Physics C1402 Formula Sheet

dt
dq
i =
2
2 1
0
4
1
r
q q
F
tc
= (Coulomb’s Law)



0
q
F
E


=
r
r
q
E ˆ
4
1
2
0
tc
=

(point charge)
3
0
2
1
z
p
E
tc
= (dipole)
qd p =

(electric dipole moment)
E q F
 
= (point charge)
E p

 
× = t (electric dipole)
E p U


· ÷ = (electric dipole)



A d E
E
 
· = u
}
(electric flux)
}
= · = u
0
c
enc
E
q
A d E
 
(Gauss’ Law, electric)
0
c
o
= E (close to any conducting surface)
r
E
0
2tc
ì
= (line of charge)
0
2c
o
= E (sheet of charge)
2
0
4
1
r
q
E
tc
= (outside sph. shell of charge)
0 = E (inside spherical shell of charge)
r
R
q
E
3
0
4tc
= (inside uniform sph. of charge)





elec
W U ÷ = A
elec
W U
·
÷ =
q
W
V
elec
÷
= A
q
W
V
elec
·
÷
=
elec appl
W W K + = A
}
· ÷ = A s d E V



r
q
V
0
4
1
tc
= (point charge)
2
0
cos
4
1
r
p
V
u
tc
= (dipole: d r >> )
}
=
r
dq
V
0
4
1
tc

s
V
E
s
c
c
÷ =
r
q q
W U
2 1
0
4
1
tc
= =



CV q =
d
A
C
0
c
= (parallel-plate capacitor)
) / ln(
2
0
a b
L
C tc = (cylindrical capacitor)
a b
ab
C
÷
=
0
4tc (spherical capacitor)
R C
0
4tc = (isolated sphere)
¿
=
=
n
i
i eq
C C
1
(capacitors in parallel)
¿
=
=
n
i i eq
C C
1
1 1
(capacitors in series)
2
2
2
1
2
CV
C
q
U
E
= =
air
C C k = (with dielectric const. k )
}
= · q A d E
 
k c
0
(Gauss’ Law with dielectric)
dt
dq
i =
}
· = A d J i
 

d
v ne J


=
i
V
R =
J
E
= =
o
µ
1

J E
 
µ =
A
L
R µ =
t
µ
n e
m
2
=
iV P =
R
V
R i P
2
2
= = (for resistor)



dq
dW
= c
R
i
c
=
c i P
emf
=
¿
=
=
n
i
i eq
R R
1
(resistors in series)
¿
=
=
n
i i eq
R R
1
1 1
(resistors in parallel)
) 1 (
RC
t
e C q
÷
÷ = c (charging a capacitor)
RC
t
e q q
÷
=
0
(discharging a capacitor)
RC
C
= t



| sin ) ( vB q B v q F
B
= × =




)) ( ( B v E q F


 
× + = (Lorentz force)
Vle
Bi
n = (Hall effect)
r
mv
vB q
2
= (circular motion in B field)
) ( B L i F
B
  
× = (force on current/wire)
u t sin ) ( B NiA = (torque on coil)
NiA = µ

(magnetic dipole moment)
B

 
× = µ t (magnetic dipole)
B U


· ÷ = µ (magnetic dipole)



2
0
ˆ
4 r
r s id
B d
×
=


t
µ
(Biot-Savart Law)
R
i
B
t
µ
2
0
= (long straight wire)
R
i
B
t
| µ
4
0
= (center of circular arc)
d
i Li
F
b a
ba
t
µ
2
0
= (between parallel currents)
}
= ·
enc
i s d B
0
µ


(Ampere’s Law)
in B
0
µ = (ideal solenoid)
3
0
2
) (
z
z B
µ
t
µ


= (along central axis of coil)



}
· = u A d B
B
 
(magnetic flux)
dt
d
B
u
÷ = c (Faraday’s Law)
}
· = s d E


c
}
u
÷ = ·
dt
d
s d E
B


(Faraday’s Law)
i
N
L
B
u
= (inductance)
Al n L
2
0
µ = (solenoid inductance)
dt
di
L
L
÷ = c (self-induced emf)
) 1 (
L
Rt
e
R
i
÷
÷ =
c
(current rise)
L
Rt
e i i
÷
=
0
(current decay)
R
L
L
= t
2
2
1
Li U
B
=
dt
di
M
1
) 21 ( 2
÷ = c where
1
21 2
) 21 (
i
N
M
u
=
. const U U U
B E
= + =
) cos( | e + = t Q q
LC
1
= e
t
d m
e c c sin =
) sin( | e ÷ = t I i
d

IR V
R
= and | = 0° (resistor)
C C
IX V = and | = -90° (capacitor)
C
X
d
C
e
1
=
L L
IX V = and | = +90° (inductor)
L X
d L
e =
2 2
) (
C L
m m
X X R
Z
I
÷ +
= =
c c

R
X X
C L
÷
= | tan
e e = =
LC
d
1
(resonance)
R I P
rms avg
2
= where
2
I
I
rms
=
P
S
P S
N
N
V V = and
S
P
P S
N
N
I I = (transformer)



0 = · = u
}
A d B
B
 
(Gauss’ Law, magnetic)
dt
d
s d B
E
u
= ·
}
0 0
c µ


(Maxwell’s Law)
enc
E
i
dt
d
s d B
0 0 0
µ c µ +
u
= ·
}


(Ampere-Maxwell)
dt
d
i
E
d
u
=
0
c (displacement current)



) sin( t kx E E
m
e ÷ =
) sin( t kx B B
m
e ÷ =
ì
t 2
= k f t e 2 = ì f v =
0 0
1
c µ
= c
c
B
E
=
( ) B E S
  
× =
0
1
µ

2
0 0
1 1
E
c
EB S
µ µ
= =
0
2
0
2 µ µ c
E B E
S I
rms m m
avg
= = =
2
4 r
P
I
S
t
= (isotropic emission)
c
I
p
rad
= (total absorption)
c
I
p
rad
2
= (total reflection)
0
2
1
I I = (incident unpolarized light)
u
2
0
cos I I = (incident polarized light)
refl inc
u u =
2 2 1 1
sin sin u u n n =
v
c
n =
1
2
sin
n
n
c
= u (critical angle)



o i ÷ = (plane mirror)
r f i o
2 1 1 1
= = + (spherical mirror)
r
n n
i
n
o
n
1 2 2 1
÷
= + (spherical refracting surface)
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ = = +
2 1
1 1
1
1 1 1
r r
n
f i o
(thin lens)
o
i
m ÷ = and
o
i
h
h
m =








Mirrors
Concave f,r positive
Convex f,r negative

Lenses
Convex surf.
facing object
f,r positive
Concave surf.
facing object
f,r negative

Object dist. Image dist.
+ + (real) - (virtual)



n
n
ì
ì =
ì f v = (travelling wave)
ì u m d = sin m= 0,1,2,… (2-slit maxima)
( )ì u
2
1
sin + = m d m= 0,1,2,… (2-slit minima)
ì u m a = sin m=1,2,3,… (1-slit minima)
ì u m d = sin m= 0,1,2,… (diff. grating maxima)
C
B
= u sin
C
A
= u cos
A
B
= u tan
2 2 2
B A C + =
If 0
2
= + + c bx ax , then:
a
ac b b
x
2
4
2
÷ ± ÷
=


| cos ab b a b a b a b a
z z y y x x
= + + = ·


(either angle between a

and b

may be used)
| sin
ˆ
) (
ˆ
) (
ˆ
) ( ab k a b b a j a b b a i a b b a b a
y x y x x z x z z y z y
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ×


(use smaller angle; direction of
resulting vector from Right Hand Rule)


In the following, u and v are functions of x:
dx
du
v
dx
dv
u uv
dx
d
+ = ) (
} }
÷ = dx
dx
du
v uv dx
dx
dv
u
x x
dx
d
cos sin =
}
÷ = x xdx cos sin
x x
dx
d
sin cos ÷ =
}
= x xdx sin cos
dx
du
u u
dx
d
cos sin =
}
+ + =
+
) ln(
2 2
2 2
a x x
a x
dx

dx
du
u u
dx
d
sin cos ÷ =
( )
2 1 2 2 2 3
2 2
) (
1
a x
a x
xdx
+
÷ =
+
}

dx
du
e e
dx
d
u u
=
}
+
=
+
2 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 2
) ( ) ( a x a
x
a x
dx



Circle of radius r: circumference = 2πr, area = πr
2

Sphere or radius r: area = 4πr
2
, volume =
3
3
4
r t
______________________________________________________________________

g = 9.81 m/s
2
c = 3.00 × 10
8
m/s
ε
0
= 8.85 × 10
-12
C
2
/N· m
2
= 8.85 × 10
-12
F/m
k = 1/4πε
0
= 8.99 × 10
9
N· m
2
/C
2

µ
0
= 4π × 10
-7
T.m/A = 4π × 10
-7
H/m
e = 1.60 × 10
-19
C
m
e
= 9.11 × 10
-31
kg
m
p
= 1.67 × 10
-27
kg
A
B
C
θ