2014

Common Core
Mathematics  Teacher Resource Book 4

Teacher Resource Book

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•T  able of Contents
• Pacing Guides • Correlation Charts • Sample Lessons
For a complete Teacher Resource Book call 800-225-0248

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Table of Contents
Ready® Common Core Program Overview Supporting the Implementation of the Common Core
Answering the Demands of the Common Core with Ready The Standards for Mathematical Practice Depth of Knowledge Level 3 Items in Ready Common Core Cognitive Rigor Matrix A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A11 A12 A14 A16 A18 A20 A22 A38 A42 A46

Using Ready Common Core
Teaching with Ready Common Core Instruction Content Emphasis in the Common Core Standards Connecting with the Ready® Teacher Toolbox Using i-Ready® Diagnostic with Ready Common Core Features of Ready Common Core Instruction Supporting Research

Correlation Charts
Common Core State Standards Coverage by Ready Instruction Interim Assessment Correlations

Lesson Plans (with Answers) CCSS Emphasis Unit 1: Number and Operations in Base Ten, Part 1
Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Understand Place Value Compare Whole Numbers
Embedded SMPs - 2, 4, 6–8 CCSS Focus - 4.NBT.A.1, 2 Embedded SMPs - 2, 4, 6, 7

1 3 11 19 29 37 40 42 50 M M M M M M

CCSS Focus - 4.NBT.A.2

Add and Subtract Whole Numbers
Embedded SMPs - 2, 5, 7, 8

CCSS Focus - 4.NBT.B.4

Round Whole Numbers
Embedded SMPs - 1, 2, 4, 6

CCSS Focus - 4.NBT.A.3

Unit 1 Interim Assessment

Unit 2: Operations and Algebraic Thinking
Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Understand Multiplication Multiplication and Division in Word Problems
CCSS Focus - 4.OA.A.1 Embedded SMPs - 2–4

CCSS Focus - 4.OA.A.2 Embedded SMPs - 2–5, 7

M = Lessons that have a major emphasis in the Common Core Standards S/A = Lessons that have supporting/additional emphasis in the Common Core Standards

Unit 2: Operations and Algebraic Thinking (continued)
Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Multiples and Factors
Embedded SMPs - 2, 5, 7 CCSS Focus - 4.OA.B.4

CCSS Emphasis
60 72 82 90 99 102 105 115 125 130 132 140 150 158 168 178 186 194 M M M M M M M M M M S/A S/A M M

Number and Shape Patterns
Embedded SMPs - 2–5, 7

CCSS Focus - 4.OA.C.5

Model Multi-Step Problems

CCSS Focus - 4.OA.A.3 Embedded SMPs - 1, 2, 4–7

Lesson 10 Solve Multi-Step Problems
CCSS Focus - 4.OA.A.3 Embedded SMPs - 1, 2, 4–7

Unit 2 Interim Assessment

Unit 3: Number and Operations in Base Ten, Part 2
Lesson 11 Multiply Whole Numbers
CCSS Focus - 4.NBT.B.5 Embedded SMPs - 1–5, 7

Lesson 12 Divide Whole Numbers
CCSS Focus - 4.NBT.B.6 Embedded SMPs - 2–5, 7

Unit 3 Interim Assessment

Unit 4: Number and Operations—Fractions
Lesson 13 Understand Equivalent Fractions
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.A.1 Embedded SMPs - 2–4, 7, 8

Lesson 14 Compare Fractions
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.A.2 Embedded SMPs - 1, 2, 4, 5, 7

Lesson 15 Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.B.3a, 3b Embedded SMPs - 1–8

Lesson 16 Add and Subtract Fractions
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.B.3a, 3d Embedded SMPs - 1, 2, 4–8

Lesson 17 Add and Subtract Mixed Numbers
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.B.3b, 3c, 3d Embedded SMPs - 1–8

Lesson 18 Understand Fraction Multiplication
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.B.4a, 4b Embedded SMPs - 1–8

Lesson 19 Multiply Fractions
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.B.4c Embedded SMPs - 1, 2, 4–8

Lesson 20 Fractions as Tenths and Hundredths
CCSS Focus - 4.NF.C.5 Embedded SMPs - 1, 2, 4, 5, 7

M = Lessons that have a major emphasis in the Common Core Standards S/A = Lessons that have supporting/additional emphasis in the Common Core Standards

4.7 Embedded SMPs .4.6 Embedded SMPs . and Angles CCSS Focus .4.B.4.2 Embedded SMPs .4. 7 Lesson 29 Measure and Draw Angles CCSS Focus .C. 4–6 Lesson 32 Classify Two-Dimensional Figures CCSS Focus .6.MD.MD.4.2.4.G. 4–7 Lesson 28 Understand Angles CCSS Focus .2.3. Liquid Volume.2 Embedded SMPs . Lines. 5b Embedded SMPs .A.1–6 Unit 5 Interim Assessment Unit 6: Geometry Lesson 31 Points.A. 4–6 Lesson 26 Perimeter and Area CCSS Focus .C. 4.3 Embedded SMPs . 3.MD.A.6 Embedded SMPs .MD.1.1.NF.4. 7. 5.MD. 8 Lesson 33 Symmetry CCSS Focus .4.5a.2. 3.MD. 6 Lesson 30 Add and Subtract With Angles CCSS Focus . 2. 4–7 Lesson 27 Line Plots CCSS Focus . Rays.C.NF.1 Embedded SMPs . 8 Unit 4 Interim Assessment Unit 5: Measurement and Data Lesson 23 Convert Measurements CCSS Focus . 4–7 Unit 6 Interim Assessment M = Lessons that have a major emphasis in the Common Core Standards S/A = Lessons that have supporting/additional emphasis in the Common Core Standards .2. 2.3 Embedded SMPs .A.G.C.2 Embedded SMPs .4. 4–6 Lesson 25 Length. 2.A.Unit 4: Number and Operations—Fractions (continued) Lesson 21 Relate Decimals and Fractions CCSS Focus .1.1.4.C.A.A. 5.1. 5.2.4. 6. and Mass CCSS Focus .MD.4 Embedded SMPs . 4–7 CCSS Emphasis 202 212 223 226 229 239 249 261 271 283 291 301 311 314 316 328 340 350 S/A S/A S/A S/A S/A S/A S/A S/A S/A S/A S/A M M Lesson 22 Compare Decimals CCSS Focus .MD.G.7 Embedded SMPs . 5.4.1 Embedded SMPs . 8 Lesson 24 Time and Money CCSS Focus .

determine effective strategies to use to solve them. HOW READY® DELIVERS Ready lessons reflect the same focus as the Common Core standards. Mathematical Reasoning: Mathematical reasoning must play a major role in student learning. Students are asked higher-order thinking questions throughout the lessons. A8 ©Curriculum Associates. and generalize their results. The Common Core explicitly identifies standards that focus on conceptual understanding. the majority of the lessons in each grade directly address the major focus of the year. each lesson was newly-written specifically to address the Common Core Standards. allowing more time to truly learn a topic. discuss it. Furthermore. The Standards for Mathematical Practice are fully integrated in an age-appropriate way throughout each lesson. Guided Practice problems ask students to critique arguments presented by fictional characters and justify their own solutions. Each lesson starts by referencing prior knowledge and making connections to what students already know. Instruction must build on prior knowledge and be organized to take advantage of the natural connections among standards within each cluster as well as connections across clusters or domains. and applications. Students must be able to analyze problems. draw conclusions. make generalizations. Students need to use strategic thinking in order to answer questions of varying difficulty requiring different cognitive strategies and higher-order thinking skills. and evaluate the reasonableness of their solutions. and determine the reasonableness of their solutions. or explain concepts. critique the reasoning of others. Practice questions match the diversity and rigor of the Common Core standards. Conceptual understanding allows students to see math as more than just a set of rules and isolated procedures and develop a deeper knowledge of mathematics. The content standards must be taught through intentional. They must be able to explain their thinking. a “Focus on Math Concepts” lesson is included for every Common Core standard that focuses on conceptual development—those standards that begin with the word “understand. interpret. They are asked to understand. applications. The Teachers Resource Book includes SMP Tips that provide more in-depth information for select practice standards addressed in the lesson. Students work through a problem. These connections are highlighted for teachers in the Learning Progressions of the Teachers Resource Book so teachers can see at a glance how the lesson connects to previous and future learning.” Coherent Connections (Building on Prior Knowledge): Instruction needs to provide logical ways for students to make connections between topics within a grade as well as across multiple grades. a major emphasis in mathematics was on procedural knowledge with less attention paid to understanding math concepts. Ready units are organized by domains following the cluster headings of the Common Core. appropriate use of the practice standards. . skills and strategies. There is at least one lesson for each standard and only lessons that address the Common Core Standards are included. In fact. equal attention must be given to conceptual understanding. Ready includes conceptual understanding in every lesson through questions that ask students to explain models. This coherence is required for students to make sense of mathematics. procedural skill and fluency. particularly reinforcing algebraic thinking and problem-solving. In addition. Ready lessons balance conceptual understanding. Ready lessons build on problem-solving as a main component of instruction. Mathematical Practices: The Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP) must support content standards and be integrated into instruction. and applications in each grade. skill and procedural fluency. Lessons need to go into more depth to help students to build better foundations and understanding. and their mathematical thinking. strategies.Answering the Demands of the Common Core with Ready® THE DEMANDS OF THE COMMON CORE Focus: The Common Core Standards for Mathematics focus on fewer topics each year. LLC Copying is not permitted. Conceptual Understanding: In the past. See pages A9 and A26 for more details. Rigor and Higher-Order Thinking: To meet the Standards.

Each lesson challenges students to analyze the connection between an abstract representation and pictorial or real-world situations. and compute carefully and accurately. create explanations. LLC Copying is not permitted. 3. the teacher-led Mathematical Discourse feature guides students through collaborative reasoning and the exchange of ideas and mathematical arguments. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning: Recognize regularity in repeated reasoning and make generalizations or conjectures about other situations. As the chart below shows. ©Curriculum Associates. 2. think strategically. Each Ready Focus on Math Concepts lesson builds understanding of new concepts by explicitly reviewing prior knowledge of mathematical structure. In Ready. to use to solve a problem. or other symbols. or number lines. Ready lessons lead students to see mathematical relationships connecting equations. Each Ready lesson leads students through new problems by using what they already know. Use appropriate tools strategically: Make choices about which tools. and problem situations. Ready lessons model the use of a variety of tools. Ready lessons also provide erroranalysis exercises that ask students to examine a fictional student’s wrong answer. diagrams. Reason abstractly and quantitatively: Represent a word problem with an equation. communicate reasoning. students draw a conclusion or make a generalization and explain their reasoning by referencing the observed pattern. 4. Students create a mathematical model using pictures. 7. Ready lessons guide students to focus on precision in both procedures and communication. draw. including diagrams. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others: Discuss. if any. as well as multiple opportunities to explain and communicate reasoning. including special error-analysis tasks and group discussion questions that motivate students to employ precise. demonstrates multiple approaches and access points. and critique the reasoning of others. decomposition of numbers. tables. In the Teacher Resource Book. 5. A9 . Attend to precision: Explain and argue. visual representations. label. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them: Try more than one approach. Look for and make use of structure: Build mathematical understanding by recognizing structures such as place value. Model with mathematics: Use math to solve actual problems. and then interpret the solution to answer the question posed. 1. and succeed in solving problems that seem very difficult. and gives encouraging tips and opportunities for cooperative dialogue. convincing arguments. Each Ready lesson leads students to focus attention on patterns that reflect regularity. the SMPs are built into the foundation of Ready® Instruction. solve the math. 8. Guided Practice problems may be solved with a variety of strategies. Where appropriate. or equations to solve problems in each Ready lesson. and the structure of fractions. the Real-World Connection feature adds another dimension to understanding application of a skill. tables. 6.The Standards for Mathematical Practice Mastery of the Standards for Mathematical Practice (SMP) is vital for educating students who can recognize and be proficient in the mathematics they will encounter in college and careers.

Depth of Knowledge Level 3 Items in Ready® Common Core The following table shows the Ready® lessons and sections with higher-complexity items. . Depth of Knowledge Level 3 Items in Ready Common Core Lesson 1 1 1 2 3 4 4 Unit 1 Unit 1 5 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 10 Unit 2 11 12 Unit 3 Unit 3 13 13 13 14 15 16 17 Section Guided Practice Guided Practice Performance Task Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Common Core Practice Interim Assessment Interim Assessment Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Common Core Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Interim Assessment Guided Practice Guided Practice Interim Assessment Interim Assessment Guided Practice Guided Practice Performance Task Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Item 14 16 17 10 16 11 6 7 PT 11 12 13 20 25 17 2 10 11 PT 18 16 5 PT 14 15 16 19 14 18 18 Lesson 18 18 18 19 20 21 21 22 Unit 4 23 24 24 25 26 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 Unit 5 31 31 32 32 33 33 Unit 6 Section Guided Practice Guided Practice Performance Task Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Common Core Practice Guided Practice Interim Assessment Guided Practice Guided Practice Common Core Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Guided Practice Performance Task Guided Practice Common Core Practice Guided Practice Interim Assessment Guided Practice Common Core Practice Guided Practice Common Core Practice Guided Practice Common Core Practice Interim Assessment Item 13 14 16 10 11 17 5 17 PT 17 17 5 25 19 20 15 16 17 18 19 5 17 PT 23 5 21 4 16 4 PT A10 ©Curriculum Associates. as measured by Webb’s Depth of Knowledge index. LLC Copying is not permitted.

provide argument or justification for the new application Create • Brainstorm ideas.Cognitive Rigor Matrix The following table combines the hierarchies of learning from both Webb and Bloom. figures • Organize. design. For example. 2009 ©Curriculum Associates. and and supporting evidence reports results • Translate between problem and symbolic notation when not a direct translation • Compare information within or across data sets or texts • Analyze and draw conclusions from data..g. apply a rule (e. For each level of hierarchy. and conduct a project that a specific purpose or specifies a problem. terms. pictures. measure. or perspectives related to a topic or concept • Generate conjectures or hypotheses based on observations or prior knowledge and experience • Develop an alternative solution • Synthesize information within one data set • Synthesize information across multiple sources or data sets • Design a model to inform and solve a practical or abstract situation SBAC. research question identifies solution paths. other • Make basic inferences or • Use supporting evidence domains to justify conjectures. when students compare solution methods. Depth of Thinking (Webb) 1 Type of Thinking (Revised Bloom) Remember DOK Level 1 Recall & Reproduction • Recall conversations. logical predictions from • Develop generalizations generalize.rounding) • Apply algorithm or formula • Solve linear equations • Make conversions • Retrieve information from a table or graph to answer a question • Identify a pattern/trend Analyze Evaluate • Apply understanding in a novel way. citing evidence • Generalize a pattern • Interpret data from complex graph • Cite evidence and develop a logical argument • Compare/contrast solution methods • Verify reasonableness • Analyze multiple sources of evidence or data sets Apply • Follow simple procedures • Calculate. there isn’t a lower-rigor (DOK 1 or 2) way of truly assessing this skill. facts • Evaluate an expression • Locate points on a grid or number on number line • Solve a one-step problem • Represent math relationships in words. order data • Select appropriate graph and organize and display data • Interpret data from a simple graph • Extend a pattern • Design investigation for • Initiate. or symbols DOK Level 2 Basic Skills & Concepts DOK Level 3 Strategic Thinking & Reasoning DOK Level 4 Extended Thinking Understand • Relate mathematical • Use concepts to solve • Specify. planning. concepts. solves the problem. • Use reasoning. explain concepts to other non-routine problems relationships content areas.. adapted from Hess et al. problems. or connect data/observations of the results obtained ideas • Use models/diagrams to and the strategies used • Explain reasoning when explain concepts and apply them to new more than one response • Make and explain problem situations is possible estimates • Explain phenomena in terms of concepts • Select a procedure and perform it • Solve routine problem applying multiple concepts or decision points • Retrieve information to solve a problem • Translate between representations • Categorize data. descriptions of student behaviors that would fulfill expectations at each of the four DOK levels are given. A11 . LLC Copying is not permitted. 2012.

. See pages A20 and A21 for more information. electronic resources found in the Teacher Toolbox to review prerequisite skills and access on-level lessons as well as lessons from previous grades. thoughtful instruction and practice. Use Ready® with the i-Ready®Diagnostic You can add the i-Ready Diagnostic as part of your Ready solution. using the Pacing Guides on pages A14 and A15 for planning. The lesson sequence is based on the learning progressions of the Common Core to help students build upon earlier learning. identify student weaknesses for reteaching. use mathematical practices. • Administer the i-Ready Diagnostic as a cross-grade-level assessment to pinpoint what students know and what they need to learn. and prepare for Common Core assessments. LLC Copying is not permitted. Differentiate Instruction Identify struggling students and differentiate instruction using the Assessment and Remediation pages at the end of each lesson in the Teacher Resource Book. A12 ©Curriculum Associates. Use the web-based. See pages A29 and A46 for more information. you can use Ready® Common Core as your primary instructional program for a year-long mathematics course. See pages A18 and A19 for more details.Using Ready® Common Core Use Ready® as Your Primary Instructional Program Because every Common Core Standard is addressed with clear. • Use the detailed individual and classroom diagnostic reports to address individual and classroom instructional needs using the lessons in Ready Common Core Instruction and the Teacher Toolbox. Instruct Teach one Ready® Common Core Instruction lesson per week. and make connections among concepts. Access activities and prerequisite lessons (including lessons from other grades) in the Teacher Toolbox to reteach and support students who are still struggling. develop conceptual understanding. Assess and Monitor Progress Assess student understanding using the Common Core Practice and Interim Assessments in Ready Common Core Instruction. See page A23 for a sample. Monitor progress using the benchmark tests in Ready® Practice to assess cumulative understanding. See pages A18 and A19 for more information.

and rigor of the Common Core with the appropriate Ready lessons. “Focus on Math Concepts” lessons should come before the lesson in your current book. How do I make time to teach the Ready lessons? STEP 2 INTEGRATE READY • Remove lessons or units from your current instructional plan that are no longer covered in the Common Core standards at that grade level. LLC Copying is not permitted. critique the reasoning of others. and lessons from other grades to address gaps in students’ background and learning. such as questions that ask students to explain effective strategies used to solve problems. ©Curriculum Associates.Using Ready® to Supplement Your Current Math Program If your instructional program was not written specifically to address the Common Core Standards. skills. • Identify the place in your scope and sequence to insert the Ready lessons. strategies. A13 . and strategies your students need to be successful. STEP 1 IDENTIFY CONTENT NEEDS − First identify the Ready lessons that address standards that are a major emphasis in the Common Core. identify the Common Core standards in the table on page A17 that are not addressed in your current math program. See page A16 or the Table of Contents to easily identify these Ready lessons. and generalize their results • Including lessons and questions that develop conceptual understanding • Providing rigorous questions modeled on the latest Common Core assessment frameworks Step-by-Step Implementation Plan How do I know what to teach? • Identify the Ready lessons you need to include in your instructional plan. • Replace lessons or units that do not teach topics using the models. See pages A18 and A19 for more on the Teacher Toolbox. How can I address gaps in student knowledge? STEP 3 MEASURE STUDENT PROGRESS • Use the Interim Assessments in Ready to make sure your students are successfully able to meet the rigorous demands of the Common Core. • Use the Ready® Teacher Toolbox to access activities. By supplementing with Ready® Common Core Instruction. you’ll be able to address these concerns: • Filling gaps in mathematics content that has shifted from another grade • Incorporating Common Core models and strategies into instruction • Integrating the habits of mind that are in the Standards for Mathematical Practice • Asking questions requiring students to engage in higher-level thinking. then your textbook likely does not include the concepts. on-level lessons. − Next. • Use the benchmark tests in Ready® Practice to identify student weaknesses and gaps in students’ knowledge.

. Liquid Volume. Rays.Teaching with Ready® Common Core Instruction Ready Instruction Year-Long Pacing Guide Week 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Ready® Common Core Instruction Lesson Practice Test 1 or i-Ready Baseline Diagnostic L1: Understand Place Value L2: Compare Whole Numbers L3: Add and Subtract Whole Numbers L4: Round Whole Numbers Unit 1 Interim Assessment L5: Understand Multiplication L6: Multiplication and Division in Word Problems L7: Multiples and Factors L8: Number and Shape Patterns L9: Model Multi-Step Problems L10: Solve Multi-Step Problems Unit 2 Interim Assessment L11: Multiply Whole Numbers L12: Divide Whole Numbers Unit 3 Interim Assessment L13: Understand Equivalent Fractions L14: Compare Fractions L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction L16: Add and Subtract Fractions L17: Add and Subtract Mixed Numbers L18: Understand Fraction Multiplication L19: Multiply Fractions L20: Fractions as Tenths and Hundredths L21: Relate Decimals and Fractions L22: Compare Decimals Unit 4 Interim Assessment Practice Test 2 or i-Ready Interim Diagnostic L23: Convert Measurements L24: Time and Money L25: Length. LLC Copying is not permitted. and Mass L26: Perimeter and Area L27: Line Plots L28: Understand Angles L29: Measure and Draw Angles L30: Add and Subtract With Angles Unit 5 Interim Assessment L31: Points. and Angles L32: Classify Two-Dimensional Figures L33: Symmetry Unit 6 Interim Assessment Practice Test 3 or i-Ready Year-End Diagnostic Days 3 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 1 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 1 5 5 5 1 3 Minutes/day 60 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 60 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 30–45 60 A14 ©Curriculum Associates. Lines.

(20 minutes) Discuss solutions to the Try It problems. The two lessons are identified as Lesson A and Lesson B in the chart below.Ready® Instruction Weekly Pacing (One Lesson a Week) Use Ready Common Core Instruction as the foundation of a year-long mathematics program. Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Lesson A Introduction (15 minutes) In Class Modeled Instruction (30 minutes) Lesson A Lesson B Lesson B Guided Instruction Introduction (15 minutes) (15 minutes) Guided Practice (30 minutes) Modeled Instruction (30 minutes) Lesson A Review concepts Guided Instruction and skills (15 minutes) (20 minutes) Guided Practice Lesson B (30 minutes) Review concepts and skills (20 minutes) Lesson A Homework (optional) Common Core Practice Lesson B Common Core Practice ©Curriculum Associates. and assessment. (10 minutes) Small Group/ Independent Work three problems independently. (15 minutes) Solve problems in test format or complete a Performance Task. including Vocabulary (30 minutes) Modeled/Guided Instruction Discuss graphic and verbal representations of a problem. Each day is divided into periods of direct instruction. (10 minutes) Guided Practice Discuss a sample problem. (20 minutes) Check solutions and facilitate Pair/ Share. (15 minutes) Assessment and Remediation (time will vary) Assessment Ready Instruction Weekly Pacing (Two Lessons a Week) Target Ready Common Core Instruction lessons based on Ready Common Core Practice results to focus learning in a compressed time period. Concept Extension (15 minutes) Work the math with a symbolic representation and practice with Try It problems. Modeled/Guided Instruction Discuss graphic and verbal representations of a problem. Use the Year-Long Pacing Guide on page A14 for a specific week-to-week schedule. (30 minutes) Review solutions and explanations. (20 minutes) Discuss answer to the Reflect question. then Pair/Share. (5 minutes) Discuss solutions to the Try It problems. The Year-Long Sample Week (below) shows a recommended schedule for teaching one lesson per week. Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Introduction Introduction. A15 . The chart below models teaching two lessons per week. independent work. LLC Copying is not permitted. (10 minutes) Common Core Practice Whole Class Visual Support Mathematical Discourse (10 min) (15 minutes) Hands-On Activity Work the math (where applicable) with a symbolic representation and practice with Try It problems.

e. distinguishing multiplicative comparison from additive comparison.3 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison. Generate a number or shape pattern that follows a given rule.1 Recognize that in a multi-digit whole number.4 Supporting/ Additional 7 Generate and analyze patterns.OA. generate terms in the resulting sequence and observe that the terms appear to alternate between odd and even numbers.A.B. 4.OA.NBT.B. rectangular arrays. and multiply two two-digit numbers. interpret 35 = 5 3 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. e. 4. The Standards for Mathematical Practice are integrated throughout the instructional lessons.NBT. Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations.A. and . recognize that 700 4 70 5 10 by applying concepts of place value and division. Common Core State Standards © 2010. and expanded form. a digit in one place represents ten times what it represents in the place to its right.NBT. Content Emphasis Ready® Common Core Instruction Lesson(s) Major Major 5 6 Major 9. 4. number names.NBT. Recognize that a whole number is a multiple of each of its factors. Common Core State Standards for Grade 4 — Mathematics Standards Operations and Algebraic Thinking Use the four operations with whole numbers to solve problems. . Find all factor pairs for a whole number in the range 1–100. symbols to record the results of comparisons. 4.NBT.Correlation Charts Common Core State Standards Coverage by Ready® Instruction The table below correlates each Common Core State Standard to the Ready® Common Core Instruction lesson(s) that offer(s) comprehensive instruction on that standard. 10 Gain familiarity with factors and multiples. including problems in which remainders must be interpreted.B. All rights reserved.g. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers.A. Compare two multi-digit numbers based on meanings of the digits in each place.C. and/or area models. 4. Identify apparent features of the pattern that were not explicit in the rule itself. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is prime or composite.OA. using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Multiply or divide to solve word problems involving multiplicative comparison.. 2 4 3 11 Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. Major Major Major Major Major 1 1.4 Fluently add and subtract multi-digit whole numbers using the standard algorithm.1 4. given the rule “Add 3” and the starting number 1.2 Read and write multi-digit whole numbers using base-ten numerals. For example. LLC Copying is not permitted. Explain informally why the numbers will continue to alternate in this way. For example. Use this table to determine which lessons your students should complete based on their mastery of each standard. 4.A.A.5 Supporting/ Additional 8 Number and Operations in Base Ten Generalize place value understanding for multi-digit whole numbers. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations.OA.g.OA. 4.. Determine whether a given whole number in the range 1–100 is a multiple of a given one-digit number.5 Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding.2 4.3 Use place value understanding to round multi-digit whole numbers to any place. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations.A. by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem. A42 ©Curriculum Associates.. 4. using . 5.

by using a visual fraction model. n 3 1 a 2 5 (n 3 a) . e. Major 12 Number and Operations—Fractions Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. if each person at a party will eat 3 of a pound of 8 ·· roast beef.B.B.A.3d 4. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations. (continued) 4.NF.. recognizing this product as 6 . Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators. 8 8 8 ·· 8 8 8 ·· 8 8 8 8 8 ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· Major 15. Justify decompositions.g..g.NF. using strategies based on place value. 5.g.A. b · b ·· Major 13 4. For example.B. Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators. For example. e.NF. Major 17 4. 4 ·· 4 ·· Major 18 4.g.6 Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors.. recording each decomposition by an equation.B.. Record the results of comparisons with symbols . Examples: 8 ·· 3 5 1 1 1 1 1. 16 4. 1 as a sum of fractions 1 .. by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. 3 5 1 1 2. with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size.) b · b ······ Major 18 4.. the properties of operations. how many pounds of roast beef will be needed? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? Major 19 ©Curriculum Associates.B.1 Explain why a fraction a is equivalent to a fraction (n 3 a) by using visual fraction b (n 3 b) · ······ models. 4. e. A43 .NF.B. by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction.NF. rectangular arrays. 19 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number.g. and use this understanding b b · ·· to multiply a fraction by a whole number. 17 18. For example. recording the conclusion 4 4 ·· ·· by the equation 5 5 5 3 1 1 2 . 5 5 5 ·· ·· ·· (In general. 4. and justify the conclusions. or . e.NF. 4. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. by using a visual fraction model.3a 4. by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. 17 15. by creating common denominators or numerators or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1.Common Core State Standards for Grade 4 — Mathematics Standards Number and Operations in Base Ten (continued) Content Emphasis Ready® Common Core Instruction Lesson(s) Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions 2 ·· refer to the same whole.2 Major 14 Build fractions from unit fractions.NF.3c Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators.NF. e.. LLC Copying is not permitted. and/or area models. 21 5 1 1 1 1 1 5 8 1 8 1 1.NF.4c Solve word problems involving multiplication of a fraction by a whole number.4b Understand a multiple of a as a multiple of 1 .B. and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.3b Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. use a visual b b · ·· fraction model to represent 5 as the product 5 3 1 1 2 .4a Understand a fraction a as a multiple of 1 .3 Major Major 15.4 Major Major 16..NBT.NF.B. e.g. Understand a fraction a with a . and there will be 5 people at the party. 17 4.NF.B. 16.B. use a visual 2 1 fraction model to express 3 3 1 2 as 6 3 1 2 . and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way.

MD. know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in.. by viewing the area formula as a multiplication equation with an unknown factor.NF.1 Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1. find the width of a rectangular room given the area of the flooring and the length.A. min. Supporting/ Additional 23 4.7 Use decimal notation for fractions with denominators 10 or 100. 1 2 .5 Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint.B.6 4. Within a single system of measurement.g. kg. g. Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances. and add 3 1 4 5 34 . An angle that turns through 1 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle. by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols . or .MD. 5.62 meters. m. For example. 24).62 on a number line diagram. 100 ··· Major 21 Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. rewrite 0.MD. .4 For example. 25 4. express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit.2 Supporting/ Additional 24.MD. (3.C. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. and compare decimal fractions. by using a visual model. For example. Supporting/ Additional 28 Supporting/ Additional 28 A44 ©Curriculum Associates. LLC Copying is not permitted. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. l. express 3 as 30 . sec. 10 ·· 100 ··· 10 ·· 100 ··· 100 ··· Content Emphasis Ready® Common Core Instruction Lesson(s) Major 20 4. from a line plot find and interpret the difference in length between the longest and shortest specimens in an insect collection. and understand concepts of angle measurement: 4. 4. 4.. (2. For example. and justify the conclusions.C.C. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. 1 .A.A. e.5a An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays.C. locate 0. cm. intervals of time. and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. 2 ·· 4 ·· 8 ·· Solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions by using information presented in line plots.62 as 62 .MD.” and can 360 ··· be used to measure angles. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale. For example.5 Express a fraction with denominator 10 as an equivalent fraction with denominator 100. and use this technique to add two fractions with respective denominators 10 and 100. Major 22 Measurement and Data Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements.NF. 36). and money. lb. masses of objects.Common Core State Standards for Grade 4 — Mathematics Standards Number and Operations—Fractions (continued) Understand decimal notation for fractions.C. ml. liquid volumes. 4. including problems involving simple fractions or decimals. describe a length as 0. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit 1 1 . oz. . Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.4 Supporting/ Additional 27 Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. 4.3 Supporting/ Additional 26 Represent and interpret data. hr.NF. .MD... 12). .

Recognize angle measure as additive. Supporting/ Additional Supporting/ Additional Supporting/ Additional 28 29 30 Geometry Draw and identify lines and angles. angles (right. Sketch angles of specified measure. or the presence or absence of angles of a specified size. When an angle is decomposed into nonoverlapping parts. 4.1 4. (continued) 4. obtuse).C.Common Core State Standards for Grade 4 — Mathematics Standards Measurement and Data (continued) Content Emphasis Ready® Common Core Instruction Lesson(s) Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles. LLC Copying is not permitted. rays. lines.MD. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.A.MD.3 Draw points. and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.MD. Classify two-dimensional figures based on the presence or absence of parallel or perpendicular lines. line segments. Supporting/ Additional Supporting/ Additional Supporting/ Additional 31 32 33 ©Curriculum Associates. and perpendicular and parallel lines.2 4. e.G. Identify linesymmetric figures and draw lines of symmetry.g. Recognize right triangles as a category.7 Measure angles in whole-number degrees using a protractor.G. the angle measure of the whole is the sum of the angle measures of the parts.C.A.A.6 4. by using an equation with a symbol for the unknown angle measure.5b An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.C. and identify right triangles. acute. A45 .. Recognize a line of symmetry for a two-dimensional figure as a line across the figure such that the figure can be folded along the line into matching parts.G. Solve addition and subtraction problems to find unknown angles on a diagram in real world and mathematical problems. 4.

A.OA. 7. 4.B. The item requires processing beyond recall and observation.3.6 4.B. 4. 2.OA. Ready® Common Core Interim Assessment Correlations Unit 1: Number and Operations in Base Ten. The item requires explanation.B.NBT.A.A. 3 1 2. and connection to other ideas.NBT.4 Ready® Common Core Student Lesson(s) 4 1 3 1 2.4.A.NBT.B. A46 ©Curriculum Associates.2 4. as well as the standard(s) addressed.NBT.NBT.A. Use this information to adjust lesson plans and focus remediation.6 4. generalization.A.NBT.A.OA.1.OA. 4. 10.A.A.3.OA.3 4.NBT. 4. 10 7 3.A.B. The item requires superficial knowledge of the standard.3 4. 11 Unit 3: Number and Operations in Base Ten.B. 4.4.B.B.B.NBT.A.5.6.A. Part 2 Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 PT DOK 1 2 2 2 3 1 3 Standard(s) 4.NBT.NBT.4.B. 4.NBT.5 4.NBT.OA. 4.3 Ready® Common Core Student Lesson(s) 11 12 11 11 11 12 3.NBT.2.NBT. .A.NBT.Interim Assessment Correlations The tables below show the depth-of-knowledge (DOK) level for the items in the Interim Assessments. 4.B. 4.NBT.2 4.NBT.NBT.5 Ready® Common Core Student Lesson(s) 7 9 9.NBT.5 4.4 4.OA.B.OA. 10 8 9.B.NBT. 2.B.2 4. 9. 4. 11. 9.3 4.A. 4 1. 3.C. and the corresponding Ready® Instruction lesson(s) being assessed by each item. Part 1 Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 PT DOK1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 Standard(s) 4.B.B.5 4.5 4.NBT.4 4.NBT.NBT.4 4.1.B.NBT.A.5 4.A. 3.4 4.2. LLC Copying is not permitted.OA. 4.3 4. 4. 12 1Depth of Knowledge levels: 1.NBT. 4 Unit 2: Operations and Algebraic Thinking Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 PT DOK 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 Standard(s) 4.3 4.2. 10.

A.C. 4.1 4. 18. A47 . 4.NF .A.A.3 4.5 4. 15.B.B.MD.NF . 4. 4.A.G.G. 4.3 4. 33 33 32 33 31.A.A.A.A.2.1 4. 25 Unit 6: Geometry Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 PT DOK 1 1 2 2 1 2 3 Standard(s) 4.A.G.MD.2 4.G.G.3 4.C.1 4.3 4.1.5.C. 4. 16.MD. 4. 24.NF .A.A.4.A. 19 Unit 5: Measurement and Data Question 1 2 3 4 5 PT DOK 1 2 1 2 1 3 Standard(s) 4.3 Ready® Common Core Student Lesson(s) 33 32 32.2. 15.Ready® Common Core Interim Assessment Correlations (continued) Unit 4: Number and Operations—Fractions Question 1 2 3 4 5 PT DOK 1 1 2 2 2 3 Standard(s) 4.2 4.3 4.A.G. 4.6 Ready® Common Core Student Lesson(s) 18 20 15.NF .NBT.2 4.4b 4.B. 23.G. LLC Copying is not permitted.2.7 4.1.MD. 4.A. 12.NF .B.3.A.MD.B.NBT.NF .5a 4.3 4.B.MD.2.G. 32.OA.3a Ready® Common Core Student Lesson(s) 30 23 26 23 28 6. 33 ©Curriculum Associates.A.G.B. 16 14 13 11.G.NF .A. 16.MD.A.NF .

because altogether you walked 5 ·· 5 ·· PREREQUISITE SKILLS In order to be proficient with the concepts in this lesson.B. Students see that you can count with unit fractions just as you count with whole numbers. you can also 2 of a do arithmetic with them.3b Ready Lessons Tools for Instruction Interactive Tutorials ✓✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ CCSS Focus a with a . e. it tells the total number of equal parts in the whole 4.NF. recording each decomposition by an equation.) 150 L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. 4. • Extend their understanding of addition and subtraction of whole numbers to addition and subtraction of fractions.. • Use fraction models to add and subtract fractions with like denominators. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. • Understand subtraction as separating parts. • Identify numerators and denominators.Focus on Math Concepts Lesson 15 (Student Book pages 136–141) Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction LESSON OBJECTIVES • Understand addition as joining parts. . mile (2 fifths) yesterday and 6 of a mile (6 fifths. 1 as a sum of fractions 1 .B.NF. Students use the meaning of fractions and the meanings of addition and subtraction that were built in earlier grades to understand why the procedures for adding and subtracting fractions make sense. b. Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way. STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE: SMP 1–8 (See page A9 for full text. • Write whole numbers as fractions.com 5 ·· VOCABULARY There is no new vocabulary. Students are guided to think of operations with fractions as very much like operations with whole numbers. Teacher Toolbox Prerequisite Skills Teacher-Toolbox.NF. numerator: the top number in a fraction. it tells the number of equal parts that are being described denominator: the bottom number in a fraction.3 Understand a fraction b · b ·· a.3a 4. Review the following key terms.g. LLC Copying is not permitted. If you walked 4 of a mile (4 fifths) today. students should: • Know addition and subtraction basic facts. THE LEARNING PROGRESSION One goal of the Common Core is to develop a deeper understanding of fractions by using a progression of concepts from simple to complex.B. And because you can count with unit fractions. 2 things plus 4 more of those things is 6 of those things). by using a visual fraction model. This lesson prepares students for the conceptual shift involved in progressing from adding and subtracting whole numbers to adding and subtracting fractions. • Understand the meaning of fractions. Justify decompositions.

You could start at 2. in both cases. LLC Copying is not permitted. 4 ·· creating a concrete model to show 2 1 3 .” • How is adding fractions like adding whole numbers? Students may mention that. • Read Think with students. 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· 1 4 0 4 1 4 1 4 2 4 1 4 3 4 1 4 4 4 1 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 and a segment You can put a segment with a length of 2 4 ·· Underline the sentence that explains what adding fractions means.NF. you could put a segment with a length of 2 and a segment with a length of 3 next to each other on a number line to show 2 1 3. . Reinforce the idea that fractions are numbers. count on 3 more. you are putting things together. • Have a volunteer go to the board to show the two fractions on the number line. LLC Copying is not permitted. with a length of 3 next to each other to show 2 1 3 . Or. • If students need additional support with locating fractions on a number line.3a 4. 4 . the number 5 is 4 ·· Think about how you could explain adding 2 1 3 to a first grader. 4 4 ·· ·· 136 0 1 2 When you add 2 1 3 . you are putting ones together.B. 4 ·· 4 ·· What’s really going on when we add numbers? Adding means joining or putting things together. . A number line diagram gives meaning to the expression 2 1 3 .NF. • Can you think of another way to explain adding fractions? Students may suggest that you can count on with fractions just like you count on with whole numbers. and see where you end up: 2 . 4 ·· 4 ·· L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates.B. Concept Extension To extend students’ understanding of decomposing fractions. . • Guide students to recognize that just as the made up of 5 one-fourths. number 5 is made up of 5 ones. Lesson 15 Focus on Math Concepts Lesson 15 Part 1: Introduction CCSS 4. you are putting one-fourths together. have them build a number line by putting 1 fraction strips end-to-end. 151 .3b Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction STEP BY STEP • Introduce the Question at the top of the page. 3 1 and 4 in either order 4 4 ·· 4 ·· L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. follow these steps: • Draw and label a number line on the board from 0 to 2 like the one on the page showing fourths. 5. • Ask students to think of two different fractions that you could put together that would give you the same sum as adding 2 and 3 . . . 4 ·· 4 ·· Mathematical Discourse • How would you explain adding in your own words? Responses should include phrases such as “join” or “put together. 3 . .Part 1: Introduction AT A GLANCE Students explore the idea that adding fractions is not essentially different from adding whole numbers. • Help students relate the number line diagram to the sum 2 1 3. Think Adding fractions means joining or putting together parts of the same whole. 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 6 7 8 9 10 When you add 2 1 3.

On a number line. You can show subtracting fractions on a number line. • Discuss how the number line represents the problem 5 2 2. (SMP 2) 152 L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. 4 4 ·· ·· Part 1: Introduction Lesson 15 Lesson 15 Think Subtracting means separating or taking away. • Have students explain why dividing the line into eighths makes sense. You may find that using number lines or area models can help you explain your thinking.” • How is subtracting fractions like subtracting whole numbers? Students may note that subtracting means taking away. you are taking away one-fourths. STEP BY STEP • Read Think with students. • Have students read and reply to the Reflect directive. 1 1 0 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 1 5 6 7 8 9 10 Look at the whole numbers. A number line diagram gives meaning to the expression 5 2 2 . • Do you see a connection between the whole numbers and the numerators of the fractions on this page? Students may mention that the whole numbers and the numerators of the fractions are the same numbers. L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates.Part 1: Introduction AT A GLANCE Students explore the idea that subtracting fractions is not essentially different from subtracting whole numbers. When the denominators are the same. SMP Tip: In the Visual Model activity. 137 • Draw a number line from 0 to 1 on the board. (start at 5 and count back 2) • Ask a volunteer to explain how to use the number line to find 5  2 2 . • Label 0 and 1 on the line and have students provide labels for the other marks as you move your finger along the line. . 4 ·· 4 ·· Now you’ll have a chance to think more about how adding or subtracting fractions is like adding or subtracting whole numbers. Possible answer: I learned that adding and subtracting fractions is just like adding and subtracting whole numbers. LLC Copying is not permitted. 8 ·· 8 ·· 1 Use your own words to describe what you just learned about adding and subtracting fractions. I think I see a connection. students are asked to reason quantitatively and explain why dividing the line into eighths makes sense. It doesn’t matter what kinds of numbers you’re subtracting. 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· 1 4 1 4 3 4 4 4 1 4 1 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 1 4 0 4 1 4 1 4 2 4 1 4 0 1 2 When you subtract 5 2 2 . • Ask a volunteer to show how to find the answer to the problem using the number line. Mathematical Discourse • How would you explain subtracting in your own words? Listen for phrases such as “take apart” or “take away. and to answer both problems you subtract 2 from 5. 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· When you subtract 5 2 2. Now look at the numerators of the fractions. Start with a segment of length 5 and take away a segment of length 2 to show 5 2 2 . Provide 1 fraction strips for students who need more support. Reflect Visual Model • Tell students that you will use a number line to show 5 2 3 . you are taking away ones. you can start with a segment of length 5 and take away a segment of length 2 to show 5 2 2. • Ask students for ideas on how to divide the line so that you can use it to help you solve the problem. LLC Copying is not permitted. you can just add or subtract the numerators. Show how to subtract on the number line.

LLC Copying is not permitted. 0 1 4 2 4 4 ·· 3 4 4 5 4 4 ·· 5 ·· 3 6 4 ·· 4 7 4 ·· 5 8 4 ·· 9 10 4 3 Count by fifths to fill in the blanks: 1 . Mathematical Discourse • In which direction on the number line do you move when adding? Explain. • For problem 5. ·· Now label the number line. • Take note of students who are still having difficulty and wait to see if their understanding progresses as they work in their groups during the next part of the lesson. have them put by 4 ·· 3 on the number line and count on their finger on 5 ·· 1. 5 ·· Listen for responses that demonstrate an understanding that you can add two numbers in any order and get the same sum. STUDENT MISCONCEPTION ALERT: Some students may think that a fraction is always less than 1. 4 ·· 4 ·· STEP BY STEP • Tell students that they will have time to work individually on the Explore It problems on this page and then share their responses in groups. ·· 5 . and greater than 1. If this misconception persists. • If students need more support. Use the Mathematical Discourse questions to engage student thinking. You may choose to work through the first problem together as a class. This is an opportunity to assess student understanding and address student misconceptions.Part 2: Guided Instruction AT A GLANCE Students use number lines to answer questions. 4 . 2 . by 5 ·· 4 ·· 3 . use fraction strips to demonstrate fractions less than. will the answer change if you find 5 ·· 3 more than 1 ? Explain. LLC Copying is not permitted. • To help students answer problem 4. Responses might include the fact that adding means joining so you will be getting segments that are longer or an answer farther to the right than the number you started with. reinforcing the understanding that fractions are numbers. 4 ·· 4 ·· 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 7 Label the number line below and use it to show 3 1 1 . Part 2: Guided Instruction Lesson 15 Lesson 15 Explore It Counting on and using a number line are two ways to think about adding fractions. ·· 4 . 6 Label the number line below and use it to show 2 1 1 . 0 1 5 2 5 5 ·· 3 5 ·· 4 5 ·· 5 6 5 Use the number lines above to answer numbers 4 and 5. circulate among them. 4 ·· 4 ·· 0 4 1 4 2 4 3 4 4 4 5 4 6 4 7 4 8 4 138 L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. ·· 4 . • As students work individually. Then. 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 . 153 . encourage students to use the fraction strips to show and name other fractions greater than 1. Similarly. 2 Count by fourths to fill in the blanks: 1 . then count on their finger on 4 ·· 1 . suggest that they count out loud to help them fill in the missing numbers in problems 2 and 3. L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. ·· 4 4 ·· 4 ·· 6 7 8 9 Now label the number line. 2 . have them put 6 on the number line. equal to. ·· 4 . 5 . 4 What is 1 more than 6 ? 4 4 ·· ·· 5 What is 1 more than 3 ? 5 5 ·· ·· 4 ·· 5 ·· 4 7 Now try these two problems. to answer problem 5.

7 2 2 . especially if it shows a different way to show or think about one of the problems or shows a misconception that surfaced during the group work time. “What do I need to add to get to 7 ?” 8 ·· 8 ·· 8 ·· 8 ·· 154 L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. you may choose to ask a particular group to prepare to share their thinking or solution. but the denominator remains the same. 6 ·· • Can you think of another way to show finding a difference on a number line? Students may mention adding up to subtract. listen to. scissors • Model how to fold the strip of paper in half. You may choose to work through the first Talk About It problem together as a class. be sure to emphasize that when labeling the number line. you count by ones. 3 ·· 84 Mathematical Discourse • What is another name for 8 ? 12 ? Explain your 8 ·· 6 ·· thinking. Have students use their • Write 8 8 ·· ·· 2. and in half a third time. (SMP 3) • When sharing ideas about problems 9 and 10. How is counting by fractions the same STEP BY STEP • Organize students in pairs or groups. 0 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 6 6 7 6 8 6 9 6 10 6 11 6 12 6 Try It Another Way Work with your group to use the area models to show adding or subtracting fractions. Have a volunteer from each group come to the board to draw the group’s solutions to problems 11 and 12. to find at 2 and think. as counting with whole numbers? Possible answer: When you count with whole numbers. 8 ·· 8 ·· 6 2 2. When you count with fractions. . 9 Label the number line below and use it to show 7 2 2 . you are counting by parts. in half again.Part 2: Guided Instruction AT A GLANCE Students use number lines to show subtracting fractions. • Direct the group’s attention to Try It Another Way. 6 ·· 6 ·· SMP Tip: During this time. numerators count on by ones. Tell students to unfold the strips and use a marker to show the 8 equal sections. Then they use models to show adding and subtracting fractions. Encourage students to critique the group’s reasoning. 7 2 5 on the board. 8 ·· 8 ·· 0 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 8 8 9 8 10 8 11 8 12 8 5 1 10 Label the number line below and use it to show 2 . and join in on discussions at different points. Part 2: Guided Instruction Lesson 15 Lesson 15 Talk About It Solve the problems below as a group. the numerator counts by ones as long as the denominators are the same. 139 Hands-On Activity Use fraction strips to subtract fractions. strips to show that the difference is 8 ·· 1 Have them label each section. 12 Show 10 ·· 10 ·· L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. • Direct students to cut out each section. you might start For example. Materials: strips of paper. Ask them to name the fraction that represents each section. 1 2 11 Show 1 . Use the Mathematical Discourse questions to help support or extend students’ thinking. LLC Copying is not permitted. 1 pieces Students should recognize that eight 1 pieces make make up 1 whole and that twelve 8 ·· up 2 wholes. LLC Copying is not permitted. 8 Look at your answers to problems 2 and 3. markers. • Walk around to each group. How is it different? Possible answer: When you count by fractions.

He cut each pizza into fourths. 1 1 3 1 4. Demonstrate: • This discussion gives students an opportunity to think about problems that involve adding three fractions. Are both 1 s the same size? [no] Why not? [the whole pizzas are not the same size] Why doesn’t it make sense to add these two fractions? [the wholes are not the same] L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. then write your answers below. • Read the problem together as a class. Choose several pairs to explain their models to the class. Use the number line and area model below to show ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 0 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 140 L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. such as: What fraction describes a slice of the larger pizza? 1 What fraction describes a slice of the 3 ·· 44 smaller pizza? 3 1 4 4 ·· 4 ·· Possible answers: 0 14 Explain: Rob had a large pizza and 1 3 2 3 3 3 a small pizza. • For a quick and easy assessment. (SMP 5) • Discuss how you can add three (or more) fractions in the same way as adding whole numbers as long as you are talking about the same type of fractions. 155 . How did you show subtraction in your model? How are the models the same? How are they different? Explain: • The second problem focuses on the importance of the whole and the fact that you cannot add or subtract fractions unless they refer to the same whole. SMP Tip: Ask students to show how to use a number line as a tool to model the sum of three whole numbers. Part 3: Guided Practice Lesson 15 Lesson 15 Connect It Talk through these problems as a class. • Use the following to lead the class discussion: Explain how you knew the number of parts to draw in the whole. You add three fractions the same way. He took one fourth from each pizza and used the following problem 1 1 1 5 2. but he cannot add one fourth of the large pizza and one fourth of the small pizza in this way because the wholes are not the same. 3 ·· 3 ·· STEP BY STEP • Discuss each Connect It problem as a class using the discussion points outlined below. to show their sum: ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 What did Rob do wrong? Possible answer: Rob’s addition is correct. You add two of the numbers first. and then add the third to that sum. Each partner draws a different model. Compare: • You may choose to have students work in pairs to encourage sharing ideas. 15 Demonstrate: Think about how you would add three whole numbers. • Begin the discussion by asking questions. • Remind students to start at 0 when labeling the number line. have students draw their models on small whiteboards or paper and hold them up. Ask students to continue to work in pairs to discuss and write their responses about what Rob did wrong. Have students explain how they used the models to show the sum.Part 3: Guided Practice AT A GLANCE Students demonstrate their understanding of adding and subtracting fractions as they talk through three problems. 2 1 13 Compare: Draw two different models to show 2 . LLC Copying is not permitted. LLC Copying is not permitted.

i Possible answer: How much dog food do Jen and Luis have altogether? ii Possible answer: How much more dog food does Jen have than Luis? B Choose one of your questions to answer.Part 4: Common Core Performance Task AT A GLANCE Students write two questions that can be answered using some or all of the given information about the problem situation. 1 1 0 0 156 L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. but the student’s questions may contain some misunderstandings. Then they answer one of the questions. • Explain to students that the questions they write do not have to use all of the given information. if needed. • As students work on their own. Circle the question you chose. The response demonstrates some evidence of verbal and mathematical reasoning. Luis has 3 of a kilogram of dog food. 141 B Points Expectations 2 Both a number line and an area model are correctly drawn and labeled to show the solution to the problem. LLC Copying is not permitted. have students share one of their questions with a partner and show how to find the answer to their partner’s question using a visual model. walk around to assess their progress and understanding. to answer their questions. • If time permits. Part 4: Common Core Performance Task Lesson 15 Lesson 15 Put It Together 16 Use what you have learned to complete this task. Evidence in the response demonstrates that with feedback. A Write two different questions about this problem that involve adding or subtracting fractions. . There is no response or the response shows little or no understanding of the task. L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. Jen has 4 of a kilogram of dog food. A large dog eats 2 of a kilogram in one meal. LLC Copying is not permitted. 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· STEP BY STEP • Direct students to complete the Put It Together task on their own. Only one model is correctly drawn and labeled or the models drawn may contain minor errors. Possible answers: 0 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 10 10 10 ··· 4 1 10 ··· 3 SCORING RUBRICS See student facsimile page for possible student answers. A Points Expectations 2 The response demonstrates the student’s mathematical understanding of adding and subtracting fractions. An effort was made to accomplish the task. Both questions can be answered using the information given in the problem. and to give additional support. Show how to find the answer using a number line and an area model. the student can revise the work to accomplish the task. There are no models drawn or the models show no evidence of providing visual support for solving the problem.

8 ·· Include expressions whose sums are greater than one. In this activity. such as 5 or 8 ·· 5 . such as 5 2 2 . work out their problem. Are they systematic or do they just guess and check their answers? Do they find more than four ways? If time permits. Challenge Activity Write a question for the answer given. 4 ·· 4 ·· Write a subtraction expression on the board. or fraction strips for students to use. and then adjust their responses if necessary? Do they use a visual model or do they work symbolically? If time permits. check to see if it’s correct. Have students lay 1 fraction strips end-to-end 8 8 8 ·· ·· ·· On-Level Activity Decompose fractions in more than one way. area models. Be sure to provide expressions that include fractions greater than one. Write the fraction 6 on the board. Have students lay 1 fraction strips end-toend to show 5 . Ask them to tell you how many 1 s there are in all. Continue with similar problems. Materials: fraction strips Write an addition expression on the board. Write the following problem on the board: The answer is 7 . Ask them to find at least four ways they can put fifths together to make 6 . students think of multiple ways to decompose fractions. Then have them “take away” 2 . 5 ·· 5 ·· 6 ·· 6 ·· 6 ·· 6 ·· 6 ·· 6 ·· Note the methods students use. You might ask them to write two questions for each answer you supply.Differentiated Instruction Lesson 15 Intervention Activity Use fraction strips to model adding and subtracting fractions. What could the question be? 8 ·· Encourage students to think about both addition and subtraction. such as 6 2 3 . Ask students to think about 6 as a sum. Do they just guess. Continue with similar problems. one using addition and one using subtraction. Provide number lines. give students (or pairs or groups) practice with similar problems. such as 3 1 2 . such as 2 1 3 . LLC Copying is not permitted. Provide number lines. This activity also gives students practice writing 10 ·· number sentences. or fraction strips for support as necessary. area models. 157 . Ask them to tell you how many 1 s are left. give students (or pairs or groups) practice decomposing other fractions. Provide at least one example: 6 5 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 ·· to show the sum. L15: Understand Fraction Addition and Subtraction ©Curriculum Associates. Note the methods students use.

4.NF. this lesson extends students’ understanding of fraction addition and subtraction. THE LEARNING PROGRESSION In keeping with the Common Core goal of developing a deeper understanding of fractions. 1 as a sum of fractions 1 . LLC Copying is not permitted.com PREREQUISITE SKILLS In order to be proficient with the concepts/skills in this lesson.g. 4. 5.B.NF. • Understand the meaning of fractions. 6. Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole. d. • Compose and decompose fractions. • Identify numerators and denominators. e. STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE: SMP 1. it tells the total number of equal parts in the whole CCSS Focus a with a .B. number lines. by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. numerator: the top number in a fraction. and equations to represent word problems. • Use fraction models.NF. Teacher Toolbox Prerequisite Skills Teacher-Toolbox. 2. • Subtract fractions with like denominators.) 158 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. Students use visual models and equations to represent and solve word problems involving the addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators. Review the following key terms.Develop Skills and Strategies Lesson 16 (Student Book pages 142–151) Add and Subtract Fractions LESSON OBJECTIVES • Add fractions with like denominators. 8 (See page A9 for full text. • Know addition and subtraction basic facts. • Write whole numbers as fractions.3d Ready Lessons Tools for Instruction Interactive Tutorials ✓✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ ✓ VOCABULARY There is no new vocabulary. 7.3a 4. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators. • Understand subtraction as separating parts.. students should: • Understand addition as joining parts. 4.3 Understand a fraction b · b ·· a. .B. it tells the number of equal parts that are being described denominator: the bottom number in a fraction.

What fraction represents the whole pack of cards? 12 ··· If Lynn got 4 cards out of 12. And. you join or separate parts of a set or whole. and for how many cards Todd received. then Todd got 5 of the pack. • Have students read the problem at the top of the page. and the denominator tells the number of cards in the pack. that means she got 4 of the pack.B. If the numerator tells the number of cards Todd got. 12 ··· 142 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. • Be sure to point out that 4 1 3 1 5 equals the total number of cards. Remind students that the whole is represented by the set. and Todd got the rest of the cards. What fraction of the pack did Todd get? STEP BY STEP • Tell students that this page models building the solution to a problem one step at a time and writing to explain the solution.NF. • Guide students to understand that they needed to “join” and “take away” the numbers of cards to answer the questions.Part 1: Introduction AT A GLANCE Students read a word problem and answer a series of questions designed to explore the connection between adding and subtracting fractions and adding and subtracting whole numbers. you learned that adding fractions is a lot like adding whole numbers. • Work through Explore It as a class. How many cards did Lynn and Paco get altogether? How many cards did Todd get? 12 7 5 There are 12 cards in the pack. L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. what fraction of the pack did he get? 12 3 ·· 12 ··· 7 What fraction of the pack did Lynn and Paco get altogether? 12 ··· Explain how you could find the fraction of the pack that Todd got. Lynn. • Ask student pairs or groups to explain their answers for the remaining questions. [When adding or subtracting whole numbers. 12. Possible answer: Todd got 5 cards.3a 4.” • What does the numerator of a fraction tell you? Students’ responses should indicate an understanding that the numerator tells you the number of equal parts you are talking about. If Paco got 3 cards out of 12. Lynn got 4 cards. when adding or subtracting fractions.3d Add and Subtract Fractions In Lesson 15. Lesson 16 Part 1: Introduction Lesson 16 Develop Skills and Strategies CCSS 4. Mathematical Discourse • What does the denominator of a fraction tell you? Listen for responses that include the phrase “equal parts of a whole” or “equal parts of a set. or pack. and Todd split a pack of 12 baseball cards. of cards.B. Take a look at this problem. Paco. LLC Copying is not permitted. • Ask students to explain how they figured out the answers for how many cards Lynn and Paco received altogether.] Explore It Use the math you already know to solve the problem. LLC Copying is not permitted. you join or separate whole numbers. • Encourage students to explain the connection between adding and subtracting fractions and whole numbers. Paco got 3 cards.NF. 159 . There are 12 cards in the pack.

or one whole set. LLC Copying is not permitted. repeat with 7 cards. The “whole” is the pizza. Tell students to use scissors to cut out 12 equal-sized cards. and Todd might share a pizza cut into 8 slices. • Tell students to add (join) the fractions and write the sum on their paper. construction site. Even if a person takes away 1 slice or 3 slices from the pizza. Explain to students that the 12 cards represent one pack of cards. In that problem. and 8 slices means there are 8 equal parts of the whole. and that there are 12 parts in the set. Lynn. • If time permits. 4 12 3 12 5 12 Fractions in real life can also refer to equal parts of a whole object. Have a volunteer explain how they determined their answer. LLC Copying is not permitted. Have students write the name of the fraction represented by the 2 cards on their paper. Each egg is 1 of the set. Have volunteers share their ideas. Possible answer: You can think of a full egg carton as a set of objects. like the baseball card problem. . [2 cards out of 12] Then. Paco. repeat for additional fraction pairs. If 2 more slices are taken away. • Have students read and reply to the Reflect directive. then the numerator of the fraction is 7. the “whole” is the pack. • Note that the whole pizza was divided into 8 equal slices. • Remind students that when you have a whole object that is divided into equal parts. distances on a map 160 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. Materials: Drawing paper and notebook paper • Distribute drawing paper and a piece of notebook paper to each student. Sometimes they refer to parts of a set of objects. the whole will stay the same. Examples: cooking. 12 ··· L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. so each fraction refers to the same whole. and the numerator of the fraction is 5. then there are 5 slices left.Part 1: Introduction AT A GLANCE Students use fraction models to review adding and subtracting fractions. the whole will stay the same because the cards are all from the same pack of 12. • Point out that when you have a set of objects. Reflect 1 Describe another example of a set of objects or a whole object divided into fractions. that means there are 12 parts in the set. and 12 cards means there are 12 parts of the whole. Since there are 12 baseball cards in the pack. the denominator represents the total number of objects in the set. Real-World Connection Encourage students to think about everyday places or situations where people might need to add or subtract like fractions. When you add or subtract baseball cards. The number of cards that each person has represents the numerator of the fraction. If there are 7 slices remaining. so the denominator is 8. Part 1: Introduction Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Find Out More We often use fractions in real life. Review the meaning of the fraction. STEP BY STEP • Read Find Out More as a class. Each person got baseball cards from the same pack. 143 Hands-On Activity Use models to add fractions. • Tell students to hold up 2 cards. the denominator shows the total number of parts.

[10] Point out that each pot is 1 of the total number of pots. Margo painted 4 of the pots. L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. draw a number line on the board with a point at 4 . They painted a total of 7 pots. 10 ·· 1 strips in a single row. Then. • You may wish to draw the number line on the board and have a volunteer demonstrate the 4 jumps to the right to add 4 tenths to 3 . you could 10 ·· You could line up three 1 strips and four count how many tenths you have altogether. Emphasize that the number line is divided into tenths to represent the total number of pots. • Read Picture It. SMP Tip: Help students make sense of the problem and generalize that the same properties that apply to whole numbers apply to fractions. Josie and Margo made 10 clay pots in art class. Have students count aloud to find the sum. with a point at 3 . LLC Copying is not permitted. 10 ·· 144 1 5 3 tenths 4 tenths 7 tenths 10 ·· 10 ·· Model It You can also use a number line to help understand the problem. Each pot is 1 of the total number of pots. (SMP 1) Mathematical Discourse • How could you use fractions to label 0 and 1 on the number line? Students may suggest that you can write both as a number out of 10. What if I drew the starting point at 4 instead 10 ·· of 3 ? Could I still solve the problem? 10 ·· • To emphasize the point. 161 . What fraction of the clay pots did they paint? 10 ·· 10 ·· STEP BY STEP • Read the problem at the top of the page as a class. Josie painted 3 of the pots. 10 ·· 10 ·· • What is another way you could solve the problem? Responses may mention using fraction strips. LLC Copying is not permitted. 10 ·· 10 ·· Concept Extension Illustrate the commutative property of addition. 10 ·· Picture It You can use models to help understand the problem. • Ask. Part 2: Modeled Instruction Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Read the problem below. 10 10 ·· ·· 0 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 1 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. 10 ·· Josie painted 3 pots. The following model shows the pots. Then explore different ways to understand it. and Margo painted 4 pots. so 0 and 10 . • Direct students to look at the number line in Model It. the picture is shaded to represent the number of pots each girl painted. have students explain how to count on from 4 to find the answer.Part 2: Modeled Instruction AT A GLANCE Students use models and number lines to review adding fractions. Have a volunteer name the denominator of the fraction in the problem. Encourage a volunteer to come to the board and demonstrate how to find the sum. J J J J M J M J M M J M J M J M M • Guide students to recognize that since Josie painted 3 of the pots and Margo painted 4 . Then. 10 ·· 0 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 1 Start at 3 and count 4 tenths to the right to add 4 . The following number line is divided into tenths. 3 for Josie and 4 for Margo.

3 and 4. LLC Copying is not permitted. What fraction of the rooms did Lita and Otis clean 3 ·· altogether? 3 ·· 2 ELL Support • Write the word tenths on the board. 145 TRY IT SOLUTIONS 7 Solution: 2 . Use words: Use fractions: 3 tenths 3 10 ·· 1 1 4 tenths 4 10 ·· 5 5 7 tenths 7 10 ···· 6 Explain how you add fractions with the same denominator. Students may show 1 on a number line divided into thirds and count 1 mark to the right. Then.Part 2: Guided Instruction AT A GLANCE Students revisit the problem on page 144 to learn how to add fractions using equations. 3 3 3 ·· ·· ·· 4 1 8 Solution: of a meter. students solve addition word problems. Circle the letters that spell ten in the word and write the number 10 below it. 3 What do the numerators. Lita cleaned 1 of the rooms. The numerator tells the number of pots that you are talking about. Show your work on a separate sheet of paper. what fraction would represent 1 of the pots? 3 1 4 8 ·· Possible answer: The denominator tells the total number of pots. Next to the words. 5 5 ·· ·· 10 ·· 5 ·· ERROR ALERT: Students who wrote 4 or 2 added both the numerators and the denominators. repeat with other fraction words. have them write fractions associated with the words. Try It Use what you just learned to solve these problems. • Review the meanings of numerator (the number of equal parts of a set you have) and denominator (the total number of equal parts the set is divided into). Possible answer: Add the numerators and leave the denominator as is. If Josie and Margo only made 8 pots. 4 How many clay pots did Josie and Margo paint altogether? 7 5 Write equations to show what fraction of the clay pots Josie and Margo painted altogether. 4 tells the number of pots that Margo painted. Students may show on a 5 5 ·· ·· 3 ·· 3 ·· They also may write the equation 1 1 1 5 2 . ( ·· 5) 162 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. 7 Lita and Otis are helping their mom clean the house. • Ask. LLC Copying is not permitted. Part 2: Guided Instruction Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Connect It Now you will solve the problem from the previous page using equations. How long are 5 5 ·· ·· 4 5 the two strings combined? of a meter ·· L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. • Emphasize that adding fractions is like adding whole numbers. 8 Mark’s string is 1 of a meter long. . Say. They also may write the equation 1 1 3 5 4. 3 ·· Otis cleaned 1 of the rooms. When finding the number of pots Josie and Margo painted altogether. Be sure to point out that the questions refer to the problem on page 144. Bob’s string is 3 of a meter long. tell you? Possible answer: 3 tells the number of pots that Josie painted. • Have students write tenths and eighths on a piece of paper. 2 How do you know that each pot is 1 of the total number of pots? 10 ·· STEP BY STEP • Read Connect It as a class. • If time allows. you add the numerators of the fractions and write that sum over the denominator. number line divided into fifths and count 3 marks to the right. • Repeat using the word eighths.

LLC Copying is not permitted. • What is another way to solve this problem? Students may mention using fraction strips or writing an equation. moving from right to left along the number line. or how much water is in the bottle) • Point out that 4 sixths are being taken away since Alberto drank 4 parts of the water bottle. • Tell students to look at the number line in Model It. 0 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 1 subtract 4 sixths. Mathematical Discourse • What is the difference between adding fractions and subtracting fractions on a number line? Responses may indicate direction. Ask. Each part is 1 of a liter. Ask. cross out (or erase) one part of the water bottle at a time. 6 ·· Alberto drank 4 parts of the water in the bottle. Part 3: Modeled Instruction Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Read the problem below. • Read Picture It. He drank 4 of a liter. so take away 4 shaded parts of the bottle. Concept Extension Help students see the relationship between the picture and the number line. 2 5 sixths 4 sixths 5 1 sixth Model It You can use a number line to help understand the problem. LLC Copying is not permitted. name] land on? 3 1 4 Say. 163 . The following model shows the water bottle divided into 6 equal parts. 5 to • Have a volunteer count 4 jumps to the left from 6 ·· of the bottle still has water in it? Picture It You can use models to help understand the problem. There is 1 part of the bottle left with water in it. 1 sixth of Alberto’s water bottle still has water in it. • Draw the number line on the board. Point out that the number line is divided into sixths to represent the 6 equal parts of Alberto’s water bottle.Part 3: Modeled Instruction AT A GLANCE Students use models and number lines to review subtracting fractions. 5 on the number line lines up with • Point out that 6 ·· the top of the water bottle. Then explore different ways to understand it. What number did [volunteer’s line show that 1 sixth of Alberto’s water bottle still has water in it. moving to the right to add and moving to the left to subtract. draw 5 -full water bottle turned on its side above the the 6 ·· number line. • Then. So. making sure each part of the water bottle is lined up with its tick mark on the number line. both the model and number 6 ·· 146 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. After 4 parts are crossed out (or erased) to show the water Alberto drank. with a point at 5 . Five shaded parts show how much water is in the bottle. So. 6 ·· 0 6 ·· 1 6 2 6 3 6 4 6 5 6 1 6 ·· Start at 5 and count 4 sixths to the left to subtract 4. Guide students to recognize that Alberto’s water bottle is divided into 6 equal parts. 5 of a liter in it. Ask. What fraction Alberto’s water bottle had 6 ·· 6 ·· STEP BY STEP • Read the problem at the top of the page as a class. What is 5 2 4? [1] Say. Then. point out to students that the remaining water is lined 1 -mark on the number line. The following number line is divided into sixths. What do the 6 equal parts represent? (the denominator) What do the 5 shaded parts represent? (the numerator. up with the 6 ·· L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates.

Part 3: Guided Instruction Lesson 16 Lesson 16 Connect It Now you will solve the problem from the previous page using equations. She used 2 of the carton to make breakfast. Students may show 3 on a number line divided into fourths and count 2 marks to the left. Ask. When finding the number of parts of the water bottle that still have water. LLC Copying is not permitted. They also may write the equation 8 2 5 5 3 . Model how to use the ruler to divide the plate into 8 equal sections. markers. 4 ·· What fraction of the carton of eggs does Mrs. repeat for other subtraction problems. Guide students to cut 2 more sections from the color portion of the plate they are holding. 4 tells the number of parts that Alberto drank. 5 and 4. 4 4 ·· ·· 2 1 ERROR ALERT: Students who wrote or 4 2 ·· ·· subtracted from a full carton of eggs 4 rather than 4 ·· the 3 of a carton that Mrs. LLC Copying is not permitted. Kirk have left? 15 Carmen had 3 of a carton of eggs. Students should draw 4 lines. 10 What do the numerators. 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· They also may write the equation 3 2 2 5 1 . Kirk had. 3 5 4 8 ·· 8 ·· • Tell students to subtract 2 more eighths. 5 of the plate and then • Direct students to color TRY IT SOLUTIONS 14 Solution: 1. Possible answer: Subtract the numerators and leave the denominator as is. you subtract the numerators of the fractions and write the difference over the denominator. what fraction would represent 1 of those parts? 3 1 4 (SMP 6) 3 ·· 1 Use words: Use fractions: 5 sixths 5 6 ·· 2 2 4 sixths 4 6 ·· 5 5 1 sixth 1 6 ···· 13 Explain how you subtract fractions with the same denominator. 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· they are left with. 3 3 4 8 ·· • If time allows. 11 How many parts of water are left in the bottle after Alberto drank 4 parts? 12 Write equations to show what fraction of the bottle has water left in it. scissors • Distribute paper plates. • Write 8 ·· 8 ·· 8 ·· 15 Solution: 3 . SMP Tip: Discuss with students how important it is to communicate clearly and precisely by reviewing the meanings of numerator (the number of equal parts you’re talking about) and denominator (the total number of equal parts in the whole). and scissors to each student. Materials: paper plates. The numerator tells the number of parts you are talking about. 4 ·· 1 4 ·· 10 ·· of the yard is left to mow? 8 of the yard left to mow.Part 3: Guided Instruction AT A GLANCE Students revisit the problem on page 146 to learn how to subtract fractions using equations. 147 Hands-On Activity Use paper plates to subtract fractions. • Ask students to name the fraction of the plate 5 2 2 5 3 on the board. Possible answer: The denominator tells the number of equal parts the bottle is divided into. Be sure to point out that Connect It refers to the problem on page 146. Students may show 8 on a number line divided into tenths and count 5 marks to the left. Kirk had • Remind students that subtracting fractions is like subtracting whole numbers. Ask students to name the fraction of the plate they have. 14 Mrs. tell you? Possible answer: 5 tells the number of parts that have water. markers. Say. 4 ·· ( ) () cut out that fraction of the plate. 164 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. students solve subtraction word problems. Then. Show your work on a separate sheet of paper. Try It Use what you just learned to solve these problems. . She mowed 5 of the yard. If Alberto’s water bottle was divided into 3 equal parts. What fraction 10 ·· 3 10 ··· L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. 9 How do you know that each part is 1 of a liter? 6 ·· STEP BY STEP • Read page 147 as a class. rulers.

165 . or equations to solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions. How did he get that answer? Pair/Share How did you and your partner decide what fraction to start with? 2 of a smoothie 3 Solution: ·· Rob added both the numerators and the denominators. What fraction of the 18 Emily ate fruit smoothie is left? Show your work. The student used labels and “jump” arrows to show each part of the hike on a number line. What fraction of the balloons are 10 ·· Lesson 16 Study the model below. (DOK 2) 18 Solution: C. Possible student work using an equation: 32152 3 ·· 3 ·· 3 ·· 6 ·· 1 of a bag of carrots. SOLUTIONS Ex A number line is shown as one way to solve the problem. 149 AT A GLANCE Students use models. number lines. Nick ate 2 of the bag of carrots. Student Model 17 Mr. (DOK 2) problem by using the equation 3 ·· STEP BY STEP • Ask students to solve the problems individually and label fractions in their drawings. Possible student work using a model: r r r b b I think that there are at least two different steps to solve this problem. Rob added the numerators correctly. have them Pair/Share to discuss their solutions with a partner or in a group. LLC Copying is not permitted. 6 ·· What fraction of the bag of carrots did Emily and Nick eat altogether? Circle the letter of the correct answer. 3 6 ·· ·· (DOK 3) L16: Add and Subtract Fractions 6 ·· 6 ·· ©Curriculum Associates.Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 16 Part 4: Guided Practice Lesson 16 Part 4: Guided Practice 3 of the balloons are red. Students could solve the 3 3 3 ·· ·· ·· 5 17 Solution: . Then solve problems 16–18. • When students have completed each problem. How far of water. LLC Copying is not permitted. Jessica hiked another 5 ·· 5 ·· neither red nor blue? Show your work. should you add or subtract? Rob chose D as the correct answer. did Jessica hike in all? Look at how you could show your work using a number line. Chang has a bunch of balloons. before drink 2 5 2 5 after drink Pair/Share How else could you solve this problem? 4 mile 5 Solution: ·· 0 1 5 2 5 3 5 4 5 1 red 3 10 ··· 10 Solution: ··· 5 blue 2 10 ··· neither red nor blue 10 ··· 5 Pair/Share How is this problem different from the others you’ve seen in this lesson? What fraction represents the whole fruit smoothie? 16 Ruth made a fruit smoothie. 16 Solution: 2 of a smoothie. ©Curriculum Associates. B is not correct because 1 is not equivalent to 3 . this is an addition problem. LLC Copying is not permitted. A 1 B C D 1 3 6 ·· 3 ·· 6 ·· 12 ·· 3 To find the fraction of the bag Emily and Nick ate altogether. After her drink. drawing a picture of 10 balloons and labeling 3 as red and 2 as blue. Pair/Share Does Rob’s answer make sense? 148 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. too. It is just like adding whole numbers! 2 mile on a trail before she stopped to get a drink Jessica hiked 2 mile. She drank 3 ·· 1 of it. Explain to students why the other two answer choices are not correct: A is not correct because you are not subtracting 1 from 2 . Students could also solve the problem by drawing a model that is divided into fifths and shading 4 sections (2 sections out of 5 plus 2 sections out of 5). 10 ·· 2 of the balloons are blue. but he mistakenly added the denominators together. Students could solve the problem by 10 ·· 3 2 1 5 2 .

LLC Copying is not permitted. 3 6 5 of the pizza. LLC Copying is not permitted. What fraction of the cake is left? ate }} 12 1 of the cake A }} 12 5 B }} of the cake 12 7 of the cake C }} 12 12 D }} of the cake 12 2 cup of milk. R J J Possible student work using a model: 2 R J Answer Regan could eat Juanita could eat 8 ·· 8 ·· 3 of the pizza. ©Curriculum Associates. How much Lee’s muffin mix calls for } } } 3 3 3 more milk than oil does she need for the muffin mix? 1 cup 3 ·· 5 9 of a bucket of blueberries. Which model can be used to find the total fraction of the lawn they mowed? Circle the letter of all that apply. and of the pizza. Cole picked 3 of the In all. He has 2 of a yard Liang bought some cloth. Possible student work using 3 ·· an equation: 2 2 1 5 1 (DOK 1) 3 3 3 ·· ·· ·· 5 Solution: 6 . How much cloth did Liang buy? Lucy and Margot are mowing the lawn. They divided the lawn into 8 equal sections. 8 8 ·· 8 8 8 ·· 8 8 8 ·· 8 8 8 ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· 4 1 1 5 5 . A B C A B C D of a yard } 8 of a yard }} 16 7 of a yard } 8 8 of a yard } 8 7 3 0 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 1 D 0 1 8 2 8 3 8 4 8 5 8 6 8 7 8 1 2 2 of the cake. 151 AT A GLANCE Students add and subtract fractions to solve word problems that might appear on a mathematics test. 3 1 2 5 5. What fraction of the bucket of blueberries did Max pick? Possible student work using a number line: Show your work. Self Check Go back and see what you can check off on the Self Check on page 119. LLC Copying is not permitted. Lesson 16 4 Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 16 1 5 of a yard for a school project. He used } } 8 8 left. D. 5 1 0 5 5 (DOK 2) 8 8 8 ·· 8 8 8 ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· 8 ·· 166 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. for a total of 6 . 150 L16: Add and Subtract Fractions L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. The number line starts at Margot’s fraction ( 4 ) and adds 2 for Lucy’s fraction. 12 2 5 5 7 (DOK 1) 12 12 12 ·· 12 12 12 ·· ·· ·· ·· ·· 3 Solution: 1 cup. 2 1 3 5 5. (DOK 2) 8 ·· 8 ·· 8 ·· 8 ·· 8 ·· SOLUTIONS 1 Solution: C. 0 Answer Max picked 1 10 2 10 6 10 ··· 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 10 1 of the bucket of blueberries. . A pizza is cut into 8 equal slices. The model shows 2 shaded in light gray for Lucy’s sections and 4 shaded in dark gray for Margot’s sections. Together. Possible student work using an equation: 5 1 2 5 7 (DOK 1) 8 ·· 8 ·· 8 ·· 2 Solution: C. She ate }} 12 3 of the cake. Lucy mowed 2 sections and Margot mowed 4 sections. and her brother Carmela cut a cake into 12 equal-sized pieces. Possible student work using an equation: 9 2 3 5 6 (DOK 1) 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· 6 Solution: Possible student work using equations: 0 1 5 5 5. Cole and Max picked }} }} 10 10 bucket of blueberries. The total shaded sections represent the total fraction of the lawn they mowed. 1 1 4 5 5.Part 5: Common Core Practice Lesson 16 Part 5: Common Core Practice Solve the problems. 4 Solution: A. Regan and Juanita will eat } 8 What is one way the girls could eat the pizza? Show your work. 1 cup of oil. Possible student work using equations: 2 1 3 5 5 . and 1 cup of sugar.

repeat for other denominators by folding another strip of paper three or four times. the original fractions did not have 5 ·· denominators of 5. 4 tenths 1 2 tenths 5 6 tenths. . Tell students to color 1 of the strip. Challenge students to write a 3 1 1 3 Possible answer: ··· 10 ··· 10 4 2. Remind students that the denominator tells the kind of parts you are adding.Differentiated Instruction Lesson 16 Assessment and Remediation • Ask students to find 4 1 2 . have added both the numerators and the denominators. . added denominators. . 4 ·· 2 ·· L16: Add and Subtract Fractions ©Curriculum Associates. and then simplified. markers Distribute paper and markers to each student. 20 ·· 6 Students may . have subtracted the fractions. and then in half again. have subtracted the fractions and simplified. Level 4. fraction addition problem that has a sum of 5 ·· them to use their fraction strips to show that the sum is 2 or 1 . Ask students to explain 2 1 3 . Then have them color another 1 of the strip. . 167 . Tell students that the sum of two fractions is 2. However. To remediate . Tell them to unfold the strips and use the marker to show the 4 equal sections. check students’ understanding. 5 or 1 their thinking while finding 3 4 5 ·· 5 ·· 5 ·· • If a student is still having difficulty. 10 ·· 3 10 ·· 5 ·· 1 2 Hands-On Activity Use fraction strips to add fractions. Direct students to fold a strip of paper in half. Write 1 1 1 on the board. have added numerators. use the chart below to guide remediation. Explain that just as 4 apples + 2 apples = 6 apples. Lesson 15. • After providing remediation. Explain that just as 4 apples 1 2 apples 5 6 apples. 3 6 or 3 4 10 ·· 10 ·· 10 ·· 5 ·· • For students who are still struggling. Remind students to read the problem carefully to be sure they’re using the correct operation. Challenge 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· 4 ·· Challenge Activity Write a problem for a given sum. . use Ready Instruction. . LLC Copying is not permitted. Remind students to read the problem carefully to be sure they’re using the correct operation. Materials: strips of paper. 4 tenths + 2 tenths = 6 tenths. If time allows. Remind students that the denominator tells the kind of parts you are adding. If the error is .

NOTES .

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Mathematics Instruction & Practice Grades K–8 Toolbox Online Instructional Resources Grades K–8 Reading Instruction & Practice Grades K–8 . this rigorous instruction and practice program guarantees students and teachers will be Common Core-ready.9/13 4K Built for the Common Core True to the details and intent of the new standards.