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DOI 10.1002/mnfr.201200735

Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2013, 57, 802–823

REVIEW

Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects
¨ Birgit A. Rumpold and Oliver K. Schluter
Department of Horticultural Engineering, Quality and Safety of Food and Feed, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim, Potsdam, Germany Insects, a traditional food in many parts of the world, are highly nutritious and especially rich in proteins and thus represent a potential food and protein source. A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of various edible insects as derived from literature is given and the risks and benefits of entomophagy are discussed. Although the data were subject to a large variation, it could be concluded that many edible insects provide satisfactorily with energy and protein, meet amino acid requirements for humans, are high in MUFA and/or PUFA, and rich in several micronutrients such as copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorous, selenium, and zinc as well as riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, and in some cases folic acid. Liabilities of entomophagy include the possible content of allergenic and toxic substances as well as antinutrients and the presence of pathogens. More data are required for a thorough assessment of the nutritional potential of edible insects and proper processing and decontamination methods have to be developed to ensure food safety. Keywords: Alternative protein source / Edible insects / Entomophagy / Food safety / Nutritive value
Received: November 7, 2012 Revised: December 15, 2012 Accepted: December 19, 2012

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Introduction

Entomophagy, i.e., the consumption of insects, is traditionally practiced in many parts of the world. Generally, insects were found to be highly nutritious and to represent good sources of proteins, fat, minerals, vitamins, and energy [1]. For example, a 100 g of caterpillars (larvae of moth or butterfly) was found to provide with 76% of the daily required amount of proteins and with nearly 100% of the daily recommended amount of vitamins for humans [2]. The energy content of insects is on average comparable to meat (on a fresh weight basis) except for pork because of its particularly high fat content [3]. Taking into consideration that insects have a high fecundity, can be multivoltine, have a high feed conversion efficiency, low space requirement, and are omnivorous in addition to their nutritive value, edible
¨ Correspondence: Dr. Oliver K. Schluter, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering Potsdam-Bornim, Max-Eyth-Allee 100, 14469 Potsdam, Germany E-mail: oschlueter@atb-potsdam.de Fax: +49-331-5699-849 Abbreviations: nd, not detected; NFE, nitrogen-free extract; NPU, net protein utilization; PER, protein efficiency ratio; SFA, saturated fatty acids; UFA, unsaturated fatty acids
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insects can contribute to world food security and represent an interesting food and feed alternative, especially to meat products and fish meal. However, antinutritive components and harmful ingredients of insects should also be taken into account. It was reported that insects can cause allergic reactions [4] and can contain toxic substances [5]. The majority of the more than 2000 edible insect species (List of edible insects of the world (April 4, 2012), http://www.ent.wur. nl/UK/Edible+insects/Worldwide+species+list/) are collected in the wild up to today [6]. Therefore, little is known about their nutritive value. A compilation of nutrient compositions of edible insects in addition to amino acid spectra and fatty acid compositions as well as mineral and vitamin contents of edible insects derived from literature and an overview of the nutritive value and risks of edible insects are given in this paper.

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Nutrient composition

A compilation of 236 nutrient compositions of edible insects as published in literature (based on dry matter) is given in Table 1. Mean values of nutrient contents of all insects belonging to the same insect order are indicated in bold. If necessary, values were based on dry matter and converted
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Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2013, 57, 802–823

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Table 1. Nutritional composition [%] and energy content [kcal/100 g] of edible insects (based on dry matter)

Edible insects (based on dry matter)

Protein [%]

Fat [%]

Fiber [%]

NFE [%]

Ash [%]

Energy content [Kcal/100 g]

Origin

Blattodea (cockroaches) Blaberus sp.1 Periplaneta americana L.1 Periplaneta australasiae F .1 Coleoptera (beetles, grubs) Analeptes trifasciata2 Aplagiognathus spinosus3 Aplagiognathus spinosus4 Arophalus rusticus4 Callipogon barbatus3 Copris nevinsoni Waterhouse5 Cybister flavocicinctus4 Holotrichia sp.5 Homolepta sp.3 Metamasius spinolae4 Oileus rimator3 Oryctes boas (larvae)2 Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)6 Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)7 Oryctes rhinocerus Linnaeus (larvae)8 Passalus af. Punctiger3 Phyllophaga sp.4 Phyllophaga sp. (larvae)9 Rhantus atricolor4 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)2 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)10 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae; early stage)11 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae; late stage)11 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)6 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)12 Rhynchophorus phoenicis F (larvae)7 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (pupae)12 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (adult)11 Rhynchophorus phoenicis (adult)12 Scyphophorus acupunctatus3 Scyphophorus acupunctatus4 Scyphophorus acupunctatus (larvae)9 Tenebrio molitor (adult)13 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)14 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)15 Tenebrio molitor (adults)14 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)14 Tenebrio molitor (larvae)13 Tenebrio molitor (pupae)13 Tenebrio molitor16 Tenebrio molitor (Mighty MealysTM )16 Tesseratoma papillosa5 Trichoderes pini4 Zophobas morio16 Zophobas morio14 Diptera (flies) Copestylum haggi & anna3 Drosophila melanogaster16 Ephydra hians4 Eristalis sp.4 Musca domestica (larvae)17 Musca domestica L. (pupae)18

57.30 43.90 65.60 62.40 40.69 29.62 26.00 25.80 20.10 41.00 54.43 69.01 51.74 54.00 69.05 21.00 26.00 50.48 30.15 57.81 26.00 47.41 42.52 71.10 28.42 41.69 10.33 11.47 35.63 25.70 22.06 37.57 8.85 35.57 36.00 35.49 35.49 60.20 47.18 49.43 65.29 49.08 47.70 53.10 51.88 48.13 50.54 41.09 43.13 46.79 49.48 37.00 56.25 35.87 40.68 63.99 63.10

29.90 34.20 28.20 27.30 33.40 18.39 36.00 36.38 56.06 34.00 13.61 5.64 5.41 18.00 17.44 47.00 1.50 0.66 38.12 0.73 44.00 18.81 5.72 6.37 31.40 37.12 69.78 67.83 19.50 59.43 66.61 50.65 55.04 46.69 52.00 51.68 50.51 20.80 43.08 38.07 14.88 35.17 37.70 36.70 31.10 40.30 23.55 36.72 40.80 42.04 22.75 31.00 17.90 35.87 11.89 24.31 15.50

5.31 8.44 3.00 4.50 10.74 1.96 15.00 15.01 5.14 23.00 15.15 19.31 12.00 3.65 13.00 3.40

4.53 10.09 0.78 2.73 13.20 43.60 19.00 19.53 17.04 1.00 7.63 11.20 10.00 9.24 18.00 38.50 33.25 17.16 24.51 12.00 15.92 15.36 5.67 48.60 5.60 8.54 40.14 5.49 5.53 5.98 15.97 4.21 6.00 5.86 5.84 0.01 0.26 3.86 7.09 7.10 1.90

2.94 3.33 2.48 3.00 5.07 4.21 3.00 3.28 1.66 2.00 9.18 12.34 7.00 0.62 2.00 1.50 15.25 14.13 15.56 3.00 13.69 24.10 4.60 2.70 3.27 2.69 2.54 4.74 5.70 5.79 3.23 1.43 6.06 1.00 1.42 2.61 2.70 3.08 2.84 3.31 2.36 3.00 3.20 4.30 3.20 5.35 3.78 3.50 2.38 10.31 8.00 5.20 12.25 25.95 5.16 5.30 490.30

Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Nigeria; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Thailand; wild Mexico; wild Thailand; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Nigeria; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; wild Mexico; reared USA; reared USA; reared USA; reared USA; reared Mexico; reared Mexico; reared USA; reared USA; reared Thailand; wild Mexico; wild USA; reared USA; reared Mexico; wild USA; reared Mexico; wild Mexico; wild S. Korea; reared USA; reared

508.30 652.30

342.14

1.40 15.00 4.17 12.30 12.26 2.82 25.14 18.80 3.67 2.58 22.90 7.47 6.00 5.55 5.55 16.30 7.44 6.53 20.22 14.96 5.00 5.10 14.50 11.20 13.85 9.37 13.00 9.26 13.56 15.00 16.20 9.75 13.27

282.74 282.32

478.60

479.14

555.40 618.78 427.90 577.44 379.61 539.63 554.30 550.00

6.71 9.04 2.61 6.01 8.00 6.56 8.21 1.25

530.96 575.53 409.78 460.00 216.94 552.40

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00 62. K.22 17.67 0.87 42.00 5.54 18.80 15. wild Mexico.86 2.30 3.00 0.00 3.21 41.42 42.68 49.43 7.00 3.08 445.90 13.26 24.30 40.00 33. wild Mexico. 2013.00 2.3 Umbonia reclinata3 Hymenoptera (ants.00 18.00 13.56 3. wild Mexico.33 3.47 21.92 0.68 3.00 4. wild Mexico.00 401.05 1.72 14.32 4.33 39.50 3.31 Mexico.00 1. Weinheim www. wild Mexico.71 2.30 7.24 30.26 6.00 4.87 34.83 3.00 20.74 394.00 51.00 77. reared Mexico.73 77.00 29.20 27.62 2.33 67.73 530.43 4.13 36.00 11.33 555. wild Mexico.00 9.10 6.00 400.00 445.90 37.00 470.00 7.4 48.00 3. wild Mexico.00 3.00 52.12 4.33 4.21 20. pupae)9 Liometopum occidentale var.00 3.4 Edessa conspersa4 Edessa montezumae4 Edessa petersii3 Edessa sp.00 57.80 5.08 6.00 33.20 45.96 42. wild Canada.79 46.00 25.00 24.10 3.67 45. wild Mexico.00 2.00 1.00 2. wild USA.60 22.55 2. wild Mexico.57 11.85 3. wild Mexico. (nymphs. wild Mexico.00 3.05 1.00 46. 57.68 2. wild Thailand.33 4.99 352.52 66.87 36. wild Mexico.86 1.00 63.00 3.44 566.00 482.00 41.19 1. wild Thailand.00 476.00 63.46 37.00 622. wild Mexico.01 10.00 14.53 34.00 10.00 2.45 35.4 Acantocephala declivis3 Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)19 Aspongubus viduatus F .00 6.00 11.01 3.00 41.12 15.65 475.43 401.00 1.46 36.10 10.03 3.00 34.81 19.00 3.79 0.82 20.00 3. KGaA.61 20. wild Mexico.00 10.00 50.00 476. Food Res.23 12.08 548.90 3.00 54. wild Mexico.25 65.00 19.20 4.44 2.mnf-journal.99 542.00 28.00 11.00 622.51 19. reared Mexico. wild Mexico.00 22.57 21.00 15.00 43.00 535.30 3.13 35.59 19.53 3.56 547. wild Mexico.41 12.77 C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.42 3.82 24.50 40.00 59.45 33.02 39. wild Kenya.00 6.50 3. wild Mexico.00 11.30 54.00 5.00 41.45 3. wild Mexico.41 18.00 4.04 2. 802–823 Table 1.00 46.35 53.00 20.35 4.57 53.00 50. wild Mexico. wild 475.00 49.76 45.09 12.80 2.48 4.00 2. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.00 31.36 469. wild Mexico.40 346.00 551. wild Mexico.00 14.00 5. wild Sudan.20 9. Schluter Mol.12 5.4 Myrmecosistus melliger3 Myrmecosistus melliger3 Myrmecosistus melliger9 Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius (weaver ant)5 Oecophylla smaragdina Fabricius (queen caste)5 Pogonomyrmex barbatus3 Pogonomyrmex sp. wild Mexico.25 73.00 481.02 6.50 21. wild Mexico.98 9.00 26. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] 478.80 70.26 45.00 49.00 583. wild Sudan.46 10.98 9.30 9.00 498. wild Mexico.00 30.05 522.22 4.00 13.9 Pachilis gigas (adults)3 Pachilis gigas (nymphs)3 Pachilis gigas4 Proarna sp.00 2.38 8. wild Mexico.84 37.07 11. wild Mexico.82 37.51 2. wild Mexico.00 9. wild Mexico. Nutr.22 19. A.15 14.3 Edessa sp.00 9.00 484.40 7.43 8.88 18.00 53.4 Edessa cordifera4 Euchistus zopilotensis4 Euschistus egglestoni3 Euschistus strennus4 Euschistus sp. wild Mexico.60 56.00 Origin Hemiptera (true bugs) Abedus sp.25 19.00 391.19 4 Axayacatl Belostoma sp.00 2.78 18. wild Mexico.21 2.90 9.26 2.08 1.68 46.00 3.804 ¨ B.00 57.00 522. bees) Apis mellifera (honeybee)2 Apis mellifera (honeybee)21 Apis mellifera (larvae and pupae)3 Apis mellifera (larvae and pupae)9 Apis mellifera (larvae)3 Apis mellifera (larvae)4 Apis mellifera (pupae)3 Apis mellifera (pupae)4 bee brood22 Atta mexicana B (ants)20 Atta mexicana (ants)3 Atta cephalotes (reproductors)3 Brachygastra azteca3 Brachygastra mellifica3 Carebara vidua Smith (female)23 Liometopum apiculatum H (ant eggs)20 Liometopum apiculatum4 Liometopum apiculatum (larvae. Rumpold and O.00 13. wild Mexico.21 3.00 3.40 3.14 328.23 48.22 5. wild Mexico.45 9.65 2.00 394.00 20.00 2.00 21.00 2.65 64.47 4. wild Mexico.06 11.00 22.00 474. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.26 6.52 37.87 36. wild Thailand.69 35.00 7.47 18. adults)9 Hoplophorion monograma3 Hoplophorion monograma4 Krizousacorixa azteca J (“ahuahutle” eggs)20 Ahuahutle (mosquito eggs)4 Meimuna opalifera Walker5 Neortholomus sp. Luctuosum4 Melipona beeckeii3 Mischocyttarus sp.00 9.39 72. wild Mexico.51 77.00 3.06 6.00 65.41 2. wild Mexico.40 16.00 4.26 34.99 7. wild Mexico.00 23.00 3.33 1.46 45.com .00 24.67 41.33 1.55 47.65 4.61 7.00 6. wild Nigeria.68 400. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.00 42.68 29.00 34.

74 21.80 12.24 14. wild India.68 2.10 28.23 2.28 9.00 48.00 389.00 356.00 593.94 19.00 6.10 62.00 6.25 42.93 6.00 29.00 58.20 2.13 23.60 1.55 51.20 3.89 66.34 60.58 15.35 20.00 31.11 11.50 3.12 45.00 8.09 9.30 1.00 6. wild Nigeria.00 3.98 62. wild Mexico.24 20. 57.40 60.84 74.03 22.05 8.20 36. wild Zaire.60 445.76 33.00 1.57 61.76 69.4 Polybia sp. Nutr.94 62.52 1.10 3. wild Mexico.00 14.44 6.25 1.00 Mexico. wild Mexico.00 482.00 36.4 Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosus25 Macrotermes bellicosus2 Macrotermes bellicosus7 Macrotermes natalensis Haviland (alate caste)26 Macrotermes nigeriensis27 Macrotermes notalensis2 Termes sp.00 63.86 2. wild Mexico.50 504.00 4.71 16.3 Vespula squamosa3 Vespula sp.16 3.12 21.14 6.00 3.80 55.20 18.88 10.00 61.10 8.13 3.10 1.00 21.00 18.00 1. wild Mexico.60 23.95 5.34 4.55 7.85 6.40 6.20 6. wild Mexico.00 7. (larvae.35 38.13 Mexico. reared USA. wild Mexico.00 30. wild Mexico.15 28. wild Mexico.00 10. reared C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.00 3.25 43.00 59.84 43.73 58.97 1.29 5.83 438.51 0.00 11.00 12.50 9. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] 655.70 7. wild Nigeria.00 45.36 65. wild Nigeria. wild Mexico.90 25.11 2.74 46. wild Nigeria.40 38. wild Nigeria.36 11.70 53.00 35.17 3.80 439.51 3.00 462.34 34.39 607.98 22. wild Mexico.80 4.00 25.85 7. wild Nigeria.00 3.95 4.00 2.80 41.00 3.00 592.55 29. wild Mexico.00 15.25 29.10 19.90 11. wild Mexico.03 52. wild Nigeria.10 1.63 543.29 47.12 11.22 4.00 27.00 490.00 19.10 64.Mol.46 4.66 32.90 2.52 64.04 42.00 58.00 29.00 56.12 3.12 2.00 3.26 4. wild Nigeria.00 Origin Polistes instabilis3 Polistes canadensis4 Polistes major4 Polybia sp. reared China.84 35. reared Nigeria.92 12.21 23.20 35.60 56. reared USA. (adults)3 Polybia sp.16 19.00 12.20 359. reared Mexico.00 1.88 40.20 13.01 13. wild Thailand.52 14.00 466. wild Mexico.52 4.00 3.60 3.98 9.60 438.45 15.07 48.25 33.00 61.00 7.63 45.10 19.02 5.00 1.27 2.00 19.88 6.98 20. wild Mexico.60 23.00 419.50 4. Food Res. 802–823 805 Table 1.34 30.45 63.30 12.40 28.63 2.5 Lepidoptera (butterflies.68 15.00 2.66 30.40 6.30 14.40 2.20 20. moths) Aegiale (Acentrocneme) hesperiaris3 Aegiale (Acentrocneme) hesperiaris4 Aegiale hesperiaris k (maguey grub)20 Aegiale hesperiaris (larvae)9 Anaphe infracta (caterpillars)2 Anaphe panda (caterpillars)25 Anaphe recticulata (caterpillars)2 Anaphe spp. wild 508.78 47.16 12.15 1.40 41.00 40.80 2.62 23. wild Nigeria. wild Mexico.00 0. wild Nigeria.70 8.00 6.45 473. pupae)9 Polybia occidentalis nigratella3 Polybia occidentalis nigratella4 Polybia occidentalis nigratella (larvae.38 40.78 3.07 13. wild Nigeria.55 27.24 9.com .50 36. wild Nigeria. (caterpillars)2 Anaphe venata (caterpillars)2 Anaphe venata (larvae)28 Arsenura armida3 Ascalapha odorata3 Bombyx mori3 Bombyx mori (spent pupae)29 Bombyx mori (larvae)14 Bombyx mori (larvae)15 Brunaea alcinoe (caterpillars)26 Catasticta teutila3 Catasticta teutila4 Cirina forda Westwood (larvae)30 Cirina forda Westwood (caterpillars)26 Cirina forda (caterpillar)2 Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae flour)31 Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae)32 Comadia redtembacheri4 Comadia redtembacheri (larvae)9 Eucheira socialis4 Eucheria socialis3 Galleria mellonella (larvae)15 Galleria mellonella16 Galleria mellonella14 31. wild Mexico.00 61.71 4.71 38.09 7. wild Mexico.53 6.37 650.22 17.52 614.76 21.00 10. wild Mexico.16 21. wild Nigeria.00 8.00 52.00 2. wild China.10 3.22 8.00 4. wild Mexico.00 438.00 2.00 3.34 7.29 8. wild Mexico.66 0.60 6. wild Mexico.86 20. wild Nigeria.80 20.00 29. wild USA.80 494. wild Nigeria.00 555.00 18.20 3.21 61. wild Nigeria.mnf-journal.13 28.44 5.19 22.00 38. reared USA.00 3.09 5.60 46.10 42.40 61.00 22.93 455.00 3.37 22. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.06 2.00 1. wild Mexico.12 5.00 3.85 58.36 66.00 610.12 74.00 20.00 6.60 20. Weinheim www.00 4.70 2.16 7.60 5.00 18.00 3. pupae)9 Polybia occidentalis bohemani3 Polybia occidentalis bohemani4 Polybia parvulina3 Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Zhejiang)24 Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Guizhou)24 Trigona sp.04 22.21 8. reared USA.36 5.56 17.00 17.89 593.70 60.00 57.00 444.34 18. 2013.30 14.59 11.01 1.43 3.47 22. KGaA.

20 25.20 2.19 Mexico.1 Ruspolia differens (brown)37 Ruspolia differens (green)37 Schistocerca sp.44 3.85 5.1 Acrida exaltata36 Arphia fallax S.00 566.41 22.98 2.30 43. grasshoppers. wild Mexico.34 30. wild Mexico.78 3.32 16.30 35.00 3. reared USA.30 11.51 0.25 4.00 23.00 4. wild Mexico.88 63. wild Kenya.00 48.87 29.01 7.55 9.80 7. Nutr.00 10.00 4.22 14.98 42. wild Mexico.56 70. KGaA.55 4.10 61.14 3.00 3.00 6. K.22 61.59 5.73 11.25 70.53 12. Food Res.10 65.08 32.00 3.00 6.02 7. wild Mexico.806 ¨ B.42 10.00 41. damselflies) Aeschna multicolor4 Anax sp.40 30.00 13.96 9. wild India. reared India.95 2.10 1.94 2.64 8.49 7.80 4.76 1.03 9.00 14.81 4.55 19.20 75.62 9.52 53.46 465. 57.61 65. reared USA.26 3.17 4. wild Zaire.43 11.17 26.06 48.00 776.16 11.25 61. Schluter Mol.22 4. reared USA.98 4. wild Ivory Coast.08 16.80 14.79 2.38 2.00 67.1 Romalea colorata S. wild Mexico.80 4. Flaviventris4 Boopedon flaviventris B.4 Melanoplus femurrubrum (nymphs.08 7.26 3. wild Kenya.35 4.35 10.33 9.72 14.00 61.86 7.74 85.00 63. wild Mexico.00 363.90 62. A.21 3. reared India.45 3.35 16.2 Brachytrupes sp. wild India.45 3.83 16.99 4.25 9.4 Orthoptera (crickets.93 77.73 15.60 4. 802–823 Table 1. wild Mexico.36 13.50 4.93 13. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.61 1. locusts) Acheta domesticus (adults)16 Acheta domesticus (adults)14 Acheta domesticus (adults)15 Acheta domesticus (juvenile crickets)16 Acheta domesticus (nymphs)14 Acheta domesticus (nymphs)15 Acheta domestica L.00 54.20 26.33 16. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] 513.60 5. reared India.00 550.00 54.60 63.00 512.00 Origin Heliothis zea3 Heliothis zea4 Hylesia frigida3 Imbrasia belina (larvae)7 Imbrasia oyemensis (caterpillars)33 Imbrasia opimethea (caterpillars)34 Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)34 Laniifera cyclades4 Laniifera cyclades (larvae)9 Latebraria amphipyrioides3 Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)34 Phasus sp.22 11.12 3.00 8.00 55.58 1.07 6.00 4.00 414.00 7.00 10.86 3.mnf-journal.10 12.4 Phasus triangularis3 Phasus triangularis4 Samia ricinii (prepupae grown on castor leaves)35 Samia ricinii (prepupae grown on tapioca leaves)35 Samia ricinii (pupae grown on castor leaves)35 Samia ricinii (pupae grown on tapioca leaves)35 Xyleutes redtembacheri3 Odonata (dragonflies.33 4. wild Mexico.00 21.34 512.13 58.00 3.42 4.60 4.00 10.com .69 6.15 60.4 Spathosternum prasiniferum prasiniferum36 Sphenarium borrei B. wild Mexico.00 376.20 6. wild Mexico.62 4.08 18. wild Nigeria.00 11.40 4.50 17. wild Mexico.96 13. reared USA.00 513.56 64.20 48.30 46.85 459.59 62.50 11.70 44.00 61.84 3.17 10. Rumpold and O.83 293.34 1.72 45.87 4.85 4.00 3. reared Mexico.97 4.20 7.36 1.20 26.60 54. wild Mexico.05 459.00 1.41 17. wild Nigeria.82 5.20 77.57 5.00 7. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.02 12.10 4.05 2.3 Schistocerca sp. wild Zaire.80 22.01 4.00 427.10 57.85 45.11 2.10 4.47 64.49 12.21 614. & P .13 2.32 64.05 20.35 77.1 Brachytrupes membranaceus Drury (adults)26 Brachytrupes portentosus Lichtenstein5 Brachytrupes spp.02 29.10 2.80 43. 2013.00 19.84 468.14 12.58 6.74 24.00 4.90 10.00 29.23 3. wild Mexico.15 8.33 426.82 372.1 Boopedon af.11 10.30 71.46 71.95 59.20 17.79 9.96 2.33 431.36 12.10 3.00 5. wild Mexico. reared Mexico. wild 3. adults)9 Oxya fuscovittata36 Romalea sp.92 6.60 3.75 55.98 3.11 3.30 72.30 7.00 C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.00 77.00 8. wild India.04 16.25 455.20 54.00 4.10 64.1 Sphenarium histrio3 42.98 2.70 77.00 21.41 3.00 12.64 2.14 3.50 11.00 4.38 25.40 15.1 Melanoplus mexicanus4 Melanoplus mexicanus1 Melanoplus sp.98 2.72 22.1 Cytacanthacris aeruginosus unicolor2 Encoptolophus herbaceus1 Hieroglyphus banian36 Idiarthron subquadratum S.00 431.24 56.90 3.38 66. wild India. wild Mexico.41 495. wild Thailand.01 12.26 61.10 22. Weinheim www.00 17. wild Nigeria.59 60. wild USA. wild Mexico.00 1.17 54.1 Conocepalus triops L.40 4.10 7. wild Mexico.81 12.93 2. wild Zaire.96 75.30 16.00 12.69 461.60 2. wild Mexico.00 361.00 7.70 8.10 3. reared USA.23 54. wild Mexico. wild Mexico. wild India.73 6.00 11.80 4.69 2.63 6.62 6.60 2. wild Mexico.31 3.51 9.00 762. wild Mexico.00 29.77 6.50 57.19 0. wild Nigeria.24 18.

1 Taeniopoda sp.15 62.64 16. 17 [23]. C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.40 2.40 63. 20 [10].20 3.80 10.36 21.85 22.78 71. moths).00 52.00 4.00 379.02 2. NFE. grubs). nitrogen-free extract.10 62. 9 [15]. 3 [1].50 10.79 4.49 11. nitrogen-free extract. Average nutrient contents [%] (based on dry matter) of edible insects belonging to the same order.87 10. Weinheim www.52 9. 7 [17].63 8. 1).53 11.95 4. n. 802–823 807 Table 1.20 3.1 Trimerotropis pallidipennis4 Trimerotropis sp. damselflies).00 71.00 2.67 11. wild NFE. 16 [40]. 30 [59]. Continued Edible insects (based on dry matter) Protein [%] Fat [%] Fiber [%] NFE [%] Ash [%] Energy content [Kcal/100 g] Origin Sphenarium histrio4 Sphenarium histrio (nymphs.49 3. Orthoptera (grasshoppers. 8 [18].04 9.10%. Hemiptera (true bugs).3 Sphenarium spp.00 4.50 56. 19 [54].g. wild Mexico.com . 27 [57]. 31 [60]. 12 [29].61 2.79 3. Nutr. 5 [13]. 14 [16].50 3.59 2.20 376.02 68. the main components of insects are protein and fat. 57.31 2. nitrogen-free extract (NFE). 28 [58]..87 3.06 Mexico. carbohydrates (NFE = 100% – (protein + crude fat + ash + crude fiber + moisture).34 2. 22 [55]. 24 [9]. 4 [11]. Hymenoptera (ants.80 7.00 19.43 404. 34 [62]. the average values of the insect orders including their SDs are illustrated in a verticalbar chart in Fig. 36 [64]. wild Mexico. Isoptera (termites). 15 [47].80 8.04 390. Considering the average contents of the different orders of insecta.97 2.20 5. 10 [28].91 12.1 Zonocerus variegatus (adult)1 Zonocerus variegatus2 74.56 10. 1 [14]. 2013.80 5.47 2.85 to 71. 6 [19]. wild Mexico. It can basically be observed that the composition of edible insects is generally subject to a large variation. 25 [30]. Figure 1. wild Mexico. 13 [8].89 9.80 63.e.11 1. i.mnf-journal. Food Res. wild Mexico.00 62.78 3. the species of the order Coleoptera (beetles.00 11.12 5.59 8.00 11. locusts).00 67.30 0.06 3. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.93 65. grubs) have an average protein content of 40. 11 [26].20 67. 32 [46].56 7. to the same units (e.00 10.41 10.69% with protein contents of the species within this order ranging from 8. bees.75 11. wasps).4 Sphenarium spp.34 10. wild Mexico.1 Taeniopoda auricornis W. 29 [21]. 35 [63].28 5. KGaA. Diptera (flies).10 71. In addition. followed by fiber. wild Mexico.. For further visualization of the tremendous data amount. wild Mexico.73 26.02 7.78 4.63 10.72 10.13 65. Insect orders: Blattodea (cockroaches). 21 [22].4 Trimerotropis sp. wild Mexico.00 404.1 Sphenarium purpuracens20 Sphenarium purpurascens3 Sphenarium purpurascens4 Sphenarium purpurascens Ch.25). For example.01 22. 26 [2].63 6.20 29.51 8. 2 [12]. nitrogen content was converted into protein content by the factor 6.60 65. 23 [56].65 14.1 Sphenarium sp. 33 [61]. number of insect samples obtained from literature. wild Mexico.20 7.95 6. Odonata (dragonflies. It is assumed that this variation not only originates from differences between species and developmental stages [7] but also from different feed [8] and origins as well as differences in measuring methods. the country of the insects’ origin and its upbringing (collected in the “wild” or “reared”) is included in the table.Mol. Lepidoptera (butterflies. wild Nigeria. adults)9 Sphenarium mexicanum S. wild Mexico. and ash in no particular order (see also Fig. wild Nigeria. 1. Coleoptera (beetles. wild Mexico.44 393.20 10. crickets. 37 [65].00 14.63 13. 18 [53].

63–2. 40. the ant Myrmecosistus melliger with 77. and Melanoplus mexicanus (all from the order Orthoptera) yielded the highest protein contents with 77. and 652. grasshoppers. the quality of the insect proteins in comparison to other animal and plant proteins has to be assessed in feeding trials.00– 1.33–85. amphipyrioides (Lepidoptera) [1]. NPU. Insects with the lowest carbohydrate contents include the ant Atta mexicana (Hymenoptera) with 0. a commonly calculated value representing carbohydrates other than fiber. 9]. respectively [1.00. (Orthoptera) with 2. The honey bee protein isolate had a protein digestibility. It is noteworthy that the authors Banjo et al. Comparing the maximum protein yields of species of the order Orthoptera with up to 77. This was attributed to a bad odor of the silkworm pupae meal and the growth depressing pupal hormone ecdysone. NPU.85 kcal/100 g for Phasus triangularis (Lepidoptera) [1.88.00. of the order Homoptera) [10. Again the margin of deviation becomes clearly visible.15–77. In feeding trials with chicks.33% [1.89 kcal/100 g (based on dry matter) with maximum energy contents as high as 762. and PER comparable to casein [22]. However.74 kcal/100 g for Phyllophaga sp. 12–14]. It is noteworthy that within all nine insects orders included in Table 1. ants). In the breast muscle of the chicks.com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. and 29.78 to 508. mellifera with 22.14. (Orthoptera) with 1. By contrast. and the bug Euschistus strennus (Hemiptera) with 0. Food Res. A.3 for casein [22]. amino acid availability.00% for mosquito eggs of Krizousacorixa azteca J (common name “ahuahutle”.11. the maximum and minimum energy contents found are overall outliers.56% for Hemiptera (true bugs) with maximum yields for the black ants Polyrhachis vicina Roger from the Chinese provinces Guizhou and Zhejiang (Hymenoptera) and the larvae of the moth Latebraria amphipyrioides (Lepidoptera) with 28.13% (Orthoptera) have been obtained with maximum protein contents of above 70% for four of the nine orders (based on dry matter). and the honeybee A.62% [11]. The insects richest in carbohydrates are the cricket Brachytrupes ssp. The average ash contents of edible insects vary between 2.5% of the larvae [23].95% for Eristalis sp. 21.2012). and PER when fed to rats.63% for Odonata (dragonflies.13.09.01–11. Metamasius spinolae (Coleoptera) with 0.73% [1. the energy contents of most edible insects are substantial even in comparison to meat which is due to the two major components of insects: protein and fat. Schluter Mol.01–3. Furthermore.15]. 11]. high protein content of 63.asp) insects but especially grasshoppers potentially represent an excellent alternative protein source.84% for Isoptera (termites. 71. KGaA. Weinheim .30 kcal/100 g for Arophalus rusticus (Coleoptera) [11].31% for Diptera (flies) with maximum yields of 25. larvae of the honeybee Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera) with 1.mnf-journal. in feeding trials with rats the protein quality of spent silk worm pupae. and 58. Species with the lowest fiber contents include larvae of Aegiale hesperiaris k (maguey worm. 29. www. respectively [1. K.22% (Odonata) and 77. Minimum energy contents obtained include 216. the protein contents of edible insects amount to between 35. and 14. Considering the average contents of the insect orders in Table 1. 11. Lepidoptera) with 0. The mean energy contents of edible insects range from 409.92 [1.61% [2. or high protein digestibility of 98. protein digestibility. The chemical score of the spent silk worm pupae protein was 60 in comparison to 100 for whole egg protein [21] and 55. Evaluating the protein quality of different insect meals fed to weanling rats it was observed that proteins from both cricket meals tested (Acheta domesticus and Anabrus simplex) were equal or superior to soy protein as an amino acid source [20]. 1).86% [8.99% dry weight.56% for larvae of Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera) [17–19]. 2013. (Coleoptera) [11.94 kcal/100 g for Ephydra hians (Diptera) [11].00–4. an improved growing performance and carcass quality of broiler chicks was yielded supplementing chick feed with 10–15% of housefly larvae.1 Protein contents and amino acid spectra Proteins represent the main component of the nutrient composition of insects (see Fig.8% for dry soy beans (Danish Food Composition Databank ed. Rumpold and O. even within the same order as in this case Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) the energy content fluctuates considerably.13–15. 11]. locusts).00 to 776. 15].01% [11].00–73.30% [2. the beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) with 0. (Diptera) [11]. maximum proteins contents between 56.00–77.32% for Orthoptera (crickets. foodcomp. the use of pesticides for the preservation of plants in favor of grasshoppers becomes debatable. Sphenarium histrio. http://www. and Comadia redtembacheri (Lepidoptera) with 0. The lowest ash contents were found for Sphenarium mexicanum S. This had been attributed to the optimal amino acid profile. 282.34% [14]. and 293. However.13%. 7. (Orthoptera) with 0.60% [1. 57. Consequently. varies between 4. the protein content remained constant whereas its lysine and tryptophan content increased. The content of NFE.00%. Nutr. and the cricket Brachytrupes spp. 11]. 10].34% for Isoptera (termites) and 61.65% of all 113 energy contents of edible insects obtained from literature range above 400 kcal/100 g.13% with maximum protein contents of plants (35.01 (11.13% [11. The species Melanoplus femurrubrum.94% above 500 kcal/100 g.00 kcal/100 g for L.94% for Blattodea (cockroaches) and 10. 655.12% [10]. and net protein utilization (NPU). a by-product of the silk industry. A comparison of whole dried honey bees and honey bee protein isolate from the same source revealed that the removal of chitin via an alkaline treatment improved the nutritional quality of the insect protein as measured by increased protein digestibility. 802–823 Average fiber contents range from 5. weight gain. C 2.00 kcal/100 g for Polistes instabilis (Hymenoptera) [1]. [12] resulted in outstandingly high NFE contents in comparison to other authors and consequently measured low fat. 79. damselflies) and 22. showed a significant lower protein quality than casein despite a higher chemical score regarding food intake. 11. protein efficiency ratio (PER). 12. fiber but also protein contents.808 ¨ B.06% for Isoptera (termites) to 13. 15] (both of the order Hymenoptera). 15]. 15].32–282. 16].90–77. 12–14].dk/v7/fcdb_default.

wild 26.7 42.0 49.0 25.2 45.0 66.4 20.5 52.0 27.9 36.8 26.8 84.0 5.2 30.9 15.4 51.5 14.2 14.2 33.2 58.3 52.0 68.8 8.8 34.7 71.0 55.1 69.2 45.5 32.3 77.0 6.F .com 809 .8 19.4 125.0 69.6 20.1 54.1 48. grubs) Holotrichia sp.0 64.1 64.0 16.2 26.0 58.5 52.6 17.0 134.0 38.2 11.8 34.0 89.3 www.0 61.0 30.7 12.5 76.7 67.7 33.0 26.0 33. wild Mexico.5 69. Amino acid content of edible insects [mg/g protein] Ile 29.3 31.6 77.1 27.0 45.7 106.0 80.7 56.0 29.7 35.8 49.4 15.8 123. wild 43.1 6.0 166.0 23. reared China.8 48.0 7. USA.0 57.0 86. wild Mexico.6 79.0 52.a) 19.0 53.5 21. Nutr.0 49.5 45.6 36.6 7.0 44.0 48.5 73.5 55.0 10.0 85.8 71.9 38.6 7.6 Mexico.0 109.0 48.6 47. reared USA.9 61.5 50.2 53.2 52.0 55.0 64.0 88.4 24.0 55.8 35.0 14.7 34.0 80.0 72.2 27.0 40.9 29.7 80.1 39.9 44.9 137.9 100. ants) Apis mellifera (honeybee)m) Atta mexicanad) Atta mexicanah) Atta mexicana Bl) Bee broodn) Brachygastra aztecah) Liometopum apiculatumd) Liometopum apiculatumh) Liometopum apiculatum H (eggs)l) Parachartegus apicalish) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Zhejiang)o) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Guizhou)o) Vespa sp.0 65.0 28.0 46.0 49.6 26.7 12.6 89.0 28.7 75.0 32.3 23.5 74.0 81.0 34.1 53.2 56.6 18.4 46. reared Mexico.1 8.0 43.3 63.7 42. wild Mexico.0 29.5 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. wild Nigeria.8 88.3 7.8 52.6 117.2 19.6 40.0 50.6 42.6 51.0 35.8 78.1 47.4 25.8 65.8 94.7 12.3 123. 2013.0 43.6 25.2 53.0 123.0 12.8 104.3 76.1 44.8 20.0 39.0 45.0 47.0 21.0 21.0 19.6 28. wild Nigeria.9 27.8 39.1 45.5 46.0 68.0 102. wild Mexico.0 126.0 25.6 54.1 50.9 89. wild Mexico.6 47.5 10.4 56.3 7.0 35.0 37.0 60.k) Hoplophorion monogramah) Krizousacorixa azteca J (eggs)l) 15.0 29.2 38.mnf-journal.6 11.0 47.6 50.4 20.5 58.6 Canada.5 10.0 23.8 42.5 53.9 8.0 35.0 62.3 37.5 41.0 56.0 103.0 43.6 41.5 22.0 63.4 93.3 9.7 31.0 22.4 21.0 42.0 42.0 3.9 42.2 41.3 34.0 35.0 29. wild Mexico.0 57.5 59.0 18.9 90.1 60. wild Angola.0 43.6 118.2 41.Mol. rear.8 27.0 76.0 66.0 6. wild USA.1 12.8 41.3 98.8 88.6 156.0 112.0 42. wild S. wild Nigeria.0 75.0 32.0 44.7 82.6 39.4 18.0 34.4 12.0 48.0 53.7 19.9 12.0 51.8 63.6 154. (hornet grub)b) 23.9 26.0 69.4 19.0 29.3 74.3 132.0 53. wild Mexico.4 40.8 65.0 49.4 43.3 44.9 41.2 62.6 43.0 52.3 69.0 47.6 49.9 22.0 43.0 38.7 43.0 38.0 47.6 31.0 30.3 14.1 38.1 39.4 55.4 56.0 60.2 85.6 11.0 46.2 108.0 36.7 10.3 54.0 26.0 70.0 45.0 16. reared Thailand.0 21.8 53.8 122. rear.0 35.7 49.0 24.7 2.0 10.0 60. wild Mexico.0 51.8 65. wild USA.8 39.0 104.3 36.8 16.0 51.0 43.0 18.0 76.0 107.0 50.7 11.0 89.0 56.4 90.8 24.0 47.0 41.1 41.2 32.7 61.6 29.0 6.0 69.9 16. Mexico.0 6.9 60.0 32.6 49.5 128.0 60.0 12.0 114.0 42.8 17.0 63.9 32.6 116.2 7.0 40.9 29.3 6.6 18.7 16.0 40. 802–823 C Table 2.b) Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)c) Rhynchophoris phoenicis (larvae)c) Rhynchophoris phoenicis (larvae)d) Rhynchophoris phoenicis (larvae)e) Sciphophorus acupunctatus (larvae)d) Sphenarium histriod) Sphenarium purpurascensd) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)f) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)g) Tenebrio molitor (adults)g) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)g) Zophobas moriog) 11.2 87.3 105.0 20.0 54.5 52.7 69.1 34.6 4.1 30.5 32.0 42.3 47.0 57.0 42.3 46.0 48.0 75.3 14.8 26.0 28.3 35.0 31.6 65.5 24.3 19.0 10.0 Hemiptera (true bugs) Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)k) Aspongubus viduatus F .0 25.5 14.0 35.3 81.1 35.7 35.1 49.0 41. reared Sudan. wild Mexico.1 51.9 5.0 45. reared USA.5 55.5 47.0 103.0 40.0 20.3 24.0 107.3 126.0 82.0 53.3 56.0 35.5 30.0 50.0 Leu Lys Met Cys Met + Cys Phe Tyr Phe + Tyr Thr Trp Val Arg Ser Pro Ala Gly Glu A origin Edible insects [mg/g protein] His Blattodea (cockroaches) Periplaneta americana L.0 40.0 88.7 37.0 43.0 41.0 62.9 19.8 73.0 64.6 39.0 58.7 40.0 49.0 78.1 115.0 56.8 10.5 54. wild Coleoptera (beetles.0 35.0 88.5 55.8 82.3 69.5 109.0 74.8 56.6 52.6 32. wild Mexico. wild Sudan.0 46. wasps. wild Mexico.8 30.9 48.0 64.0 20.0 53. reared USA.5 57.0 76.0 29.1 60.6 50.3 16.7 31.0 77.0 63. Korea.3 37. 57.8 9.9 74.2 6. Food Res.5 Diptera Ephydra hians (larvae)h) Musca domesticus (larvae)i) Musca domesticus (pupae)j) 22.8 47.2 59.2 37.0 54.3 53.8 24.4 82.9 74.9 43.6 58.0 71.0 66.3 70.2 51.0 62.2 7.6 30.0 43.4 59.0 60.4 28.5 92.3 99. wild Mexico.0 135.6 137.1 3.6 60.2 57.0 13.2 6.0 46.9 35.6 46.0 38.0 46.1 47.0 30.8 53.0 44.6 46.7 11.a) Periplaneta australasiae F .0 6.3 28.6 34.2 20.9 77.5 51.0 77.3 23.7 130.0 30.3 10.0 9.2 112.0 63.0 7.7 51.4 53.6 10.0 6.0 40.3 87.0 39.6 15.7 43.0 57.2 35.7 180.1 65.0 80.9 75.0 66. Weinheim 45.2 41.0 33.8 53.0 26.3 78.7 106.2 47.0 9.0 81.5 22.2 10.6 27.1 55.7 51.6 45.0 19.0 56.0 45.7 Mexico.7 30.2 77.9 45.7 8.0 48. reared USA.0 22.5 39.9 41.6 20.8 36.6 31.0 33.4 56.9 47. KGaA.7 97.2 42.9 55.2 58.0 24.0 68.3 165.0 76.0 60.4 97.4 72.6 61.0 43.2 20.0 38.0 10. reared 21.0 8.5 51.3 17.9 20.7 53.0 Hymenoptera (bees.0 60.9 33.4 18.0 8.0 Thailand.8 44.9 4.4 74. wild China.0 6.2 7.0 23.0 60.4 35.9 31.7 13.2 51.0 18.6 48.4 30.0 78.0 25.0 32.0 51.3 47.3 58.0 6.4 13.0 79.8 98.8 42.0 6.9 44.0 18.

4 60.1 36.6 6.1 56. tryptophan.1 48.5 74.5 40.6 40.0 102.0 37.2 25.4 91.5 23. His.4 80.9 33.a) Sphenarium purpuracensl) Taeniopoda auricornis W.0 30.1 25.0 65.0 23.0 115. wild Mexico.2 74.2 45.4 54.0 32.9 16.5 19.9 40.0 18.5 28.9 53.7 45.9 66.0 12.0 6.0 24.0 95.0 41.4 29.0 31. k) [54].0 74. methionine.0 22.4 22.0 36.5 50. wild Mexico. x) [25].0 43.5 14.0 46.0 68.8 47.9 26.8 40. reared USA.3 140.6 15.0 42.0 30.0 8.0 41. s) [21]. phenylalanine.4 77.0 40.2 48. wild Thailand.0 45.1 32.8 21.0 17.0 77.0 18.0 90.0 62.0 51.7 73.3 62.0 59.0 45.0 39.0 57.0 93.0 34.7 52.0 40. wild USA.7 21. j) [53].0 25.0 55.0 44. Glu A.0 166.0 41.7 114.2 39.0 55.0 31. p) [58].0 41.5 61.0 47.6 19.3 7. v) [20].3 51.1 69.0 18.0 58.0 27.1 11.3 40.4 14.0 24.0 107.7 71.4 83.6 42.9 48. wild Mexico.3 53.0 52.6 76.2 14.5 77.4 19.1 55.0 3.0 103.9 43.2 64.3 69. wild Sri Lanka.0 29.4 123.6 37.0 45.0 25.0 9.0 7.0 18.0 7.0 29.1 62.0 6. wild 15.0 78. d) [30].0 18.8 104. Ser.9 48. e) [28].5 40.0 21. Trp. serine.4 60.0 62.0 34.8 23.0 61.0 26.9 60. wild Mexico.1 94.0 49.0 103.1 102.0 95.8 47. Thr.5 72.9 48.5 18.0 40.0 74.4 73.3 54.5 25.5 15.0 35.8 114.3 6.0 10.8 26.4 62.4 88. rear.5 25.3 12.0 18.7 6.0 70. Food Res.4 46.3 138.0 8. .0 26.0 21.2 29.2 28.0 82.4 20.7 66.7 72.0 20.8 56.5 53.0 50.0 41. wild Thailand.0 50.0 52.0 33.2 7. wild Mexico.4 24.0 57.8 54.2 129.3 22.0 50.0 13.1 87.4 58.8 52.2 33.6 13.9 36.7 57.9 117.2 38.1 56. valine.0 33. alanine.0 30.2 36.7 Orthoptera Acheta domesticus mealv) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)g) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)f) Acheta domesticus (adults)g) Acheta domesticus (adults)f) Acheta domestica L.9 28.8 52.4 49. h) [66].9 35.1 16. Phe.6 30.6 8.0 40.0 77.0 Mol. India.9 49.1 23.7 73.2 3.0 29.9 66.0 21.0 35. wild Zaire.4 53.0 31.2 38.0 42.5 51.0 34.1 5.7 53. moths) Aegiale Acentrocneme hesperiarish) Aegiale hesperiarisd Aegiale hesperiaris k (maguey grub)l) Anaphe venata (larvae.0 42.1 8.0 5.3 86.1 31. g) [16].0 41.6 60. Continued Ile Leu Lys Met Cys Met + Cys 26.0 43.7 60.0 48.3 34.0 55.6 37.9 62.0 76.0 63.1 31.0 43. wild USA.0 21.4 23.0 61.4 41.6 6. threonine.0 24.3 57.0 107.1 29.1 74.0 66.4 50.9 51.4 42.9 59.8 28.6 48.9 29.7 41.7 34.0 85.0 8.8 50.0 88.5 6. Lys. Leu.1 58.3 73.0 33.7 60.9 48.2 67.0 16.3 57.4 139.0 134. wild Mexico.5 53.0 61.0 66.0 62.0 6.0 43.0 34.5 21.8 66.a) 21.1 54.0 37.7 23.0 65.2 43. o) [9]. q) [67].6 52. Nutr.6 16.0 46.0 33.0 129. reared India.0 15.5 34. reared USA. glycine.3 9.7 21.8 36.a) Sphenarium purpurascens Ch.7 26.2 102.0 62.0 48. wild Zaire.0 75. t) [69].0 7.0 60. reared USA.0 32.0 44.4 6.0 30.2 56.4 18. n) [55].0 31.0 35. cysteine.0 22.5 57.0 44.9 70.8 27.0 57.0 38.0 29.8 76.4 49.3 21.9 45.7 57.2 46.9 55.5 37.7 19.0 34.6 22.0 54.0 47.2 39.3 87.9 102.9 41.2 34.9 46.0 127.8 13. l) [10].6 78.5 112.8 43.4 9.6 37. wild 23.4 38.0 60.0 38.9 116. reared Mexico.1 6.1 13.9 36. Met.3 27.0 24. without hair)p) Ascalapha odorata (larvae)h) Bombyx mori (larvae)f) Bombyx mori (larvae)g) Bombyx mori (pupae)q) Bombyx mori (pupae)b) Bombyx mori (pupae)r) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)s) Clanis bilineata (larvae)t) Galleria mellonella (larvae)g) Galleria mellonella (larvae)f) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)u) Imbrasia ertli (caterpillars)d) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)u) Mellacosoma americanum Fab.0 3.6 45.4 22.4 46.0 52.0 94.7 51.0 41..5 50. 57.4 15.0 73.0 35.3 47.5 8.8 37.8 100.0 122.9 43.0 69.5 60.9 32.0 36. Isoleucine.0 27.0 70.0 116.1 63.0 100.0 44.4 70.2 59.0 10.7 38.0 70.0 88. w) [63].0 11.3 100.0 30.0 43.0 57.2 53.0 17.0 28.0 40.6 56.2 41. arginine.8 18.0 35. u) [62].5 41.0 59. reared Angola.0 41.7 53.0 57.0 43.2 62.5 149.8 81.6 48. reared USA.3 91.0 28.5 47.0 58.2 67. lysine. wild Phe Tyr Phe + Tyr Thr Trp Val Arg Ser Pro Ala Gly Glu A origin Edible insects [mg/g protein] His Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosusd) 51. Schluter 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. tyrosine. reared Zaire. Tyr.1 78.7 42.8 61. 2013.6 50.0 53.7 60.7 51.4 54.0 30.0 63.0 75.3 63. reared Japan.6 22.1 35.0 39.2 39.4 31.0 14. r) [68].2 6. KGaA.6 28.9 47.6 48.0 49. reared Thailand.4 40.6 36.4 95.0 9.9 78. c) [19].0 35.9 62.3 36.8 46.0 38.0 41.0 60. leucine.2 108.0 41.7 13. (adults)a) Melanoplus femurrubruma) Patanga succinata L.0 79.8 40.9 104.8 59.7 62.3 17.6 36.2 12.0 0.0 91.0 56.0 64.0 39.4 ¨ B.0 39.6 100.0 49.0 52. A.0 77.2 54.9 80.0 59.4 40.4 65.2 41.9 47. reared USA.2 83.0 44. Ala.0 154.4 Nigeria.0 101. a) [14].2 39.7 18.0 9. wild Mexico.9 51. wild Mexico.1 104. wild Thailand.0 30.1 48.4 24.0 76. b) [33].9 61.0 13. wild Mexico. reared China.0 96.0 13.0 15.7 72.3 40.7 Lepidoptera (butterflies.5 87.9 23.0 36.2 34. Weinheim 17.9 70.0 51.5 7.9 68.9 57.9 15.mnf-journal.0 9.1 75.0 46.5 14.0 115.2 76.0 89. f) [47].2 5.0 92.4 17.1 47.8 56.6 75.6 8.0 48.5 35.3 65.5 46. wild India.0 45.4 53.5 29.8 63. 802–823 www.9 44.0 59. rear.8 44.2 20.com Ile.0 40.0 75.9 52.7 31.0 22. wild Nigeria.3 60.0 29.0 19. wild Mexico.4 16.0 44.3 78.0 74.0 19.0 49.7 49.0 13.6 22. mealv) Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)u) Omphisa fuscidentalis (caterpillars)b) Samia ricinii (prepupae)w) Samia ricinii (pupae)w) Usta terpsichore (caterpillars)d) 17.0 5.0 43.0 100.5 14. histidine.0 47.0 37.0 22.0 41. reared USA.8 Mexico.0 39.0 63.0 5.0 44.0 82. wild Mexico.1 22.5 47.8 52.0 20.1 63.0 38.3 6.9 53.5 105.0 USA.4 32.6 14.0 0.0 45.3 44.9 46.b) Sphenarium histrio G.0 30.4 86.0 103.8 9.4 22.4 41. Rumpold and O.0 59. Gly.810 C Table 2.0 28.1 22.2 46.1 95.4 16. Arg.0 57.7 35.0 42.0 3. wild USA.0 4.0 117.1 37. Cys.0 32.5 34.8 30. glutamic acid.0 36.0 24.9 32.0 68.1 8.4 55.3 38.6 60.2 61.0 34.7 16. (larvae)a) Acheta testacea Walkerb) Anabrus simplex mealv) Boopedon flaviventrish) Boopedon flaviventrisa) Brachytrupes sp.7 56.3 64.9 63.6 46.9 36.8 22.6 48.1 7.0 68.5 46.2 12.1 26. Pro.9 29.0 28.6 27.7 30.4 22.0 55.0 81.0 31.8 7.0 60.9 56.0 8.0 39. reared USA.0 89.4 80.0 61.2 66.0 60.3 6.0 92.4 28. K. proline.0 29.4 58.6 33.8 53.6 51.3 54.9 44.0 12.6 89.0 23.8 Amino acid requirement in human nutritionx ) 15.2 74.0 25.0 42.0 96.0 46.0 79.0 40.7 37.0 83.2 54.6 34.0 47.0 42.3 121.1 54.7 76. i) [23].4 19. wild Angola.6 139.2 68.0 33.1 23.0 20.0 11.6 87. Val.0 190.2 23.0 57. m) [22].9 44.0 27.0 48. reared.9 74.0 47.3 61.8 76.0 14.

crickets.Mol. In addition to the fatty www. Met. rhinoceros (n = 2) give a general idea of the margin of deviation of the nutrient components of the same species as derived from literature. Blattodea (cockroaches) and in some cases caterpillars (Lepidoptera) are also rich in fat with average amounts of 30. locusts) in particular are rich in proteins and represent a valuable alternative protein source. Aside from the order Hemiptera being low in isoleucine.e. The fatty acid composition of edible insects as published in literature is summarized in Table 3. 2013. The insect species with the highest amounts of fat include the caterpillars (i.60% have been reported [17. respectively. Diptera (flies). Hemiptera (true bugs). where fat contents as low as 19.90. lysine. It was stated in literature that insect proteins were shown to be low in the amino acids methionine and cysteine and high in lysine and threonine [24]. The average fat contents per order range from 13. Nutr. 14. 2. 32. It can be concluded that edible insects in general and species from the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers. rhinoceros with 0. Food Res. The lowest fat contents have been obtained for larvae of O. Ile. larvae of Oryctes boas with 1. crickets. Furthermore. Since all beetle samples had been collected in Nigeria in the wild.00% fat [1]. 13. (n = 4). Cys. triangularis (Lepidoptera) with 77. grubs). crickets. locusts) being rich in protein to 33.13% [1. Weinheim . Orthoptera (grasshoppers. Again large variation can be observed.66–38. locusts). termites (Isoptera). and Brachytrupers ssp. Val. all insect orders generally meet the requirements of the WHO for amino acids. most edible insects provide satisfactorily with the required essential amino acids.41% for Orthoptera (grasshoppers.50% (both Coleoptera) [12]. and valine and the order Diptera being short of leucine and cysteine. histidine. 802–823 811 Figure 2. isoleucine.. Hymenoptera (ants. methionine.com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. threonine. tyrosine. In addition. Lepidoptera (butterflies. C 2.24–53.05% fat [2. valine. n. Cysteine. and threonine. it can generally be observed that all edible insects meet the amino acid requirements of adults for methionine and methionine + cysteine. the fat contents of the cricket Brachytrupes ssp.3 were obtained for Lepidoptera for phenylalanine and tyrosine (phe + tyr). High values have been obtained for phenylalanine + tyrosine and some insects are rich in tryptophane. Thr. 1). bugs (Hemiptera).74. moths).78% (Coleoptera) [26] and wasps P. Additionally to the aforementioned influence factors. grubs). Trp. Amino acids: His. number of insect samples per order obtained from literature. SDs as high as 31. leucine.mnf-journal. this distribution can be attributed to the partly low data volume ranging from n = 23 for Lepidoptera to only n = 3 for Diptera. This could not be entirely confirmed. the palm weevil larvae Rhynchophorus phoenicis with up to 69. larvae) of P. Phe. bees. 57.12% [17–19]. 11]. Insect orders: Blattodea (cockroaches). lysine. Tyr. tryptophan. Mean amino acid contents [mg/g crude protein] of edible insects belonging to the same order in relation to amino acid requirements for adults [mg/g protein] published by the WHO [25]. phenylalanine. Coleoptera (beetles. 27].66%.2 Lipid contents and fatty acid spectra Fat represents the second largest portion of the nutrient composition of edible insects (see Fig.26. Comparing the amino acid requirements for adults published by the WHO [25] in mg/g protein with average amino acid contents of insects belonging to the same order. KGaA.40% for Coleoptera (beetles. The amino acid spectra of edible insects are shown in Table 2 and the average amino acid contents of insects belonging to the same insect order are given in bold values and further illustrated in Fig. instabilis (Hymenoptera) with 62. Particularly the fat contents of the palm weevil larvae (n = 7). 19.50% with carbohydrate contents of up to 48. (Orthoptera) with 3. and 27. and larvae of the Asiatic rhinoceros beetle O. phenylalanine + tyrosine.00–77. lysine. Leu. 29. and with one exception (Diptera) for cysteine. The fat content also varies between developmental stages and is in general higher in larval and pupal stages than at the adult stage [7]. wasps). The nutrient quality of the insect protein is promising in comparison to casein and soy but varies and can be improved by the removal of the chitin. the deviation cannot be attributed to their origin. 26–29]. Lys.

28 1.49 5.70 12.00 35.88 34. w Thailand.04 56.62 47.10 33. w Nigeria.49 Review Review 0.90 44.73 2.00 7.41 31.23 47.00 0. Fatty acid composition [% fatty acids] of edible insects C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 Other SFA SFA C16:1 n7 C18:1 n9 Other MUFA MUFA C18:2 n6 C18:3 n3 C18:3 n6 C20:3 n6 C20:4 n6 C20:5 n3 Other PUFA PUFA SFA/ UFA Origin Fatty acid composition [% fatty acids] Aquatic edible insectsa) Terrestrial edible insectsa) 33. w Thailand.30 49.35 28.70 ¨ B.83 27.25 27.06 41.63 1.89 33. (female abdomen)n) www.60 nd 2.26 0.42 1.23 2.10 0.92 50.46 0.66 3.51 50.10 13.b) Onthophagus mouhotib) Onthophagus seniculusb) Oryctes owariensisf) Oryctes rhinoceros (larvae)g) Rhynchophorus phoenicis F (larvae)g) Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae)h) Rhynchophorus phoenicis (larvae) oili) Tesseratoma papillosac) Coleopteraj) Aquatic Coleopteraa) Terrestric Coleopteraa) Diptera Musca domestica (larvae)k) Musca domestica L.18 12.04 1.43 S.50 3.94 1.32 2.67 38.20 7.40 nd 1.00 26.36 1.96 nd 22.50 1.56 7.99 41.55 2. w Angola.42 0.20 2.92 15.00 nd 41.70 35.81 0.08 1.80 22.76 0.85 3.20 25.50 3.60 0.59 3.74 18. w Thailand.70 2.90 48.90 55.50 52.04 9.66 5.84 2.09 43.60 6.00 nd 47.39 28.53 0.97 1.22 0.34 0.40 2.89 36.59 45.30 0.60 46.83 0.20 2.35 18. Korea.50 40.10 47.64 0.30 53.63 43.21 35.00 3.50 0.66 2.92 0. w Thailand.c) Holotrichia sp.30 0.86 0.02 31.52 0.70 17. (female thorax)n) Carebara vidua S.31 29.20 0.41 33.04 10.80 nd 35. grubs) Copris nevinsonib) Copris nevinsoni Waterhousec) Cybister limbatus Fabriciusd) Helicopris bucephalusb) Holotrichia sp.68 28.11 0.40 36.22 4.62 0.15 45. r Review nd 10.27 37.00 21.20 2.44 17.53 34.98 17.19 10.30 56.79 1.20 2. w Sudan.67 3. 2013.20 40.57 65.39 9.29 26.00 0.50 27.77 25.10 1.10 30.43 1. w Thailand.70 4.00 42.87 46. Rumpold and O.85 51.45 0.62 8.74 27.30 60.61 0.11 1.90 9.20 0. w Thailand.81 0.10 31.61 0.50 0.40 3.70 28.43 0.65 nd 0.80 4.61 34.51 47.40 66.18 44.89 21.67 0.59 1. 57.23 15. w Thailand.mnf-journal.86 2.71 0.24 6.60 43.00 28.84 1.60 22. w Thailand.51 51.20 41.06 28.56 0.68 5. w Thailand. w Thailand.50 0.30 54.63 43.55 3. Schluter 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.91 43. w Review Review Review 6.75 6.50 17.51 3.27 43.71 0.50 13.08 1.67 21.19 nd 5.50 4.87 8. w Kenya.77 13.20 0.29 10.27 2.70 32.25 0.07 1.30 2.63 45.60 22.19 1.05 34.76 53.21 17.33 31.98 29. w Nigeria.47 41.38 4.00 3.60 25.49 44.45 3. Weinheim 27.89 20.72 7.30 4.30 36.53 40. w Thailand.46 19.60 0. 802–823 Hymenoptera (bees.80 2.72 7.70 2.95 16.60 4.76 0.84 38.72 0.80 0.m) Lethocerus indicusd) Meimuna opalifera Walkerc) Hemipteraj) Mol.77 42.87 39.com .81 1.64 0.03 19.58 0.16 53.91 3. w Camer.30 28.75 nd 7.63 5.80 10.78 8.34 1.20 28.56 29.47 19.60 25.70 0.86 nd 0.90 95.50 5.10 0.40 32.49 3. w Coleoptera (beetles.82 5. Nutr.60 0.26 33.24 4.40 0.14 5.19 10.28 0.37 Thailand.80 3.96 36.65 23.87 19.21 4.54 45.73 2.46 14.10 0.50 3.92 20.75 18.99 0.47 37.89 30.81 40.72 50.00 0.50 2.50 40.44 46. A.02 35.79 0.20 18.40 29.40 34.83 3.60 6.91 nd 13.40 0. K.96 43.30 27.53 0.53 3.00 5.92 nd 1.12 16.21 0.06 1.39 43.00 4.59 3.10 30.18 35.99 64.78 64.64 1.44 14.36 0. ants) Carebara vidua S.41 3.52 0.03 1.60 0.51 32.28 2. w Review Kenya.50 0.10 3.77 3.24 47. Food Res.60 0.12 0.85 8.20 4.82 0.00 34.24 41.77 11.33 21.67 Sudan.71 12.75 9.41 3.90 12.52 0.29 28.08 2.61 0.42 45. w Thailand.32 1. KGaA. (pupae)l) Dipteraj) Hemiptera (true bugs) Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)m) Aspongubus viduatus F . r USA.85 0.30 31.43 22.42 33.31 nd 9.00 14.03 0.94 1.60 nd 1.46 43.09 0.80 0.52 0.95 37.73 2.41 0.10 2.51 32.54 0.50 13.50 3.e) Hydrous cavistanum Bedeld) Liatongus rhadamitusb) Onitis spp.39 0.812 C Table 3.43 4.39 38.47 5.80 10. w Thailand.40 0.90 7.49 0.90 40.70 12.75 4.10 3.20 2.46 25.68 36.50 1.26 4.50 14.90 1.77 41.25 1.71 37.20 4. w Nigeria.93 26.13 12.

50 5.60 1.46 1.20 31.36 30. w Nigeria. myristic acid. w Thailand.20 22.76 41. h) [30].00 0.80 27.92 43.19 1.58 1.46 51. (queen caste)c) Hymenopteraj) 1.20 50.55 0.60 37.20 0. t) [67]. w Congo. w Ivory c.00 36.22 44.53 0.88 46.10 0.00 11.73 0.08 31.10 61.50 0.62 7. Nutr.88 47.52 36. (male abdomen)n) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Wenzhou)o) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Guizhou)o) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (Zhejiang)p) Oecophylla smaragdinao) Oecophylla smaragdina F .60 1.90 25.c) 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.93 5.60 16.85 0.80 27.28 Kenya.80 63.80 1.45 2.66 1.19 18.80 35.60 36.30 9.37 29.15 0.90 1.30 0.59 38.30 62. w Camer.20 26.60 5.50 31.20 8.70 3. r Review 32.10 72.60 0.04 31.10 0.94 8.com SFA (saturated fatty acids): C14:0.09 0.90 34. r) [57].04 22.20 29.38 22.77 24.81 Thailand.82 0.00 0.10 0.10 1.60 nd 1.19 12.10 9.74 41.40 34.10 0.90 29.40 0.90 1.58 nd nd nd nd 32. 2013.20 <0.41 4.20 8.20 1.90 2.00 34.67 32.57 0. Camer. not detected. r Thailand.50 19.06 0.49 0.70 20.40 0.00 60.20 4.20 28. y) [76].70 nd nd 50.48 0. 802–823 C Table 3.90 1. s) [75].25 0.01 0. u) [21].02 36.29 7.50 <0.80 26. r Nigeria.30 5.51 37.54 42.67 29.50 0.16 46.50 35.57 73.62 23.60 2.00 34.20 0.34 3.10 28.70 7.72 48.20 0.63 28.50 4.33 3.23 0.10 0.61 4.22 7.60 22.10 3.20 0.42 24.70 1.57 6.88 0.40 68.90 31.40 5.20 10.96 45.00 57.49 5.83 2.52 3. z) [65]. r India.94 31.37 30.77 0.00 11.60 29.62 0. l) [53].00 14.85 3.65 0.91 0.50 45.04 3.60 0.30 19.34 34.33 41.36 16. w Nigeria. C16:0.60 6.40 33.30 58.20 8.20 0.98 39.61 27.96 0.36 0.20 0.60 21.00 0. w Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosush) Macrotermes bellicosus oilq) Macrotermes nigeriensisr) Termes sp. c) [13].74 26. w Review Review Lepidoptera (butterflies.80 63.5 1. PUFA: C18:2n6 – linoleic acid.12 1.34 0.60 35.25 37.35 32.67 44.35 1.55 0.84 52. C18:3n3 – ␣-linolenic acid.27 38.40 0.08 7.80 37.43 India. q) [17].82 57.45 31.90 1.36 35.62 7.74 Carebara vidua S. collected in the wild.19 3.09 2. w) [62].11 32.10 33..00 16.30 49.71 0.00 3.26 >1.80 1.05 36.90 23..40 0.80 1.65 0.20 0.60 0.10 6.02 46.53 35.70 5.99 4.91 37.60 24.86 7.18 0.54 33.60 1.60 0. Cameroon.00 20.83 18.41 0.27 33.46 31.06 40.6 3.17 0.40 14. w Thailand.97 26.57 0.00 45.23 10.60 45.68 15.20 13. k) [23].33 6.55 34. d) [72].20 nd 7.93 17.90 0.50 32. w Thailand.50 52.10 11. palmitic acid.40 4. w.70 23.13 2. w Nigeria.mnf-journal.67 46.90 14.30 1.86 22.13 2.99 20.92 22.61 2.50 0.Mol.96 50.61 5.20 0. Continued C14:0 C16:0 C18:0 Other SFA SFA C16:1 n7 C18:1 n9 Other MUFA MUFA C18:2 n6 C18:3 n3 C18:3 n6 C20:3 n6 C20:4 n6 C20:5 n3 Other PUFA PUFA SFA/ UFA Origin Fatty acid composition [% fatty acids] 3.46 28.59 1.70 2.47 1. w Thailand.15 6.77 54.90 56. w India.52 29. p) [9].97 46.90 23. v) [59]. nd. n) [56].60 6.80 26.44 0.60 0.28 12.90 58. Weinheim 0.89 5.80 33.46 0.54 0.70 36. C20:4n6 – arachidonic acid.60 1. m) [54]. grasshoppers) Acheta testaceae) Acheta confirmata Walkerd) Brachytrupes portentosus Lichtensteinc) Brachytrupes portentosuse) Chondracis roseapbrunner Uvarovd) Gryllotalpa africana Beauvoisd) Homorocoryphus nitidulusf) Ruspolia differens (green)z) Ruspolia differens (brown)z) Orthopteraj) Dictyoptera (cockroaches and termites) Dictyopteraj) www. a) [70].10 1.10 33.50 11.55 0.20 45. j) [74].51 29..71 31.90 8.30 13.00 19.40 0.00 4.20 39.40 7. w Thailand.12 42. b) [71].48 0.90 38.18 25.10 0.50 7. UFA (unsaturated fatty acids) = MUFA + PUFA.70 0.46 China.22 34.38 0.53 0.00 24.4 1.00 9. x) [61].30 0.00 26. e) [33].90 4.61 0.97 nd nd nd 0. i) [28].18 49.40 2. C20:3n6 – dihomo-␥-linolenic acid.70 45.14 31.30 30.00 4.10 41.12 0.10 0. MUFA: C16:1n7 – palmitoleic acid.40 34. r China.20 2.27 0.20 8. g) [17].44 1. f) [73].50 17.26 60.10 0. r 0.99 6. w Angola. C18:3n6 – ␥-linolenic acid..10 0.72 0.89 24.50 26.94 16. Food Res.94 nd 18.43 nd nd 0.20 8.39 0.97 24. w Review Nigeria.10 4.40 43.90 1. o) [32]. Ivory c.84 15.20 1.21 21.40 2. r. moths) Antheraea pernyi (pupae)s) Bombyx mori (pupae)s) Bombyx mori (pupae)t) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)u) Cirina forda Westwood (larvae)v) Imbrasia belina (larvae)g) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)w) Imbrasia ertli (caterpillars)h) Imbrasia oyemensisx) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)w) Nudaurelia oyemensisw) Samia ricinii (prepupae on castor leaves)y) Samia ricinii (prepupae on tapioca leaves)y) Samia ricinii (pupae on castor leaves)y) Samia ricinii (pupae on tapioca leaves)y) Lepidopteraj) Orthoptera (crickets. w Kenya.78 41. w China. 57.90 0.40 5.00 34.60 52.40 0.30 25.20 0.89 0.62 0.80 45.20 0. reared.48 0.32 20.42 0.79 6.27 32.74 26.30 nd nd 0. Ivory coast.30 38.06 1. C18:0. 813 .30 4.59 0.00 20.40 50.63 17.10 0.72 1. stearic acid.60 0.40 54. w China.50 35.89 0.79 1.50 31.45 1.24 7.69 42.36 nd 15.59 0.69 3. r India.30 4. w Thailand.40 39.47 0.57 65. KGaA.78 4.70 <0.29 0.69 4.90 7.10 1.63 0.00 31.75 27.61 5. C18:1n9 – oleic acid.82 22. w Thailand. w Congo.30 34.76 26.70 2.04 38. w China.49 25.59 21.39 0.40 0. (weaver ant)c Oecophylla smaragdina F .31 0.20 26. w Thailand.55 26.56 4.96 1.00 10. w Congo.45 0.05 36.49 0. r Japan.10 3.55 43.62 0.80 0.71 22.94 53.2 0.01 0.31 9.20 18.40 71. r India.76 1.28 5.63 31.50 0.30 21.90 13.18 2.88 5.50 0.30 27.10 1. C20:5n3 – eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).07 2.90 53.50 32.00 4.50 16.40 2.36 32.02 7.10 1.40 1.74 5.01 26.90 4.10 0.38 0.22 7. w Kenya.95 20.

For example. i. In contrast.” “Other MUFA. It has to be noted that. for caterpillars (larvae) of Imbrasia ertli. pentadecenoic (C15:1).g. 35]. ␣-linolenic acid (C18:3n3).83% for Hymenoptera (ants. However. 802–823 acids listed in the table. A. Furthermore.g.00% for Isoptera and 48. In the cases where it had not been distinguished between ␣. and docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3. In contrast.60% for Hymenoptera and the mean fraction of polyunsaturated acids amounts to between 15. ␥-linolenic acid (C18:3n6). As an exception. but contain more PUFA [31]. The mean values for SFA. it was discovered that it is possible to circumvent the production of cholesterol in insects by replacing ⌬5-sterols with. total cholesterol contents per 100 g fresh sample were accordingly lower.95% for Diptera (flies) and 39. This corresponds with the data from literature as shown in Table 3 where insect fat is in general especially rich in these two fatty acids. It is conspicuous that in all fatty acid spectra of Raksakantong et al. and the ratio of SFA to unsaturated fatty acids (UFA = MUFA + PUFA) for each insect order are indicated in bold. the SFA arachidic acid (C20:0) predominated with 38% [30]. the fatty acid composition of insects is dependent on the feed composition [8. [13]. and wasps) to 41.76% for Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). arachidonic acid (C20:4n6). insects naturally feeding on diets containing other sterols than ⌬5-sterols lack cholesterol. MUFA. short-tailed crickets. Food Res. Yhoung-aree [33] observed that house crickets. docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5n3). K. a daily uptake of 500 mg EPA (C20:5) + DHA (C22:6) is recommended which can be met by the consumption of 180 g of oily fish per week [34]. as well as of the PUFA hexadecadienoic acid (C16:2n6).. The presence and contents of micronutrients has also to be considered. The mean fraction of MUFA amounts to between 22. mellifera are not able to convert the plant sterols to cholesterol. and behenic acid (C22:0). Furthermore. and bamboo caterpillars. The average amount of SFA of edible insect orders ranges from 30. the honey bee A. 2013. scarab beetles (56 mg/100 g). but it could be observed that the average ratio of SFA to UFA on ranges between 0. [17] determined the total cholesterol content of four insects consumed in Southern Nigeria and resulted in much lower cholesterol contents of between 7. For the prevention of coronary heart diseases. Bombay locusts (66 mg/100 g). arachidic acid (C20:0).” and “Other PUFA” in Table 3. C 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.97% for Isoptera (termites).. and scarab beetles have a fatty acid ratio of 1:1:1 (PUFA:MUFA:SFA) being optimal for an adequate fat uptake. the PUFA linoleic acid (C18:2n6). large fresh.and ␥linolenic acid (C18:3). Rather high amounts of linoleic and/or linolenic acids have been reported for the fatty acid profiles of insects in some cases [24].79 which is basically in agreement with Yhoung-aree [33] and clearly shows that unsaturated acids predominate in the fatty acid spectra of edible insects. of the MUFA vaccenic acid (C18:1n11). Especially members of the orders Orthoptera and Lepidoptera were found to be comparably high in PUFA. and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n3. Rumpold and O.e. traces of the odd-numbered fatty acids pentadecanoic (C15:0). Major MUFA of edible insects include palmitoleic acid (C16:1n7) and oleic acid (C18:1n9). a replacement of SFA with PUFA in general leads to a decrease in the risk of coronary heart diseases and the PUFA ␣-linolenic acid (18:3 n3) and linoleic acid (18:2 n6) are essential. Just like the fatty acid composition.mnf-journal. and nonadecatrienoic (19:3) acids have been found for some insects. phoenicis. 36]. Ekpo et al. it is mentionable that two fatty acid spectra derived from a review by Bukkens [30] and originating from Angola yield more than 100% which indicates discrepancies. the cholesterol content in insects varies with their diet [36]. ⌬7-sterols in their diet. and erucic acid (C22:1n9). heptadecanoic (C17:0). PUFA. e. Insects for the most part contain only traces of these two PUFA or they have not been detected in insects at all (see Table 3). heptadecenoic (C17:1).814 ¨ B.31 mg/100 g dry sample for Imbrasis belina and 22. The two main components of the SFA are palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0). It is therefore possible to utilize insects as food constituents being nutritionally valuable but low in cholesterol in human diets. DHA). 57. bees. The fatty acids of insects are generally comparable to those of poultry and fish in their degree of unsaturation. Similar fatty acid spectra were obtained for some ants (Hymenoptera) with MUFA contents of up to 73.. raw eggs contain in comparison with 372 mg cholesterol per 100 g [38] more than three times as much cholesterol. analogue to livestock [34. the MUFA contents are uncharacteristically low in elaidic acid (C18:1n9) and the PUFA contents uncharacteristically high in arachidonic acid (C20:4n6) but devoid of linoleic acid (C18:2n6) in comparison to data published by other authors. In addition.com . Dihomo-␥-Linolenic acid (C20:3n6).10% [32] and PUFA contents as low as 3.10% [9]. Weinheim www. This has been accomplished successfully for the Lepidopteran Heliothis zea.91 mg/100 g dry sample for R.43 and 0. These fatty acids in edible insects were considered negligible and are summarized under “Other SFA. eicosadienoic acid (C20:2 n6).1% sterols obtained from their diet. the data were entered midway of both table columns. they cannot be synthesized by humans [34]. Schluter Mol. Nutr. however. a significant enrichment in lipids as well as in the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA of black soldier fly prepupae has been accomplished by feeding them fish offal as fatty acid recycling [37]. Ritter [36] stated that insects cannot synthesize cholesterol de novo and contain approximately 0. MUFA make up the greatest portion of the fatty acids present in beef and pork. beef and pork contain very little PUFA. (C12:0). In addition. KGaA. Researchers also found small amounts of the even-numbered saturated fatty acids (SFA) capric acid (C10:0). This could not be confirmed. lauric acid. EPA) can be found in the fatty acid spectra of edible insects. Yhoung-aree [33] studied the cholesterol content per 100 g sample (fresh weight) of insects collected in Thailand and stated that the cholesterol content was high in house crickets (105 mg/100 g). Some insect species like. eicosenoic acid (C20:1n9). e.

51 6. reared USA.11 1234.23 26. wild Angola.60 1. reared 132.52 7.10 140.00 Coleoptera (beetles.24 5. Korea.00 220.00 309.00 118.00 387.03 1420.26 161. 57.44 763.78 1.18 63.00 936.70 23.90 5.33 45.24 1.51 1021.28 45.60 59.70 30.00 10.83 11. reared USA.00 982.00 15.41 317. wild Nigeria.56 10.60 761.00 40.70 1.00 101.03 3.00 530.61 5.00 26.07 0.73 24.56 2.14 6. wild Nigeria.62 0.00 57. Nutr.40 59. wild Kenya. wild Nigeria.00 48.36 120.50 1.28 44.00 17.15 1.70 6.00 2010.00 0.01 2.00 55.69 10.80 109.60 33.40 0.78 2.20 100.00 1. wild China.c) Oecophylla virescensc) Onyoso mammon (ant)l) Polybia occidentalis nigratellai) Polybia sp.00 83.00 Kenya.08 108.00 270.50 771.07 1. Food Res.00 42.00 10.90 332. reared USA. 2013. Mineral composition [mg/100 g] of edible insects (based on dry matter) and recommended daily intakes [mg/day] for adults Ca K Mg P Na Fe Zn Mn Cu Se Origin Mineral compostion [mg/100 g] based on dry matter 6. wild USA.mnf-journal.00 541.00 Nigeria. reared USA.80 0.10 397.10 11. wild Nigeria.00 112.10 8.70 35.00 5.15 6. wild Kenya.00 21.00 53. wild Papua. wild USA.06 6. reared 59.00 562.01 125. wild Mexico.70 336.00 1.65 13.58 8.55 106.00 1080.40 130.70 32.00 830.75 7.80 7. bees) Apis mellifera (honeybee)a) Bee broodj) Carebara vidua Smith (female)k) Liometopum apiculatumi) Oecophylla sp.10 1.23 20.00 340. wild Papua. wild Nigeria.90 11. reared S.00 8.92 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.56 0.03 352.00 0.30 2. wild Mexico.40 14.87 2.95 140.23 90.60 93.Mol.41 3.30 102.00 84.00 1100.59 130.57 40.56 0. wild Nigeria.08 0.22 301.20 5.00 21.10 16.73 13.48 51.31 4.40 122.20 2.96 1.10 108. wild Nigeria.00 Sudan.00 118.17 25.10 28.00 111.29 0.00 120.00 180.28 8.70 417.94 26. reared USA.90 0.00 1320.86 0.00 1025.01 5.04 750.95 10.00 412.54 936.01 10.54 221.09 748. Weinheim Nigeria. (caterpillars)a) Anaphe venata (caterpillars)a) Anaphe venata (larvae)o) 815 .03 0.00 65.00 1.40 1.00 50. (larvae)b) Rhyncophorus phoenicis (larvae)c) Rhyncophorus phoenicis (larvae)d) Rhyncophorus phoenicisa) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitor (adults)e) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitorf) Tenebrio molitor (Mighty MealysTM )f) Zophobas moriof) Zophobas morioe) 61.50 15.30 67. grubs) Analeptes trifasciataa) Oryctes boasa) Oryctes rhinoceros L.36 0.com Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Anaphe infracta (caterpillars)a) Anaphe recticulata (caterpillars)a) Anaphe spp.00 122.00 93.94 14.59 5.50 730.56 10.30 0.00 32.00 0. wild Nigeria.00 0.60 11. wild Mexico.68 0.48 22.00 27. wild Nigeria.00 136.87 3.60 131. wild Sudan.80 3.80 52.10 39.40 697. wild Nigeria.00 70.58 47.97 2. reared China.04 0.00 126.00 79.00 30.90 14.72 25.h) Euschistus sp.96 29.54 166.17 26.30 136.00 1270.00 9.49 1.41 12.00 1.00 54.00 54.00 49. wild Diptera (flies) Drosophila melanogasterf) Musca domestica (larvae)g) Hemiptera (true bugs) Agonoscelis pubescens (Thunberg)h) Aspongubus viduatus F .04 0.10 0.00 517.64 895.07 0.00 17.10 8.64 44. wild 1159.00 957.00 194.80 12.90 32. wild 1150.10 125. KGaA. wild Mexico.92 1.68 0. reared USA. 802–823 C Table 4.04 208.02 1.00 180.38 174.i) Hymenoptera (ants.00 685.00 759.39 0.00 923.56 50. wild Kenya.64 2.10 1910.41 401.20 2209.29 112. reared Kenya.00 660.00 30.94 210.24 280.20 18.26 1.49 114.42 60.21 204.69 5. wild Nigeria.10 18.90 Nigeria.i) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Zhejiang)m) Polyrhachis vicina Roger (from Guizhou)m) Isoptera (termites) Agoro (termites)l) Macrotermes bellicosusa) Macrotemres nigeriensisn) Macrotermis notalensisa) Ogawo (termites)l) Oyala (termites)l) www. reared USA.52 200.

00 187.w) Zonocerus variegatus (1st instar larvae)y) Zonocerus variegatus (adult)y) Zonocerus variegatusa) Mol.90 700.40 17.02 265.00 7.40 25.60 USA.00 112. K.70 370.71 2. h) [54].40 76. m) [9]. wild Angola.18 1.00 572.90 37. reared India.10 7.69 657.6* 0. reared USA. wild Zaire. wild Nigeria.20 7.73 55.08 2.00 424.00 32. reared India.00 131.00 1100.09 498. flaviventris S.00 134.50 5.20 4. wild Ca K Mg P Na Fe Zn Mn Cu Se Origin ¨ B.50 27.00 44.20 391.00 60.12 62. reared India.00 82. Weinheim 102. A.00 3259.00 574.60 41. wild Mexico.00 39.00 62.00 1024.00 740. Schluter 47.30 58.00 16.00 33.80 74.52 92. reared Nigeria. v) [63].70 103.89 32.00 nd 10 163.00 31.11 5. wild Mexico.20 700* 173.24 7.75 1. wild Nigeria.94 474.00 306.00 1.53 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.00 744.23 6.00 96. l) [39]. af.96 16.60 26.00 42.49 0.00 17. c) [30].69 1. wild Mexico.00 24.40 296.24 12.00 766.00 341.08 0.00 24.00 73.00 377.20 24.30 5.00 8.40 50.00 126.15 254. q) [60]. a) [12]. wild Mexico. wild India.00 532.00 469.35 17.00 14.27 19.50 543.18 1.w) Boopedon sp.97 3.00 420.64 21.90 4500.00 174.31 158.00 64.00 32.69 16.77 1090. p) [21].27 2418.96 2.00 58.67 600.62 1537. o) [58]. z) [41]. 57.60 USA.00 18.00 183.10 1126.79 1.40 0. (adults)w) Sphenarium purpurascens Ch.04 13.00 23.00 102. 2013.10 11.00 78. wild 287.44 1107.00 259.00 609.00 589. b) [18].85 2.88 6. 802–823 www.00 2.00 80.00 229.00 426.00 80.00 120.00 88.27 8. g) [23]. wild 1.13 0.00 90.00 9.00 160. wild Ivory coast.00 0. reared USA. j) [55]. *Linus Pauling Institute’s Micronutrient Center (http://lpi.39 139.00 8.00 44. wild Zaire.90 241. KGaA.04 65.3* 0.95 0.00 584.00 17. u) [61].57 17.89 0. k) [56].79 790.00 8.026– 0. Brachytypes spp.00 910.00 110.00 196. wild Mexico.48 2.00 902.00 352.40 39.55 224.00 283.8z ) 11.50 0.00 68. d) [28].00 680. .00 570.69 2.61 6. s) [59].31 0.23 0.8– 2.74 10.00 182.00 20.92 1. reared Zaire.00 66.00 76.00 88.00 23.20 71.77 210.00 761.60 24.00 24.14 1290.00 552. Salinus B.44 435.01 0.00 521.76 75.00 144.68 0.30 3. wild Mexico.60 71.00 109.w) Sphenarium histrio G.40 64.20 150.00 173.00 7.24 5.22 25.00 42.78 3. r) [46].036z ) Bombyx mori (larvae)e) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)p) Cirina forda (caterpillars)a) Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae flour)q) Cirina forda (Westwood) (larvae)r) Cirina forda Westwood (larvae)s) Comadia redtembacherii) Conimbrasia belinac) Galleria mellonellaf) Galleria mellonellae) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)t) Imbrasia ertli (caterpillars)c) Imbrasia oyemensis (caterpillar)u) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)t) Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)t) Samia ricinii (prepupae on castor leaves)v) Samia ricinii (prepupae on tapioca leaves)v) Samia ricinii (pupae on castor leaves)v) Samia ricinii (pupae on tapioca leaves)v) Usta terpsichore (caterpillar)c) Orthoptera Acheta domesticus (adults)f) Acheta domesticus (adults)e) Acheta domesticus (juvenile crickets)f) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)e) Arphia fallax S.G. wild Mexico. t) [62].00 21 800.00 192. wild Mexico.61 149.w) Ochrottetix cer. Continued 816 C Mineral compostion [mg/100 g] based on dry matter 1826.00 1562.90 100.02 25.54 26.16 65.21 121.75 23. wild Mexico.00 178.edu/infocenter/ (as seen on September 18.42 160.42 870.33 0.10 33.00 76.48 7.06 1204.70 1.00 730. 2012)). not detected. reared Mexico.40 48.80 2.00 184.81 3.00 62. Food Res.w) Melanoplus femurrubrumi) Melanoplus mexicanus S.00 824.28 3.00 1.87 43.w) Onjiri mammonl) Osmilia flavolineata D.00 120. wild Nigeria.00 45.mnf-journal.00 26.01 2.00 66.00 3340.00 532. i) [15].00 29.00 25. wild Mexico. reared USA.Table 4.00 841. (adults)w) Sphenarium magnum M.00 780.73 5.00 422.9– 1.00 2030.15 0.00 140.26 22.00 21.91 0. wild Nigeria.00 1200.80 69.00 68. y) [77]. reared USA.00 132. wild Nigeria.08 USA.00 210.00 98. e) [16].81 2130.00 515.91 29.oregonstate.00 9.59 274.14 402.00 37.30 0.79 15.63 2.00 177.w) Ruspolia differens (brown)x) Ruspolia differens (green)x) Sphenarium histrioi) Sphenarium histrio G. Nutr.21 4.46 75.68 9.0– 14. wild Nigeria. wild Nigeria.40 1.00 27.10 7.09 75. wild Kenya.00 21. n) [57].00 96. f) [40]. reared India.00 131.00 13.00 24.00 19.00 12.00 111.73 5.00 ≤1500* 1300z ) 7.00 3.00 1032. wild Kenya.a) Cytacanthacris aeruginosus unicolora) Encoptolophus herbaceus B. wild Mexico.53 1258.00 1142. (adults)w) Sphenarium spp.88 666.00 59.86 207.00 32.78 1. Rumpold and O.54 2. wild Mexico.com Recommended daily intakes [mg/day] for adults nd.00 1. wild Mexico. w) [14].00 32.00 nd 1369.0z ) 2.00 120. wild Kenya.06 0.00 1350.70 358.00 957.97 585.99 64.00 39. wild Nigeria.06 18.10 7.00 16.12 11.00 1348. reared Angola.00 4700* 220– 260z ) 672.31 5.10 24. x) [65].59 180.03 0.00 0.00 915.5– 58.

and 24 of 60 insects meet the recommended dietary allowance for adults. and chicken [3]. whereas the recommended amount is given in milligram ␣-TE (␣-tocopherol equivalent) per day. By contrast. Referring to vitamin requirements in human nutrition of adults (bold values in Table 5) [41]. pantothenic acid. most insects show very high amounts of phosphorous. Furthermore. and biotin.5 mg/day.g.5 to 58. Since the FAO recommends a daily uptake of 45 mg vitamin C for adults [41]. Of the 77 insects analyzed for their magnesium content. 2013. C 3 Liabilities of entomophagy Besides all the nutritionally beneficial ingredients edible insects supply. Nutr. In addition. 100 g of insects are not an efficient source of vitamin A.mnf-journal. It can be observed that except for larvae of the housefly (Musca domestica) [23]. It is furthermore assumed that the content of micronutrients in edible insects can be controlled via feed. edible insects can be rich in vitamins but species have to be specifically selected for the provision of desired vitamins. KGaA. 2. all insects analyzed are low in calcium and do not meet the required amount for adults. locusts) are especially rich in magnesium. However. It is furthermore striking that most mineral contents of insects collected in Nigeria are comparably low which might be due to their feed composition. 57. phosphorous. manganese.3 Vitamin and mineral content of insects Eighty-five mineral compositions of edible insects as derived from literature and the recommended daily intakes for adults (values in bold) are depicted in Table 4 in mg/100 g based on dry matter. [40].. inhalant allergens (e. only ten of 82 insects contain the required amount of irons for adults and especially the cricket Onjiri mammon and several termites from Kenya are high in iron [39]. and in most cases thiamin. Vitamin E activity had been specified in international units (IU) per kilogram. contactant allergens. antinutrient substances and allergens. It can generally be observed that little data on the vitamin content of edible insects have been published to date and that the available data are subject to deviation. and the vitamin contents of edible insects derived from literature and the recommended daily intakes for adults are shown in Table 5. Although this could not be confirmed regarding iron supply. most edible insects but the larvae of the waxworm Galleria melonella and the house cricket A. niacin. iron.g. crickets. e. cast skins. Consequently. On the other hand. and ants). it was determined that an insect tea made from the excrements of insects contained up to 15. These are caused by injectant allergens (bees. pork. Only beetles and termites are generally low in manganese. and the consumer’s age and sex— premenopausal women require more than twice as much iron as men and postmenopausal women—and thus varies from 7.. In summary. edible insects can be utilized in low-sodium diets. Just as it applies for plant and animal food products. a required amount of 58. In the nine cases where it has been determined. insects partially contain much more iron and calcium than beef. Only some caterpillars (larvae of the order Lepidoptera) have high-sodium contents per 100 g and in two cases even exceed the maximum daily uptake of 1500 mg sodium [30]. Generally insects are low in sodium. Furthermore. edible insects contain in most cases sufficient amounts of manganese and copper. Weinheim .Mol. 802–823 817 In addition to minerals. Especially species of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers. 40] would be poor sources of vitamin E. although a 100 g of edible insects generally lack sufficient amounts of calcium and potassium.com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Food Res. wasps. domesticus [16. crickets. Since vitamin E does not only consist of ␣-tocopherol (1 IU = 1 mg) but of a mixture of antioxidant substances including tocopherols and tocotrienols with partly much lower activities.g. most edible insects show high zinc contents. crickets.5 mg/day is assumed. Insects of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers. it is difficult to convert the data to uniform units. it was determined that the pupae of the African silkworm Anaphe spp. It was also suggested that the consumption of insects could decrease iron and zinc deficiency in developing countries [39]. Endogenous risk factors comprise for. It can be concluded that. edible insects have the potential to provide with specific micronutrients such as copper. locusts) and Coleoptera (beetles) are also rich in folic acid. Furthermore. selenium.. vitamin C. it has been discovered that insects just like other arthropods (e. On the other hand. The required amount of iron is highly dependent on its bioavailabilty. excreta). shellfish) can cause allergic reactions.04 mg vitamin C per 100 g [7]. It is noteworthy that true bugs (Hemiptera) and some species of the order Orthoptera (grasshoppers. and/or ingestant www.3 ␮g retinol according to Barker et al. insects provide with several vitamins. even assuming the determined vitamin E activities of edible insects are due to pure ␣-tocopherol. the amount of selenium in mg/100 g dry matter is sufficient in all cases but for the termite Macrotermes nigeriensis. However. a 100 g of insects based on dry matter is generally rich in riboflavin. Since no statement can be made about the iron’s bioavailability in insects. it was suggested that the content of vitamins in edible insects can be controlled via feed [42]. a daily consumption of 300 mL of this insect tea covers the recommended daily amount of vitamin C in the nutrition of adults. only 23 insects sufficiently supply with magnesium. some insects are not edible or not safe to eat [43]. Again a large variation can be observed and it was so enormous that it was abstained from the formation of mean values. A 100 g of dried insects also does not fulfill the requirements for the daily uptake of 4700 mg/day for potassium. For example. magnesium. caution needs to be exercised regarding endogenous and exogenous risk factors of (edible) insects. contain a heat-resistant thiaminase that has been responsible for seasonal ataxic syndrome cases due to thiamin deficiency in Nigeria for the last 40 years [44]. locusts) could function as zinc supplementing food (ingredients). and zinc. Vitamin A values were calculated as 1U = 0.

wild USA.59 2.20 0. wild Mexico.74 1.73 30.61 6. reared Mexico.25 0. reared Mexico.29 0.62 0.31 12. wild Mexico.10 0. wild Mexico.28 0.34 0. Vitamin composition of edible insects (based on dry matter) Vit A [␮g/100 g] 8.80 0.16 10. reared USA. wild USA.18 0.15 36.61 83.61 0. Rumpold and O. 2013. reared USA.41 23. wild Papua.09 0. wild Mexico. wild Nigeria.14 0.80 Mexico.45 Nigeria.36 0. reared Mexico.78 7. pupae)a) Carebara vidua Smith (female)h) Liometopum apiculatuma) Liometopum occidentale var.54 0.88 3.98 0.38 0.85 1.61 24. 802–823 Hymenoptera (ants.34 2.41 23. Weinheim 22.14 1. reared Mexico.84 23.47 6. reared Mexico.83 29. wild Mexico.31 0. reared USA.44 45.68 4.25 0.71 0. reared USA. wild Nigeria.50 23.29 2.63 3.87 77.15 0.93 0.38 10.47 0.26 3.34 1.25 0. wild Mexico.42 0.24 0. wild Kenya.13 0. wild 767.56 11. pupae)a) Vespula squamosa (larvae.43 7.14 0.00 15. wild Mexico. reared Mexico.com .16 4.14 0.64 4.mnf-journal.80 23. wild Mexico.76 0.59 14.44 0.87 12.81 0. grubs) Analeptes trifasciatac) Asplagiognathus spinosus (larvae)a) Oryctes boasc) Rhyncophorus phoenicis (larvae)d) Rhyncophorus phoenicisc) Scyphophorus acupunctatus (larvae)a) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitor (adults)e) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)e) Tenebrio molitor (larvae)a) Tenebrio molitor (pupae)a) Tenebrio molitor (adults)a) Tenebrio molitorf) Tenebrio molitor (Mighty MealysTM )f) Zophobas moriof) Zophobas morioe) Diptera (flies) Copestylum anna/ haggi (larvae)a) Drosophila melanogasterf) Hemiptera “Ahuahutle” (eggs)a) “Axayacatl” (adults)a) Euschistus egglestoni (adults)a) Euschistus strennus (adults)a) Euschistus taxcoensis (adults)a) Thasus gigas (nymphs)a) Mol.01 0.00 2.03 36.818 C Table 5.28 0.38 0.11 0.44 0.67 0. K.28 0.39 0.41 0.08 2. wild Blattodea (cockroaches) Periplaneta americana (nymphs)a) Periplaneta americana (adults)a) Periplaneta americana L (larvae)b) Periplaneta americana L (adults)b) Coleoptera (beetles.26 0.67 2. Food Res.d) Polybia occidentalis bohemania) Polybia parvulina (larvae.41 1.10 15.88 5.07 0.00 18.26 2.25 16.25 6. wild Mexico. wild Mexico.75 2.84 23.42 8.72 48.44 <2.01 0.33 4. wild Mexico.25 3. Luctuosuma) Oecophylla sp. reared USA.80 10. bees) Apis mellifera (honeybee)c) bee broodg) Atta cephalotesa) Atta mexicanaa) Brachygastra mellifica (larvae. pupae)a) www. wild Angola. reared Mexico. reared Mexico.00 0.88 94. reared Vit E [IU/kg] Vit C [mg/100 g] Vit B1 [mg/100 g] Vit B2 [mg/100 g] Vit B3 [mg/100 g] Vit B5 [mg/100 g] Vit B7 [␮g/100 g] Vit B9 [mg/100 g] Origin ¨ B.14 0.13 78.51 2. reared Mexico. KGaA.38 3.08 3.08 2. wild Mexico.18 0.21 0.15 14. Schluter 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.18 0.00 0.00 32.06 1. reared USA.16 Nigeria.16 4.41 2.15 0.45 0.18 1. Nutr.30 0.58 5. wild USA. wild Mexico.46 0.38 11.53 0.17 20.72 6. wild Mexico. A.19 0.64 2. 57.

83 USA. 2013. reared Mexico.4 mg/ day USA.83 0. l) [65]. n) [41].00 0.15 0.95 3.86 25.90 0. d) [30].90 111.00 2. f) [40].49 144.64 45 mg/day 1.00 1.02 47.22 0. Weinheim 17.83 11.97 1.33 9.30 5. wild Mexico.47 11. wild Angola.55 0. Continued Vit A [␮g/100 g] Vit E [IU/kg] Vit C [mg/100 g] Vit B1 [mg/100 g] Vit B2 [mg/100 g] Vit B3 [mg/100 g] Vit B5 [mg/100 g] Vit B7 [␮g/100 g] Vit B9 [mg/100 g] Origin Mol.50 0. wild Mexico.47 0.50 9.02 0.98 1.45 1.46 10.54 Nigeria. vitamin.2–1. wild 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. wild Mexico.00 1.01 0. (adults)a) Zonocerus variegatus (1st instar larvae)m) Zonocerus variegatus (adult)m) Zonocerus variegatusc) Recommended daily intakes for adultsn) www.01 0. reared Zaire.3 mg/day 0.56 5. wild Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) Anaphe infracta (caterpillars)c) Anaphe recticulata (caterpillars)c) Anaphe spp. wild 81.25 5.27 0.50 7. wild Mexico.87 7. wild Nigeria.5–10 mg ␣-TE/day 0.56 1.44 0. reared Mexico.82 500–600 ␮g/day 7.64 29. 57.73 48. wild Nigeria. reared India.19 21.21 4.78 2.04 11.10 3.01 1.12 273. wild Mexico. wild Nigeria.d.99 4.40 1.00 22. reared USA.47 23.58 4.07 14.96 32.43 3.49 6.00 41. reared Mexico.20 1.91 15.99 51.95 0.90 25.09 1.40 2.04 0.92 12.78 3. (caterpillars)c) Anaphe venata (caterpillars)c) Bombyx mori (larvae)e) Bombyx mori (spent pupae)j) Cirina forda (caterpillars)c) Conimbrasia belinad) Galleria mellonellaf) Galleria mellonellae) Imbrasia epimethea (caterpillars)k) Imbrasia truncata (caterpillars)k) Latebraria amphypirioides (larvae)a) Nudaurelia oyemensis (caterpillars)k) Phasus triangularis (larvae)a) Spodoptera exigua (larvae)a) Usta terpsichore (caterpillar)d) Xyleutes redtembacheri (larvae)a) Odonata Anax sp. m) [77]. reared USA.00 0.00 63. i) [57]. wild Nigeria.92 23.24 0.07 1.d.13 11.00 509.92 0.26 0. 802–823 C Isoptera (termites) Macrotermes bellicosusc) Macrotemres nigeriensisi) Macrotermis notalensisc) 2. reared USA.00 280.01 8.Table 5.08 1. 819 .65 0.23 0.49 0.00 1.17 2. wild Kenya.59 0. wild Nigeria.22 <5.85 11.11 2. KGaA. 0.48 55.20 0.24 3. h) [56]. e) [16].58 0.56 0.05 24. wild Nigeria.3 mg/day 14–16 mg/day 5 mg/ day 30 ␮g/ day 0.50 0.67 2.95 0.29 0.13 0.26 1.41 2. g) [55].33 9. (nymphs)a) Orthoptera Acheta domesticus (adults)f) Acheta domesticus (adults)e) Acheta domesticus (juvenile crickets)f) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)e) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)a) Acheta domesticus (adults)a) Acheta domesticus (adults)b) Acheta domesticus (nymphs)b) Brachytypes spp.28 0. wild Nigeria. Nutr.83 0.31 3.76 4.90 0. j) [21].com Vit.89 350.88 24. wild Kenya.43 7.1–1.09 4.76 4.31 33.20 2.66 2.03 0. b) [14]. wild Nigeria. Food Res.04 2. wild Zaire.32 46.c) Cytacanthacris aeruginosus unicolorc) Ruspolia differens (brown)l) Ruspolia differens (green)l) Sphenarium magnum (adults)a) Sphenarium purpurascens (adults)a) Sphenarium sp.95 n.10 0. wild Nigeria. wild Mexico.54 11.76 3.22 0.52 2.98 1.51 0. a) [78].00 210.40 2.09 0.63 0.11 0.74 2.79 814. wild Mexico.10 0. reared Mexico. k) [62].09 1. reared USA. wild USA. wild Nigeria.33 1.41 17. wild Zaire.96 71.mnf-journal.59 1.44 0. wild Mexico. reared Nigeria.05 69.04 0.09 4. reared Nigeria.74 0.46 32. c) [12].10 0.00 32. n.95 12.

K. Since chitinolytic enzymes produced by bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of healthy humans have been found [48]. 6. the health hazards from insect allergens prevail for personnel of the insect rearing industry [4]. Anal. T. In addition to toxic. This was in agreement with an antinutritional analysis of larvae of Cirina forda (Westwood) yielding in levels of oxalate and phytic acid within nutritionally accepted values and in no tannin [46]. Klunder et al.. especially on the fatty acid composition. steroids or pederin.8 mg/kg based on fresh weight or 11. Johnson. K. and food poisoning. 189–200.. [4] Phillips. This possibly also opens up opportunities for regulation. I. Shono. oxalate. parasitoses.. Nutr. manganese. magnesium. www. Schluter Mol. (Eds. allergenic or antinutrient substances incorporated in insects. and Staphylococcus aureus as well as nonpathogenic Bacillus species [27]. phosphorous.. J. [5] Berenbaum. iron.. Perez. 1993. J. An investigation of the microbial fauna on the body surface as well as the gut of the beetle Oryctes monocerus revealed the presence of the pathogens Bacillus cereus. pantothenic acid.. e. and antinutrients should be investigated further.. [45] investigated the content of the antinutrients hydrocyanide. Food Insects Newsl. V... [3] Sirimungkararat. Proceedings of 17th Session of the FAO/WHO Coordinating Committee for Asia (CCASIA). P . Agenda item 13: comments of Lao PDR: proposal for the new work and development of regional standard for edible crickets and their products (CRD 8).com 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. A. Saksirirat. S. 8. 1997. but caution is nevertheless advised regarding allergic reactions at the first consumption of edible insects.2 mg/ kg based on dry matter.g.. selenium. visual disturbance. Ofuya. Because of the potential microbial threat as well as the rapid spoilage of raw edible insects. In addition. it has been acknowledged that chitosan/chitin can be digested by humans. as a chemical defense mechanism against insectivores. 917–922.. allergens.6–137. pp. extrinsic factors have to be considered as well. E. More research is required on the quality of insect proteins in order to be able to fully assess its value in comparison to plant proteins as well as other animal proteins and more data. F . mineral and vitamin content of edible insects are necessary for a more profound statement on their nutritional value. In addition to the nutrient profile. meet amino acid requirements for humans. Nutritional value of edible insects from the State of Oaxaca. 1. M. Finke [47] estimated the chitin content in seven commercially reared edible insects and came to the conclusion that the chitin content of these insects amounted to 2. Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Food Insects Newsl. 802–823 allergens. W. 51]. controlled feeding of edible insects with nontoxic plants eliminates the risk of sequestering and pesticide uptake. Thailand 2010. and rich in several micronutrients such as copper. 4 Conclusion and future research It can generally be concluded that edible insects are a potential food and protein source since they have high energy and protein contents. 1995. R. T. Allergies related to food insect production and consumption. W. Nopparat. cyanogenic or cardiac glucosides. are high in MUFA and/or PUFA. However. Sequestered plant toxins and insect palatability. M. 10. S.). Forest Insects as Food: Humans Bite Back. Food Compos. 8. more data are required on this subject. 57..mnf-journal. 50. N. and in some cases folic acid. Bangkok. phytate. J. 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