided at any place of work which does not afford a proper and secure foothold and in the case of a building under construction. re-positioned. 75 kgf per square metre or in any other case. installed. planked or decked and if it is used to provide footing for not more than 3 persons and support tools and materials not exceeding 25 kgf per bay of a scaffold. except a tower scaffold or a trestle scaffold. repositioned. re-positioned.R 5 Approved scaffold contractor No scaffold (other than a tower scaffold and a trestle scaffold) shall be erected. altered or dismantled except by an approved scaffold contractor. altered or dismantled except under the immediate supervision of a scaffold supervisor. not more than 2 persons shall work on a work platform in . installed. Every work platform shall be closely boarded. any accidental displacement. installed. as far as practicable. is less than 4 metres in height. A work platform and any support thereof shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer where the work platform is used to provide footing for more than 2 persons in each bay or to support tools or materials exceeding 25 kgf in each bay. R 6 Scaffold supervisor The scaffold supervisor shall be a qualified person and ensure that the scaffold is erected. Every scaffold exceeding 4 metres shall be erected. R 9 Scaffold to precede permanent floor Every scaffold erected at a building under construction shall. Every work platform provided shall cover the lift of a scaffold throughout its entire length. secured or placed in position so as to prevent. The vertical distance between any 2 work platforms shall not exceed 4 metres. R 8 Construction and materials Every scaffold and every member or component thereof shall be of sound material. An approved scaffold contractor shall employ or engage only qualified scaffold supervisors. The maximum loading for persons and materials on any work platform in any bay of a scaffold shall be in the case of a timber scaffold. the scaffold shall be adequately supported to prevent collapse. altered or dismantled in accordance with these Regulations. Work platforms shall be provided at intervals of not less than every alternate lift of any scaffold. This does not apply to a scaffold which.

No person shall be permitted on a scaffold that is damaged or weakened except for a scaffold erector who is carrying out repairs thereto. R 18 Toe-boards and guard-rails Every side of a work platform or workplace from which a person is liable to fall more than 2 metres shall be provided with toe-boards and 2 or more guard-rails. In the case of a metal scaffold. Where a metal scaffold is used to support more than 4 persons in any bay. the scaffold shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. In the case of a metal scaffold. R 15 Repair of damaged scaffold Any scaffold and any member or component thereof that has been damaged or weakened shall be immediately repaired. planks or decking used in the construction of work platforms shall — be of uniform thickness. where practicable. which may endanger the safety of any person shall be removed from the scaffold. R 11 Boards. Any board or plank which forms part of a work platform shall project beyond its end support to a distance of not less than 50 millimetres and not more than 4 times the thickness of the board or plank unless it is effectively secured to prevent tipping or uplift. be installed within the scaffold. planks and decking All boards. Stairs or ladders provided shall. The distance between a work platform and any building or other structure shall be as narrow as practicable and shall not exceed 300 millimetres. R 12 Number of persons allowed in each bay In the case of a timber scaffold. extend at least 600 millimetres beyond the end of the wall or work area. as far as practicable. be capable of supporting a load of 670 kgf per square metre with due regard to the spacing of the supports. sound material and adequate strength to withstand the impact during the course of work. R 17 Stairs and ladders Stairs or ladders shall be provided to enable persons to gain access from one level of any scaffold to another. and be flushed along their lengths and secured. Adequate safety measures shall be taken to ensure the safety of the scaffold erector carrying out the repairs. placed on the inside of the uprights and secured so as to prevent accidental displacement. R 13 Scaffold to be free of substances which endanger safety Any material. Signboards stating the maximum permissible weight of tools and materials and the maximum number of persons permissible on each bay shall be prominently displayed at suitable locations on the work platforms. The toe-boards and guardrails provided shall be — of good construction. R 16 Opening only for access There shall be no opening in any work platform except to allow access to that work platform. not more than 8 persons shall be allowed in any bay. R 14 Work at end of wall or work area Where work has to be done at the end of a wall or work area. not more than 4 persons shall work on a work platform in any bay. the work platform at such wall or work area shall. including concrete waste or other debris.any bay. Any metal decking which forms part of a work platform shall be provided with non-skid surfaces. and . not more than 4 persons shall be allowed in any bay.

The uppermost guard-rail shall be at least one metre above the work platform or workplace for which the guard-rail is provided. The foot of a standard of any frame or modular scaffold shall be secured to a base plate so that it does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface. The joints in bracing members shall be lapped or spliced. A transverse bracing system shall be provided at each end of the scaffold and at intervals of not more than 10 bays. spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 1. the soil shall be well-consolidated. Transverse bracing system may be omitted where vertical transverse frames are provided for the full height of the scaffold and at each pair of standards and the frames are of a type approved by MOM. Every frame scaffold shall be provided with horizontal bracings or lacings at intervals of not more than every 5 lifts. the provision of a sole plate under the standard shall not be necessary. R 20 Bracing Every scaffold shall be effectively braced by means of longitudinal and transverse bracing systems which shall extend from the base to the top of the scaffold. R 22 Foundation of scaffold A scaffold shall be constructed on structures or foundations of adequate strength. The ledgers of a metal scaffold shall be spaced at vertical intervals of not more than 2 metres. A standard shall be placed on an adequate and secured sole plate in order that the foot of the standard does not rest directly on the ground or supporting surface so as to prevent any vertical displacement of the foot.5 metres apart shall be used unless its use has been approved by the MOM in writing. Longitudinal bracing members shall be continuous and fixed at approximately 45° to the horizontal. and securely fastened to the standards. as far as practicable. the load thereon shall be evenly . R 21 Transoms Transoms shall be located at or near the intersections of standards and ledgers. No metal scaffold with standards spaced more than 2. The vertical distance between any 2 adjacent guard-rails or any work platform or workplace and the guard-rail immediately above it shall not exceed 600 millimetres. horizontal.5 metres apart in the case of a metal scaffold. R 19 Standards and ledgers The standards of a scaffold shall be — plumb where practicable. having regard to all the circumstances. fixed sufficiently close together to secure the stability of the scaffold. The height of toe-boards shall not be less than 90 millimetres. R 23 Scaffold not to be overloaded A scaffold shall not be overloaded and. Where the floor or supporting structure is of sufficient rigidity to evenly distribute the load imposed upon it by the standard without causing any vertical displacement of the standard. Every lift shall be crossed by at least one longitudinal bracing member in every 10 metres length of the scaffold.8 metres. There shall be no cavity under the sole plate immediately below any standard. and spaced not more than 2. In the case of a scaffold exceeding 15 metres in height or being erected on poorly drained soil.5 metres apart in the case of a timber scaffold. spaced not more than 1. The ledgers of a timber scaffold shall be — as far as possible. Where a scaffold is to be founded on soil.placed so as to prevent the fall of any person or material. base plates shall bear upon sole plates of strength not less than 670 kgf per square metre and of a length suitable to distribute the load.

No person shall use any scaffold unless a notice or label is displayed at the designated access point indicating that the scaffold is safe for use with the exception of scaffold erector who is carrying out any repair on a scaffold or a scaffold supervisor who is carrying out any inspection of a scaffold. This shall not apply to a tower scaffold. before such use. and since exposure to weather conditions likely to have affected its strength or stability or to have displaced any part. The notice or label shall be in languages or signs easily understood by the persons and displayed at every designated access point. the portion from which the ties are removed shall be dismantled unless adequate measures are taken to ensure the stability of the scaffold. When any defect on a scaffold is discovered by the first-mentioned employer. R 27 Inspection of scaffold Except for trestle scaffold. When any material is transferred to or from a scaffold. R 24 Scaffold used by persons employed by different employers Where a scaffold or part thereof is to be used by or on behalf of an employer other than the employer for whose employee it was first erected. take immediate steps to satisfy himself that the provisions of these Regulations have been complied with. R 29 Overlay and screening nets Overlay or screening nets shall be used to envelope any timber or metal scaffold which is erected on the outside of a building. the first-mentioned employer shall. R 25 Designated access point for scaffold Every scaffold shall have at least one designated access point from which a person may gain access onto the scaffold. scaffold shall be inspected by a scaffold supervisor — within the 7 days immediately preceding the use of the scaffold. . he shall notify the occupier of the factoryworkplace in which the scaffold is installed and the occupier shall take immediate steps to rectify the defect. as the case may be. R 26 Measures against electrical hazards All practicable measures shall be taken to protect any person working on a scaffold from electric shock by electrical wires or equipment. and without prejudice to any such obligations imposed upon him by these Regulations. immediately after such inspection. the material shall be moved or deposited without imposing any violent shock. is liable to be approached for the purpose of use. display a notice or label indicating whether the scaffold is safe for use or otherwise.distributed. R 30 Erection and dismantling No scaffold or part thereof which is partly erected or dismantled shall be allowed to remain in such a condition that it is capable of being used unless — the scaffold complies with these Regulations. or a prominent warning notice in languages or signs understood by all persons indicating that the scaffold or part thereof is not to be used is affixed near any point at which the scaffold or part. Where ties of a scaffold to a permanent structure have to be removed. R 28 Labelling and marking of scaffold The scaffold supervisor who carries out the inspection of a scaffold shall. All designated access points shall be clearly marked with a sign or label and made safe for use by any person. The scaffold supervisor shall enter the results of any inspection into a register.

at intermediate spacing of not more than 3 bays or 7.R 31 Scaffold and other supports designed by professional engineer No scaffold or support designed by a professional engineer shall be used unless — the scaffold or support. such spigots. whichever is the lesser. R 36 Spigots. R 34 Ties for metal scaffold Every alternate lift and every uppermost lift of an independent tied metal scaffold shall be effectively tied to the building or structure by means of ties. R 37 Adjustable base plates Where an adjustable base plate is used on a standard and the adjustment exceeds 150 millimetres. the deviation from the perpendicular shall not exceed 15°. the standard shall be tied longitudinally to the adjacent standard or standards at a . Ties other than tie tubes and couplers shall not be used. jointpins or sleeves Spigots.000 kgf applied in either direction along the length of the tie. has been examined after installation by the professional engineer and a certificate stating that the scaffold or support is safe for use has been obtained from the professional engineer. as the case may be. The occupier shall take action to rectify the defect before the scaffold or support is used. as the case may be. R 33 Metal scaffold to be constructed in accordance with design and drawings of professional engineer Every metal scaffold exceeding 30 metres in height in any factoryworkplace other than in a shipyard shall be constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. jointpins or sleeves.5 metres apart. Metal Scaffolds R 32 Approved metal scaffold No metal scaffold shall be used unless it is of a type approved by MOM. and the scaffold or support.6 millimetres. Every tie tube shall be perpendicular to the longitudinal plane of the scaffold and where this is not practicable. Ties shall be located no further than one bay from the ends of the scaffold and thereafter. jointpins or sleeves shall be used to connect one standard to another. jointpins or sleeves are used to locate and connect one standard to another. has been inspected by a professional engineer at least once every 3 months to ensure that it is safe for use. jointpins or sleeves shall permit full bearing over the whole bearing area at the ends of the standards and have such external or internal dimensions that the maximum difference of mating diameters in any part between the spigot. Sleeves shall cover the end of the standard by at least 70 millimetres. jointpin or sleeve and the other standard does not exceed 1. R 35 Transoms for modular or tube-and-coupler scaffolds A modular scaffold or tube-and-coupler scaffold shall be provided with transverse horizontal members or transoms for each lift. When the professional engineer discovers any defect in a scaffold or support. he shall immediately inform the occupier of the factoryworkplace in which the scaffold or support is installed. Where spigots. The standards shall be securely held if they are connected by the spigots. a copy of the design and drawings certified by the professional engineer and the certificate are kept available at the factoryworkplace. Spigots and jointpins shall engage in the ends of the standards by at least 70 millimetres. Every tie shall be capable of withstanding a force of 1.

Every standard shall be at least 50 millimetres diameter throughout its length. and shall not be painted or treated in any way so that defects in the wood cannot be seen easily. or where such fixing is not reasonably practicable. Suspended scaffold R 45 Suspended scaffold The outriggers or other supports are — of adequate length and strength.8 metres in length with a minimum of 6 turns per strip. R 38 Frame or modular scaffolds to be erected in one plane Frame or modular scaffolds shall be erected such that lifts are horizontal and in one plane. the timber scaffold shall be tied to a building using ties which are constructed and installed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. Transverse and longitudinal braces of timber scaffold shall be securely placed and lashed to the standards. and provided with rope guards of adequate strength at the outer ends to prevent the ropes from being displaced from the outriggers except when the primary suspension ropes are suspended from the outer end of the outriggers or other supports by means which preclude the displacement of the ropes from their points of suspension . Ties made up of wires shall not be used. No timber scaffold with a single row of standards shall be erected or used. Timber Scaffolds R 41 Timber scaffold Timber used for any scaffold — shall be of a suitable quality. R 39 Cross brace not to be used as means of access or egress No cross brace on a frame scaffold shall be used as a means of access or egress. Timber used for any scaffold shall comprise Bintangor rollers or other species of timber rollers which are of similar strength. securely fixed to a building.height of not more than 460 millimetres above the supporting surface by right angle or swivel couplers. Where it is impracticable to install any tie. The members or components of a timber scaffold shall be lashed using rattan strips or other material not less than 1. R 44 Dismantling of timber scaffold A timber scaffold shall be dismantled within a period of 9 months after erection. Every timber scaffold shall be securely tied and braced at the corners and rigidly anchored to the building at regular close intervals. adequately and securely anchored at the inner ends. shall have the bark completely stripped off. Every timber roller used as a ledger or horizontal bracing. Each tie shall pass through an opening or hole in the wall in the building and be secured at a right angle to another pole which shall be fixed firmly inside the building. R 43 Ties for timber scaffold A timber scaffold shall be tied to a building by horizontal ties. durability and resilience as Bintangor rollers. R 42 Construction of timber scaffold Every timber scaffold shall not exceed 15 metres in height. ship or other structure by anchor bolts or other similar means. shall be in good condition. transom or putlog shall be at least 38 millimetres diameter at the tip. properly installed and supported.

planks or decking used as platforms are capable of supporting a load of 670 kgf per square metre with due regard to the spacing of the supports. The outriggers or overhead supports shall be spaced at not more than 3. The platform is at least 500 millimetres and not more than 750 millimetres in width unless measures have been taken to prevent transverse tilting of the platform.2 metres apart measured from the longitudinal centre line of one outrigger or support to such centre of the adjacent outrigger or support. and in the case of winches. The climbers or winches have been opened for inspection and servicing at least once every 12 months to ensure that the drive mechanisms are in safe working order. suitable quality and in good condition. and kept taut. The climber or winches have been properly maintained. adequate strength. and records of such inspection and servicing shall be kept for each climber and winch. unless prior written approval has been obtained form the Ministry of Manpower. Where wire ropes are used for supporting the work platform of a suspended scaffold. The suspension ropes are galvanised wires of good construction. sound material. R 46 Suspended scaffold raised or lowered by winches or climbers No suspended scaffold raised or lowered by winches or climbers shall be used unless: It has been designed and constructed in accordance with a Standard or Code acceptable to the Ministry of Manpower. Where a suspended scaffold has been re-positioned or shifted from one location to another within the same factoryworkplace. R 47 Gear for suspension of scaffold Every chain. R 48 Overloading of suspended scaffold . there are at least 2 turns of the rope remaining on each winch drum. the suspended scaffold and its attachments shall be installed in accordance to the design and drawings endorsed by a professional engineer. to the winch drums. Any chain. the design of the suspended scaffold shall be endorsed by a professional engineer or a third party inspection agency approved by the Ministry of Manpower. Ropes shall be capable of being lowered to the ground or floor. The edge of the platform is as close as practicable to the work area and in no case shall the distance between the platform and the work area be more than 460 millimetres. approximately vertical. Every scaffold suspended by means of chains or ropes shall be secured to prevent undue horizontal movement while it is used as a work platform. adequate strength and free from patent defects. Boards. Ropes are securely attached to the outriggers or other supports and if winch drums are used. rope or metal tube used for the suspension of a scaffold other than a suspended scaffold shall be — properly and securely fastened to safe anchorage points and to the scaffold ledgers or other main supporting members. positioned so as to ensure stability of the scaffold. the outriggers or other overhead supports should be constructed in accordance with the design of a professional engineer.The points of suspension are at adequate horizontal distances from the building face or any other structure. The winches or climbers shall be synchronised so that the work platform of the suspended scaffold is maintained level at all times. In the case of a suspended scaffold manufactured outside Singapore. Wire ropes used to suspend the work platform shall be vertical and taut. It has been tested by an authorized examiner after installation (thereafter it is tested by an authorized examiner at least once in every period of six months). rope or lifting gear used for the suspension of a scaffold shall be of sound material.

No person shall permit. winch or mechanism used for raising or lowering a suspended scaffold. which shall be attached to a secure anchorage at all times. instruct or direct any person under 18 years of age to operate the suspended scaffold R 53 Duties of persons in suspended scaffold Every person in a suspended scaffold shall wear a safety harness. sand. R 55 Safety device for suspended scaffold Suspended scaffold should be provided with automatic safety device mounted on safety wire rope at each suspension point. The maximum number of persons which is allowed to be in the suspended scaffold. This shall not apply if the platform is supported on 2 independent suspension wire ropes at or near each end such that in the event of a failure of one suspension wire rope. a notice in languages or signs understood by any person in the cradle: The safe working load of the suspended scaffold. or a system is incorporated which operates automatically to support the platform and its load in the event of a failure of the primary suspension rope. and Notice of the above to include a reminder to the persons in the cradle to attach their safety harnesses to secure anchorage at all times. climber or any part of the mechanism. R 54 Notice in suspended scaffold There shall be prominently displayed in the cradle of every suspended scaffold. R 52 Age limit of operator No person under the age of 18 years shall operate a climber. which affords a safe means of access or egress. clay. winch. Where the height of a tower scaffold. Every portable counter-weight shall have its weight permanently and distinctly stamped. the other wire rope is capable of sustaining the weight of the platform and its load and preventing it from tilting. R 50 Weight of counter-balance Counter-weight should be at least 3 times the weight required to balance the weight of the suspended scaffold when fully loaded plus the load of the projecting part of the outriggers and suspending ropes. R 49 Suspended scaffold counter-balanced by counter-weights Water or other liquids. Tower Scaffolds R 56 Tower scaffold The height of a tower scaffold shall not exceed 8 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. earth. The safety device should be able to support the platform in the event of the failure of the suspension rope. R 51 Prevention of sway The work platform of a suspended scaffold shall be securely fastened to the building or structure in such a manner and at such intervals so as to prevent the platform from swaying.A suspended scaffold shall not be loaded beyond the safe working load at any time unless during testing by authorized examiner. engraved or embossed. Every counter-weight shall be securely attached at the inner end of the outrigger to prevent any accidental displacement or tampering by any person. chippings or other aggregates should riot be used as counter-weights. No person shall enter or leave the cradle of a suspended scaffold unless it is at rest on the ground or at any level. excluding the handrails and their supports at the .

if necessary. adequately weighted at the base. No tower scaffold shall be moved except by applying force at or near the base.uppermost lift of the scaffold. exceeds 3 times the lesser of the base dimensions of the scaffold. Any tower scaffold which can be moved on casters shall be — constructed with due regard to its stability and. the scaffold shall be effectively tied to the building or a rigid structure so as to prevent toppling. and provided with casters having a positive locking device to hold the scaffold in position. used only on a firm and even surface. Page 70: [7] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [7] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [8] Formatted Unknown Font color: Red Page 70: [9] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [10] Formatted Unknown Font color: Red Page 70: [11] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [11] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [12] Formatted Unknown Font color: Red Page 70: [13] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 70: [13] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM . No more than 2 work platforms shall be used on a tower scaffold at any time. No person shall remain on a tower scaffold when it is being moved.

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Page 70: [69] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 1:22:00 PM Font color: Red Page 71: [70] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:09:00 PM Other scaffolds R 57 Scaffold and work platform erected on cantilever or jib support “cantilever or jib support” includes any structure. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a suspended scaffold. no trestle scaffold shall be constructed with more than 3 tiers or used if it has a work platform more than 4. Italic Page 113: [73] Formatted Kader 5/24/2012 2:37:00 PM Normal Page 113: [74] Formatted Kader 5/24/2012 2:37:00 PM . R 60 Trestle scaffold Unless constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer.5 metres above the ground or floor or other surfaces upon which the scaffold is erected. fixed and anchored on the support to prevent displacement. and the cantilever or jib support has outriggers of adequate length and cross section and is constructed in accordance with the design and drawings of a professional engineer. Page 113: [71] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font: Italic Page 113: [72] Formatted Kader 5/24/2012 2:37:00 PM Font: Arial. including a bracket or beam. that projects beyond a fulcrum or point of attachment and that is not supported directly from the ground or floor below. 10 pt. Overhanging eaves gutters shall not be used as supports for any part of a scaffold unless they have been specially designed as walkways and are of adequate strength. No trestle scaffold shall be erected on a scaffold platform unless the width of the platform is such as to leave sufficient clear space for the transport of materials and the trestles or uprights are firmly attached to the platform and adequately braced to prevent displacement. No cantilever or jib support shall be used unless — the scaffold is adequately supported. Not Bold. No work platform resting on bearers let into a wall at one end and which does not have other support shall be used unless the bearers pass through the wall and are of adequate strength and securely fastened on the other side of the wall. R 58 Scaffold supported by buildings or other structures No part of a building or other structure shall be used as support for any part of a scaffold unless it is sufficiently stable and of sound material and sufficient strength to afford safe support.

A person may drive a mobile crane in a . derricking the jib or by any other means not solely involving a travelling motion of the crane. either by slewing the machine. "mobile crane" means a crane mounted on a truck. 104. shall be deemed to be registered or approved under regulations 7 and 22 of these Regulations respectively. and such registration or approval shall expire on the day it would have expired if these Regulations had not been enacted R 2 Definitions "crane" means a machine incorporating an elevated structural member or jib beneath which suspended loads may be moved vertically (whether upwards or downwards) or horizontally or both. 10 pt Page 113: [75] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:36:00 PM The Factories (Operation of Cranes) Regulations (Cap. Rg 10) are revoked. R 29 . "tower crane" means a crane which has a vertical or near vertical tower designed to be free standing up to a height and includes any crane of a type shown in the Second Schedule. crawler or on wheels and includes any crane of a type shown in the First Schedule. immediately before 10th September 2011. 104. R 3 Application These Regulations shall apply to any Page 113: [76] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [77] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [77] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [78] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [79] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:36:00 PM in which a crane.Savings and transitional provision Every person who.Font: Arial. R 4 Registration of crane operators No person shall operate a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is registered as a crane operator and is the holder of a valid certificate. Rg 10). mobile crane or tower crane is employed. is a crane operator registered under the repealed Factories (Operation of Cranes) Regulations (Cap. or an approved crane contractor approved under the repealed Factories (Operation of Cranes) Regulations.

are safe for travel or any lifting operation. carry out operational tests on all limit switches under no load conditions before any lifting operation is carried out and shall enter the results of such tests in a log-book or log-sheet. he shall report this to the lifting supervisor. including pulling or dragging a load. shall before the start of every workshift. R 16 Duties of crane operator Any person operating a crane -shall not carry out any lifting operation unless a lifting supervisor is present or has approved the carrying out of such operation. shall not manoeuvre or hold any suspended load over any public road or public area unless that road or area has been cordoned off. in particular the ground surface on which a mobile crane is to be operated. . shall ascertain whether the ground conditions. shall report any failure or malfunction of the crane to the lifting supervisor and shall make an appropriate entry in the log-book or log-sheet of the crane. A person may operate a lorry loader comprising of an articulator arm fitted onto a lorry which is used primarily for the purpose of transporting materials or goods.Page 113: [80] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [81] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [81] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [82] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [82] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [83] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [84] Deleted Kader 5/24/2012 2:36:00 PM if he is the holder of a driving licence issued under the Road Traffic Act (Cap. 276) authorising him to drive a mobile crane of a class or description permitted by the licence. shall not use the crane for any operation for which it is not intended. shall not engage in any act or manoeuvre which is not in accordance with safe and sound practice. shall ensure that any outrigger when it is required is fully extended and secured. and if he is of the opinion that it is not safe for travel or any lifting operation.

R 18 Appointment and duties of rigger No person shall rig up loads for any lifting operation by a mobile crane or tower crane unless he is a rigger appointed by an occupier. repair. he shall report this immediately to the lifting supervisor. unless the repair affects the safe operation of the crane. ensure that the load to be lifted is secure. shall not hoist any object if he is unable to ascertain the weight of the object. ascertain the weight of the load which is to be lifted and inform the crane operator of the weight of the load. An occupier shall appoint a rigger before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out. An approved crane contractor shall obtain a manufacturer's manual which contains instructions on the safe procedures for the installation. stable and balanced. repair. and report any defect in the lifting gear to the lifting supervisor. Where the manual is not available. shall not hoist any load unless he has received a clear signal from a signalman when this is required under regulation 19. an approved crane contractor shall install. ensure that only proper lifting gears are used in conjunction with the sling. repair. adequate strength and free from patent defect. A rigger shall be attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a rigger. alter or dismantle a mobile crane or a tower crane unless he is an approved crane contractor. and shall not operate a mobile crane or a tower crane within 3 metres of any live overhead power line. sound and suitable material. This shall not apply to the installation or dismantling of a fly jib and to the repair of any non-load bearing part of a crane. A rigger shall -check the slings to be used for slinging the loads to ensure that the slings are of good construction. No person shall be appointed as a rigger unless he has successfully completed an approved training course. alteration. repaired. testing and dismantling of mobile crane or tower crane No person shall install. place adequate padding at the edges of the load which come in contact with the sling so as to prevent the sling from being damaged. bricks or tiles. alteration and dismantling of the mobile crane or tower crane and ensure that the crane is installed. ensure that any loose load including stones. ensure that an adequate number of legs of the sling are used and that the slinging angle is correct so as to prevent the sling from being overloaded during the hoisting. is placed in a receptacle to prevent the load or part thereof from falling during the lifting operation. R 17 Installation. The owner of any mobile crane or tower crane shall ensure that the crane is tested and certified safe by an authorised examiner for the operations for which it is intended before use. shall not hoist any load if there is any obstruction in the path of manoeuvre and if there is any such obstruction. A signalman shall be attired in such a way as would distinctively identify him as a signalman.shall ensure that any stationary truck mounted or wheel mounted crane is adequately and securely blocked while it is on a slope. altered or dismantled in accordance with the instructions contained in such manual. repair. alter or dismantle any mobile crane or tower crane under the immediate supervision of an authorised examiner. A signalman shall -- . No person shall be appointed as a signalman unless he has successfully completed an approved training course. R 19 Appointment and duties of signalman An occupier shall appoint a signalman before any lifting operation involving the use of any mobile crane or tower crane is carried out.

R 20 Appointment and duties of lifting supervisor An occupier shall appoint a lifting supervisor before any lifting operation involving the use of any crane. appointed riggers and appointed signalmen participate in any lifting operation involving the use of a mobile crane or a tower crane. ensure that the ground conditions are safe for any lifting operation to be performed by any mobile crane. and if any unsatisfactory or unsafe conditions are reported to him by any crane operator or rigger. A lifting supervisor shall -co-ordinate all lifting activities. ensure that there is a set of safe lifting procedures for any lifting operation by a mobile crane or a tower crane. unless he is present to supervise a lifting operation. ensure that only registered crane operators. brief all crane operators. Page 113: [85] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [86] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [87] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [88] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [88] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [89] Formatted Owner 5/22/2012 12:30:00 PM Font color: Red Page 113: [90] Formatted Kader 5/17/2012 2:07:00 PM . riggers and signalmen on the safe lifting procedures referred to in sub-paragraph (d). take such measures to rectify the unsatisfactory or unsafe condition or otherwise ensure that any lifting operation is carried out safely. and give correct and clear signals to guide the crane operator in the manoeuvre of the load safely to its destination.ensure or verify with the rigger that the load is properly rigged up before he gives a clear signal to the crane operator to lift the load. No person shall be appointed as a lifting supervisor for any lifting operation involving the use of a mobile crane or tower crane unless he has successfully completed an approved training course and relevant experience in lifting operations for at least one year. mobile crane or tower crane is carried out.

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