MODERN MEDIA ARABIC: A STUDY OF WORD FREQUENCY IN WORLD AFFAIRS AND SPORTS SECTIONS IN ARABIC NEWSPAPERS

by

ZAINUR RIJAL ABDUL RAZAK

A thesis submitted to the University of Birmingham for the degree DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

Department of Theology and Religion School of Philosophy, Theology and Religion College of Arts and Law The University of Birmingham February 2011

University of Birmingham Research Archive
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ABSTRACT
This study examines language style of Arabic newspapers particularly in the world affairs and sport sections, using the word frequency analysis. The study is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter mainly focuses on background and aims of the study, while review of previous studies is presented in the second chapter. Chapter Three discusses Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), the selected newspapers and the chosen sections. Chapter Four concerns on the methodology applied in the study. Analysis of the language style is presented in Chapter five and followed by findings which are discussed in Chapter Six. The final chapter provides summary, conclusion and suggestions for further research. The study employed a self-constructed method in corpus building. A total of 30 articles (world affairs and sports) from seven Arabic newspapers were collected from the official online websites mostly in November 2007. Five of the newspapers are published in Arab countries and one in both the United Kingdom and Australia. The Wordsmith version 5.0 was used in analyzing the corpus data. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyse word frequency list in both categories, while the Likelihood ratio test was applied in the comparison analysis. Findings revealed that most high frequency words have close relationship to their respective categories especially in the use of nouns. Slight differences were identified in terms of word spelling, loan word, verb transitivity and phrase amongst the newspapers published in different countries s. It is also proven that there is a tendency in MSA to practice new features in news writing which is different from the well known Arabic grammar, i.e, verb and subject agreement in gender. Different newspapers have also demonstrated their own focus in news reporting, and sports section is found to use more specific words than world affairs section.

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful This research would not have been possible without many individuals whose contributions and supports have been invaluable during my study at the University of Birmingham. First and foremost I wish to express my heartfelt gratitude and appreciation to my supervisor, Dr. Muhammad Elashiry for his constant guidance and support throughout the years I gave been working on this thesis. His insightful scholarship and meticulous accuracy were instrumental in shaping this work into its final form. My deep appreciation also goes to Dr. Andrew Davies, a member of staff for Department of Theology and Religion for his kindness and readiness to make my study process smoothly going. A special thank also to Dr. Mark Cartledge, the School Head of Doctoral Research, Department of Theology and Religion, the University of Birmingham for his kindness to help while I was writing this thesis. Many thanks also go to the other member of staff of the department, especially Beverly Stubb for her help and assistance. I also wish to thank the Islamic Science University of Malaysia and the Government of Malaysia for granting me a scholarship and study leave at the University of Birmingham. My sincere thanks are also due to Mike Scott, the founder of Wordsmith software which applied in this study for his guidance and instant response to my problems in using his computer software. The same gratitude and appreciation are also extended to my colleagues and friends who supported me during this study, especially members of ‘Majlis Ilmu’ at Birmingham. I must express my special appreciation to Carol Rowe for being willing to act as proofreader for this thesis. Words are not enough to describe my indebtedness to my parents Abdul Razak Bin Abdullah and Azizah Binti Osman who have always impressed upon me the importance of acquiring knowledge. My deepest gratitude to my wife Noor Asyura Binti Abu Bakar, my children, Ainul Safiyyah and Aliya Solehah for their endless love and patience. Finally, my special thanks also go to other members of my family for their prayers and support. Their sacrifice and encouragement are greatly appreciated and will always be in my memory.

Zainur Rijal Bin Abdul Razak

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract Acknowledgement Table of Contents List of Tables List of Graphs List of Figures List of Appendices ii iii iv xi xvi xvii xviii

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 Background of the Study Rationale The Importance of the Study Research Questions Scope of the Research Methodology of the Research Transliteration Symbols and Abbreviations 1 2 4 5 6 7 7

CHAPTER TWO
PREVIOUS ARABIC WORD FREEQUENCY STUDIES
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Introduction Word Frequency Studies in General Arabic Word Frequency Studies Word Frequency Studies in Arabic Newspapers 12 14 18 27

iv

2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5

Pre-Computer Era Post-Computer Era

28 32 36

Conclusion

CHAPTER THREE
MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) IN ARABIC MEDIA
3.1 3.2 Introduction Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) in Newspaper Publishing 3.2.1 Modern Standard Arabic 3.2.2 Media Arabic 3.2.2.1 Media Arabic and the invention of the Internet 3.2.2.2 MSA in written and spoken Media Arabic 3.2.3 MSA in Arabic newspapers 3.3 Language Aspects in Arabic Newspapers 3.3.1 Language style 3.3.2 Word usage 3.3.2.1 Word selection 3.3.2.2 The development of word usage 3.3.2.3 The contribution of Arabic newspapers to word revolution 3.3.3 Word standardisation between Arabic newspapers and Language Academies 3.3.4 3.4 Differences in word usage in Arabic newspapers 62 65 71 71 74 79 79 81 82 38 39 39 44 44 47 48 49 50 52 53 58 59

Print Newspapers and Online Newspapers 3.4.1 Print newspapers 3.4.2 Online newspapers

3.5

The Background of the Arabic Newspapers Studied 3.5.1 Al-Ahram 3.5.2 Al-Jazirah 3.5.3 Al-Safir

v

3.5.4 Al-Sabah al-Jadid 3.5.5 Al-Khabar 3.5.6 Al-Quds al- Arabi 3.5.7 Al-Furat 3.6 Newspaper Selected Sections 3.6.1 World affairs 3.6.2 Sports 3.7 Conclusion

83 84 85 86 87 87 89 91

CHAPTER FOUR
METHODOLOGY
4.1 4.2 Introduction Corpus Analysis 4.2.1 Corpus linguistics 4.2.2 Arabic corpus 4.2.3 Modern corpus linguistics and statistics 4.2.4 Word frequency analysis 4.2.5 The Internet as corpus source 4.3 External Structure 4.3.1 Definition of the size of the corpus 4.3.2 Contents of the corpus 4.3.3 Definition of the place of investigation 4.3.4 Composition of the corpus 4.3.5 Corpus organisation 4.3.6 4.4 Scene of the corpus 93 92 95 97 99 101 102 104 104 106 107 110 112 113 114 114 116 116 117 118

Internal Structure 4.4.1 Types of corpora 4.4.2 Data resource problems 4.4.2.1 Verification of HTML text 4.4.2.2 PDF text editing 4.4.3 Identification of words

vi

4.4.3.1 Word inclusion 4.4.3.2 Word exclusion 4.5 Operationalisation of the Corpus 4.5.1 Encoding 4.5.2 Software 4.5.2.1 Software for words analysis 4.5.2.2 Wordsmith software 4.5.3 Data Analysis 4.5.3.1 Word frequency 4.5.3.2 Comparison between sub-corpora 4.6 Lexicography 4.6.1 Dictionary compilation from corpus-based study 4.6.2 Listing method for lexicography 4.7 Conclusion

119 123 124 124 128 129 130 132 132 136 141 142 143 146

CHAPTER FIVE
THE ANALYSIS
5.1 5.2 Introduction Word Frequency Analysis in World Affairs 5.2.1 General description of the list 5.2.2 High frequency words 5.2.3 Word frequency in nouns 5.2.3.1 Word frequency by number 5.2.3.2 Word frequency by gender 5.2.3.3 Word frequency of proper nouns 5.2.3.4 Word frequency of phrases 147 148 148 150 153 153 158 161 162 164 167 167 170 173

5.2.3.5 Word frequency in other noun categories 5.2.4 Word frequency in verbs 5.2.4.1 Word frequency by tense 5.2.4.2 Word frequency by gender of subject 5.2.4.3 Word frequency in terms of semantics

vii

5.2.4.4 Word frequency by transitivity 5.2.5 Word frequency by newspaper 5.2.5.1 Word frequency in the high frequency list 5.2.5.2 Word frequency by phrase 5.2.5.3 Word frequency by transitivity 5.2.5.4 Word frequency by loan word 5.3 Word Frequency Analysis in Sports 5.3.1 General description of the list 5.3.2 High frequency words 5.3.3 Word frequency in nouns 5.3.3.1 Word frequency by number 5.3.3.2 Word frequency by gender 5.3.3.3 Word frequency of proper nouns 5.3.3.4 Word frequency of phrases 5.3.3.5 Word frequency in other noun categories 5.3.4 Word frequency in verbs 5.3.4.1 Word frequency by tense 5.3.4.2 Word frequency by gender of subject 5.3.4.3 Word frequency in terms of semantics 5.3.4.4 Word frequency by transitivity 5.3.5 Word frequency by newspaper 5.3.5.1 Word frequency in the high frequency list 5.3.5.2 Word frequency by phrase 5.3.5.3 Word frequency by transitivity 5.3.5.4 Word frequency by loan word 5.4 Comparison Analysis 5.4.1 General comparison between world affairs and sports 5.4.1.1 Word frequency of nouns 5.4.1.2 Word frequency of verbs 5.4.1.3 Word frequency of loan words 5.4.2 Comparison between two wordlists in Wordsmith 5.4.2.1 Comparison between world affairs and sports `

179 181 181 183 183 186 190 190 192 194 194 199 201 203 206 209 209 212 215 221 223 223 224 226 229 235 235 236 245 257 258 259

viii

2.15 Discussion of comparison analysis 277 277 278 279 284 286 288 298 300 302 305 308 309 312 325 335 350 359 6.2.6 Noun in terms collective nouns 6.1 6.5 Noun in terms of phrases 6.2.2.1 Word in the high frequency list 6.2.2.3 Conclusion ix .2.9 The use of verb in terms of tense 6.2 Noun in terms of number 6.2.10 Discussion of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs 6.4.4 Noun in terms of proper nouns 6.2.8 The use of noun metaphorically 6.5 Conclusion 261 272 275 CHAPTER SIX DISCUSSION OF THE ANALYSIS 6.2.2 Introduction General Discussion of both Section Lists 6.2.3 Noun in terms of gender 6.2.14 Discussion of word by newspaper 6.2.11 Discussion of verb in terms of gender of subject 6.2.4.2.7 Noun in terms of comparatives 6.2.3 Comparison between newspapers published in Arab and non-Arab countries 5.12 Discussion of verb in terms of semantics 6.5.13 Discussion of verb in terms of transitivity 6.2.2 Comparison between newspapers 5.

CHAPTER SEVEN CONCLUSION 7.2 Summary of the study Conclusion 360 362 Bibliography Appendices 370 383 x .1 7.

2 Table 3.9 Table 5.11 Table 5.7 Table 5. dual and plural nouns Mean of broken and sound plurals The use of broken and sound plurals in world affairs The top masculine and feminine plurals for people Top 10 masculine and feminine nouns in world affairs Mean of masculine and feminine nouns Top 4 masculine nouns that refer to people and their feminine equivalents Top 10 proper nouns in world affairs Example of phrases in world affairs Collective nouns by frequency Comparatives by frequency 52 60 61 61 67 68 69 70 76 107 108 109 111 140 144 145 151 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 165 165 xi .6 Table 4.5 Table 3.8 Table 3.4 Table 3.4 Table 4.2 Table 4.5 Table 4.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.7 Table 5.LIST OF TABLES Table 3.6 Table 5.6 Table 3.8 Table 5.1 Table 4.3 Table 3.12 Table 5.3 Table 4.7 Table 3.1 Table 3.9 Table 4.10 Table 5.13 Example of news writing style affected by English language Modern Arabic words recognised by Arabic newspapers Majaz expressions recognised by Arabic newspapers New words recognised by Arabic newspapers through derivation Arab countries colonised by European countries Word differences affected by different colonial countries Example of words for ‘training’ and ‘arrest’ Example of adopted or derived words The available Arabic websites for online Arabic newspapers Number of articles by section Regional representation for Arab country newspapers The country of newspaper publishing Number of words by newspaper and section Comparison process between newspapers Example of words in the dictionary Example of phrase in the dictionary Top 10 most frequent words in world affairs Top 10 singular and plural nouns in world affairs Mean of singular.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.

feminine and neuter subjects Top 10 non-action and action verbs in world affairs Example of action verbs used metaphorically Example of action verbs used both literally and metaphorically Verb frequency by semantic family Frequency of positive and negative verbs Frequency of verbs indicating striving toward achievement and the opposite Use of verbs with particles Top 5 words by newspaper Differences in use of phrases in world affairs Dispersion of verbs by transitivity across newspapers Example of general loan words in world affairs Example of specific loan words in world affairs Example of loan words with variant spellings Top 10 most frequent words in sports section Top 10 singular and plural nouns in sports section Mean of singular.15 Table 5.14 Table 5.31 Table 5.30 Table 5.27 Table 5.32 Table 5.20 Table 5.17 Table 5.18 Table 5.19 Table 5.34 Table 5.23 Table 5.38 Table 5.29 Table 5.25 Table 5.43 Table 5.41 Table 5.36 Table 5. feminine and neuter subjects Mean of verbs with masculine.28 Table 5.21 Table 5.22 Table 5.Table 5.44 The use of metaphor in world affairs section Top 10 perfect and imperfect verbs in world affairs Mean of perfect and imperfect verbs Top 10 auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs in world affairs Top 10 verbs with masculine.16 Table 5.40 Table 5.26 Table 5.39 Table 5.33 Table 5.37 Table 5.42 Table 5.24 Table 5. dual and plural nouns Mean of broken and sound plurals The use of broken and sound plurals in sports section The top masculine and feminine plurals for people Top 10 masculine and feminine nouns in sports section Mean of masculine and feminine nouns Top 5 masculine nouns that refer to people and their feminine equivalents Example of top 10 proper nouns in sports section Example of phrases in sports section Collective nouns by frequency 166 167 168 169 170 172 173 175 175 176 178 179 180 182 183 184 186 188 189 192 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 206 xii .35 Table 5.

Table 5.48 Table 5.50 Table 5.62 Table 5.74 Table 5.53 Table 5.59 Table 5.60 Table 5.52 Table 5.70 Table 5.66 Table 5. feminine and neuter subjects Top 10 action and non-action verbs in sports section Example of action verbs used metaphorically Example of action verbs used both literally and metaphorically Verb frequency by semantic family Frequency of positive and negative verbs Frequency of verbs indicating ‘striving in sport’ and the opposite Use of verbs with particles Top 5 words by newspaper Differences in use of phrases in sports section Dispersion of verbs by transitivity across newspapers Example of general loan words in sports section Example of specific loan words in sports section Example of Arabic words with variant spellings Example of loan words with variant spellings Comparison of singular nouns in world affairs and sports Comparison of plural nouns between sections Comparison between broken and sound plurals in both sections Comparison of masculine nouns in both sections Comparison of feminine nouns in both sections Comparison of phrases in both sections Comparison of collective nouns Comparison of comparatives in both sections Comparison of perfect verbs in both sections Comparison of imperfect verbs in both sections Comparison of auxiliary verbs in both sections 207 208 209 210 211 212 214 215 216 217 218 220 221 222 223 224 226 230 230 232 233 236 237 237 238 239 239 243 244 245 246 247 xiii .51 Table 5.56 Table 5.45 Table 5.63 Table 5.76 Comparatives by frequency The use of metaphor in sports section Top 10 perfect and imperfect verbs in sports section Mean of perfect and imperfect verbs Top 10 auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs in sports section Top 10 verbs with masculine.71 Table 5.47 Table 5.72 Table 5.65 Table 5. feminine and neuter subjects Mean of verbs with masculine.68 Table 5.75 Table 5.57 Table 5.58 Table 5.69 Table 5.73 Table 5.67 Table 5.61 Table 5.55 Table 5.49 Table 5.54 Table 5.64 Table 5.46 Table 5.

105 Comparison of non-auxiliary verbs in both sections Comparison of verbs with masculine subjects in both sections Comparison of verbs with feminine subjects in both sections Comparison of verbs with neuter subjects in both sections Comparison of non-action verbs in both sections Comparison of action verbs in both sections Comparison of action verbs used metaphorically in both sections Comparison of action verbs used literally and metaphorically in both sections Comparison of verbs by semantic family Comparison of verbs with positive and negative meanings in both sections Comparison of verbs of ‘striving towards achievement’ and their opposites in both sections Comparison of general loan words in both sections Comparison of specific loan words in both sections Comparison between keywords in world and sports sections Comparison between Al-Ahram and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Furat and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Jazirah and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Khabar and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Quds al-‘Arabi and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Sabah al-Jadid and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Safir and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Ahram and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Furat and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Jazirah and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Khabar and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Quds al-‘Arabi and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Sabah al-Jadid and other newspapers Comparison between Al-Safir and other newspapers Comparison between the Arab and non-Arab newspapers in world affairs 248 248 249 250 251 251 252 252 253 255 256 257 258 259 261 262 262 263 264 264 265 266 267 268 269 269 270 271 272 xiv .92 Table 5.99 Table 5.89 Table 5.95 Table 5.88 Table 5.80 Table 5.85 Table 5.103 Table 5.94 Table 5.104 Table 5.84 Table 5.100 Table 5.86 Table 5.102 Table 5.98 Table 5.96 Table 5.78 Table 5.101 Table 5.81 Table 5.Table 5.93 Table 5.82 Table 5.91 Table 5.87 Table 5.90 Table 5.97 Table 5.77 Table 5.83 Table 5.79 Table 5.

Table 5.107 Table 5.108 Comparison between the non-Arab and Arab newspapers in world affairs Comparison between the Arab and non-Arab newspapers in sports Comparison between the non-Arab and Arab newspapers in sports 273 273 274 xv .106 Table 5.

2 Graph 5.3 Graph 5.5 Graph 5. dual and plural nouns across frequency groups Dispersion of masculine and feminine nouns across frequency groups Dispersion of perfect and imperfect verbs across frequency groups Dispersion of verb with masculine. dual and plural nouns in different frequency groups Dispersion of masculine and feminine nouns in different frequency groups Dispersion of perfect and imperfect verbs Dispersion of verbs with masculine. feminine and neuter subjects Number of words by frequency from highest to lowest The top 10 word frequencies Dispersion of singular.10 Graph 5.1 Graph 5.7 Graph 5.8 Graph 5.9 Graph 5.LIST OF GRAPHS Graph 5. feminine and neuter subjects 149 152 154 159 168 171 191 193 195 200 210 213 xvi .6 Graph 5.12 Number of words by frequency from top to bottom of the list The top 10 words in the frequency list Dispersion of singular.11 Graph 5.4 Graph 5.

3 Word categories included for analysis Comparison process between world affairs and sport sections Comparison between sub-corpora in Arab and non-Arab countries 120 139 141 xvii .1 Figure 4.LIST OF FIGURES Figure 4.2 Figure 4.

LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix I Appendix II Appendix III Appendix IV Permission from Newspaper Publisher Tagset Lexicography in World Affairs Lexicography in Sports section xviii .

so mastery of these vocabularies4 is crucial as it will increase the ease and speed with which the journalists are able to accurately convey the news to readers.1 Newspapers. 4 According to the Longman Dictionary (1991). The Global Journalist: News and Conscience in a World of Conflict (New York and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield. 55.2 and their effectiveness depends on how accurately words are used and exploited by journalists. 2002).3 The process of word selection becomes easier if the writer knows the basic vocabularies regularly used in news writing. 2 Danuta Reah.1 Background of the Study Words are the most effective tool for spreading news and information to the public. In this context. and this is what has prompted him to carry out his research 1 Philip M. 13. the researcher considers that Malaysian students who study media Arabic are among those who face this kind of difficulty.v. as a public medium information resource. or individual or in a field of knowledge‟. 2002). The lack of basic and specific vocabularies is the main factor contributing to this problem.” 1 .CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1-3. see Longman Dictionary of the English Language. use words to fulfil their role of building readers‟ character and shaping their mentality. The Language of Newspaper. 2nd ed. That is to say. (London: Routledge. as well as helping newcomers to journalism. s. 1991). the use of suitable vocabulary is essential in news writing as a good article must contain a combination of appropriate words. “vocabulary. Seib. the word „vocabulary‟ means „the words used by a language. style and content. Language in the News: Discourse and Ideology in the Press (London: Routledge. 3 Roger Fowler.

M.in this area. Beiley (1940) and Mosha Brill (1940s) are too out of date to be relied upon. with the most frequently used word placed at the top of the list and the least used at the bottom.6 On the other hand. the in-depth empirical exploration. especially alongside the word list.2 Rationale Although several word frequency studies for Arabic newspaper. 6. the researcher could not find a list that combines newspapers published in Arab countries and non-Arab countries and focused on a particular section in the newspapers. this study aims to develop empirically-justified vocabulary lists for teaching Arabic to Malay-speaking students in the specific areas of World Affairs and Sports journalism as they are the two most prominent type of news given for students writing exercises. In addition. In other words. 1976). The studies by E. 2 . despite their popularity. Several previous studies have shown that basic vocabulary can be identified by studying the frequency of word occurrence in the texts in a given field of knowledge. 5 listing them in order of frequency. the corpus analysis made by a group of computer experts from the New Mexico State 5 6 Please refer to chapter 2 for the previous word frequency studies. Sayyed al-„Azawi and Huda Buradah. 1. Qa‟imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah fi Kutub al-Atfal (Cairo: al-Hai‟ah al-Misriyyah al-„Amah li al-Kitab. provides media Arabic learners with useful information about the style of word usage in Arabic newspapers and creates evidence for the building of specialised dictionaries for these specific genres. media terminology and other specialised fields have been developed.

Variation in Modern Standard Arabic in Radio News Broadcasts: A Synchronic Descriptive Investigation into the Use of Complementary Particles (Paris: Peeters and Department of Oriental Studies. 3 . words such as ‫( ًوح‬ball) and ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) are widely used in sports sections but very rarely in world affairs. “Building A Modern Standard Arabic Corpus” (paper presented to the Workshop on Computational Modeling of Lexical Acquisation. On examining this issue further. 7 See Ahmed Abdelali. Van Mol (2003) stated that „there exists an important variation between Arabic dialects. Lack of knowledge of specific vocabularies may result in poor news writing that may lead to the ambiguous use of words.‟9 This has inspired the researcher to investigate the variation in word usage in Arabic newspapers published both in different regions of the Arab world and in non-Arab countries. 2005). does not include newspapers from non-Arab countries. which in drive them away to alternative news media. the rationale of conducting this study is very relevant when considering the important of knowledge on basic vocabulary in news writing. a mistake in grammar. none of these studies focuses on any particular sections of the newspapers. Kershner (2005) notes „A little mistake in accuracy will undermine the credibility of a story. Until now there are. Croatia. causing misunderstanding and confusion on the part of some readers. The Element of News Writing (Boston: Pearson. July 25-28. USA (2005). 2005). In relation to this. 15. For instance.7 Furthermore. James Cowie and Hamdi S. 2003). Kershner. 9 Mark Van Mol.University. 1. no empirical studies that prove the possible uniformity or regional variation within Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) gathering between Arab and non-Arab country newspapers.‟8 Therefore. the researcher finds that each section in a newspaper uses basic words appropriate to that interspersed with general vocabulary. diction or usage can make a reader confuses what the storyline of the article. Soliman. as far as the researcher is concerned. 8 James W.

since it may affect readers‟ understanding and their motivation to look for more information in the newspaper.3 The Importance of the Study The researcher strongly believes that the study of word frequency in selected Arabic newspapers has its own significance. They all analysed newspaper texts in general. 4. The study highlights the importance of accurate word selection in news writing. especially for journalists. some were carried out many years ago. The study explains the relationship between newspaper word usage and the country where newspapers are published. language learners in communication and broadcasting. for the following reasons: 1. In addition. as this present study does. The study lists the words analysed either in order of frequency or alphabetically in order to show that each specialised field has its own basic vocabulary that needs to be mastered. This is because some words are very regular in certain newspaper but rarely or never used in others.1. Although a few studies have been carried out in the area of word frequency in Arabic newspaper. 3. such as world affairs and sport. the same words are used in similar frequency but are differently spelt. they did not focus on particular sections. and news policy makers. which justifies the need for new findings. 4 . 2. Furthermore.

The study reveals the differences in word usage between two selected sections in Arabic newspapers in order to provide useful information about high and low word frequency in each. The study also provides a ready-made dictionary for learners in the field of media Arabic. The findings of the study provide useful suggestions for learners. and traces the factors that lead to these differences. which will be especially helpful to Malaysian students. including word equivalents in Malay. between Arabic newspapers in world affairs and sport sections? 5 . 7. if so.5. 1. 6. practitioners and policy makers in media studies for the improvement of Arabic news writing. What are the most used words in Arabic newspapers in world affairs and sport sections? 2. The study considers whether there are differences between word frequencies in Arabic newspapers in Arab and non-Arab countries and. What are the differences. 8. in terms of word frequency. looks at the factors that contribute to this phenomenon.4 Research Questions This research sets out to answer the following questions: 1.

3. The advantage of looking at world affairs is that there is a high possibility that all the newspapers highlight similar issues. Al-Sabah al-Jadid (Iraq). Al-Safir (Lebanon). 6 . What are the main characteristics of the Arabic media. including two published in nonArab countries. in terms of word usage. The advantage of studying sport sections is that they use specific terminologies for various sports and that the worldwide interest in sport means that there is a high possibility of finding coverage of similar events in the various newspapers is expectedly high. Al-Jazirah (Saudi Arabia).5 Scope of the Research 1. in world affairs and sport sections? 4. The justification for the selection of these sections is the same as before: that the Malay students are given more writing exercises in these genre of journalism and face difficulties in performing at the required language standard for news writing. Al-Quds al-„Arabi (United Kingdom) and Al-Furat (Australia). Al-Ahram (Egypt). Only the words in the world affairs and sport sections in each newspaper are analysed. adding to the validity and reliability of a comparative analysis. Seven Arabic newspapers are involved in this study. 2. They are. Does the country where the newspaper is published affect the choice of words used in Arabic newspapers? 1. Al-Khabar (Algeria).

The data cover a number of news texts from the selected daily newspapers and were gathered in 30 days. one weekly newspaper. The study provides accurate figures for word frequencies using computer software Wordsmith version 5. Arabic terms and proper names. the Australian Al-Furat is sampled from the beginning of June 2007 to January 2008.7 Transliteration Symbols and Abbreviations This part explains the transliteration system employed in this study for an accurate pronunciation of Arabic words. 7 . In order adequately to include newspapers from non-Arab countries. The repeated use of several 10 David Buckingham. a quantitative study including statistical analysis was carried out. 56. mostly in November 2007. 1. Allan Bell. 10 so. The study also focuses on foreign words that used in Arabic newspapers. reprint 1999). The Language of News Media (London: Blackwell Publishing. 5.3.0. 1. in order to answer the research questions. particularly with regard to the differences between sections and countries. 1991. To examine the significant differences between the newspapers studied. Several limitations and delimitations were applied to the words studied to fit the program. 2003). Media Education: Literacy.6 Methodology of the Research Studying media language should involve close observation and analysis. the likelihood ratio test was applied. which are written using the Latin alphabet. Some of the texts appeared as late as early December 2007 because several newspapers are not published on Sunday or Friday.Learning and Contemporary Culture (London: Blackwell Publishing. It is generally used for Arabic book titles.

terms and proper nouns requires the use of abbreviations. Transliteration Arabic letter Transliteration symbol I. Consonants: ‫ء‬ ‫ة‬ . b 11 These transliteration symbols except in quotations from texts that use a different transliteration method. 8 . 1. a) Vowels: short vowels: ‫ــَــ‬ ‫ــِــ‬ ‫ــُــ‬ a11 i u b) long vowels: ‫ا‬ ١ ٝ a i u II. Diphthongs: ١ ‫ََ ــ‬ ٝ ‫ََ ــ‬ ai aw III. Transliteration symbols and abbreviations are listed below.

‫د‬ ‫س‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ػ‬ ‫ؿ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫م‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ى‬ ً ُ ٓ ٗ ٛ ‫ظ‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ؽ‬ ‫ف‬ ‫م‬ ‫ى‬ ٍ ّ ٕ ‫ـ‬ٛ t th j h kh d dh r z s sh s d t z „ gh f q k l m n h 9 .

d. Abbreviations I English abbreviation CA MSA n.ٝ ١ w y 2. f /freq No R T W w s Mas Fem Pl HTML MS RTF PDF WS Clasiccal Arabic Modern Standard Arabic no date frequency number rank text word world sports masculine feminine plural Hyper Text Markup Language Microsoft Word Rich Text Format Portable Document Format Wordsmith 10 .

II Arabic abbreviation ‫ط‬ ّ plural (‫)عٔغ‬ dual (٠٘‫)ٓض‬ 11 .

Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. In the pre-computer era. Bailey a few years later. As a starting point.12 12 Al-„Azawi and Buradah. while in the post computer era studies of word frequency were used to investigate language style and trend rather than simply to present word lists. The researcher found a clear distinction between the two eras.CHAPTER 2 PREVIOUS ARABIC WORD FREQUENCY STUDIES 2. and the post-computer era.M.1 Introduction This chapter presents related studies and research that have been carried out in word frequency. The researcher found only two studies carried out in the pre-computer era that relate to newspaper articles in Arabic around 1950: those by Mosha Brill in 1940 and E. word frequency studies were carried out mainly to produce a word list in either frequency or alphabetical order. it is very important to stress that only a few word frequency studies have focused on Arabic newspapers and these can generally be divided into two eras: the pre-computer era. 12 . 6. ranging from studies in languages in general to studies of newspaper Arabic in particular.

The development of this kind of analysis in Arabic since then has been mostly directed to the area of education. “Building”. 1. Cowie and Soliman. A corpus tabulated from many countries is more valuable than one tabulated from fewer because it produces a more generalised outcome.g. see Dawud „Atiyyah „Abduh. which counts modern Arabic prose generally.15 which will be discussed later (see page 35). which indicates the beginning of word frequency studies in the new post-computer era. the studies carried out in the post-computer era compiled data for corpus building from up to eleven countries by using the internet. Some of these corpora compiled data from Arabic newspapers and produced word frequency lists automatically. e. students‟ speech and so on. 1979).14 In contrast. 1940s). iii. Both Brill‟s and Bailey‟s work focused on Arabic newspapers published in Egypt and Palestine. 15 Abdelali.M. especially in Arab countries themselves. The researcher refers to the work of a group of researchers from New Mexico State University and the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. With the help of computers. word frequency study enables more in depth analysis of language style rather than word listing. 13 . since internal factors in a particular 13 With the exception of one or two studies that did not have a directly educational purpose. alMufradat al-Sha’i„ah fi al-Lughah al-„Arabiyyah (Riyad: Matbu‟at Jami‟ah Riyad. using various computer analysis tools. This was the case until recent years when computational analysis tools started to be applied in building Arabic corpora.13 with the emergence of a number of studies of word frequency in school textbooks or syllabuses. 14 E. The researcher‟s reading has shown that the two pre-computer era studies referred to above were based on texts published in one or two specific countries. Jacob Landau‟s work in 1959. A List of Modern Arabic Words As Used in Daily and Weekly Newspapers of Cairo (Cairo: Nile Mission Press. Bailey.

methodology.L Thorndike from the University of Columbia made an attempt in 1921 to study 4. “The Core Vocabulary of International English: A Corpus Approach ” (PhD thesis.000 running words in various types of subject matter. such as the United Kingdom and Australia. “Word and Idiom Frequency Counts in French and Their Value .” The Modern Language Journal 15. the idea of counting words and finding out which are the most frequently used is not a new field of study. 18 Ahmad Shah Peyawary. Fotos. 14 . no. Cowie and Soliman.country may affect in some way the selection of words used in its newspapers.2 Word Frequency Studies in General Historically. and focuses on particular sections. As far as the researcher is aware. second. the researcher divides the relevant studies into three parts: first. “Building”. University of Manitoba.17 This kind of study evolved and grew in many aspects during the twentieth century. including two from non-Arab countries.18 16 17 Abdelali. especially after the invention of the computer. the advantage of this study lies in its focus on seven Arabic newspapers from seven countries. when Professor E. It goes back as far as the early twentieth century. such as world affairs and sport. 5 (1931): 345. 16 Therefore. including in terms of focus. word frequency studies in Arabic generally. 21-24. and third. In this review. word frequency studies in general. 1997). John T.500. word frequency studies in Arabic newspapers. size of corpus and the use of technology in the studies. there is no study on word frequency analysis in Arabic newspapers that takes into account newspapers published in non-Arab countries. 2.

1. books about science. magazines. 21 Micheal Philip West.” Journal of System 23. including encyclopedias. and poetry. in collaboration with Knut Hofland (Bergen). Teaching and Learning Vocabulary (New York: Heinle and Heinle. 1 (1995): 35. Oslo/Bergen (LOB) Corpus was developed and completed in Norway under the direction of Geoffrey Leech (University of Lancaster) and Stig Johansson (University of Oslo). Green and Co.22 Another early study in comparison analysis between corpora was carried 19 Paul Nation and Hwang Kyongho. A General Service List of English Words (London: Longmans. no. is the General Service List of English (GSL) by Michael Philip West (1953). 15 . 1990). novels. 22. 20 Paul Nation. see Knut Hofland and Stig Jahansson. xi. It was the reference work most used by learners of English19 and was available for research purposes for many years. usually as an extension to their word frequency analysis. 1987.21 A valuable improvement was achieved after the computer era where comparison analyses were made available in corpus studies by several researchers. as represented by the LOB corpus. Among the most popular analyses relevant to this present study is work carried out by Knut Hofland and Stig Johansson in their Word Frequency in British and American English (1982). 1953). Its purpose is not only to list word frequency. Among the most popular studies applying this method. but also to compare the English words used in the United State of America (USA). 22 The Lancaster. as represented by the Brown Corpus. 1990). Frequency Analysis of English Vocabulary and Grammar (New York: Oxford University Press. biographies. New York: Oxford University Press.The researcher has noted that studies carried out before the computer era are mostly limited to listing words in frequency or alphabetical order and constructing a dictionary as an extensive analysis by giving word equivalents in other languages. and in the United Kingdom (UK). reprint. essays. textbooks. especially in English.20 It consists of data published in the 1920s. “Where Would General Service Vocabulary Stop and Special Purpose Vocabulary Begin.

Rayson and Wilson claim that their study about written and spoken English is distinguishable from previous studies in its usage of a more up-to-date corpus.27 All previous studies applied older corpora. 5. Paul Rayson and Andrew Wilson in 2001. Many word frequency studies analysed various corpora in order to produce up-to-date results because all languages are subject to changes be evolution and under the influence of other languages. which dates mainly from the period 1985-1994.25 Several previous studies that involve in comparison analysis show that a similar size of corpora is needed in order to produce a reliable result.out by Nancy Carman Brook for her PhD (1982). Rayson and Wilson. compiles 500 texts containing around 2. that the Wordsmith software applied in this present study is able to compare between corpora containing five and two newspapers (see page 140-141).000 words for the LOB corpus in order to match the number of texts in the Brown Corpus. xi. 27 Leech. Peyawary 23 Nancy Ellen Carman Brooks. 25 Geoffrey Leech. in the methodology chapter. 26 Hofland and Jahansson. “The Core Vocabulary”. the researcher considers that this is not nessesarily required nowadays as recent computer software is capable of comparing corpora of different sizes by using percentage methods. 1. Word Frequency in Written and Spoken English (London: Pearson Education Limited. Leech. The research carried out by Knut Hofland and Stig Johansson. Word Frequency. xi. 2000). 16 . Paul Rayson and Andrew Wilson. in 1961. such as Brown and LOB dated between 1961 and 1965 and GSL by West applied a corpus built around 1920s. 1982). University of Oklahoma. which was developed earlier.23 followed by Ahmad Shah Peyawary in 199724 and Geoffrey Leech. This consideration affected researcher‟s study. for instance. 4. as it seemed to state a principle that the more recent the corpus used the better. The researcher will show later. Word Frequency. “A Word Frequency Analysis of Business Communications and Shorthand Textbook Materials” (PhD thesis.26 However. 24 Peyawary. Oklahoma.

” 2. fo r example. Morgan (1928). as this study shall discuss later. some studies. particularly PhD theses. the study carried out by Geoffrey Leech.” 344 30 Brooks. This method of study (applying other researchers‟ corpora) has been used by many researchers. where most word frequency studies have used self-constructed corpora (see page 18-27).(2006) agrees that it is appropriate to develop a new list when earlier studies are no longer suitable for today‟s learners. “The Core Vocabulary.W.Q.28 On the other hand. In other example. Rayson and Wilson. who analyses and compares word frequencies in shorthand textbook materials and business letters and memoranda for her PhD. Despite the availability of numerous ready-made English language corpora. see Fotos. Keading‟s Corpus in his attempt to create a words and idioms frequency list for the German language (1928). 17 . B.30 collected the data herself from 83 business letters and 80 business memoranda were received from 28 29 Peyawary.” 5. Word Frequency. The situation is different for Arabic. and the study by Peyawary (2006) used both the Brown and LOB corpora in addition to Kolhapus corpus from India in order to determine whether there is a core vocabulary common to the three major dialects of English. The studies made by Knut Hofland & Stig Johansson (1982) before used the Brown corpus besides their own LOB corpus. Nancy Carman Brook. a number of previous researchers have proved that many studies used ready-made corpora for their word frequency analysis instead of self-constructed corpora. Leech. “A Word Frequency Analysis. 1. For example. “Word and Idiom Frequency.0. Paul Rayson and Andrew Wilson (2001) was based on the British National Corpus (BNC) Version 2. used a self-constructed corpus as this present study does. who used F.29 The researcher has noted that this style of analysis has become common in English language studies because there are numerous established corpora are available for be use by other researchers.

Ibrahim al-Shafi„i (1957). 8. 34 Al-„Azawi and Buradah. According to al-„Azawi and Buradah (1976). it could be stated that.83 firms in Oklahoma. this kind of study developed to include teaching and learning for university students.31 The data were then compared with the corpus collected from the shorthand textbook. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. e.” 50-51.33 Subsequently. Most were related to Arabic language teaching and learning in primary schools and were carried out between 1950 and 1961. K. volume II. series 90.34 The researcher lists below some word frequency studies in Arabic: 1. “A Word Frequency Analysis.” 5. they were nevertheless useful for this present study in relation to corpus building and comparison analysis. “A Word Frequency Analysis. Their steps and principles they applied in both areas are very valuable for consideration as an established method in this area of study. Fakhir „Aqil (1953). Brill‟s and Bailey‟s studies in word frequency analysis were conducted for general purposes until M. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. Mahmud Radwan (1952).32 To briefly conclude. Muhammad Munir (1961) and others. 2. the Gregg Shorthand for College. Brooks. 33 Al-„Azawi and Buradah. 18 .3 Arabic Word Frequency Studies Some studies related to word frequency count in Arabic have been carried out by both Arab and non-Arab scholars. although these studies were not of the Arabic language. Changes Needed in Egyptian Readers to Increase Their Value. Lutfi completed his PhD study at the 31 32 Brooks.g. as well as for illiterate people when some experts realised that the latter should also be taken into account. 8.

Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. There have been only a small number of studies of Arabic that deal with word frequency count in general. 2. A List.35 However Bailey claimed that his study. 37 Al-„Azawi and Buradah.36 The educational purpose in Lutfi‟s study was very clear: it included a comparative study between the reading textbooks for years one and two in Egyptian and American primary schools. the focus of Lutfi‟s study was not on newspaper Arabic. including people working in education. Nevertheless. Jacob Landau carried out a study in 1957 to list 35 36 Al-„Azawi and Buradah. However. A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose. Bailey. in this researcher‟s view. before the emergence of the computer. it was conducted a long time ago.37 Although there are few similarities with the present study. Lutfi‟s was the first study to consider a comparison between the Arabic used in different countries and language practice in daily communication. Without the help of a computer or other technology. 19 . as many studies have focused more on particular language disciplines.University of Chicago in 1948. 7. is not as close as Lutfi‟s to the field of education because Bailey‟s study was of newspaper Arabic. It might therefore be useful to anyone.687 different words in all the textbooks he selected. also had an educational purpose and was intended for the use of primary schools in Egypt. in 1948. He identified 249 words used with high frequency in Arabic reading textbooks and deduced that they were the basic Arabic words that should be taken into account when developing Egyptian textbooks for year one primary school pupils. the researcher produced a frequency listing. The writer counted word frequency manually over 35. which was conducted just before 1948. 1.053 running words and found 16. while Lutfi‟s study was directly focused on children‟s school textbooks. Bailey‟s study. 7.

as long as he has a justification for the method he opts for. the writer only counted the first and last ten pages of ten books and the first and last five pages of the remaining 50 books. he carried out a comparison between his findings and Mosha Brill‟s study of Arabic newspapers. 3. A Word Count. 2 (1967): 131. To achieve his aims.000 running words from 60 Egyptian books of various kinds. 9. time constraints.40 This work indicates that the method used to choose the texts whose word frequency is to be counted is a matter for the researcher himself. not including the introduction and conclusion of the books. which he considered could represent the Arabic language as a whole. literature. if they had them.39 Jacob came up with a list of 12.the words most frequently used in Arabic prose.38 Not every word in the selected books was counted. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. 7. as this would have made the counting process difficult. 1959). 40 Al-„Azawi and Buradah. Middle Eastern Studies 3. Islamic religion and marriage. 5-7. level of study. For an extensive study. politics. The purpose of this PhD thesis was to study language development among primary school children in Egypt. Al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah fi Kalam Talamidh al-Sufuf al-Ula min al-Marhalah alIbtida’iyyah wa Taqwim ba„d Majalat Tadris al-Lughah fi Dau‟iha. philosophy. with a 38 Jacob Landau. he counted about 136. no. 20 . A Word Count of Modern Arabic Prose (New York: American Council of Learned Societies. history. namely story books. Researchers use many other approaches to collecting the texts they intend to count and these vary depending on the purposes of the study. social studies. education. two and three. “European Loan-Words in Contemporary Arabic Writing: A Case Study in Modernization”. literary criticism. and so on. The researcher studied on 240 primary school pupils from years one.400 high frequency words. Of the 60 books. Charles Issawi. 39 Landau. economics. resources available.

two and three. In addition.390 different words and third form children 1.185 different words.” 8. 12. Of these. 12.7%) hand written and when a recording device became available in the middle of the study.” 302. 42 Yunus.a” (PhD thesis. the researcher also noted that building a dictionary from a frequency list would be a very worthwhile contribution because it would be an important reference book that all children should be trained to use. “al-Kalimat al-Sha’i‟ah. Nevertheless. however.43 This study definitely affected 41 Fathi „Ali Ibrahim Yunus. 21 . but rather focused on the number of common words used by children in general. the full frequency list was included in the appendix. second form children 1. he also found that the form one children used 1. implying that reading books should use words that are functionally significant to the children. Completing the study.representation of both sexes in equal numbers.42 From these figures. he was able to study language growth among children by comparing between variables in forms one.41 It is very clear that Yunus dealt with approximately 40. and reached the conclusion that in each year children used a slightly increasing of number of new words. 1974).426 by the second form children and 15.022 by the third form children. The sample compilation was mostly (88. Cairo. From the figures. “al-Kalimat al-Sha’i‟ah. 167. his suggestions for future studies were very useful for this present study as he noted that a word list might be an answer to the functional tendency in language teaching.624 different words. the research was able to use it for the rest of the sample. Ain Shams University. did not pay much attention to the most and least used word. 43 Yunus.205 running words were used by the first form children. The researcher. “al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah fi Kalam Talamidh al-Sufuf al-Ula min al-Marhalah alIbtida’iyyah wa Taqwim b‟d Majalat Tadris al-Lughah fi Dau‟h.000 words manually.

The highest frequency recorded in this study was for the word ٍ‫( هب‬said) with 232 occurrences. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. that the level of language and vocabulary used in these materials was too advanced for many of them. they recorded nearly 1. 4. 46 Al-„Azawi and Buradah. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah. only 10% of the 170 books in the library were studied. From the selected books. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah.the present researcher‟s efforts to implement these suggestions made more than 30 years ago. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha’i„ah fi Kutub al-Atfal. they listed all the words studied by frequency as well as in alphabetical order. 44 45 Al-„Azawi and Buradah. Specifically. middle and last parts of the books. 72.45 The researchers counted all the words on the pages they selected and came up with a list of 5.46 For the lowest frequency. it studied the suitability of these books for the children‟s reading standard. They concluded.284 words listed in alphabetical order.560 different words with only one occurrence. The researchers found that the library was equipped with suitable reading materials for the levels of certain children. in sample collection.44 However. the researchers reduced the sample scope to 10% from each book. 22 . Al-„Azawi and Buradah. Following the practice of other researchers. This study was conducted by al„Azawi and Buradah in 1976 with the purpose of analysing the word frequency in a few books located at the Raudah Centre Library for Children in Cairo. 10. however. selecting from the first. 10.

5%).48 The researcher analysed the pupils‟ written work in the light of certain stated rules. 48 Ruslan.49 The results of the study indicated that the 120 pupils used a total of 65.289 running words.08%) and pupils‟ diaries (36.” 70. but the present researcher has chosen to look at differences between the countries as represented by the selected newspapers. Cairo. compared with 16. “al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah. 23 . of which 14. 49 Ruslan. There were equal numbers of pupils from both sexes to make a comparative study possible. The research procedure included identifying the writing sources. which were limited to writing comprehension in class (30.489 words used by the tested pupils that differed between urban and rural areas. “al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah.” 72-74. “al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah.678 words used by pupils in urban areas only.5. Variations in socio-economic status were also taken into account in the sample selection so that the correlation between word frequency and socioeconomic status could be studied. There were 31.80%) in Arabic.808 words were used by pupils in rural areas only.47 Mustapha Ruslan in his Masters thesis collected samples from the writing of 120 pupils in form six in Egypt primary schools. 47 Mustapha Ruslan. 50 A comparative study between areas will also be part of this present study.654 running words and pupils in urban environments used 35.” 91. Al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah fi Kitabat Talamidh al-Saff al-Sadis al-Ibtida’i. The manual method of counting was applied in the study as computer analysis was not widely available for Arabic at that time. school assignments (22. “al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah fi Kitabat Talamidh al-Saff al-Sadis al-Ibtida’i” (Masters thesis. Ain Shams University.955 running words. 50 Ruslan. 1982). Pupils in rural areas used 30.

Ihsan „Abd al-Rahim conducted a study for an MA thesis submitted to Ain Shams University. Cairo. and sixth.79%) out of 6. Fifth. Ain Shams University.185 running words.057 words (28. the cards were counted and finally listed in alphabetical order.97%) out of 3. Fourth.89%) out of 3. words used 10-14 times. the researcher counted all the words manually.73%) out of 41.940 running words from 240 pupils.” 89-90. Cairo. numbering 220 different words (5.77%).32%) out of 3. “al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah. 93. Various studies on word frequency have also been carried out for a Master thesis. words used 20 times or more.807 current words (5.Ruslan produced frequency lists in six sections. “al-Mufradat al-Lughawiyyah al-Mantuqah al-Sha’i„ah. Al-Mufradat al-Lughawiyyah al-Mantuqah al-Sha’i„ah lada Talamidh al-Saff al-Rabi‟ min Marhalat al-Ta„lim al-Asasi wa „Alaqatiha bi al-Fusha.3%). the researcher counted about 133.53 First. 54 Before 51 52 Ruslan. totalling 1. words used only once. 1984). he recorded all pupil speech examples in specific forms and transferred them to word cards. words used 2-4. 53 Shabban. The number of words for each pupil was not same. Ihsan „Abd al-Rahim Fahmi Shabban.964 current words.” 80-83. but ranged from 240 to 1.723 current words or (5. First. “al-Mufradat al-Lughawiyyah al-Mantuqah al-Sha’i„ah lada Talamidh al-Saff al-Rabi„ min Marhalat al-Ta„lim al-Asasi wa „Alaqatiha bi al-Fusha” (Masters thesis.51 6. 24 .24%).52 Without using any sophisticated tools.052 current words (4.” 92-95. which totaled 650 words (17. In order to pursue the main purpose of the study. It studied the words most commonly used in speech among form four pupils.81%) out of 606 current words (1%). 54 Shabban. Second. totalling 766 different words (20. Third. words used 1519 times. Then.753 current words (10. which totaled 642 different words (17. numbering 343 words (9. words used 5-9 times.64%). “al-Mufradat al-Lughawiyyah al-Mantuqah al-Sha’i„ah.

the researcher of this study. field and time. This arises from the belief that the vocabulary needs of students differ depending on level of learning. “al-Mufradat al-Lughawiyyah al-Mantuqah al-Sha’i„ah. 7. the researcher did his best to increase the reliability and validity of the study by executing the steps explained above. The largest group of words were words of four letters – 817 words (39%).counting the words. several principles were implemented with regard to some kinds of words to be excluded in order to determine which words would be considered single words. Through a careful analysis of previous studies. David Quitregard.56 It appears that the card system was the preferred method for word frequency counts. However. “al-Mufradat al-Lughawiyyah al-Mantuqah al-Sha’i„ah.” 85. The researcher decided to exclude al-dama’ir al-muttasilah bi al-asma‟. The present researcher believes that the reason for this is that no computer program was yet available for Arabic programming at the time this study was conducted. listed only 55 56 Shabban. the researcher found that most researchers used various ways to present their word frequency lists. The findings of the study show that the most common words used among the pupils studied varied according to the number of letters in words. ta‟ta‟nis al-muttasilah bi akhir madi. the researcher also found that the vocabulary used in speech by grade four primary pupils was almost entirely literary (97%). especially for Arabic language studies. choosing approaches which they thought would best help them to solve their stated problem. 25 .55 because none of these words can stand alone and provide an understandable meaning. On the other hand.47%).” 100. al-af „al alhuruf. Arabic Key Words: The Basic 2000-word Vocabulary Arranged by Frequency in a Hundred Units. with only 52 colloquial words 52 (2. place. Shabban.

‟59 This kind of presentation. and so on. Arabic Key Words. He included texts from all types of publication such as fiction.57 The advantage of this list is that the researcher divided these 2. historical publications. 8. the researcher compiled the text from various sources with 2 million running words from many parts of the world. it was not essential to use equivalent numbers of texts from the various countries and source types.60 Because comparison is not the main aim of this study. children‟s books and literary histories. geographical and scientific works. newspapers from fourteen countries. essays. Arabic Key Words. the Basic 2. films from seven countries.2.000-Word Vocabulary Arranged by Frequency in a Hundred Units (Cambridge: The Oleander Press. 59 Quitregard.000 words. The purpose of Dawud „Abduh‟s study is to analyse high frequency words in Arabic in general by analysing four wordlists 57 David Quitregard. The study was based on a „collaborative computer-based project devised by the author‟. thus mastering two thousand such words by the end of the year. magazines from nine countries. By deciding to use his own corpus. Arabic Key Words. ix. drama. x. which he claims are the basic Arabic words and the words most commonly used in Arabic. Unit Two the 20 next most frequently used words. viii.58 The reason for this division is explained in the writer‟s suggestion that „the student should learn units of about twenty “key” words each day. with the units arranged such that Unit One contains the 20 most frequently used words.000 highfrequency words into 100 units. is very interesting. 60 Quitregard. television programmes from eight countries. 26 . 1994). which takes into consideration a strategy for vocabulary acquisition in word groups. ix. Arabic Key Words. 58 Quitregard. each containing 20 words. radio programmes from twelve countries. Al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah fi al-Lughah al-„Arabiyyah.

025 words met this criterion. However. 27 . see „Abduh. vii. 61 The three other wordlists are those of Fakhir „Aqil. Therefore. The analysis followed in Dawud „Abduh‟s study by listing the words and then proceeding with the comparison is similar to this present study as word frequencies in world affairs and sport sections are listed before going into the comparison analysis. the comparison served to reveal the differences between those wordlists.61 In addition. alMufradat al-Sha‟i„ah fi al-Lughah al-„Arabiyyah. Jacob Landau and Mosha Brill. This is made possible for the present researcher by the use of computer software which was very limited during at the time of Dawud „Abduh‟s study.000 words to be analysed and the researcher limited himself to those that occurred with a frequency of 28 and above. without focusing on particular word categories as this present study does. the researcher divides this kind of analysis in Arabic language into two sections to show the differences that exist.compiled by scholars. 2. This is because his purpose was only to study high frequency words in Arabic without going in depth into word cetegories. the researcher found that the Dawud „Abduh‟s work analyses the number of words and their frequency generally. This is because dealing with hundreds of thousands. The results showed that only 3. including his own list. or even millions. while this present study aims to reveal current language use and style from the wordlist by listing and comparison in several word categories.4 Word Frequency Studies in Arabic Newspapers The significance of computer-based analysis in word frequency study is unquestionable and all researchers apply it actively in their studies. of words would be very hard work without the help of complex computer technology to avoid the otherwise inevitable exposure to human error. There were more than 700.

6.2. Mosha Brill. but not for the frequency analysis. 64 „ Abduh.000 running words from various newspapers. Brill limited his data to main articles. Al-„Azawi and Buradah.1 Pre-Computer era This part presents previous studies that are relevant to this present study in the area of newspapers. Brill studied only the national section. manuscripts. 28 . there were two word frequency studies in the pre-computer era that focused on Arabic newspapers. compiled his own data and counted about 136.62 This study has affected this present research. he used these texts for validation and as a reference for his study. It is very crucial to note that the writer also collected other newspaper texts together with Al-Ahram and Falesteen.4. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha‟i„ah. Studies such as these clearly do not. which justifies the need for new and up-to-date work. Studies that focus on Arabic newspaper as a main sources are as follows: 1. 6. specifically highlight word usage in Arabic newspapers. As mentioned before. the world section and the special telegraphs section in the newspapers. ii. Rather. mostly. articles and other materials. Qamus al-Sahafah al-„„Arabiyyah. especially with regard to the selection of sections in Arabic newspapers. as far as the researcher is aware. Al-Ahram from Egypt and Falesteen from Palestine. Brill‟s work was carried out a long time ago. According to Abuleil and 62 63 Al-„Azawi and Buradah.64 Despite having the same focus as this present study. Qa’imat al-Kalimat al-Sha‟i„ah.63 According to „Abduh (1979). which were published around 1937-1939. the researcher believes. The writer. news and reportages in the selected sections. This excludes a number of studies that cover newspapers together with other sources such as books. al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah fi al-Lughah al-„Arabiyyah.

ii. e.68 In other words. such as differences between variables and a variety of ways of listing the counted words. the more perspectives from which the study can be carried out the better. al-Mufradat al-Sha’i„ah fi al-Lughah al-„Arabiyyah. see P. no. Baetrice Santorini and Mary Ann Marcinkiewics. Guideline. 29 . the corpus building work by Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) from the University of Pennsylvania. including Arabic. any language might change over time. one of the advantages of this present study. which is accepted as among the widest used languages in the world. “Building a Large Annotated Corpus of English: The Penn Treebank. despite its close relationship with Brill‟s. is the use of a statistical computer program. Procedures and Tools” (paper presented to the Computational Approach to Arabic Script -based Language Workshop. The Penn Treebank project was actually started by other researchers from the University of Pennsylvania in English language between 1989 and 1992. August 28. 65 Saleem Abuleil and Martha Evans. especially in counting the frequency of word in many newspaper texts. The passage of around 70 years from Brill‟s study is more than enough to warrant new research.” 2. 67 Peyawary.g. “Extracting an Arabic Lexicon from Arabic Newspaper Text. where people can access knowledge from everywhere. „the need for studying the lexicon of Arabic is particularly important because research into Arabic language is unfortunately still not entirely up-to-date. “Developing an Arabic Treebank: Methods.” Journal of Computational Linguistics 19. Marcus.67 With the advet of a world without borders. 68 Mohamed Maamouri and Ann Bies. 2004).Evans (2002). Brill mostly relied on the help of two friends. 2 (1993): 313. As a result. Therefore.‟65 The Brill study was carried out in 1940 and was the first ever word frequency study in the Arabic language. Without any sophisticated technology like the computers that have been used in recent studies. many factors can effect changes in any language. this present research can be studied from various perspectives. 66 „ Abduh.66 According to Peyawary (1997). This study aims mainly to discuss the part-of-speech (POS) tagging task and compare between entirely manual and semi-automated tagging. “The Core Vocabulary.” Journal of Computer and the Humanities 36 (2002): 191. Geneva.

In Lutfi‟s study. where he conducted the study. In 1940. A study such as this needs a special program as a helping hand because the writers are dealing with a huge number of words. by conducting the study in the first country with prepared data brought from the second country. and this kind of listing had been available from the beginning of word frequency study. 30 . The process of newspaper compilation from many countries is very difficult to conduct without the help of the internet. Keading‟s German language corpus. possible. researchers can make only a limited contribution when they present their lists.W. for instance. e. The study would otherwise be very difficult and time consuming. the easiest method available to the writer was to compile the corpus from two bordering countries. ix. or follow Lutfi‟s method (1948). the researcher strongly believes that the invention of the internet around 20 years ago makes the administration of a study such as this. The main reasons for this are the lack of statistical analysis tools.In addition. and difficulties in compiling corpora from many countries.69 69 Bayard Quincy Morgan. Many studies carried out in this area. Morgan (1928) who studied F. which compiles newspaper texts from different countries as far apart as the United Kingdom and Australia.g. such as Egypt and Palestine. especially as early as 1940s did not pay great attention to the differences between corpora or sources. Without the help of technology. 2. All they can do is list the words in frequency or alphabetical order. although it could have been conceived before the age of globalisation. German Frequency Work Book (New York: The Macmillan Company. the data were brought from Egypt to be compared with data from America. A List of Modern Arabic Words: As Used in Daily and Weekly Newspapers of Cairo. B.Q. 1928). such as computer programs.

They are. prepositions. They are. In presenting the results of the study. The Ahram. two copies. 1. 1. he specified seven guidelines to make his study countable. in terms of counting method. A List. The Rose-el-Yusif and the Akher Saa. and List No. Bailey states. two copies. The Balagh. as well as common titles of respect used in Egypt. A List. except that the study concentrates on Egyptian daily and weekly newspapers. Bailey included the English equivalent for every word he counted. List No. 72 Bailey. and particles. pronouns and particles. which contains 1. place names. 73 Bailey. „Six daily papers and three weekly papers were tabulated. e.73 70 71 Bailey. no major changes were presented. List No.000 running words from nine series of Egypt newspapers were counted. 4. Bailey carried out this study a few years after Brill‟s list. prepositions. 1 in frequency order. 31 . 3. The Gihad.‟70 About 200. containing 35 words discounted because they are considered the common words in any written Arabic. containing 60 words found 25 times or more but in less than five papers. Bailey divided the list of words into four categories in alphabetical order. 3. as they were in many other studies both in the West and in Arab countries. The Mukattam. and numbers were excluded. 2. one copy each.71 No specific methodology was employed but. Bailey. List No.72 As a value added for the list. The Mussawer. containing all the words on the previous lists except List No.996 words found in five or more of the papers. the main list. proper names. 3. A List.Although E. but he also excluded all conjunctions. For example.M. 2. Not only were all these kinds of words not recorded on the list. A List. as he stated: „the inclusion of the English equivalent would be valuable‟.g.

wazir.76 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell (2006) noted that more than 19 Arabic corpora have been compiled from various resources in last ten years. but unfortunately only one of them is readily accessible to public. “The Design of a Corpus of Contemporary Arabic. 2.74 This shows why category selection in the newspaper is crucial so that the counted words are not generalised. generalisation is possible when the distribution of the data is balanced between all categories. language acquisition and language pedagogy. no.” 138.” 138. “The Design.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistic 11. but they are only available for those who have institutional membership.g. “The Design. Latifa al-Sulaiti and Eric Atwell. 3. see al-Sulaiti and Atwell. This is a reflection of the belief that each category has its core and common vocabularies. Several corpora can be purchased by academic or industrial research organisations. He admitted that his data were dominated by the political nature of the content in the selected newspapers. Cowie and Soliman. 2 (2006): 135. maslahah. lexicography. A List. 32 . language variation.77 The researcher believes that this new kind of study has re-activated word frequency analysis in Arabic newspaper as some of these corpora 74 75 Bailey.It is very important to explain why the writer questioned whether specific words in the political area should stand so high on the list. hukumah and so on.75 Arabic linguists and computer programming experts in these countries have built a largescale corpus database using computer analysis tools. e. 76 Abdelali. no effort was made to carry out a study specifically on word frequency in Arabic newspapers after the emergence of the computer era until a new perspective on this study developed rapidly in America and Europe in recent years.4. 77 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell.2 Post-Computer era As far as the researcher knows. “Building”. The purpose of this effort is to make the corpus available for researchers undertaking any language study in fields such as grammar. On the other hand. historical linguistics.

He concluded that colonial influences. especially in that it contains a corpus from newspaper texts in different Arabic newspapers. For example in word usage. The researcher found several studies. Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. Alraial‟aam (Kuwait). 1 (2004): 26 33 . Morocco-today (Morocco). 1. The corpus was collected from ten newspapers representing ten Arab countries78 with some of them similar to newspapers in the present research. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. computer application in word frequency studies enables researchers to study not only the most frequently used words in the corpus. Aps (Algeria). As mentioned before. Al-Safir (Lebanon). no. imported words and word usage. most of them focusing more on corpus building using computer technology than on word frequency analysis. Thus we list below the Abdelali‟s study and one example of corpus building work in the area of Arabic newspaper. The focus was given to the differences in word spelling. Al-Watan (Oman).have compiled data from newspapers. the word for „dormitory‟ was ‫ ػ٘جو‬in Addustur newspaper (Jordan) and ‫ ٓواهل‬in Al-Khabar newspaper (Algeria). except in one study by Ahmed Abdelali (2004). The study proves that differences occur between Arabic newspapers in different countries in these areas. but also the style and practice in language. 79 Ahmed Abdelali. on Arab countries contributed much to the language variation in Arabic newspapers. The study carried out by Ahmed Abdelali (2004) set out to reveal the effect of the country in which a newspaper was published on the language used. Petra (Jordan).79 The present researcher believes this study to be among the closest to his work. Iraq2000 (Iraq). Raya (Qatar) and Thawra (Syria).” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 55. Its focus on 78 These newspapers are Al-Jazirah (Saudi Arabia). mostly from Britain and France.

“Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. the researcher found it is to be of very important relevance to this present study as Abdelali suggests in his conclusion that an extensive investigation should be made into the full scope of localisation in MSA. However. while the present researcher‟s view is that the verb is no less important for analysis. especially spelling. it should be noted that Abdelali‟s corpus did not include Arabic newspapers from non-Arab countries as the present study does.language use. Nevertheless. Building A Modern Standard Arabic Corpus. Abdelali‟s focus on those aspects (spelling. word usage and foreign words. and this may reveal something valuable to this area of study. religion and literature. foreign word and word usage) was limited to noun classification. 2. 82 80 81 Abdelali. is one part of this present study. The development of this database is the result of a continuous effort at corpora building which is taking place very actively in nonArab countries. systematic and theory-based attempt to solve the communication problems of a community by studying its various 34 . especially in Europe and America.80 The existence of this present study should answer Abdelali‟s suggestion and hopes. Language Engineering or Language Planning is a term used in sociolinguistics for a deliberate. He stated later that his study did not include Egyptian newspaper as part of his corpus as Egypt was considered the Arabic-speaking country with the largest population and had had a very clear impact on recent politics. by including Al-Ahram to represent Egyptian newspapers – in addition to non-Arab country newspapers which are considered a new dimension in the area of word frequency study.” 27. It is an attempt to build an alternative corpus for researchers who want to carry out analysis in the discipline of Language Engineering81 in the belief that the varieties of research objectives need a suitable corpus. Furthermore.

these two Arabic corpora do not have word frequency as the main purpose of their analysis.85 All these newspapers were the product of Arab countries. including word frequency study. while Hamdy S. namely. USA.” 1.86 This justifies the claim that current studies are more generalised and comprehensive in compiling the corpus. 85 Abdelali. “Building. Saudi Arabia. languages and dialects and developing an official language policy concerning their selection and use. The intention of this study to collect texts from various newspapers in different countries has affected the present research. Cowie and Soliman. namely AFP Arabic newswire from LDC and Al-Hayat newspaper collection from the European Language Resources Distribution Agency. which is deliberately different from this present study.84 However. 83 Ahmed Abdelali and James Cowie worked at New Mexico State University while the work was in progress. Lebanon. the building of the corpus is very important in Language Engineering studies. namely: Egypt. 84 Abdelali. Morocco. Cowie and Soliman. Cowie and Soliman. but the attempt proves the current interest in the Arabic world in corpus building by its use of a larger number of newspapers than previous studies. 2003). The study compiled data from eleven countries. see David Crystal.83 comes as an alternative to two Arabic corpora commonly used by researchers. In addition. Soliman. 82 Abdelali. James Cowie and Hamdy S. 35 . The corpus development by a group of computer experts. especially when the countries involved are scattered throughout the world. Ahmed Abdelali. Qatar. “Building”. 5th ed. the study proves that compiling data from many countries has become much easier and reliable through the internet.” 1. Jordan.Significantly. 1-2. “Building. Soliman worked for the New Mexico Institute of Mining And Technology. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics. 258. “Building. (Oxford: Blackwell. Oman.” 2. Syria and Iraq. Kuwait. Cowie and Soliman. 86 Abdelali. Algeria.

pupils‟ speech and handwriting. especially in America and Europe. describing previous word frequency studies in English. as language changes from time to time. This becomes the platform for the reactivation of word frequency study in Arabic newspapers after a disproportionate amount of effort has been unintentionally concentrated on school textbooks or syllabi in the educational field. but word frequency studies in Arabic have tended to have directly educational purposes because the corpus contains educational metarials such as school textbooks. The researcher considers that this is the right time to update the findings of previous frequency studies in Arabic newspapers. noted: „Although useful and 36 . Linguistic experts. A new perspective on the study of statistical word analysis in Arabic newspapers emerged in the early twenty-first century as a reflection of similar studies in other major languages. Geoffrey and colleagues (2001). only a few studies have been undertaken relevant to the current research. In Arabic in particular. focusing on Arabic newspapers. and they were completed a long time ago before the advent of the computer age. have put considerable effort into building a large-scale corpus using computational statistical analysis in Arabic language materials including newspapers. syllabi.2.5 Conclusion Many studies in word frequency have been carried out in various languages in the world. and research methods and statistical analysis tools develop. This kind of study developed in other languages. for many purposes. especially in America and Europe. that is.

Word Frequencies.interesting in their different ways. Rayson and Wilson. xi.‟87 Extensive studies are likely to be conducted from the findings of word frequency lists. and this will make the study more valuable to readers. 37 . such as comparisons between variables and lexicon construction. 87 Leech. these publications cannot be said to fulfil the need for adequate and up-to-date frequency listings for the present-day English language.

38 .88 because newspapers spread knowledge of current world events and are read by all levels of readers.” Public Opinion Quarterly 26. with the emergence of the Internet.CHAPTER 3 MODERN STANDARD ARABIC (MSA) IN ARABIC MEDIA 3.1 Introduction Arabic newspapers as one of the news media in Modern Media Arabic has made a great contribution to the development of readers‟ knowledge and their thinking level.89 Word usage is therefore one of the language elements that need to be studied in Arabic newspapers because language competence affects readers‟ understanding. n. “International News in the Arabic Press: A Comparative Content Analysis. readers can access online newspapers from everywhere and at the same time compare the newspapers they read from every angle. 4 (1962): 600. including language. Besides being informed of the daily events around the world. globally. Through the Internet. 89 „ Abd al-„Aziz Sharaf. 88 Ibrahim Abu Lughud. al-Lughah al-I„lamiyyah (Cairo: al-Markaz al-Thaqafi al-Jami‘i. Newspapers are today playing an increasing role in spreading news and language understanding both locally and. no. 190.d ). readers can develop their language knowledge and proficiency.

April 5-7. UK. The sixth section explains the two newspaper sections that are studied. 90 91 Van Mol. namely world affairs and sport. This is inline with the view of Haddad (1988). 1. The fifth section presents a brief background to the newspapers selected for this study. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic.This chapter presents discussions relating to the real aim of this research and is one of the most important parts of the study as it provides key information before going further into the main content. The fourth section deals with print and online versions of newspapers. Van Mol (2003) states that MSA is the standard form of the language and within the Arab world. 30. The third section describes aspects of language in Arabic newspapers.2. “Classical Arabic between Knowledge and Function” (paper presented to the Symposium on Arabic Language Teaching.1 Modern Standard Arabic The issue of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) has been discussed by Arab scholars for more than 50 years.2 Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) in Newspaper Publishing 3. 39 .91 The acceptance of MSA as one of the official languages of the United Nation proves their success in achieving this aim. it fulfils a unifying function. Defence School of Language. 1988). T. the main purpose being is to make MSA the official language of communication for the Arab world. Haddad. who notes that MSA is the language of official communication among the Arab people. Beaconsfield. The first section is the introduction. 3.90 It emerged with the aim of uniting and standardising the use of Arabic in all Arabic-speaking countries. This chapter is organised into six major sections. The second section explains Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) in Arabic newspapers.

40 . and magazines. 1983).A. learned debates. which is used in the Qur‟an and other classical writings. they use the term fusha for both because they generally see MSA and CA as one unity – „al-lughah al-fusha‟ – taking into consideration that old texts. 3. Ali (1983) notes that MSA is the variety of Arabic found in contemporary books. and that it is used orally in formal speeches. also use MSA as they are considered a duplication of traditional media. especially those related to the Qur‟an and Islamic tradition. which use CA. “Analogical Derivation of Nominals in Modern Standard Arabic with Special Reference to the Technical Lexicon” (PhD thesis. remain of 92 A. when it was first mooted.92 As this statement was made before the Internet era. the use of MSA as the name for the new era of Arabic language has not been fully accepted by all scholars. for instance. Leeds. 93 Confusion also occurs among typical native speakers because the distinction between MSA and CA is unclear and. accessing the Portable Document Format (PDF) version of newspapers from the Internet provides a copy of its printed version and similarly. particularly in the Arab world. However. 93 Van Mol. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. public lectures. the accessing television news broadcasts via the Internet is the as same as watching the news on television. religious ceremonials. the researcher believes that most of news materials and information sources that can be accessed digitally through the Internet. University of Leeds. MSA has today become an accepted language that is widely used in both written and most of the spoken mediums throughout most Arab countries. as a result. Ali. For instance. and in radio and television news broadcasts. newspapers.As a result. although local dialects still dominate informal daily spoken and written language. 39. Scholars at al-Azhar. Their stand in this situation is very rigid: there is only one Arabic language. did not agree with the term as they see it as a deliberate departure from Classical Arabic (CA).

that the evolution of Arabic from CA to MSA involves not only new words and phrases. Van Mol. especially with respect to communication and education. 38. but also aspects of morphology and syntax (grammar). 96 For more detail see the analysis and discussion chapters.94 In addition. It also has a particular link with the technological age. The only issue that arises is the extent of the changes that occur in a particular language. all must accept some changes in their language. it can be argued. as the former still refers to the Qur‟an and other classical writings in many cases. 38. as the researcher will discuss later. the fast development in communication technology in the last few decades has created a global interlingual culture where languages nevertheless affect each other. 94 95 Van Mol.current interest in the MSA era. 41 . who states that MSA is the language that is spread through education and media and functions as a bond that symbolises and fosters Arab unity. no distinction is made between these two versions of the language.97 In other words. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic.96 In fact. This phenomenon cannot be denied by any civilisation. but to indicate a stage in language development and act as a starting point towards modernisation. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. This view is not very different from that of Van Mol (2003). 97 Van Mol.95 However. which has directly affected this development in many aspects. even though these changes may not be very obvious. 36. in contemporary Arabic grammar. the purpose of the MSA project was not to separate MSA from CA.

a certain language variety (namely CA) is selected as the basis. However. the language has been codified and normalised by the work of the various language academies.99 Nevertheless. 135. “Factors in the Development of Modern Arabic Usage. Arabic Language Handbook: Language Handbook Series (Washington: Center for Applied Linguistics. Third.According to Mitchell (1986). In addition to 98 Terry F Mitchell. phraseology and style. fourth. Only slight changes have occurred in the structure of the language. “What is educated Spoken Arabic?. it is adapted to the evolution of time and.101 In order to differentiate between the two. 1967).100 This view is supported by Stetkevych‟s (1970) statement that MSA has deviated strongly from CA. because of the strong foundation that Arabic has retained throughout its history. This is proven by his statement that „MSA shares most of its morphology and syntax with the classical language of the Qur‟an and canonical literature of Islam.‟98 That statement is strengthened by „Abd al-„Aziz (1986) who notes that „the phonological structure of MSA is assumed to be the same as that of the classical language‟. especially in terms of the terminology. great changes can be seen in MSA in other respects. 42 . including aspects of morphology and syntax. 99 Mohamed H. it is specifically promulgated through education and media. the Arabic Language only accepted limited changes.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 62 (1986): 20. The Modern Arabic Literary Language. as a result of modernisation and language interchange with the non-Arab world. 101 Jaroslav Stetkevych. Bateson (1967) observes great differences and concludes that „many particles have undergone a slight shift in meaning‟. second. based on the Qur‟an and the classical literature such as poetry. 1970). Beeston (1970) underlines four characteristics by which MSA can be distinguished from CA. The researcher takes a moderate stance between these views. First.” International Journal of the Sociology of Language 61 (1986): 9. 85. Abdulaziz. Lexical and Stylistic Developments (Chicago-London: UCP. 100 Mary Catherine Bateson.

to adapt them using the derivation system and Arabisation (ta„rib). no.‟102 In this regard.new terminologies. The study of word frequency in Arabic newspaper text is an effective method of tracing the changes. the level of the impact of this phenomenon is not the same in all aspects. it should be concluded that CA has experienced changes in almost all aspects. The modernisation in MSA in terms of the extension of Arabic vocabularies to include new words and scientific terms is spread mostly through education and the media. including the structure of the language. Arabs are aware that most of these terms come from other languages. some phrases and words have experienced a semantic broadening or meaning shifting. This is proven by „Abdul Sahib‟s statement (1988): „Modern Arabic will continue to play catch up and incorporate scientific terminologies and scientific ideas within its own linguistic structures. as a result of the swift evolution of global communication. The Modern Language Journal 72. review of A Linguistic Study of the Development of Scientific Vocabulary in Standard Arabic by Abdul Sahib Mehdi Ali. However. Among the most affected areas are terminology and word usage. Therefore. through the adoption of MSA. 43 . the researcher believes that the Arabic newspaper is the news medium most uses these methods in its encounter with loan words and new terms from foreign languages. and Arabic has its mechanism. especially English. 102 George Saliba. 3 (1988): 341. especially in the past few decades.

viii. have been the most popular news and information sources for the Arab peoples.2. 1993).2.1 Media Arabic and the invention of the Internet The media. printed and broadcast. scientific and technological writing. Arabic 103 Julia Ashtiany also devides „Media Arabic‟ into two sections. Media Arabic (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. contemporary literature. 105 Leo A. the Kuwaiti Satellite Channel (KSC). 1982). the Jordanian Arab Satellite Channel (JASC) and other Arabic channels. the telecommunication media rapidly developed a number of national. can be divided into two categories: written media and spoken (broadcast) media. 37.‟104 The Arabic media. “New and Old Media Access and Ownership in the Arab world.2 Media Arabic 3. journalism.” in Standard Languages: Spoken and Written . see Julia Ashtiany. This applies to Arabic media. 124. This definition was also agreed by Abdulaziz (1986: 17) and Bentahila (1991: 72) quoted in Van Mol. as is indicated by Mitchell‟s (1982) definition of MSA as the language that „has been applied to the written language of say. administration and diplomacy. beginning with the Egyptian Satellite Channel (ESC). Gher and Hussein Y.105 The launch of ArabSat around 1970s unified Arab world communications with the purpose of forming an Arabic public service satellite sector for all members of the Arab League.103 ‟Written media‟ usually indicates newspapers while „broadcast media‟ refers to television and radio broadcasting. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic.” Gazette 61. pronouncing with a Vulgar‟ some preliminary Observations on the Arabic Koine. William Hass (Manchester: Manchester University Press. no. followed by the Saudi Middle East Broadcasting Center (MBC). radio and television. ed. dominated by newspapers. 1 (1999): 61.3.2. 104 Terry F Mitchell. Beginning in the Arab world around the 1920s (radio) and 1950s (television). TV and radio news casting. 44 . “More Than a matter of „writing with the Learned. in any language. Amin. regional and international services with the launching of some satellite channels.

it is more effective in spreading the news than traditional media. They found that 37. Chen and Li (2004) shows that the availability of media through the Internet leads to greater user satisfaction in accessing news when compared with traditional media. media publishers may now earn less from local sales. 45 . The invention of the Internet in the 1990s has played an important role in enlarging the Arab communications network. Chen and Li. Furthermore. are at a disadvantage in terms of the limited array of content and rigid schedules to which the users must conform. such as newspapers and television. where the Internet is easily accessible. although the number of users of traditional media may decrease with the existence of the Internet. Its existence has increased the popularity of Arabic media throughout the world. particularly the media.2%. “Compitition between the Internet and Traditional News Media: The Gratification-Opportunities Niche Dimension.107 Internet users do not need to go travel worldwide to get their newspapers and TV channels.0%.newspapers were first published many decades before radio and television services began and this will be discussed later (see page 71).106 Traditional media. 107 Dimmick. wherever people can gain access to newspapers. it must also have be admitted that the number of users accessing similar media through the Internet from all over the world has increased tremendously. especially of newspapers. radio and television news through the Internet. They just need to sit in front of the computer and call up whatever they want to browse. From the researcher‟s point of view.” Journal of Media Economics 17. and radio with 22. From an economic point of view.7% of respondents had moved to online media for television. but their popularity may increase instead. “Compitition between the Internet. A survey by Dimmick. followed by newspapers with 28. 1 (2004): 27. As a result. in some circumstances. due to its great advantages. 106 John Dimmick. Yan Chen and Zhan Li. no.” 22.

Home page. like an international Arabic newspaper. this shows the Internet delivers Arabic media as well as traditional methods. online newspapers such as Al-Quds al-„Arabi (UK) offers the written news in PDF and HTML versions in both Arabic and English languages. because they offer more additional services and information than the written version. Aljazeera Network. along with additional information and services. search services and much more. “New and Old Media.108 Internet media. which have attracted a large number of users compared with their counterparts. The Aljazeera channel. although users need some knowledge and experience in order to classify all the news they want to access. was established in 1995 and began by broadcasting six hours per day. interactive polls. “The New Arab Media Phenomenon: Qatar Al-Jazeera. offers extensive advantages over watching television programmes and reading printed news. Furthermore. this economic lost does not substantially affect other media. reading the written version in Arabic or English. no. For instance.” 62. based in Qatar. as most of the media in Arab countries today are non-profit services and only partially financed by advertising revenues.109 In addition. For more clarification. offers the flexibility of choosing news stories.aljazeera. 46 . Bahry.net/portal (accessed October 30.” Middle East Policy 8. 2 (2001): 89-90. In January 1999. such as television and radio. 2008). the most influential Arabic TV channel. 108 109 Gher and Amin. specifically for newspapers. http://www. Generally speaking.the income lost can be replaced by online buyers from outside the country. see Louay Y. Al-Jazeera. the channel started 24-hour broadcasting after picking up a large audience of Arabs and others in just four years.

1950).111 Fandaris (1950) differentiates between the two. and the language used in newspapers. the language style used in both sources is the same because almost all online newspapers. he says that a speaker does not use grammatical structures to frame ideas. Two or Many?.net/ (accessed October 15. such as arab2000. „Abd al-„Aziz al-Dawakhili and Muhammad al-Qassas (Cairo: Maktabat alAnglo. Bentahila and Eirlys E. live comment. 192-194.2 MSA in written and spoken Media Arabic In whatever sources the news appears (whether traditional or online). Most of these slots are conducted spontaneously without a formal text or reference and as a result. Some online media are not published. Bentahila (1991) has the same view. 110 This only applies to online media that have a traditional countrepart. saying that the written language has a well organised style of writing. http://www.112 Fandaris may be correct in this. 112 Fandaris.2. Therefore. because the spoken language is more spontaneous. 1 (1991): 69-88. some issues have arisen regarding the differences between the language used on television and radio. the researcher considers that not all spoken news depends on written text. saying that there is greater variety in the spoken language than the written language. 2008). as news presenter may use local dialects especially when they are commenting on unpredicted situation without any written references. He notes that television and radio media apply the spoken language while the newspapers tend to use the written language.110 However. trans. al-I„lam wa al-Lughah. In some circumstances. 47 . see Abdelali. structured words and organised idea. vol.arab2000. but.2. they are open to the use of local language as well as to variable language standards. 1 of Media Studies Series (Cairo: „Alam alKutub. As an example. applies certain simple indicative movements to connect passages. no. He also points out that grammatical structure in spoken language is not as good as in written language. al-Lughah. discussion or interview may be slotted into news programmes. “Standards for Arabic: One. 11-12. while the writer takes time to think before writing. 1984). 111 Muhammad Sayyid Muhammad.” Indian Journal of Applied Linguistics 17.3. and television and radio channels provide the same news as their traditional equivalents. comprising continuity in passages. Davies.net – home page.

use MSA. both of them are derived from one language used among the Arab nation. although there are differences between media in spoken and written language. Media Arabic.” 23. many scholars believe that all Arabic media. Muhammad.114 Its classification into two kinds of language is basically to differentiate between the two types of news media.” 344. 115 Abdelali. 3. which is known as al-luhgah al-fusha or MSA. including the spoken media.115 According to Godlas (2002). 12. quoted in Abdelali. Ultimately. The basic vocabulary and syntax of Arabic Media are the same as those of MSA. “A Linguistics Study. This conclusion is strengthen by Abdelali‟s view (2004) that the media Arabic which include Arabic newspaper is considered exclusively comprises Modern Standard Arabic (MSA).117 As a result. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic.116 while „Abd al-Sahib (1988) notes that MSA has been widely used in Arabic newspapers as a medium of information to the public.” 23. 116 Godlas (2002). “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic.113 According to Muhammad (1984). al-I„lam wa al-Lughah. several Arabic newspapers have successfully penetrated to the market in other Arab countries and reached a circulation in the hundreds of thousands. 113 114 Ashtiany. 117 Saliba. they refer to one basic language because spoken news is written first before broadcasting to the public.Whatever the case may be. 3. 48 . which means that the use of one acceptable standard language that strengthens their unity is accepted by the Arab nations. most printed materials including Arabic newspapers use MSA.3 MSA in Arabic newspapers The above discussion brings us to the conclusion that Arabic newspapers undeniably use MSA.2.

scientific writing and arts writing including newspaper. which is also used in other writings. For more detail. 26. Muhammad Hasan „Abd al-„Aziz (n.3 Language Aspects in Arabic Newspapers Discussion about aspects of language plays an important role in forming the identity and characteristics of a newspaper. 1999). MSA is widely used in all kind of modern written materials. Newspaper language generally follows a common style that is accessible because it is intended to cater for the widest range of people.118 However. and the ultimate aim of reports is to convey news from the writer‟s knowledge to the public.120 The language in newspapers is therefore primarily affected by the requirements of the style needed for news reporting. 120 Faruq Muhammad Abu Zayd.d. It is very important to stress that the major part of a newspaper consists of reporting. the study will discuss later how a word frequency study can determine the differences in Arabic newspaper word usage between countries and regions. It means that the language used should not be too difficult for the common people and at the same time.). the elements of words used in Arabic news articles also have contributed to making the newspaper distinct with regard to language. not so simple that it will be underrated by educated readers. 12. ranging literature.) thus notes that it is newspaper language that comes closest to representing MSA. The nature of news reports. Specifically. Although the Arabic newspaper is strengthened by the use of MSA.119 3. see the analysis and discussion chapters. 118 119 49 . it is still distinctive in terms of some aspects of the language it uses.Essentially. n. Muhammad Hasan „Abd al-„Aziz. within the MSA characteristics. Muqaddimah fi „Ilm al-Sahafah (Cairo: Markaz Jami„at al-Qahirah.d. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu‟asirah (Cairo: Dar al-Ma‟arif.

77. 139.). simple passages. journalists need to use a style appropriate for the short-term report. depending on the type of writing in question. A „fast‟ turnaround is also needed in news writing because the news is more valuable when it is current and „hot‟. 12.121 3. from the very intellectual to those still learning to read.). thus proving that the newspaper is a major resource for Arabic words. 50 .d. al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-„Alam. „Abd al-„Aziz.including both local and world events. the fact that all newspapers are essentially dominated by news articles123 means that the reporting style is most evident.d.125 so the text should be accessible across a wide range. 77-78. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu„asirah. al-I„lam wa al-Lughah. This style is distinguished by several characteristics. 125 Muhammad.) notes that the language style in Arabic newspapers is generally a combination of various styles. 12. Horzfer used Arabic newspapers in compiling his „Modern Arabic Language Dictionary‟.3.122 because a newspaper may contain all kinds of writing. This is justified by the fact that there is no specific target readership. see „Abd al„ Aziz. 126 Fahmi. However. creates language inter-change and allows the acceptance of foreign words. 122 Mahmud Adham. Arabic newspaper style is basically easy124 and can be regularly be recognised from its use of short. 124 Mahmud Fahmi.126 Since events reported in newspapers change every day. 12. so they should not waste time 121 According to „Abd al-„Aziz (n. n. 241.d. 123 Abu Zayd. The Arabic newspaper is therefore considered a major resource for Arabic words.1 Language style Mahmud Adham (n. Muqaddimah fi „Ilm al-Sahafah. The easy style of writing is also technically related to word selection. 1964). al-Maqal al-Sahafi (Cairo: Maktabat al-Anglo al-Misriyyah. as noted before. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu„asirah. al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-„ Alam (Cairo: Dar al-Ma„arif.

55. This is consequence of the socio-linguistic interchange that takes place when the media report the world issues reported in countries with different languages and cultures.1 gives some examples. According to him. ambiguity and difficult words and sentences. which are aspects that may not have received much attention in other writings.128 Table 3. „Abd al-„Aziz (n. Nevertheless. What happens. „practical prose‟ language differs from literary language and ordinary prose in that it is intended to make it easy to interpret articles quickly. it being a practical prose style usually formed of easy language. showing that the Arabic is correct. 77.) quotes from al-Maghribi to show that this does not diminish the Arabic nature of the language as word and sentence formation remain authentically Arabic. 10. al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-„Alam. He recognises the language style of Arabic newspaper writing as „practical prose‟ (al-nathr al-„amali). Muhammad. is that expressions are developed under foreign influence that were not previously in use in Arabic. without pressure. Abd al-„Aziz. It is very important to note that newspaper Arabic cannot avoid being influenced by the styles used in foreign languages. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu„ asirah. but that the phrases are influenced by English usage. Newspaper Arabic lies between literary.d. 51 . rather. elevated language and the language used by the common man.127 The recognition of newspaper language as such clarifies the differences between newspaper and other writing. The special characteristics of newspaper language style inspired Mahmud Fahmi (1964) to consider it in more detail.selecting difficult and ambiguous or subtle words in order to publish sophisticated but tricky articles. 127 128 „ Fahmi. al-I„lam wa al-Lughah.

129 Thus far.Table 3. For example.130 It is widely exploited to attract as many readers as possible and to stimulate their imagination with regard to the topic and message of the articles. It may therefore happen that a foreign phrase and word occur together. there is no contradiction with al-Maghribi‟s statement that „the word and sentence formation are still authentically Arabic‟. 3. The phrasing of the sentence ‫خ‬ٛ‫ أُِ ثٔؼوكخ اُْـو‬٠ِ‫٘ ػ‬ َ ِ‫هـُج‬ is believed to be affected by the English phrase „the thief was caught by the police‟. al-Maqal al-Sahafi. ُِِّٔ‫ ا‬٠ِ‫٘ ػ‬ َ ِ‫( هُج‬the thief was arrested). which also contributes to the newspaper‟s identity.1: Examples of news writing style affected by English language No 1 2 3 Arabic Language ّ‫ اُؼب‬١‫ٔضَ اُوأ‬٣ ٠ُ‫ ا‬ٚ‫ر‬ٕٞ ٢‫ؼط‬٣ ‫ِؼت ثبُ٘به‬٣ English Language to represent public opinion to give one‟s vote to to play with fire This is debatable as Arabic language has acquired foreign words as well as being influenced by foreign phraseology. diction or usage can make a reader confuse what the storyline of the 129 „ 130 Abd al-„Aziz.131 Thus. Kershner (2005) notes a very important point in relation to the language aspects of newspaper writing: „a small mistake in accuracy will undermine the credibility of a story. as al-shurtah is an Arabic word. a mistake in grammar.2 Word usage The accessibility of the Arabic newspaper as a principal source of knowledge and information for the public depends on its distinctive language. 243-244. 202. but the word ٌ٤ُٞ‫( اُج‬police) might equally be used instead.3. Adham. 52 . Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu„ asirah. and this is a loan word from English. al-Lughah al-I„lamiyyah. it is not usual in Arabic for a passive verb to be used with a subject. 131 Sharaf. 58. as in the sentence. but this construction is now found in Arabic newspapers.

Journalists regularly take several criteria into account when selecting the most suitable words for their writing. al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-„Alam. 3.3. „ Abd al-„Aziz (1991) statement that „no word has two meanings in one time and one situation‟ indicates the importance of this. 23. 190. bearing in mind that accuracy is an essential element in news writing.133 The language aspects of newspaper writing make a critical contribution to the development of readers‟ thinking.134 It is undeniable that the use of suitable and accurate words actively affects this contribution. These are: 1. Fahmi. 17-18. Clarity The use of clear words in newspaper writing is crucial as it leads to clear message delivery. 53 . al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah.1 Word selection The main purpose of news writing is to deliver information to the readers on current world issues and consequently to activating their thinking. The Element of News Writing.article.‟132 The statement proves that the exact choice and usage of words are crucial factors for the accuracy of a report as a whole the avoidance of misunderstanding among readers. In contrast. the use of ambiguous and unusual words will only drive 132 133 Kershner. One of the simplest methods to achieve this aim is for the writer to put himself in the reader‟s shoes. 134 Sharaf. Knowing how to select the clearest word is therefore a requisite for producing a good article.2. The journalist should therefore be able to distinguish between synonyms the most appropriate word for the situation.

136 Newspapers today are read by most community members with various levels of thinking. 1973). 2.135 In addition.readers away from the newspaper. 1986). 251. Clarity in the wording used is a factor that contributes to the achievement of this aim and without it newspaper writing is not fully benefiting readers. Ease of pronunciation usually depends on the combination of letters in the 135 Adham.137 This is probably the reason why many previous studies have shown that the words that can be considered clear and simple words to the type of corpora are those that rate highest on word frequency lists. Simplicity The aim of using clear words is to make the newspaper easy to read and understand for the general reader. in news writing. The relationship between the terms „clear‟ and „simple‟ in newspaper writing is straightforward: a word is clear when it is simple. 104. Sahibat al-Jalalah al-Sahafah (Damascus: Dar al-Hai‟ah. Muhammad (1984) set the standard when he said that. 137 Muhammad. al-I‟lam wa al-Lughah. the use of subtle words should also be avoided lest readers misunderstand the intended message. 15. Adnan al-Maluhi. It is therefore very important to do as much as possible to make the content of the news understandable across this wide range. al-Maqal al-Sahafi. words are considered simple and clear when they are understandable to average secondary school students. Some are educated and others are not. Mitchell Stephens and Gerald Lanson. Writing and Reporting the News (New York: CBS College Publishing. Easy words are not simply those with a simple meaning. 26. 136 „ 54 . they should also be easy to pronounce.

while the second is an emphatic consonant. 138 139 55 . see Muhammad. 2003). Arabic Language Handbook (Washington: Georgetown University Press.139 3. In general. Ameyreh. 17. but the wording of the first example is more complex than the wording of the second. the main purpose of reading newspaper is not to enjoy the beauty of the language. or in other words. Mary Catherine Bateson. “Completion of the Consonant Inventory of Arabic. The first consonant is classified as a plain consonant. al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-„Alam. but to be informed about current events. The consonants sad (ٓ) and to (ٛ) are similarly articulated. be to the point. 4. For example. For example. al-I‟lam wa al-Lughah. Immediacy Words used in news writing should immediately indicate the article‟s message. see Mousa M. instead of using the phrase: "‫و ًنا‬ّٜ ٢‫"اَرقم إنً انًأل األػهً ك‬.word. 141 The word ٢‫ك‬ٞ‫ ر‬means „died‟ and the word ٠ِ‫ أُأل األػ‬٠ُ‫ اٗزوَ ا‬mean „move back to the Highness God‟. Muhammad Hasan (1978) notes that „the language of newspapers is not a literature language which specific to one group of Fahmi. 140 Stephens and Lanson.” Journal of Speech. the Arabic language has its own mechanisms for facilitating pronunciation. the writer would do better to use “‫و ًنا‬ّٜ ٢‫”ذىفٍ ك‬141 The emphasised phrases in both sentences convey similar meaning. in the word ‫( إطجو‬to be patient) the consonant to replaces the ta in the original form of the word ‫ إزجو‬. 27.140 The writer must therefore choose between various synonyms and phrases in order to deliver the message without making the readers have to think hard about the meaning. Language and Hearing Research 46 (2003): 517.138 That is why in many cases. 79. It is quite difficult to pronounce the sound ta (‫ )د‬directly after consonant sad ( ٓ) for phonic reasons. Writing and Reporting the News.

such as ‫ل‬ ًَ (rather than simply ٍ‫ – هب‬to say). For example.‟142 Nevertheless. Relating the past requires truth and accuracy in reporting. 144 The longest article in the world affairs section of Al-Ahram newspaper on Sunday 4 November 2008.144 142 „ 143 Abd al-„Aziz. 143 On that basis. 56 . Merrill and Ralph D. John C. َّ ‫ أ‬is used five the researcher‟s simple observation in his own corpus showed that the word ‫ل‬ ًَ to seven time in a 900-word article in Al-Ahram. ed. there are several words that affirm meaning.people. It is not a prediction of the future. the use of words that indicate the writers‟ confidence in the accuracy of the news they write are needed to engage the readers‟ attention. Decisiveness News is essentially a report about events that have happened in the past. but a general language for everybody who can read and understand. For example the word ‫هل‬ (literally: „already‟) used with a past tense verb indicate an action that is definitely َّ ‫( أ‬to confirm) concluded. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu‟asirah. 11. 4. it is undeniable that the beauty of language style is still useful in news writing especially in making the information delivery process to the readers more interesting but it should not reach to the level where it can shift the real aim of news.” in Ethics in the Press: Reading in Mass Media Morality . Barney (New York: Hastings House. 1975). particularly when used in the perfect tense. The title of the article is ‫اه‬ٞ‫ٍ اُغ‬ٝ‫ل ك‬ٙ ‫بة‬ٛ‫طبُت ثٔ٘غ اٍزقلاّ اُؼوام هبػلح ُإله‬٣ ٍٞ‫ ٓئرٔو اٍط٘ج‬by Usamah „Abd al-„Aziz. In addition. The most common words used in Arabic for this purpose are specific words of emphasis. “Ethics and Journalism. John C Merrill. 12.

11. Writing and Reporting the News. because writers are often faced with a number of synonyms from which to choose. Fahmi.146 For example. 2003). Similarly. but also to sentence structure and word selection. “Cruising is Believing?: Comparing Internet and Traditional Sources on Media Credibility Measures. in describing the „Arab people‟.147 Writers must take into account both fast writing and accurate word selection in order to produce good current news stories.5. This is not as easy as it might appear. However. 147 Mahmud Khalil. 2 (1998): 325. 145 This accuracy does not apply only to the facts presented. Lughah Sahafah (Cairo: „Alam al-Kitab. 146 Stephens and Lanson. 57 . they become more 145 Thomas J. Johnson and Barbara K.” Jounalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 75. the writer must choose whether to use the word ‫( اُؾوة‬war). Journalist must still take care to use the most accurate word. the journalists should write the news in a „fast‟ way. Ethics and Journalism. Lack of attention to accuracy will downgrade the quality of the news and cause misunderstanding among readers. in many circumstances. Accuracy It has become part of journalism ethics that writers should confirm the accuracy of their story before submitting it in order to ensure the validity and reliability of the news. 9-10. As mentioned before. ‫( أُؼوًخ‬battle) or ٍ‫( اُوزب‬fighting). 119-120 and. in describing a „war‟ event. using easy words and simple sentences. but this does not mean that accuracy in word selection can be neglected. 17. no. al-Fann al-Suhufi fi al-„Alam. all these criteria are characteristics of MSA that are also discussed in connection with other kinds of writing. An expert writer should not find a major problem in balancing them as he or she will be skilled in grasping the exact meaning of word and how to assemble them in the right context. he or she should know the difference between ‫خ‬٤‫( األٓخ اُؼوث‬the Arab nation) ٢‫( اُْؼت اُؼوث‬the Arab people) and ‫( اُؼوة‬the Arabs). Merrill. Kaye. In conclusion.

2. This development can be measured by comparing the use of words in different periods. including:149 ‫ ايرشاق انحساو‬ٍٟٞ ‫ؼل أٓبّ اُجِل‬٣ ُْ The word ّ‫( آزْبم اُؾَب‬drawing out the sword) which mean „war‟ found in the first period newspaper are very rare in Arabic newspapers today and are considerably affected by literary language (al-lughah al-adabiyyah).) has made a clear comparison between Al-Ahram in the 1950s and in the 1970s. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu‟asirah. 39. 37. for example: 148 „ 149 „ Abd al-„Aziz. such as Taha Husayn and „Abbas al-„Aqqad.2 The development of word usage The development of Arabic with time is undeniably influenced by word usage in newspaper Arabic. 3.148 This may be because many journalists during the first period were also literary authors. Muhammad Hasan „Abd al-„Aziz (n. Abd al-„Aziz. well known for their excellence in standard Arabic. „ Abd al-„Aziz gives some examples to prove this assertion. He found that the newspaper used standard Arabic (al-lughah al-fusha) more in the first period than in the second.3.d. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu„asirah. 58 . In contrast. Al-Ahram tended to use more new words – either loan words or new derivatives of Arabic words. in the second period.important in newspaper articles that report current world events and aim to deliver reports to readers as quickly and accurately as possible.

on that basis we may say that they are the most readable form of literature.3. some may consider that the first period is characterised by „real‟ Arabic. 59 . 3. The fast.‫ب‬ٜٔ٤‫ل ر٘ظ‬٤‫خ انًُسحثح إٔ رؼ‬٤ٌ٣‫اد األٓو‬ٞ‫ اُو‬٠ِ‫ػ‬ Al-Wasit150 states that the word ‫( أَُ٘ؾجخ‬withdrawn) is a new word derived from the Arabic root word ‫( ٍؾت‬sahaba). al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. in the researcher‟s opinion the use of literary language in the first period indicates that the newspaper writing at that time was still in the process of identity building. In other words.2. However. tended to use more Standard Arabic (al-lughah al-fusha). s.” Sharaf. to some extend. Al-Ahram. which is less affected by the literature language. while in the first period. not previously current. 188. people today have the option of accessing newspapers online 150 151 Al-Mu‟jam al-Wasit. and is much better than the second period because it used purely allughah al-fusha. In relation to the above discussion. clear and to the point style that characterises newspaper writing is not the main concern of literary language. “‫ٍؾت‬.v.3 The contribution of Arabic newspapers to word revolution What distinguishes newspapers is that they are read by people of varying intellectual and educational ability and. Eventually creating the newspaper language identity that is recognised by language academies and the Arab community.151 Furthermore. the second period some attempts had been made to use more MSA (lughah „Arabiyyah mu„asirah).

Because of their easy availability. including the language usage.152 Words that are newly born. 27. the public can easily being affected by the newspaper content. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 New Word ‫خ‬٣ٞٚ‫اُؼ‬ ‫أُ٘طبك‬ ‫هاعخ‬ َ ‫اُل‬ ‫َخ‬٤‫ػ‬ٞ٤ُْ‫ا‬ ‫برق‬ُٜ‫ا‬ ‫بع‬٣‫أُن‬ ‫أُؤٍبح‬ ‫اُجَز٘خ‬ ٛ‫اُجال‬ Meaning Membership of an organisation or association with its own constitution balloon – from the Arabic intad (to soar) Bicycle Communism Telephone Radio tragedy – in the theatre Gardening (royal) court These new words do not appear in newspapers without reason. through whatever medium. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. quoted in Van Mol. 199. 193. including newspapers. also applied by other language mediums. The Arabic newspaper has played its role not only in creating new words but also in making them known to the public. 154 Sharaf . al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. stating that some considered the MSA to be the language of the press because of the great influence that newspapers have exerted on its development. Dr „Abd al-„Aziz Sharaf (1991) has shown that newspaper language tends to use one particular word for a specific meaning and add to the language words not previously 152 153 Montiel (1960). are called the „modern word‟.2: Modern Arabic words recognised by Arabic newspapers No. Sharaf . which newspapers use to create new Arabic words in response to demand and to accommodate continuing changes in sociolinguistics. there are recognised methods. al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah.153 Table 3. Rather. 60 .rather than in traditional print editions.2 below gives some examples of the modern words recognised by Arabic newspapers.154 Table 3. Monteil (1960) has noted this phenomenon.

193-194. Ishtiqaq (Derivation)157 Table 3.recognised. ishtiqaq (derivation) and naht (compounding)155 as shown in the following examples of new words contributed by newspaper Arabic: 1. newspaper Arabic has adopted a number of new phrases formed a combination either of Arabic words or of Arabic and loan words. ‫ة‬ٞ٘‫اُغ‬ٝ ٍ‫اه أُْب‬ٞ‫( ؽ‬north-south Sharaf . 157 Sharaf .3: Majaz expressions recognised by Arabic newspapers156 No 1 2 3 4 Majaz Word ‫بهثخ‬ُٚ‫ح ا‬ٞ َ ‫اُو‬ ‫ ٖٓ أَُؤُخ‬ٚ٣‫ل‬٣ ََ‫ؿ‬ ‫أفن أُجبكهح‬ ‫ؾبد اَُؾبة‬ٛ‫ٗب‬ Meaning strike force He washed his hands of the matter He took the initiative very high (literally: touching the clouds) 2. and Fahmi. 79-80. ٖ‫ اَُبف‬ٜ‫( اُق‬hot line). ‫( أىٓخ اُطبهخ‬energy crisis). the result of a derivation process is a new word. for example: ٢ٗٝ‫( اُؼوَ االٌُزو‬computer [lit: electronic mind] ). al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. ‫اء‬ُٜٞ‫س ا‬ِٞ‫( ر‬air pollution). al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. A Dictionary of Linguistics. 155 61 . see Adham. 132. al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah.192. 194. 252. The most common methods of word creation in Arabic are: majaz (semantic broadening). al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-„Alam. ٢‫( األٖٓ اُـنائ‬food security). 156 Sharaf . see Crystal. al-Maqal al-Sahafi. For more detail. Majaz (semantic broadening) Table 3. Essentially. Derivation is a term used in morphology to refer to one of the two main categories of word-formation.4: New words recognised by Arabic newspapers through derivation No 1 2 3 4 5 6 New Word ٖ٘‫( ه‬law) ٍٞٓ (wealth) ‫ه‬ٞ‫( رط‬development) ‫ل‬٣‫( ػب‬feast) ْ٤‫( ه‬value) ‫اة‬ٞ‫( اٍزغ‬interrogation) Word Origin ٕٞٗ‫اُوب‬ ٍ‫أُب‬ ‫ه‬ٞ‫اُط‬ ‫ل‬٤‫اُؼ‬ ‫ٔخ‬٤‫اُو‬ ‫اة‬ٞ‫اُغ‬ In addition to these new words.

In addition. al-Maqal al-Sahafi.3 Word standardisation between newspapers and language academies Arabic newspapers are not alone in recognising and publicising new words for the Arab world. there are mechanisms in accepting the foreign words. especially in terms of the survival and development of the language. http://www. and the need to describe issues that do not arise in Arab countries also creates a need for new terms and expressions. 2008).159 The evolution of other languages and the global consequences is also a factor. In addition. The newspaper is one of the major media that describe and explain issues to the community. newspapers sometimes simply publicise the new words that are 158 159 For more examples. Adham.arabicnews.3. 3.). 252-255.html (accessed October 24. This does not mean that Arabic welcomes all foreign word without restriction.d. see Adham. this development is the result of political and social changes in the situation in the Arab world. priority is given to nouns and specific terms that do not have an Arabic equivalent. they frequently gain the support of the language academies 160 that exist in most Arab countries. There is also room for some kind of words and other common foreign words with the permission of language academies.com.dialogue). ٢ِ٣ٞٔ‫ٌَ اُز‬٤ُٜ‫( ا‬supply network) and many more. 62 . It is therefore indisputable that the ongoing study of words in newspaper Arabic is useful for tracking the continuous change in MSA.com/ansub/Daily/Day/000131/2000013133. and more words are being created. 160 A language academy is an authorised body responsible for all Arabic language affairs in a particular country.158 All these words and phrases were created to meet the need for modernisation in Arabic as a consequence of global communication. According to Mahmud Adham (n. see Arabic News. 255-257. Establishment of Arabic Language Academy. al-Maqal al-Sahafi.

al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. rather than creating them. the abbreviation is Sharaf . the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo (1932). 196. 196. 164 The Academy had also sanctioned the use of abbreviation. which included many modern and loan words used by Arabic newspapers.recognised by the language academies. al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. 165 Sharaf . 164 Al-Mu‟jam al-Wasit quoted in Sharaf . The history of the Arabic language academies began after World War I (1918).162 Arabic newspapers became the medium of this intercultural process. certified their availability. al-Mu„jam al-Wasit. Sharaf . recognising the usage of new words in Arabic newspapers. 195. should be established to reflect this phenomenon for the sake of the survival of the Arabic language. 199.161 Thus both generally cooperate in generating new Arabic words and adding to MSA.165 In that sense. al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. accepting them as part of the language after they began to be used in newspapers. The publication by the Academy in 1960 of the Arabic dictionary. which caused the spread of loan words into Arabic as a result of international contact and communication. Morocco (1961). al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. the Iraqi Academy of Knowledge in Baghdad (1947) and the Office of Loan Word Organisation for the Arab World in Rabat. 198. Among the first academies to be established are the Academy of Arabic Knowledge in Damascus (1918). such as a language academy.163 Several declarations had been released by these language authorities. al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. Arabic language scholars considered that an authorising body. particularly the Academy of the Arabic Language in Cairo. 161 162 63 . 163 Sharaf .

64 . al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. 166 167 Sharaf. The Academy has also sanctioned the use of ٢‫( أُوًت أُيع‬composite collage) in specific instances.167 All this leads the researcher to conclude that the language academies have offered extensive opportunities for foreign words to be accepted into Arabic. but their use is limited to the words that are recognised by the Academy. as long as they are in line with the fundamentals of the Arabic language. 199. In addition. 198. Sharaf. This situation makes for the faster development of Arabic in terms of word usage and interaction with other languages. we may say that thousands of newspaper Arabic terms have been sanctioned by the Arabic language academies as a result of the freedom given to journalists to create new words. Examples are: ‫هى‬ٞ٣ٞ٤ٗ (New York). Even if some kinds of words may be restricted by certain rules.166 In conclusion. ‫و‬٤ّ ‫هى‬ٞ٣ (Yorkshire). many are not touched by such restrictions. the academies also play the role to promoting the use in newspapers of an Arabic and at the same time follow more closely the fundamentals of the language as most frequently used by scholars. which strengthens the case for the need for this study to be conducted. especially scientific and technical terms. al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. and many more.used to abbreviate from two words or more using the original alphabet without any prefix or suffix.

3.3. 22. Oman and Yemen) and the Maghreb (including Morocco and Algeria). Normally. in practice it cannot be denied that differences do occur in the Arabic media that claim to use MSA. “Eloquence and Power: The Rise of Language Standard and Standard Languages.170 As far as this study is concerned.169 This phenomenon emerges more clearly when a variety of news articles from different countries are compared. Fischer and Jastrow (1980) divide Arabic dialects into five broad groups which represent five regions.” Bulletin d‟Etudes Orientales 43 (1991): 200. In other words. it does not belong to a particular area or group but to the region as a whole.4 Differences in word usage in Arabic newspapers As the main role of MSA is unification. geographical area is a main factor in the selection of the newspapers studied because the claim that newspaper articles use MSA cannot eliminate the effect of local language in different geographical areas. 1987). Some scholars divide Arabic language into three broad regional variations. Syria and Palestine from the above three. Arabic language is divided according to the region they located. Newspaper Arabic has been identified as exhibiting some differences in word usage. 129. 65 . “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic.168 However. 169 „Abdelali. Thus Ditters (1991) believes that the variation in the use of MSA depends on factors such as the progress in time and the geographical spreading by way of interferences with colloquial varieties. “A Modern Standard Arabic Sentence Grammar.” 25. 170 Van Mol.” in Open Linguistics Series (London: Frances Pinter. it should not in theory have a local character. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic.171 The affect of 168 John Earl Joseph. However. 171 Everhard Ditters. distinguishing Egyptian Arabic (including Egypt and Lybia) and Syro-Palestinian Arabic (including Lebanon. the Eastern Gulf (including Saudi Arabia. known as the Arabic of the Arabian Peninsula and Mesopotamia (including Iraq).

Bernard Comrie (Oxford. the use of local dialect in Arabic newspapers that claim to use MSA becomes preferable as in some cases when the local dialect is better understood by readers than the standard language (al-lughah alfusha). The differences in Arabic dialects in many parts of the Arab world are influenced by the languages of the countries that colonised them. In seeming contrast to researcher‟s previous understanding. especially European powers in the early ninetieth and twentieth centuries. as most of them have their own dialects. many words introduced into Arab countries are used in Arabic newspapers and in daily communication.172 The fact inspires such this study to be carried out to compare the MSA characteristics between those regions in word usage. who state that. although there are many similarities between the dialects of the Eastern Arab and the Western Arab regions. “Arabic. The table below shows colonial influence in Arab countries.” 23. Kaye. ed. it is not possible for people from different region to understand each other. 172 Alan S. 1987). This leads to a consideration of differences in word usage between newspapers from different countries and regions. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. The current situation in Iraq. 66 .173 The colonial period affected the language locally in terms of borrowed words and in the later development of the language. Oxford University Press.” in The World‟s Major Languages. especially when the news article covers the report about national issue. 173 Abdelali. As a result. 676. with the recent domination of the United States and its allies provides a similar example.local dialects in MSA also was stressed by Kaye (1987) and Bentahila (1991).

1991). Differences in vocabulary that occur are set out below: 1) Differences in spelling Differences in the spelling of Arabic words occur between various Arabic newspapers. This should mean that Al-Jazirah. This is probably due to historical factors in the development of Arabic grammar and also to 174 Abdelali. 318. was never colonised by a European country. However. will reveal differences in word use as compared with other Arab countries. It also shows that Saudi Arabia. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. see Albert Hourani. for example. namely Britain and France. Albert Hourani (1991) stated that Syria and Lebanon were under France mandates rather than being British colonies and Iraq was only under British mandate.E. However.5: Arab countries colonised by European countries174 No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Country Algeria Bahrain Egypt Iraq Jordan Kuwait Lebanon Libya Morocco Oman Qatar Sudan Syria Tunisia U. it should be pointed out that some of these countries were colonised by both Britain and France in different period of time.” 24. 67 . A History of the Arab Peoples (London: Faber and Faber. which is part of this present study.5 shows that most Arab countries were colonised by two major colonial powers. which is published in Saudi Arabia.A Yemen Control France Britain Britain Britain Britain Britain Britain Italy France Britain Britain Britain Britain France Britain Britain Type Colonisation Protectorate Colonisation Colonisation Protectorate Protectorate Protectorate Colonisation Protectorate Protectorate Protectorate Colonisation Colonisation Colonisation Colonisation Colonisation Dates 1830-1962 1835-1971 1882-1952 1917-1932 1922-1946 1899-1961 1920-1943 1929-1949 1912-1976 1820-1976 1916-1971 1873-1954 1922-1946 1881-1956 1819-1971 1839-1965 Table 3.Table 3. some scholars mentioned that there has been an argument relating to the type of foreign interference on Arab countries.

2002). “Improving Stemming for A rabic Information Retrieval: Light Stemming and Co-occurrence Analysis” (paper presented to the SIGIR Conference. The analysis of Al-Ahram.6 above explains how different colonial countries affect the same words used in Arabic newspapers.” 26. August 11-15.6: Word differences affected by different colonial countries176 No 1 2 Word ‫ثي‬ٝ‫األ‬ ‫ت‬٤‫ث‬ٝ‫اال‬ ‫لى‬٣‫اإل‬ ‫لا‬٤َُ‫ا‬ Translation OPEC OPEP AIDS SIDA Source English French English French Table 3. Lisa Ballesterus and Margaret E. Egyptian newspapers mostly spell ٍٞ‫( َٓئ‬official. 2. mainly English and French.175 These differences mostly occur in words that have hamzah (‫ )ء‬on a vowel (ٝ) or (١). the abbreviation OPEC in English is OPEP in French language. Arab countries follow either Britain or France in using one of these two word variations. 176 Abdelali. Connell. responsible) with the hamzah on ١ . while other newspapers spell it with the hamzah on ٝ (ٍٝ‫)َٓئ‬. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. Finland. For example. Tampere. Differences due to colonial influence The influence of foreign languages on newspaper Arabic can be seen in the way some words are spelt in Arabic based on the spelling in the language they were derived from. will hopefully explain the differences.the different narrations of the al-Qur‟an. Table 3. Table 3. 175 Leah S. For example. which represents the Egyptian newspapers in this study. Larkey.6 below contains examples of these differences. Because of the effect of colonisation effect. 68 .

3. either creating derivatives from Arabic or adopting or transliterating words from other languages as a means of developing the language and keeping an up-to-date lexicon. Even if particular words are Arabic words.8 below illustrates the situation. Difference in usage The use of words also differs between regions in the Arab world. The second comparison shows the use of words for „arrest‟ in Al-Khabar and Al-Ahram.” 26. Table 3. Table 3. Abdelali. The Arabic language uses different methods for creating new terminology and concepts. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. Table 3. 177 178 Abdelali. 4) Imported words and derivations Finally.7: Example of words for „training‟and „arrest‟177 English Word Training Arrest Al-Khabar (Algeria) ٔ‫اُزوث‬ Al-Khabar (Algeria) ‫ق‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ Al-Jazirah (Saudi Arabia) ‫ت‬٣‫اُزله‬ Al-Ahram (Egypt) ٍ‫االػزوب‬ Table 3. The first comparison shows the use of different words for „training‟ in Al-Khabar and Al-Jazirah. while in other regions other words are used to convey the similar meaning. differences in MSA also occur in loan words. their usage may be rare or nonexistent in some parts of the Arab world and frequent in others.7 contains examples of words that are used in some regions. 69 . which vary according to the source language and the adoption process.178 This leads to the use of different words for the same concepts or objects in different areas. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic.” 26.7 above compares the use of synonyms in different newspapers.

Table 3.8: Examples of adopted or derived words 179
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 English Word Bridge Cadres Cable Globalisation Humanism Privatisation Imported or Derived Word 180 ١‫ًجو‬ ‫اكه‬ًٞ َ‫ًبث‬ ‫ُٔخ‬ٞ‫ػ‬ ‫أَٗ٘خ‬ ‫اُقٖقٖخ‬ Other Word ‫عَو‬ ‫بهاد‬ٛ‫ا‬ َ‫ؽج‬ ٢ُٔ‫اُ٘ظبّ اُؼب‬ ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫اُ٘يػخ اإلَٗب‬ ‫ٕٖخ‬ٞ‫اُق‬

In addition to the facts above, the nature of each society contributes to the shaping of its language. For example, countries with economies based on manufacturing may have many more words and terms to express manufacturing activity. Relatively few terms related to technical or scientific fields are found in local newspapers.

In relation to this study, these regional differences in vocabulary may not be obvious in world affairs sections because all newspapers are likely to report the same events, but they are quite clear in sport sections as different countries may be interested in different sports. Therefore, the researcher believes that the study of word frequency is the best method for tracing these differences using the list that results from the analysis.

In brief conclusion, although Arabic newspapers in the Arab world claim to use MSA, differences between them still exist. The effect of local language and colonisation by Western countries are believed to be the main factors contributing to these differences. However, it must be emphasised that these differences are very slight in comparison with the similarities the newspapers share in their use of language as a result of the application of MSA in the Arab world on a strong CA foundation.

179 180

Abdelali, “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic,” 27. The researcher notes that the word ١‫( ًجو‬bridge) is affected by Turkish influence, being found in Turkish as „kopru‟; see An English – Turkish Dictionary, ed. Fahir Iz and H. C. Hony (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952), s.v. “bridge.”

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3.4

Print Newspapers and Online Newspapers

The justification for discussing this topic in this chapter is that the data for this study are sourced from online newspapers. Online data collection is considered the easiest way to gather data for this type of study, which involves several countries 181 because of the development of media technology. According to Faruq Muhammad (1999), newspaper technology is the technology application in transformation process of information to the readers or community.182 Since the late twentieth century, newspapers can be accessed by readers via two options:

3.4.1 Print newspapers

The emergence of printed newspapers is particularly linked historically to the invention of the printing press in the fifteenth century in Germany by Johannes Gutenberg.183 The publication of news began with news pamphlets and newsbooks. By the early sixteenth century, several countries such as Germany, Britain and Holland, were producing monthly news periodicals.184

In the Arab world, the Arabic newspaper made its first appearance in Cairo in 1828 with the publication of the bilingual Turkish-Arabic newspaper Al-Waqa’i„ al-Misriyya.185 In 1855, Turkey published its first Arabic newspaper namely Mirat al-Ahwal in Istanbul, but
181

Other studies that gained data through online in the same area such as Ahmed Abdelali‟s study on ten Arabic newspapers from different countries; see Abdelali, “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic,” 24. 182 Faruq, Muqaddimah fi „Ilmi al-Sahafah, 9. 183 Peter J. S. Dunnett, The World Newspaper Industry (London: Croom Helm, 1988), 4. 184 Joad Raymond, The Invention of the Newspaper (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 7. 185 Ami Ayalon, Language and Change in the Arab Middle East: The Evolution of Modern Arabic Political Discourse (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), 13.

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it only appeared for a short period. In Lebanon, the first Arabic newspaper was published in 1858, namely Hadiqat al-Akhbar, which lasted more than half a century.186 Many of the Arabic newspapers that made their first appearance around these years did not stay in production long. The era of the modern press emerged in Egypt in 1875 when Salim Taqla (a Lebanese Greek Catholic) migrated from Beirut to Egypt, where he founded the weekly Al-Ahram. After that, the number of Arabic newspapers gradually increased, together with an increasing number of printing companies. Printed newspapers had become the most reliable news medium and served the world until the late twentieth century, when the Internet was invented.

The hardcopy newspaper was distinguished by its content, but the design and presentation of the newspaper plays an important role in creating its identity. In this, several features such as the size of the letters, the color of the print, the font, use of pictures, etc. are taken into account in newspaper production to ensure that the newspaper satisfies the readers‟ needs.187

Reading print newspapers gives readers access to all the articles in full, page after page. Al-Shehri and Gunter (2002) note that „with a hard copy (printed) newspapers, finite information is prepared so that a reader consumes by starting at the top of the page and reading down‟.188 This is quite different from online newspapers, where readers normally see the headline in isolation and use it to access the text. News in print newspapers is not

186 187

Ayalon, Language and Change, 13. Lon Barfield, Design for New Media: Interaction Design for Multimedia and the Web (Harlow: Pearson Education, 2004), 73. 188 Fayez al-Shehri and Barrie Gunter, “The Market for Electronic Newspapers in the Arab World,” Proceeding of Aslib 54, no. 1 (2002): 57.

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updated during the day as daily papers are printed only once a day. Therefore, readers know precisely the date on which an article appeared.

Although there has been a tremendous increase in the number of online newspapers since 1994, the printed version is still relevant to readers. For example, the circulation of AlAhram in Egypt in 2005 was around 900,000 copies daily.189 One of the reasons for this is that the target group for the printed version is local people, while the online version is accessible to people all over the world. This is proved by many surveys indicating that a very large number of readers are not affected much by the publication of printed newspapers.190

This does not contradict the study by Dimmick (2004), who found that 28% of respondents read „less‟ of the printed newspaper with the existence of online newspaper, although the researcher applied the term „clear displacement effect‟ to the situation.191 A similar study showed that 10.6% of respondents read printed newspapers „more often‟, which means that the difference now decreases to 17.4%. Furthermore, as the respondents for this study were selected from the local people of Ohio, USA, the result represents only American people who purchase and read the newspapers studied in the traditional way. It should be pointed out that the existence of the internet has brought about an increase in the number of buyers of printed newspapers through the internet from all over the world. Thus, without denying the effect of the internet on the publication of print newspapers, the researcher believes that the effect is not excessive.
189

The World Association of Newspapers 2005: World Press Trends, http://www.newspapers24.com/largestnewspapers.html (accessed October 15, 2008). 190 H.I. Chyi and G. Sylvie “Online Newspapers in the U.S.: Perceptions of Markets, Produ cts, Revenue and Competition,” International Journal on Media Management 2, no. 2 (2001): 13-21. 191 For more detail; see Dimmick, Chen and Li, “Competition between the Internet,” 25.

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3.4.2 Online newspapers

The first online newspapers appeared in 1994.192 Since then, they have been well accepted by users as they provide access to online newspapers from every part of the world. A few years later, when the use of online newspaper was still in its initial stages, some scholars were questioning the future survival of the print newspaper.193 They believed that the advantages of the online newspaper would slowly eliminate the usefulness of print newspapers after they had been the usual method of transferring news and information for decades. Nielsen predicted that over the ten years from 2000, the traditional newspaper would be dead and news would be consumed interactively through digital media.194

It is clear that until the present day, the printed newspaper is still working hand-in-hand with online newspapers to disseminate news more widely. William and Nicholas‟s survey (2001) has shown that hardcopy newspapers are still the primary conveyors of news, no matter which title readers choose.195 Although the results of another survey conducted by the Newspaper Society have shown that there are threats to the newspaper industry, they also forecast that online newspapers will create significant opportunities for the industry.196 Furthermore, Chyi and Sylvie (2001) note that most online newspapers are owned by their

Carina Ihlstrom, Maria Akesson and Stig Nordqvist, “From Print to Web t o E-paper: the Challenge of Designing the E-newspaper” (paper presented to the 8th ICCC International Conference on Electronic Publishing, Brasilia, June 2004), 249. 193 Faruq, Muqaddimah fi „Ilm al-Sahafah, 10-11; Carina Ihlstrom, “The Evolution of a New Genre” (PhD thesis, Halmstad University, Sweden, 2004), 1. 194 Ihlstrom, Akesson and Nordqvist, “From Print to Web to E -paper,” 251. 195 Peter Williams and David Nicholas, “Navigating the News Net: How News Consumers Read the Electronic Version of a Daily Newspaper,” Libri 51 (2001): 9. 196 The Newspaper Society is one of the world‟s oldest publishers associations founded in 1836; see The newspaper Society, home page, http://www.newspapersoc.org.uk/Default.aspx?page=1460 (accessed October 24, 2008).

192

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print counterparts, which also act as the online editions‟ primary content providers, 197 so the newspaper publishers must be aware from the beginning of impact on their business before utilising the internet as the news distributor together with their printed versions.

The expansion of newspapers on the World Wide Web (WWW) has been very rapid since they first went live. For instance, a survey by the Initiative for Newspaper Electronic Supplements (INES) in 1994 identified 333 newspapers on the web worldwide. Just four days later, the number had increased to 386,198 and a 1997 NewsLink survey showed that there were 3,622 online newspapers worldwide.199 In the Arab world, the first electronic Arabic newspaper, Al-Khalij, in the United Arab Emirates, was launched in September 1995. Over the next five years, it was joined by 64 more internet publications produced by Arabic newspaper publishers and today every major Arabic daily newspaper has a website.200 There are about 100 online daily and weekly newspapers and this figure is continuously increasing. Among the most regularly accessed websites these newspapers in general are News Voyager (www.newspaperliks.com) and Online Newspapers (www.onlinenewspapers.com),201 and for Arabic newspapers, other websites available, some of which are listed in table 3.9:

197

Chyi and Sylvie, “Online Newspapers in the U.S,” 13 -21; David Pogue and J.D. Biersdorfer, The Internet: The Missing Manual (Sebastopol: Pogue Press, 2006), 102. 198 A. Molina, “Issues and Challenges in the Evolution of Multimedia.” Future 29, no. 3 (1997):197. 199 Eric Meyer, “Unexpectedly Wider Web for the world‟s Newspapers,” American Journalism Review (2127 September 1999), http://ajrnewslink.org (accessed October 15, 2008). 200 Al-Shehri and Gunter, “The Market for Electronic Newspapers,” 58. 201 Pogue and Biersdorfer, The Internet, 104.

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Table 3.9: The available Arabic websites for online Arabic newspapers
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Name of Website Al-Bab Arabic 2000 Arabic View Sahafa Online Angel Fire Newspaper 24 Hilal Plaza Website Address www.al-bab.com/media/newspapers/htm www.arabic2000.com/index/news.html, www.arabicview.net www.sahafa.com/NewspapersandMagazines.aspx www.angelfire.com/il/Osama10/Newspaper.html www.newspapers24.com/languages/arabicnewspapers/index.html www.hilalplaza.com/arabic_newspaper.htm

Online newspapers are normally available in Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) versions. Accessing newspapers in this version allows readers to carry out searches as well as reading the news texts. For instance, the reader can access the newspaper archive either for free or by payment, exploit the text, access publisher‟s website, send comments and use other services provided by the web browser and site owner. Moving between pages or websites is easily achieved by clicking on icons or on headlines to read the full text of news reports. Newspaper sections provide easy access and enable readers to make sense of information and it is easy to find a particular section within the newspaper, such as sport or world affairs sections. Newspaper indexing is a very effective navigational tool and headlines are the main entry points to text.202 Carina (2004) notes „online newspapers are characterised by some features inherited from print, such as ads and nameplates, but all items lead elsewhere, e.g. small photographs to larger and headlines to chunks of text etc.‟203

The design and presentation of the online newspaper in HTML is different from its print version. The front page of the newspaper has added navigational icons and keywords for users‟ access which do not exist in the print version, although this was not the case in the
202 203

Ihlstrom, Akesson and Nordqvist, “From Print to Web to E -paper,” 252. Ihlstrom, “The Evolution,” 12.

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early days of the online newspaper as it was developed inline with computer technology. According to Enlund (2002), the first online newspapers looked like miniature newspaper pages, with the same structure and content as the print edition, but after a while they converged towards a form and format more suitable to the medium and more attractive to users.204 In the researcher‟s opinion, despite the differences in design and presentation between HTML and print newspapers, the news texts remain overwhelmingly the same, although some knowledge and experience on the part of the user is needed in order to get information on the differences.

Generally speaking, it must be admitted that online newspapers have the advantage of spreading the news more quickly. New editions can be delivered instantly without the need to print copies and transport them over distances to thousands of retail outlets and millions of subscribers.205 Readers can access any online newspaper from anywhere in the world at any time.206 With an electronic newspaper, the reader may be able to switch from the story halfway through to read more detailed information that is archived elsewhere. There are additional complexities in the writing and presentation of news on the internet.207 In other words, the advantage of online newspaper lies in the combination of many of the qualities of printed papers (mobility, light weight, newspaper layout, readability) with the advantages of electronic media (interactivity, digital distribution).

Boczkowski (2004) recognises several aspects in which online newspapers differ from their print counterparts: they enable customisation, vertical form with unlimited news hole,

204 205

Ihlstrom, “The Evolution,” 11. Faruq, Muqaddimah fi „Ilm al-Sahafah, 10. 206 Ihlstrom, Akesson and Nordqvist, “From Print to Web to E -paper,” 249. 207 Al-Shehri and Gunter, “The Market for Electronic Newspapers,” 57.

77

both micro-local and global content due to lower distribution costs, permanently available digital library, constant updates, and multimedia, and include consumer produced material.208 The advantage of digital distribution together with other advantages has enabled this present study to be conducted in seven different countries during the same period. All the seven Arabic newspapers from different countries will be highlighted in the next sub-topic.

Online newspapers can also be accessed in Portable Document Format (PDF) versions. Some newspapers can only be read in PDF, which has the appearance of the original print version. That is because PDF was designed as a means of transporting document design and page layout from one computer to another, regardless of the fonts used. It stores not only all the texts and graphics, but also the fonts and font characteristics. 209 Thus the great advantage of the PDF version is that the reader is in fact reading the printed newspaper without physically touching a paper page, which is why online newspapers are also known as E-newspapers or E-papers.210

In whatever version online newspapers are read, the texts are the same as the original printed version, especially when the PDF version is used. On this basis, Williams and Nicholas (2001) note that newspapers offer their online readers an exact replica the daily hardcopy paper and that each news item contains the same text in both versions, with all

208 209

Pablo J. Boczkowski (2004), quoted in Ihlstrom, “The Evolution,” 12. Laura Lemay, Jon M. Duf and James L. Mohler, Graphics and Web Page Design (Indiana: Sams.net, 1996), 316. 210 Ihlstrom, Akesson and Nordqvist, “From Print to Web to E -paper,” 249.

78

Al-Sabah al-Jadid from Iraq and AlKhabar from Algeria.” Communication of the ACM 42. including non-Arab countries. The seven Arabic newspapers selected are from different countries. 9 (1999): 3334. The rest are from Arab countries and are representative of their own country and geographical region as noted before. AlJazirah from Saudi Arabia. “Navigating the News Net. just five years after its 211 Williams and Nicholas. 3. (see page 6) data for this study were collected from seven Arabic newspapers which the researcher considers to represent their geographical areas in Arab world specifically and the non-Arab world generally. namely Al-Quds al-„Arabi from the United Kingdom and Al-Furat from Australia. “Digital Newspapers Explore Marketing on the Internet.1 Al-Ahram Established in August. (see page 65). They are Al-Ahram from Egypt. 5. it can be concluded that there are no differences between the hardcopy and online text are encountered when analysing the newspaper text.211 On this basis.5. no.items included. It was first published as a weekly newspaper and has been a daily newspaper from 3 January 1881. Jornathan W. 79 . 1876.5 The Background of the Arabic Newspapers Studied As stated in the previous chapter. Al-Ahram is recognised as the oldest continuously published Arabic newspaper still being produced. Al-Safir from Lebanon. This section presents in brief the background of the selected newspapers. from whatever angle.” 9. if several clarification steps have been taken. 3. Palmer and Lars Bo Erikson.

including politics. information. and is the 64th largest newspaper in the world. Taha Husayn. 2008).217 Moreover. the newspaper includes various sections such as national.ahram. 1995.establishment.pdf (accessed October 8. Through the online newspaper.eg/eng/index.informaworld. regions. 215 The World Association of Newspapers 2005. namely Al-Gomhouriya and Al-Akhbar with circulations of 650. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. sport. similar to the hardcopy versions.com/426844_731388287_783392012. art. literature.000 and 790. „Abbas al-„Aqqad and others. world and diplomatic affairs. users can benefit from online services such as the newspaper archive. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. Al-Ahram. “Press law 93. Egypt is recognised in the Arab world as the most populous Arabic-speaking country and it has had great influence on the Arab world in many fields. in HTML. 26. environment.newspapers24. Mustafa Lutfi alManfaluti. religion and cinema. home page.html (accessed November 2.000 copies respectively. http://www.htm (accessed October 14. Ahmad Shawqi. who have many readers and followers. “Localization in Modern Standard Arabic. 87.com/largest-newspapers. 214 Van Mol. 217 Van Mol. religion and literature.” 27. readers can access all news texts. 80 . until today. women.218 In line with its prosperity and popularity. who says that Al-Ahram is at present is the most important newspaper of Egypt. 216 Salah Eldin Hafiz and Eugene Rogan. 2008).216 The significance of this newspaper has been noted by Van Mol (2003). http://pdfserve. 218 Abdelali. military affairs. al-Maqal al-Sahafi.000 copies sold daily. In addition. science.” Index on Censorship 25. http://www.org. economy. 2 (1996): 59. Al-Ahram is among the most popular newspapers in Egypt as well as in all other Arab countries and the world in general.212 Al-Ahram is popular with the outstanding journalists and leader writers. search 212 213 Adham.215 It leads two other popular Egyptian newspapers. 2008). 26. al-Barudi. no.213 The newspaper survives thanks to the popularity of its outstanding authors. including Khalil Matran.214 It has the highest circulation in Egypt and the Arab world with 900.

as well as HTML. Sale Numbers. The website was launched in 1997.service. “For the First Time in Saudi Press History Al-Jazirah Newspaper Announces Subscription. 219 Daily Newspaper Covers. which are not available in the print version. which have their own focus: Majallat al-„Alam al-Waqi„i. 2008). offering a mirror image of the print edition in PDF format.impz. after it gaining readership popularity.ae/wp-content/files/File/ArabAdvisors-Media-onlinenewspapers. 2008).pdf (accessed October 12.” Business Intelligent Middle East (6 July 2008).dailynewspapercovers. beside Al-Jazirah. http://www.bime. published since 1960 by Al-Jazirah Corporation. 18 January 2007. similar as the printed version. Layla Najia.221 which is not to deny the popularity of other Saudi newspapers such as Al-Watan. Through the online newspaper. is one of the leading newspapers published in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. recent circulation figures show that it has topped 131. interactive polls. 3.5. The website is www. and Nadi al-Sayarat. the reader can view all news texts.220 Although AlJazirah was only established around 40 years ago. as compared with the long history of AlAhram in Egypt. Majallat al-Jazirah.219 It only became a daily newspaper in 1972. 221 Moussa Ahmad.2 Al-Jazirah Al-Jazirah. 220 Arab Advisors Group. main currency exchange and online newspaper membership. Media Strategic Research Service. on as local news.org. online subscription. Al-Majallah al-Thaqafiyyah. 2008).000 copies daily compared to other daily Arabic newspapers in Saudi Arabia.eg. http://www. 81 . Al-Jazirah was the first newspaper with an online presence in the country.com/View?Saudi-Arabia/Al-Jazirah/Stories (accessed October 15.ahram. After online newspapers were introduced in 1994.php?id=22150&t=1 (accessed September 27. The corporation has other publications.com/main. http://www.

sport.223 The existence of this slogan on the paper‟s masthead and online version until today is evidence that it is prospering as a leading newspaper in Lebanon.aljazirah. in addition to other services such as archive material. online subscription. http://www. culture. 2008). search service. environment and entertainment. Although the paper‟s main focus is political issues. Layla Najia.com.5.222 The website newspaper is www. 3. main currency exchange. Founded by Talal Salman.3 Al-Safir Al-Safir newspaper is a leading Arabic language daily newspaper in Lebanon. sections on national affairs. Because of its focus in political issues. the Al-Safir has its own slogan and motto which may be said to reflect the soul of the Lebanese people. 223 Assafir.international news.aspx (accessed October 16. finance. http://www. 2008). which was increasingly active in Lebanese intellectual and political life in the years after the Arab defeat in the June 1967 war. society.pdf (accessed October 12. and economy. interactive polls. Al-Safir is also equipped with other sections from various perspectives as other main Arabic newspapers such as.ae/wp-content/files/File/ArabAdvisors-Mediaonlinenewspapers. home page. it provides an independent voice for the left-wing pan-Arab tendency. religion. weather updates and prayer times.impz.com/about. 82 .assafir. sports. Its stated aim was to be „Lebanon's Newspaper in the Arab World and the Arab World's Newspaper in Lebanon‟ and its motto is „The Voice of the Voiceless‟. The newspaper employs journalists and correspondents throughout the world including 222 Arab Advisors Group. It was first published on 26 March 1974 as an Arabic political daily.

com. 226 New Sabah Newspaper.tpl? 227 Almost all Iraqi newspapers are distributed to specific territories due to security conditions. Amman. home page. Damascus. http://www. although it had previously been published under the title Al-Sabah. Moscow. London. Rome. Al-Sabah al-Jadid has correspondents in many parts of the world.htm (accessed October 13. such as Beirut. and particularly the vocabulary. one of the public associations for journalist practice.5.assafir. home page. http://www. London. its name was modified to Al-Sabah al-Jadid on the instructins of the US administrator in Iraq. the publisher generates income by selling advertising and printing services to other private sector organisations and also has sponsorship from the United Nation. and also draws on news agencies. It also has a strong relationship and cooperates with the Internal Affairs Association. Gulf countries. Readers may note that this newspaper tends to give a positive slant to news about the US presence in Iraq.tpl? (accessed October 10.226 At the time of writing.newsabah.224 The website is www. 83 . Amman. 2008). Brussels and Amsterdam. Damascus.225 After the American invasion of Iraq.newsabah.com/look/about. Baghdad and Irbil. Paris.Washington DC. the print version is only distributed to two areas in Iraq. Like other popular newspapers. Cairo.227 224 Allied Media Corperation. that is used. due to security problem.com/look/about. Paul Bremer.com/Arab-American/assafir/assafir_newspaper_Profile. Another point is that the direct involvement of non-Arabs in publishing the newspaper may affect the language. http://www. and Bonn.4 Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Sabah al-Jadid is one of Iraq‟s leading Arabic newspapers and was first published on 3 May 2004.allied-media. Washington. 2008). 3. 225 New Sabah Newspaper. In order to survive in an unstable country.

Despite Iraq‟s severe political problems.elkhabar. in addition to other services such as the archive. search service and interactive polls.com/site/ (accessed September 2008).newsabah. it has many talented journalists and representatives all throughout the country and in many parts of the world. religion.000 copies daily starting from 2004 when it was also sold internationally. http://www. The researcher sees this direct relationship with countries. home page. similar to the print version.com.228 This newspaper can be said to have gained its foothold only fourteen years later. languages and cultures outside the Arab world 228 229 El Khabar Company.com/site/ 84 . at a time when independent news and information on political and social issues was emerging in the country. and a Kurdistan territory section. El Khabar Company. Through the online newspaper. as it attempts to identify with readers‟ aspirations. This may mean that the local language affects the language of the newspaper more than is the case with other newspapers. especially throughout the Arab world. when it became the first newspaper to hit a circulation of 500.229 The close relationship between the newspaper and the Algerian people may be one of the reasons for this outstanding achievement and Al-Khabar is believed to represent their voice on many issues. sport.5. 3. including local and international news. economy. the reader can access all news texts. As one of the most popular newspapers in Algeria. http://www.elkhabar.5 Al-Khabar Al-Khabar newspaper from Algerian was established in November 1990. The website is www. the newspaper has been able to launch its online version which is available in both HTML and PDF versions.

5. its circulation is among the highest for London-based newspapers with 300. Al-Quds al-„Arabi employs leading Arab journalists. as Al-Quds al„ Arabi has proved the acceptability of Arabic newspaper globally. who was born in a Palestinian refugee camp in the Gaza Strip in 1950. Their work has established Al-Quds al-„Arabi as one of the most comprehensive. It is owned by Palestinian expatriates and edited by „Abd al-Bari Atwan.elkhabar. and backs them with an international network of bureaux and correspondents. W. Online readers can access the text of all 230 Alexandra Samoleit. makes it a valuable subject for study from many angles. 4.231 perhaps because it is deliberately targeted at the international market.ineas. This special fact. The website is www. Even though it is published in a non-Arab country. complemented by correspondents in all Arab and most world capitals. 85 .000 copies daily.6 Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Quds al-„Arabi is an independent pan-Arab daily newspaper for the Arabic-speaking market which has been published in London since 1989. including language.as the reason why Arabic newspapers should be considered the main source of new words in Arabic. 2008).230 Its aim is to report independent Arab views. in the researcher‟s view. Salman. 3. http://www. Arab Excellence: A special report from London (1999). reliable and indepth coverage daily newspaper in the Arab world. Globalization and Media in the Arab World (Germany: University of Erfurt. Its major bureaux are staffed by full-time journalists. 231 Institute of Near Eastern & African Studies (INEAS). with extensive experience in and outside the Arab world. 2005).org/specialreports. like other popular newspapers.htm (accessed October 11. which has enhanced its reputation as one of the most authoritative and respected voices in the Arab press.com.

uk. The newspaper includes all major sections found in Arabic newspapers in Arab countries. 86 .com/index_files/inter. reports. It also aims to help newly arrived migrants and refugees from Arab and Kurdish backgrounds to settle in their new country and to adapt to Australian society. its specific focus should result in high word usage frequency as it gives priority to a limited number of issues. including Arab and world affairs.232 It is clear that this newspaper‟s purpose is more specific as compared with those previous listed. its main focus. which is published inside Iraq. Alongside coverage of its main focus area. 2008). The website is www. http://www. most of its articles are related to social life. namely Australia.alquds. economics. home page.furatnews. Kurdish and English language versions are also available in addition to the Arabic language version. resulting in lower frequency of use for particular words. the 232 Hussein Khoshnow. commenting on Iraq issues from outside the country.sections. In contrast.co. sport and national affairs sections. similar to the print version. probably leading to the frequent use of particular words. politics. contrasts with Al-Sabah al-Jadid. It was first established in April 2003 by Hussein Khoshnow to cater for members of all the Iraqi and Arab communities in Australia. 3. In the researcher‟s view.7 Al-Furat Al-Furat is also an Arabic newspaper published in a non-Arab country. interviews. sport. more general newspaper coverage leads to the use of a greater variety of words. Although.htm (accessed October 4. art and more.5. opinion. This may affect the language the newspapers use to describe the same issues from different perspectives. Furthermore. in addition to world affairs.

The website is www. 3.000 copies and it is distributed widely throughout Australia.newspaper is still young. This indicates the importance of world news to readers. all the above newspapers are considered to be among the leading Arabic newspapers in their respective countries.233 Almost every main newspaper in every country has a specific section for the world news.6.alfuratnews. which are the main focus of this present study.com.6 Newspaper selected sections 3. no. 233 Wayne Wanta and Yu-Wei Hu. The researcher does not deny the possibility that there may be more popular newspapers than these. Some do not. Al-Furat is also available via the internet where it attracts 25. taking their aims (specific or general). the most important being the availability of world affairs and sport section in the selected newspapers.1 World affairs World affairs is a popular and regular section in the newspapers. 87 . colonial background and geographical area as the main factors.000 readers a week. difference in word usage may be expected to arise from the differences in their characteristics and roles. but nevertheless include several world news reports among their other articles.” International Journal of Public Opinion Research 5. 3 (1993): 250-251. although the inclusion of world news does not necessarily ensure the newspaper‟s popularity. However. its circulation has reached 20. distribution (local or international). but several other features were taken into account in the selection. “The Agenda-Setting Effects of International News Coverage: An Examination of Differing News Frames. apart from those just listed. In conclusion.

in Arabic newspapers particularly. notes that it is claimed general readers give priority to events that happen around them and relate to their own life and so.234 In the researcher‟s view. world news is not a popular part of the newspaper. either directly or indirectly. The development of any civilisation benefits from having a society that is knowledgeable other cultures. The world affairs section in newspapers is the main medium of news delivery about other cultures. Salamah Musa. In contrast. especially if a major event occurs. For instance. believing it would directly affect their countries‟ stability. wars and disasters undeniably have an international impact. economic crises. al-Sahafah Hirfah wa Risalah (Cairo: Sharikat Musahamah Misriyyah.235 Their knowledge about other countries‟ experience in handling things may be relevant and applicable to their own country. al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-„Alam. 234 235 Fahmi. for instance. such as Egypt. The Israeli incursion into Palestinian land from 1948 increased their focus on world news and this sometimes became an issue of supreme importance. world news became popular among Arab readers at the eruption of World War I in 1914. the question of the global fuel price. many scholars believe that the world news is a popular section in newspapers. In the countries neighbouring Palestine. The researcher therefore considers that readers need to be aware of world affairs as some events may affect their lives. 86. 88 . for them. Lebanon and Jordan. 1958). people gave it increased attention. For example.Mahmud Fahmi (1964). the importance of this section is not related to its popularity. but to the benefit readers gain by being informed about world events. 159. This is in line with Salamah‟s (1958) comment that the readers who are aware of world issues are the educated and cultured members of society.

237 so that it can be constructed in the singular. 237 „ Abd al-„Aziz. see Abu Lughud. 64.2 Sport The sport section in Arabic newspaper was a not popular section in the early days of the Arabic press.” 607. Al-Sahafah al-Mutakhassisah (Cairo: Cairo University Center. 2002).The scope of world affairs section is very broad compared with other sections. 3. numerous sports teams have been established.236 From the point of view of language.239 This has created fans and followers of sport and led to an increasing number of sports news readers. dual. 236 Study by Abu Lughud (1963) on seven Arab countries‟ newspapers found out that the politics. plural. economic and social issues. the world affairs section may therefore be a particularly useful source of vocabulary and new terms. war issues. war and cultural issues cover more space than others such as economy and social. 238 Faruq Abu Zayd and Laila „Abd al-Majid. 89 . 63. Lughah al-Sahafah al-Mu„asirah. Many scholars admitted that the politic issues dominated the news in world section. 44. For example the word television which is regularly used in world news has been adopted into Arabic as ٕٞ٣‫ رِلي‬and thence into Arabic grammar.238 Only after World War II and the achievement of independence by most Arab countries did sporting activities and news of them become an important part of Arab daily life. 239 Abu Zayd and „Abd al-Majid. Al-Sahafah al-Mutakhassisah. representing particular places countries and being involved in many tournaments at various levels. used in annexation and with the definite article alif and lam ( ٍ‫)ا‬.6. “International News. This include relationship between countries. because some words used in reference to world issues may not exist in standard Arabic and so ta‟rib (arabisation) may be an effective mechanism for the invention of news words. compared with the coverage of political and economic news. Since then. as it may cover areas including political.

For example. 240 241 90 . al-Fann al-Sahafi fi al-‟Alam. Special events such as the World Cup or the Olympic Games may also affect the newspapers‟ focus and attract extra coverage. 79. many people have become wealthy through sport in recent years and journalists believe that this also increases the attraction of sports news to their fans. they are not given as much focus as football. The variety of sports reported in the newspapers leads to a broad lexicon of sports terminology. e. 145. Fahmi (1964) claims that the focus of the newspaper sports story is not the same in all countries.It may be said that the fact that sport is a healthy and sociable hobby contributes to the popularity of sports news. but depends on the interests of readers in particular locations. Many other terms are only used for a specific sport. Najib al-Mushtakawi. Al-Sahafah al-Mutakhassisah.242 For example. (swimming Abu Zayd and „Abd al-Majid.240 In certain circumstances journalists may include a number of local words and nicknames for teams or team heroes in order to enthuse their followers. 79. the word ًَ‫( ه‬kick) is definitely not used in tennis or basketball. This does not mean that other sports are totally neglected by the Egyptian press. Najib al-Mushtakawi is a Former Manager of Sport Department for Al-Ahram newspaper in Egypt. A famous Arab sports journalist. 242 Fahmi. In addition. but. but in all the Arab media.g. but is regularly used in football reports and is also found in connection with rugby. the sport section in Egyptian newspapers contains more reports about football compared with other sports. Al-Sahafah al-Mutakhassisah. because each sport has its own specific terms required by the nature of the particular sport.241 is among the writers who use several local words in their writing and he has been followed by other journalists not only in newspaper writing. ‫ؽٔـبّ اَُــجبؽخ‬. see Abu Zayd and „Abd al-Majid.

wherever they are published. ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) and many more. differences between newspapers from different countries still exist. The world affairs has a direct relationship to the wider world. while the sport section reports about sporting events with specific terminologies. 3. Analysing the Arabic words in these two sections will therefore contribute to the development of Arabic as a whole. Differences also occur as a result of the influence of foreign languages. especially with communication in areas such as the media and education. use MSA. This term emerged after an extensive development towards modernisation occurred in Arabic. Despite the use of one standard language in news writing. Journalists may use local dialects. ‫خ‬٤٘‫( هًِـخ هًـ‬corner kick).7 Conclusion It has been stated that Arabic newspapers. the capacity of both the world affairs and sport sections to generate Arabic words goes back to the nature of the news they report. 91 . Vocabulary in Arabic newspapers is among the aspects of language that are significantly affected by modernisation as the nature of news reporting involves active communication with other countries in the world. believing this will attract readers and aid their understanding. ‫( ٕلو‬love) in tennis. with its different languages and cultures. Generally speaking.pool). ‫هاًت‬ ‫اط‬ٞٓ‫( األ‬surfer). ‫( ٓ٘يُظ‬skier). ‫ٌبة‬٣‫ـبٗل‬ُٜ‫( ا‬handicap). especially English.

This means that Arabic is being more actively used. as an information source. in hardcopy as well as electronic newspapers. The readership is increasing tremendously. as readers gain access to newspapers from any part of the world. leading to increased modernisation. 92 .The invention of the internet creates a new era for Arabic newspapers. creating word exchange with other language. even in non-Arab countries.

which is studied to „summarise trends.” Journal of Communications 31 (2006): 455. 3. As part of the language appearance. one of the main goals of quantitative analysis in linguistics is data reduction. standard deviation. then analysis and 243 244 Keith Johnson. “Using „New‟ Data Sources for „Old‟ Newspaper Research: Developing Guildlines for Data Collection. should first go through the process of compilation and description. whether carried out through online resources or not. Fred Wester and Peer Scheepers. the analysis of language trends can be realised through corpus-based research. Pytrik Schafraad.1 Introduction Acting as an engine of the study that generates the research findings. digital newspapers have not only become a new field of research for „new‟ media researchers. 2008). this present study observed the picture of Arabic trends in newspapers through a selfconstructed corpus. this chapter presents the whole process of how this study was conducted to meet the requirements for validity and reliability. capture the common aspects of a set of observations such as the average.244 As a basis for methodology. Sharaf (1991) has proposed that newspaper studies. and correlations among variables‟. Quantitative Methods in Linguistics (Oxford: Blackwell.243 In order to observe these aspects systematically. With the continuous growth of online resources. which involves the compilation of texts from various sources. In recent years.CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY 4. 93 . they offer new sources for data collection for researchers into „old‟ media. According to Keith Johnson (2008).

247 Since there are no established Arabic language corpora in that contain articles from all the seven targeted Sharaf. M. The fourth section is concerned with external matters in corpus building. The first section is the introduction.reasoning. The second section discusses several issues in corpus linguistics that are related to this present study.246 In other words.K Lutfi (1948). e. 245 246 94 . this chapter is therefore divided into six major sections. Content Analysis: An Introduction to its Methodology (London: Sage Publication. 2004). al-Lughah al-I‟lamiyyah. Jacob Landau (1959) Ibrahim Yunus (1974) and others. The sixth section is an extensive study of corpus linguistics in lexicography for dictionary building. a study based on an established corpus and second. 4. a study based on a self-constructed corpus. The third section explains how the corpus was built and its content. from data collection to forms of automatic content analysis‟. Mosha Brill (1940). 247 Most Arabic word frequency studies carried out before the computer era were conducted using selfconstructed corpora because scholars had not yet developed sophisticated corpora as in the present day.M Bailey (1940a). studies of word frequency should involve computational application from data collection to analysing the data.g E. 120.2 Corpus Analysis Several previous studies referred to in the chapter 2 have shown that there are two types of word frequency studies related to corpus-based study: first. In order to discuss this in more detail. The fifth section explains the core analysis of the corpus using the Wordsmith computer software. Klaus Krippendorff. 195. using sophisticated word analysis software for automatic content analysis. who notes that „the use of these data sources for data collecting implies new challenges as well as new chances and possibilities in the successive phases of the research process.245 This is supported by Krippendorf (2004).

magazines. This is in English and Arabic but does not include newspaper text. and may not be appropriate for other studies. This systematic corpus building has become more achievable in recent 248 Costas Gabrielatos. Susan Conrad and Randi Reppen.” Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language 8. “Corpora and Language Teaching: Just a Fling or Wedding Bell?. spoken news. Corpus Linguistics (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. McEnery and Wilson (1996) note the „corpus linguistics‟ is the „study of language based on examples of “real life” language use‟ and a „methodology rather than an aspect of language requiring explanation and description‟. Corpus Linguistics: Investigating Language Structure and Use (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.” 137. the self-constructed corpus method was chosen. 1. 249 Al-Sulaiti and Eric Atwell.html (accessed May 21. e. 1998). Thus.g. the exception being the Egypt Corpus (1999). for newspapers.1 Corpus linguistics Corpus linguistics is a branch of linguistic studies in which the linguistic features in language use are analysed through representative corpora to examine trends and patterns in language. books.250 In relation to this. 251 Tony McEnery and Andrew Wilson.. 2009).2. http://www. no.251 As a sample of language use. 4 (2005). “Judging the Frequency of English Words. no 3 (2007): 386. most of the Arabic language corpora that have been built previously are not available to the public. built by John Hopkins University249 and comprising verses from the Qur‟an. which is reflected by the systematic process of compilation in corpus building.248 In addition. 250 Douglas Biber. This is not surprising as most corpora are compiled to serve the compiler‟s interest and purpose. etc. Charles Alderson. 95 . “The Design. 4. Leech (1992) claims that corpus study is a more powerful methodology than introspection as it is open to objective verification of results. 1996). the validity and representativeness of a corpus is the most important thing in corpus linguistics studies. see J.” Journal of Applied Linguistics 28. Gabrielatos (2005) notes that corpora come in many shapes and sizes.newspapers.org/ej32/a1.tesl-ej. because they were built to serve different purposes. 5.

but to ensure the validity of the corpus in question. the issue of the representativeness of the corpus is very important in corpus linguistics studies. parser. Van Mol.years with the help of the computer. Today. it is almost impossible to compile a corpus that would represent the whole linguistics reality. quoted in Van Mol. 96 . such as a specified method of analysis and an automatic analysis tool. automatic word tagger. As stated. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic.252 Systematic observation has specific requirements. Conrad and Reppen. see Biber. mainly the aim of corpus compilation and the limitations of the study. In many studies.253 The researcher considers that the importance of representativeness in corpus linguistics studies is not to enable pure generalisation. although this present study selects one newspaper from each of 252 253 Karl-Heinz Bausch (1979). Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. Corpus Linguistics. not those of other corpora. However. the result of the study cannot be generalised to linguistics as a whole as any one corpus can only represent its own data. 117. Therefore. concordancer and others. Conrad and Reppen (1998) suggested that „a corpus composed primarily of news reportage would not allow a general investigation of variation in English. This software includes computer programmes such as a word analyser. the mathematical or statistical approaches that were inspired by the use of special computer software are widely applied in order to systematically observe and then explain the „real life‟ of language. which allow thousands of texts to be stored in an orderly way and analysed systematically. 246. According to Bausch (1979). This depends on several factors. 79. the central element of corpus investigation in corpus linguistics studies is the description and explanation of language use by means of systematic observation. In other words. in corpus linguistics studies. Biber. 116. representativeness is directly related to the ability to generalise the results of corpus investigation.

129. let alone in the Arab world. the researcher has no right to claim that these newspapers are representative of all newspapers in those countries. representing various aims and beliefs regarding specific issues. 1990). 4. This is because newspapers are published by different publishers. He states: „The ancient Arab linguists compiled large corpora for the purpose of studying the “„Arabiya”. whether political or social. 97 .2 Arabic corpus It should be stressed that the use of corpora for linguistic study is not new in relation to Arabic language studies. the researcher believes that the corpora they compiled were not as systematic as those used for present-day studies that apply technologies in corpus building. this chapter will explain later how this corpus does represent all Arab regions in terms of geographical language area. “Arabic Corpus Linguistics in Past and Present. and many ancient Arab linguists compiled their own corpus for study. Computerassisted corpus building is taking place in America and Europe and a Arabic corpus building is starting to be developed in Western countries by Arab scholars who studied or wroked there and have been joined by colleagues in the Arab world. work in Arabic has also been inspired by the 254 Everhard Ditters. This is accounted for by the fact that the computer originated.‟254 However.2. Nevertheless. The representativeness of the corpus is therefore necessarily limited to particular types of article in particular newspapers at a particular time. 27 April-1 May 1987 (Amsterdam: John Benjamins.” in the History of Arabic Grammar II: Proceeding of 2nd Symposium on History of Arabic Grammar. Nijmegen. The general definition of a corpus is a compilation of texts for analysis. the first Arab grammarians made use of corpora.seven countries. According to Ditters (1990). while not being representative of all the newspapers in those areas (see page 108 and 109).

“Arabic Tokenization. “Automatic Tagging of Arabic Text: From Raw Text to Base Phrase Chunks. including Mona Diab‟s team. tagging is not a main concern of the corpora developers. and they have achieved almost 100% accuracy in automatic tagging. al-Sulaiti and Atwell (2006) note that the progress in this field is still limited because. the researcher had no intention of responding to their comment on the existence of many untagged corpora by developing a complete linguistically tagged corpus. Part-of-Speech (PoS) tagging is a type of annotation or tagging whereby grammatical categories are assigned to words (or in some cases morphemes or phrases).compilation of other corpora in Western languages. 255 With this in mind. Although several Arabic language corpora have been built. PA: Association for Computational Linguistics. 128. Ann Arbor. A Glossary of Corpus Linguistics (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Nevertheless. Spanish. 2006). Their effort achieved about 95. using computer applications. Efforts are currently being made by several linguists to achieve text tagging in Arabic automatically.” in Proceedings of HLT-NAACL 2004: Short Papers. 2-7 May 2004 (East Stroudsburg. 149. Andrew Hardie and Tony McEnery. “APT: Arabic Part-of Speech Tagger. see Shereen Khoja. but rather on word usage. most of these corpora are not linguistically tagged. notably in Europe and the USA. and few are available to the public. 25-30 June 2005 (Michigan: Association for Computational Linguistics.” 136.” in Proceedings of the Student Workshop 98 .” in Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the ACL. French and German. Part-of-Speech Tagging and Morphological Disambiguition in One Fell Swoop. 256 Several efforts to automatically tag Arabic texts have been made by a number of linguists and computer experts.1% accuracy for their tagging method by using a morphological analyser. see Paul Baker. so the present study does not focus in depth on grammatical features. see Mona Diab. “The Design. in their view.256 255 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell. although human post-editing may take place as a final stage. Meanwhile. In many previous corpora before the computer era. see Nizar Habash and Owen Rambow. usually via an automatic tagger. Kadri Hacioglu and Daniel Jurafsky. considering this not to be in current scholars‟ main interest. since the process is very difficult and time consuming. specifically with Part-of-Speech (PoS) tags as in English corpora.49% accuracy on the POS tagging task. 2004). particularly English. 2005). Khoja states that her effort has achieved around 90% accuracy. 580. Habash and Rambow gained 98. the researcher has compiled his own corpus appropriate to the aims of the study.

257 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell. which brought about a new interest in corpus investigation. ACE and the Wellington NZC.2.” 142. as discussed in the previous chapter (see page 16). making possible a clear comparison between texts in each section.258 The researcher found that specifying the section and number of words in each section has several advantages. “The Design.257 In contrast.3 Modern corpus linguistics and statistics Corpus linguistics entered a new era with the use of computer. it was with the introduction of the computer into the field that descriptive linguistics became synonymous with computational corpus-based at the Second Meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics (NAACL 2001). 26. Then this model was followed by several subsequent English corpora including FLOB. Al-Sulaiti and Atwell (2006) justify this by saying that the corpora‟s developers did not intend to investigate the genres or the size. 4 June 2001 (Pittsburgh: Carnegie Mellon University. FROWN.It should also be stated that. many English corpora.” 142. “The Design. as their main focus was to use their corpus for their own specific research rather than making it available for general use. most Arabic corpora do not incorporate a formal classification of the genres or give an exact figure for the number of words in each genre. 258 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell. such as the Brown corpus and LOB corpus. now known as computational linguistics. as far as the researcher is aware. 4. provide formal classification of genres and the number of words in each genre. The growth of the Internet has resulted in an increase in the amount of readily available data. Oostdijk and de Hann (1994) note: „While historically the use of corpora can be traced back to the days before the computer was invented. 99 . Pennsylvania. 2001). as the use of specific terms can then be determined within sections.

following the previous focus on traditional linguistics based on theories of scholars such as Ferdinand de Saussere. Corpus-based research into Language: in Honour of Jan Aarts (Amsterdam/Atlanta: Rodopi. have become a special interest among scholars. In relation to this present study. standard deviation and other statistical results. syntax and semantics remains the linguist‟s fram of reference. MINITAB and Stata. 260 Leslie J. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. it may be regarded as a study in morphology. Over the last few decades. tagging.linguistics. 100 . Statistical analysis has clearly become more reliable in the present day with the existence of computers to replace the manual calculation.‟259 The reason why this study is closely related to computer applications goes back to its ultimate aim of creating a database in order to examine the absolute and relative frequency of words. statistical studies in the social sciences. 115. including linguistics. morphology. McLoughlin (1972) notes that statistical studies are essential to the proper study of usage. For example. “Toward a Definition of Modern Standard Arabic. The development of several special computer software packages.260 Despite this development. 1994). a corpus that is available in a computer database enables further corpus analysis of many aspects. Agresti 259 Nelleke Oostdijk and Pieter de Haan. such as word frequency. following modern techniques. In addition.” quoted in Van Mol. traditional linguistics is still the basis of all linguistics studies on which linguists rely and the classical division of linguistics disciplines into phonology. Many of them now appreciate that the advantage of statistical linguistics studies in particular is that it has the ability to picture current language use. such as SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). McLoughlin. 5. SAS. Bloomfield and others. add to the reliability and validity of analysis results.

Lack of knowledge about statistical method. “Judging the Frequency. 4th ed.. 4. However. It is also considered to be a crucial variable in text comprehension. called a corpus. software and statistical methodology. the question arises of how to measure linguistic reality in a statistically. several statistical software packages are available for data analysis. and assumptions as to its use or appropriateness for the problem at hand may lead to incorrect analysis and result in invalid conclusions. Thus. Nation (2007) considers knowledge of a word‟s frequency to be part of word knowledge. (New Jersey: Pearson Education. new methods are available that can more realistically address the question that arises in social science research especially linguistics‟. word frequency analysis from a compilation of texts. 2009).261 Although. the more complicated the study becomes. using a computer program or special software. Linguists accept that word frequency analysis is a popular method for this purpose because it illustrates actual word usage in a particular language and demonstrates the evolution of language in a specific area.” 383. and manual word frequency analysis becomes virtually impossible because of the very large 261 Alan Agresti and Barbara Finlay.262 Today. The more genres studied.and Finlay (2009) note that „with the evolution of evermore powerful computers. Statistical Methods for the Social Sciences. 262 Alderson. depends on what aspects the researcher is investigating. 101 . 1. it is vital for the researchers to understand these methods before deciding which is suitable for their research.2.4 Word frequency analysis The discussion above has shown that statistical analysis has been widely used in determining the linguistics aspects in current language use.

it would be possible to construct larger corpora. a study conducted by Quratulain (2006)263 dealt with 1. 264 Adam Kilgariff and Gregory Grefenstette. such as comparisons between frequencies in subcorpora.2.number of words involved. through the Internet. 102 .g. The more frequently a word is used in the analysed corpus. Kilgariff and Grefenstette (2003) note that. who notes: „If mass communications researchers continue to largely disregard the 263 Quratulain. Technically. containing millions of words. e. word genres. University of Windsor. the outcome of word frequency analysis can initially be illustrated by listing the words in frequency order before embarking on extensive analysis. the word frequency list is also arranged in alphabetical for lexicographical purposes. 15. In many circumstances.264 The importance of Internet data for media analysis is supported by Boczkowski (1999). 4. must be analysed in order to reach more scientific findings than simple listing provides. Several extensive analyses.5 The Internet as corpus source The emergence of the Internet a few decades ago has inspired researchers to compile corpora from websites. the higher it is ranked on the list. correlations between variants. 2006).” Journal of Computational Linguistics 29. “A Study of Word Frequency in Written Urdu” (Masters Thesis.066. Ontario. and all kinds of morphological and grammatical aspects. no 3 (2003): 333.762 words. in a reasonable time. The Internet contains a large number of texts waiting to be mined and a huge fabric of linguistic data to be tested. “Introduction to the Special Issue on the Web as Corpus. which increases the importance of computational linguistics.

(CCA). “Introduction. it is not as easy as people think. General Scientific Arabic Corpus (2004). such as the Buckwalter Arabic Corpus (1986-2003). Arabic in particular. other linguists advocate the use of Web data for research (Bergh 2005). 267 For more detail. or word class.research potential of the Internet.268 because it is still the easiest way. compared with manual compilation. Kilgariff and Grefenstette (2003) discovered that linguists are still frustrated by several of the web‟s weaknesses. “The Design. on the contrary. but.” 138. no. The researcher does not. 268 Gunnar Bergh. CLARA (1997). “Minding English Language Data on the Web: What can Google tell us?. Classical Arabic Corpus (2004) and Corpus of Contemporary Arabic. see Kilgariff and Grefenstette.” ICAME Journal 24 (2005): 25-26.” 345.266 The compilation of texts through the Internet has given researchers freedom to exploit and manage texts to achieve their aims. Despite the claim that a corpus can be compiled at the click of a mouse. 265 Pablo Boczkowski. see these weaknesses as an obstacle to using the web to build a corpus.267 Nevertheless. considers that they constitute an opportunity and a gap that justifies new research. 101 (1999): 102.‟265 The advantage of using the web as a corpus source is that it makes gathering texts from a variety of places less costly and time consuming. their theories about communication will become less useful. 103 . such as the citation form of a word. has many corpora that built from written texts compiled from Internet websites.” Journal of New Media and Society 1. therefore. 266 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell. One that is related to this study is that search engine results do not allow searches to be specified according to linguistics criteria. “Understanding the Development of Online Newspapers. Leuven Corpus (1990-2004).

e. As mentioned before.4. which contains 100 million words and the Bank of English. 104 . and corpus by Kouloughli (1991) with 200.1 Definition of the size of the corpus The size of the corpus is among the most important issues in corpus building. Among the popular English language corpora. Biber (1990) who used a corpus-based study to investigate methodological issues. General Scientific Arabic Corpus (2004) with 1. 123.000 words. Al-Sulaiti and Atwell. the Buckwalter Arabic Corpus (1986-2003) with 2. “The Design.” 138. for example. the corpus by al-Jaburi (1988). which contains only 50. apart from the suggestion that the bigger the corpus. For example. An-Nahar Corpus (2001) 140 million words. “The Design.000 words.270 and the corpus compiled by Khoja (2003).3. “APT: Arabic Part-of-speech Tagger.6 million words and the Classical Arabic Corpus (CAC) (2004) with 5 million words. Moreover.5 to 3 million words.269 The researcher has found that most corpus developers try to make their corpora as large as they can.” 23.271 The size of the corpus is affected by the length and number of the texts.g.000 words. and the Arabic Newswire Corpus (1995) 80 million words. such as the E-A Parallel Corpus (2003) with 3 million words. which contains 250. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. there is no ideal size for a corpus. are the British National Corpus (BNC). there are also few even smaller corpora. the CLARA (1997) contains 50 million words. this is not always the case and the researcher has also found corpora that contain around 3–5 million words. while in the Arabic Language. However. Al-Sulaiti and Atwell. It is the aim of the corpus‟s compilation that determines how large it should be. which contains 200 million words. the better. 271 Khoja.” 137-138.3 External Structure 4. suggests 269 270 Van Mol.

272 while. “Methodological Issues.uk/eric/latifa/arabic_corpora.comp. By 272 Douglas Biber. an-Nahar Corpus and al-Hayat Corpus.276 The fact that this present corpus also represents the short period of 30 days (one month) in order to get the snapshot of language used in a particular time justifies the size of the corpus.000 words.that a text of 1.273 The researcher decided to select daily articles from newspapers within a set period.000 word is sufficient for his study‟s needs on the basis that the present corpus was built to represent specifically the world affairs and sports sections. or using a group of articles. This is supported by al-Sulaiti and Atwell (2003). no.” 152. that deal with a specific topic and trying to make use of as many texts as can be found. while other corpora cover most newspaper sections. see http://www. they suggest combining short articles. consistently. and it is almost impossible to find texts that contain around 1. “Methodological Issues Regarding Corpus-based Analysis of Linguistic Variation. “The Design. It should be pointed out that some of them were developed with the intention of making them available for other researchers to use for a variety of linguistics studies.274 state that „the problem with using the WWW as the source of material is that it is hard to find sample of this size‟.000 words. who. commenting on Oostdijk‟s (1998) statement that articles in the corpus should contain between 2. limited purpose of the researcher. 276 These corpora contain articles from Al-Hayat and Al-Nahar representing more newspaper sections. “A Corpus for Studying Linguistic Variation.g. 273 Biber. Only large corpora can serve this purpose. e. 275 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell.” 258.000 words is adequate from the point of view of reliability. 105 .ac.000–2. This discussion shows that many corpora contain millions of words. 274 Nelleke Ootdijk.000 words. in daily newspapers.leeds.275 As a solution.” Journal of Literary and Linguistic Computing 5.” ICAME Journal 12 (1988): 9. who believes that a corpus containing around 175. In contrast. 4 (1990): 259. the LOB and Brown corpus compiled texts that contained 2.000 and 5.htm (accessed 28 December 2010). the corpus for this present study was developed for the specific.

The corpus contains texts from two sections of seven Arabic newspapers. which had no articles with 277 A diachronic corpus is one that has been carefully built in order to be representative of a language or language variety over a set period of time. so that it is possible for researchers to track linguistic changes within it. A Glossary.3. covers articles from a six-year period.000 words for each section. Hardie and McEnery. from 1995 to 2000. In further detail. 278 A synchronic corpus is one in which all the texts have been collected from roughly the same time period. It was difficult to find daily Arabic newspapers in non-Arab countries. Hardie and McEnery. The researcher believes that a corpus of this size will extract more than 3. amounting to 60 articles from each newspaper. 56.comparison. as recommended for teaching specialised vocabularies (see page 143). see Ba ker. when designing a corpus. The exception was the Australian Al-Furat. A Glossary. 4. namely the sport and world affairs sections. This allows the researcher to study a „snapshot‟ of language use at a particular time. for instance. This target was achieved for all but two newspapers (Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Ahram). an-Nahar Corpus. the researcher must decide whether it should be a diachronic corpus277 or a synchronic corpus. and the researcher found only one: the United Kingdom‟s Al-Quds al-„Arabi. The researcher aimed to compile one article per day from each of these sections. most of the texts were compiled from 1 November 2007 to early December 2007. see Baker. collected over a longer period because it is published weekly. allowing a „snapshot‟ of language use at a particular point in time.2 Contents of the corpus Generally speaking. 106 .278 The „synchronic corpus‟ is the most suitable for this present study because all the newspaper texts are collected from roughly the same short time period. 153.

“Algeria: Language. (New York: Routledge. which creates differences between countries depending on the strength of the impact of the colonial language on the local language.1: Number of articles by section Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Safir Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Furat Total World 31 30 30 30 30 30 30 211 Sport 30 30 30 30 31 30 30 211 Total 61 60 60 60 61 60 60 422 4.” in Arabic Sociolinguistics: Issues and Perspectives. They can be divided first into two major categories: newspapers from Arab countries. two articles were gathered from that day in order to provide equivalent numbers of words in the sub-corpora. past colonisation has affected the level of acceptance of loan words from foreign languages. In most Arab countries.the required number of words279 in one of the sections on one day. ed. Holt (1995) states: „Algeria suffered a more intense and prolonged attack on its language and culture than any other Arab country. 1995).‟280 Be that as it may. Yasir Sulaiman.1 below shows the distribution of articles by newspaper sections. this study covers seven newspapers from different countries. represented by 279 280 Details of how the required number of words was calculated shown on page 111. 107 . For example. To compensate for this.3 Definition of the place of investigation Geographical factors have a significant influence on differences in language use. Algeria is considered to be the Arab country most affected by a European language during the colonial period. Mike Holt. Nation and State.3. Table 4. 25. Table 4.

The five newspapers from Arab countries represent distinct geographical areas. Egypt has been recognised as a dominant Arabic-speaking country in Arabic language development (see page 34) and Algeria has experienced a major influence on its language from colonisation. In detailed discussion. This division is based on the fact that the Arabic language can be geographically classified into five regions. struggling with the presence of the American and allied forces since the invasion of 2003. Table 4.five newspapers. The selection of Iraq is because of its current unique situation. 22. Meanwhile. the Maghreb. the Eastern Gulf. 1980). All of the selected Arab countries are considered dominant countries in their regions that create language characteristics and play important roles in world events.2 below shows the selected countries in each region. while the other two complete the corpus. as explained before. quoted in Van Mol. 108 . represented by two newspapers. Egypt and Syria-Palestine. Table 4. represent all non-Arab countries. in which it is actively involved. the Arabian Peninsular and Mesopotamia.281 and the selection of the newspapers is based on this categorisation. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. and newspapers from non-Arab countries. especially in the Arab world. and finally Lebanon is the closest-related to the Palestine-Israel issue. Handbuch der Arabischen Dialekte (Wiesbeden. differentiated by language genre.2: Regional representation for Arab country newspapers No 1 2 3 4 5 Region Egypt Eastern Gulf Maghreb Syria-Palestine Peninsular and Mesopotamia Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Safir Al-Sabah al-Jadid 281 Wolfdietrich Fischer and Otto Jastrow. Saudi Arabia is the world centre for the Islamic faith and involved in most issues relating to Islamic countries.

3 below shows the countries where the newspapers are published. but intends to provide a representation of non-Arab countries in general. the researcher considers that some of them. gives a representative spread of the varieties of material taught to Malay students of Modern Media Arabic.Arab Countries Name of Newspaper Origin Al-Quds al-„Arabi United Kingdom Al-Furat Australia The selection of the two newspapers from non-Arab countries was not based on regional categorisation. Table 4. The inclusion of these newspaper articles with their own advantages and characteristics.With regard to the selection of newspapers. while others. and the United Kingdom and Australia in particular. The purpose of including them is to determine whether the place of publication in non-Arab countries affects word usage. such as Al-Khabar and Al-Sabah al-Jadid. Al-Safir and Al-Jazirah are among the most prominent newspapers in their country. Table 4. such as Al-Ahram. were chosen for the availability of their world affairs and sport sections on the Internet.3: The country of newspaper publishing No 1 2 3 4 5 Arab Countries Name of Newspaper Origin Al-Ahram Egypt Al-Jazirah Saudi Arabia Al-Khabar Algeria Al-Safir Lebanon Al-Sabah al-Jadid Iraq Non. The researcher expects these two newspapers to exhibit particular characteristics as a result of being published in a country with a different first language and culture. 109 . the researcher believes.

1. 15.4. Word Frequency. a range was set. The justification for why random sampling was not applied in this corpus compilation is that the aim of the study was to equalise the number of words in each sub-corpus. a corpus compilation is not a random collection of texts. Guy Aston and Lou Burnard. for the purposes of data validity and reliability.284 Therefore.” 257-258. such as the comparison study between the LOB and BROWN Corpus in English language. the corpora characteristic that requires large number of words is considered sufficient to represent the language use in compensation to random sampling. The researcher found several studies that had limited the number of words selected in each article in order to enable comparison analysis between sub-corpora. Biber. 284 Hofland and Jahansson. which is limited to 500 texts that each contains only 2. Statistical Methods. 282 283 Agresti and Finlay. the researcher applied mean calculation in order to ascertain the number of words that should be selected in each article. in the researcher‟s view. “Methodological Issues. 110 . in statistical analysis for linguistics studies. random sampling is the usual method for data collection that reliably represents the population.4 Composition of the corpus In statistical analysis. 21. in recognition of the fact that it is almost impossible to find an exact number of words in a daily article in each newspaper during a set period.3.000 words. The use of random sampling would leave it open for the whole range of words in articles to be selected and lead to an imbalance in words composition between sub-corpora. Then. 1998).283 Rather.282 However. The BNC Handbook: Exploring the British National Corpus with SARA (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

by newspaper and section.554 12.502 24.115 87. 111 .950 87.425 12. However. articles were stored in the database. Table 4. there were several days when no articles within the range were available as explained before (see page 106-107).4 below shows the exact number of words. Table 4. the number of words in the articles 285 These figures are purposely based on raw untagged texts in order to meet the number of words required in an article.848 12. amounting to 5.065 175. Mean = Number of words Number of articles Mean = 2551760285 5978 Mean = 426. therefore. The number of words that were analysed in the software should be more after word separating process (see page 126). two articles were selected in order to bring the selection within the range.799 25.916 Total 25.440 12.828 25.By using mean calculation.537 12.785 25.388 12.787 12. It would not have been right to extend the range to more than 600 and lower than 250 because this would create a wider margine between sub-corpora.374 12.404 24. In order to deal with this problem. The range was set at between 250 and 600 words in order to make more articles available for selection.948 11.002 24.937 12.8584 Based on this calculation. In order to determine which article should be selected.465 11.385 Sometimes. all daily articles in both sections.469 Sport 13.617 12. there was more than one article within the range available on a particular day.4: Number of words by newspaper and section No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Safir Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Furat World 12.978. articles that contain 427 words should be selected.

112 . article 1.was taken into account and the article was selected that contributed best to reducing the gap between sections. The articles were then stored in Microsoft (MS) Word by creating folders for the newspapers and sections. the sport section in Al-Khabar has a lower number of words than the others. A Glossary. all stages were followed from an Arabic language perspective. the name tags of texts may be similar. with the texts 286 287 Graeme Kennedy. 1998). 3 etc. to planning a storage system. 4. In order to avoid the problem of duplication.g. all the articles were collected from the seven newspapers through their official websites. depending on their appropriateness. this present corpus did not undergo the full process of grammatical tagging in the mark up. even though articles that tended to reduce the gap were selected.286 In order to develop a reliable corpus. Hardie and McEnery. 64. This section will briefly explain all the stages and they will then be elaborated under the subheadings below. They were then were converted to plain text format to make them accessible for the computer software. 70-85. For example. In the corpus design. see Baker. As shown in Table 4.4. Several stages were not fully applied because of the aim of study. It is a situation that arises when two similar texts are copied together. this will be justified later (see page 125).287 each text was tagged for the database with a different label. Generally speaker. and each newspaper was represented by its sports and world sections. text capture and finally markup. beginning from corpus design. obtaining permission.5 Corpus organisation Kennedy (1998) suggests that the compilation of a corpus should include a number of stages. Duplication is normal problem that occurs when text is compiled from the internet. An Introduction to Corpus Linguistics (London: Longman. e. 2.3.

Any that had been delayed were collected the next day. such as indicating the number of words.288 For the text capture stage. 113 . most of the articles were first copied to MS Word from the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) format and then to plain text. however. was first converted to Rich Text Format (RTF) using Acrobat Professional software before being copied to MS Word and plain text. sending permission to the researcher‟s personal email address.being differentiated by folders. and separating words in a string. This is an important part of newspaper analysis as all kind of events around the world are reported. 4. Nevertheless. An introduction to the most items in the corpus helps the researcher and readers to estimate which words may occur in high frequency. 288 A copy of the permission email is attached in the appendix 1. the archives were used to check that all the articles had been collected. author. However. One newspaper. because it was only available in PDF. because delays in uploading articles by the publishers were possible.6 Scene of the corpus This part presents the major events reported in the sport and world affairs sections. date of search. only Al-Safir responded. The researcher tried to obtain permission to use the texts by contacting all the newspaper publishers by email and letter. The markup stage involved several processes.3. It should be stressed that the storage process took place within the stated period to avoid reference to the newspaper archives because some of them are only available for a limited period.

In world affairs. No special football events were given extensive coverage as most of the newspapers. Van Mol. However. see Aston and Burnard. the Russia-Kosovo conflict and the Algerian general election. and some newspapers gave significant coverage to the Asian Cup. the period of data collection from November to early December 2007289 includes articles about the invasion of Iraq by America and its allies over Iraq. especially in Arab countries. Guy Aston and Lou Burnard (1998) divide types of corpora according to the main areas of language use they sample. such as. such as rugby. but it is less useful as the researcher can only use it to study limited aspects of language. tennis. This is not always the case. mixed corpora. 10-12. which was won by the Iraq national team in July 2007. Several newspapers also gave attention to world petrol prices.1 Types of Corpora Corpora can be divided into three different kinds. historical varieties and others. Formula One and American basketball. the corpus contains a high number of articles about football league in Arab and Europe countries. focus more on their internal football league. the Palestine-Israel crisis.4 Internal Structure 4. geographical varieties.290 The first is the raw corpus. For example. however. A smaller number of articles in the corpus report on other sports. 4. 114 . if the researcher has 289 290 Apart from the weekly Al-Furat. as explained above. and the Iranian nuclear programme. 133.4. which consists of a normal text file without any annotation or tagging. Some linguists regard corpora differently and this affects how they categorise them. Building such corpus is quite simple compared with other types of corpora. The BNC Handbook. spoken language corpora. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. For the sport section.

2001). The type of tagging is normally assigned to words according to their grammatical categories. there are slight differences between them as the corpus is parsed in order to indicate its syntactic structure. syntactical or semantic characteristics of words or the characteristics of constituents or sentences. In order to fully use the computer‟s potential. but are judged from the start and end points of units such as noun phrases.293 291 292 Baker. Hardie and McEnery. The parsed corpus is somewhat similar to a tagged corpus. “A Tagset for the Morphosyntactic Tagging of Arabic” (paper presented to the Corpus Linguistic Conference. 127. 293 Baker. The second kind of corpus is the tagged corpus. verb phrases and clauses. the linguistics nature of the text must be specified and it must be stored in the computer. Hardie and McEnery. Moreover. The third kind of corpus is a parsed corpus. However. especially in terms of purpose and method of application. The parsed corpus may also add information about how the syntactic units relate to one another. The words tagged in parsed corpus are therefore not treated as separate grammatical categories. 115 . A Glossary. Specific tag sets292 represent the morphological. the advantage of this corpus is the ease with which it can be developed and at the same time work as similar as other types of corpus with sophisticated analysis software.available specialised software to analyse such a corpus. it may not be less useful than other types of corpora. 154. Roger Garside and Gerry Knowles. Shereen Khoja. Lancaster. as in the tagged corpus. which is a corpus additional information added to the corpus data291 that enables the researcher to carry out a more sophisticated analysis. Mac 30 – April 2. A Glossary.

Al-Khabar and Al-Sabah al-Jadid. not all newspapers are available in PDF versions. 4. the researcher chose to build a raw corpus. is very important for the reliability and validity of the corpus. Several newspapers. as is the case with this study.1 Verification of HTML text This step was taken in order to make sure that all texts in HTML were stored as accurately as their original version.g. For example Al-Quds al-„Arabi includes the previous day‟s articles under „yesterday‟s topic‟ (ٌٓ‫ع األ‬ٞٙٞٓ).2. The research used the archive as one means of verification.4. while some only provide a PDF of the front page. some newspapers gather together articles published before the current day in one section. 4. attach the publication date to articles. As far as the researcher is concerned. not for a specific aim. Although the researcher is quite confident that the stored texts 116 . e.For this investigation. However. as discussed in previous chapter. the two other types of corpora are normally used to develop a corpus database for other researchers in a wide range of linguistics aspects. In addition. referring to the PDF version of the newspaper is the most reliable method because. It is very important to guard against losing linguistic features during the storage process. especially in terms of spelling. the PDF is the image of the print newspaper.2 Data resource problems Verification of the accuracy of articles. given that the software applied is capable of analysing the grammatical aspects in the corpus well enough for the researcher to achieve the aim of the study. Another way to check is by using online newspaper services applications.4.

a random sampling method was applied to check against the original HTML texts on the websites. The comparison was carried out manually and showed that there were no spelling differences in any of the selected texts between the database and the HTML texts. 117 . using Acrobat Professional. although „copy and paste‟ worked properly for copying from RTF. the researcher realised that many changes occurred in terms of spelling during conversion from PDF to RTF. 4. Al-Furat. and was then copied into MS Words and thence into plain text. Three articles were selected randomly to represent each category in six of the newspapers.2. the format that is compatible with the software.4. it can be concluded that the text copied in the database is similar to the HTML texts. all the articles were first located in MS Word. which is only available in PDF was converted to RTF.2 PDF text editing In order to standardise all the data in the corpus for editing. Priority was given to spelling and special features that might differentiate between newspapers. including the articles from PDF. Al-Furat was not available in HTML. Therefore. before being converted to plain text. However. All 60 articles in the Al-Furat sub-corpus were therefore rechecked one by one and re-edited manually to comply with the originals. and that any spelling error in any type of text format comes from the original sources.copied from HTML format were not changed in the process.

g. The word ُْٜ‫َؤ‬٤ُ (to ask them).ٍ‫َؤ‬٣ . instead of treating ُْٜ‫َؤ‬٤ُ as one word. there is sometimes more than one word between two spaces or blanks: e. this identification is not always accurate as some lexical units are made up of more than one word. the term „joint venture‟ is considered one lexical unit because separating the words leads to a change of meaning.294 However. However. 118 . This occurs more frequently in Arabic than in English. which can be manually removed afterwards.295 However. the problem is more complicated because individual words are very often not separated by spaces. Variation in Modern Standard Arabic. Conversely. In English.4. actually contains three words: ْٛ . al-Jaburi (1988) suggests transcribing Arabic into Latin fonts. for example. Van Mol. words in writing are defined as lexical units in a string of writing (bounded by spaces). 501.3 Identification of words In many circumstances. 148. for instance. the researcher should write ْٛ . A Dictionary of Linguistics. as computer programs have many problems with Arabic fonts. „Abdulkarim (1990) suggests solving this problem by dividing the word up and placing a space between the individual components. In Arabic. Another solution proposed by „Abdulkarim is to set up word lists in which every word is represented with all the possible prefixes and suffixes. the word „didn‟t‟ contains two words „did‟ and „not‟.‫ ُـ‬in order to make the components accessible to computer software. this method is impractical and time consuming because he did not realise that so many combinations of different prefixes and suffixes were possible. 294 295 Crystal.4.‫( ُـ‬to – ask – them). Thus.ٍ‫َؤ‬٣ .

3. 4. Arabic words can be divided into three types.296 All verbs and nouns were analysed.1 Word inclusion „Word inclusion‟ refers to the words that were taken into account in this study. The categories of words included are shown in further detail in Figure 4.” 119 .1. without exception. not all word categories were included for analysis. verb and particle. given that the present corpus is not very large compared with some others. noun. Garside and Knowles. as suggested by al-Jaburi. word identification by recognising characters between spaces is the best method for developing word analysis computer software.4. with the exception of pronouns. Specific nouns. especially if it is to be available for use with many languages. and there is therefore no need to rewrite all the texts in Latin fonts. Generally speaking. and ranks them in the frequency list. This chapter will discuss later (see page 129-131) the software‟s ability to recognise all types of fonts. Since the selected software is able to identify words by recognising groups of characters between spaces. Although the applied software obviously counts all the words in the text. including Arabic fonts. as it was developed for international use.Despite all these issues. the most suitable approach is to apply „Abdulkarim‟s first suggestion: to separate all the components of a word by placing spaces between them. such as proper names of people and places were not counted with common nouns as they constitute a special language feature. “A Tagset. 296 Khoja. This is feasible.

1: Word categories included for analysis Arabic Word Noun Verb Gender Number Tense Auxiliary & Non-Auxiliary Auxiliary Gender Masculine Singular Perfect Masculine Feminine Dual Imperfect Non-auxiliary Feminine Plural Neuter Type Semantic Transitivity Proper Common Action Transitive Loan word Collective Non-Action Intransitive Metaphor Comparative Phrase The researcher believes that analysing these word categories will enable him to present the actual usage of words in the newspapers better than by using just a general comparison between nouns and verbs.Figure 4. Tense is also very important in news reporting as it indicates the kind of events and issues that the newspapers frequently report: are they over or on-going? Studying the noun in terms of 120 . Analysing word usage by gender could reveals gender involvement in particular issues in world affairs and sport in particular countries.

” in Language Development: Syntax and Semantics. The verb ّ‫ هب‬in the example is considered as an auxiliary because it is not indicating a real action in itself.number reveals whether people are involved in world affairs and sporting events either singly. This should reveal any new trends in language usage and to what extent it is changing. such as: mental verbs. “mental acts such as remembering. “Acquisition of Mental Verbs. while transitivity explains whether or not a certain verb needs to be combined with a particle. quoted in Johnson. It should be noted that verb classification into action and non-action verbs was deliberately undertaken for this study as the researcher consciously believes that the non-action verb represents different semantic categories of verb from the action verb. as an auxiliary to a verbal noun in the sense of „to undertake‟.299 e. in pairs or or in groups. The study of semantic category illustrates the frequency in both sections of action297 and non-action verbs. with the particle bi. attending. 1981). “A Double Dissociation between the Meanings of Action Verbs and Locatives Prepositions. The real action in the sentence is ‫( ىاه‬visited) and should be literally rendered as ‫و ٖٓو‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫( ىاه ا‬the minister visited Egypt) without the verb ّ‫هب‬. The agent may be a person. operations or other variables affecting particular performances of such acts. see Wellman (1981). see Carl Nils Johnson. ‫ًو‬ َ َََ 297 According to David Kemmerer and Daniel Tranel (2003). as distinct from specifying the strategies.g. means „to stand up‟ is also used. Analysing auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs shows how verbs that indicate a particular action are used more as auxiliaries. “Acquisition of Mental Verbs and the Concept of Mind. but acting as a supporting verb to the word ‫بهح‬٣‫اُي‬. in its simplest sense. 298 ‫ ٖٓو‬٠ُ‫بهح ا‬٣‫و ثبُي‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫ّ ا‬ َ ‫( هب‬the minister carried out a visit to Egypt). action verbs can be defined as those in which an agent performs a purely bodily activity. e. 298 The term „auxiliarys in this study is used in a specific way to indicate verbs used in the sentence as helping or supporting verbs in order to show the influence of Roman structure on Arabic language. ‫ه‬ ّ ‫ي‬ ّ ‫( ك‬thought) kinds of non-action verb. 448. or comprehending refer to general kinds of applications of cognition. 121 . an animal or something.” Journal of Neurocase 9 (2003): 421.” 448. 299 A mental verb describes as mental operation that involves cognitive actions. the verb ّ َ ‫ هب‬which. Stan Kuczaj (New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate. There are various ّ ‫( رن‬remember). ed.g. According to Wellman (1981). see David Kemmerer and Daniel Tranel. For example.

remain. ed. e. the reader knows that the article is reporting on sport. Micheal A. but when it is combined with the word ً‫( ًؤ‬cup) to become ُْ‫( ًؤً اُؼب‬World Cup). involve physical actions. without taking into account other types of verbs. The two words are considered together as one lexical unit. However. as the list and word frequency analysis generally still considers all groups of characters between blanks as one word. For this reason. ‫و‬ َّ َ (thanked) and ‫ت‬ and ْ ٌَ َ ََِٛ ِ َ‫( ك‬understood).” in Action to Language via the Mirror Neuron System. e. in accordance with the main software main setting. For example. The justification for this general classification in this study. “A Double Dissociation.g. “Some Observations Concerning Mental Verbs and Speech Act Verbs. 300 Rumiko Shinzato.300 ْ َ‫( أ‬announced). “Action Verbs. all verbs that do not involve physical action have been categorised as nonaction verbs. Argument Structure Constructions. Analysing them separately would run the risk of eliminating that specific example of word usage. the verb can basically be divided into two types: verbs that indicate that the certain physical action occurs (action verbs). given that sporting activities usually. ََِٖ‫ػ‬ َٜ ْ َ٣ (remains) and ََٕ‫ًب‬ (asked). the word ُْ‫( اُؼب‬world) may occur in an article in world affairs. 122 . and the Mirror Neuron System.g. Kemmerer and Tranel. see David Kemmerer. ٠َ‫جو‬ (was). speech act verbs. and verbs that do not involve physical action (non-action verbs). and verbs indicating abstract states. Arbib (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 301 According to Kemmerer (2006). goes back to its aim of finding out whether or not differences in word usage occur between world affairs and sport. Phrases that contain more than one word are considered as one lexical unit with a specific meaning.” Journal of Pragmatics 36 (2004): 863.301 e. 348. the researcher believes that in any language. there is also category of verb to indicate abstract states and events. exist.g. increase and elapse. 2006).” 421. ‫عل‬ َ ُْٞ٣ (exists).

Nevertheless. the verb ‫لف‬ٛ (aimed) is regularly used with the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) to mean to draw near (to) or to 302 Beiley gives another reason for excluding the particle (see page 31). so that only the words needed by the researcher are displayed on the list. as this may affect the meaning of the phrase. as they are assumed to be very common in most texts. This is also justified because the significance of most particles is usually grammatical rather than lexical. for example.4. For example.2 Word exclusion The study excluded all prepositions (usually referred to as particles in discussion of Arabic grammar) from the word frequency list. several particles were analysed indirectly.3. The reason why particles were considered common words is that they are used very regularly in all types of texts and can therefore make only a limited contribution to the kind of event in this study of vocabulary used in sport and world affairs.4. Consider this example: ٢ُ٘ٛٞ‫بع ا‬٣‫ل فٍ أُن‬٣‫و اُوواه اُغل‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫أػِٖ ا‬ The particle ٢‫( ك‬in) plays a less significant role in describing the event as compared with the word ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫( ا‬minister). The software was set to exclude all those word categories from appearing on the word frequency list appearance. 123 . All pronouns were also excluded because they are common. specifically in relation to their combination with a verb.302 in that they affect the case of the noun they govern.

5. 4. 66. the word ٞٛ (he/it) may refer to any male person or masculine object referred to in an article.5 Operationalisation of the corpus This section presents the steps that were taken to analyse the corpus after it was built. but also enables the researcher systematically to discover the current language style and its changes. 4. For example. In the researcher‟s view. 124 . their „common‟ ness is not like that of particles. The analysis in this respect is carried out in order to determine whether this verb is also used with other particles to convey the same meaning.303 Encoding was applied with the specific intention of ensuring that the corpus was compatible with the software. The fact that they are „common‟ is also the reason for discounting pronouns from the analysis. so that it could statistically analyse the language aspects that were being targeted. However. the particle is „common‟ because it is commonly used in all texts. In researcher‟s view. The use of particular software is not limited to producing the word frequency list. It also explains how special computer software was applied in this analysis in order to obtain more sophisticated results. Hardie and McEnery. while pronouns are considered „common‟ because they may refer to anything in the texts.aim (at). the amount of detail required in the encoding 303 Baker.1 Encoding Encoding is the last step in corpus compilation before the corpus is put into operation. A Glossary.

The purpose of this simple tagging is merely to enhance the capability of the software. For example. If this problem is not solved at an earlier stage. tuhdithu)or a noun (tahadduth). It was tagged as ْٔ‫ رؾلس_ك‬for tahaddatha. besides providing additional grammatical information.of the corpus depends on the objective of its compilation.304 The ambiguity problem occurs when there is a choice of two potential tags. depending on the context and the (unseen) vocalisation. For this purpose. Tagging.” 573. a hyphen was used between the word and the tag set. Word analysis software would normally treat it as one word without differentiating the variations. Arabic words are often ambiguous in their morphological analysis because of Arabic‟s rich system of affixation and diacritics and the omission of disambiguating short vowel and orthographic diacritics in standard orthography. The encoding process focused on solving this crucial problem by tagging several words using a very simple tag set in order to make ambiguous words distinguishable by the software. Any corpus may be exposed to the problem of word ambiguity. In the previous example ‫ رؾلس‬might be one of several forms of a verb (tahaddatha. although without involving the extent of grammatical tagging used in a tagged corpus. tahduthu. it will create defects in the analysis results. According to Habash and Rambow (2005). Although this present corpus is categorised as a raw corpus. “Arabic Tokenization. or what is called in corpus linguistics words with ambiguity. which cannot differentiate between words with similar spellings in different word categories. the word ‫( رؾلس‬t-h-d-th) might be a noun. it still needs simple encoding. is the main tool for avoiding the ambiguity problem. ‫ رؾلس_كٔل‬for 304 Habash and Rambow. which may affect the results. 125 .

Arabic is full of connected groups of letters that containing more than one word and the software only identifies words by picking out clusters between blanks. The software recognises words by their physical appearance. was used to make it possible to clarify the category of the word by looking at its context. ‫( ا‬alif) for ٍْ‫ا‬ (noun) and ‫( ػ‬ha) for ‫( ؽوف‬particle). The researcher is aware that there are some automatic 305 Please see appendix ii for the full tag set. The discussion above indicates that the encoding or tagging process would take place manually for this corpus. Using the concordance to find what the neighbouring words in the sentence are is a useful method for solving the ambiguity problem. As discussed before.305 The study also used another method to solve the ambiguity problem. These letters come first after the hyphen in order to differentiate between these three major categories of Arabic words. The encoding process was therefore mostly focused on separating the words in such groups. and this was done by placing a space between the individual word components to enable the software to recognise each word separately.tahduthu and ‫ل‬ٚ‫ رؾلس_ك‬for tuhdithu. the letter ‫( كـ‬fa) stands for َ‫( كؼ‬verb). The concordance tool. in the case of a verb – either perfect or imperfect while the third letter stands for unaugmented (mujarrad) and augmented (mazid) verb. The second letter stands for the tense. while the noun tahadduth as left untagged. not their semantic meaning. 126 . which can search and display all sentences containing a selected word. In explaining the tag set representation. The second part of the encoding process involves separating words that are attached to each other.

However. However. this present study requires simple tagging just to avoid the problem of ambiguity. except in a few cases. Support Vector Mechine (SVM). and the noun ٌُِّْ‫ر‬ be tagged because ٌِْ (takallum) is already tagged. as will be explained later. as a training 127 . the researcher believes it can be improved for the use of other researchers working in other aspects of linguistics and that it will be useful for Machine Learning research. As a result. Although the encoding process may appear to be applicable only for this present study. as discussed before (see page 98) such as MADA+TOKAN. unlike ‫( رؾْ لُس‬tahduthu). such as separation of diacritisation and full part of speech tagging. does not occur. Automatic Part of Speech Tagger (APT). For example. which is in the same word category as ‫لس‬ ْ ‫( ر‬taklumu). it does not require text to be indexed before analysis (see page 130). Furthermore. Extremely detailed tagging could cause problems for the word frequency analysis software applied for this study because. stemming and lemmatisation. It is also explains why other aspects of indexing are excluded from the current corpus. the word ‫س‬ categorised as an augmented perfect verb is tagged to differentiate it from ‫( رؾْ لس‬tahduthu) ُّ ‫( رؾ‬tahadduth) as a noun. several different words in the same category may not be tagged َ ‫ل‬ ّ ‫( رؾ‬tahaddatha) which can be while others are tagged. TAGARAB and others. the word ٌِّْ‫ر‬ as an unaugmented imperfect verb and ‫لس‬ ّ ‫( رؾ‬tahaddatha) may not (takallama) for example. This is also in line with the aim of the study not to go into the grammatical aspect of the words analysed in depth. the researcher found that some of these are not easily available and some are too detailed for extracting Arabic words into grammatical tagging in text.tokenisation and tagging software programs that can do Part of Speech (PoS) tagging with more than 90% accuracy.

“The Design.5.” 139. Darwish‟s Sebawai Morphological Analyser.pdf (accessed May 13. http://www. which meant that the researcher had to do a lot of work to make the corpus analysable. These analysers.leeds.comp..ac.306 Meaningful and useful data can be systematically displayed by using a special computer tool built to analyse language. according to them. 2010).uk/eric/atwell04talnArabic. teacher and learner. Eric Atwell et al. and others.corpus to develop an automatic system to learn tokenisation that can be applied to new texts. but also to prepare the texts and format them in such a way that they can searched and the results of the search displayed in a way that is meaningful and useful to the linguist. 128 . the Linguistics Data Consortium (LDC) tagger. especially since the beginning of 2000. especially with the existence of established tagsets. 19-22 April 2004. especially at the advanced level. are either unavailable or very difficult to use.307 306 307 Al-Sulaiti and Atwell. Fez. 4. There are plenty of computer software packages available for this purpose and the researcher had to choose which one would be most appropriate for the study. They themselves (al-Sulaiti and Atwell) list several Arabic word analysers that had been built. such as Buckwalter Arabic Morphological Analyser. “A Review of Corpus Analysis Tool.2 Software According to al-Sulaiti and Atwell (2006) the purpose of a computer corpus is not merely to compile a large database of different texts and store it in the computer. Sakhr‟s Morphological Analyser.” in Proceedings of JEP-TALN Arabic Language Processing.

2010).2. Wordsmith tool. AntConc 3. “Concordancing software. Concordance. http://www. Chinese. the purpose of the study should determine which word analyser is most capable of generating the targeted analysis. For more clarification on these studies. or they may not be easily available. the researcher aims to study in depth several word categories in their context and expose the main keywords that represent the main world events.lexically.htm (accessed April 7.net/software/aConCorde/index. see the Wordsmith home page.In relation to this. concordance and keyword tools.1 Software for words analysis Among the software programs referred to above. German and Russian. to be the most best software for analysing this present corpus with the stated aims of study. mostly in English. Although many programs are available that can perform this area of analysis. e.2. 129 . Russian and others.html (accessed December 28. developed by Mike Scott. no. Multi Language Corpus Tool.net/wordsmith/corpus_linguistics_links/papers_using_wordsmith.308 some of them may unable to perform in-depth concordance and keyword analysis or may not support Arabic language analysis. the software has become well known310 for analysing such major languages as English. but seems to have the disadvantage of not being able to analyse keywords by comparing between subcorpora. aConCorde and others. In addition. http://www. Although it was not built specifically for analysing Arabic. 1 (2006): 109. ConcApp 4. the researcher found that the Wordsmith software package. 309 Andrew Roberts home page. 310 The researcher found many studies in this area that have applied Wordsmith for analysis. It had been explained before that the ultimate goal of this study is to reveal the frequency of word usage. The aConCorde tool developed by Andrew Roberts is able to analyse Arabic words.5.309 4. 2009).” Corpus Linguistics and Linguistics Theory 2. These aspects of analysis specifically need a software program that will support the word list. German.andy-roberts. MonoConc Pro 2.1.1. One of the main reasons for 308 Daniel Wiechmann and Stefan Fuhs.g.

the analysis provides a variety of statistical information for every word listing task. http://users. unlike other analysis tools.2. In addition. 311 312 Baker.311 It is therefore very suitable for a raw corpus without grammatical tagging. 1. 130 . Hardie and McEnery. When the texts are fed into the word list application.html (accessed March 13. the list appears automatically. Guide to Digital Resources: Wordsmith Tool.5. The latest version of this software is the fifth version.uk/~ctitext2/resguide/resources/w135. 170. 312 Specifically. it does not require the corpus to be indexed in advance.2 Wordsmith software The software has three major applications which help the researcher to analyse words from many perspectives. and to find keywords in a text and examine their distribution. A Glossary.choosing this software is that. 2009).ox. it was built to statistically produce frequency lists. It is a powerful and user-friendly computer tool with a suitable program for text analysis and manipulation. Word List The „word list‟ tool has been programmed to be able to generate word lists from one or more texts in both frequency and alphabetical order. 4.ac. to run concordance searches and calculate collocations for particular words.

2. It enables the researcher to point out the key word from any text so that it provides information on what the text is relating about. the researcher did encounter a minor problem with the concordance tool: all the sentences displayed in the results seemed to be structured out of order. The most important task in the key word tool is that it is able to compare between subcorpora. The Wordsmith concordance tool can also do word cluster analysis. A Glossary. see Baker. 131 . This analysis illustrates the language patterns in the text in more detail as it indicates the key word in certain sentences and its most frequent neighbouring words. 3. 313 A concordance is a list of all of the occurrences of a particular search term in a corpus. Hardie and McEnery. presented within the context in which they occur. the problem was eventually solved when the researcher found out the pattern of the sentences by referring to the actual sentence underneath the concordance results. Concordance The „concordance‟ tool enables the software to display a concordance313 for any given word or part of a word. However. 42. That is because the researcher realises that all the incorrect sentences have similar disorder pattern. usually a few words to the left and right of the search term. Key Word The second Wordsmith application is key word. Although Wordsmith has these advantages.

standard deviations and types of word (distinct word). Apart from the two methods of listing. Although the results showed thousand of words in frequency order. which are also among the main function of Wordsmith. Wordsmith was the right software to choose for word listing. The major part of data analysis in the word frequency list was divided according to world affairs and sport sections. for example by newspaper and by section.3. analysis was restricted to words that occurred three or more times. the lists also were presented in various kinds of article categories. World affairs was treated first. word frequency analysis is the starting place for all other analysis. In order to avoid analysing a very large number of words.1 Word frequency For this study. because the researcher believes 132 . means. then sport. It transpired that the word aspects that were analysed were similar in both sections. The study has two main concerns.5.3 Data analysis This part presents the various types of analysis that were carried out in this study in order to arrive at a picture of the trend in newspaper Arabic from many perspectives. such as percentages.5.4. which made it possible to picture the usage of words in the frequency list. only words that the researcher thought could highlight characteristics of media Arabic were discussed as being representative of other similar types of words. It displays the word list in either frequency or alphabetical order and also provides many statistical results. 4. The first is word frequency analysis and the second is comparison analysis between sub-corpora.

phrases. it focused in on language style analysis of nouns and verbs. which contain around 175. The analysis of broken and sound plurals should show which are used more in newspaper writing. As noted in chapter 3. The limitation to three occurrences was therefore appropriate for this corpus. ٕٞ‫( اٌُبرج‬sound) and ‫( اٌُزّبة‬broken). (see page 133 .000 words. The analysis began with a consideration of the statistical results for the whole list. For more in-depth analysis. including analysing the use of nouns by gender and number. frequency analysis was applied to several types of noun to discover the usage of broken and sound plurals. so that students. taking world affairs and sport separately. number and person. proper and common nouns. Analysis of proper nouns and phrases gives clear information about common terms used in world affairs and sport articles. Then. verbs by tense. Some other studies have set the limit at 5 to 28 occurrences. could use them for their news writing. especially Malaysian students. and the reverse was true for the word ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader. For example. Analysis of comparative and collective nouns should reveals which words from these categories were used more in each section.that words that occurred less than three times did not have a strong enough presence to indicate that they were significant for language style.g. especially when both forms exist. but further investigation proved that this limitation was applied to larger corpora containing millions of words. the researcher frequently depended on the wordlist and concordance tools to reveal other special features of media Arabic that derived from the main focus (noun and verb). In the noun section. president). comparative nouns and metaphors. collective nouns. the word ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ (national team) occurred more frequently in the sport sections than in world affairs. e.

Analysis of the metaphorical use of nouns should determine whether the extent to which this is the practice in various situations. the analysis was carried out from a semantic perspective in order to discover how verbs were used in various meanings according to the situation. the use of lexical words that directly reflect the story of the article was given special attention.53 and 55). rather than to indicate physical sporting activity. For this purpose. to reveal the use of particular words in combination with 134 . This is not too far from analysis in terms of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs. For example. news journalists use a direct and clear word in order to deliver world events to the reader fast. was analysed to see its lexical suitability to context and how frequently it was used in the articles. where verbs may not be used in their basic meaning. for example. the verb ‫ُؼت‬ (played) in sports news would normally refer to a sportsman playing a game. The concordance tool is very useful for further investigation from different points of view in word frequency analysis. which was commonly used in sport sections. The researcher discovered that Malaysian students regularly faced problems in selecting the ّ ‫( رؾ‬spoke) and ٍ‫هب‬ most suitable word from a group of synonyms. However. but become auxiliary verbs or supporting verbs. as discussed before (see page 121). the analysis was carried out to reveal whether a particular verb was used in its basic sense or in a metaphorical sense. the verbs were analysed in terms of metaphor. In terms of metaphor. In the verb section. In addition. it was possible that the verb might be used metaphorically. as in ‫ها‬ ً ٝ‫( ُؼت ك‬played a role). between ‫لس‬ (said). for example the word ًَ‫ه‬ (kicked). Analysis of this aspect shows which word was regularly used. according to context. synonym and other specific meanings. as compared with other general words.

Verb transitivity was also analysed to discover the differences that occur between newspapers in the use of particles with particular verbs. while analysis of phrases reveals the differences that occur between newspapers in using a variety of phrases to indicate the same meaning. The word list was also analysed by newspaper in order to discover the special characteristics of each newspaper. The analysis of high frequency word gives information about the common words and focus of a particular newspaper. For example. For example. The tool was used to investigate whether modern media Arabic does the same or whether changes have occurred. The researcher therefore analysed the use of several nouns with the neighbouring words in the sentence to see how they were used together as phrase. For example. The concordance tool enables the researcher to determine the possibility of using this word in a phrase by looking at its adjoining words too. The findings of analysis of high frequency words. the word ُْ‫( اُؼب‬world) is listed individually on the word list. verb transitivity and loan words can highlight the identity of media practices in different regions. The importance of this is that it indicates particular features of MSA in journalism. phrases. The word might be used with ً‫( ًؤ‬cup) in the sport section to become ُْ‫( ًؤً اُؼب‬World Cup). the verb َٖ٣ (arrive) is normally followed by the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬to).particular other words. including both Arab and non-Arab countries. this study revealed which newspapers use the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬Jewish state) and which use َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state of Israel) as they indicate similar meanings. the analysis of loan words is important as they contribute to a newspaper‟s 135 . With regard to verbs. In addition. specific verbs that were used with prepositions or particles were analysed using the concordance tool. which may be seen as representative of the country where it was published.

William Mendenhall and Richard L. a general comparison was made between world affairs and sport sections.314 In line with this definition. the researcher analysed several loan words that may partly reflect the Arabic media‟s identity and measured the extent to which Arabic newspapers have adopted them. A loan word is a word that has come to be used in a language or dialect other than the one where it originated in terms of word forming and meaning. the words ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫( ك‬democrat) and ٕ‫( ثؤُب‬parliament) were analysed in order to find out how frequently they were used. Scheaffer. 316 Leech and Falton (1992). Lowe.2 Comparison between sub-corpora Lowe (2003) notes that another common use for subpart analysis is to compare different sources. see Dennis D. and they were divided into two major sections. a comparison analysis was carried out from various perspectives to obtain the significant keyness scores. quoted in Aston and Burnard.315 Furthermore. 4. Using the likelihood ratio test317 in the Wordsmith software. 15. some of these differences may indicate cultural rather than simply linguistic differences.3. Although the process executes a direct comparison between 314 315 Crystal. The BNC Handbook.316 On a regular basis. addressing the same substantive question to measure how different their treatment was on the basis of the sort of words they use.identity. 317 Likelihood is the ratio of the likelihood function varying the parameters over two different sets in the numerator and denominator. It is a method on constructing most powerful test for simple hypothesis when the distribution of the observations in known for the value of a single unknown parameter. 275. 1. A Dictionary of Linguistics. 517. one sub-corpora represents one type or area of text where they are clustered into. First. language usage comparison between sub-corpora reveals differences between various types of texts in terms of linguistics. Wackerly.5. For example. Software for Content Analysis. To set a limit on this comparison. 136 . only some points that had been analysed in word frequency list were involved. According to Leech and Falton (1992). 2002). Mathematical Statistics with Application (USA: Thomson Learning.

However. but not as a main factor for measurement as occurred in the second comparison. General comparison between world affairs and sport sections The comparison in this part was carried out as an extensive study of word frequency list analysis.sub-corpora. The results from the word analysis in world affairs and sport sections was compared manually without fully depending on the Wordsmith comparison tool. the p value was set to the smallest range (p value = 0.000001). the stronger its keyness. in most situations. The higher the score.1) in order to get a wider range of keywords (p value = 0. only the top significant keywords were displayed in the results list according to the keyness strength from higher to the lower. all aspects that the researcher considered available for comparison. the keyness scores were still adopted from the tool in order to confirm the differences between the analysed words. a comparison was made between two sub-corpora using a comparison tool in Wordsmith. the significant keyness scores were still taken into account. In this extensive study from the word frequency analysis. the keyness score acts as a further confirmation of the result. 1. The results from this analysis are more comprehensive 137 . were compared between the two sections. The p value was widened to (0. for example. Because the significant keyness score is the main factor that affects the result. Second. As a result. This process was applied in order to identify the keyword of each sub-corpus by measuring the significant keyness score as a main indicator. such as collective nouns. which means that the word is more frequently used as compared with counterpart sub-corpora.1). Rather.

the researcher analysed only keywords that scored more than 100 significant score (see page 259).1 and its discussion. the comparison between two word lists merely measured the keywords. the researcher limited the analysis to comparing several top keywords. 2. the main function of the comparison tool in Wordsmith is determining keywords for each sub-corpora and listing them from the most significant to the least. and third. For this part. Further attention was also given to the differences between proper nouns found in both sections.because it involves many types of word in both noun and verb classifications. comparison between newspapers. second. This comparison process was divided into three parts: first.318 while. 138 . comparison between world affairs and sport sections. comparison between newspapers published in Arab and non-Arab countries. please refer to graph 4. (see page 120-122). believing them to be capable of illustrating the important features of language style for each newspaper. The focus was given to the number of keywords recorded by both sub-corpora to illustrate the word usage pattern. a) Comparison between sport and world affairs sections The comparison was made between sport and world affairs sub-corpora in order to understand the keyword differences between them. 318 For a clearer description of types of word involved in this comparison process. Comparison between two word lists As mentioned before. In line with this.

2 shows the method of comparison process between world affairs and sport sections.Figure 4.2 Comparison process between world affairs and sport sections Sub-corpus A Comparison process World affairs Sport Sub-corpus B Figure 4. This issue did not arise in the first comparison because it involved only one comparison process. the process had to be carried out repeatedly in order to cover all seven newspapers – 21 times for each section. the list to be analysed was limited to the top five keywords on the list. It shows that the comparison process was carried out in both directions in order to produce balanced results between the sub-corpora. b) Comparison between newspapers by section Using a similar method of comparison. compared with 21 processes for the second present comparison. 139 . Because the tool can only compare two word lists at once. In contrast to the first comparison between world affairs and sport. a similar analysis was then applied separately to compare between newspapers by section. because the researcher found that there were various levels of significant keyness score between the comparison processes.

The researcher considers that conducting this kind of analysis between newspapers from Arab and non-Arab countries highlights a new perspective on differences between the two sub-corpora in terms of issues covered by means of measuring their keywords.5 shows shows that the processes were run separately. The number of processes needed for both sections was therefore 42. Al-Khabar. The Arab countries are represented by five newspapers (Al-Ahram. Although the number of newspapers involved in the process was unbalanced. It should be noted that the table above represents only one section. this aspect has not being analysed by any studies in this area of Arabic language. For example. c) Comparison between newspapers published in Arab and non-Arab countries As far as the researcher is aware. amounting to 21 processes.38%) frequencies for the Arab country sub-corpus and 144 (0. a comparison can be carried out by determining the mean and percentage of keyness scores in each sub-corpus.49%) for the non-Arab country sub-corpus.Table 4. The conclusion is that the reports about teams occurs 140 . the word ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) recorded 288 (0. AlJazirah.5: Comparison process between newspapers Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Furat Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Quds al„ Arabi Al-Sabah alJadid Al-Safir Al-Ahram Al-Furat 1 Al-Jazirah 2 7 Al-Khabar 3 8 12 Al-Quds al-„Arabi 4 9 13 16 Al-Sabah al-Jadid 5 10 14 17 19 Al-Safir 6 11 15 18 20 21 Table 4. Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Safir) and the non-Arab countries by two (Al-Furat and Al-Quds al-„Arabi).

As occurred in other comparison analyses. Figure 4.more in newspapers from non-Arab countries than in those from Arab countries.3: Comparison between sub-corpora in Arab and non-Arab countries Sub-Corpus A Comparison Process Al-Ahram Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Safir Al-Sabah al-Jadid Sub-Corpus B Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Furat Figure 4.v.319 while the Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary of Current English states that 319 Dictionary of Lexicography (New York: Routledge. Analysis of word usage is therefore carried out by measuring percentage word occurrence.” 141 .6 Lexicography The study of an Arabic corpus is not limited to investigating the use of language in certain a period. Lexicography is a professional activity and academic field concerned with dictionaries and reference works. the process was repeated (twice) in order to cover both world affairs and sport sections.3 shows that the sizes of the sub-corpora are unbalanced: there are five newspapers from Arab countries and only two from non-Arab countries. 4. “Lexicography. s. although in terms of frequency the newspapers from the Arab countries recorded more occurrences. 1998). but can be extended to dictionary development or lexicography.

1 Dictionary compilation from corpus-based study The researcher has found that dictionary building attracts considerable interest from researchers. Therefore. Jonathan Crowther (Oxford : Oxford University Press.321 Ghazali and Braham (2001) note that „the reason for this new development lies in the assumption that to know what a word really means and how it is exactly used. making a dictionary from the results of a corpus-based study is one of the academic and professional activities that have been undertaken by a number of scholars. 14. A Glossary. Baker. 1992). A Glossary. 142 .lexicography is the „theory and practice of compiling dictionaries. “Dictionary Definitions and Corpus-Based Evidence in Modern Standard Arabic” (paper presented to the Arabic NLP Workshop at ACL/EACL 2001. since 1980. but involves several processes and professional activity. July 6. Toulouse. either as their ultimate purpose or as the extended result of research. the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English (LDOCE) includes over a million examples of language use from corpus data and gives information about 3.‟320 Thus.” 321 Baker. Hardie and McEnery. the study of corpora has also been used for dictionary creation. dictionary making is not merely compiling. 4. ed.322 Many dictionaries today are created on the basis of corpora data. 323 Baker.v. Van Mol and Paulussen (2001).323 Researchers such as van Mol (2000a).6.000 words in spoken and written English. Hoogland (1996) and Zemanek (2001) used corpora for developing dictionaries for MSA. Hardie and McEnery. 2001). “Lexicography. For example. 322 Salem Ghazali and Abdelfattah Braham. 58. it is more useful and more realistic to examine the different contexts where a word occurs in the texts than to consult a dictionary‟. 320 Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary of Current English. s. Hardie and McEnery (2006) note that.

are in need of such a specific dictionary. because some words used in news reports are specific to certain areas.324 This dictionary has therefore been built from 3. The reason for this specification goes back to the inspiration for this study.” RELC Journal 16. this present dictionary makes a contribution by making the MSA dictionary more focused on news reports. this present corpus-based dictionary contains only words used in the area of journalism.000 words.2 Listing method for lexicography According to Liu Na and Nation (1985). which was to respond to weaknesses among Arabic learners in Malaysian universities. 143 . and that is just for the comprehension of general texts. 1(1985): 36. as mentioned in chapter 1. However. This is considered a large amount of startup vocabulary for a learner.703 words which is more then the suggested number along with their equivalents in English and Malay. from corpus-based study has been carried out by previous scholars. it may be said that dictionary compilation. 324 Liu Na and Paul Nation. In conclusion. as some users. including MSA dictionaries. especially students in journalism studies.Unlike previous dictionaries. which would cover at least 95% of a text. “Factors affecting guessing vocabulary in context. no. so more than a general vocabulary is needed to make up the required percentage of word coverage. 4. before they can efficiently learn from context with unsimplified text. readers need a vocabulary of about 3.6. and more specifically. in world affairs and sport sections.

with nouns. 1982).6: Example of words in the dictionary Malay tengah. Frequency Analysis of English Usage: Lexicon and Grammar (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. especially tenses of verbs. the plural and dual forms are under the entry for the singular. The concept of lemma325 was applied to several words. pertengahan lebih luas menjelaskan berhenti. make stand first Arabic ٍٜٝ‫أ‬ ‫ٍغ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 39 ‫ؼ‬ َ ٙٝ‫أ‬ 18 ‫ؾذ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬ 5 ‫هلذ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 77 ٍّٝ‫أ‬ 3 َ‫ائ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 38 ٠ُٝ‫أ‬ 3 31 This indication of word frequency gives readers a guide as to choice of words for their own news writing. This is a special feature in this 325 Lemma is a set of lexical forms having the same stem and belonging to the same major word class.. It follows Arabic alphabetical order as other dictionaries do. Kucera. 1. For example. differing only in inflection and/or spelling. Table 4. the verbs ٌٕٞ٣. Francis and H.6 gives examples. ٌٕٞٗٞ٣ are under the entry for ٕ‫ ًب‬. Similarly. The dictionary also includes the frequency of each word indicated by superscript figure to indicate the number of times it occurred in the newspaper articles studied (see appendix iii and ix for the full dictionary). central wider to clarify to stand. etc. Table 4. 144 .N. The dictionary is first divided between world affairs and sports sections to show more clearly the word frequency use in both. berdiri tetap pertama English middle. see W.Word equivalents are given first in English and then in Malay. headed by the perfect tense verb. ‫ا‬ٞٗ‫ًب‬. The justification for including Malay is that the impetus for this study was the problems encountered by Malaysian students in writing news reports accurately in Arabic. so that verb families are found under one entry.

together with their word families. Other dictionaries do not include all the forms. Table 4. qualification World Cup qualifiers final qualifyers World Cup qualification Arabic 12 ‫ ط‬.72 ‫بد‬٤‫رٖل‬ ُْ‫بد ًؤً اُؼب‬٤‫رٖل‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫بئ‬ٜٗ ‫بد‬٤‫رٖل‬ 5 ٍ‫ب‬٣‫ٗل‬ٞٓ ‫بد‬٤‫رٖل‬ All this detailed information in the dictionary could be used in the teaching and learning process for Malaysian students because it shows how these phrases are constructed and related to the specific area of news.7 below gives examples. For example. even though they are derived from the same stem. Similarly. even though they derived from the same stem. the verb ‫ت‬ َ ‫ؼ‬ ِ َُ (played) and the noun ُ‫( ُُؼْت‬game) are given separate entries.dictionary. eventually encouraging students to apply these phrases correctly in their writing.7: Example of phrase in the dictionary Malay saringan. as a single unit. Lexical units (phrases) made up of more than one word have been listed alphabetically by the first word. kelayakan kelayakan Piala Dunia pusingan akhir kelayakan kelayakan Piala Dunia English clarification. the derived forms of the verb. This step was taken because the purpose of this present dictionary is not only to present the word meaning. because they are different parts of speech. 145 . such as ّ َ ‫( أهب‬from ّ َ ‫ )هب‬are listed alphabetically entry (under ‫ ا‬and ‫)م‬. because they all have the same meaning as ٕ‫ًب‬. several other types of word in the same lemma have been put in separate entries. On the other hand. because they have a specific meaning when taken together and separating the words between lexical entries would eliminate the specific meaning they have together. Table 4. but also to tell readers the frequency of use of all the words in the corpus.

is sufficient for the purposes of statistical analysis. the objective for which is compiled. 146 . like the Bank of English (BoE). “How Many Words Are There in Printed School English?. The size of corpus depends on several factors. such as Wordsmith software. 326 William E. Anderson.326 The existence and availability of computer assisted word analysis tools. Since this study is limited to specific sections in Arabic newspapers. The addition of a specific dictionary.4.7 Conclusion To sum up. 3 (1984): 315. who note that „how words are to be counted depends on why you are counting them‟. which begins from corpus compilation and ends with a ready-to-use dictionary. the in-depth comparison study is very relevant for further statistical investigations. The above discussion had shown that a corpus may contain as many as 200 million words. created from the corpus analysis findings. mostly importantly. as the corpus is made of a number of sub-corpora representing seven newspapers from different countries. or as few as 50. completes the study.” Reading Research Quarterly 19.000 words. no. Regarding the word analysis. This is in line with Nagy and Anderson (1984). the size of the corpus. which contains around 175. Nagy and Richard C. no specific size of corpus is needed for word frequency analysis.000 words. make this study more sophisticated and academically reliable.

(see page 101) the best way to run a corpus-based study before going into it in depth is by analysing word frequency in the corpus. This analysis is divided into two parts. 147 .CHAPTER 5 THE ANALYSIS 5.1 Introduction The results of the analysis in this study are presented in this chapter. The first part is the introduction. The fourth deals with comparison between world affairs and sport. The third presents the analysis of word frequency in sport. which is organised into four major parts. following the researcher‟s hypothesis that differences in word usage between sections and newspapers should be somewhat clear. As stated before. The second presents the analysis of word frequency in world affairs. Comparative analyses are then carried out in order to reveal aspects of language style from different perspectives. This will highlight several important features of language style. following the two newspaper sections (world affairs and sport).

and so on to the bottom of the list with a very large number of words (4. refer to the full frequency list on the CD supplied. the top ten words in the list have different frequencies. at 15th and 16th on the list respectively.1 General description of the list The results show that the frequency list contains 9.252 different words. there are more words sharing the same frequency rating at the bottom of the list than at the top.5. Graph 5. starting with the word ٌ٤‫( اُوئ‬leader) with 522 occurrences followed by verb ٍ‫) هب‬said) with 326 occurrences. The first pair of words that share the same frequency rating are َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israel) and ٕ‫وا‬٣‫( ا‬Iran). moving to four words: ٍ‫اؽزال‬ (occupation). A normal frequency list pattern emerges. both with 135 occurrences.327 For example.2 Word Frequency Analysis in World Affairs 5. ٔ‫( ّق‬person) and ‫( ّؼت‬nation). such that. Thereafter. 327 For a clear description. 148 . generally speaking. ‫( اكاهح‬administration). that share from 143rd position with 54 ocurrences. but the overall trend is for frequency ratings to be shared by increasing numbers of words the further they are down the list.1 represents this phenomenon. several more words occur that have different frequencies.202) that occurred only once and rank from 5051st to the 9252nd on the list.2. listed from highest frequency at the top to lowest frequency at the bottom.

There is also a very clear difference between the other scales.1 shows the distribution of words by frequency.1: Number of words by frequency from top to bottom of the list 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 3 0 522-201 200-101 100-3 2-1 37 3511 Number of words 5701 Graph 5. with 5. the researcher includes the 3.511 words at 100-3 occurrences. 3.701 words with 2 or 1 occurrences. Although the graph uses inconsistent scales to reduce the differences between them. with 3. although the latter exhibits the widest range in frequencies. the 149 . It shows that only three words occurred with a frequency between 522 and 201. the differences are still large.551 words most frequently used in world affairs. However. This justifies the researcher‟s decision to focus more on frequencies from 3 to 522 and only comment on words occurring only twice or once if there are special issue to be raised in relation to the language style. The greatest difference is between the last column.511 words with 100 to 3 occurrences and 5.Graph 5. and only 37 words with 200-101 occurrences. from 522 to 201.701 words. followed by 37 words with 200-101 occurrences. containing only three words. By including with „high frequency words‟ those that occurred as few as three ti mes. with the 2-1 occurrencies range particularly standing out and accounting for the largest percentage of words on the list. and the first column.

lower frequency words (with two or one occurrences) were not neglected. In some situations, where these words are significant, their language use will be highlighted accordingly.

5.2.2 High frequency words

The discussion above establishes that most frequently used words are regular world affaris words, which are either words specific to the subject of world affairs, such as names of countries, people and organisations regularly involved in events, or general words appropriate to describe such events. It is to be expected that these words should emerge in high frequency lists because they are the most regularly used in news writing.

There are big differences between the highest (522 occurrences) and lowest (3 occurrences) frequencies, which the researcher has classified as high frequency words. They are divided into „very high frequency‟ (from 522 to 201 occurrences), „moderate high frequency‟ (200 to 101) and „lower high frequency‟ (100 to 3). This classification is generally not particularly relevant to the analysis, because in many previous studies, researchers divided their list into only two parts: high frequency words (the equivalent of 522 to 3 occurrences in this study) and low frequency word (2 to 1 occurrences in this study). The top ten words in each word category will be given more focus as they are the most frequently used words in the section. To begin with, Table 5.1 shows the top ten words on the word frequency list.328

328

For more lists please refer to the full frequency list on the CD supplied.

150

Table 5.1: Top 10 most frequent words in world affairs
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Word ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) ٍ‫( هب‬said) ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government) ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬force) ِ٤‫( ع‬army) ٌِ‫( ٓغ‬council) ‫( ٓئرٔو‬conference) ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) ّٞ٣ (day) ّ‫( ػب‬year) Freq 522 326 267 196 184 182 175 166 158 151 % 0.50 0.31 0.26 0.19 0.18 0.17 0.17 0.16 0.15 0.14 Text 159 143 98 75 69 71 49 53 88 82 % 75.36 67.77 46.45 35.55 32.70 33.65 23.22 25.12 41.71 38.86

Table 5.1 shows that the word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬stands had the highest frequency with 522 occurrences (0.50%). The first three words ٌ٤‫هئ‬, ٍ‫( هب‬326 times) and ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬267 times) each occurred more than 201 times, and constitute the first group in the researcher‟s classification (very high frequency). In terms of their dispersion in the texts, the word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬is the highest with appearances in 159 out of 211 texts (75.36%), followed by ٍ‫هب‬, 143 (67.77%) and ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬, 267 (46.45%). The statistics show that higher frequency does not necessarily correspond with occurrence in higher numbers of texts. For example, the word ‫ٓئرٔو‬, with 175 occurrences, only appeared in 49 texts, while the word ّ‫ ػب‬had only 151 occurrences but appeared in 82 texts. This leads to the conclusion that the former is more specific and used in relation to particular events, while the latter is more general and may appear in relation to many kinds of world events. In terms of semantics, most of the high frequency words have a strong relationship with world events, which frequently cover war, world crises, political leadership, governments, international organisations and so on. For greater clarity, the top ten high frequency word are presented in Graph 5.2.

151

Graph 5.2: The top 10 words in the frequency list
600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 326 267 196 184 182 175 166 158 151 Frequency

522

Graph 5.2 shows that the word with the highest frequency, ٌ٤‫هئ‬, had 522 occurrences, dramatically more than the second, ٍ‫هب‬, with 326, a difference of 196. The graph also shows that the gaps between the second and third 57 (326-267 = 59) and between the third and fourth 71 (267-196 = 71) are more moderate. The graph then slopes more gently, from 196 occurrences for the fourth word to 151 for the tenth word, the differences between words being 12 between the fourth and fifth, 2 between the fifth and sixth, 7 between the sixth and seventh, 9 between the seventh and eighth, 8 between the eighth and ninth and 7 between the ninth and tenth. A rough conclusion may be drawn that at the top of the frequency list, three words clearly dominate the list in world affairs sections: ٌ٤‫هئ‬, ٍ‫ هب‬and ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬.

152

5.2.3 Word frequency in nouns

5.2.3.1 Word frequency by number

The list also shows that singular words were used more than duals or plurals and that duals were used less than plurals. Table 5.1 above shows that eight out of the nine nouns are in the singular, the exception being the word ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬, with 196 occurrences. Of the 3,551 words analysed, (those with 522 to 3 occurrences), Table 5.2 shows the top ten singular and plural nouns.

Table 5.2: Top 10 singular and plural nouns in world affairs
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 1 3 5 6 8 9 10 11 13 14 Singular Word ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government) ِ٤‫( ع‬army) ٌِ‫( ٓغ‬council) ‫( ٓئرٔو‬conference) ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) ّٞ٣ (day) ّ‫( ػب‬year) ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫( أٓو‬American) ‫هذ‬ٝ (time) Freq 522 267 184 182 175 166 158 151 143 136 Text 159 98 69 71 53 72 88 82 55 101 Rank 4 18 30 40 82 83 95 103 109 120 Plural Word ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬forces) ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers) ٍٝ‫( ك‬countries) ‫( اٗزقبثبد‬elections) ‫( ٖٓبكه‬sources) ‫بد‬ٙٝ‫( ٓلب‬negotiations) ٖ٤٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinians) ‫( ػالهبد‬relations) ْٓ‫( أ‬nations) ُٕٞٝ‫( َٓئ‬officials) Freq 196 131 116 101 74 74 69 66 64 62 Text 75 73 54 40 42 35 30 35 28 13

Table 5.2 shows the top ten singular and plural nouns in world affairs. It shows that each of the top ten singular nouns occurred more frequently than any of the plurals, apart from one (‫اد‬ٞ‫ ه‬with 196 occurrences). Thus, the lowest singular noun on the list (‫هذ‬ٝ) had more occurrences than second highest plural (‫ىهاء‬ٝ). In addition, there is a clear difference between the frequency of occurrences of plural and singular nouns. The table shows that only four plural nouns occurred more than 100 times, that is within „moderate high frequency‟ group: ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬with 196 occurrences), ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (131), ٍٝ‫( ك‬116) and ‫( اٗزقبثبد‬101),

153

while the top ten singular nouns are all in „very high frequency‟ and „moderate high frequency‟ groups, all occurring more than 100 times.

Graph 5.3: Dispersion of singular, dual and plural nouns in different frequency groups
2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400
200

1834

Singular Dual Plural 411 2 0 0 20 0 4 23 3 (100-3)

0 1 (522-201) 2 (200-101)

Graph 5.3 shows the number of nouns in three frequency groups, as explained before. The results show that singular words were used more than duals and plurals in all groups. The biggest difference occurs in the third group (100-3 occurrences) with 1,423 more singulars than plurals and 1,811 more singulars than duals. The graph shows that no dual form were found in groups 1 and 2.

Table 5.3: Mean of singular, dual and plural nouns
N Freq Mean Singular 1856 27959 15.064 Dual 23 204 8.870 Plural 415 4695 11.313

The mean in table 5.3 shows that singular nouns were used more than dual and plural nouns in world affairs.

154

1. Sound and broken plurals

The researcher also studied plural nouns to determine whether broken or sound plurals were used more in world affairs. The list contains 210 broken and 241 sound plurals. Although more sound plurals are found than broken plurals in terms of number of words, their mean shows the opposite (see Table 5.4).

Table 5.4: Mean of broken and sound plurals
N Freq Mean Broken 210 2477 11.795 Sound 241 2684 11.140

Table 5.4 shows that the mean for broken plurals (11.795) is more than for sound plurals (11.140), although the number of occurrences of sound plurals was greater. This shows that broken plurals occurred more frequently than sound plurals.

The analysis investigated which plural form was used when both a sound plural and a broken plural were available (see Table 5.5). Plurals of nouns that take only one plural form, such as ‫هإٍبء‬, ‫إٔؾبة‬, َِٕٞٔٓ, ٕٞ٤‫ ػواه‬and ‫ىٓالء‬, were not analysed in this investigation.

155

Table 5.5: The use of broken and sound plurals in world affairs
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Singular ‫و‬٣‫( روو‬report) ٛ‫( ْٗب‬activity) ‫( ٌِْٓخ‬problem) ‫ع‬ٝ‫( ْٓو‬project) ‫( هٍبُخ‬letter) ‫و‬٤‫( رلث‬management) ‫ن‬٣‫و‬ٛ (way) ٜ٤ْٗ (active) Broken Plural ‫و‬٣‫روبه‬ ‫أْٗطخ‬ ًَ‫ْٓب‬ ‫غ‬٣‫ْٓبه‬ َ‫هٍبئ‬ ‫و‬٤‫رلاث‬ ‫وم‬ٛ ‫ْٗطبء‬ Freq 10 8 8 8 5 9 8 5 Sound Plural ‫واد‬٣‫روو‬ ‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬ ‫ٌْٓالد‬ ‫ػبد‬ٝ‫ْٓو‬ ‫هٍبالد‬ ‫واد‬٤‫رلث‬ ‫وبد‬٣‫و‬ٛ ٕٞ‫ط‬٤ْٗ Freq 0 10 5 8 0 0 0 0

Table 5.5 shows that there is a tendency in Arabic newspapers to use the broken plural noun more than the sound plural. In the examples above, the opposite is true in the case of only two words: ‫بد‬ٛ‫ ْٗب‬which occurred more frequently than the broken plural form, and ‫ػبد‬ٝ‫ْٓو‬, where the sound and broken plurals occurred with equal frequency. Furthermore, the broken plurals of five nouns (‫و‬٣‫روبه‬, َ‫هٍبئ‬, ‫و‬٤‫رلاث‬, ‫وم‬ٛ and ‫ )ْٗطبء‬were used to the exclusion of their sound plurals.

2. Masculine and feminine plurals

For further details about plurals, the researcher carried out an extensive analysis of plurals in terms of gender. This is divided into two parts: first, gender plurals generally and second, plurals referring to people. With regard to plurals in general, 329 the results show that feminine plurals (312 words) were used more than masculine (103).

329

General plural include all plural nouns either people or non-people. All non-people plurals are considered feminine even though their singulars are masculine according to Arabic grammar; see J. A. Haywood and H. M. Nahmad, A New Arabic Grammar of the Written Language (London: Lund Humphries, 1982), 52.

156

In contrast, the second analysis shows that all 103 masculine plurals referred to people while only two of the 312 feminine plurals referred to people. Table 5.6 shows the top ten of these masculine plurals and the two feminine plurals.

Table 5.6: The top masculine and feminine plurals for people
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Masculine ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers) ٖ٤٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinians) ُٕٞٝ‫( َٓئ‬responsibles) ٖ٤٤ٌ٣‫( أٓو‬Americans) ٖ٣‫( آفو‬others) ‫بء‬ٚ‫( أػ‬members) ٖ٤ِ‫( ٓؼزو‬detainees) ٓ‫( أّقب‬people) ٖ٤٤‫( ٕؾل‬journalists) ٖ٤ٜٔ‫( ٓز‬accused) Freq 131 69 62 51 48 46 38 35 33 32 Feminine ‫بد‬ٙ‫( ٓٔو‬nurses) ‫( َٗبء‬women) Freq 5 4

Table 5.6 above shows that the masculine plurals referring to people were used more than the feminine plurals, which were only two. However, it should be stated that the results show the gender of the nouns grammatically speaking, not the gender of the individual people referred to, because females may be included in a group referred to by a masculine plural noun, according to Arabic grammar.330

3. Dual nouns with singular equivalents

The researcher analysed dual nouns to investigate whether nouns that occurred in the dual used with singular verb. The results showed that of 23 dual nouns that occurred a total of 204 times, none was also used in the singular verb.

330

John Mace, Arabic Grammar: A Reference Guide (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998), 117.

157

5.2.3.2 Word frequency by gender

The list shows that, in general, masculine words are used more than feminine words. Within the first 3,551 words on the list, the analysis found that 1,343 were masculine and 950 feminine. Analysing the ten most frequently used words in each category, the results show that most of these words are also masculine (see Table 5.7).

Table 5.7: Top 10 masculine and feminine nouns in world affairs
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 1 5 6 8 9 10 11 14 15 18 Masculine Word ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) ِ٤‫( ع‬army) ٌِ‫( ٓغ‬council) ‫( ٓئرٔو‬conference) ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) ّٞ٣ (day) ّ‫( ػب‬year) ‫هذ‬ٝ (time) ٢ِ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israeli) ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers) Freq 522 184 182 175 166 158 151 136 135 131 Text 159 69 71 53 72 88 82 101 44 73 Rank 3 4 13 17 24 27 29 30 35 38 Feminine Word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government) ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬forces) ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫( أٓو‬American) ‫خ‬٤‫( فبهع‬external) ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinian) ‫( ٓ٘طوخ‬area) ‫٘خ‬٣‫( ٓل‬city) ٍٝ‫( ك‬countries) ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬country) ٟ‫( أفو‬other) Freq 267 196 143 133 124 123 117 116 107 102 Text 98 75 55 76 40 64 55 54 64 78

Table 5.7 shows the ten most frequently used masculine and feminine nouns in world affairs and indicates that, generally speaking, masculine nouns were used more frequently than feminine. This is highlighted by the finding that the tenth masculine noun ( ‫ىهاء‬ٝ) occurred with greater frequency than the fifth feminine noun (‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ )كَِط‬with 131 and 124 occurrences respectively. Only four feminine words (‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬, ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬, ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫ أٓو‬and ‫خ‬٤‫ )فبهع‬were used more frequently than the tenth most frequent masculine word (‫ىهاء‬ٝ). Besides, the fact that the lowest feminine noun on the list (ٟ‫ )أفو‬ranked 38th in the full list of nouns, compared with the lowest masculine noun (‫ىهاء‬ٝ) at 18th confirms this masculine noun dominance. With regard to nouns referring to people, the masculine words ٌ٤‫هئ‬, ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ and ‫ىهاء‬ٝ are in the table, but not their feminine equivalents (‫َخ‬٤‫ هئ‬, ‫وح‬٣‫ى‬ٝ and ‫واد‬٣‫ى‬ٝ), which

158

569 159 . confirms the finding in Table 5.indicates that males are more involved than females in world affairs (with the proviso that women may be included in the masculine plural ‫ىهاء‬ٝ). the masculine word (ٌ٤‫ )هئ‬occurred 522 times.282 Feminine 950 13840 14.8: Mean of masculine and feminine nouns N Freq Mean Masculine 1343 24553 18. Table 5. the fact that the masculine word (ٌ٤‫ )هئ‬refers to a person.551 words.4: Dispersion of masculine and feminine nouns in different frequency groups 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 1 0 1 (522-201) 2 (200-101) 3 (100-3) 1 14 9 940 Masculine Feminine 1328 Graph 5. Even so.4 shows noun dispersion by gender in the top 3. while the feminine word (‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ )ؽ‬does not.4 shows that masculine nouns were used more than feminine nouns in all groups except in the first. where there is one masculine and one feminine word. and the feminine word (‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ )ؽ‬only 267 times.7 that the men are more involved than women in world affairs. Furthermore. Graph 5. Graph 5.

The results show that masculine nouns were used more than feminine in terms of frequency and types. show that both the singular and plural forms were used in high frequency.This motivated the researcher to carry out a more detailed investigation to compare masculine nouns referring to people who shape world events with their feminine equivalents.9: Top 4 masculine nouns that refer to people and their feminine equivalents No 1 2 3 4 Masculine ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers) ‫( ٗبئت‬deputy) Freq 522 166 131 71 Feminine ‫َخ‬٤‫( هئ‬leader) ‫وح‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) ‫واد‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (ministers) ‫( ٗبئجخ‬deputy) Freq 13 26 1 1 All four of the masculine nouns listed Table 5. although it should be noted. in second and third place. being the most frequently used word on the list. Table 5. with 166 and 131 occurrences respectively. The word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬is the clearest example of the domination of masculine over feminine.9 shows the top four in each case. while none of the top four feminine words did.9 occurred in the first 100 words on the list. The researcher looked at the specific words that referred to people or groups of people without taking into account the words that are attached to vowel (١) for places. The words ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ and ‫ىهاء‬ٝ. Table 5. that a group of male and female ministers will be designated by the masculine plural ‫ىهاء‬ٝ and only the relatively rare instance of a group of all female ministers will be designated by the feminine plural ‫واد‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (see page 156). jobs and countries. excluding all proper nouns. 160 . as mentioned before.

people and one organisation.2. Table 5. ٕ‫وا‬٣‫( ا‬135).08 0. This phrase was used more frequently than the word َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬123 occurrencies). two are names of persons.10 shows the top ten proper nouns including places. an explanation is due for the inclusion of ٌ٤ُٞ‫ أٗبث‬and the exclusion of ‫ٌب‬٣‫ أٓو‬and ٖ٤‫ كَِط‬. the main issues within the period of data collection were the American invasion of Iraq.10 shows the top ten proper nouns used.13 0.3.12 0. However. ٌ٤ُٞ‫( أٗبث‬126). The reason for this is that most articles regularly used the phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫( ا‬United States). َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬123). Table 5. and only one is the name of an organisation. As explained in the fourth chapter.07 Table 5. together with َ٤‫اٍوائ‬. Seven are place names: ‫( اُؼوام‬180). ‫( ؿيح‬118). which occurred 125 times. most articles preferred to use the 161 .08 0.3 Word frequency of proper nouns Analysis on individual proper nouns could illustrate the „aboutness‟ of the article because they normally. ‫ثـلاك‬ (90) and ٕ‫( ُج٘ب‬79). being the main entities active in the world events referred to. the main characters that create the world issues.07 0. ً‫( ؽٔب‬86).17 0. the Palestine-Israel issue and the Iranian nuclear programme.11 0. ً‫( ػجب‬77) and ُٞ‫( ث‬75).10: Top 10 proper nouns in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 7 16 20 25 28 50 55 65 70 75 Word ‫( اُؼوام‬Iraq) ٕ‫وا‬٣‫( ا‬Iran) ٌ٤ُٞ‫( أٗبث‬Annapolis) َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israel) ‫( ؿيح‬Gaza) ‫( ثـلاك‬Baghdad) ً‫( ؽٔب‬Hamas) ٕ‫( ُج٘ب‬Lebanon) ً‫( ػجب‬Abbas) ُٞ‫( ث‬Bush) Freq 180 135 126 123 118 90 86 79 77 75 % 0. instead of using the word ٖ٤‫كَِط‬. The results show that all these nouns were very regularly used with regard to the issues referred to above.09 0.12 0. to refer to ‫ٌب‬٣‫أٓو‬. Similarly.5.

11: Example of phrases in world affairs Noun ‫( أُزؾلح‬united) ‫( اُْوم‬East) ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state) No 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 Phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫( ا‬United States) ‫( األْٓ أُزؾلح‬United Nations) ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬Middle East) ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬New Middle East) ٢‫ اُؼوث‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬Arab Middle East) ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ُخ كَِط‬ٝ‫( ك‬Palestinian state) ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫( اُل‬Arab state) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬Jewish state) ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ أع٘ج‬ٝ‫( ك‬foreign state) ‫ُخ َِٓٔخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬Muslim state) َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state of Israel) ٢َِٛ‫( اُؾِق األ‬Atlantic Treaty) ٢َِٛ‫( ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫( ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) ٘٤‫ذ األث‬٤‫( اُج‬White House) ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫( اُج‬Black House) ‫خ‬٤‫( اُغبٓؼخ اُؼوث‬Arab League) ‫خ‬٤‫ٍ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫( عبٓؼخ اُل‬League of Arab States) ٢ِ٤‫( االؽزالٍ اإلٍوائ‬Israeli occupation) َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state of Israel) َ٤‫ٓخ اٍوائ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬Israeli government) ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ اُلَِط‬٢ٙ‫( األها‬Palestinian territories) ‫خ‬٤ِ٤‫ اإلٍوائ‬٢ٙ‫( األها‬Israeli territory) ‫( اُولً أُؾزِخ‬occupied Jerusalem) ‫( األهٗ أُؾزِخ‬occupied land) ٢ٓ‫( اُؼبُْ اإلٍال‬Islamic world) ٢‫( اُؼبُْ اُقبهع‬outside world) ‫( اُؼبُْ اُضبُش‬third world) Freq 125 64 31 1 1 16 6 2 2 2 2 10 9 2 17 1 7 4 7 2 1 6 1 4 1 2 1 1 Total 189 33 30 ٢َِٛ‫األ‬ (Atlantic) ‫ذ‬٤‫( اُج‬house) ‫( اُغبٓؼخ‬league) َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israel) ٢ٙ‫األها‬ (territory) ‫أُؾزِخ‬ (occupied) ُْ‫( اُؼب‬world) 21 18 11 10 7 5 4 162 .11 illustrates the occurrence of these phrases. 5.phrase ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ُخ اُلَِط‬ٝ‫( اُل‬the Palestinian state) or ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ اُلَِط‬٢ٙ‫( أها‬the Palestinian territories) (16 and 7 occurrences respectively) to refer to Palestine. Table 5.3.2.4 Word frequency of phrases The purpose of analysing this kind of word is to show which phrases (including proper names and ordinary phrases) characterise world news. The perhaps surprising inclusion of ٌ٤ُٞ‫ أٗبث‬in the above table is the result of its being the venue for the Annapolis conference. Table 5.

the use of ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ ك‬and َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫ ك‬indicates that the Israeli or Jewish state is also recognised by Arab newspapers. as will be discussed later (see page 186). The table also indicates that the United States and United Nations regularly take part in world events. used only 16 times. However. but that the shorter form is used when the term is repeated in the same article. The fact that the first occurred 125 times shows that newspapers preferred it over ‫ٌب‬٣‫أٓو‬. For the word ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ك‬.Table 5. but the new expressions ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫ اُْوم األ‬and ٢‫ اُؼوث‬ٍٜٝ‫ اُْوم األ‬also occurred once each. there were 17 instances of the phrase ٘٤‫ذ األث‬٤‫اُج‬. to refer to the Arab League (seven and four occurrences respectively). and one newspaper uses an alternative spelling (twice). the table shows that the newspapers regularly used ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ُخ كَِط‬ٝ‫ ك‬and ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫ ك‬to refer to the Palestinian and Arab states (16 and 6 occurrences respecitvely). The use of the word ‫ اُْوم‬in ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬33 times) shows that the newspapers frequently refer to the Middle East. Of phrases incorporating the word ‫أُزؾلح‬. the table shows that the newspapers promoted the use of both phrases.11 shows 10 examples of words used in phrases. the newspapers regularly used the term ٢ِ٤‫ االؽزالٍ اإلٍوائ‬to refer to the Israeli occupation of Palestine (seven 163 . ‫خ‬٤‫ اُغبٓؼخ اُؼوث‬and ‫خ‬٤‫ٍ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫عبٓؼخ اُل‬. With respect to the word ‫اُغبٓؼخ‬. For the word ٢َِٛ‫األ‬. With respect to the word ‫ذ‬٤‫اُج‬. the phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫( ا‬United State) was used 125 times and ‫األْٓ أُزؾلح‬ (United Nations) 64 times. The analysis indicates that no difference in meaning is implied. The abbreviated form NATO was also used seven times. For phrases incorporating the word َ٤‫اٍوائ‬. the table shows that the newspapers regularly used both ٢َِٛ‫ اُؾِق األ‬and ٢َِٛ‫ ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬to refer to the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) (ten and nine occurrences respectively). The expression ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫ اُج‬has also been coined satirically by Al-Quds al-„Arabi to convey its negative view of the actions of the White House.

the table shows that the newspapers used the phrase ٢ٓ‫ اُؼبُْ اإلٍال‬twice to refer to all Islamic countries in the world.5 Word frequency in other noun categories This part is devided into three sub-sections.2. 5. In addition. the table shows that certain words were used as phrases in combination with others to reflect the nature of world events. The frequency difference probably indicates that Arabic newspapers try to avoid to use of word „lands‟ in connection with „Israel‟ and its more frequent use in connection with „Palestine‟ indicates their recognition of Palestine as the original land owner. the table shows it was used incorporating with ً‫ اُول‬and ٗ‫ األه‬to refer to the occupation of Palestine. including the Arab countries. Analysis of collective nouns The results show 15 collective nouns occurring in various frequencies. This is done without taking into account the collective noun according to the dual and plural forms if they are available in singular. 1. Lastly.occurrences). they promote the use of the term ٢‫ اُؼبُْ اُقبهع‬and ‫ اُؼبُْ اُضبُش‬to refer to the outside world and countries in the third world. With regard to the word ‫أُؾزِخ‬. Table below summmarises the results: 164 .3. Generally speaking. The newspapers used ٢ٙ‫ األها‬to refer to both Palestine (six times) and Israel (once). The newspapers also used the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government). to refer to the Israeli government.

indicates that sports issues may also be reported in world affairs sections. in order to make the analysis more brief. 2.331 Table 5. ‫خ‬٣‫ػٌَو‬.Table 5. which regularly referred to sports teams. The occurrence of the word ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. The most used was ‫ أًضو‬with 72 occurrences and the four least used each occurred three 331 This does not take into account feminine comparative forms. Analysis on comparative adjectives The results show 15 comparatives occurring in various frequencies (see Table 5. ‫ّؼت‬. 165 . ‫ٓغزٔغ‬. ١‫ ػٌَو‬and ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫ )ع‬or groupings of people (ْٓ‫أ‬. ‫خ‬٤‫ عٔبػ‬and ٢‫)ّؼج‬. Most are related to world issues involving military action (ِ٤‫ع‬.13).12 indicates the 15 collective nouns that occurred between 184 times and once.12: Collective nouns by frequency No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Noun ِ٤‫( ع‬army) ‫خ‬٣‫( ػٌَو‬military) ْٓ‫( أ‬nations) ١‫( ػٌَو‬military) ‫( ّؼت‬nation) ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬group) ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫( ع‬army) ‫( ٓغزٔغ‬society) Freq 184 76 64 57 54 53 47 20 No 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Noun ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) ٢ٓٞ‫( ه‬national) ‫خ‬٤‫( عٔبػ‬group) ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ك‬ٝ (delegations) ‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫( ع‬crowd) ٢‫( ّؼج‬national) Freq 13 13 7 6 5 4 1 Table 5.13: Comparatives by frequency No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Noun ‫( أًضو‬more) ‫( أًجو‬bigger) َ‫( أه‬less) ٠ِ‫( أػ‬higher) ‫( أثوى‬more apparent) َٚ‫( أك‬better) ْٛ‫( أ‬more important) ‫أ‬ٍٞ‫( أ‬worse) Freq 72 35 32 25 16 11 11 9 No 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Noun ‫( أهوة‬nearer) ‫( أٍوع‬faster) ‫( أؿِت‬more often) ‫( أفطو‬more dangerous) ٠ٖ‫( أه‬more distant) ًَٔ‫( أ‬more complete) ‫ٍغ‬ٝ‫( أ‬broader) Freq 9 5 4 3 3 3 3 Table 5.13 lists 15 comparatives with frequencise ranging from 72 to three occurrences. ٢ٓٞ‫ه‬.

The words ‫ ٖٓوع‬and ‫ء‬ٞٙ occurred most frequently. It is followed in frequency by the word ‫ل‬٣ (13 occurrences) to indicate „power‟. َُٞٔ‫( ا‬highness). The word ‫ػ‬ٝ‫( ه‬spirit) was used (only three occurrences) to indicated wholeheartedness.times (‫أفطو‬. with 14 occurrences. The word ‫( ٕبؽت‬owner) occurred ten times. in the phrase ‫ ؽزق‬٢‫ُو‬. 3.14 summarises the use of nouns as metaphors in the highlighted words. indicating the command of the „owner‟ over what is his. though less frequently (three times). The phrase ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫( اُج‬Black House) was used once. some comparatives are used in higher frequencies than others in world news.. The word ‫هام‬ٝ‫( األ‬papers) was used metaphorically six times.14: The use of metaphor in world affairs sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Metaphor ‫ اُـ‬. liked with ‫( ًِٔخ‬word). This meaning is also conveyed metaphorically. ‫( َذ انحكىيح‬power) ‫ يصشع‬٠ُ‫ ا‬ٟ‫ أك‬/ ٢‫( ُو‬death) ‫ اُـ‬. Thus. to refer to the White House. Analysis of nouns used metaphorically Table 5. The second metaphorical word (‫ء‬ٞٙ) is used to indicate a level of meaning in an action that may bring „brightness‟ and „success‟. It shows that world affairs used several nouns as metaphors.. 166 . ٠ٖ‫أه‬.. The first indicates death in military conflict. ًَٔ‫ أ‬and ‫ٍغ‬ٝ‫)أ‬. usually referring to official matters endorsed by the relevant authorities. satirically. ‫أٌُزت‬ (office) and ٗ‫( األه‬land).. ٕ‫ب‬٤‫اُج‬/‫ؾبد‬٣‫رٖو‬/‫( ضىء ارلبم‬light) ٗ‫ األه‬/‫أٌُزت‬/ َُٞٔ‫ا‬/‫( صاحة أٌُِخ‬owner) ‫ األوساق‬ِٜ‫ ف‬/‫اُٖق‬/‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫اُؾ‬/‫ٓخ‬َُٞٔٔ‫( األوساق ا‬papers) ‫خ‬٣ٞ‫ األف‬/‫ االٗلٓبط‬/‫كح‬ُٞٔ‫( سوح ا‬spirit) ‫نقٍ حرف‬ ‫( انثُد األسىد‬Black House) Freq 13 14 14 10 6 3 3 1 Table 5.

15: Top 10 perfect and imperfect verbs in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 2 12 32 34 37 56 76 79 131 188 Perfect ٍ‫( هب‬said) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ‫( أًل‬comfirmed) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ‫( هبُذ‬said) ‫( أػِ٘ذ‬announced) ‫( أّبه‬indicated) Freq 326 146 111 108 104 85 75 75 57 46 Text 143 79 74 87 72 59 50 50 48 41 Rank 89 135 139 151 310 355 461 499 507 566 Imperfect ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٌٖٔ٣ (could) ‫غت‬٣ (has to) ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (say) ١‫( رغو‬run) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) ّٞ‫و‬٣ (stand) Freq 71 57 57 53 32 29 23 22 21 20 Text 54 46 41 42 26 16 17 15 18 15 Table 5.15 below shows the top ten perfect and imperfect verbs in world affairs: Table 5. ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬.g. The table shows that most of the high frequency perfect verbs referred to the actions of people or groups of people. the results show that there were more imperfect verbs (325) than perfect verbs (291). the table shows that the verb ٌٕٞ٣ occurred most frequently (71 occurrences) and the tenth is ّٞ‫و‬٣ (20).15 shows that perfect tense verbs were used more than imperfect verbs. However. that the verb ٍ‫ هب‬came second on the overall frequency list. 167 . ّٞ‫و‬٣. in terms of the number of different words used. ‫هبُذ‬. This is proved by the fact that in the perfect verb.551 words.2.4. subjects. not necessarily human. with the highest frequency of all verbs (326 occurrences) while the tenth ‫ أّبه‬had 46. ْ‫ز‬٣. e. ١‫رغو‬. most of the high frequency imperfect verbs may have general. ّٞ‫رو‬. ٌٕٞ٣.g.5. In contrast to what is found with regard to perfect tense verbs. e.2. ‫ أػِ٘ذ‬and ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬. ِٖ‫أػ‬. ٌٖٔ٣.1 Word frequency by tense The results show that perfect tense verbs were used more frequently than the imperfect form in the top 3. For the imperfect verb. Table 5.4 Word frequency in verbs 5. ٍ‫هب‬. ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣. ‫أًل‬. ٌٕٞ‫ر‬.

while imperfect verbs only record 6.551 most frequent words in the corpus.5: Dispersion of perfect and imperfect verbs 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 1 0 1 (522-201) 2 (200-101) 3 (100-3) 0 4 0 Perfect Imperfect 286 325 Graph 5. where the imperfect was used 39 more times than the perfect. This contrast shows that the imperfect 168 . they were used less in terms of frequency.16 shows the mean for both perfect and imperfect verbs. while the opposite is the case in the third group. Graph 5. Table 5.158 Table 5.5 shows verb dispersion across three word frequency groups of words that occurred in the 3. It indicates that although imperfect verbs were used more than perfect verbs in terms of number of different words.5 shows that more perfect verbs than imperfect verbs occurred in the first two groups.158. This gives a recorded mean for perfect verbs of 10.662.16: Mean of perfect and imperfect verbs N Freq Mean Imperfect 325 2165 6.662 Perfect 291 2956 10.Graph 5.

The highest ranking auxiliary verb (ٕ‫ )ًب‬occurred 146 times.15 and Graph 5. in terms of frequency.17: Top 10 auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 12 37 76 89 135 139 151 461 507 566 Auxiliary ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٌٖٔ٣ (could) ١‫( رغو‬run) ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) ّٞ‫و‬٣ (stand) Freq 146 104 75 71 57 57 53 23 21 20 Text 79 72 50 54 46 41 42 17 18 15 Rank 2 32 34 56 79 131 188 355 499 511 Non-auxiliary ٍ‫( هب‬said) ‫( أًل‬emphasised) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) ‫( هبُذ‬said) ‫( أػِ٘ذ‬announced) ‫( أّبه‬pointed) ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (say) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) ‫( مًو‬mentioned) Freq 326 111 108 85 75 57 46 29 22 21 Text 143 74 87 59 50 48 41 16 15 20 Table 5. while the highest non-auxiliary verb (ٍ‫ )هب‬occurred 326 times. with ّٞ‫و‬٣ occurring 20 times and ‫ مًو‬21 times.was used more in low frequency verbs and the perfect more in high frequency verbs. the difference is negligible. At the lowest point.15 led the researcher to analyse the verbs from another perspective.5.17. although the auxiliary verbs seem occur a little less frequently than the nonauxiliary.15. ّ‫هب‬.17 shows that. that a considerable proportion of high frequency verbs in world affairs is made up of auxiliary verbs. This is confirmed by the findings in Table 5. Verbs such as ٕ‫ًب‬. Table 5. The table also shows. Auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs The results in table 5. 169 . 1. An analysis in terms of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs was therefore carried out and the results are shown in Table 5. ْ‫ ر‬and their derivations dominated most of the table of perfect and imperfect verbs. there is no great difference between the two categories. like Table 5.

Differences between genders also emerge from an analysis of the verbs specific to world affairs. ٍٞ‫ ٗو‬and ٍٞ‫أه‬. e. ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬.4. ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. first person verbs are considered neuter because the gender of the subject is unknown from the verb individually unless by referring to the context.2 Word frequency by gender of subject The results indicate that verbs with a masculine subject (393 occurrences) were used more than verbs with a feminine (165) or neuter332 subject (58). for feminine verbs it was ‫( ًبٗذ‬104 occurrences) and for neuter verbs ٟ‫( ٗو‬12 occurrences). 111 occurrences. 170 . ِٖ‫ أػ‬and ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫ أ‬are considered specific verbs because are particularly relevant for world affairs. 85 and ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬. Verbs such as ‫أًل‬. 108. 332 For the purposes of this study.18 shows that masculine verbs were generally used more frequently that feminine and neuter verbs. Table 5.18: Top 10 verb with masculine.g. as shown in Table 5.5. ِٖ‫أػ‬. feminine and neuter subjects R 2 12 32 34 56 76 89 139 151 239 Masculine ٍ‫( هب‬said) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ‫( أًل‬confirmed) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ِٖ‫أػ‬ (announced) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٌٖٔ٣ (could) ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬ (explained) F 326 146 111 108 85 75 71 57 53 39 T 143 79 74 87 59 50 54 41 42 34 R 37 79 131 135 304 339 461 507 534 613 Feminine ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ‫( هبُذ‬said) ‫أػِ٘ذ‬ (announced) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) ‫مًود‬ (mentioned) ‫( ٗوِذ‬moved) ١‫( رغو‬run) ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) ‫أًلد‬ (confirmed) ‫ؾذ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬ (explained) F 104 75 57 57 32 30 23 21 20 18 T 72 50 48 46 27 23 17 18 20 14 R 1007 1008 1348 1926 2245 2246 2248 2251 2618 2696 Neuter ٟ‫ٗو‬ (consider) ‫ل‬٣‫( ٗو‬want) ‫اػزول‬ (believed) ٌٕٞٗ (to be) ٌٖٔ‫( ٗز‬able) ٞ‫( ٗلػ‬call) ‫ة‬ْٞٗ (mix) ٍٞ‫( ٗو‬say) ‫( ً٘ب‬to be) ‫ٗئًل‬ (confirm) F 12 12 8 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 T 8 11 7 5 5 4 4 5 4 3 Table 5. The highest frequency masculine verb was ٍ‫ هب‬with 326 occurrences. ٌٕٞ٣ and ٌٖٔ٣ are considered general because they are widely found in other types of writing. The table shows that specific verbs with masculine subjects (‫أًل‬. while verbs such as ٕ‫ًب‬.2.18.

57 occurrences. 18). feminine and neuter subjects 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 1 0 0 3 1 0 3 (100-3) 58 164 Masculine Feminine Neuter 389 0 1(522-201) 2 (200-101) Graph 5. far fewer than the masculine and feminine verbs. with only one singular verb ‫ أػزول‬included in the top ten. feminine and neuter subjects distributed across three frequency groups.6 shows verbs with masculine. The biggest difference occurs in group 3 (100-3) where masculine verbs occurred 225 times more often than feminine verbs and 331 times more often than neuter. In addition. 30. 171 . the table indicates that the verb ٟ‫ ٗو‬and ‫ل‬٣‫ ٗو‬are the highest. Graph 5. ranked 1007th and 1008th with 12 occurrences. The graph shows there were no neuter verbs in groups 1 and 2.39) were used more than those with feminine subject (‫أػِ٘ذ‬.6: Dispersion of verbs with masculine. ‫أًلد‬. neuter verbs were almost all used in the plural. The results show that masculine verbs were used more than feminine or neuter verbs in all groups. 20 and ‫ؾذ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬. As regards neuter verbs. ‫ٗوِذ‬.

. The results show the occurrence of this phenomenon... The sentence above shows the word ‫( ػ٘بٕو‬elements).. was used with the masculine verb ْ‫( ر‬completed). which is feminine. The sentence above shows that the word ‫( اؽبُخ‬relegation). ٕ‫بُجب‬ٛ ‫َ سُؼىد ػُاصش‬ٛ ‫ ٓؼوكخ‬٢‫زٔضَ ك‬٣ ٝ‫جل‬٣ . was used with the masculine verb ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return). 2.19: Mean of verbs with masculine. in line with the previous findings showing the highest frequency for a neuter verb to be only 12 occurrences (see Table 5.19 shows that verbs with masculine subjects recorded a higher mean value (at 10.. 172 .257.18).Table 5. 1. which is feminine. The neuter verbs recorded a far lower mean value. at only 4.. Verb and subject agreement in gender The researcher later made analyses of several verbs in order to discover whether or not the masculine verb was used with a feminine subject. ٖ٤ٓ‫ش ذى إحانح ػْواد أُؾب‬٤‫ٖ ؽ‬٤ٛ‫و ٖٓ أُ٘ؾو‬٤‫ ػلك ًج‬٠ِ‫ ػ‬. .970 Neuter 58 247 4.. feminine and neuter subjects N Freq Mean Masculine 393 4106 10.257 Table 5.448) as compared with other subject genders. 1.448 Feminine 165 1315 7. indicating that most neuter verbs occurred in low frequency.. The sentences below are examples. .

3 Word frequency in terms of semantics The researcher analysed verbs from many angles and focused on investigating action and non-action verbs. based on the researcher‟s definition of action and non-action verbs. without taking into account their context. the analysis shows that the number of non-action verbs used (382) is greater than the number of action verbs (234). 1. In line with the researcher‟s expectation. In view of this problem. This decision was made to facilitate verb counting because the same verb may often be used as both an action and non-action verb. However. referring to basic meanings was the method preferred.4. except the verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added). Table 5.20 shows the top ten non-action and action verbs in world affairs: Table 5. The 173 . so that each verb could be classsified once. Action and non-Action verbs This analysis was carried out for the reasons previously explained in the methodology (see page 122).5.20 shows that all the top ten verbs in the list are non-action verb. this result is entirely based on the basic meaning of the verbs.2.20: Top 10 non-action and action verbs in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 2 12 32 37 56 76 79 89 131 135 Non-action ٍ‫( هب‬said) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ‫( أًل‬emphasized) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ‫( هبُذ‬said) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ‫( أػِ٘ذ‬announced) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) Freq 326 146 111 104 85 75 75 71 57 57 Text 143 79 74 72 59 50 50 54 48 46 Rank 34 188 271 339 345 461 499 507 555 566 Action ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( أّبه‬pointed) َ‫( هُز‬killed) ‫( ٗوِذ‬moved) ‫( عبء‬came) ١‫( رغو‬run) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) ‫ا‬ِٞ‫( هُز‬killed) ّٞ‫و‬٣ (stand) Freq 108 46 35 30 29 23 22 21 20 20 Text 87 41 20 23 25 17 15 18 13 15 Table 5.

such as ‫اػزجو‬. See the results in Table 5. It can be concluded that non-action verbs were more frequently used than action verbs in world affairs. Verbs as metaphors and in literally a) Action verbs used as metaphors This analysis treats verbs that are basically action verbs but were used semantically as metaphors. world affairs tends to contain a lot of non-action verbs. but this is the only action verb in the second group (200-101 occurrences). The table shows that the top action verbs start with ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬108 occurrences and ranked 34th). 174 . 2. some verbs that are essentially action verbs are used as non-action verbs in world news. while fewer (six out of ten) of the non-action verbs fall into that group. ‫ِت‬ٛ. This was done for two reasons: first. ‫ل‬ّٜ and ٟ‫عو‬. and second. ‫أّبه‬. All the other actions verbs fall into the third group (100-3 occurrences). ‫ ػول‬etc.21. the researcher studied the verbs from various perspectives to determining whether a particular verb was used as an action or non-action verb by using the concordance tool. ٟ‫هأ‬. such as ّ‫هب‬. ْ‫ز‬٣.highest frequency for non-action verbs was for ٍ‫( هب‬326 occurrences and ranked 2nd in frequency for the whole list). Because of the nature of analysing verbs in terms of semantics. which enables the researcher to understand each word usage in context..

from a semantics point of view.22 shows that there are action verbs in world affairs that were used. ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣.21:Example of action verbs used metaphorically No 1 2 3 4 5 Verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( أّبه‬pointed) ‫( عبء‬came) ‫( عود‬ran) ‫لد‬ّٜ (witnessed) No.21 shows five examples of action verbs that were used metaphorically in world affairs. ‫ عود‬12 times and ‫لد‬ّٜ ten times. the verbs َٕٝ and ٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫ ر‬were used more literally than metaphorically. ‫ عبء‬29 times. ٟ‫و‬٣ and ٢‫ؤر‬٣.22:Example of action verbs used both literally and metaphorically No 1 2 3 4 5 Verb ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) َٕٝ (arrived) ٟ‫و‬٣ (see) ٢‫ؤر‬٣ (come) ٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫( ر‬faced) Freq 22 14 18 13 8 Action 8 10 3 1 6 Metaphor 14 4 15 12 2 Table 5.Table 5. either in their literal meaning or metaphorically. 175 . ‫ أّبه‬46 times. In contrast. b) Action verb used literally and metaphorically Table 5. were more often used metaphorically than literally. The concordance shows that these verbs were used metaphorically in all the occurrences. three. of verb 108 46 29 12 10 Action Metaphor 108 30 13 10 8 Table 5. The verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫ أ‬was used 108 times. namely. The table shows that. out of five action verbs.

23). the researcher believes that analysis from the perspectives listed below would help Malaysian students.23: Verb frequency by semantic family No 1 Meaning Speaking No 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 Verb ٍ‫( هب‬said) ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (say) ‫( رؾلس‬spoke) ‫زؾلس‬٣ (speak) ٌِْ‫ز‬٣ (talk) ‫( اٗزول‬criticised) ‫( هك‬replied) ‫وك‬٣ (replied) َ َ ِ‫( هُز‬killed) ‫ل‬ْٜ‫( اٍز‬killed) ‫ل‬ّٜ (witnessed) ٟ‫و‬٣ (see) ٟ‫( هأ‬saw) ‫ل‬ْٜ٣ (witness) ‫٘ظو‬٣ (look) ‫( ٗظو‬looked) ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) ِٖ‫ؼ‬٣ (announce) ‫( أفجو‬informed) ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣ (face) ٠‫( اُزو‬met) ٚ‫اع‬ٝ (faced) َ‫وبث‬٣ (encounter) ‫( أًل‬confirmed)) ‫ئًل‬٣ (confirm) ‫( أصجذ‬affirmed) ‫ضجذ‬٣ (affirm) Frequency 326 29 6 5 1 8 6 1 35 3 4 18 7 4 3 1 85 5 2 14 10 5 1 1 111 14 2 2 2 Criticism 3 4 Kill Watching 5 Announcement 6 Meeting 7 Affirmation 176 . Table 5. a) Verbs with one semantic meaning The analysis studies the possibility of using various verbs from one family of verbs that have similar meanings (see Table 5.3. especially media students. to select words for their news writing accurately. Verbs from other semantics angles In addition to analysis in terms of action and non-action verbs.

while. used only once.23 shows various verbs used to indicate similar meanings. compared with its synonym ‫ل‬ْٜ‫اٍز‬. For „speaking‟. with 125 occurrences (111+14) were used more frequently than ‫ضجذ‬٣/‫ أصجذ‬with 4 (2+2). for the sixth meaning „meeting‟. the verbs ٍٞ‫و‬٣/ٍ‫هب‬ were used more than their synonyms. the table shows that in world affairs. while the least used was ٌِْ‫ر‬. the verbs ٟ‫و‬٣/ٟ‫هأ‬. followed by ‫ى‬ٞ‫ل‬٣/‫ كبى‬with 177 . For the eighth meaning „return‟. that the verbs ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣/‫ ػبك‬with 27 occurrences (22+5) were used more frequently than ‫وعغ‬٣ . For the seventh meaning „affirmation‟. the verbs ٢‫ِزو‬٣/٠‫ اُزو‬19 occurrences (14+5) were used more frequently than ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣/ٚ‫اع‬ٝ 11 occurences (10+1) or َ‫وبث‬٣/َ‫ هبث‬with only one. were used more frequently than ‫ل‬ْٜ٣/‫ل‬ّٜ. the verbs ‫٘غؼ‬٣/‫ ٗغؼ‬with 11 (7+4). For the third meaning „kill‟. as shown in the „Meaning‟ column. the verb َ َ ِ‫ هُز‬was used 35 times. For the fifth meaning „announcement‟. with 25 (18+7) occurrences. while the verbs ‫ؾون‬٣/‫ ؽون‬were not far behind with ten occurrences (6+4). the verbs ِٖ‫ؼ‬٣/ِٖ‫ أػ‬90 occurrences (85+5) were used more frequently than ‫قجو‬٣/‫ أفجو‬with only two. For the ninth meaning.8 Return 9 Success in achieving something 10 End 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) ‫( ػبك‬returned) ‫وعغ‬٣ (back) ‫٘غؼ‬٣ (succeed) ‫( ؽون‬confirmed) ‫( ٗغؼ‬succeeded) ‫ؾون‬٣ (confirm) ‫ى‬ٞ‫ل‬٣ (win) ‫( كبى‬won) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٠ٜ‫( اٗز‬ended) 22 5 0 7 6 4 4 2 1 75 57 2 Table 5. For the meaning „criticism‟. For the fourth meaning „watching‟. the verb ‫ اٗزول‬was used more frequently (eight occurrences) than other verbs with similar meanings. with 8 (4+4) or ‫٘ظو‬٣/‫ ٗظو‬with 4 (3+1). the verbs ‫ئًل‬٣/‫أًل‬. with 355 (326+29) occurrences. „success in achieving something‟.

The concordance tool. This indicates that world affairs coverage tends to make positive statements more than the negative.24 shows that verbs with a positive meaning. while ٠ٜ‫ اٗز‬is specific to only one context. Thus. the verbs ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬132 occurrences (75+57) were used more frequently than ٠ٜ‫ اٗز‬with only two. there were several verbs that were used more frequently than others within the same semantic family in world affairs.three occurrences (2+1). namely ‫٘غؼ‬٣/‫ٗغؼ‬. was also applied here in order to determine each verb‟s antonym. For the last meaning „end'. the concordance shows that the high frequency of ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬is due its usage as an auxiliary verb in various situations.24. b) Verbs with positive and negative meanings The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether verbs with a positive meaning were used more than those conveying a negative meaning in world news stories. Table 5. 178 . were usually more frequently used than verbs with a negative meaning. as shown in Table 5.24: Frequency of positive and negative verbs No 1 2 3 4 5 Positive ‫َٔؼ‬٣ (allow) ‫ٗغؼ‬/‫٘غؼ‬٣ (succeed) ‫ؽون‬/‫ؾون‬٣ (achieve) َٖ‫ؽ‬/َٖ‫ؾ‬٣ (obtain) َ‫( هج‬accepted) Freq 7 10 10 8 3 Negative ‫َٔؼ‬٣ ‫ ال‬/‫ٔ٘غ‬٣ (prohibit) ‫٘غؼ‬٣ ُْ /َْ‫( ك‬failed) ‫ؾون‬٣ ُْ (not achieve) َٖ‫ؾ‬٣ ُْ (not obtain) ٘‫( هك‬denied) Freq 7 7 0 3 17 Table 5. ‫ؾون‬٣/‫ ؽون‬and َٖ‫ؾ‬٣/َٖ‫ؽ‬. which can generate collocation. However. the exceptions being that the verb َ َ ِ‫ مَََ ث‬was used less tha ٘ َ َ ‫هك‬ َ (17 and 3 occurrences ْ َ٣ and ‫َٔؼ‬٣ ‫ال‬/‫ٔ٘غ‬٣ were used at the same level of frequency respectively) and the verbs ‫ٔؼ‬ ََ (7).

2.25: Frequency of verbs indicating striving toward achievement and the opposite No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Striving ٍٝ‫ؾب‬٣ (try) ٍٝ‫( ؽب‬tried) ٠‫َؼ‬٣ (strive) ً‫( رٔبه‬practice) ٍ‫جن‬٣ (expend) ‫( ٓبهٍذ‬practised) Freq 9 7 5 4 4 2 Contrast ٢‫ٌل‬٣ (suffice) ٠‫( اًزل‬was satisfied) Freq 4 2 Table 5.c) Verbs mean indicating striving toward achievement. This indicates that world news reports are more about striving towards solving the world crises. and the opposite The results show that verbs that indicate „striving toward achievement and wisdom‟ were used more than the those that indicate the opposite. Table 5.4.25 shows that verbs that indicate striving towards achievement (six different verbs) were used more than those that indicate the opposite (two different verbs). In order to achieve this purpose. 5.25. 179 . several verbs were selected that give a picture of newspaper writing style from this perspective.4 Word frequency by transitivity The main purpose of this analysis is to determine whether or not news articles have special characteristics in terms of verb use with particles (prepositions). as shown in Table 5.

of the 17 occurrences without ‫ثـ‬. while 11 occurrences were accompanied by ‫ثـ‬. for example. out of 24 occurrences. in all 14 occurrences.Table 5. For the verb ‫ت‬٤ٕ‫أ‬. For the verb َٕٝ. 11 used the particle ٢‫( ك‬in) in specific contexts. . referring to the concordance tool. while two used the word ‫( اصو‬immediately after) in similar contexts.26 shows examples of verbs used with different particles. For the verb ‫زؼِن‬٣. out of seven occurrences. For the verb ٠‫رَؼ‬. out of 14 occurrences. indicating that both usages occur in quite similar frequencies. the verb occurred with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬eight times and without it six times. the verb occurred with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬five times. the verb occurred with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬or ‫ ُـ‬. The results reveal that 17 out of 28 occurrences did not have the particle ‫ثـ‬. the verb occurred with the particle ‫( ثـ‬11 times) but also occurred once without it. such as attacks and bombing.. For the verb ‫لف‬ٜ‫ر‬. showing that it regularly takes ‫ثـ‬. the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬ 180 . and with the particle ‫ ُـ‬only twice.. out of 12 occurrences. For the last verb (‫)كػب‬.26: Use of verbs with particles Verb ‫ت‬٤ٕ‫( أ‬hit by) َٕٝ (arrived) ٠‫( رَؼ‬strive) ‫لف‬ٜ‫( ر‬to aim) ‫( رؼِن‬related) ‫( كػب‬called) No 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 Particle ‫( ثـ‬with) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ‫( ثـ‬with) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) Frequency 17 11 8 6 7 7 5 2 11 1 22 2 Total 38 14 14 7 12 24 Table 5. (hit 7 civilians). but may not in some contexts.ٖ٤٘ٛ‫ا‬ٞٓ 7 ‫ت‬٤ٕ‫أ‬. the concordance showed that all its usages were followed by number of person. with seven occurrences each... However. showing that this verb takes both particles equally.

2. Word frequency in the high frequency list 2.was used 22 times compared with only twice for the particle ‫ُـ‬. focusing on points of difference between newspapers in world affairs reporting. and also including the additional category of loan words. Word frequency by transitivity 4.5. 5.5 Word frequency by newspaper The purpose of this analysis is to enable direct comparison between newspapers published in different countries in order to study in depth the language style for specific word categories. The categories are: 1. 181 .27). With regard to limitation. This means that variations occur in the particles used with certain verbs. the analysis in this part covered several categories studied in previous analyses. Word frequency by loan word 5.1 Word frequency in the high frequency list The results show several important points that could potentially indicate differences between newspapers in the high frequency list (see Table 5.2. The results from this analysis determine whether different countries employ different language styles in news writing. Word frequency by phrase 3.

the word ‫ اُؼوام‬was the highest in Al-Furat with 73 occurrences. which came at the top of the frequency list for the whole corpus. Al-Safir (63) and Al-Ahram (57). the researcher found it remarkable that the Iraqi newspaper did not highlight other world issues prominent at the time of data collection. Significantly. This is confirmed by the fact that the words ٢‫ ػواه‬and ‫خ‬٤‫ ػواه‬rank fourth and fifth in this newspaper. was also the most frequently used word in five newspapers: Al-Khabar (122 occurrences).27 shows the five most frequently used words in the seven newspapers. which ranked equal third on the list with 47 occurrences each. while. 182 . the fact that ‫ اُؼوام‬was the most frequently used word in Al-Furat (73 occurrences) indicates that Iraq issues were the main concern of this newspaper from Australia. for that newspaper. and the verb ٍ‫ هب‬was highest in Al-Quds al-„Arabi with 69.27: Top 5 words by newspaper Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Furat Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Quds al„ Arabi Al-Sabah alJadid Al-Safir 1 ٌ٤‫هئ‬ ‫اُؼوام‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ ٍ‫هب‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ F 57 73 94 122 69 70 63 2 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫أٓو‬ ِ٤‫ع‬ ٍ‫هب‬ ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ ٍ‫هب‬ ‫ٓئرٔو‬ F 53 50 66 65 66 68 43 3 ٕ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ ّٞ٣ ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ F 52 50 52 46 46 47 41 4 ٢ٌ٣‫أٓو‬ ٢‫ػواه‬ ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ ٢ِ٤‫اٍوائ‬ ٌِ‫ٓغ‬ ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ ّ‫ٍال‬ F 44 41 45 42 45 47 36 5 ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ ‫اٗزقبة‬ ‫ٓئرٔو‬ ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ ٕ‫ًب‬ F 40 37 43 42 44 39 36 Table 5. The word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬. with 41 and 37 occurrences respectively. Al-Jazirah (94). these are internal national issues. such as the Palestinian issue and the Iranian nuclear programme. However. It is not difficult to understand why the world affairs section of the Iraqi newspaper (Al-Sabah al-Jadid) does not report much on Iraq issues because. focusing more instead on Russia and Kosovo. Al-Sabah al-Jadid (70).Table 5.

5. Table 5.3 Word frequency by transitivity As explained before. This may indicate that both newspapers are trying to promote new terminologies. following what has been the regular use of the phrase ٍٜٝ‫اُْوم األ‬. 5.2 Word frequency by phrase As an extension to the previous analysis in 5.2.5. word frequency analysis by transitivity only involves verbs.2.2.3. further analysis was carried out to reveal differences between newspapers in their use of phrases (see Table 5. The second phrases َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫ ك‬and ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ ك‬were used in similar frequencies. The results show that there were several differences between newspapers in this respect. 183 . but Al-Safir is notable in its use of both.2.28: Differences in use of phrases in world affairs Phrase ٢‫ اُؼوث‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬Arab Middle East) َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state of Israel) Newspaper Al-Khabar Al-Safir Al-Quds al-„Arabi Freq 1 1 1 Phrase ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬New Middle East) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬Jewish state) Newspaper Al-Furat Al-Safir Freq 1 2 Table 5.5.28 shows two examples of the different use of phrases used in world affairs.3. The researcher extended the analysis of verb transitivity in 5.4. The phrases ٢‫ اُؼوث‬ٍٜٝ‫ اُْوم األ‬and ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫ اُْوم األ‬were used in different newspapers (AlKhabar and Al-Furat respectively) but in similar frequencies.4 to determine the differences between newspapers.28).

except that Al-Quds al-„Arabi was like AlAhram in not using the particle. though only using the verb twice. with the usage varying between newspapers. usage was more variable. the table shows that it was used either with the particle ‫ ثـ‬or without a particle. while Al-Sabah al-Jadid. Al-Furat. Al-Safir used the verb with and without the particle equally (three occurrences for each). In Al-Ahram. 184 . Al-Furat more frequently used it without ‫( ثـ‬four times out of six). and Al-Khabar did not use this verb at all. This shows that the different newspapers all used the verb in different ways. while this was reversed in Al-Jazirah which used this verb with the particle four times out of six. although the latter used this verb only twice. For the verb ‫ت‬٤ٕ‫أ‬.29: Dispersion of verbs by transitivity across newspapers Verb ‫ت‬٤ٕ‫أ‬ (hit by) َٕٝ (arrived) ٠‫رَؼ‬ (strived) ‫لف‬ٜ‫ر‬ (aim) ‫زؼِن‬٣ (relate) ‫كػب‬ (called) Particle AlAhram 6 6 3 3 1 1 2 2 5 4 1 AlFurat 6 4 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 AlJazirah 6 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Newspaper AlAl-Quds Khabar al-‘Arabi 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 4 1 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 4 3 3 3 1 Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 5 AlSafir 6 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 5 5 - ‫( ثـ‬with) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ‫( ثـ‬with) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) 28 17 11 14 8 6 14 8 8 7 6 3 23 11 1 34 22 3 Table 5. Al-Jazirah and Al-Safir) used this verb six times.Table 5. Four newspapers (Al-Ahram. like AlQuds al-„Arabi.29 shows the use of verbs with particles in different newspapers. used the particle on both occasions. In the other newspapers. it was always used without ‫ثـ‬.

The verb ‫زؼِن‬٣ was most often used with the particle ‫( ثـ‬11 occurrences). Five newspapers were similar in that they used both styles. and without ‫ثـ‬. However. Only two newspapers. AlAhram and Al-Khabar. where this verb was used only once. Although the overall frequencies for both particles were the same (seven occurrences for each). the difference can only be noted. Al-Safir also used this verb at least twice as often as the other newspapers. no general conclusion can be drawn about Al-Sabah alJadid on the basis of only one occurrence. All the newspapers always used ‫ ثـ‬with the exception of Al-Sabah al-Jadid.The verb َٕٝ was used either with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬or without a particle. while other newspapers used ٠ُ‫ ا‬at least once. The last verb. while the other newspapers only used ٠ُ‫ ا‬with this verb. compared with twice for ‫ ُـ‬. used other particles (‫ ُـ‬twice). and even they used ٠ُ‫ ا‬more. while no instances were recorded for the other two newspapers (Al-Ahram and Al-Jazirah). 185 . varieties of style between newspapers were evident. Al-Ahram differed from the others in that it used only the particle ‫ ُـ‬with this verb. showing a different usage and style for this verb in the Lebanese newspaper. was mostly used with the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬22 occurrences). The verb ‫لف‬ٜ‫ ر‬was used more with ٠ُ‫( ا‬five occurrences). and twice in the case of AlKhabar. Thus. The clearest is in Al-Ahram where the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬was not used in any of the three occurrences. Most notable here is that both instances of ‫ ُـ‬were in Al-Safir. The verb ٠‫ رَؼ‬was used either with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬or the particle ‫ُـ‬. ‫كػب‬.

A number of words were widely used in most newspapers. and specific loan words that only occurred in particular newspapers.4 Word frequency by loan word The results show that all the selected newspapers have been affected by Western languages in world affairs. especially English words. the analysis will focus more on loan words that create a newspaper‟s identity. Variations in spelling will also be shown. 1. The researcher divided loan words into two categories: general loan words that can be found in all or most newspapers.30: Example of general loan words in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Word ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫كث‬ ٕ‫ثؤُب‬ ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫اٍزوار‬ ٢َِٛ‫أ‬ ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ك‬ ‫ب‬٤‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٘‫ر‬/٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٘‫ر‬ ‫ه‬ٞ‫كًزبر‬/‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫كًزبر‬ Freq 16 64 19 19 34 6 3 Spelling variation ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ٍزور‬ ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫أ‬ ٢ٛ‫ٔووا‬٣‫ك‬ ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫ك‬ Freq 1 2 6 2 Origin word Diplomat Parliament Strategy Atlantic democracy/democrat Technology dictator/dictatorship 186 . General loan words It has become normal for Arabic newspapers to use foreign words. The results show that all the selected newspapers are affected by foreign languages. All that remains to be determined is the extent of the influence on each newspaper. and especially by English as a world language. in news reports.2. Table 5.30.5.5. which can be shown by frequency analysis. These „general loan words‟ are shown in Table 5. Because this part of the study is more concerned with the special features of the newspapers.

We may conclude: first. which occurred twice in Al-Ahram. and second.30 shows examples of loan words found in most newspapers. The word ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ كًزبر‬was also spelled ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫ ك‬with the added vowel (١). Table 5. that most loan words in world affairs are related to government administration.31 lists examples of specific loan words used in fewer than four newspapers. Because of they are the foreign words. 187 . The word ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزور‬was also written ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ ٍزور‬without the consonant (‫)أ‬. Specific loan words „Specific loan words‟ are foreign words used only in a specific newspaper.Table 5. The fewer newspaper that use it. The word ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ ك‬was also written ٢ٛ‫ٔووا‬٣‫ ك‬without the vowel (ٝ). For more discussion. which was used six times in only one newspaper (Al-Ahram). All these examples were terms in government administration. that there are spelling variations for several loan words. which eventually create their own identity. followed by ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫( ك‬34). used only once (in Al-Furat). The most frequent was the word ٕ‫( ثؤُب‬64 occurrences). The word ٢َِٛ‫ أ‬was also written ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ أ‬with the consonant (ٕ) and the shifted consonant (ً) to (ٛ). and ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫( كث‬16). 2. ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬and ٢َِٛ‫( أ‬19 each). four of them had spelling variations. the more specific the word will be considered.

although Arabic newspapers use specific foreign words in news articles. It should be mentioned that Al-Furat and Al-Quds al-„Arabi are published in non-Arab countries so the relatively strong impact of loan words is not surprising. The table shows that most examples (9 out of 11) were used with low frequency (twice or once only). ًٍٞٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫ ثو‬and ٞ‫ز‬٤‫)ك‬. Al-Furat and Al-Sabah al-Jadid). ٢‫ٔـواك‬٣‫ك‬.31: Example of specific loan words in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Word ٛ‫هوا‬ٌٞ٘‫ر‬ ًٍٞٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫ثو‬ ٞ‫ز‬٤‫ك‬ ‫ٍبد‬ٝ‫و‬٣‫كب‬ ‫٘ي‬٣‫ٓبه‬ ٍ‫ٗب‬ّٞ‫اٗزوٗب‬ ‫و‬٤‫اُزواَٗل‬ ‫عبًذ‬ ٢‫ٔـواك‬٣‫ك‬ ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ر‬ ‫ٌبد‬٤‫رٌز‬ Freq 5 4 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 Newspaper Al-Jazirah/ Al-Safir Al-Ahram/Al-Jazirah/ AlSabah al-Jadid Al-Ahram Al-Furat Al-Furat Al-Safir Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Ahram Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Ahram Al-Ahram Origin word Technocrat Protocol Veto Virus Marines International Transfer Jacket Demography T-shirt Tactics Table 5. while others. ‫ٌبد‬٤‫ رٌز‬and ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫( )ر‬once each in one of Al-Safir. 188 . only three words occurred regularly (ٛ‫هوا‬ٌٞ٘‫ر‬. indicating that. We may conclude that most of the newspapers (six out of seven) used specific loan words in their articles: Al-Ahram (five words). Al-Safir and Al-Quds al-„Arabi (two words each) and Al-Sabah al-Jadid (one word). The word ٛ‫هوا‬ٌٞ٘‫ ر‬occurred five times in Al-Jazirah and Al-Safir. ‫ٍبد‬ٝ‫و‬٣‫ كب‬and ‫٘ي‬٣‫( ٓبه‬twice each in Al-Furat) and the rest of the words (ٍ‫ٗب‬ّٞ‫اٗزوٗب‬.31 shows examples of specific loan words that occurred in fewer than four newspapers. followed by Al-Furat. ٞ‫ز‬٤‫( ك‬three times in AlAhram). Al-Jazirah. ‫و‬٤‫رواَٗل‬. followed by ًٍٞٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫( ثو‬four times in Al-Ahram. ‫عبًذ‬. The higher occurrence of loan words in Al-Ahram and Al-Safir indicates that some newspapers in Arab countries are widely receptive to loan words.Table 5. such Al-Khabar. Al-Jazirah and Al-Sabah alJadid use fewer. Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Ahram).

See Table 5. the spelling ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ was used once in Al-Sabah al-Jadid and ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ is used five times in Al-Khabar. Al-Safir and Al-Sabah al-Jadid (five times) and AlKhabar and Al-Ahram (once each). For the second.32 for examples of variations across newspapers.3. especially words that have become widely used. the spelling ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬was used 19 times in five newspapers: Al-Furat (seven times).32: Example of loan words with variant spellings No 1 Word ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ (scenarios) ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫اٍزوار‬ (strategy) Newspaper Al-Sabah al-Jadid Total Al-Furat Al-Safir Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Khabar Al-Ahram Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Jazirah Total Al-Safir Al-Khabar Total Freq 1 1 7 5 5 1 1 19 14 5 19 2 1 3 Word ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ٍزور‬ Newspaper Al-Khabar Al-Furat Freq 5 5 1 2 3 ٢َِٛ‫( أ‬Atlantic) ‫ه‬ٞ‫( كًزبر‬dictator) ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫كًزبر‬ (dictatorship) ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫أ‬ ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫ك‬ ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫ك‬ Total Al-Ahram Total Al-Ahram Al-Sabah al-Jadid Total 1 2 2 1 1 2 4 Table 5. However. Nevertheless. The spelling ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ ٍزور‬was used once in Al-Furat. For the first. although ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ was used more frequently than ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ. in most cases. each spelling was used in only one newspaper. indicating that even the most used spelling was only popular in one newspaper. Spelling variations in loan words The frequency list shows that most of the loan words occurred in more than one newspaper. which means that the newspaper recognises both spellings. Table 5. loan words do not comply with the conventions of Arabic word formation. although it used the first spelling 189 .32 shows the spelling variations for four words. variations in spelling may occur because.

Since the first spelling was also used in five other newspapers too.3. Al-Safir (twice) and Al-Khabar (once). proceeding down to a very large number words with one occurrence in places 4880th to 9573th (see Graph 5.much more than the second. where ‫بة‬٣‫( ا‬second leg) and ‫ن‬٣‫و‬ٛ (way) each have 47 occurrences. it indicates that the first form is more popular than the second. Thus. the first spelling was more frequent than the second and was also widely used in two newspapers as opposed to one. 190 . normally spread.3 Word Frequency Analysis in Sports 5. showing that both spellings were used in similar frequencies in different newspapers. the spelling ٢َِٛ‫ أ‬was used 19 times in two newspapers. some newspapers sometimes used two. As is normal. Words with the same frequencies start with the words ٢ٗ‫صب‬ (second) and ‫( ٓؾٔل‬Muhammad) equal 23rd and 24th on the list. as occurred in world affairs.1 General description of the list The results show that the frequency list contains 9. although most of the newspapers used only one spelling for certain words.573 different words. the use of the spelling ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ (without ‫ـ‬ٛ) is the most surprising usage as it contradicts to the normal practice. 5.7). For the third. This means that. Al-Sabah al-Jadid (14 times) and AlJazirah (five times). equal frequencies do not appear consistently till a certain point lower down the list. with 176 occurrences each. For the last situation. the spelling ‫ه‬ٞ‫ كًزبر‬was used three times in two newspapers. here beginning at 169th on the list. while the spelling ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫ ك‬was used twice times in Al-Ahram and Al-Sabah al-Jadid (once each). However. The spelling ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ أ‬was used twice in Al-Ahram.

group 3 contains 3. followed by group 2 (200-101) with 37 words.306). The first category includes the smallest number of words (18). which may reduce the differences between them in terms of word numbers. although it covers the widest in frequency range (591-201 occurrences). while group 2 only has 37 words.212 words and group 4 (2-1) with 6.212 words. Although the groups represent different ranges. the differences are still wide especially with regard to group 4. This explains the reseacher‟s decision to focus more on frequencies of three and above and only to comment only on words with a lower frequency when they illustrate a particular feature of language style.Graph 5. The differences between the other groups are also very obvious. group 3 (100-3) with 3.306 words. The first group represents words that occurred 591–201 times (18 words). which includes only two frequencies (1 and 2) but represents the largest number of words in one category (6.7: umber of words by frequency from highest to lowest 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1 (591-201) 2 (200-101) 3 (100-3) 18 37 3212 6306 Number of words 4 (2-1) Graph 5.7 shows word dispersion by frequency. 191 .

with 432 occurrences only appeared in 86 texts as compared with the word ‫ًوح‬. „moderate high frequency‟ (200-101) and „low high frequency‟ (100 to 3).33: Top 10 most frequent words in sports section No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Word ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match) ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) ‫( ًوح‬ball) ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) ١‫( ٗبك‬club) ‫( الػت‬player) ‫( ارؾبك‬union) ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league) Freq 591 476 432 374 339 300 294 279 278 265 % 0. Table 5.2 High frequency words As with world affairs. occurring in 135 out of 211 texts.33 shows that the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬had the highest frequency with 591 occurrences.5. such as names of countries. They are either specific words relevant to most sports events. the high frequency words are those that occurred regularly in sport and eventually become keywords in sports news articles.65 Table 5. 192 .33 shows the top ten words on the high frequency list:333 Table 5.92 65.56 0.30 0. the results show that higher frequency ratings did not necessarily translate into dispersion in more texts. clubs and players regularly involved in the events. leading to the conclusion that the first 333 For more lists please refer to the full frequency list on the CD supplied.97 49.28 0.27 0.41 0. These groups are „very high frequency‟ (591-201 occurrences). As in world affairs. For example. using the same criteria as before.29 0.03 40. As in world affairs. or general words that describe the events.88 54.29 41.25 Text 135 133 86 118 139 114 78 104 87 90 % 63.98 63.32 0.23 42. followed by ‫ٓجبهاح‬ (133) down to ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬90). the researcher divided the high frequency list into three groups. which had only 339 occurrences but appeared in 139 texts.76 55.03 36.45 0.3.27 0. the word ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. It is also the highest in terms of dispersion.

The second word. The difference between the first and second words is 115 (591-476). ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. In sport. the results show the five dominant words were ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. 35 (374-339) frequencies. sportsmanship and clubs.8. It may be roughly concluded that there are several words that clearly dominate the list. ٖ٤‫ الػج‬and ‫ًوح‬.8: The top 10 word frequencies 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 591 476 432 374 339 300 294 279 278 265 Frequency Graph 5.8 shows that the first word. third and fourth 58 (432-374) and fourth and fifth. and so on. the difference between the sixth and tenth words is only 35 (300 for the sixth word and 265 for the tenth).word is more specific and is used in relation to particular events. The fall then becomes less obvious. ‫ٓجبهاح‬. all the words above have a strong link to sport and are regularly related to sports matches. The top ten word frequencies are shown in more detail in Graph 5. 193 . had 476 occurrences. had the highest frequency with 591 occurrences. Graph 5. second and third 44 (476-432). ٍ‫هب‬. while the second word (‫ )ًوح‬is more general and may appear in all kinds of sports reports. sports results. In terms of semantics. ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. The graph also shows that the number of word occurrences falls slightly more clearly between the highest and the fifth word.

5.3.3 Word frequency in nouns

5.3.3.1 Word frequency by number

The high frequency list of 3,267 nouns shows that more singular words were used than duals and plurals. Within the first 3,267 words, the researcher found 1,528 singulars, 263 plurals and 44 duals. Table 5.33 shows that nine out of the top ten nouns were in the singular, the exception being ٖ٤‫الػج‬. The top ten singular and plural nouns are shown in Table 5.34.

Table 5.34: Top 10 singular and plural nouns in sports section
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Singular ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match) ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) ‫( ًوح‬ball) ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) ١‫( ٗبك‬club) ‫( الػت‬player) ‫( ارؾبك‬union) ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league) ٍٝ‫( أ‬first) Freq 591 476 432 339 300 294 279 278 265 250 Text 135 133 86 139 114 78 104 87 90 118 Rank 4 19 32 42 49 55 58 78 88 117 Plural ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) ‫بد‬٣‫( ٓجبه‬matches) ٛ‫( ٗوب‬points) ‫( ٓ٘بكَبد‬tournaments) ‫خ‬٣‫( أٗل‬clubs) ‫( ّجبة‬youth) ‫لاف‬ٛ‫( أ‬goals) ‫( أُؼبة‬games) ‫بد‬٤‫( رٖل‬qualifiers) ‫( كوم‬teams) Freq 374 191 140 121 107 101 99 78 72 64 Text 118 87 64 64 53 37 52 31 35 32

Table 5.34 shows the ten singular and plural nouns most frequently used in sport. It shows that all the top ten singular nouns were used more frequently than all the plurals, apart from the most frequently used plural noun (ٖ٤‫)الػج‬. This is also shown by the fact that the lowest singular noun (ٍٝ‫ )أ‬occurred more frequently than the second plural noun (‫بد‬٣‫)ٓجبه‬ with 250 and 191 occurrences respectively.

Only one plural word (ٖ٤‫ )الػج‬is in the „very high frequency‟ group (over 201 occurrences), while five others (‫بد‬٣‫ٓجبه‬, ٛ‫ٗوب‬, ‫ٓ٘بكَبد‬, ‫خ‬٣‫ أٗل‬and ‫ )ّجبة‬are in „moderate high frequency‟ (200-

194

101) and the others four in „low high frequency‟ (100-3). In contrast, all the top ten singular nouns are in the „very high frequency‟ group, with more than 201 occurrences each. The existence of the singular form of collective nouns such as ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬and ‫ٓ٘زقت‬, with 591 and 432 occurrences respectively, contributes to the domination of singular nouns over plurals.

Graph 5.9: Dispersion of singular, dual and plural nouns across frequency groups
1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1 (591-201) 2 (200-101) 3 (100-3) 15 0 1 28 0 5 44 257 Singular Dual Plural 1485

Graph 5.9 shows the number of nouns in the three frequency groups and confirms that singulars occurred more than duals and plurals in all groups. The biggest difference is in the third group (100-3), with a difference of 1,228 between occurrences of singulars and plurals and a difference of 1,441 occurrences between singulars and duals. There are no duals in groups 1 and 2.

Table 5.35: Mean of singular, dual and plural nouns
N Freq Mean Singular 1528 28381 18.574 Dual 44 396 9.000 Plural 263 3622 13.772

195

The mean in table 5.35 shows that singular nouns were used more than duals and plurals in sport. It shows that the differences in overall frequency of occurrence between the three types of word was very great, especially between singulars and duals.

1. Sound and broken plurals

The use of plural nouns was studied to determine whether broken or sound plurals are used more in sport sections. The results show 133 broken and 130 sound plurals in the 3,267 words. Although broken plurals were found more than sound plurals in terms of number of words, their mean shows the opposite (see Table 5.36).

Table 5.36: Mean of broken and sound plurals
Gender N Freq Mean Broken 133 1773 13.331 Sound 130 1814 13.954

Table 5.36 shows that the mean for broken plurals is lower than for sound plurals, although there were more of them, showing that broken plurals had a lower frequency rating than sound plurals, as shown in the frequency line.

Further analysis showed which kind of plural was used more often when both forms are available in Arabic. Plural nouns such as ‫هإٍبء‬, ‫إٔؾبة‬, َِٕٞٔٓ, ٕٞ٤‫ ػواه‬and ‫ ىٓالء‬were not analysed because they have only one plural form. Table 5.37 shows the findings.

196

Table 5.37: The use of broken and sound plurals in sports section
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Singular ٖ٣‫( رٔو‬exercise) ٛ‫( ْٗب‬activity) ‫( ٌِْٓخ‬problem) ‫( ىائو‬visitor) ‫جخ‬ٛٞٓ (talent) ‫( هائل‬pioneer) Broken Plural ٖ٣‫رٔبه‬ ‫أْٗطخ‬ ًَ‫ْٓب‬ ‫اه‬ٝ‫ى‬ ‫ت‬ٛ‫ا‬ٞٓ ‫اك‬ٝ‫ه‬ Freq 8 6 6 4 4 3 Sound Plural ‫٘بد‬٣‫رٔو‬ ‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬ ‫ٌْٓالد‬ ٕٝ‫ىائو‬ ‫جبد‬ٛٞٓ ٕٝ‫هائل‬ Freq 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 5.37 indicates a strong tendency in Arabic newspapers to use the broken plural noun rather than the sound plural. In fact, no sound plurals were chosen in the above examples, even though they are available for the words in question.

2. Masculine and feminine plurals

The researcher carried out an extensive analysis of the gender of plural forms, as in world affairs (see page 156). This analysis is divided into two parts: plurals in general and plurals indicating people. With regard to plurals in general, 334 the results show that feminine plurals (219 occurrences) were used more than masculine (47). The second analysis shows that all 47 masculine plurals referred to people, while only three of the 219 feminine plurals did (see Table 5.38).

334

Please refor to world affairs section for definition of general plural (see page 156).

197

Table 5.38: The top masculine and feminine plurals for people
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Masculine ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) ‫( ّجبة‬youths) ٍ‫( أثطب‬champions) ‫بء‬ٚ‫( أػ‬members) ٖ٤‫( ٓؾزوك‬professionals) ّ‫( ؽٌب‬referees) ٖ٤ُٝ‫( َٓئ‬officials) ٖ٤٤‫( ػواه‬Iraqis) ّٞ‫( ٗغ‬stars) ٖ٤‫( ٓلهث‬coaches) Freq 374 101 61 44 22 19 18 16 15 15 Feminine ‫لاد‬٤ٍ (ladies) ‫( الػجبد‬players) ‫( َٗبء‬women) Freq 20 10 3

Table 5.38 shows that the masculine plural was used more than the feminine to refer to people. However, it should be noted that the results do not clearly portray the situation because, in line with Arabic grammar, a number of females may be included in the masculine plural.

3. Dual nouns with singular equivalents

The researcher analysed dual nouns to discover whether the words in question were used in the singular or plural, as in world affairs (see page 157). The results show that out of 44 dual nouns that occurred a total of 396 times, only one ٕ‫( اُالػجب‬two players) was used with a singular verb. The noun is used in the sentence below:

... ٢‫ ٓوؽِخ اُزؼبك‬٢‫ي اُِنإ ٓب صال ك‬٣‫ك‬ٝ‫وى ك‬٤‫ث‬ٝ ٖ‫ث‬ٝ‫ٖ ه‬٣‫ وانالػثاٌ أه‬...

Here the dual noun (ٕ‫ )اُالػجب‬is used with the singular verb ٍ‫( ٓب ىا‬are still), showing that the Arabic media use the dual with a non-equivalent verb; the dual form would be ‫ٓب ىاال‬.335

335

This is without denying the possibility of typing mistake.

198

5.3.3.2 Word frequency by gender

The results show that, generally, masculine nouns were used more than feminine. Within the top 3,267 words, the researcher found 1,110 masculine and 728 feminine. The results are shown in Table 5.39.

Table 5.39: Top 10 masculine and feminine nouns in sports section
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 1 3 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Masculine ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) ١‫( ٗبك‬club) ‫( الػت‬player) ‫( ارؾبك‬union) ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league) ٍٝ‫( أ‬first) ‫لف‬ٛ (goal) Freq 591 432 374 300 294 279 278 265 250 238 Text 135 86 118 114 78 104 87 90 118 81 Rank 2 5 16 19 21 25 27 28 29 32 Feminine ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match) ‫( ًوح‬ball) ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫( ثط‬championship) ‫بد‬٣‫( ٓجبه‬matches) ٠ُٝ‫( أ‬first) ‫( ٗوطخ‬point) ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬group) ‫وخ‬٤‫( كه‬minute) ‫هح‬ٝ‫( ك‬round) ٛ‫( ٗوب‬points) Freq 476 339 208 191 179 172 163 155 146 140 Text 133 139 88 87 102 48 58 46 43 64

Table 5.39 shows that all the top ten masculine nouns were used more frequently than the feminine nouns with the exception of the two words (‫ ٓجبهاح‬and ‫ )ًوح‬at the top of the feminine list. This is also indicated by the fact that the tenth masculine noun (‫لف‬ٛ) was used more frequently than the third feminine noun (‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ )ثط‬with 238 and 208 occurrences respectively. This indicates the domination of masculine nouns over feminine. This is confirmed by the fact that all the masculine nouns on the above list are in the first (very high frequency) group, while only the top three feminine nouns are in that group. In addition, four words (ٖ٤‫الػج‬, ‫الػت‬, ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ ك‬and ٍٝ‫ )أ‬that occur in the above table do have feminine forms in Arabic, but the masculine forms are still used more often. Furthermore, the appearance on the list of ٖ٤‫ الػج‬and ‫ الػت‬indicates that there are more report about sportsmen than about sportswomen in Arabic newspapers. The results also show no

199

feminine noun can be referred to women as occurred in masculine for word ‫ الػت‬and ٖ٤‫الػج‬ in top 10 masculine and feminine nouns

Graph 5.10 gives more detail by gender of nouns that occurred more than two times.

Graph 5.10: Dispersion of masculine and feminine nouns across frequency groups
1200 1000 800 600 400 200 13 0 1 (591-201) 2 (200-101) 3 (100-3) 3 18 15 722 Masculine Feminine

1079

Graph 5.10 shows the number of nouns in three frequency groups, showing that masculine nouns were used more than feminine in all groups. The biggest difference occurs in the third group (100-3) where differences between them is 357 occurrences, while the smallest is in the second group (200-101), with a difference of only three.

Table 5.40: Mean of masculine and feminine nouns
N Freq Mean Masculine 1110 20832 18.768 Feminine 728 11504 15.802

The mean in table 5.40 shows that masculine nouns were used more than feminine in sport.

200

This prompts a more detailed comparison between masculine and feminine to establish which gender was used more in relation to people who shape sports events.336 Table 5.41 the five highest relevant words in each gender, after excluding all the proper nouns:

Table 5.41: Top 5 masculine nouns that refer to people and their feminine equivalents
No 1 2 3 4 5 Masculine ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) ‫( الػت‬player) ‫( ٓلهة‬coach) ٌ٤‫( هئ‬laeader) ‫( ّجبة‬youth) Freq 374 279 226 189 101 Feminine ‫الػجبد‬ ‫الػجخ‬ ‫ٓلهثخ‬ ‫َخ‬٤‫هئ‬ ‫ّبثبد‬ Freq 10 24 2 1

Table 5.41 shows that all the masculine nouns were used much more than their feminine equivalents. The word ‫ الػجخ‬was the nearest to its masculine equivalent in terms of frequency with a difference of 255 occurrences (279-24). Although the table shows a clear domination of masculine over feminine in sports news, one noun, ٖ٤‫الػج‬, may be said not to be made up of 100% male players, as the word may also include females, in line with Arabic grammatical usage. The table also indicates the total domination of males in sports leadership, with no occurrence of the word ‫َخ‬٤‫هئ‬.

5.3.3.3 Word frequency of proper nouns

The purpose of this analysis is to find out which proper nouns are directly related to sports news. The period of data collection means that more attention was given to certain sporting events such as the Asian Cup, and football league championships in Arab and European countries, as well as to other sports such as rugby, tennis, formula one and American

336

For more detail, see the similar analysis in world affairs (page 160).

201

basketball.337 The results show that no individual names occurred with high frequency, specifically in groups 1 or 2. The names that did occur frequently were ‫( ػجل‬227 occurrences) , ‫( ٓؾٔل‬176) and ‫( أؽٔل‬118), but these names refer to several individuals, in contrast to the name ً‫ ػجب‬in world affairs, which referred to ً‫ك ػجب‬ٞٔ‫ٓؾ‬, the Palestinian leader. Table 5.42 shows the most frequently used proper nouns.

Table 5.42: Example of top 10 proper nouns in sports section
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Word ‫( ٓؾٔل‬Muhammad) ٢ِ‫„( ػ‬Ali) ‫( اُؼوام‬Iraq) ٢ِٛ‫( األ‬al-Ahli) ‫( اُيٓبُي‬al-Zamalik) ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( آ‬Asia) ‫هًب‬ٞ٣‫ٓب‬/‫ٍوهَطخ‬/ٌ٤‫ز‬٤‫ث‬/‫ل‬٣‫( لاير ٓله‬Real) ‫( اإلٓبهاد‬Emirates) ِ٤‫( اُغ‬al-Jaysh) ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫( ا‬al-Hilal) Freq 176 100 91 84 69 66 62 56 56 54 Rank 24 56 64 69 100 107 120 139 140 147

Table 5.42 shows the example of top ten proper nouns, including the name of places, individuals and sports organisations or clubs. Five are names of football clubs: ٢ِٛ‫( األ‬84 occurrences), ‫( اُيٓبُي‬69), ‫( لاير‬62), ِ٤‫( اُغ‬56) and ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫( ا‬54). Two are the names of individuals: ‫( ٓؾٔل‬176) and ٢ِ‫( ػ‬100), the first and second on the list. Two are names of countries: ‫( اُؼوام‬91) and ‫( اإلٓبهاد‬56), and one is the name of a continent, ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( آ‬66). Most of these nouns can be directly related to particular sports: the five football clubs, ‫ اُؼوام‬who won the Asian Cup in 2007, and ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫آ‬. However, three words do not indicate any specific sport: the personal names (‫ ٓؾٔل‬and ٢ِ‫ )ػ‬and ‫اإلٓبهاد‬.

337

For more detail, see page 113-114.

202

43: Example of phrases in sports section Word ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ (league) No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 Phrase ‫ أُٔزبى‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬premier league) )‫خ‬٤‫ُخ َٗج‬ٝ‫ (اٍْ اُل‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ ٍ‫ أثطب‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬champions league) ‫خ) أُٔزبى‬٤‫ُخ َٗج‬ٝ‫ (اٍْ اُل‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ ٢ِ‫ ٓؾ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬local league) ‫ اُ٘قجخ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬elite league) ٠ُٝ‫ اُلهعخ األ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬first class league) ٢ِ٤ٛ‫ رؤ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬qualification league) ‫اء‬ٞٙ‫ األ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬premier league) ‫ اُلهعخ أُٔزبىح‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬premier league) َٛ‫ اُزؤ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬qualification league) ُْ‫( ًؤً اُؼب‬World Cup) ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( ًؤً آ‬Asian Cup) ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ٥‫( ًؤً األْٓ ا‬Asian Cup of Nations) ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً أ‬European Cup) ‫خ‬٤‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً األْٓ األ‬European Nations Cup) ‫ب‬٤‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً أ‬European Cup) ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً أْٓ أ‬European Cup of Nations) ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً أْٓ اكو‬African Nations Cup) ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫ًؤً األْٓ اإلكو‬ ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً اكو‬Africa Cup) ٢‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً أثطبٍ اكو‬African Champions Cup) ٢‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً االرؾبك األ‬European Champions League) ٢‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً االرؾبك اإلكو‬African Club Cup) ١ٞ٤ٍ٥‫( ًؤً االرؾبك ا‬Asian Club Cup) ٌ٤‫ل‬٣‫( ًؤً ك‬Davis Cup) ‫( ًؤً ٓبٍزوى‬Masters Cup) ‫ثو‬ٍٞ ً‫( ًؤ‬Super Cup) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬final round) ٍٝ‫ه األ‬ٝ‫( اُل‬first round) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ٖٗق ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬semi final round) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هثغ ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬quarter final round) ٢ٍ‫ه األٍب‬ٝ‫( اُل‬first round) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هجَ ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬semi final round) ‫( هًِخ عياء‬penalty kick) ‫( ٓ٘طوخ اُغياء‬penalty area) ‫وثخ عياء‬ٙ (penalty shot) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاد ا‬/‫( أُجبهاح‬friendly match) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫هح ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬friendly round) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫( أُوبثِخ ا‬friendly meeting) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ُخ ا‬ٞ‫( اُجط‬friendly championship) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫بهح ا‬٣‫( ى‬friendly visit) Freq 51 47 41 18 8 7 5 2 2 2 1 31 25 7 4 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 7 3 2 4 2 2 17 14 5 4 1 1 22 8 7 14 6 3 2 1 Total 295 ً‫( ًؤ‬cup) 90 ‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ (round) 45 ‫عياء‬ (penalty) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ا‬ (friendly) 37 26 203 .34 Word frequency of phrases Further analysis shows specific phrases that are clearly relevant to sports events. Table 5.3.5. as shown in Table 5.43.

338 The details of the discussion by country can be found on page 291. The phrase ُْ‫ ًؤً اُؼب‬was the most common. with 31 frequencies. For example. such as the Asian Cup. The table shows that the word ٌ‫ دوس‬was used in phrases related to various types of sport. ‫ أُٔزبى‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ ك‬in one country and ٠ُٝ‫ اُلهعخ األ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ ك‬in another. the European Cup and the Africa Cup. newspapers used phrases with or without ْٓ‫أ‬.43 shows 11 words used in phrases in sport sections.ٖ٤ٓ‫أ‬ (trustee) ‫( ًوح‬ball) ‫ٕبؽت‬ (owner) ٍ‫ثل‬ (change) ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫اُغ‬ (stage) َ٣‫ٓزن‬ (bottom) 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬secretary) ّ‫ٖ ػب‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬general secretary) ٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫( األ‬bursar) ‫م‬ٝ‫ٖ ُِٖ٘ل‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬treasurer) ‫ٖ ٓلهثخ‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬trainer) ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫( ًوح ػو‬cross ball) ‫ِخ‬٣ٞٛ ‫( ًوح‬long ball) ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫( ًوح أه‬low ball) ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫( ًوح هأ‬header) ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫( ًوح أٓب‬forward ball) ‫خ‬ٙ‫م اُؼبه‬ٞ‫( ًوح ك‬over crossbar ball) ‫بُخ‬ٙ ‫( ًوح‬stray ball) )ْ‫( ٕبؽت أُوًي (هه‬league place) ٗ‫( ٕبؽت األه‬home team) ‫لف‬ُٜ‫( ٕبؽت ا‬goal scorer) ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫( ٕبؽت اُن‬gold medal holder) ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ا‬ٝ (extra) ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ٖٓ ا‬ٝ ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ػٖ ا‬ٝ ‫بة‬٣‫ُخ اإل‬ٞ‫( ع‬second round second) ‫وح‬٤‫ُخ األف‬ٞ‫( اُغ‬final stage) ‫وح‬٤‫ُخ هجَ األف‬ٞ‫( اُغ‬semi final stage) ‫بة‬ٛ‫ُخ اُن‬ٞ‫( ع‬first round) ‫ػبد‬ٞٔ‫ت أُغ‬٤‫ُخ رور‬ٞ‫( ع‬group stage) ‫ت‬٤‫َ رور‬٣‫( ٓزن‬bottom ranking) ٍٝ‫َ عل‬٣‫( ٓزن‬bottom of the table) 12 5 3 1 1 10 2 2 2 1 1 1 12 3 2 1 13 1 1 3 3 2 1 1 4 2 21 19 18 15 10 6 Table 5.g. followed by the Asian Cup (25). It should be noted that variations exist for the names of several football championships. Newspapers used the word ‫ كأط‬in phrases to express the official name of championships in various sports. including some that differentiate between equivalent stages in different countries. as in ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ ًؤً آ‬and ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ٥‫ًؤً األْٓ ا‬.338 e. 204 . especially football.

and for treasurer. ٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫( األ‬three occurrences). the first was used more often. with the variation ‫وثخ عياء‬ٙ (seven occurences) less used than ‫( هًِخ عياء‬22 occurrences). the phrase ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ ًوح ػو‬being the most frequent (ten occurrences). The phrases ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ٖٗق ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬and ٢‫بئ‬ُٜٔ‫ه هجَ ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬were used in different newspapers with the same meaning. Some newspapers considered the „friendly match‟ a normal meeting. but on the early stages too. The phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫هح ا‬ٝ‫اُل‬ indicated team involvement in more than one match. but the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاد ا‬/‫ أُجبهاح‬was used more frequently (14 occurrences). ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫هح ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬and ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ أُوبثِخ ا‬to indicate „friendlies‟. The word ‫ ودَح‬was used in various phrases such as ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاح ا‬. though this phrase was sometimes also used with a particle. while the second occurred only once. The word ‫ صاحة‬was used in sports news to indicate the „owner‟ or „holder‟ of a competition place (‫ٕبؽت أُوًي‬. home team (ٗ‫)ٕبؽت األه‬. The word ٍُ‫ أي‬was used to indicate a person responsible for a particular post in a sports organisation. and so the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُوبثِخ ا‬ was used. the scorer (‫لف‬ُٜ‫)ٕبؽت ا‬. ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫ أ‬was more often used (12 occurrences). ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫)ٕبؽت اُن‬. ٖ‫ ػ‬or ٖٓ (once each). The word ‫انجىنح‬ 205 . There were phrases that indicate „secretary‟ (‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫ أ‬and ّ‫ٖ ػب‬٤ٓ‫ )أ‬and two for „treasurer‟ (٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫ األ‬and ‫م‬ٝ‫ٖ ُِٖ٘ل‬٤ٓ‫)أ‬. The word ‫ جضاء‬was used regularly in phrases for „penalty kick‟ and „penalty area‟. with five occurrences. However. the small difference in frequency between ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬and ٍٝ‫ه األ‬ٝ‫ اُل‬shows that the newspapers did not only focus on the final stages in sports competitions. similar to ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاد ا‬. The word ‫ تذل‬was used 13 times in the phrase ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ا‬ٝ to refer to „extra time‟. In addition. For secretary. The word ‫ كشج‬was used in many phrases to indicate the state of play.The word ‫ دوس‬was normally used to refer to stages in sports competitions.

1. was used in two phrases to indicate a competitor at the bottom of the table. The use of this phrase for the competition stages shows its similarity to phrases including the word ‫ه‬ٝ‫ ك‬with the same meaning. The last word.3. 5. Generally speaking. the phrase ‫ت‬٤‫َ رور‬٣‫ ٓزن‬being used more than ٍٝ‫َ عل‬٣‫ ٓزن‬with four and two occurrences respectively. This list does not include dual and plural forms if their singulars were already analysed. All these nouns are listed in Table 5. Table 5.5 Word frequency in other noun categories This part is divided into three sub-sections.44: Collective nouns by frequency No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Noun ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬group) ‫و‬٤ٛ‫( عٔب‬crowds) ْٓ‫( أ‬nations) ١‫و‬٤ٛ‫( عٔب‬crowds) ‫( ّؼت‬nation) ‫خ‬٣‫و‬٤ٛ‫( عٔب‬crowd) Freq 591 432 163 39 26 13 11 8 No 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Noun ‫خ‬٤‫( عٔبػ‬team) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ك‬ٝ (delegations) ٢ٓٞ‫( ه‬national) ١‫( ػٌَو‬military) ٢‫( ّؼج‬popular) ‫( ٓغزٔغ‬social) ‫خ‬٣‫( ػٌَو‬military) Freq 8 8 7 2 4 4 1 206 . ‫يرزَم‬.44. Collective nouns The results show that 15 collective nouns on the list were used with various frequencies.was used in phrases related either to stages in a sporting competition or games in the first or second round. the table shows that some words were used with others in phrases reflecting sporting events.3.

the top word in the frequency list is a collective noun (‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬591 occurrences). summmarised in Table 5.45 lists 16 comparatives used in sport sections. are in the first group (very high frequency). The regularity of collective noun usage in sport sections is also shown by the fact that the second collective noun in the table (‫)ٓ٘زقت‬. 207 . 46 more than the next on the list.45: Comparatives by frequency No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Noun َٚ‫( أك‬better) ‫( أًضو‬more) ‫( أًجو‬bigger) َ‫( أه‬less than) ‫( أثوى‬more prominent) ْٛ‫( أ‬more important) ٠ِ‫( أؿ‬more valuable) ‫( أؿِت‬more often) Freq 105 59 26 20 15 15 6 5 No 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Noun ‫( أهوة‬nearer) ٠ٖ‫( أه‬more distant) ٟٞ‫( أه‬stronger) َٔ‫( أع‬more beautiful) َٖ‫( أؽ‬better) ‫( أفطو‬more dangerous) ْ‫( أػظ‬greater) ٠ِ‫( أػ‬taller) Freq 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 Table 5. and shows the clear domination of َٚ‫أك‬. Table 5. bearing in mind that the noun ْٓ‫ أ‬refers here to football championships. being words that occurred more than 200 times. European or Africa Cup. it can be said that the first six collective nouns are directly related to sports. there are certain comparatives that are used in higher frequencies than others in sport. either the Asia. 2.Table 5.45.44 lists 15 collective nouns that occurred between 591 times and once. In conclusion. as well as the first noun. Comparatives The results show 16 comparatives. Thus. with 105 occurrences.

‫اٗغبى‬/‫لف‬ُٜ‫ ا‬٠ِ‫( )أؿ‬six times). such as ٕ‫( كوٍب‬five times) and ‫و‬٤‫بعْ فط‬ٜٓ (once). while other metaphors occurred from six times to once. The word ّٞ‫ٗغ‬/ْ‫ ٗغ‬was the highest frequency metaphor with 66 occurrences. Nouns used metaphorically Table 5.3. the newspapers used the comparative ٠ِ‫( أؿ‬most valuable. It was used to indicate the most important player in the team. This is followed by the word ‫ إٔؾبة‬which mean „possessors‟ (13 occurrences) ‫ػ‬ٝ‫( ه‬11). The phrase ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫اُؾٖبٕ األ‬ indicated „an unimportant player in a team‟ and ‫( اُؾوة‬war) speaks of the battle with the opposing team. and the one the team depends on. indicating that sports news uses many nouns as metaphors.46: The use of metaphor in sports section No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Metaphor ‫َجىو‬/‫( َجى‬star) ‫جخ‬ُٛٞٔ‫ا‬/ٗ‫( أصحاب األه‬owner) (spirit) /‫خ‬٤ُ‫هزب‬/‫خ‬٤‫عٔبػ‬/‫خ‬٣ٞ٘‫ ٓؼ‬/‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ها‬/‫سوح أُ٘بكَخ‬ ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫َٓئ‬/‫اٗزٖبه‬/‫ن‬٣‫اُلو‬ ‫ اُْؼت‬/١‫ اُ٘بك‬/ُٖٛٞ‫( أتُاء ا‬sons) ‫ اٗغبى‬/‫لف‬ُٜ‫( أغهً ا‬most valuable) ٍُ‫ٖ َظُف‬٤‫لك‬ٛ (clean) ‫ اُجِل‬/‫أُ٘زقت‬/‫( فشساٌ اُؼوة‬knight) ‫ األوساق‬ِٜ‫ ف‬/‫( األوساق اُواثؾخ‬papers) ‫ االفزجبهاد‬/‫ف‬ٝ‫اُظو‬/‫اُووػخ‬/‫( ضىء اُ٘٘بئظ‬light) ‫ ٓ٘طوخ انخطش‬/‫( ٓوؽِخ‬danger) ‫خ‬٤‫ اُغبٓؼخ اُؼوث‬/٢٘ٛٝ ‫( نىاء‬flag) ‫( انحصاٌ األسىد‬black horse) ‫بعْ خطُش‬ٜٓ (dangerous) ٢٤‫ؾ‬٣ ‫ل‬ٙ ‫( أػِٖ انحشب‬war) Freq 66 13 11 6 6 6 5 4 4 3 2 1 1 1 Table 5. the newspapers used other less frequent metaphors to celebrate the qualities of a player or team. 208 . Besides the word ّٞ‫ٗغ‬/ْ‫ٗغ‬. In order to indicate the importance of matches or results.46 shows (in bold) nouns that were used metaphorically.

48). However.5. with 276 for each. with 204 occurrences.4 Word frequency in verbs 5. ٕ‫ ًب‬was the most used of all verbs.3.47 shows that. with regard to perfect tense verbs. In detailed analysis.838 times) than the imperfect verbs (1. in terms of frequency.4. ‫كبى‬.47 shows the top ten perfect and imperfect verbs in sport sections. the concordance tool in Wordsmith showed that only the imperfect verbs ‫ِؼت‬٣ and ٢‫ِزو‬٣ must have a human subject. including people.47: Top 10 perfect and imperfect verbs in sports section No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 17 31 59 60 90 103 111 141 230 233 Perfect ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ٍ‫( هب‬said) َ‫( ٍغ‬scored) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ‫( كبى‬won) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( أًل‬confirmed) ‫( ؽون‬achieved) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ‫( ُؼت‬played) Freq 204 142 98 98 72 68 64 56 37 37 Text 118 87 44 68 50 55 45 38 29 33 Rank 105 137 193 214 273 348 382 417 418 427 Imperfect ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) ّ‫( روب‬held) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) ٌٖٔ٣ (could) ٗٞ‫ق‬٣ (take into) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) ْٚ‫( ر‬join) Freq 68 57 42 39 33 27 25 23 23 22 Text 48 41 35 28 26 20 20 22 21 17 Table 5.1 Verb frequency by tense The results show the same number of perfect and imperfect verbs in the top 3.970 times) (see Table 5. the table shows that ٌٕٞ٣ was the most used (68 occurrences). ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. Regarding imperfect verbs. with 142 occurrences. Table 5. while seven of the perfect verbs take a human subject: ٍ‫هب‬. Most of the high frequency imperfect verbs may have anything as their subject. It also shows that all ten imperfect verbs are in the third group (100-3 occurrences). ‫أًل‬.267 words. ‫ ؽون‬and ‫ُؼت‬. the only verb in the „very high frequency‟ group. Table 5. َ‫ٍغ‬.3. perfect verbs were used more (2. 209 . The verb ٍ‫هب‬ falls into the second group.

48: Mean of perfect and imperfect verbs N Freq Mean Perfect 276 2839 10. 210 . with a difference of two occurrences.137 The mean in table 5. However. In group 3 the imperfect occurred more than perfect.286 Imperfect 276 1970 7. the perfect has a larger mean difference. showing that perfect verbs occurred more than imperfect verbs in groups 1 and 2.11: Dispersion of perfect and imperfect verbs across frequency groups 300 250 200 150 100 50 1 0 1 (591-201) 2 (200-101) 3 (100-3) 0 1 Perfect Imperfect 274 276 0 Graph 5. with one verb each.48.11 shows the distribution across three groups. although the number of perfect and imperfect verbs is the same. Table 5. indicating that perfect tense verbs were used in higher frequencies than imperfect verbs.Graph 5. the differences are so slight that no significance can be attached to them.

Table 5. As shown in Table 5. but.49 shows the findings.47 above. Auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs The appearance of verbs such as ٕ‫ ًب‬and ّ‫ هب‬in Table 5.1. the lowest auxiliary verb (ْٚ‫ )ر‬is lower than the lowest nonauxiliary verb (‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣). Table 5. the highest auxiliary verb (ٕ‫ )ًب‬is higher than the highest non-auxiliary verb (ٍ‫)هب‬. 211 . as in world affairs (see page 169).47 prompted the researcher to analyse the verbs in terms of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs.49 shows that there was no great difference between the categories.49: Top 10 auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs in sports section No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 17 60 105 141 193 214 230 273 382 427 Auxiliary ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ‫( ؽون‬achieved) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) ّ‫( روب‬held) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٌٖٔ٣ (could) ْٚ‫( ر‬join) Freq 204 98 68 56 42 39 37 33 25 22 Text 118 68 48 38 35 28 29 26 20 17 Rank 31 59 90 103 111 137 233 348 417 418 Non-auxiliary ٍ‫( هب‬said) َ‫( ٍغ‬recorded) ‫( كبى‬won) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( أًل‬confirmed) ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) ‫( ُؼت‬played) ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) ٗٞ‫ق‬٣ (take into) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) Freq 142 98 72 68 64 57 37 27 23 23 Text 87 44 50 55 45 41 33 20 22 21 Table 5. auxiliary verbs have a major place among the high frequency verbs in sport. with 204 and 142 occurrences respectively. with 22 and 23 occurrences respctively.

ٌٕٞ٣. while verbs such as ٕ‫ًب‬. with ‫( ًبٗذ‬98 occurrences) the highest frequency feminine verb and ‫غ‬ٚٗ (6 occurrences) the highest frequency neuter verb. ‫أًل‬.3. The researcher considers the verbs َ‫ٍغ‬. Differences between subject genders also emerge from an analysis of the verbs specific to sport. The highest frequency masculine verb was ٕ‫ ًب‬with 204 occurrences. ٍ‫هب‬. ‫ ؽون‬and ْ‫ ر‬are considered general because they are widely found in other types of writing. The list contains 390 verbs with masculine subjects. feminine and neuter subjects R 17 31 59 90 103 105 111 137 141 230 Masculine ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ٍ‫( هب‬said) َ‫ٍغ‬ (recorded) ‫( كبى‬won) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ‫أًل‬ (confirmed) ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) ‫ؽون‬ (achieved) ْ‫( ر‬completed) F 204 142 98 72 68 68 64 57 56 37 T 118 87 44 50 55 48 45 41 38 29 R 60 193 214 410 422 427 449 499 571 710 Feminine ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) ّ‫( روب‬held) ‫لد‬ّٜ (witnessed) ‫ٔذ‬٤‫( أه‬held) ْٚ‫( ر‬join) ‫( عود‬ran) ‫( رِؼت‬play) ‫رْبهى‬ (participate) ‫( ر٘طِن‬rush) F 98 42 39 23 22 22 21 19 17 14 T 68 35 28 21 20 17 17 10 11 12 R 1727 1763 1776 2107 2348 2392 2469 2477 2579 3173 Neuter ‫غ‬ٚٗ (put) ‫( أهعغ‬back) ٍٞ‫( أه‬say) ‫( أػوف‬know) ‫( ػِٔ٘ب‬knew) ‫( ً٘ذ‬to be) ‫ل‬٣‫( ٗو‬want) ‫( ٗ٘زظو‬wait) ‫( أّؼو‬feel) ٌٖٔ‫( ٗز‬be able) F 6 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 T 2 4 3 3 4 3 4 4 2 3 Table 5.4. ‫ كبى‬and ‫ِؼت‬٣ as specific verbs because they particularly relevant for sports news.49 shows the top ten verbs for each category. ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. in the first 3. 212 . 146 verbs with feminine subjects and 16 verbs with neuter subjects. The table shows that specific verbs with masculine subjects (َ‫ٍغ‬.50: Top 10 verbs with masculine. verbs with masculine subjects were used more than verbs with feminine and neuter subjects.50 shows that masculine verbs generally were used more frequenctly that feminine and neuter verbs. Table 5.267 words. Table 5.2 Word frequency by gender of subject The results show that.5.

feminine and neuter subjects 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 1 0 1 (591-201) 2 (201-101) 3 (100-3) 0 0 1 0 0 16 146 288 Verbs with masculine subject Verbs with feminine subject Verbs with neuter subject Graph 5. a far lower score than the top ten verbs with masculine and feminine subjects. There are no feminine or neuter verbs in the first and second groups. The analysis also shows that neuter verbs occurred with the same frequency in singular and plural (five verbs each). Regarding verbs with a neuter subject.12 shows the distribution across frequency groups of verbs with masculine. ‫كبى‬.98 occurrences.12 shows that masculine verbs were used more than feminine and neuter verbs in all groups. 57) were used more than those with feminine subjects (‫لد‬ّٜ. see page 170. feminine and neuter subjects used in sport.12: Dispersion of verbs with masculine. ‫رِؼت‬. Unlike masculine and feminie verbs. 72 and ‫ِؼت‬٣. 339 For an explanation of what is meant here by „neuter‟. all verbs with neuter subjects had human subjects.339 the most frequent was ‫غ‬ٚٗ with six occurrences. 19 and ‫رْبهى‬. 17). 213 . 23 occurrences. Graph 5. Graph 5.

. . Verb and subject gender agreement The researcher analysed several verbs to discover whether masculine verbs were used with feminine subjects in sport.. 214 . 1.51: Mean of verbs with masculine.Table 5. . 1. ٖ٣‫ه اُل‬ٞٗ ‫وف أُلهة‬ٛ ٖٓ ‫ وسُرى يؼاَُرها‬...125 The mean in table 5... ‫بد‬٤ٙ‫ب‬٣‫ ه‬207ٝ ‫ ْٓبهًب‬671 ٍ‫ أُوح ٖٓ فال‬ٙ‫ن‬ٛ ‫ هل َكىٌ يشاسكح ٖٓو‬. In this sentence the feminine noun ‫٘خ‬٣‫( ٓؼب‬observation) is used with the masculine verb ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete). The results show the occurrence of this phenomenon.459 Neuter 16 66 4.51 shows that masculine verbs were used more than feminine and neuter verbs in sport. In this sentence the feminine noun ‫( ْٓبهًخ‬participation) is used with the masculine verb ٌٕٞ٣..298 Feminine 146 1235 8. feminine and neuter subjects Gender N Freq Mean Masculine 390 3626 9.. 2. as in the following examples.

52 lists the top ten action and non-action verbs. Action and non-action verbs The researcher found that action verbs were used more than the non-action verbs in the first 3.4. Table 5. However. .. with 282 action verbs and 270 non-action verbs. 1..3.3 Word frequency in terms of semantics As discussed in world affairs.3.267 words. In this sentence the feminine noun ‫ح‬ٞ‫( كػ‬call) is used with the masculine verb ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete). (see page 173) the focus of this analysis is on action and non-action verbs. 5.. Table 5. application of the concordance tool showed that some of the action verbs were used metaphorically.. scored) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) ّ‫( روب‬held) ‫( ُؼت‬played) ‫( ربثغ‬followed) ‫( هبك‬led) ّ‫( رول‬advanced) ٗ‫( فب‬took into) ّ‫( هل‬forwarded) Freq 98 68 57 39 37 34 30 27 27 27 Text 44 55 41 28 33 29 19 23 23 21 Rank 17 31 60 90 105 111 141 193 230 250 Non-Action ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) ٍ‫( هب‬said) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) ‫( كبى‬won) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) ‫( أًل‬confirmed) ‫( ؽون‬achieved) ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ‫( ٗغؼ‬succeeded) Freq 204 142 98 72 68 64 56 42 37 35 Text 118 87 68 50 48 45 38 35 29 28 215 . ٞ‫ظ‬ٞ٣ ‫م‬ٝ‫ كبه‬٠ُٝ‫ْ األ‬٤ٌ‫و اُزؾ‬٤‫ سُرى دػىج فج‬ٚٗ‫ أ‬.52: Top 10 action and non-action verbs in sports section No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Rank 59 103 137 214 233 256 297 332 336 343 Action َ‫( ٍغ‬recorded.

the researcher concluded that the high level of occurrences of non-action verbs can be related to presence among them of the auxiliary verb ٕ‫ ًب‬and its variants (ٕ‫ًب‬. the top two verbs (ٕ‫ ًب‬and ٍ‫)هب‬. although there were more different action verbs than non-action verbs in the top 3. 216 . ٌٕٞ٣ and ٌٕٞ‫)ر‬. In addition. all of which are action verbs in their literal meanings. However.267 words. the results show that all the action verbs occurred fewer than 100 times. This is confirmed by the fact that the lowest frequency for the top ten non-action verbs is 35 occurrences. The most specific verbs were ‫ِؼت‬٣ and ‫ُؼت‬. which indicates clearly that the corpus is about sport. with 98 occurrences.53 shows four examples of action verbs used metaphorically in sport.Table 5. compared with 27 for action verbs. which occurred the same number of times as the third highest non-action verb (ٕ‫)ًب‬. with 98 occurrences. 2. Verbs used literally and metaphorically a) Action verbs used metaphorically Table 5. Thus.52 shows that the most used action verb was َ‫ٍغ‬. which occur 204 and 142 times respectively. had higher frequencies than the highest action verb (َ‫)ٍغ‬. With regard to non-action verbs.53: Example of action verbs used metaphorically No 1 2 3 4 5 Verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( أّبه‬pointed) ‫( عبء‬came) ‫( عود‬ran) ‫لد‬ّٜ (witnessed) Frequency 68 26 26 21 23 Action Metaphor 68 26 26 21 23 Table 5. ‫ًبٗذ‬. there were more non-action verbs in the top ten verbs.

b) Action verbs used both literally and metaphorically Table 5. the exceptions being the three verbs َٖ٣. all derivatives of َٕٝ. َٕٝ and َٕ‫ا‬ٞ٣. showing that most were used more in a metaphorical sense than literally. Two of them occurred more in a literal sense than as metaphors and one was used equally in both senses. 217 .54: Example of action verbs used both literally and metaphorically No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Verb ‫( هكغ‬raised) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) ‫( ػبك‬returned) ٜ‫( ٍو‬fell) َٖ٣ (arrive) َٕٝ (arrived) َٕ‫ا‬ٞ٣ (continue) ‫وكغ‬٣ (raise) Freq 25 23 18 14 14 13 13 10 Action 3 8 5 1 7 7 7 1 Metaphor 22 14 13 13 7 6 6 9 The examples in Table 5.54 are of action verbs that were used both literally and metaphorically.

Table 5. Other semanic aspects of verbs a) Verbs with one semantic meaning The researcher analysed families of verbs that tend to indicate similar meanings.55: Verb frequency by semantic family No 1 Meaning Speaking No 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 Verb ٍ‫( هب‬said) ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (said) ‫( رؾلس‬spoke) ٌِْ‫( ر‬spoke) ‫( كبى‬won) ‫( ؽون‬achieved) ‫( ٗغؼ‬succeeded) ‫( رـِت‬overcame) ‫ؾون‬٣ (achieve) ‫ى‬ٞ‫ل‬٣ (win) ‫٘غؼ‬٣ (succeed) ‫زـِت‬٣ (overcome) ‫( أؽوى‬achieved) َٖ‫( ؽ‬obtained) َٖ‫ؾ‬٣ (obtain) ٍ‫( ٗب‬gained) ‫ؾوى‬٣ (achieve) ٍ‫٘ب‬٣ (gain) ‫ل‬ّٜ (witnessed) ٟ‫و‬٣ (see) ‫ل‬ْٜ٣ (witness) ٟ‫( هأ‬saw) ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) ِٖ‫ؼ‬٣ (announce) ‫( أفجو‬informed) ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣ (face) ٚ‫اع‬ٝ (faced) َ‫وبث‬٣ (encounter) ٠‫( اُزو‬met) َ‫( هبث‬encountered) ‫( أًل‬confirmed) ‫ئًل‬٣ (confirm) ‫( أصجذ‬affirmed) ‫ضجذ‬٣ (affirm) ‫( ٓ٘ؼ‬awarded) ‫ٔ٘ؼ‬٣ (award) Frequency 142 8 7 1 72 56 35 17 12 10 7 2 34 20 15 9 8 3 13 10 8 1 19 10 2 27 16 7 4 2 2 64 7 3 1 11 7 2 Achievement 3 Gain 4 Watching 5 Announcement 6 Sporting encounter 7 Affirmation 8 Awarding 218 . as in world affairs (see page 176).3.55 shows the results Table 5.

the verbs ‫ل‬ْٜ٣/‫ل‬ّٜ with 21 occurrences (13+8) were used more than ٟ‫و‬٣/ٟ‫هأ‬. with six occurrences being shown by the concordance to convey other meanings. For verbs of witnessing. For verbs of encounter. ‫ؾوى‬٣/‫ أؽوى‬were used more with 42 occurrences (34+8) than َٖ‫ؾ‬٣/َٖ‫ ؽ‬and ٍ‫٘ب‬٣/ٍ‫ٗب‬. as in ‫اُ٘غبػ‬/‫ى‬ٞ‫ؽون اُل‬. For verbs of awarding. For verbs of affirmation. ‫٘ظو‬٣/‫ ٗظو‬did not occur at all in the corpus. ٢‫ِزو‬٣/٠‫ اُزو‬with 29 occurrences (27+2) were used more frequently than ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣/ٚ‫اع‬ٝ and َ‫وبث‬٣/َ‫هبث‬.55 shows the verbs used in the contexts indicated in the „meaning‟ column. For verbs of announcing. ‫ئًل‬٣/‫ أًل‬with 71 occurrences (64+7) were used more frequently than ‫ضجذ‬٣/‫أصجذ‬. For verbs 219 . For verbs of achievement. they were used to convey a similar meaning. ‫ى‬ٞ‫ل‬٣/‫ كبى‬were used most with 82 occurrences (72+10). it should be noted that ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣/ٚ‫اع‬ٝ were not always used as synonyms for َ‫وبث‬٣/َ‫ هبث‬and ٢‫ِزو‬٣/٠‫اُزو‬. And another synonym. ‫ٔ٘ؼ‬٣/‫ ٓ٘ؼ‬with 18 occurrences (11+7) were used more frequently than ٢‫ؼط‬٣/٠‫أػط‬. For verbs of speaking.9 Advancing over other competitors 10 End 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 ٠‫( أػط‬gave) ٢‫ؼط‬٣ (give) ّ‫( رول‬advanced) ّ‫زول‬٣ (advance) ‫زٖله‬٣ (lead) ‫( رٖله‬led) ‫م‬ٞ‫زل‬٣ (excel) ‫م‬ٞ‫( رل‬excelled) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٠ٜ‫( اٗز‬ended) ٢ٜ‫٘ز‬٣ (end) ْ‫قزز‬٣ (finish) ْ‫( افزز‬finished) 7 2 27 11 10 8 6 2 37 33 13 9 7 3 Table 5. However. the table shows that ٍٞ‫و‬٣/ٍ‫ هب‬were used most with 150 occurrences (142+8) and ٌِْ‫ز‬٣/ٌِْ‫ ر‬least (only once). Although the verbs ‫ؾون‬٣/‫ ؽون‬are not synonymous with ‫ى‬ٞ‫ل‬٣/‫كبى‬. ِٖ‫ؼ‬٣/ِٖ‫ أػ‬with 29 occurrences (19+10) were used more frequently than ‫قجو‬٣/‫أفجو‬. For verbs of gaining.

indicating that sports news is more concerned with positive subjects. sports victories and so on. such as competition winners. the concordance indicates that the high frequency of ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬is due to its being a general applicable in a variety of situations as compared with the other two verbs. However. analysis was carried out to investigate the use of language style to convey positive and negative meanings.56 shows the results. Table 5. ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬with 70 occurrences (37+33) were used more frequently than ٢ٜ‫٘ز‬٣/٠ٜ‫ اٗز‬and ْ‫قزز‬٣/ْ‫افزز‬. ّ‫زول‬٣/ّ‫ رول‬with 38 occurrences (27+11) were used more frequently than ‫زٖله‬٣/‫ رٖله‬and ‫م‬ٞ‫زل‬٣/‫م‬ٞ‫رل‬. which are more specific to certain contexts. For verbs of ending. b) Verbs with positive and negative meanings As in world affairs (see page 178). failures and frustations. This shows that some verbs were used more frequently than others within the same semantic family in sport.56 shows that verbs with positive meanings were more frequently used than verbs with negative meanings in the sport sections.of advancing. rather than with reporting losses. 220 .56: Frequency of positive and negative verbs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Positive ‫( كبى‬won) ‫( ٗغؼ‬succeeded) ‫( ؽون‬achieved) َٛ‫( رؤ‬qualified) ٌٖٔ‫( ر‬able) ٍ‫( ٗب‬gained) Freq 72 35 56 13 12 9 Negative ‫( فَو‬lost) َْ‫( ك‬failed) ‫ؾون‬٣ ُْ (not achieved) َٛ‫زؤ‬٣ ُْ (disqualified) ٌٖٔ‫ز‬٣ ُْ (unable) َ٘٣ ُْ (not gain) Freq 30 11 4 0 6 0 Table 5. Table 5.

Table 5.57 shows that five different verbs were used to indicate striving. 5. 221 .58 gives examples. Table 5.4.57: Frequency of verbs indicating „striving in sport‟ and the opposite No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Striving ٠‫َؼ‬٣ (strive) ٍٝ‫ؾب‬٣ (try) ٍٝ‫( ؽب‬tried) ‫زلهة‬٣ (train) ‫( ٍبهع‬speeded) ٍ‫جن‬٣ (exert) ً‫( ٓبه‬practised) ‫( رلهة‬trained) Total Freq 22 13 11 6 3 3 1 1 56 Contrast ٠‫( اًزل‬was satisfied) ٢‫ٌل‬٣ (suffice) Freq 6 4 10 Table 5. Table 5. Verbs of striving are regularly used due to the nature of sport. with matches between opponents and the spirit of competition.4 Word frequency by transitivity The purpose of this analysis is to determine whether sport section in newspapers have special characteristics in terms of the use of particles with verbs.c) Verbs of striving toward achievement and their antonyms This analysis established that verbs that indicate striving toward achievement and victory were used more than their opposites. while only two verbs were used (ten times) to indicate lack of striving. with a total of 56 occurrences.3.57 shows the results.

The verb ٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ was used seven times with ٖٓ and three times without a particle.58 gives examples of verbs used with different particles. The verb ‫ سثك‬was used ten times with ‫ ُـ‬and six times without a particle. This shows that variations occur in the use of particles with certain verbs.58: Use of verbs with particles Verb ٍ‫( رؼبك‬drew) No 1 2 3 4 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 Particle ‫( ٓغ‬with) ‫( ُـ‬for) ّ‫( أٓب‬in front of) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٖ‫( ػ‬from) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٖٓ (from) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٢‫( ك‬in) ‫( ثـ‬with) Frequency 17 2 1 1 12 10 10 6 12 4 12 2 8 2 2 8 2 7 3 5 1 3 1 1 Total 31 ٠‫َؼ‬٣ (strive) ‫( ٍجن‬overtook) ‫ت‬٤‫ـ‬٣ (be absent) َٖ٣ (arrive) َٛ‫( رؤ‬qualified) ‫ؾزبط‬٣ (need) ٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ (suffer) ٟ‫( أك‬led to) ‫وؿت‬٣ (desire) 22 16 16 14 12 10 10 6 5 Table 5. was used with ٠ُ‫ ا‬12 times and with ‫ ُـ‬twice. and two times with ‫ُـ‬. The verb ً‫ َسؼ‬was used with ٠ُ‫ ا‬12 times and with ‫ ُـ‬ten times. 222 . The verb ‫ ذأهم‬was used with ٠ُ‫ ا‬eight times and twice with ‫ُـ‬. The verb ‫ َغُة‬was used 12 times with ٖ‫ ػ‬and four times without a particle. The verb ‫َصم‬. The verb ‫ ذؼادل‬was used with ‫ ٓغ‬17 times. The verb ‫ َشغة‬was used three times with ٢‫ك‬. once with ‫ ثـ‬and once without a particle. The verb ‫ َحراج‬was used with ٠ُ‫ ا‬eight times and twice with ‫ُـ‬.Table 5. The verb ‫ أدي‬was used with ٠ُ‫ ا‬five times and with ‫ ُـ‬only once.

5. 5.3. As with world affairs (see page 181). only the five most frequently used words were analysed. Al-Furat and Al-Jazirah.1 Word frequency in the high frequency list An analysis of the high frequency list shows several important differences between newspapers. the word ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬was the most used.5 Word frequency by newspaper An extensive study of previous analyses was carried out to show the special characterics of Arabic language use in specific newspapers.3. while the 223 . Table 5.5. For two newspapers. Al-Khabar (70) and Al-Sabah al-Jadid (207).59. The word ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬.59: Top 5 words by newspaper Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Furat Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Quds al„ Arabi Al-Sabah alJadid Al-Safir 1 ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ ‫ٗطوخ‬ F 92 104 123 70 78 207 95 2 ٖ٤‫الػج‬ ‫ٓجبهاح‬ ‫ٓجبهاح‬ ‫ٓلهة‬ ‫ًوح‬ ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ ‫ٓجبهاح‬ F 82 91 73 69 61 114 75 3 ‫ٓجبهاح‬ ‫ارؾبك‬ ‫ػجل‬ ‫ٓجبهاح‬ ‫ٓجبهاح‬ ١‫ٗبك‬ ‫ًوح‬ F 69 67 60 59 59 87 65 4 ‫ٖٓو‬ ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ٓغ‬ ‫ًوح‬ ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ F 67 67 56 51 53 78 59 5 ‫ىٓبُي‬ ٢‫ػواه‬ ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ا‬ ٖ٤‫الػج‬ ٍٝ‫أ‬ ٍْٞٓ ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ F 65 65 52 50 46 73 55 Table 5.59 shows the five most frequently used words in the seven newspapers. Al-Sabah al-Jadid used it significantly more than the other two. Of these three. the analysis in this part is divided into four sections. with the addition of an analysis of the use of loan words. which came top of the highest frequency list overall. as shown in Table 5. also topped the list for three newspapers: Al-Ahram (92 occurrences). Because of the large number of words involved.

which is not a feature of other newspapers. In contrast. Table 5.4. Al-Safir is notable for its concern in most of its reports with the points ( ‫ )ٗوطخ‬achieved by sport teams.3. clearly focus more than the others on internal sports issues.2 Word frequency by phrase As an extension to the previous analysis in 5.60: Differences in use of phrases in sports section Phrase ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( ًؤً آ‬Asian Cup) Newspaper Al-Furat Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Jazirah Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Safir Total Al-Jazirah Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Furat Total Al-Ahram Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Jazirah Al-Furat Al-Khabar Total Al-Furat Al-Sabah al-Jadid Total Freq 10 6 6 2 1 25 2 2 1 5 5 3 2 2 2 25 2 1 4 Phrase ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ٥‫ًؤً األْٓ ا‬ (Asian Cup of Nations) Newspaper Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Furat Freq 3 2 2 ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ٖٗق ا‬ٝ‫اُل‬ (semi final) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫( أُجبهاح ا‬friendly match) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هجَ ا‬ٝ‫اُل‬ (semi final) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫( أُوبثِخ ا‬friendly Meeting) Al-Sabah al-Jadid 7 1 Al-Khabar 1 3 ٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫( األ‬bursar) ‫م‬ٝ‫ٖ ُِٖ٘ل‬٤ٓ‫األ‬ (treasurer) Total Al-Safir 3 1 2 Total 224 . word frequency by phrase was studied further to reveal differences in usage between newspapers. four other newspapers used general terms that did not indicate any special focus on internal sports. Table 5. and ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ ا‬in the case of Al-Jazirah).5.60 shows the results. among the five most used words. Al-Ahram and Al-Jazirah. This conclusion is drawn from the presence of several proper and specific nouns (‫ ٖٓو‬and ‫ اُيٓبُي‬in the case of Al-Ahram.3.3.words ‫ى‬ٞ‫ ك‬and ‫( ٗوطخ‬point) were the most used in Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir respectively. 5. The results also show that two newspapers.

In the fifth example. Al-Sabah al-Jadid differs from other newspaper in that it used the second phrase only once. In the fourth example. All four newspapers used only one of the two alternatives. the phrase ‫ت‬٤‫َ رور‬٣‫ ٓزن‬was used four times in two newspapers and the second phrase.60 shows six examples of phrases used in sport sections. In the third example. Al-Safir was the only newspaper that used the second phrase (only once). two (Al-Furat and Al-Sabah al-Jadid) use the first phrase more frequently than the second. the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ أُجبهاح ا‬is more frequently used than the alternative. Of these three newspapers. and that three newspapers (Al-Furat. ٢‫ـبئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ٖٗق ا‬ٝ‫ اُـل‬is more frequently used than the alternative. Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Quds al-„Arabi) use both phrases. the phrase ٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫ األ‬was more frequently used than the alternative. both of which also used the first phrase more frequently. ٍٝ‫َ عل‬٣‫ٓزن‬. In the sixth example. In the second example. The first example shows that the phrase ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( ًؤً آ‬25 occurrences) is more popular than the second phrase. and one (Al-Quds al-„Arabi) uses them both equally. is twice in two other newspapers. Two newspapers (Al-Jazirah and Al-Safir) use only the first phrase. but the first phrase was used more frequently than the second in AlQuds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir. but it is to be noted that AlKhabar used the first phrase twice and the alternative three times.‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ا‬ٝ (extra time) ‫ت‬٤‫َ رور‬٣‫( ٓزن‬bottom ranking) Al-Ahram Al-Safir Al-Jazirah Al-Furat Al-Quds al-„Arabi Total Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Safir Total 7 2 2 1 1 24 3 1 5 ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫ٖٓ ا‬/ٖ‫هذ ثلٍ ػ‬ٝ (extra time) Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Safir 1 1 ٍٝ‫َ عل‬٣‫( ٓزن‬bottom of the table) Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Furat Total 3 1 1 3 Table 5. the phrase ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ا‬ٝ was used 13 times in five newspapers and the phrase ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫ٖٓ ا‬/ٖ‫هذ ثلٍ ػ‬ٝ was used only once in each of only two newspapers (Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir). 225 .

Table 5.4.61 shows the results.3.3 Word frequency by transitivity This analysis compares the use in individual newspapers of the verbs referred to in 5.5.4.5.3. Table 5.61: Dispersion of verbs by transitivity across newspapers Verb ٍ‫رؼبك‬ (equalise) Particle AlAhram 4 4 3 3 1 1 2 2 7 6 1 1 1 4 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 AlFurat 2 2 1 1 6 4 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 AlJazirah 4 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 Newspaper AlAl-Quds Khabar al-‘Arabi 1 5 1 5 2 8 1 5 1 3 2 3 2 2 1 4 1 4 1 3 3 4 4 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid 5 2 1 1 1 2 2 3 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 2 1 1 AlSafir 4 3 1 2 1 1 3 1 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 - ‫( ٓغ‬with) ّ‫( أٓب‬front) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٖ‫( ػ‬away) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٖٓ (from) ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) ‫( ُـ‬for) ٢‫( ك‬in) ‫( ثـ‬with) - ٠‫َؼ‬٣ (strive) ‫ٍجن‬ (overtook) ‫ت‬٤‫ـ‬٣ (be absent) َٖ٣ (arrive) َٛ‫رؤ‬ (qualified) ‫ؾزبط‬٣ (need) ٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ (suffer) ٟ‫أك‬ (led) ‫وؿت‬٣ (desire) 21 17 1 2 1 33 23 21 27 11 7 27 13 5 15 23 3 22 9 2 3 21 9 3 10 8 3 7 6 1 5 4 2 1 226 .

Al-Jazirah and Al-Sabah al-Jadid) did so more often with ‫ُـ‬. Four of the newspapers that used this verb (Al-Ahram. Al-Furat. Generally speaking. Although both particles were used in similar frequencies (12 and ten times respectively). Al-Ahram used only ‫ُـ‬. and without a particle. The verb ‫ َغُة‬was used both with the particle ٖ‫ ػ‬and without a particle. Al-Quds al-„Arabi. five. Al-Sabah alJadid shows the most variation.61 shows the difference in usage of particles with verbs in the various newspapers. ّ‫أٓب‬. it could be concluded that most newspapers recognise the use of both styles. while Al-Quds al-„Arabi used 227 . while Al-Safir used ‫ ٓغ‬and ‫ ُـ‬three and one times each. which used it twice without a particle and once with ‫ُـ‬. except Al-Safir. The particle ‫ ٓغ‬was used by far the most often. although Al-Ahram used this verb only once and Al-Khabar and Al-Quds al-„Arabi did not use it at all. Al-Furat and Al-Sabah al-Jadid used only ٠ُ‫ا‬. and the other four newspapers used both. using all the particles but still using ‫ ٓغ‬more frequently than any other particle. The results show that two out of these three (Al-Jazirah and Al-Sabah al-Jadid) used both styles equally. The verb ً‫ َسؼ‬was used with the particles ٠ُ‫ ا‬and ‫ُـ‬. Four newspapers namely AlAhram. The verb ‫ سثك‬was used with the particle ‫ ُـ‬and without a particle. Al-Quds al-„Arabi and AlSabah al-Jadid) also used it without a particle. Al-Khabar and Al-Furat used only ‫( ٓغ‬four. with 17 occurrences. and ‫ُـ‬. The verb ‫ ذؼادل‬was used with the particles ‫ٓغ‬. Six of the newspapers used the verb with ٖ‫ ػ‬and three of them (Al-Jazirah. one and two times respectively).Table 5.

although only once each.it with the particle ٖ‫ ػ‬more than without it. The table shows differences in the usage of the verb ‫ َصم‬with the particles ٠ُ‫ ا‬and ‫ُـ‬. Al-Khabar and Al-Safir) only used this verb with ٖ‫ػ‬. Al-Khabar and Al-Sabah al-Jadid) did not use this verb at all. Most usages of the verb ‫ َحراج‬were with the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬eight occurrences) although AlAhram used it an equal number of times with ‫ُـ‬. as compared with using it either with ‫ ُـ‬or without a particle (two occurrences each). Notably. Al-Jazirah used the verb only with the particle ‫ُـ‬. Most usages of the verb ٍَ‫ َؼا‬were with the particle ٖٓ (seven occurrences). 228 . it is notable that the use with ٠ُ‫ ا‬is totally dominant in Al-Quds al-„Arabi. Three newspapers (Al-Ahram. In contrast. In addition. It should also be noted that Al-Ahram used both particles. most of them preferring to use it with the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬ (eight occurrences). Six newspapers used the verb ‫ذأهم‬. which used it only without a particle. The most notable is that Al-Khabar used it only with the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬four times). It can be concluded that ٠ُ‫ ا‬is widely used. No newspapers that used this verb used both styles. and one (Al-Jazirah) did not use it at all. Al-Jazirah used this verb only with particle the ‫ ُـ‬and two newspapers (Al-Furat and Al-Sabah al-Jadid) used it only without a particle. but the use of ‫ ُـ‬is found in certain newspapers. It is also striking that three newspapers (AlJazirah. except in two newspapers (Al-Ahram and Al-Quds al-„Arabi). and Al-Furat did not use the verb at all. but preferred ٠ُ‫( ا‬six occurrences compared with one for ‫)ُـ‬.

5. which used ٠ُ‫ ا‬equally with ‫( ُـ‬though only once each). found only in certain newspapers. and specific loan words. also used it without a particle once. These were the only three newspapers that used this verb. Al-Ahram. 229 . The analysis was again considered two types of loan word: general loan words which can be found in all or most of the newspapers. 1. Examples are shown in Table 5. as was the case in world affairs. especially English. 5. This was the only newspaper to use ‫ ُـ‬and Al-Jazirah and Al-Safir did not use this verb at all.3. once in Al-Ahram and twice in AlKhabar.The verb ‫ أدي‬was usually followed by the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬five occurrences) except in Al-Quds al-„Arabi.62. however. the results show that all the newspapers are affected by foreign languages. The verb ‫ َشغة‬was used more often with the particle ٢‫ك‬. and Al-Quds al-„Arabi was the only newspaper to use it with the particle ‫( ثـ‬once). General loan words In terms of general loan words.4 Word frequency by loan word The results show that the sport section in all the newspapers had been affected by Western languages. A number of words can be readily found in most of the newspapers and these the researcher classifies as „general loan words‟.

230 .340 Table 5. The word ‫ أٍزبك‬was notable for having two different spellings. They are all related to sports terms. The word ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ was the most frequent with 119 occurrences in all seven newspapers.Table 5.62: Example of general loan words in sports section No 1 2 3 4 5 Word ‫بد‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ/ٕ‫زب‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ/‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ ‫بد‬٣‫ٗي‬ٝ‫ثو‬/ٕ‫زب‬٣‫ى‬ٝ‫ثو‬/‫خ‬٣‫ٗي‬ٝ‫ثو‬ ‫أٍزبك‬ ٚ٤‫ًبهار‬ ‫ثو‬ٍٞ Freq 119 41 37 18 16 Number of Newspapers 7 6 7 4 5 Spelling different ‫ٍزبك‬ Freq 3 Origin word Medal Bronze Stadium Karate Super Table 5. This will be dealt with in the discussion of spelling variations between newspapers (see page 233).63 shows examples of specific loan words.62 shows examples of general loan words that can be found in most of the newspapers.63: Example of specific loan words in sports section No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Word ‫ٌبد‬٤‫رٌز‬/‫خ‬٤ٌ٤‫رٌز‬/٢ٌ٤‫رٌز‬/‫ي‬٤‫رٌز‬ ‫و‬٤‫أُ٘بع‬ ‫و‬٤ٍ ٕٞ‫ثبكٓ٘ز‬ ‫ي‬٤ً َ‫كث‬ ‫ي‬٤ٌ٘‫ر‬ ‫ؿواكبد‬ٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫أ‬ ‫اٌُبهد‬ ‫خ‬٤ٌ٤‫كهآبر‬ ‫ٍزبٗلهك‬ ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫ث‬ Freq 4 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Newspaper Al-Furat/ Al-Khabar Al-Khabar Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Furat Al-Furat Al-Safir Al-Furat Al-Jazirah Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Origin word Tactics Manager Sir Badminton Double kick Technique Autographs Card Dramatic Standard Psychology 340 For the definition of „specific loan words‟. sports venues and medals. 2. such as types of sports. Specific loan words Table 5. see the analysis in world affairs (see page 187).

‫ي‬٤ً َ‫كث‬. ‫اٌُبهد‬. Al-Furat. the inclusion of the word ‫ اٌُبهد‬and ٕٞ‫ ثبكٓ٘ز‬in the non-Arab country newspapers Al-Furat and Al-Quds al-„Arabi is unexpected as ‫ اُجطبهخ‬to mean „card‟ and ‫ْخ‬٣‫ ًوح اُو‬to mean „badminton‟ are usually used in Arabic. with the exception of the word ‫ي‬٤‫ رٌز‬and its variations. indicating that. Al-Jazirah or Al-Khabar. had variant spellings. ‫خ‬٤ٌ٤‫كهآبر‬. ٕٞ‫ ثبكٓ٘ز‬. Most of the examples (10 out of 11) were used in low frequency (only twice or once). Al-Jazirah (two) and AlSabah al-Jadid. Al-Safir and Al-Quds al-„Arabi (one word each). ‫ؿواكبد‬ٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫أ‬. Spelling differences in Arabic and loan words The results show that several nouns. so this section is divided into two parts. This was the most frequently occurring word (four occurrences in Al-Furat and Al-Khabar). the table shows that the influence of English is not limited to Englishspeaking countries. Al-Safir. Although the appearance of loan words in Arabic newspapers is not surprising.63 shows that each of the examples occurred in only one newspaper. Generally speaking. 3. Only one word ( ‫ي‬٤‫ )رٌز‬was used in high frequency (four occurrences). although Arabic newspapers use specific foreign word in sports news articles. The word ‫و‬٤‫ أُ٘بع‬occurred twice in AlKhabar and the rest of the words (‫و‬٤ٍ. they do not do so often. Al-Khabar (three). Al-Quds al-„Arabi. including both Arabic and loan words. ‫ ٍزبٗلهك‬and ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫ )ث‬occurred only once in either Al-Sabah al-Jadid.Table 5. but extends to Arabic-speaking countries with the spread of new media technology. ‫ي‬٤ٌ٘‫ر‬. 231 . Five newspapers used specific loan words: Al-Furat (four words).

64 shows spelling variations in three words. the table shows that the newspapers used the two spellings in different proportions. most of the newspapers spelled these words with ‫( إ‬32 occurrences). In the first example.64 illustrate that newspapers used different spellings. The third example shows that the spelling ‫( ٓجبهاد‬without ١) was used more than ‫بد‬٣‫( ٓجبه‬with ١) (171 and 20 occurrences respectively) with all the newspapers using both spellings.64: Example of Arabic words with variant spellings No 1 2 Word ٕٞ‫ّئ‬ /‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫َٓئ‬/ٍٝ‫َٓئ‬ ‫بد‬٤ُٝ‫َٓئ‬/ٖ٤ُٝ‫َٓئ‬ Newspaper Al-Ahram Total Al-Khabar Al-Jazirah Al-Furat Al-Safir Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Quds al-„Arabi Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Safir Al-Ahram Al-Jazirah Al-Furat Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Khabar Total Freq 3 4 14 6 4 3 3 2 32 56 28 23 20 19 19 6 171 Word ٕٝ‫ّئ‬ ٖ٤ُٞ‫َٓئ‬ Newspaper Al-Jazirah Total Al-Ahram Freq 2 3 15 3 ‫بد‬٣‫ٓجبه‬ ‫ٓجبهاد‬ Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Ahram Al-Safir Al-Furat Al-Khabar Al-Jazirah Total 15 8 5 2 2 1 1 1 20 Table 5. it can be concluded that Al-Ahram newspaper uses ‫ ئ‬in spelling both words (ٕٞ‫ّئ‬ and ٍٞ‫)َٓئ‬. However. 232 .a) Spelling differences in Arabic words The results shown in Table 5. Table 5. The word did not occur in the other newspapers. although the second spelling was always less frequent than the first. while Al-Ahram used ‫( ئ‬15 times). In the second example. Al-Ahram and AlJazirah used the variant spellings ٕٞ‫ ّئ‬and ٕٝ‫ ّئ‬respectively. By referring to the first situation.

Table 5. The second example shows two different spellings of the same word (‫كٔجو‬ٞٗ and ‫ك٘جو‬ٞٗ). it opens up the possibility that they will be spelled differently.65 shows the spelling variants for four words.65 shows these differences by newspaper. with and without the consonant ‫ثـ‬. both used once in the same newspaper (Al-Khabar). This indicates that this Algerian newspaper accepts the use of this foreign word in two variations.65: Example of loan words with variant spellings No 1 Word ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫ث‬ (psychology) ‫كٔجو‬ٞٗ (November) Newspaper Al-Khabar Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Ahram Al-Quds al-„Arabi Total Al-Ahram Al-Jazirah Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Quds al-„Arabi Al-Safir Al-Furat Total F W 11 ّ‫ؿوا‬ِٞ٤ً 12 Freq 1 Word ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤ٍ Newspaper Al-Khabar Total Al-Sabah al-Jadid Freq 1 1 1 2 3 ‫( أٍزبك‬stadium) 4 W ْ‫ًـ‬ Newspaper Al-Sabah al-Jadid Total 1 12 ‫ك٘جو‬ٞٗ 10 7 6 3 49 18 ‫ٍزبك‬ 7 5 4 2 1 37 Newspaper F Al-Sabah 9 al-Jadid Total : Total Al-Ahram 2 3 W ّ‫عوا‬ِٞ٤ً Total Newspaper Al-Quds al„ Arabi Total 4 F 1 2 Table 5. The first example shows two different spellings of the same word (٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫ ث‬and ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤ٍ). but the low frequency of both variations shows that they are not regularly used in the newspaper. Since some of these words cannot be made to confirm to Arabic spelling conventions. The first 233 . Table 5.b) Spelling differences in loan words The results of the analysis showed that several loan words occurred more than once.

all in Al-Ahram. 234 . Al-Quds al-„Arabi. The fourth example shows the use of three different but similarly spelt words for „kilogramme‟ (ْ‫ًـ‬. The first was the usual spelling (37 occurrences in six newspapers: Al-Ahram. This was the only newspaper to use both spellings and it used the first much more than the second (18 times). indicating that the first form is much more popular than the second. the second spelling occurred only three times. although most of the newspapers used only one spelling for certain words. The abbreviation and the first full form appeared only in Al-Sabah al-Jadid. ّ‫ؿوا‬ِٞ٤ً and ّ‫عوا‬ِٞ٤ً). This shows that. Al-Jazirah. The first (ْ‫ )ًـ‬is an abbreviation of the other two is the most frequently used (11 occurrences) more than the first and second full forms (nine and one occurrences respectively).occurred 38 times in five newspapers (Al-Sabah al-Jadid. although the use of the first exceeds the second by 12 to one. AlKhabar and Al-Quds al-„Arabi) and the second was used only once in Al-Sabah al-Jadid. The third example shows two different spellings (‫ أٍزبك‬and ‫ )ٍزبك‬used for „stadium‟. Al-Sabah al-Jadid. Al-Jazirah. where they were both used often and in similar frequency. while AlQuds al-„Arabi was the only newspaper to use the second full form (only once). Al-Safir and Al-Furat). In contrast. Al-Ahram. some newspapers may use two. Al-Sabah al-Jadid is unique in using both spellings.

5. 235 . and second. 5.341 341 For more detail on the comparison process in this part see the methodology chapter on page 138.4. a general comparison of most aspects.2. This analysis is divided into two major sections: first.4 Comparison Analysis The main purpose of this analysis to determine the language style in the newspapers from different perspectives. which shows significant differences between sections. the results from the comparison analysis using Wordsmith are still conditional and can be considered supporting evidence for each phenomenon that emerges. Although a direct comparison is applied. in 5.1 and 5. a comparison of keywords using a special comparison tool available in Wordsmith software. because comparison analysis has the advantage of being able to derive different outcomes from similar sources.1 General comparison between world affairs and sports The analysis in this section compares the two word lists in order to reveal points of difference between world affairs and sport and is based on selected aspects that have already been studied in both sections.

١‫ ٗبك‬and ‫ )الػت‬in sport that create a higher keyness score than any word in world affairs. The word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬occurred more often than ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬522 times compared with 267). In the second comparison (sport – world affairs).65 147.4.50 95. The table shows there are six singular nouns (‫ن‬٣‫كو‬.66: Comparison of singular nouns in world affairs and sports No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) 522 189 ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government) 267 3 ِ٤‫( ع‬army) 184 0 ٌِ‫( ٓغ‬council) 182 59 ‫( ٓئرٔو‬conference) 175 5 ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) 166 12 ّٞ٣ (day) 158 214 ّ‫( ػب‬year) 151 178 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫( أٓو‬American) 143 8 ‫هذ‬ٝ (time) 136 64 Keyness 163.28 keyness score.75 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) 591 13 ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match) 476 0 ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) 432 6 ‫( ًوح‬ball) 339 2 ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) 300 15 ١‫( ٗبك‬club) 294 1 ‫( الػت‬player) 279 1 ‫( ارؾبك‬union) 278 55 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league) 265 0 ٍٝ‫( أ‬first) 250 77 Keyness 711. also creates the biggest difference with a score of 711. It can be generally concluded that the top ten singular nouns in sport created greater differences as compared with singular nouns in world affairs. ‫ًوح‬.67. 236 . ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. Word frequency by number Table 5.1.1 Word frequency of nouns 1.76 371.87 376.27 204.79 66.67 662.48 159.39 471.10 162. ‫ٓجبهاح‬.38 543.52 315. This is determined by the number of words that create higher keyness scores in sport as compared with those in world affairs.5. the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬which had the highest frequency on the sports list.99 Table 5.66 shows thats for singular nouns.25 26.61 396.75 368. the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ ؽ‬creates the biggest difference between world affairs and sport in the first comparison (world affairs – sport) with a 371.28 255.44 -8. but it creates a smaller difference because it also appeared regularly in sport (189 occurrences).

08 16. the word ‫اد‬ٞ‫ ه‬created the biggest differences in comparison to sport in the first comparison (world – sport) with a 221.79 265.40 81.39 100. Word frequency of sound and broken plurals Table 5.05 63.67 shows that.88 52.67: Comparison of plural nouns between sections No World affairs to sports World affairs F F (S) ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬forces) ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers) ٍٝ‫( ك‬countries) ‫( اٗزقبثبد‬elections) ‫( ٖٓبكه‬sources) ‫بد‬ٙٝ‫( ٓلب‬negotiations) ٖ٤٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinians) ‫( ػالهبد‬relations) ْٓ‫( أ‬nations) ُٕٞٝ‫( َٓئ‬responsibles) 196 131 116 101 74 74 69 66 64 62 7 6 30 2 3 9 0 8 26 18 Keyness 221.26 keyness score.68 86. The table shows that two plural nouns (ٖ٤‫ الػج‬and ‫بد‬٣‫ )ٓجبه‬in sport created higher scores than any word in world affairs. the word ٖ٤‫ الػج‬created the biggest difference with a 507.19 168.38 123.30 95. For sport.63 59.68: Comparison between broken and sound plurals in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Broken ٖ٣‫( رٔبه‬exercises) ‫( أْٗطخ‬activities) ًَ‫( ْٓب‬problems) ‫اه‬ٝ‫( ى‬visitors) ‫ت‬ٛ‫ا‬ٞٓ (talents) ‫اك‬ٝ‫( ه‬pioneers) Sport Freq 8 6 6 4 4 3 Sound ‫٘بد‬٣‫رٔو‬ ‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬ ‫ٌْٓالد‬ ٕٝ‫ىائو‬ ‫جبد‬ٛٞٓ ٕٝ‫هائل‬ Freq 0 0 0 0 0 0 World affairs Broken Freq Sound ‫و‬٣‫( روبه‬reports) 10 ‫واد‬٣‫روو‬ ‫( أْٗطخ‬activities) 8 ‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬ ًَ‫( ْٓب‬problems) 8 ‫ٌْٓالد‬ ‫غ‬٣‫( ْٓبه‬projects) 8 ‫ػبد‬ٝ‫ْٓو‬ َ‫( هٍبئ‬letters) 5 ‫هٍبالد‬ ‫و‬٤‫( رلاث‬managements) 9 ‫واد‬٤‫رلث‬ ‫وم‬ٛ (ways) 8 ‫وهبد‬ٛ ‫( ْٗطبء‬active people) 5 ٕٞ‫ط‬٤ْٗ Freq 0 10 5 8 0 0 0 0 237 .Table 5. 2.17 148. This is determined by the number of words that create higher keyness score in sport as compared to words in world affairs.68 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Table 5. It can be generally concluded that the top ten plural nouns in sport create greater differences as compared with plural nouns in world affairs.15 Sports to world affairs Sports F F (W) ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) 374 1 ‫بد‬٣‫( ٓجبه‬matches) 191 0 ٛ‫( ٗوب‬points) 140 7 ‫( ٓ٘بكَبد‬tournaments) 121 0 ‫خ‬٣‫( أٗل‬clubs) 107 0 ‫( ّجبة‬youth) 101 3 ‫لاف‬ٛ‫( أ‬goals) 99 13 ‫( أُؼبة‬games) 78 0 ‫بد‬٤‫( رٖل‬qualifies) 72 0 ‫( كوم‬teams) 64 4 Keyness 507.26 141.10 54.53 147. for plural nouns.62 108.74 74.79 keyness score.71 116.

44 -8.68 shows a comparison of broken and sound plurals in world affairs and sport for nouns that take both forms. The table also shows that two plural nouns (‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬/‫ أْٗطخ‬and ‫ٌْٓالد‬/ًَ‫ )ْٓب‬occurred in both sport and world affairs. although the sport sections used only the broken plural for both nouns. broken plurals totally dominate the list.69: Comparison of masculine nouns in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) 522 189 ِ٤‫( ع‬army) 184 0 ٌِ‫( ٓغ‬council) 182 59 ‫( ٓئرٔو‬conference) 175 5 ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) 166 12 ّٞ٣ (day) 158 214 ّ‫( ػب‬year) 151 178 ‫هذ‬ٝ (time) 136 64 ٢ِ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israeli) 135 3 ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers) 131 6 Keyness 163. the word ‫ػبد‬ٝ‫ ْٓو‬was used the same number of times as ‫غ‬٣‫( ْٓبه‬eight each). while world affairs used both forms. and the word ‫بد‬ٛ‫ ْٗب‬was used more than ‫( أْٗطخ‬ten and eight times respectively). with no sound plurals being used for any of the six nouns. In sport.65 26.67 543. Word frequency by of gender Table 5.61 396. The situation is different in world affairs.76 255. The table shows that in sport.10 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) 591 13 ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) 432 6 ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) 374 1 ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) 300 15 ١‫( ٗبك‬club) 294 1 ‫( الػت‬player) 279 1 ‫( ارؾبك‬union) 278 55 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league) 265 0 ٍٝ‫( أ‬first) 250 77 ‫لف‬ٛ (goal) 238 38 Keyness 711.Table 5. 3.87 376.10 162.88 141.79 keyness score in world affairs.99 161.50 95.75 162.01 Table 5. The word ِ٤‫ ع‬creates the biggest difference with a 255. The conclusion is that more masculine nouns in sport create bigger differences as compared 238 .39 507.79 66. The word ‫ ٌْٓالد‬was used fewer times than ًَ‫( ْٓب‬five and eight times respectively).69 shows the comparison of the top ten masculine nouns in both sections.79 315.27 204.75 368. where three sound plurals appear on the list.48 159.67. the highest word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬also creates the biggest difference with a score of 711.

The conclusion is that there are more feminine nouns in sport that create bigger differences as compared with world affairs.53 99. Word frequency by phrase Table 5.61 159.49 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match) 476 0 ‫( ًوح‬ball) 339 2 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫( ثط‬championship) 208 2 ‫بد‬٣‫( ٓجبه‬matches) 191 0 ٠ُٝ‫( أ‬first) 179 38 ‫( ٗوطخ‬point) 172 15 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬group) 163 53 ‫وخ‬٤‫( كه‬minute) 155 6 ‫هح‬ٝ‫( ك‬round) 146 0 ٛ‫( ٗوب‬points) 140 7 Keyness 662.38 471. with two of them (‫ ٓجبهاح‬and ‫ )ًوح‬scoring higher than the highest keyness score in world affairs.28 221.38 87. In sport.28 keyness score. with seven of them (‫ن‬٣‫كو‬.with world affairs.70: Comparison of feminine nouns in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government) 267 3 ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬forces) 196 7 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫( أٓو‬American) 143 8 ‫خ‬٤‫( فبهع‬external) 133 8 ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinian) 124 0 ‫( ٓ٘طوخ‬area) 123 53 ‫٘خ‬٣‫( ٓل‬town) 117 88 ٍٝ‫( ك‬states) 116 30 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state) 107 12 ٟ‫( أفو‬other) 102 95 Keyness 371.47 172.25 134. ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. ١‫ٗبك‬. the word ‫ ٓجبهاح‬creates the biggest difference with a score of 662.85 147. ‫ الػت‬and ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ )ك‬scoring more than the highest keyness score in world affairs.38. 4.86 54. ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬.52 269.43 58. the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ ؽ‬creates the biggest difference with a 371. ٖ٤‫الػج‬. It shows that in world affairs.17 154.26 147.34 265.19 Table 5.46 171.70 shows a comparison between the top ten feminine nouns in world affairs and sport.71: Comparison of phrases in both sections Word ‫أُزؾلح‬ (United) ‫اُْوم‬ (East) ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫اُل‬ country World affairs ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫( ا‬United States) ‫( األْٓ أُزؾلح‬United Nations) ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬Middle East) ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬New Middle East) ٢‫ اُؼوث‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬Arab Middle East) ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ُخ كَِط‬ٝ‫( ك‬state of Palestine) ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫( اُل‬Arab state) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬Jewish state) ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ أع٘ج‬ٝ‫( ك‬foreign state) F 125 64 31 1 1 16 6 2 2 Sport ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ا‬ (United States) ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬Middle East) ٍٜٝ‫ُخ اُْوم األ‬ٞ‫( ثط‬Middle East Championship) ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫( اُل‬Arab state) ‫لخ‬٤ٚٓ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬host nation) ‫ُخ ٓ٘ظٔخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬organising nation) F 12 2 4 1 1 1 239 . Table 5.34 28.

two phrases occurred incorporating the word ‫ أُزؾلح‬namely ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ا‬and 240 . In the first example.٢َِٛ‫أ‬ Atlantic ُْ‫اُؼب‬ (world) ً‫ًؤ‬ (cup) ‫ُخ َِٓٔخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬Muslim state) َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state of Israel) ٢َِٛ‫( ؽِق األ‬Atlantic Treaty) ٢َِٛ‫( ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬North Atlantic Treaty) ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫( ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬North Atlantic Treaty) ٢ٓ‫( اُؼبُْ اإلٍال‬Islamic world) ٢‫( اُؼبُْ اُقبهع‬outside world) ‫( اُؼبُْ اُضبُش‬third world) ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( ًؤً آ‬Asian Cup) 2 2 10 9 2 2 1 1 1 ٢َِٛ‫ػخ أ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬Atlantic group) 1 ‫ه‬ٝ‫اُل‬ (round) ١‫ه ٓوًي‬ٝ‫( ك‬central round) ٢ٍ‫ه أٍب‬ٝ‫( ك‬first round) 1 1 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ا‬ friendly ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫الد ا‬ٝ‫( أُؾب‬friendly attempts) 1 ٖ٤ٓ‫أ‬ (trustee) ّ‫ٖ اُؼب‬٤ٓ‫( األ‬general secretary) ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬secretary) 27 1 ‫ٕبؽت‬ (owner) ‫( ٕبؽت أٌُزت‬office owner) ‫( ٕبؽت أٌُِخ‬one who has the last word) ٗ‫( ٕبؽت األه‬home team) ‫( ٕبؽت اُؾن‬right holder) ‫( ٕبؽت اُْوًخ‬company owner) 1 1 1 1 1 ُْ‫( ًؤً اُؼب‬World Cup) ُْ‫ُخ اُؼب‬ٞ‫( ثط‬world championship) ُْ‫( أثطبٍ اُؼب‬world champions) ُْ‫( ثطَ اُؼب‬world champion) ُْ‫( ًؤً اُؼب‬World Cup) ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( ًؤً آ‬Asian Cup) ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ٥‫( ًؤً األْٓ ا‬Asian Cup of Nations) ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً أ‬European Cup) ‫خ‬٤‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً األْٓ األ‬European Cup of Nations) ‫ب‬٤‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً أ‬European Cup) ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً أْٓ أ‬European Cup of Nations) ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً أْٓ اكو‬African Cup of Nation) ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫ًؤً األْٓ اإلكو‬ ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً اكو‬African Cup) ٢‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً أثطبٍ اكو‬African Cup Championship) ٢‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً االرؾبك األ‬European Champion League) ٢‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً االرؾبك اإلكو‬African Club Cup) ١ٞ٤ٍ٥‫( ًؤً االرؾبك ا‬Asian Club Cup) ٌ٤‫ل‬٣‫( ًؤً ك‬Davis Cup) ‫( ًؤً ٓبٍزوى‬Masters Cup) ‫ثو‬ٍٞ ً‫( ًؤ‬Super Bowl) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬final round) ٍٝ‫ه األ‬ٝ‫( اُل‬first round) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ٖٗق ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬semi final round) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هثغ ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬quarter final round) ٢ٍ‫ه األٍب‬ٝ‫( اُل‬first round) ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هجَ ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬semi final round) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاد ا‬/‫( أُجبهاح‬friendly match) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫هح ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬friendly round) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫( أُوبثِخ ا‬friendly meeting) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ُخ ا‬ٞ‫( اُجط‬friendly championship) ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫بهح ا‬٣‫( ى‬friendly visit) ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬secretary) ّ‫ٖ ػب‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬general secretary) ٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫( األ‬bursar) ‫م‬ٝ‫ٖ ُِٖ٘ل‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬treasurer) ‫ٖ ٓلهثخ‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬trainer) )ْ‫( ٕبؽت أُوًي (هه‬holder of a position) ٗ‫( ٕبؽت األه‬home team) ‫لف‬ُٜ‫( ٕبؽت ا‬goal scorer) ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫( ٕبؽت اُن‬gold medal holder) 31 8 2 2 31 25 7 4 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 7 3 2 4 2 17 14 5 4 1 1 14 6 3 2 1 12 5 3 1 1 12 3 2 1 Table 5.71 compares phrases between sections. the table shows that in world affairs.

which contained no occurrences of ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ األ‬/٢َِٛ‫ ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬either. In the fourth example. In the third example. Although world affairs sections used more different phrases. The phrase ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ُخ كَِط‬ٝ‫ ك‬was used 16 times in world affairs and not at all in sport. On the other hand. three phrases occurred incorporating the word ‫ اُْوم‬while there were only two such phrases in sport. The phrase ٢َِٛ‫ ؽِق األ‬was used ten times in world affairs and not at all in sport. three phrases incorporating the word ُْ‫ اُؼب‬were used in world affairs. The phrases َ٤‫اٍوائ‬/‫ َِٓٔخ‬/‫خ‬٤‫أع٘ج‬/‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ ك‬were not found in sport either. The phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ا‬in world affairs was used more than in sport with 125 and 12 occurrences respectively. six phrases were used incorporating the word ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ اُل‬in world affairs. while there were only three such phrases in sport. while there was only one such phrase in sport. while there was only one such phrase in sport. with 31 and 2 occurrences respectively. The phrase ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫ اُل‬occurred in both sections but more frequently in world affairs. while ٍٜٝ‫ُخ اُْوم األ‬ٞ‫ ثط‬was used in sport but not used in world affairs. the phrases 241 . In the second example. three phrases were used incorporating the word ٢َِٛ‫ أ‬in world affairs. while ‫ األْٓ أُزؾلح‬did not occur in sport. the phrase ٢َِٛ‫ػخ أ‬ٞٔ‫ ٓغ‬occurred in sport but was not found in world affairs. The phrase ٍٜٝ‫ اُْوم األ‬was used more in world affairs than in sport.‫األْٓ أُزؾلح‬. in world affairs. while there were four such phrases in sport. not all the phrases were the same in both sections. The phrase ‫لخ‬٤ٚٓ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ ك‬and ‫ُخ ٓ٘ظٔخ‬ٝ‫ ك‬occurred once each in sport sections only. In the fifth example. In addition.

17 phrases incorporating the word ً‫ ًؤ‬were used in sport. followed by ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫هح ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬with six. and only in two phrases in world affairs. only ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫الد ا‬ٝ‫ أُؾب‬was used. with 12 occurrences. while only one such phrase occurred in world affairs. compared with 25 times in sport. and the phrases were not the same in both sections. In sport. followed by ُْ‫ُخ اُؼب‬ٞ‫ ثط‬with eight. In the eighth example. The phrase ُْ‫ ًؤً اُؼب‬in sport had the highest usage (31 occurrences). and only once. followed by ٍٝ‫ه األ‬ٝ‫اُل‬ with 14. In the sixth example. In world affairs. whereas in world affairs. once each. followed by ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ ًؤً آ‬with 25. the word ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ ا‬was used in five phrases in sport. the word ‫ه‬ٝ‫ اُل‬was used in six phrases in sport sections. Two of these phrases were also used in world affairs. In the seventh example. five phrases were used incorporating the word ٖ٤ٓ‫ أ‬in sport sections. and in only once in world affairs. In world affairs. the phrase ّ‫ٖ اُؼب‬٤ٓ‫ األ‬was used more than ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫أ‬. The phrase ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬in sport had the highest usage. with 17 occurrences. ُْ‫ ًؤً اُؼب‬had the highest frequency (31 occurrences). In the ninth example. The phrase ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫ أ‬had the highest usage in sport. 242 . followed by ّ‫ٖ ػب‬٤ٓ‫ أ‬with five. with 14 occurrences. and the phrases were not the same in both sections. ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ ًؤً آ‬was used only once. In world affairs. only ١‫ه ٓوًي‬ٝ‫ ك‬and ٢ٍ‫ه أٍب‬ٝ‫ ك‬were used. the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاد ا‬/‫ أُجبهاح‬had the highest usage.used in sport occurred with greater frequency.

‫لف‬ُٜ‫ ٕبؽت ا‬and ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫ ٕبؽت اُن‬were not found in world affairs and the phrases ‫ٕبؽت أٌُزت‬.06 -31. the same as the score in world affairs.14 11.32 16.68 8. The phrases ‫ٕبؽت أُوًي‬.72: Comparison of collective nouns No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) 591 13 ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) 432 6 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬group) 163 53 ‫و‬٤ٛ‫( عٔب‬crowds) 39 5 ْٓ‫( أ‬nations) 26 64 ١‫و‬٤ٛ‫( عٔب‬crowds) 13 0 ‫( ّؼت‬people) 11 54 ‫خ‬٣‫و‬٤ٛ‫( عٔب‬crowd) 8 0 ‫خ‬٤‫( عٔبػ‬group) 8 7 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ك‬ٝ (delegations) 8 5 ٢ٓٞ‫( ه‬national) 7 13 ١‫( ػٌَو‬military) 2 57 ٢‫( ّؼج‬popular) 4 1 ‫( ٓغزٔغ‬society) 4 20 ‫خ‬٣‫( ػٌَو‬military) 1 76 Keyness 711. while five such phrases occurred in world affairs.79 96.14 -58. In sport. 4. while the word ِ٤‫ع‬ 243 .50 31.74 -16.72 shows a comparison between collective nouns in sport and world affairs sections.67 keyness score.39 58. ‫ ٕبؽت اُْوًخ‬and ‫ ٕبؽت اُؾن‬were not found in sport.69 -711.39 -14.31 11.84 - Table 5. The few that were used in both sections were normally used to convey a different meaning.69 -96. the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬creates the biggest difference with a 711. where the frequency is lower.11 -64.67 -543. four phrases incorporating the word ‫ ٕبؽت‬were used in sport.68 64.32 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ِ٤‫( ع‬army) 184 0 ‫خ‬٣‫( ػٌَو‬military) 76 1 ْٓ‫( أ‬nations) 64 26 ١‫( ػٌَو‬military) 57 2 ‫( ّؼت‬people) 54 11 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬group) 53 163 ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫( ع‬troops) 47 0 ‫( ٓغزٔغ‬society) 20 4 ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) 13 591 ٢ٓٞ‫( ه‬national) 13 7 ‫خ‬٤‫( عٔبػ‬group) 7 8 ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬team) 6 432 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ك‬ٝ (delegations) 5 8 ‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫( ع‬crowd) 4 23 ٢‫( ّؼج‬popular) 1 4 Keyness 255. Only one phrase (ٗ‫ )ٕبؽت األه‬was used in both sections.In the last example. with three occurrences in sport and one in world affairs.46 29. The analysis above shows that most of the phrases used in the newspapers differed between sections.46 65. Word frequency in other noun categories a) Collective nouns Table 5.50 -11.67 543.

There are two possible reasons for this.79 score. or both variables occur in low frequency. b) Comparatives Table 5. Nevertheless.56) and ٠ِ‫أػ‬ 244 . ٟٞ‫( أه‬5. ٠ِ‫( أؿ‬8.82 World to sport World F F (S) ‫( أًضو‬more) 72 59 ‫( أًجو‬bigger) 35 26 َ‫( أه‬less) 32 20 ٠ِ‫( أػ‬higher) 25 3 ‫( أثوى‬more apparent) 16 15 َٚ‫( أك‬better) 11 105 ْٛ‫( أ‬more important) 11 15 ‫أ‬ٍٞ‫( أ‬worse) 9 4 ‫( أهوة‬nearer) 9 5 ‫( أٍوع‬faster) 5 1 ‫( أؿِت‬more often) 4 5 ‫( أفطو‬more 3 3 dangerous) ٠ٖ‫( أه‬more distant) 3 4 ًَٔ‫( أ‬more complete) 3 0 ‫ٍغ‬ٝ‫( أ‬wider) 3 0 Keyness 19. Either the differences between these words are too small.82 - Table 5.creates the biggest difference in world affairs with a 255. while the word ٠ِ‫ أػ‬creates the biggest difference in world affaris.56 -19.73: Comparison of comparatives in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Sport to world Sport F F (W) َٚ‫( أك‬better) 105 11 ‫( أًضو‬more) 59 72 ‫( أًجو‬bigger) 26 35 َ‫( أه‬less) 20 32 ‫( أثوى‬more apparent) 15 16 ْٛ‫( أ‬more important) 15 11 ٠ِ‫( أؿ‬more valuable) 6 0 ‫( أؿِت‬more often) 5 4 ‫( أهوة‬nearer) 5 9 ٠ٖ‫( أه‬more distant) 4 3 ٟٞ‫( أه‬stronger) 4 0 َٔ‫( أع‬more beautiful) 3 0 َٖ‫( أؽ‬better) ‫( أفطو‬more dangerous) ْ‫( أػظ‬greater) ٠ِ‫( أػ‬higher) 3 3 3 3 0 3 1 25 Keyness 87.73 shows a comparison between comparatives in sport and world affairs. The results also show that most of the collective nouns occurred both sections. The results also show that only a few of the comparatives in both sections create significant keyness scores. In sport.34 5. with a score of 19. the word ِ٤‫ ع‬creates the biggest difference with a 255.34).82 8.82 keyness score. the sport sections have four words that create significant keyness scores: َٚ‫( أك‬88. apart from one in sport (‫خ‬٣‫و‬٤ٛ‫)عٔب‬ and two in world affairs (ِ٤‫ ع‬and ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫)ع‬.79 keyness score and no occurrences in sport. the word َٚ‫ أك‬creates the biggest difference with a 87.82 -87.39). Of these.82.

39 -13.39).1. sport contains more specific verbs and َ‫ ٍغ‬and ‫ كبى‬create higher keyness scores than the highest in world affairs.30 45.04 -9. In 245 .50 12.74 shows a comparison between the top ten perfect tense verbs in world affairs and sport.74: Comparison of perfect verbs in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World to sports World F F (S) ٍ‫( هب‬said) 326 142 ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 146 204 ‫( أًل‬emphasised) 111 64 ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 108 68 ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 104 98 ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) 85 19 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 75 37 ‫( هبُذ‬said) 75 14 ‫( أػِ٘ذ‬announced 57 3 ‫( أّبه‬pointed) 46 26 Keyness 75. In world affairs. In contrast.4.04 keyness score. the verb َ‫ ٍغ‬creates the biggest differences with score of 119. while it might have been predicted that the sport section would contain more comparatives because of the competitive nature of sport and sporting achievements.50 -75.2 Word frequency of verbs 1.35.69 Sports to world Sports F F (W) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 204 146 ٍ‫( هب‬said) 142 326 َ‫( ٍغ‬recorded) 98 2 ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 98 104 ‫( كبى‬won) 72 1 ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 68 108 ‫( أًل‬emphasised) 64 111 ‫( ؽون‬confirmed) 56 6 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 37 75 ‫( ُؼت‬played) 37 1 Keyness 9.50 13.87 -9. The table also shows that there are four verbs in each section that that did not occur in the other.54 Table 5.82).35 90.04 119. the table shows that the top ten verbs in world affairs are used more than the same verbs in sport.30 -12.93 46.27 43. while in sport. Word frequency by tense Table 5.93 9.12 59. 5. The findings reveal the unexpected fact that both sections use an almost similar level of comparatives. while only five verbs have positive scores in world affairs.82) and َٚ‫( أك‬-88.(-19. In addition.27 46. the verb ٍ‫ هب‬creates the biggest differences with a 75. where all scores except for ٕ‫ ًب‬and ‫ ًبٗذ‬are positive.53 5. as compared with two in world affairs: ٠ِ‫( أػ‬19.

246 . ٍٞ‫و‬٣ . three imperfect verbs in sport created higher scores than the highest score in world affairs. they are ِٖ‫أػ‬.50.72 12. while in sport they are َ‫ٍغ‬.60 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 68 71 ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) 57 2 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 42 57 ّ‫( روب‬held) 39 0 ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) 33 57 ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) 27 14 ٌٖٔ٣ (could) 25 53 ٗٞ‫ق‬٣ (take into) 23 2 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) 23 22 ْٚ‫( ر‬join) 22 17 Keyness 64.75: Comparison of imperfect verbs in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 71 68 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 57 42 ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) 57 33 ٌٖٔ٣ (could) 53 25 ‫غت‬٣ (have to) 32 14 ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (say) 29 8 ١‫( رغو‬run) 23 5 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) 22 23 ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) 21 11 ّٞ‫و‬٣ (stand) 20 14 Keyness 6. The table also shows that. although the number of imperfect verbs that have keyness score is the same for both sections. Table 5. ‫كبى‬.37 20. ّٞ‫ رو‬and ّٞ‫و‬٣.55 -10.72 and 6.75 shows that in world affairs.50 54.29 12. ‫ هبُذ‬. and ‫أّبه‬. it can be concluded that more perfect tense verbs were used in both sections than were used in only one. the difference in scores in world affairs is not great. Thus. In world affairs. while in sport. ّ‫روب‬.37 7.55. ‫ ؽون‬and ‫ُؼت‬. Furthermore.55 10. while in sport they are ‫ِؼت‬٣. the verb ٍٞ‫و‬٣ creates the biggest difference with a 12. Table 5.world affairs. the verb ‫ِؼت‬٣ creates the biggest difference with a score of 64. ٗٞ‫ق‬٣ and ْٚ‫ر‬. The table also shows that there are five verbs in each section that did not occur in the other. ‫أػِ٘ذ‬. they are ‫غت‬٣.72 keyness score.78 - With regard to imperfect verbs. with a range of between 12. ١‫رغو‬.19 -6. ٢‫ِزو‬٣.

60 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 204 146 ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 98 104 ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 68 71 ‫( ؽون‬achieved) 56 6 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 42 57 ّ‫( روب‬held) 39 0 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 37 75 ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) 33 57 ٌٖٔ٣ (could) 25 53 ْٚ‫( ر‬join) 22 17 Keyness 9.55 -10. It shows that in world affairs.27 keyness score. ّ‫ روب‬and ْٚ‫ر‬. differences do exist: the difference between the highest keyness scores in the two sections (13. and sport did not use ١‫رغو‬.27 -6.55 10.27 in sport and 54. The table also shows that there are only three verbs that do not occur among the top ten auxiliary verbs in both sections.27 6.19 in world affairs) shows that the verbs in world affairs were more general than those in sport.37 - Table 5. the verb ْ‫ ر‬creates the biggest difference with a 13. World affairs did not use the verbs ‫ؽون‬.76 shows a comparison between the top ten auxiliary verbs in both sections.85 46.19 -13.37 12. Word frequency of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs Table 5. This shows that the other seven verbs were regularly used in both sections. while in sport.39 54.76: Comparison of auxiliary verbs in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 146 204 ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 104 98 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 75 37 ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 71 68 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 57 42 ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) 57 33 ٌٖٔ٣ (could) 53 25 ١‫( رغو‬run) 23 5 ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) 21 11 ّٞ‫و‬٣ (stand) 20 14 Keyness -9. Nevertheless. 247 . ّٞ‫و‬٣ and ّٞ‫رو‬.19. the verb ّ‫ روب‬creates the biggest difference with a score of 54.2.85 13.

30 -12.12 59.04 119.93 64.69 12.54 20.93 64.72 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ٍ‫( هب‬said) 142 326 َ‫( ٍغ‬scored) 98 2 ‫( كبى‬won) 72 1 ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 68 108 ‫( أًل‬confirmed) 64 111 ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) 57 2 ‫( ُؼت‬played) 37 1 ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) 27 14 ٗٞ‫ق‬٣ (take into) 23 2 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) 23 22 Keyness -75.39 -13. several non-auxiliary verbs in sport. clearly dominate that section more than any of the verbs in world affairs.93 9.30 45.27 6.78: Comparison of verbs with masculine subjects in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World to sports World F F (S) ٍ‫( هب‬said) 326 142 ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 164 204 ‫( أًل‬confirmed) 111 64 ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 108 68 ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) 85 19 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 75 37 ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 71 68 ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) 57 33 ٌٖٔ٣ (could) 53 25 ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫( أ‬explained) 39 24 Keyness 75.50 43.50 46. in world affairs.30 45.35 90.Table 5.50 13.37 Sports to world Sports F F (W) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 204 164 ٍ‫( هب‬said) 142 326 َ‫( ٍغ‬scored) 98 2 ‫( كبى‬won) 72 1 ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 68 108 ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 68 71 ‫( أًل‬confirmed) 64 111 ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) 57 2 ‫( ؽون‬achieved) 56 6 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 37 75 Keyness 9. such as َ‫ٍغ‬.30 -12. the verb ٍ‫هب‬ creates the biggest difference with a 75.35 90.04 keyness score. while three verbs (ٍ‫هب‬.77 shows that.53 5.27 248 . 3.50 46. The table also shows that there are no negative scores in world affairs.04 -9. ‫بف‬ٙ‫ ا‬and ‫ )أًل‬have negative scores in sport. Table 5.55 10.04 119.87 -9. Word frequency by gender of subject Table 5.85 12.35.78 - With regard to non-auxiliary verbs.77: Comparison of non-auxiliary verbs in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ٍ‫( هب‬said) 326 142 ‫( أًل‬confirmed) 111 64 ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 108 68 ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) 85 19 ‫( هبُذ‬said) 75 14 ‫( أػِ٘ذ‬announced 57 3 ‫( أّبه‬pointed) 46 26 ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (say) 29 8 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) 22 23 ‫( مًو‬mentioned) 21 11 Keyness 75. ‫ كبى‬and ‫ِؼت‬٣. while almost all the top ten verbs in world affairs were used more than in sport. while in sport. the verb َ‫ٍغ‬ creates the biggest difference with a score of 119.87 -9.04 12.85 -75.93 9. This shows that.

It shows that.19 5. In contrast.19.79 shows that in world affairs. The table also shows that the highest frequency verb with a feminine subject in both sections was ‫( ًبٗذ‬104 occurrences in world affairs and 98 in sport. in world affairs. its verbs with positive scores. indicating that they were used in similar frequencies in both sections.12 59. the verb ‫ أػِ٘ذ‬creates the biggest difference with a 59. such as َ‫ ٍغ‬and ‫كبى‬. have higher scores than those in world affairs.23 12.04 keyness score. Table 5.35. Table 5. The table also shows there were eight verbs in each section that did not 249 .53 32. This means that the top high frequency words in sport include more specific verbs as a result of these two verbs creating keyness scores higher than any in world affairs.13 18. while in sport.78 shows a comparison between the top ten verbs with masculine subjects in world affaris and sport.79: Comparison of verbs with feminine subjects in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 104 98 ‫( هبُذ‬said) 75 14 ‫( أػِ٘ذ‬announced) 57 3 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 57 42 ‫( مًود‬mentioned) 32 2 ‫( ٗوِذ‬moved) 30 1 ١‫( رغو‬run) 23 5 ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) 21 11 ‫( أًلد‬confirmed) 20 3 ‫ؾذ‬ٙٝ‫( أ‬explained) 18 1 Keyness 46.85).56 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 98 104 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 42 57 ّ‫( روب‬held) 39 0 ‫لد‬ّٜ (witnessed) 23 10 ‫ٔذ‬٤‫( أه‬held) 22 6 ْٚ‫( ر‬join) 22 17 ‫( عود‬ran) 21 12 ‫( رِؼت‬play) 19 0 ‫( رْبهى‬participate) 17 7 ‫( ر٘طِن‬rush) 14 0 Keyness 54. no keyness score appears in the table. where only the verb ٕ‫ ًب‬shows a negative keyness score (-9.40 19.30 9.77 26.60 14. The table also shows that all the top ten verbs in world affairs except ٕ‫ًب‬ were used more than they were in sport. the verb ٍ‫ هب‬creates the biggest difference with a 75. the verb َ‫ ٍغ‬creates the biggest difference with a score of 119.45 With regard to verbs with feminine subjects.01 34. the verb ّ‫ روب‬creates the biggest difference with a score of 54. Because there is such a slight difference between the two. although sport contained more verbs with a negative score.53 keyness score. while in sport.Table 5.

‫رِؼت‬. ‫عود‬. ‫ أًلد‬and ‫ؾذ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬. ‫ رْبهى‬and ‫ر٘طِن‬. Table 5. This indicates that journalists in world affairs report the words of their interviewees directly. Thus. while this was true of only five in sport. ‫لد‬ّٜ. ‫ٗوِذ‬. more than is the case in sports reporting.80: Comparison of verbs with neuter subjects in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ٟ‫( ٗو‬see) 12 1 ‫ل‬٣‫( ٗو‬want) 12 4 ‫( اػزول‬believe) 8 5 ٌٕٞٗ (to be) 6 2 ٌٖٔ‫( ٗز‬be able) 5 3 ٞ‫( ٗلػ‬call) 5 0 ‫ة‬ْٞٗ (mix) 5 0 ٍٞ‫( ٗو‬say) 5 1 ‫( ً٘ب‬to be) 4 0 ‫( ٗئًل‬confirm) 4 0 Keyness 11. In contrast. in world affairs. the most frequent being ٟ‫ ٗو‬and ‫ل‬٣‫ٗو‬. while in sport. with 12 occurrences each.95 6. ١‫رغو‬. ّٞ‫رو‬.occur in the other. only one verb had a singular subject compared with five in sport. ْٚ‫ ر‬. This indicates that interviewees in world affairs speak more on behalf of a group of people.56 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ‫غ‬ٚٗ (put) 6 1 ‫( أهعغ‬move back) 5 1 ٍٞ‫( أه‬say) 5 2 ‫( أػوف‬know) 4 3 ‫( ػِٔ٘ب‬knew) 4 0 ‫( ً٘ذ‬to be) 4 2 ‫ل‬٣‫( ٗو‬want) 4 12 ‫( ٗ٘زظو‬wait) 4 3 ‫( أّؼو‬feel) 3 1 ٌٖٔ‫( ٗز‬be able) 3 5 Keyness 5. 250 .0 6. ‫أػِ٘ذ‬. they are ّ‫روب‬.56 - Table 5. the top ten verbs with feminine subjects in each section differ from each other more than they coincide. The table also shows that nine verbs out of ten in world affairs had the dual or plural subjects. ‫مًود‬. In world affairs these verbs are ‫هبُذ‬. ‫ٔذ‬٤‫أه‬.95 5. whether an organisation or a government.80 shows that world affairs contained more verbs with neuter subjects than sport.56 5.

04 90.3.50 13.82 shows that there were no great differences between the sections in the use of action verbs.23 12.04 -9.60 27.81 shows a comparison between the top ten non-action verbs in both sections.30 5.54 5. Word frequency in terms of semantics Table 5.19 43. seven out of ten (ٍ‫هب‬. 251 .39 -13. Table 5.30 64.87 -12. This can be deduced from the fact that the highest frequency verb in world affairs was ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬108 occurrences) while in sport it was َ‫( ٍغ‬98 occurrences).93 46. ْ‫ر‬.84 34. ٕ‫ًب‬.81: Comparison of non-action verbs in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ٍ‫( هب‬said) 326 142 ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 146 204 ‫( أًل‬confirmed) 111 64 ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 104 98 ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) 85 19 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 75 37 ‫( هبُذ‬said) 75 14 ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 71 68 ‫( أػِ٘ذ‬announced) 57 3 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 57 42 Keyness 75.69 35.50 54.22 Table 5.35 -9. ٌٕٞ٣ and ًٕٞ) occurred in both sections with different frequencies.12 59. Although. ‫ًبٗذ‬.18 Table 5.79 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) َ‫( ٍغ‬scored) 98 2 ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 68 108 ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) 57 2 ّ‫( روب‬held) 39 0 ‫( ُؼت‬played) 37 1 ‫( ربثغ‬followed) 34 18 ‫( هبك‬led) 30 4 ّ‫( رول‬advanced) 27 4 ٗ‫( فب‬took into) 27 1 ّ‫( هل‬advanced) 27 12 Keyness 119.05 22.27 28.53 Sport to world affairs Sport F F (W) ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) 204 164 ٍ‫( هب‬said) 142 326 ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) 98 104 ‫( كبى‬won) 72 1 ٌٕٞ٣ (to be) 68 71 ‫( أًل‬comfirmed) 64 111 ‫( ؽون‬acheived) 56 6 ٌٕٞ‫( ر‬to be) 42 57 ْ‫( ر‬completed) 37 75 ‫( ٗغؼ‬succeeded) 35 4 Keyness 9.27 6.93 45.85 -75. ‫أًل‬.82: Comparison of action verbs in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 World affairs to sport World affairs F F (S) ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) 108 68 ‫( أّبه‬pointed) 46 26 َ‫( هُز‬killed) 35 2 ‫( ٗوِذ‬moved) 30 1 ‫( عبء‬came) 29 26 ١‫( رغو‬run) 23 5 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) 22 23 ّٞ‫( رو‬stand) 21 11 ‫ا‬ِٞ‫( هُز‬killed) 20 0 ّٞ‫و‬٣ (stand) 20 14 Keyness 9.27 46.58 19. It shows that.20 30.85 12.

69 5. the verbs used in each section were different.83: Comparison of action verbs used metaphorically in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 Sport ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( أّبه‬pointed) ‫( عبء‬came) ‫( عود‬ran) ‫لد‬ّٜ (witnessed) Metaphor 68 26 26 21 23 World affairs ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) ‫( أّبه‬pointed) ‫( عبء‬came) ‫( عود‬ran) ‫لد‬ّٜ (witnessed) Metaphor 108 46 29 12 10 Keyness -9. with a few exceptions. There were three verbs that were used literally more than as metaphors.84 shows that most of the example verbs in both sections in data were used more as metaphors than in their literal sense. (َٕٝ. except for the verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. b) Action verbs used literally and metaphorically Table 5.84: Comparison of action verbs used literally and metaphorically in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sport ‫( هكغ‬raised) ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) ‫( ػبك‬returned) ٜ‫( ٍو‬fell) َٖ٣ (arrived) َٕٝ (arrived) َٕ‫ا‬ٞ٣ (continue) ‫وكغ‬٣ (raise) Action 3 8 5 1 8 8 8 1 Metaphor 22 14 13 13 8 6 6 9 World affairs ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) َٕٝ (arrived) ٟ‫و‬٣ (see) ٢‫ؤر‬٣ (come) ٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫( ر‬faced) Action 8 10 3 1 6 Metaphor 14 4 15 12 2 Table 5. َٖ٣ and َٕ‫ا‬ٞ٣) with seven occurrences 252 .83 shows that world affairs used more metaphors in higher frequency than sport with the verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫ أ‬stands the highest in both sections (108 occurrences for world affairs and 68 for sport).30 -5. a) Action verbs used metaphorically Table 5.30 Table 5.the level of usage of action verbs was quite similar.

04 5. all being derived from َٕٝ.85: Comparison of verbs by semantic family Meaning Speaking No 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 Verb ٍ‫( هب‬said) ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (say) ‫( رؾلس‬spoke) ‫زؾلس‬٣ (speak) ٌِْ‫ز‬٣ (speak) ٌِْ‫( ر‬spoke) ‫ل‬ّٜ (witnessed) ٟ‫و‬٣ (see) ٟ‫( ها‬saw) ‫ل‬ْٜ٣ (witness) ‫٘ظو‬٣ (look) ‫( ٗظو‬looked) ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) ِٖ‫ؼ‬٣ (announce) ‫( أفجو‬informed) ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣ (face) ٠‫( اُزو‬met) ٚ‫اع‬ٝ (faced) َ‫وبث‬٣ (oppose) َ‫( هبث‬opposed) ‫( أًل‬confirmed) ‫ئًل‬٣ (confirm) ‫( أصجذ‬affirmed) ‫ضجذ‬٣ (affirm) ‫٘غؼ‬٣ (succeed) ‫( ٗغؼ‬succeeced) ‫ى‬ٞ‫ل‬٣ (win) ‫( كبى‬won) ‫ؾون‬٣ (achieve) ‫( ؽون‬achieved) ‫زـِت‬٣ (overcome) ‫( رـِت‬overcame) ْ‫( ر‬completed) ْ‫ز‬٣ (complete) ٠ٜ‫( اٗز‬ended) ٢ٜ‫٘ز‬٣ (end) ْ‫قزز‬٣ (finish) ْ‫( افزز‬finish) Freq (world) 326 29 6 5 1 0 4 18 7 4 3 1 85 5 2 14 10 5 1 1 0 111 14 2 2 7 4 2 1 4 6 0 0 75 57 2 0 0 0 Freq (sports) 142 8 7 0 0 1 13 10 1 8 0 0 19 10 2 27 16 2 7 4 2 64 7 3 1 7 35 10 72 12 56 2 17 37 33 13 9 7 3 Keyness 75.04 12.85 -90.50 -5.08 45.39 -23.08 12.87 -46.62 13.95 -5.each.05 -12.18 -5.27 6.55 -9.73 - Watching Announcing Meeting Affirmation Achievement End 253 .93 -28.72 6.50 -9. c) Verb with the same semantic meaning Table 5. while this applies to only two verbs in world affairs: َٕٝ and ٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫ ر‬with ten and six occurrences respectively.

sport used all these verbs more than world affairs. world affairs preferred ٟ‫و‬٣ (18 occurrences). The analysis above shows that both sections used almost the same verbs in high 254 . except for one (‫٘غؼ‬٣). both sections used the verbs ِٖ‫ؼ‬٣/ِٖ‫ أػ‬more than other verbs with similar meanings.Table 5.04) and ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (scoring 12. with a 45. For the first meaning. both sections used the verbs ٢‫ِزو‬٣ and ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣ more than other verbs with similar meanings. while world affairs used verb ٟ‫و‬٣ considerably more than ‫ل‬ّٜ. the table shows that the verb ‫ كبى‬was used more than in world affaris.27 keyness score for ْ‫ ر‬and 6.72) more than sport. For the fourth meaning. which was used with the same frequency by both (seven times each). followed by ‫ ؽون‬with 46. with ten occurrences. with a 90. although the comparison shows that world affairs used ِٖ‫ أػ‬more than sport. while sport preferred ‫ل‬ّٜ (13). the table shows that both sections used the verbs ‫ئًل‬٣/‫ أًل‬more than other verbs with similar meanings.39. with a 13. the table shows that both sections used the verbs ٍٞ‫و‬٣/ٍ‫ هب‬more than other verbs with similar meanings. For the second meaning.85 shows a comparison of semantic families across sections. In sport. which shows that the frequency levels were similar. both sections used the verbs ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬more than other verbs with similar meanings.50 keyness score. and no score recorded for the verb ‫ئًل‬٣. For the third meaning. The comparison shows that world affairs used more of these verbs than sport with a score of 12.55 for ْ‫ز‬٣. For the sixth meaning. For the fifth meaning. but no keyness scores are recorded.87 keyness score. The verb ٟ‫و‬٣ is the second highest in sport. It may be concluded that that sport used both ‫ل‬ّٜ and ٟ‫و‬٣ in similar frequencies.93. For the last meaning. The comparison shows that sport used more of these verbs than world affairs. It also shows that world affairs used ٍ‫( هب‬scoring 75. The comparison shows that world affairs used more of these verbs than sport.

the verb ‫ل‬ّٜ is the most frequent in sport.86 shows that the sport sections are more concerned about positive news. ‫ ٗغؼ‬and ‫ؽون‬. this situation is not so clear in world affairs. and ٟ‫و‬٣ in world affairs. in world affairs.86: Comparison of verbs with positive and negative meanings in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sport (positive) ‫كبى‬ (won) ‫ٗغؼ‬ (succeeded) ‫( ؽون‬achieved) َٛ‫رؤ‬ (qualified) ٌٖٔ‫( ر‬was able) ٍ‫ٗب‬ (gained) F 72 35 56 13 12 9 Sports (Negative) ‫( فَو‬lost) َْ‫ك‬ (failed) ‫ؾون‬٣ ُْ (not achieved) َٛ‫زؤ‬٣ ُْ (disqualified) ٌٖٔ‫ز‬٣ ُْ (was unable) َ٘٣ ُْ (not gain) F 30 11 4 0 6 0 World affairs (positive) ‫َٔؼ‬٣ (allow) ‫ٗغؼ‬/‫٘غؼ‬٣ (succeed) ‫ؽون‬/‫ؾون‬٣ (achieve) َٖ‫ؽ‬/َٖ‫ؾ‬٣ (obtain) َ‫هج‬ (accepted) F 7 10 10 8 3 World Affairs (Negative) ‫َٔؼ‬٣ ‫ ال‬/‫ٔ٘غ‬٣ (prohibit) ‫٘غؼ‬٣ ُْ /َْ‫ك‬ (failed) ‫ؾون‬٣ ُْ (not achieve) َٖ‫ؾ‬٣ ُْ (not obtain) ٘‫هك‬ (rejected) F 7 7 0 3 17 Table 5.frequency. there was not a great difference in usage between ‫٘غؼ‬٣ ُْ/َْ‫ ك‬and ‫ٗغؼ‬. For the former. except the verbs of „watching‟ and „achievement‟. 255 . In addition. For the latter. while both sections report positive news more. d) Verb with positive and negative meanings Table 5. with only three occurrences difference. especially the verbs ‫كبى‬. with all the positive verbs being used more frequently than their opposites. where the verb ٘‫هك‬ was used more (17 times) than َ‫( هج‬3) and the verb ‫َٔؼ‬٣ and its opposite were used in similar frequency. This indicates that. the verb ‫ كبى‬is the most frequent in sport and ‫٘غؼ‬٣ in world affairs. this tendency is stronger in sport than in world affairs. However.

256 .56 - Table 5. ‫ ٓبهٍذ‬and ٢‫ٌل‬٣.34 World affairs to sport World affairs Freq F (s) ٍٝ‫ؾب‬٣ (try) 9 13 ٍٝ‫( ؽب‬tried) 7 11 ٠‫َؼ‬٣ (strive) 5 22 ً‫( رٔبه‬practise) 4 0 ٍ‫جن‬٣ (give) 4 3 ‫( ٓبهٍذ‬practiced) 2 0 ٢‫ٌل‬٣ (enough) 4 4 ٠‫( اًزل‬satisfied) 2 6 Keyness -11. with ٠‫َؼ‬٣ used 22 times. with the exception of the verbs ً‫رٔبه‬.e) Verb of striving towards achievement and their opposites Table 5. This indicates that verbs of striving are more relevant to sport than to world affairs. ٍ‫جن‬٣.61 8.61 5.87 shows that sport used these more frequently than world affairs.87: Comparison of verbs of „striving towards achievement‟ and their opposites in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sport to world affairs Sport Freq F (w) ٠‫َؼ‬٣ (strive) 22 5 ٍٝ‫ؾب‬٣ (try) 13 9 ٍٝ‫( ؽب‬tried) 11 7 ‫زلهة‬٣ (train) 6 0 ‫( ٍبهع‬fastened) 3 0 ٍ‫جن‬٣ (give) 3 4 ً‫( ٓبه‬practised) 1 0 ‫( رلهة‬trained) 1 0 ٠‫( اًزل‬satisfied) 6 2 ٢‫ٌل‬٣ (enough) 4 4 Keyness 11. ٍٝ‫ؾب‬٣ 13 and ٍٝ‫ ؽب‬11. seven and nine occurrences respectively in world affairs. The highest three verbs in sport show this clearly. as compared with five.

several of the high frequency general loan words in world affairs also occurred in sport (‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫اٍزوار‬. ٢َِٛ‫أ‬.5. The highest frequency word in world affairs was ٕ‫( ثؤُب‬64 occurrences) followed by ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫( ك‬34).88: Comparison of general loan words in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 World affairs to sport World affairs F ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫( كث‬diplomacy) 16 ٕ‫( ثؤُب‬parliament) 64 ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫( اٍزوار‬strategy) 19 ٢َِٛ‫( أ‬Atlantic) 19 ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫( ك‬democracy) 34 ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٘‫( ر‬technology) 6 ‫ه‬ٞ‫( كًزبر‬dictator) 3 F (s) 0 0 1 1 2 0 1 Sport to world affairs Sport F ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ (medal) 119 ‫خ‬٣‫ٗي‬ٝ‫( ثو‬bronze) 41 ‫( أٍزبك‬stadium) 37 ٚ٤‫( ًبهار‬karate) 18 ‫ثو‬ٍٞ (super) 16 F (w) 0 0 0 0 0 Table 5. while none of the high frequency general loan words used in sport were used in world affairs.88 shows that the two sections used different general loan words.3 Word frequency of loan words a) Comparison of general loan words Table 5. ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ ك‬and ‫ه‬ٞ‫ )كًزبر‬but at very low frequency levels. 257 .1.4. while in sport it was ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ (119) followed by ‫خ‬٣‫ٗي‬ٝ‫( ثو‬41). In addition.

b) Comparison of specific loan words Table 5. a comparison between sections. a comparison between newspapers.2 Comparison of two wordlists in Wordsmith The comparison tool in Wordsmith enables keyword comparison between two wordlists using the likelihood ratio test. This part is divided into three sections: first. and third. 5. The higher the keyness score.89: Comparison of specific loan words in both sections No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 World affairs to sport World affairs F ٛ‫هوا‬ٌٞ٘‫( ر‬technocrat) 5 ًٍٞٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫( ثو‬protocol) 4 ٞ‫ز‬٤‫( ك‬veto) 3 ‫ٍبد‬ٝ‫و‬٣‫( كب‬virus) 2 ‫٘ي‬٣‫( ٓبه‬marines) 2 ٍ‫ٗب‬ّٞ‫اٗزوٗب‬ 1 (international) ‫و‬٤‫( رواَٗل‬transfer) 1 ‫( عبًذ‬jacket) 1 ٢‫ٔـواك‬٣‫( ك‬demography) 1 ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫( ر‬t shirt) 1 ‫ٌبد‬٤‫( رٌز‬tactics) 1 F (s) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 Sport to world affairs Sport F ‫ي‬٤‫( رٌز‬tactics) 4 ‫و‬٤‫( أُ٘بع‬manager) 2 ‫و‬٤ٍ (Sir) 1 ٕٞ‫( ثبكٓ٘ز‬badminton) 1 ‫ي‬٤ً َ‫( كث‬double kick) 1 ‫ي‬٤ٌ٘‫( ر‬technique) 1 ‫ؿواكبد‬ٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫( أ‬autograph) ‫( اٌُبهد‬card) ‫خ‬٤ٌ٤‫( كهآبر‬dramatic) ‫( ٍزبٗلهك‬standard) ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫( ث‬psychology) 1 1 1 1 1 F (w) 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 5.4. 258 . The highest frequency word in world affairs was ٛ‫هوا‬ٌٞ٘‫( ر‬five occurrences) followed by ًٍٞٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫( ثو‬four).000001) that have significant differences are shown in the list by keyness score. a comparison between newspapers published in Arab and non-Arab countries.89 shows that the two sections used different specific loan words. Only one specific loan word (‫ي‬٤‫رٌز‬/‫ٌبد‬٤‫ )رٌز‬occurred in both sections. second. 342 The explanation of this test is discussed in the methodology chapter (see page 138). the more significant the differences are considered to be. once in world affairs and four times in sport.342 Only keywords of keyness under p value (0. while in sport it was ‫ي‬٤ٌ٘‫( ر‬four) followed by ‫و‬٤‫( أُ٘بع‬two).

5.4.2.1 Comparison between world affairs and sports

For purposes of limitation, the researcher focuses the word comparison on keyness scores of more than 100 in this part, because the researcher found important points of difference there between sections. Table 5.90 shows the results.

Table 5.90: Comparison between keywords in world and sports sections
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 World affairs to Sport World affairs F F (s) ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government) 267 0 ِ٤‫( ع‬army) 184 0 ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬forces) 196 7 ‫( ٓئرٔو‬conference) 175 5 ٌ٤ُٞ‫( أٗبث‬Annapolis) 126 0 ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestine) 124 0 ‫( ؽية‬party) 129 1 ‫( ؿيح‬Gaza) 118 0 ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) 522 189 ٢ِ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israeli) 135 3 َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israel) 123 1 ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) 166 12 ّ‫( ٍال‬peace) 126 2 ٢ٌ٣‫( أٓو‬American) 111 0 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫( أٓو‬American) 143 8 ٕ‫وا‬٣‫( ا‬Iran) 135 7 ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers) 131 6 ٖٓ‫( أ‬security) 123 4 ٢٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinian) 100 0 ‫خ‬٤‫( فبهع‬external) 133 8 ‫( اٗزقبثبد‬elections) 101 2 ‫خ‬٤ِ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israeli) 97 2 ً‫( ؽٔب‬Hamas) 86 1 ‫بد‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫( ا‬states) 125 12 ‫( أُزؾلح‬United) 125 12 ‫خ‬ٙ‫( ٓؼبه‬opposition) 78 0 ‫( ؽوًخ‬movement) 83 1 Keyness 371.28 255.79 221.26 204.48 175.13 172.34 168.95 164.00 163.76 162.88 160.70 159.44 157.29 154.27 147.25 141.53 141.10 140.95 138.98 134.47 123.40 118.00 109.98 108.96 108.96 108.39 105.88 Sport to World affairs Sport F F (w) ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) 591 13 ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match) 476 0 ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) 432 6 ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) 374 1 ‫( ًوح‬ball) 339 0 ١‫( ٗبك‬club) 294 1 ‫( الػت‬player) 279 1 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league) 265 0 ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) 300 15 ‫( ٓلهة‬coach) 226 0 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫( ثط‬championship) 208 2 ‫بد‬٣‫( ٓجبه‬matches) 191 0 ٍْٞٓ (season) 164 2 ّ‫( هل‬foot) 202 12 ‫( ُوت‬title) 139 0 ‫( ِٓؼت‬pitch) 139 0 ‫ل‬٤ٕ‫( ه‬standing) 125 0 ‫وخ‬٤‫( كه‬minute) 155 6 ً‫( ًؤ‬cup) 121 0 ‫( ٓ٘بكَبد‬tournament) 121 0 ‫( ارؾبك‬union) 278 55 ‫لف‬ٛ (goal) 238 38 ‫هح‬ٝ‫( ك‬round) 146 6 ّٛٞ (half time) 114 0 ‫( ٗوطخ‬point) 172 15 ‫خ‬٣‫( أٗل‬clubs) 107 0 ٛ‫( ٗوب‬points) 140 7 ٠ٓ‫( ٓو‬goal post) 96 0 ٢٘‫( ك‬technical) 106 2 ٍُ‫ؼبك‬ 89 0 َ َ‫( ر‬equalise) َ‫( ٍغ‬scored) 98 2 ‫( ّجبة‬youth) 101 3 ً‫( ؽبه‬keeper) 80 0 ‫( ٓٔزبى‬premier) 78 0 ‫( أُؼبة‬games) 78 0 ٢ِٛ‫( األ‬al-Ahli 84 1 ٌَْ‫ؽ‬ 79 1 َ (referee) ‫بد‬٤‫( رٖل‬qualifying 72 0 rounds) Keyness 711.67 662.38 543.39 507.79 471.52 396.87 376.10 368.50 315.61 314.22 269.34 265.53 209.08 203.81 193.20 191.81 173.73 171.61 168.17 168.17 162.75 161.01 159.85 158.44 154.43 148.71 147.19 133.41 130.16 123.68 119.35 116.74 111.17 108.39 108.39 107.24 100.41 100.05

259

Table 5.90 summmarises a comparison of keywords in world affairs and sport sections in both directions (world affairs - sport) and (sport – world affairs). All the words have a keyness score of over 100. The world affairs - sports list contains 27 keywords, with the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ ؽ‬the highest with a score of 371.28, ‫ ؽوًخ‬the lowest with 105.88. In contrast, sport - world affairs list contains more keywords (38) and the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬is highest with a score of 711.67. With regard to the highest keywords, in the first comparison (world affairs - sport), the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ ؽ‬is not the highest in the word frequency list. The previous results showed that the word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬was the highest frequency word in world affairs. This means that, although the word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬is the highest frequency word in world affairs, it is not the highest keyword in comparison with sport. This is because of the frequency with which it is used in sport too (189 occurrences). This contributes to its relatively low significance score in world affairs. In contrast, although the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ ؽ‬is used only 287 times in world affairs, it is not used at all in sport. In the second comparison (sport – world affairs), on the other hand, the highest keyword is also the highest frequency word on the sport frequency list. Although the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬did occur in world affairs (13 times), its extremely high frequency in sport (591 occurrences) means that its high score is not affected. To briefly conclude, it can be deduced by the numbers of keywords in the table that the keyword in sport are stronger than keywords in world affairs.

260

5.4.2.2 Comparison between newspapers

1. World affairs

a) Al-Ahram

Table 5.91: Comparison between Al-Ahram and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Khabar Al-Quds Word K Word K ‫خ‬٤‫ ػواه‬37.94 ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ 45.91 ٍٝ‫ثزو‬ 37.01 ٕ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬ 35.36 َ‫ٓؼزو‬ 31.31 ٍٝ‫ثزو‬ 35.02 ‫ثـلاك‬ 29.15 ١ٝٞٗ 31.72 ‫اله‬ٝ‫ك‬ 29.15 ٖ٤ِ‫ ٓؼزو‬29.16

Al-Furat Word K ‫ًبُخ‬ٝ 41.08 ‫أًل‬ 38.88 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫ أٓو‬38.05 ٍٝ‫ثزو‬ 35.60 َ‫ٓؼزو‬ 30.12

Al-Jazirah Word K ٍٝ‫ثزو‬ 36.52 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫ أٓو‬33.01 ‫اله‬ٝ‫ك‬ 28.64 ‫خ‬٣ٝٞٗ 28.09 ٖ٤ِ‫ ٓؼزو‬26.10

Al-Sabah Word K ‫اُؼوام‬ 44.83 ‫خ‬٤‫ ػواه‬44.41 ‫ثـلاك‬ 40.24 ٖ٤ِ‫ ٓؼزو‬37.47 ٍٝ‫ثزو‬ 36.07

Al-Safir Word K ٍٝ‫ثزو‬ 73.63 َ‫ٓؼزو‬ 61.11 ٖ٤ِ‫ٓؼزو‬ 36.10 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ 24.85 ٕ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬ 21.71

Table 5.91 shows the five highest keywords in a comparison between Al-Ahram and the other newspapers in world affairs. The issues of world petroleum and Guantanamo detainees were the most prominent issues in Al-Ahram as indicated by the high scores of the relevant terms as compared with other newspapers. The issues of Iraq and the Iran nuclear programme only dominate in comparison with five other newspapers. For the Iraq issue, the relevant keywords, such as ‫( اُؼوام‬Iraq), ‫( ثـلاك‬Baghdad) and ‫خ‬٤‫( ػواه‬Iraqi), are only found when compared with Al-Khabar, Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Safir, while the keywords relelvant for the Iran issue, ١ٝٞٗ (nuclear) and ٕ‫وا‬٣‫( ا‬Iran), are only found when compared with Al-Jazirah, Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir. This means that the issues of world petroleum and Guantanamo detainees were less reported in all other newspapers than in Al-Ahram and the issues of Iraq and Iran were reported less in three newspapers and more in three others.

261

b) Al-Furat

Table 5.92: Comparison between Al-Furat and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Furat Al-Khabar Al-Quds Word K Word K ‫اُؼوام‬ 52.11 ‫اُؼوام‬ 58.54 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ 45.44 ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ 38.73 ٢‫ػواه‬ 41.22 ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 28.65 ‫اُوبػلح‬ 32.27 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ 28.33 ‫ثـلاك‬ 32.27 ِ٤‫ع‬ 25.95

Al-Ahram Word K ٍٞ‫و‬٣ 23.27 ٞ‫أث‬ 21.90 ‫األٗجبه‬ 16.42 ِ٤‫ع‬ 15.04 ٢‫ػواه‬ 14.36

Al-Jazirah Word K ‫اُؼوام‬ 34.10 ٢‫ػواه‬ 30.55 ‫اُوبػلح‬ 24.63 ٢ٌ٣‫ أٓو‬24.18 ٌْ‫ؽ‬ 21.34

Al-Sabah Word K ‫اُؼوام‬ 93.51 ٢‫ػواه‬ 57.66 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ 52.03 ‫ثـلاك‬ 43.58 ‫اُوبػلح‬ 24.17

Al-Safir Word K ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ 31.30 ٢‫ػواه‬ 29.98 ‫اُوبػلح‬ 27.41 َ‫ٓوز‬ 26.72 ‫اُؼوام‬ 22.95

Table 5.92 shows that the Iraq issue attracted focus in Al-Furat with the availability of Iraq-related keywords in comparison with other newspapers. Words such as ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraqi), ‫( اُؼوام‬Iraq), ‫خ‬٤‫( ػواه‬Iraqi), ‫( ثـلاك‬Baghdad) and ‫( األٗجبه‬al-Anbar) clearly dominate the top five keywords in the comparison. The issue of ‫( اُوبػلح‬al-Qaeda) is also highlighted more in this newspaper than in others. However, the results do not indicate whether al-Qaeda is related to the Iraq issue or other countries.

c) Al-Jazirah newspaper

Table 5.93: Comparison between Al-Jazirah and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Quds Word K Word K ٕ‫بُجب‬ٛ 29.36 ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ 49.11 ٍ‫ّٔب‬ 25.17 ٍ‫ّٔب‬ 43.97 ٕ‫ أكـبَٗزب‬21.08 ٕ‫بُجب‬ٛ 34.58 ْ٤ِ‫اه‬ 19.68 ‫ة‬ٞ٘‫ ع‬29.98 ‫ٌِٓٔخ‬ 19.68 ‫ٍجزخ‬ 19.94

Al-Ahram Word K ٍ‫هب‬ 22.48 ٌ٤ٔ‫ اُق‬22.47 ‫ٍجزخ‬ 21.06 ٖ٣‫ اُجؾو‬19.66 ‫ٌِٓٔخ‬ 19.66

Al-Furat Word K ٕ‫بُجب‬ٛ 29.79 ‫ِٓي‬ 24.18 ٌ٤ٔ‫ اُق‬22.76 ٕ‫ ثبًَزب‬22.76 ‫ٍجزخ‬ 21.34

Al-Sabah Word K ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ كَِط‬22.04 ‫اُؼوام‬ 20.77 ‫ٍجزخ‬ 20.55 ٖ٣‫ اُجؾو‬19.18 ‫ٌِٓٔخ‬ 19.18

Al-Safir Word K ٍ‫ّٔب‬ 45.54 ‫ة‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 38.39 ٕ‫بُجب‬ٛ 35.65 ٌِ‫ٓغ‬ 22.45 ‫ٍجزخ‬ 20.56

Table 5.93 shows that no single issue that totally dominated the coverage in Al-Jazirah reports as compared with all the other newspapers. However, the most highlighted issue is

262

the issue of ‫( ٍجزخ‬Sabtah), a province in Morocco, which has a high keyword score in comparison with five other newspapers (Al-Ahram, Al-Furat, Al-Sabah al-Jadid, Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir). This means that only one other newspaper, Al-Khabar reports the Sabtah issue as much as Al-Jazirah. The issue of the Taliban also attracts more focus as compared with four other newspapers (Al-Furat, Al-Khabar, Al-Quds al-„Arabi and AlSafir).

d) Al-Khabar

Table 5.94: Comparison between Al-Khabar and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Khabar Al-Jazirah Al-Quds Word K Word K ٖ٤ٓ‫ ٓؾب‬21.08 ‫اٗزقبة‬ 47.08 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 17.83 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 30.17 ًَ 17.34 ‫ـ‬٣‫اه‬ٕٞ 22.30 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ُؾ‬ 16.86 ّٞ٣ 22.22 ‫ُٔود‬ٝ‫ أ‬16.24 ٌ٤‫هئ‬ 21.64

Al-Ahram Word K ‫ اٗزقبة‬38.02 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 32.73 ‫هطبع‬ 27.86 ٌ٤‫هئ‬ 26.69 ٕ‫ُج٘ب‬ 25.30

Al-Furat Word K ‫اٗزقبة‬ 52.41 ٢ِ٤‫ اٍوائ‬38.72 ‫خ‬٤ِ٤‫ اٍوائ‬38.51 ٌ٤‫هئ‬ 35.29 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 33.16

Al-Sabah Word K ‫اٗزقبة‬ 41.79 ٢ِ٤‫ اٍوائ‬34.67 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 31.10 ٍ‫اؽزال‬ 28.39 ‫ٓئرٔو‬ 28.21

Al-Safir Word K ‫اٗزقبة‬ 56.84 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 31.11 ٌ٤‫هئ‬ 21.38 ‫عَِخ‬ 21.11 ‫ٍجزخ‬ 20.29

Table 5.94 shows that the issue of the Algerian general election had more focus in AlKhabar with the words ‫( اٗزقبة‬election), َ٣‫( رؼل‬reformation), ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) appearing among the top five keywords. Although it might be expected that this issue would be reported in the local news section, Al-Khabar reported it in world affairs instead. However, the comparison is not very clear with respect to Al-Jazirah, where only the word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬appears in the table, without the words ‫( اٗزقبة‬election) and َ٣‫( رؼل‬reformation). This means that AlJazirah reports the election issue as many times as Al-Khabar, so it could be stated that the issue of the internal Algerian general election was world affairs issue for Al-Khabar due to its importance to the Algerian people and to the Arab world in general.

263

e) Al-Quds al-„Arabi

Table 5.95: Comparison between Al-Quds al-„Arabi and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Quds al-‘Arabi Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Word K Word K ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 45.23 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 32.93 ٟ‫أٍو‬ 21.27 ّ‫ٍال‬ 24.57 َ٤‫ اٍوائ‬17.82 ْ٤ِ‫اه‬ 23.61 ٌٗٞ‫ر‬ 15.95 ‫ػجل‬ 22.74 ٠ِ‫أػ‬ 14.62 ٢٘٤‫ كَِط‬18.67

Al-Ahram Word K ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 38.14 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ك‬ 28.02 ٍ‫هب‬ 26.06 ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ كَِط‬22.82 ٟ‫أٍو‬ 21.54

Al-Furat Word K ٢٘٤‫ كَِط‬37.54 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 33.77 ‫خ‬٤‫ػوث‬ 28.33 ٌ٤ُٞ‫ أٗبث‬26.03 ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ كَِط‬24.89

Al-Sabah Word K ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 48.59 ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ كَِط‬40.85 ‫ٓئرٔو‬ 40.73 ٢٘٤‫ كَِط‬35.60 ‫خ‬٤‫ػوث‬ 29.94

Word ٌِ‫ٓغ‬ ٟ‫أٍو‬ ٍ‫هب‬ ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ ٌٗٞ‫ر‬

Al-Safir K 38.57 22.87 18.60 18.46 17.15

Table 5.95 shows that the issue of Syria attracted more focus in Al-Quds al-„Arabi newspaper, with the occurrence of the word ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ (Syria). However, it should be noted that the Palestine-Israel issue is also of major importance in Al-Quds as compared with other newspapers and there are plenty of keywords relevant to this issue, such as ٢٘٤‫كَِط‬ (Palestinian), ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinian), َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israel) and ٌ٤ُٞ‫( أٗبث‬Annapolis) as compared with ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ (Syria) in all the newspapers except Al-Safir.

f) Al-Sabah al-Jadid

Table 5.96: Comparison between Al-Sabah al-Jadid and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Word K Word K ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ 64.44 ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ 63.58 ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 39.93 ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 63.58 ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ 35.63 ‫ارؾبك‬ 39.61 ‫لح‬ٛ‫ٓؼب‬ 32.28 ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫ أ‬35.15 ٖ٤‫ر‬ٞ‫ث‬ 24.66 ‫لح‬ٛ‫ ٓؼب‬31.86

Al-Ahram Word K ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ 65.25 ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 39.25 ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫ أ‬36.08 ‫لح‬ٛ‫ ٓؼب‬32.86 ‫األؽل‬ 29.14

Al-Furat Word K ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ 66.11 ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 66.11 ‫لح‬ٛ‫ٓؼب‬ 40.77 ٢‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫ أ‬32.33 ‫ارؾبك‬ 32.32

Al-Quds Word K ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ 67.19 ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 53.17 ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ 47.74 ‫ارؾبك‬ 42.23 ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ 37.15

Al-Safir Word K ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ 65.26 ‫لح‬ٛ‫ٓؼب‬ 40.25 ‫ة‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 38.86 ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 36.12 ‫ارؾبك‬ 25.36

Table 5.96 shows that the issue of the Kosovo-Russia conflict attracted more focus in AlSabah al-Jadid, with the occurrence of the words ٞ‫ك‬ًٍٞٞ (Kosovo) and ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫( ه‬Russia) in the

264

table. The domination of this issue is very clear, with these two words having the highest and second highest keyness score in all comparisons with other newspapers, except the word ‫ب‬٤ٍٝ‫( ه‬Russia) in Al-Safir. The researcher believes that the occurrence of the words ‫لح‬ٛ‫( ٓؼب‬agreement) and ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( أ‬Europe) in most of the comparisons is related to this issue.

g) Al-Safir

Table 5.97: Comparison between Al-Safir and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Safir Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Word K Word K ٍٞ‫ؿ‬ 26.05 ّ‫ٍال‬ 30.60 ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 24.62 ٜ‫ٗل‬ 29.76 ٞ‫ر‬ٞ‫ث‬ 17.82 ٍٞ‫ؿ‬ 25.70 ‫بد‬ٙٝ‫ ٓلب‬17.29 ‫ؿبه‬ 16.23 ‫خ‬٣ٝٞٗ 15.08 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٞ‫ اَُؼ‬12.17

Al-Ahram Word K ٍٞ‫ؿ‬ 26.37 ٜ‫ٗل‬ 23.70 ً‫ ػجب‬21.98 ّ‫ٍال‬ 21.47 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ك‬ 20.96

Al-Furat Word K ‫ْٓوف‬ 29.53 ٍٞ‫ؿ‬ 26.72 ٕ‫ ثبًَزب‬25.31 ٢ِ٤‫ اٍوائ‬23.03 َ٤‫ اٍوائ‬21.88

Al-Quds Word K ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 32.88 ‫ ْٓوف‬30.02 ٍٞ‫ؿ‬ 27.16 ‫بهخ‬ٛ 19.24 ٞ‫ر‬ٞ‫ث‬ 18.58

Al-Sabah Word K ‫ٓئرٔو‬ 37.88 ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫كَِط‬ 35.51 ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 31.92 ‫اُؼوام‬ 30.23 َ٤‫اٍوائ‬ 24.49

Table 5.97 shows that no issue totally dominates the keywords in Al-Safir newspaper, as happened in Al-Jazirah. However, the most highlighted issue in the newspaper was related to the Turkish Prime Minister with the existence of the word ٍٞ‫( ؿ‬Ghul) for Abdullah Gül. This excludes the comparison with Al-Sabah al-Jadid where no keyness score is recorded in the top five keywords for the word ٍٞ‫ؿ‬. In addition, the table shows that the issues of Palestine-Israel and Pakistan were also well covered with the occurrence of the words َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israel), ٢ِ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israeli), ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫( كَِط‬Palestinian), ً‫„( ػجب‬Abbas), ‫( ْٓوف‬Musharraf), ٞ‫ر‬ٞ‫( ث‬Bhutto) and ٕ‫( ثبًَزب‬Pakistan). However these only emerge in comparisons with some other newspapers only.

265

2. Sports

a) Al-Ahram

Table 5.98: Comparison between Al-Ahram and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Ahram Al-Khabar Al-Quds Word K Word K ‫ اُيٓبُي‬81.01 ‫ اُيٓبُي‬68.45 ‫ٖٓو‬ 74.62 ٢٘‫ك‬ 64.92 ‫هح‬ٝ‫ك‬ 62.29 ‫و‬٣‫ٓل‬ 50.77 ‫أؽٔل‬ 54.81 ‫ٖٓو‬ 47.74 ٢٘‫ك‬ 52.99 ٌِ‫ٓغ‬ 46.76

Al-Furat Word K ‫ اُيٓبُي‬82.31 ‫ٖٓو‬ 71.73 ٢٘‫ك‬ 55.38 ‫بى‬ٜ‫ع‬ 41.76 ٢ِٛ‫األ‬ 40.49

Al-Jazirah Word K ‫اُيٓبُي‬ 88.36 ٢ِ٤‫أٍبػ‬ 39.39 ‫ُؼجخ‬ 34.62 ً‫ؽو‬ 27.16 ‫أُؾِخ‬ 25.80

Al-Sabah Word K ‫ اُيٓبُي‬85.56 ‫ٖٓو‬ 79.23 ‫أُؼبة‬ 42.09 ٢ِٛ‫األ‬ 42.09 ٌِ‫ٓغ‬ 38.36

Al-Safir Word K ‫اُيٓبُي‬ 88.44 ‫ٖٓو‬ 69.44 ‫و‬٣‫ٓل‬ 49.33 ٢٘‫ك‬ 43.88 ٖ٤‫الػج‬ 40.90

Table 5.98 shows a comparison of the five highest keywords between Al-Ahram and other newspapers in sport sections. The table shows that Al-Ahram gave more coverage to its own internal football issues compared with all other newspapers, with the occurrence of several related words. The names of football clubs highlighted in the newspaper, such as ‫( اُيٓبُي‬Zamalik), ٢ِٛ‫( األ‬al-Ahli), ٢ِ٤‫( أٍبػ‬Isma‘ili) ً‫( ؽو‬Hirs) and ‫( أُؾِخ‬al-Mahallah) indicates the clear dominance of football issues, while the occurrence of the word ‫ٖٓو‬ (Egypt) indicates that the issue is related to Egyptian football. Other words such as ‫و‬٣‫ٓل‬ (director), ٢٘‫( ك‬technical), ‫هح‬ٝ‫( ك‬round), ‫( أُؼبة‬games) and ‫( ُؼجخ‬game) confirm football‟s dominance.

266

b) Al-Furat newspaper

Table 5.99: Comparison between Al-Furat and other newspapers
First Newspaper Al-Furat Al-Khabar Al-Quds Word K Word K ٢‫ ػواه‬73.69 ٢‫ ػواه‬58.39 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 36.88 ١‫ٗبك‬ 35.95 ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬36.11 ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬34.55 ‫ اُؼوام‬28.68 ‫خ‬٤‫ ػواه‬26.32 ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫آ‬ 28.68 ‫ارؾبك‬ 20.72

Al-Ahram Word K ٢‫ ػواه‬73.46 ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬27.89 ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫آ‬ 26.57 ‫خ‬٤‫ ػواه‬22.77 ‫غخ‬٤‫ٗز‬ 18.37

Al-Jazirah Word K ٢‫ػواه‬ 50.68 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ 26.75 ‫ارؾبك‬ 25.60 ٖ٤٤‫ ػواه‬20.80 ‫ٓلهة‬ 18.78

Al-Sabah Word K ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ 22.40 ٖ٤٤‫ ػواه‬20.16 ‫ ٓ٘زقجبد‬20.16 ِِٞ‫ًبث‬ 15.84 ‫ٓجبهاح‬ 14.42

Al-Safir Word K ٢‫ػواه‬ 77.24 ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ 46.05 ‫اُؼوام‬ 29.86 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ 25.59 ٖ٤٤‫ػواه‬ 19.90

Table 5.99 shows that Al-Furat newspaper gave more coverage to football in Iraq, although it is published in Australia, with the occurrence of the words ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraqi), ‫اُؼوام‬ (Iraq), ٖ٤٤‫( ػواه‬Iraqis) and ‫خ‬٤‫( ػواه‬Iraqi). The lack of Iraqi football clubs means that the focus is not on internal Iraqi football events, but on the Iraq national football team who won the Asian Cup just before the corpus collection period. This is deduced from the occurrence of the words ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) and ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( آ‬Asia) in the table. From other points of view, the table shows that the keyness score in Al-Sabah al-Jadid is quite low compared with other newspapers at only 22.40, indicating that the Iraqi newspaper reported less about the Iraq national team than the Australian Al-Furat.

267

99 ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬61.91 ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬46.57 ‫و‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ 44.100 shows that Al-Jazirah newspaper gave more coverage to its own internal football stories.43 Table 5. which is not found in the Egyptian Al-Ahram.47 ١‫ك‬ٞ‫ ٍؼ‬49.72 ‫و‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ 40. so this focus is not a surprise. as shown by the occurrence in the table of the football club name ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫( ا‬al-Hilal).c) Al-Jazirah Table 5. as occurred in Al-Ahram.30 ٍٞٔ 43.43 ٍٞٔ 35.93 Al-Ahram Word K ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ا‬ 70.95 Al-Furat Word K ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ا‬ 77.19 ٍٞٔ 42.100: Comparison between Al-Jazirah and other newspapers First Newspaper Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Al-Quds Word K Word K ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ا‬ 66.90 ١‫ك‬ٞ‫ٍؼ‬ 51.67 ١‫ك‬ٞ‫ٍؼ‬ 47.60 Al-Sabah Word K ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ا‬ 55.30 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫م‬ 30.28 ٢ٗ‫ اُوؾطب‬33.60 ‫بد‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ 44.34 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ 48. the occurrence of the word ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team). It should be noted that the Saudi national team were runners up to Iraq in the final of the Asian Cup.64 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ 43.69 ‫هح‬ٝ‫ك‬ 50. 268 . In addition. the word ١‫ك‬ٞ‫( ٍؼ‬Saudi) and name of the football player ٢ٗ‫( اُوؾطب‬al-Qahtani). shows that the Saudi national team attracted great attention in the newspaper.99 ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬35.49 ٍٞٔ 47.50 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ 50.67 ٍٞٔ 40. which do not appear in other newspapers.40 ٍٞٔ 42.99 ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ 66.35 Al-Safir Word K ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ا‬ 68.92 ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ 35. It is also clear that members of the Saudi royal family are regularly involved in sporting matters from the occurrence of the words ٍٞٔ (Highness) and ‫و‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬Prince).20 ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫ا‬ 70.47 ١‫ك‬ٞ‫ ٍؼ‬47.

22 ‫ل‬٣‫ٓله‬ 49. indicating the 269 .90 ‫لاير‬ 35.24 ١‫ي‬٤ٌِٗ‫ ا‬24.65 ‫ق‬٤ٙ 43.13 ‫أٖٗبه‬ 26.101 shows that Al-Khabar gave more coverage to Algerian internal football issues in comparison with all the other newspapers.28 ‫ٓوؽِخ‬ 30.88 ‫ق‬٤‫ ٍط‬43.22 ١‫ي‬٤ٌِٗ‫ ا‬23.15 ‫ق‬٤‫ٍط‬ 25.12 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞٞٓ 36.d) Al-Khabar Table 5.14 ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ 28.09 ‫لاير‬ 42.81 ‫ق‬٤‫ ٍط‬37.42 ٕ‫ٍؼلا‬ 36.10 Table 5.80 Al-Sabah Word K ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫اكو‬ 31.75 ‫ق‬٤ٙ 33.11 ٕ‫ٍؼلا‬ 31.22 Al-Safir Word K ‫ل‬٣‫ٓله‬ 36.04 ٕ‫و‬٣‫ثب‬ 24.41 ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ 27.01 Al-Ahram Word K ‫ٓلهة‬ 36.47 ‫ق‬٤ٙ 36.101: Comparison between Al-Khabar and other newspapers First Newspaper Al-Khabar Al-Jazirah Al-Quds Word K Word K ‫ٓلهة‬ 44.18 ٌ٤‫هئ‬ 42.69 ٢ٗ‫ اٍجب‬28.04 ‫كبم‬ٝ 38.41 ‫اكاهح‬ 46. as occurred in several other newspapers.47 Al-Furat Word K ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞٞٓ 39.50 ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ 42.61 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ع‬ 22.56 ‫هاثطخ‬ 35.03 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 53.33 ‫ق‬٤‫ٍط‬ 44.01 ٕ‫ٍؼلا‬ 31.49 ‫ٗخ‬ِّٞ‫ ثو‬21.64 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ ٓغ‬32.79 ٕ‫ٍؼلا‬ 36.57 Table 5.102 shows that Al-Quds al-„Arabi from the United Kingdom did not focus on its own internal sports stories. with the appearance of the words ‫( اكاهح‬administration).61 ٕ‫ٍؼلا‬ 34.32 ‫ٓوؽِخ‬ 25.42 ٕ‫و‬٣‫ثب‬ 26.34 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞٞٓ 36. e) Al-Quds al-„Arabi Table 5.58 ‫ فَبهح‬23.86 ‫ق‬٤ٙ 22. with the occurrence of several relevant words. Only the word ١‫ي‬٤ٌِٗ‫ا‬ (English) in Al-Furat and Al-Sabah al-Jadid provided comparisons.88 ‫ٓلهة‬ 36. The issue of team management also received significan attention. such as the names of football clubs: ٕ‫( ٍؼلا‬Sa‟dan).11 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ ٓغ‬47.10 Al-Furat Word K ‫ق‬٤ٙ 34. ‫( ٓلهة‬coach) and ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader).55 ‫كبم‬ٝ 33.18 ٕ‫ٍؼلا‬ 37.56 Al-Ahram Word K ‫ل‬٣‫ٓله‬ 44.07 Al-Sabah Word K ‫كبم‬ٝ 43.88 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞٞٓ 42.08 ‫ق‬٤‫ ٍط‬38.01 ‫لاير‬ 36.33 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞٞٓ 41.86 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ ٓغ‬23.10 Al-Safir Word K ‫كبم‬ٝ 44.102: Comparison between Al-Quds al-„Arabi and other newspapers First Newspaper Al-Quds al-‘Arabi Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Word K Word K ‫ل‬٣‫ٓله‬ 45.55 ‫اكاهح‬ 30. ‫ق‬٤‫( ٍط‬Satif) and ‫كبم‬ٝ (Wifaq).90 ‫كبم‬ٝ 37.15 ‫ق‬٤‫ ٍط‬33.

81 Al-Quds Word K ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ 128. with the appearance in the table of football club names.74 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 62.78 Al-Ahram Word K ٍْٞٓ 80.10 ٍْٞٓ 74.103: Comparison between Al-Sabah al-Jadid and other newspapers First Newspaper Al-Sabah al-Jadid Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Word K Word K ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ 99. such as ‫( ٍبٓواء‬Samarra) and ‫ى‬ٞٛ‫( ك‬Dahuk). ‫ل‬٣‫( ٓله‬Madrid). such as ٕ‫و‬٣‫( ثب‬Bayern).17 ٢‫ػواه‬ 71. ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league).24 ‫ٓٔزبى‬ 56. ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬round).103 shows that Al-Sabah al-Jadid gave more coverage to its own internal football issues as compared with all the other newspapers. ‫ٗخ‬ِّٞ‫( ثو‬Barcelona(.70 ‫ٍبٓواء‬ 50. The names of football clubs highlighted in the newspaper.74 Al-Furat Word K ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ 83. ١‫( ٗبك‬club) and ‫( ٓٔزبى‬premier) confirm the dominance of football.11 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 87. however on world football.75 ‫ٓٔزبى‬ 46.79 ‫ٍبٓواء‬ 68.28 Table 5.32 ‫ ٍبٓواء‬67. with the occurrence of several relevant words. It focused more.38 ‫ى‬ٞٛ‫ك‬ 57. ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team). The occurrence of the words ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫( ٓغ‬group).97 ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ 82.71 ‫٘خ‬٣‫ٓل‬ 57. while the appearance of the word ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraq) shows its concern with Iraqi football. show the clear dominance of football issues.04 ‫ ٍبٓواء‬63.19 ‫ٓٔزبى‬ 79. especially in Europe. Other words such as ٍْٞٓ (season).63 ٢‫ ػواه‬68. ‫( لاير‬Real).70 ‫ى‬ٞٛ‫ك‬ 53.57 ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ 54. f) Al-Sabah al-Jadid Table 5.05 ‫ٍبٓواء‬ 64.67 ‫ٓٔزبى‬ 73. 270 . ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫( ع‬round) and ‫( ٓوؽِخ‬stage) in the table shows that the newspaper reported on the European Champions League and national leagues related to the clubs named above.84 ‫ى‬ٞٛ‫ك‬ 56.33 Al-Safir Word K ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ 90.newspaper‟s concern with English sporting issues.93 ‫ ٍبٓواء‬61.85 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 167.39 ‫اُؼوام‬ 60.19 ١‫ٗبك‬ 78.99 ٢‫ػواه‬ 66.

19 َٚ‫أك‬ 36. Because of this sport is scored in points.32 ‫كبهم‬ 24.71 ‫ٍِخ‬ 34. with the occurrence of the words ‫( ٍِخ‬basket). mostly played in America.30 ‫ اٗزٖبهاد‬20.17 ٕ‫ٍب‬ 24. internal Lebanese issues were not forgotten. with the appearance of the word ‫( اُٖلاهخ‬Sadaqa).59 ٖ‫ٍط‬ٞ‫ ث‬24.68 ٕ‫ُج٘ب‬ 27. ٖ‫ٍط‬ٞ‫( ث‬Boston) and ٕ‫ٍب‬ (San).47 ‫ع‬ٞ‫ أٍج‬25.87 ‫ٍِخ‬ 36. This may be related either to basketball as the main focus or to football.64 ‫ اٗزٖبهاد‬26.92 ‫ٍِخ‬ 22.104: Comparison between Al-Safir and other newspapers First Newspaper Al-Safir Al-Jazirah Al-Khabar Word K Word K ‫ٗوطخ‬ 100.g) Al-Safir Table 5. not goals as in football.96 ٖ‫ٍط‬ٞ‫ث‬ 25.33 Al-Quds Word K ‫ٗوطخ‬ 33. َٚ‫( أك‬better) and ‫( فَبهح‬lost) in the table are also related more to basketball. the word ‫ٗوطخ‬ (point) has the highest keyness score in all comparisons. Other words such as ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ (league).10 Al-Ahram Word K ‫ٗوطخ‬ 98.75 ‫ ْٓبهًخ‬24.104 shows that internal sports issues were not the main concern of the Lebanese Al-Safir in most of the comparisons. َ‫( ٍغ‬scored).38 Table 5.96 ‫فَبهح‬ 39.33 ٖ‫ٍط‬ٞ‫ث‬ 25.31 ‫ٍِخ‬ 26.41 ‫ٗوطخ‬ 127.34 Al-Sabah Word K ‫ٗوطخ‬ 74.17 ‫ اُٖلاهخ‬21. 271 . The focus was rather given to basketball.96 َ‫ٍغ‬ 27.66 Al-Furat Word K ‫ٗوطخ‬ 60.61 ٕ‫ٍب‬ 22.343 343 One of the football clubs in Lebanon.12 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 43.76 َٚ‫ أك‬29. Nevertheless.51 َ‫ٍغ‬ 48. and the word ٕ‫ُج٘ب‬ (Lebanon) does appear.91 ‫ُوت‬ 33.23 َ‫ٍغ‬ 27.

ٕ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬.04 121. Other words. ‫ىهاء‬ٝ.4. Al-Jazirah.29 142.6 59 26. ‫خ‬ٙ‫ٓؼبه‬. except the word ِ٤‫ ع‬which has mean of 31 in non-Arab countries and 24.50 290.16 Table 5. with keywords such ٌ٤‫هئ‬.4 62 Mean 58 29. ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬.8 26 14.06 164.5 17 4.4 29 11.52 181.87 118. Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Safir. ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ. ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ ؽ‬and ‫اٗزقبثبد‬.2 116 41. They were selected on the basis of their ability to illustrate language style in Arabic newspapers across both sub-corpora.2.5 31 Keyness 566. such as ٌ٤‫هئ‬. and two from non-Arab countries: Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Furat. Al-Khabar.42 192. The study covered five newspapers from Arab countries: Al-Ahram.5. ٢ِ٤‫اٍوائ‬.105 shows examples of keywords compared between newspapers published in Arab and non-Arab countries in world affairs.5 12 13 3 14. 272 .2 3 24. World affairs Table 5. The results of the analysis of the mean for both sections in each word show that all the keywords in newspapers published in Arab countries were used more than in newspapers published in non-Arab countries. ‫اٗزقبثبد‬.20 174.2 24 21.5 1. The issues of Palestine and Iran were being highlighted.4 in Arab countries.29 146.4 6 20.3 Comparison between newspapers published in Arab and non-Arab countries 1.4 9 22.105: Comparison between the Arab and non-Arab newspapers in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Arab ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader) ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government) ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) ‫( اٗزقبثبد‬elections) ٕ‫وا‬٣‫( ا‬Iran) ٢ِ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israeli) ‫خ‬ٙ‫( ٓؼبه‬opposition) ‫ىهاء‬ٝ(ministers) ٕ‫( ثبًَزب‬Pakistan) ِ٤‫( ع‬army) F 406 208 132 92 111 109 72 102 56 122 Arab to Non-Arab Mean F (Non-Arab) 81. it can be concluded that the newspapers from the Arab countries were concerned about the countries‟ leadership and government. Therefore. ‫ىهاء‬ٝ and ٕ‫ ثبًَزب‬have a higher mean in Arab countries than in non-Arab countries.4 34 18. ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ.

57 169.106: Comparison between the non-Arab and Arab newspapers in world affairs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Non-Arab ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraqi) ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ (Syrian) ٟ‫( أٍو‬detainees) ‫( اُؼوام‬Iraq) ‫( اُوبػلح‬al-Qaeda) ‫( ثـلاك‬Baghdad) ‫خ‬٤‫( ػواه‬Iraqi) ١‫( أؽٔل‬Ahmadi) ٌِ‫( ٗبث‬Nablus) ٕ‫( ًوكٍزب‬Kurdistan) F 54 36 18 82 36 43 42 15 11 11 Non-Arab to Arab Mean F (Arab) 27 29 18 12 9 3 41 98 18 27 21.4 0.8 72 13 4 Mean 53.6 5. ‫اُؼوام‬.94 11.5 72 3 47 8 5. It can be concluded that newspapers in non-Arab countries were more concerned with the issues of Iraq.Table 5.87 23.13 30.5 5 5.08 166. The issues of Syria and al-Qaeda are also highlighted more than in Arab newspapers.107: Comparison between the Arab and non-Arab newspapers in sports No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Arab ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) ١‫( ٗبك‬club) ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team) ٢٘‫( ك‬technical) ‫( ارؾبك‬union) ‫( ٖٓو‬Egypt) ‫( ّجبة‬youth) ٌْ‫( ؽ‬referee) ‫( ٓلهة‬coach) ‫( اُيٓبُي‬Zamalik) F 284 237 288 100 184 99 90 75 154 65 Arab to Non-Arab Mean F (Non-Arab) 56.32 155. The results of an analysis of the mean of all keywords show that they are used more in newspapers published in non-Arab countries than in those published in Arab countries. 2.5 8 5.22 15.16 161.106 shows a similar sub-corpus analysis but in the opposite direction (non-Arab to Arab).92 46.58 Table 5. ‫ثـلاك‬.68 276.4 57 57.88 25.8 2.93 211.8 16 18 11 15 4 30.2 1.58 11. Sports Table 5.6 19. ‫خ‬٤‫ ػواه‬and ٕ‫ًوكٍزب‬.5 28. which are not found in newspapers in Arab countries.6 144 20 6 36.4 9.5 2 36 2 Keyness 743.92 350.04 273 . with keywords such as ٢‫ػواه‬.4 9.69 173.5 5 Mean 5.5 47 21 46 7.6 1 1 Keyness 49.8 107 47.67 137.78 13.81 16.8 94 19.

It can be concluded that the newspapers published in Arab countries were more concerned about sports clubs with keywords such as ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬.6 14. ٌْ‫ ؽ‬and ‫ اُيٓبُي‬were used more in the newspapers published in Arab countries.6 0. youth sports and teams.2 Keyness 54.2 5.91 22. such as Egypt.59 Table 5.107 shows a similar comparison to that in Table 5. The Arab newspapers also gave more coverage to sports issues in their own countries. ١‫ ٗبك‬and ‫اُيٓبُي‬.8 3.02 31. while the non-Arab newspapers attach importance to the matter of team coaches. ١‫ٗبك‬. but dealing with sport sections. ‫ّجبة‬. and individual skills were also central issues in the Arab country newspapers.4 3. ٢٘‫ك‬.5 6 21 27 15 13 9 3 36 74 27 50 14 17 14 16 Mean 2.18 26.108: Comparison between the non-Arab and Arab newspapers in sports No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Non-Arab ‫ل‬٣‫( ٓله‬Madrid) ‫( لاير‬Real) ٢ُ‫طب‬٣‫( ا‬Italian) ‫ق‬٤ٙ (guest) ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫( اكو‬African) ٕ‫ال‬٤ٓ (Milan) ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraqi) ‫غخ‬٤‫( ٗز‬result) ٢ِ٣‫( ثواى‬Brazilian) ‫ٗخ‬ِّٞ‫( ثو‬Barcelona) F 43 44 23 42 30 18 72 54 28 28 Non-Arab to Arab Mean F (Arab) 21.4 2. It can be concluded that the non-Arab country newspapers 274 . Table 5.108 shows a similar sub-corpora analysis in sport in the opposite direction (nonArab to Arab).41 29. while the non-Arab newspapers gave more attention to national teams. The results of an analysis of the mean of all keywords show that all the words were used more in newspapers published in non-Arab countries than in those published in Arab countries.106. The results of an analysis of the mean of all keywords shows that words such as ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. while the words ‫ٓ٘زقت‬.00 23. with the occurrence of the word ‫ٓ٘زقت‬.6 1.Table 5.99 30. ‫ ارؾبك‬and ‫ ٓلهة‬were used more in the non-Arab newspapers.74 32.79 48.81 32. Issues of match referees. with the appearance of the words ‫ ٖٓو‬and ‫اُيٓبُي‬.8 10 3.5 14 22 18 11. ‫ٖٓو‬.

The table also shows that they reported the results of the sports competitions around the world more than the newspapers published in Arab countries. especially in the high frequency list. ٍ‫ٕ هب‬ٌٞ٣. this is less apparent in the verb analysis. ٢‫ ػواه‬and ٢ِ٣‫ ثواى‬show that the non-Arab newspapers highlighted sport in other countries more their own internal sports issues in the United Kingdom and Australia. although the conclusions show that the similar verbs were used in both sections. were used with similar frequency. while in world affairs they indicated success in finding solutions or discussion between two or more parties. In terms of word frequency. the „achievement‟ verbs were used in the sport sections to indicate success in competition. they were used for different purposes. A comparison of Tables 5. keywords such as ٢ُ‫طب‬٣‫ا‬. The analysis produced interesting results about loan 275 . For example.108 indicates that newspapers in Arab countries give more coverage to their won internal sporting events. such as ٕ‫ًب‬. clear differences can be seen in the use of nouns between the world affairs and sport sections in that each section used different words more frequently. while the opposite is true of Arabic newspapers in non-Arab countries.were more concerned with European football clubs. In addition. such as governments or organisations. ِٖ‫ أػ‬and others.5 Conclusion In conclusion it can be stated that the world affairs and sport sections each have their own features and these can be identified by analysis and comparison. 5.107 and 5. ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. ‫ٗخ‬ِّٞ‫ ثو‬and ‫ اٗزو‬or ٚ٣‫ا‬ ٕ‫ال‬٤ٓ ٢ٍ. which showed that some verbs. such as ‫ل‬٣‫لاير ٓله‬. In terms of semantics. However.

‫و‬٤‫أُ٘بع‬. indicating that several newspapers published in both Arab and non-Arab countries were very open to the acceptence of loan words. ‫و‬٤‫( أُ٘بع‬manager) in Al-Khabar and ‫و‬٤ٍ (Sir) in AlSabah al-Jadid indicates that several newspapers are open to the use of foreign words in Arabic language newspapers. ‫عبًذ‬ (jacket) and ‫ي‬٤‫( رٌز‬tactics) in Al-Ahram. so that words such as ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ر‬. although sport would have been expected to dominate in comparatives. Another unexpected result was the use of the spelling ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ (without ‫ـ‬ٛ). the comparative noun analysis proved comparatives were used in almost equal frequency by both sections. The analysis also revealed several counter-intuitive findings that went against the researcher‟s expectation.words in each section. ‫ي‬٤ً َ‫ كث‬and ‫و‬٤‫ رواَٗل‬can be found in both corpora. ‫عبًذ‬. which is contrary to the normal practice of spelling ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣ٝ‫٘به‬٤ٍ (with ‫ـ‬ٛ). This is not surprising in newspapers published in non-Arab countries. 276 . For example. but the occurrence loan words in newspapers from Arab countries such as ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫( ر‬t shirt). especially the special loan words. and the use of loan words ‫ اٌُبهد‬and ٕٞ‫ ثبكٓ٘ز‬as an alternatives to the words ‫ اُجطبهخ‬and ‫ْخ‬٣‫ًوح اُو‬.

For further discussion of the analysis.2 General Discussion of Both Section Lists The word frequency lists for both sections contain similar numbers of words. The second discusses the whole analysis of world affairs and sport sections and the comparison between them from various angles simultaneously.1 Introduction The analysis in chapter 5 generates valuable outcomes with respect to language style in terms of word usage in Arabic newspaper. This step was taken to ensure that all language styles were covered and discussed in one part. 6.CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION OF THE ANALYSIS 6.252 words on the world affairs list and 9. with 9. The first is an introduction. When the researcher 277 . Lastly.573 words on the sport list. they also represent several aspects of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) in written media. From a wider perspective. this study can present a picture of language style and. an analysis of the contemporary corpus illustrates the style of current language usage (see page 4-5). in addition. As noted in previous chapters. this chapter is divided into three parts. the third part presents some conclusions. The present study arrived at a view of style in word usage by analysing the frequency of word occurrences.

where a bigger frequency gap can be seen between words at the top of the list. ranging from a small number of words with widely different frequencies to a large number of words with the same frequency. Both sections showed similar patterns.2. decreasing progressively towards the bottom. the more related it was to its section.1 Word in the high frequency list Analysis in both sections also revealed that most of the words that occurred in high frequency were words that were particularly relevant to the section in which they were found.limited his focus to words that occurred at least three times. The same applies in the sport sections. which shows the keyness scores in each section. both frequency lists show a normal pattern. as shown in graphs 5.267 words. The deduction that these words were closely related to their section (world affairs or sport) was in line with the comparison analysis presented in Table 5. 6. ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) and ‫( ًوح‬ball) clearly dominate the list.2. which dominate the top ten high frequency words. 7. ٍ‫هب‬ (said) and ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader). while the sport list was made up of 3. 278 .551 words.8. this can be seen in the words ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government). For example. In the case of world affairs. ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team). where words such as ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team). Thus. as shown in Graph 5. the frequency gap between the top word (ٌ٤‫ )اُوئ‬and the second word (ٍ‫ )هب‬on the world affairs list is 196 (522-326). but there is no gap between with the 4. ‫ٓجبهاح‬ (match). the world affairs list then included the top 3. ranging from the word ٌ٤‫ اُوئ‬with 522 occurrences to words that only occurred three times. ranging from the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬with 591 occurrences to words used only three times. as shown in Graph 5. The higher the score for each word.1 and 5.90.202 words that all occurred only once.

It can be briefly concluded that it is normal a high frequency list to be dominated by words closely related to the area of the corpus along with very general words. 6. The examples of words ّٞ٣ (day) and ّ‫( ػب‬year) in world affairs show they were dispersed in more texts (82 and 88 respectively) than several words that occurred in higher frequencies.2. being found at this level. while the plurals occurred in the second (200-101) and third (100-3) groups. fewer general words were analysed and this would account for sport producing a less clear result (see page 192). More subject-specific words occurred in the sport high frequency list than was the case in world affairs. This was confirmed by the fact that all the top ten singular nouns occurred in the first (522-201) and second (200-101) frequency groups. This is because the first two words are general words that regularly occur in all kind of writing. The analysis in world affairs showed that singular words dominated the high frequency list. with only one plural noun. although this was less clear-cut in sport. such as ‫ٓئرٔو‬ (conference) and ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister). In terms of frequency of occurrence in the 279 . ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬forces). Although this emerges less clearly in sport.2 Noun in terms of number The analysis showed that both sections used singular nouns (1.528 in sport) more than plurals (415 in world affairs and 263 in sport) and duals (23 in world affairs and 44 in sports). the researcher believes that this is because the study analysed only the top ten words.856 in world affairs and 1. which appeared in only 49 and 53 texts respectively.Analysis in world affairs also showed that higher frequency did not necessarily mean dispersion in more texts. while the second two words can be related closely to world affairs.

35. with a mean of 15. the news gave attention to individual governments than to governments as a group. where teams participation are regularly involved. most news reports focused on a particular government leader rather than a group of them. as shown in Table 5.3 shows a parallel situation. the same would not be expected in sport. indicates their domination in terms of frequency through the whole sport list. ٖ٤‫الػج‬. as compared with the plural ‫( هإٍبء‬leaders). compared with only 11. Nevertheless. The higher mean for singulars compared with plurals. with the finding that the singular was used more frequently. occurring in this group. which is played by teams. this particular corpus contained mostly articles about football.313 for plurals.064. ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. etc. as is shown by the high frequency of the word ٌ٤‫هئ‬ with 522 occurrences. The reason for this is that there are more singular actors involved in world and sporting events.whole list. ‫ٓجبهاح‬. with only one plural. which does not appear in the table. ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) in the top ten. Similarly with regard to the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬. In world affairs for example. comment. Moreover. decision. ‫ ًوح‬and others dominated the top ten high frequency words. This is because different leaders and governments create different world events and have different reflections on world issues. Table 5. singular words such as ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. the results still indicate the domination of singular nouns and the highest frequency plural 280 . Reporting about leaders or governments collectively would in most circumstances eliminate the special characteristics of each. In sport too there was only one plural noun. Reports were mostly related to a particular leader‟s action. While world affairs focusses more on issues relating to singular character. In sport.

Tables 5.66 and 5. This is because the word ٌ٤‫ هئ‬was also used in high frequency in sport (189 ocurrences). on average. was only ranked fourth (with 374 occurrences).36. ٖ٤‫الػج‬. This word created the highest keyness score. higher than any keyword in world affairs. with 711. This indicates that.67 show that the singular and plural nouns in sport were more specific than those in world affairs. The opposite applied in sport. 1. even though this seemed to contradict the fact that there were more sound plurals (241) than broken plurals (210) in terms of numbers of different words. The same 281 . notably the words ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬and ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬591 and 432 occurrences respectively). ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. although technically singular. even though the reports are about team sports such as football. as shown in Table 5. show that the focus of the news was not on one player but on the team. In comparison analysis.67. which appear as singular nouns in the analysis. The dominance of the singular may be related to the existence of collective nouns. the club. along with others such as ١‫ٗبك‬.76. Sound and broken plurals The analysis also showed that broken plural were used in world affairs with greater frequency than sound plurals.noun. it is particularly notable that singular nouns were used more than plurals in sport. which. each broken plural occurred more frequently than each sound plural. ‫ٓجبهاح‬. where the highest scoring word. ٌ٤‫هئ‬. as indicated by the fact that the top ten singular and plural nouns in sport created higher keyness score than those in world affairs. scored only 163. Although these findings are not new. ‫ارؾبك‬. or the match. The word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬in sport is a clear example.

especially in the case of nouns that can take either a broken or sound plural. The researcher sees the domination of broken over sound plurals as a new tendency in media Arabic.6 for world affairs and 5.38 for sport show that both sections report more about men than about women. while three sound plurals were used (‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬. while only two feminine plurals related to people. In the comparison analysis. ‫ ٌْٓالد‬and ‫ػبد‬ٝ‫ )ْٓو‬in world affairs. and the word ‫غ‬٣‫ْٓبه‬.68 shows that broken plurals totally dominated in sport. 2.36. A further detailed analysis was made to show the usage of broken and sound plurals when both forms are available in Arabic. Table 5. the exceptions being the word ‫أْٗطخ‬. Tables 5. the opposite was the case for plural nouns related to people. with a clear difference in terms of both numbers of words and word frequency. In world affairs there were 103 masculine plurals.37 show that broken plurals were used more than sound plurals in virtually all the examples. which was used less than ‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬. although feminine plurals were used more than masculine in both sections generally speaking. all of which referred to people.situation occurred in sport. where 47 masculine and three feminine plurals referred to people.5 and 5. 282 . Tables 5. Masculine and feminine plurals Analysis showed that. where no sound plurals were used. where the broken plurals were used more both in terms of frequency and number of different words as shown in Table 5. The same was true in sport. which was used in the same frequency as ‫ػبد‬ٝ‫ ْٓو‬in world affairs.

as masculine plural nouns in Arabic may include females as well as males (see page 157). even if the singular is masculine. Secondly. but an example in sport clearly shows a singular verb used after a dual subject. On the other hand. even if it contradicts traditional Arabic grammar. the domination of the masculine in plural nouns referring to people does not convey the whole picture. There are no examples of this in world affairs.The reason for this goes back to the fact that the general analysis included all plurals. there are several new trends in noun usage in terms of number (singular. regardless of whether they referred to people. 3. which are considered feminine in Arabic syntax. First. it also shows that there is perception among news authors that Arabic grammar as not a major issue that needs to be given excessive attention in news writing. Dual nouns with singular verbs Analysis of dual nouns showed that they might be used with singular verbs. 283 . the masculine plural ٖ٤٤٘٤‫ كَِط‬in world affairs may be referring to both men and women together. the domination of feminine plurals can be attributed to the plurals of inanimate nouns. In brief. They are proceding to make Arabic grammar less complicated. For example. The word ٕ‫ اُالػجب‬in the example (see page 198) for the complete sentence) was used with the singular verb ٍ‫ ٓبىا‬in clear contradiction of normal usage in Arabic grammar. dual and plural). this study shows that the broken plural was preferred to the sound plural in news writing when both forms were available in Arabic. As a result. as long as the usage is clear and understood by readers.

Most of the articles in world affairs gave prominence to the issues of the Palestine– Israel problem. In addition. This is confirmed by the analysis of the top ten nouns in Table 5. were used more than their feminine equivalents. ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫ أٓو‬and ‫خ‬٤‫ )فبهع‬being used more often than the tenth masculine noun. such as ٌ٤‫هئ‬. the Iranian nuclear programme and US actions with regard to these issues (see page 114). This is confirmed by the fact that all top ten masculine nouns were included in the first group (very high frequency) compared with only three feminine nouns.8 confirm this by showing the domination of the masculine in all frequency groups and in the mean of frequency of occurrence. There were 1.9 show that nouns indicating male individuals. The same clearly applies in sport.4 and Table 5.7 with only four feminine nouns (‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬. Tables 5. Graph 5. Almost all the leaders and ministers in these countries were males.2. only two of the top ten feminine nouns (‫ ٓجبهاد‬and ‫ )ًوح‬were used more frequently than the tenth most frequent masculine noun (see Table 5. which did not appear in the top ten listed feminine nouns. the same finding appeared in both sections. Iraq.7 and 5. ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ and ‫ىهاء‬ٝ. With regard to the world affairs. in articles relating to Pakistan and the Philippines: the Pakistani Prime Minister (Perves Musharraf) confronted 284 . When further analysis was carried out in order to reveal the nouns that refer to people. A small number of female (feminine) leaders and ministers were found.39).6.3 Noun in terms of gender The analysis showed that masculine nouns were used more than the feminine nouns in both world affairs and sport. ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬.343 masculine and 950 feminine nouns in world affairs. the general analysis showed that there were 1.110 masculine nouns on the high frequency list and only 728 feminine.

As a result. As 344 Reuters. the researcher found a statement in one of the articles in the sport corpus stating that “women‟s involvement in karate is still very limited as compared to other countries”.344 This statement alluded to the fact that women‟s involvement in karate in particular was specifically and that their involvement in all sports generally was also limited in the Emirates. The reason for the dominance of the men in sport is also related to the fact that most articles in the section reported on football which is dominated by male players. This is an indication of the greater involvement of males than females in world events. men receive more attention in the news. The same clearly applies in sport. although women are referred to as a leaders in world affairs with the occurrence of the words ‫َخ‬٤‫( هئ‬leader) and ‫وح‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister). which regularly involves more male participants especially the reports about football. although there has been a tendency towards more female participation in sport in recent years. 2007. The table also showed the absence of women‟s involvement in sports management as leaders.” Al-Quds al-„Arabi (London). the researcher selected two related nouns (ٖ٤‫الػج‬ and ‫ )الػت‬that occurred in Table 5. In support of this claim. November 24. and Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was the President of Philippine. 285 .39 and found that their feminine equivalents did not occur among the top ten feminine noun in the table. “al-Karate yatatawwar fi al-Emirate.the female opposition leader (Benazir Bhutto).41. This also explains the reason for the higher frequency of the words ‫ الػت‬and ٖ٤‫ الػج‬as compared with ‫ الػجخ‬and ‫( الػجبد‬24 and 10 occurrences) as shown in Table 5. Discussing the reason of this phenomenon. However the great majority of leaders referred to were men. The use of language thus indicates that men are more involved in sport than women.

6. words such as ‫اُؼوام‬ (Iraq). With regard to feminine nouns. ‫( ثـلاك‬Baghdad). focussed on the Asian Cup. Tables 5. Words such as ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. whether referring to people or not. the 286 . ١‫ ٗبك‬and ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ ك‬created a higher score than the highest score in world affairs. This indicates that there were more specific words in sports. ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. This was determined by the higher score of keywords in sport section as compared with world affairs. which might reflect the kind of articles published in the newspapers. tennis and basketball. ٕ‫وا‬٣‫( ا‬Iran). Only a few articles reported on other sports that involve women. for the reasons discussed. ‫( ؿيح‬Gaza). while others concentrated on their own national football leagues.mentioned before.70 show that there were more nouns. ٌ٤ُٞ‫( أٗبث‬Annapolis). several newspapers such as Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Furat. etc.2. َ٤‫( اٍوائ‬Israel).4 Noun in terms of proper nouns The analysis showed that the two sections used different proper nouns. ٖ٤‫الػج‬.69 and 5. ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬. In world affairs. words such as ‫ ٓجبهاح‬and ‫ ًوح‬created a higher score than the highest score for a feminine noun in world affairs. both masculine and feminine. classed as „specific‟ in sport than in world affairs. In the comparison analysis. which was for the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬. which was for the word ِ٤‫ع‬. which were not used in world affairs. indicated that world affairs focused on issues connected with Palestine–Israel relations. the researcher considers that all facts above indicate a normal trend in Arabic newspaper as both world and sporting events are dominated by masculine nouns. such as karate. However.

which won the Asian Cup shortly before the corpus collection. as discussed in the analysis chapter (see page 161). rather than ‫ٌب‬٣‫أٓو‬. ‫( اُيٓبُي‬al-Zamalik). the results showed only 28 occurrences for the word ‫ٌب‬٣‫( أٓو‬America). ٢ِ‫ػ‬. particularly football clubs. while the concordance tool showed that the words ‫ اُؼوام‬and ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ آ‬were also related to football issues as the results showed that some newspapers. ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫آ‬ (Asia). all the other proper nouns above were related to football news. ‫( لاير‬Real) and others reflected the focus on news related to football competitions. the difficulty of forming a relational adjective (‫ )َٗجخ‬with ١ for to refer to people from the phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ا‬made the word ‫ٌب‬٣‫ أٓو‬preferable for this purpose. were used largely to indicate something related to it. In sport. while the phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ا‬was used to refer to the country. The reason for this phenomenon. ‫اُؼوام‬. ٖ٤٤ٌ٣‫أٓو‬. ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫أٓو‬. which was used 125 times. 287 . which is fewer than the other proper nouns mentioned above. such as ٢ٌ٣‫أٓو‬. proper nouns such as ‫ٓؾٔل‬. However. The researcher considers that the word ‫ٌب‬٣‫ أٓو‬was largely used to refer to its „people‟. and ٕ‫ب‬٤ٌ٣‫أٓو‬. is that Arabic newspapers preferred to refer to the United States with the phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ا‬.Iranian nuclear programme and the Iraq crisis. in contrast to the word ً‫ ػجب‬in world affairs. especially the Australian Al-Furat gave extensive coverage about the Iraqi national football team. It should be stated that these issues were directly related to the United States (US) as the main actor in most world issues. However. As mentioned before (see page 202) that the first two personal names (٢ِ‫ ػ‬and ‫ )ٓؾٔل‬have no significance because they cannot be taken as referring to a particular person. the results also showed that derivations of the word ‫ٌب‬٣‫أٓو‬. ٢ِٛ‫( األ‬al-Ahli). However. In addition.

Elsewhere. The word ‫ اُؼوام‬was used in world affairs in relation to the Iraq crisis that began in 2003.11 shows that the Arab world.5 Noun in terms of phrases With regard to phrases.2. The researcher believes that this is related to the existence of the state of Israel among the Arab countries. which indicates its higher frequency when 288 . This recognition is also indicated by the phrase ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ اُلَِط‬٢ٙ‫( األها‬Palestine territories) as shown in the same table. However. while the same word in sport was related to Iraqi sports news. In world affairs for example. though in lower frequency. the existence of the last two phrases shows that Arabic newspapers use other terms to refer to Arab countries. the phrase ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ا‬was not only used in world affairs and Table 5. their national football team. the analysis showed that both sections have their own common phrases that reflect the news in their category. 6. which can be found in Al-Furat and Al-Khabar. recognises Palestine as a legal state. The phrase ٍٜٝ‫اُْوم األ‬ (Middle East) was used more frequently than the phrases ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬New Middle East) and ٢‫ اُؼوث‬ٍٜٝ‫( اُْوم األ‬Arab Middle East). leading to the formation of a new term to take into account their new unwelcome neighbour. and this phrase occurs more frequently than ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫( ك‬Jewish state) and َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫( ك‬state of Israel). the high frequency of the phrase ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫ُخ كَِط‬ٝ‫( ك‬Palestinian state) in Table 5.The above discussion also shows that the word ‫ اُؼوام‬was found in both sections.71 shows that it also occurred in sport. including their national football league and. more especially. phrases such as ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ا‬and ‫ األْٓ أُزؾلح‬were used very frequently because they are related to world issues. Although variations are normal. but referring to the relevant articles proved that it was not used in relation to the same issues. through its newspapers.

Munir Al-Ba‟albaki (Beirut: Dar al-„Ilm li al-Malayin.v. can be found in several newspapers. َ٤‫ٓخ اٍوائ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government of Israel). . s. The geographical proximity of Lebanon to Israel may account for the fact that Al-Safir used more phrases more frequently than other newspapers. the different spelling of the words ٢َِٛ‫ األ‬and ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ اال‬in the phrase ٢َِٛ‫( ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬NATO) shows that geography plays a part: the results showed that only the Egyptian newspaper used the spelling ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫( األ‬twice) as shown in Table 5. Al-Mawrid. ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ ك‬and ‫خ‬٤ِ٤‫ اإلٍوائ‬٢ٙ‫ األها‬shows the indirect recognition of the state of Israel in the Arab world.” 345 289 . the Arabic newspapers showed they were uncomfortable with the illegal Israels settlements on Palestinian land by using the phrase ٢ِ٤‫( االؽزالٍ اإلٍوائ‬Israeli occupation) in high frequency and the use of ‫( اُولً أُؾزِخ‬occupied Jerusalem) and ‫( األهٗ أُؾزِخ‬occupied land) to refer to the occupied Palestinian territories. 22nd ed. while other newspapers more often used ٢َِٛ‫األ‬. while Al-Quds al-„Arabi used only َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫ك‬. This indicated that Al-Ahram preferred to transliterate the exact English spelling of the word (Atlantic). In contrast. 1988).28 showed the use of the phrases َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫ ك‬and ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ ك‬in two newspapers.compared with ‫خ‬٤ِ٤‫ اإلٍوائ‬٢ٙ‫( األها‬Israeli territory). For this purpose. the existence of positive phrases about Israel shows that the rejection was not absolute.345 which will be discussed This spelling is used in several dictionaries such as Al-Mawrid. the occurrence of several phrases referring to the state of Israel. indicating its indirect recognition of Israel despite being in conflict with it. Al-Safir used both phrases. The use of phrases such as َ٤‫ُخ اٍوائ‬ٝ‫ك‬. Elsewhere.32. Although this is an indication of the protest of the Arab world against Israel settlements. the Lebanese Al-Safir and the UK‟s Al-Quds al-„Arabi. Table 5. such as those above. In further analysis. “٢َِٛ‫أ‬.

The use of ٔ٤‫ذ األث‬٤‫ اُج‬was a normal translation for the American White House and the high frequency of its usage was not a surprise because the United States was involved actively in world issues. 1997). but the researcher does not find it surprising because newspaper articles report specific issues in the relevant. 1 (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr.g. but on events in the world. vol. an Islamic law book has: 347 . 290 . The comparison in Table 5. While the researcher finds no special significance in this. but about sporting competitions. For example. 31. the comparison analysis with sport reveals an interesting point. apart from ٢ٓ‫( اُؼبُْ اإلٍال‬Islamic world) which occurred twice. such as the Palestine–Israel conflict. the researcher found the spelling ٢َِٛ‫ األ‬in other written mediums such as books. Al-Fiqh al-Islami wa Adillatuhu.. which showed that only this spelling was used in sport (see page 240). ‫ األطهسٍ ؿوثب‬ٜ٤‫ كبٓزلد ٖٓ أُؾ‬. the Iraq issue. etc.. showing the use of metaphor to convey the unacceptability of American decisions and actions in world issues. the world affairs sections were not reporting on the world background.. The use of the word ُْ‫( اُؼب‬world) in phrases in world affairs showed that they were all used only once.later. This may appear strange. reporting was not mainly about general types of sport and sport regulation. they do not describe the background of the section. Similarly in sports news.. the occurrence of the phrase ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫( اُج‬Black House) in AlQuds al-„Arabi also referred satirically to the same White House.71 shows that phrases with the word ُْ‫اُؼب‬ were used more in sport than in world affairs. However. Wahbah al-Zuhaili.346 The regularity of the occurrence of ٢َِٛ‫ األ‬also emerged in the comparison between sections. 346 347 See page 345-346 for further discussion of this word. e. In addition.

as explained in chapter 3 (see page 81 and 86). while Italy uses Series A. Germany Bundes Liga. as explained in chapter 3: the United Kingdom uses the phrases „English Premier League‟ and „Scottish Premier League‟. The analysis showed that these differences arose from the variety of official terms used by the various sporting leagues. The word ً‫( ًؤ‬cup) was regularly used in phrases to indicate the official name of cup competitions. Most Arabic newspapers. the high frequency of the phrase ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ ًؤً آ‬is accounted for by fact that at the time of corpus collection Asian Cup had just ended and was won by the national team of Iraq. In addition. while others referred to ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫( ًؤً اكو‬Africa Cup) and ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ًؤً أ‬European Cup). one from Europe (Al-Quds al-„Arabi) and one from Australiasia (Al-Furat). This may be because the corpus was collected from newspapers on various continents: three were from Asia (Al-Safir.and ُْ‫( ًؤً اُؼب‬World Cup) was one of the events taking place at the time of the corpus collection. especially Al-Furat and Al-Jazirah gave this a lot of coverage due to their background and history of newspaper publishing. the combination of words ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league) and ‫( أُٔزبى‬premier) was the most used phrase. two from Africa (Al-Ahram and AlKhabar). Al-Jazirah and Al-Sabah al-Jadid). etc to indicate the highest stages in their football leagues. Spain La Liga. where one of the newspapers in the corpus is published. In sport. 291 . such as ٠ُٝ‫ اُلهعخ األ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬First Class League or Series A) and ‫خ) أُٔزبى‬٤‫ُخ اَُ٘ج‬ٝ‫ (اٍْ اُل‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ ([relevant country name] Premier League). Most phrases referred to ُْ‫( ًؤً اُؼب‬World Cup) and ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( ًؤً أ‬Asian Cup). although other phrases were also used to indicate the same stage in a competition.

Although all these phrases were the official names of sports championships. only the issues related to the finalists were reported. Table 5. In the final stage. shortened to ‫خ‬٤‫اُغبٓؼخ اُؼوث‬.60 showed that three out of five newspapers that used the phrase ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫( ًؤً آ‬Al-Furat. so all reports focused on the participants‟ hopes and aims. Further analysis in Table 5. This shows that the sports news in Arabic newspapers did not only focusing on the final stages of sporting competitions. The researcher does not see any particular significance in this. Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Furat. but the early stages too. as in ٢َِٛ‫ؽِق ّٔبٍ األ‬. shortened to ٢َِٛ‫ ؽِق األ‬and ‫خ‬٤‫ٍ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫عبٓؼخ اُل‬. The analysis in Table 5.60 shows that the difference in usage may reflect where the newspaper was published: ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هجَ ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬was used in Al-Sabah al-Jadid and ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ٖٗق ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬was used in Al-Jazirah. the researcher considers that the first stage is interesting because all the participants still have the opportunity to take the title. ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ٖٗق ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬and ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هجَ ا‬ٝ‫ اُل‬were used to indicate „semi-final round‟ and ٍٝ‫ه األ‬ٝ‫اُل‬ and ٢ٍ‫ه األٍب‬ٝ‫ اُل‬were used to indicate the „first round‟. as the form without ْٓ‫ أ‬may simply be a shortened form.43 also shows that there was no great difference in frequency between ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ها‬ٝ‫اُل‬ (17) and ٢ٍ‫األٍب‬/ٍٝ‫ه األ‬ٝ‫( اُل‬15). In explanation of this. Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Quds al„ Arabi) used it both with and without the word ْٓ‫أ‬. specifically with the addition or not of the word ْٓ‫( أ‬nations). For example. Further analysis in Table 5. 292 . differences still occurred. The word ‫ه‬ٝ‫( اُل‬round) was used in phrases to indicate stages in sporting competitions. supporting the researcher‟s explanation that both forms were recognised.43 shows several phrases used to indicate this meaning.

because they are read by various levels of readers in the community. This proved that the variation occurred in Arabic newspapers on the use of ‫ عياء‬to indicate the similar meaning of „penalty kick‟. such as ٢ٍ‫ه أٍب‬ٝ‫ك‬. .43 shows that the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاح ا‬/‫( أُجبهاد‬friendly match) was used more than the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫( أُوبثِخ ا‬friendly meeting). such as ‫أُوبثِخ‬. s. which rarely occur in world events. for instance. was used. The phrase ٢ٍ‫ه أٍب‬ٝ‫ك‬. 22nd ed.60 showed that Al-Khabar is the only newspaper that used ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُجبهاح ا‬. Table 5. This explains the high frequency of the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ أُجبهاح ا‬as compared with ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫أُوبثِخ ا‬.The results in Table 5. and sport regularly involves competition stages.348 although the first was used more than the second.71 show that phrases incorporating the word ‫ه‬ٝ‫ اُل‬in world affairs conveyed a totally different meaning from that expressed in sport. 348 Al-Mawrid. “ ‫وثخ اُغياء‬ٙ. Further detail in Table 5. which is totally different from its meaning in sport.” 293 . the word ‫( عياء‬penalty) was used in two phrases with the same meaning: ‫( هًِخ عياء‬penalty kick) and ‫وثخ عياء‬ٙ (penalty shot). The word ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫( ا‬friendly) was used in phrases in sport to indicate a friendly match or meeting. with 14 and three occurrences respectively. This is because the word ‫ه‬ٝ‫ ك‬has close relationship to stages. The researcher found that the word ‫( أُوبثِخ‬meeting) was used metaphorically. the phrase ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫هح ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬friendly round) indicated slightly different meaning as it normally indicated a series of matches. even when the same phrase. As with the word ‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬. Elsewhere.v. it has become a normal practice for newspapers to use direct and clear words such as ‫ أُجبهاح‬rather than metaphorical words. As stated in chapter 3 (see page 53 and 55). was used in world affairs to mean „primary role‟.

Here. the use of this word can be related to the fact that sports matches are physical and have the potential to provoke fights and clashes between players. direct words: a „treasurer‟ has direct responsibility over organisation finance (ٍ‫)ٓب‬. and only once. such as governments or political parties. the researcher does not find that its use raises any problems. 2000). Some matches are therefore called „friendly‟ to reduce these risks. Although this was the exception. Table 5. In a normal tournament. 294 . but that is not relevant in a „friendly‟ match. The word ٖ٤ٓ‫( أ‬trustee) was used in phrases to designate individuals who held responsibilities in organisations. In addition. Rihab „Akkawi (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr. taking a cup title is the main objective of all participants. This is confirmed by the analysis of these phrases in world affairs (see Table 5. Table 5. ed. the name of the place where something is kept can be used to indicate the thing itself. the chest where the money is kept is used to indicates the money. as shown in Table 5. where the phrase ّ‫ٖ ػب‬٤ٓ‫ أ‬was used more (27 occurrences) than in sport because world affairs regularly reported on bigger organisations. 213.43 shows that ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬secretary) was used more than ّ‫ٖ ػب‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬general secretary). because the word ‫م‬ٝ‫ اُٖ٘ل‬is 349 In Arabic usage.60 shows that this phrase was used only in Al-Safir. while the the word ‫م‬ٝ‫اُٖ٘ل‬ 349 (chest) indicates the place where money was traditionally held. al-Idah fi „Ulum al-Balaghah. see Al-Khatib al-Qazwini. sport officials and even supporters. such as sports clubs. Table 5.Phrases containing the word ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞ‫ ا‬were used less in world affairs than in sport. and especially to encourage supporters not to take the match too seriously. This is because the word „friendly‟ is more related to sport to describe a match that is of no consequence in a competition. This can be related to the tendency in newspapers to use a clear.71.43 also shows that ٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫( األ‬bursar) was used more than ‫م‬ٝ‫ٖ ُِٖ٘ل‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬treasurer). The researcher noted that ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫ أ‬tended to be used for secretaries in smaller organisations.71).

it indicated the host team.71 shows that all the phrases incorporating the word ‫ ٕبؽت‬that were used in world affairs were different from those used in sport. s. ed. The phrase ‫ٕبؽت أُوًي‬ (holder of a league place) was the most frequently used. . J. 1974). and they 350 Hans Wehr. Table 5. the phrase ‫لف‬ُٜ‫( ٕبؽت ا‬goal scorer) was normally used in football. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic.350 The word ‫( ًوح‬ball) was used in phrases to describe the movement of the ball in a game.43 shows that news article in sport tended to describe games in detail. The researcher considers that this is because it applies to various kinds of sport. The word ‫( ٕبؽت‬owner) was used in several phrases. This is because it is inadequate simply to report results without describing how they were arrived at. Without taking into account the frequency of occurrence. The result showed that all the phrases incorporating this word were phrases for „extra time‟ or „injury time‟. ‫م اُلكزو‬ٝ‫( ٕ٘ل‬savings bank). while in world affairs. 3rd ed. the results show that news reports in sport widened the sense of this word in phrases to convey several sport-related meanings. Milton Cowan (Beirut: Maktabah Lubnan. except ٗ‫ٕبؽت األه‬ (home team). while ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫( ٕبؽت اُن‬gold medal holder) was used in individual sports. it referred to the host nation for meetings or might also mean the legitimate holder of the territory. Table 5. The word ٍ‫( ثل‬exchange) was used in phrases (‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ا‬ُٞ‫ ا‬and ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫ٖٓ ا‬/ٖ‫هذ ثلٍ ػ‬ُٞ‫ )ا‬to indicate additional time to make up for time lost in sports games. Without taking into consideration the frequency of occurrence. In sport. “‫م‬ٝ‫ٕ٘ل‬.” 295 . etc. By comparison. which was found in both sections. although with different meanings. ‫م‬ٝ‫( ككزو اُٖ٘ل‬cashbook).widely used to refer to the manage of monetary matters in phrases such as ٢ُٝ‫م اُ٘ول اُل‬ٝ‫ٕ٘ل‬ (International Monetary Fund).v.

such as the final or semi-final. However. Rather. in line with Bateson‟s view that many particles have undergone a slight shift in meaning (see page 42).” 296 . “ٍ‫ثل‬. 351 for example … ٖ‫ … ثلالً ػ‬but a variation arises when it is used in a noun phrase. except perhaps for newspapers that used only one form.43 shows that several phrases were used to refer to stages or rounds and the use of this word should be discussed together with the word ‫ه‬ٝ‫اُل‬ (round). Retaining the particle would make the phrase look as if it should connect with the previous part of the sentence. the researcher considers that this variation is related to the use of the word ٍ‫ ثل‬with or without a particle. while removing it contravenes normal usage. ٍ‫ ثل‬would take ٖٓ or ٖ‫ػ‬. where finals were referred to more than semi-finals. as in certain contexts they indicated the same meaning. It was also used to refer to a stage in a competition.were usually used in reference to football matches. notably Al-Ahram. the phrase ‫وح‬٤‫ُخ األف‬ٞ‫( اُغ‬final round) meant the same as ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬final round). The researcher concluded that there were no differences between these synonymous phrases. Table 5. compared with once each for the others). and ‫وح‬٤‫ُخ هجَ األف‬ٞ‫اُغ‬ (semi-final round) means the same as ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫ه هجَ ا‬ٝ‫( اُل‬semi-final round). Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir. the last form being used most (13 occurrences. their geographical location is not a significant factor. The phrase occurred with the particles ٖ‫( ػ‬away) or ٖٓ (from) and also without a particle. except in terms of frequency of usage. While Table 5. For example.v. used two different forms of this phrase. s.60 shows that only two newspapers. Changes in particle usage such as this have become usual in modern Arabic. The word ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫( اُغ‬round) was used in phrases to indicate a particular match or game participated by a team or an individual. 351 A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. In a normal usage.

On the other hand. In conclusion to this particular section. Table 5. For example. it may be said that the use of words in combination with others as phrases has resulted in the creation of some new terms. The analysis also shows that the geographical area in which a newspaper is published may affect the occurrence of phrase variations. Table 5. This reason for this variation may be indirectly related to the geographical area in which the newspapers are published. although they may be familiar in Arabic usage. The researcher considers that phrases such as ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫اُْوم األ‬. Al-Sabah al-Jadid is published in Iraq and Al-Furat is produced by Iraqis in Australia (see chapter 3).43). Other factors also lead to the use 297 . although most of the phrases discussed above are normal phrases in Arabic.60 shows that they were used in different newspapers: ‫ت‬٤‫َ رور‬٣‫ ٓزن‬in Al-Quds al„ Arabi and Al-Safir. It can therefore be concluded that this phrase was used by Iraqi newspapers wherever they are published.the phrases ‫بة‬٣‫ُخ اإل‬ٞ‫ع‬. and ٍٝ‫َ عل‬٣‫ ٓزن‬in Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Furat. The word َ٣‫( ٓزن‬bottom) was used in phrases to indicate a sports participant or team at the bottom of the list. the use of other phrases. ‫بة‬ٛ‫ُخ اُن‬ٞ‫ ع‬and ‫ػبد‬ٞٔ‫ت أُغ‬٤‫ُخ رور‬ٞ‫ ع‬did not occur in parallel forms using the word ‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬see Table 5. ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫ اُج‬in world affairs and ٍٝ‫اُغل‬/‫ت‬٤‫َ اُزور‬٣‫ ٓزن‬in sport could be considered new usages in Arabic newspapers. the phrases ‫( هًِخ عواء‬penalty kick) and ‫وثخ عياء‬ٙ (penalty shot) are not new in Arabic.43 shows that two phrases were used to indicate this meaning: ‫ت‬٤‫َ رور‬٣‫( ٓزن‬bottom ranking) and ٍٝ‫َ عل‬٣‫( ٓزن‬bottom of the table). raises particular points in news articles in terms of the dominance of some terms over others. In analysis by newspaper. but the fact that the first was used 22 times and the second only eight shows that the first is preferred by news authors.

were less specifically related to world issues.352 352 The concordance tool shows that all the occurrences of the word ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬in world affairs were in one article in Al-Furat on political issues related to the Iraq national football team. Further analysis in world affairs showed that it was also used there to refer to national teams. especially the word ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. 6.6 Noun in terms of collective nouns Table 5. indicating that sports news also found its way into world affairs. Tariq al-Harith. Also to be highlighted in the use of collective nouns in world affairs was the use of the word ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬six times).” Al-Furat (Australia). for example. Words that occurred less frequently. such as ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬and ‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫ع‬. was an article that discussed the interference of politics with the iraqi national football team. This was confirmed by the comparison analysis in Table 5. This can be seen clearly in the phrases (‫ت‬٤‫َ رور‬٣‫ ٓزن‬and ٍٝ‫َ عل‬٣‫ )ٓزن‬and (‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ا‬ٝ and ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ػٖ ا‬ٝ). which shows their high frequency in sport. such as ِ٤‫( ع‬army) and ‫خ‬٣‫( ػٌَو‬military) and words related to nations. which was the highest frequency word in that section.2. which usually designates a national team in sporting competitions. One particular text.12 shows that most of the collective nouns in world affairs can be related either directly or indirectly to world events.“ Man „Azafa alNashid al-Watani. Words related to military action.of variants. such as different principle in Arabic grammar and practice.72. The researcher believes that this was when the subject was more related to world issues than to sport. such as ْٓ‫( أ‬nations) and ‫( ّؼت‬people) occurred in high frequencies in world affairs. The comparison table shows that this word occurred very frequently in sport (432 occurrences). 2007. August 9. 298 . as would be expected.

As a result. The researcher relates this to the fact that reports about team sports such as football. the more specifically they were related to sports news. ‫ٓ٘زقت‬. the word ِ٤‫ ع‬created the highest keyness score with 255. However. 299 . is a team sport.72 shows that the word ‫ن‬٣‫ هو‬created the highest keyness score of the collective nouns in sport. All these events regularly involved military participation.72 shows that the word ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ ٓغ‬was also found in high frequency in world affairs. In the comparison analysis. In contrast. Words such as ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. Table 5. the war in Iraq and the Iranian nuclear programme. basketball and rugby dominated most of the articles in the sport. which contributed to the high keyness score for ِ٤‫ ع‬in world affairs.1 (see page 279). less words relating to „military‟ were used in world affairs compared to word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬in sport. although the main issues in world affairs were related to military action. together with other words such as ّٞ٣ and ّ‫ ػب‬as discussed above in 6. This can be related to the fact that the main topic in sports news in all the newspapers. This is also related to the fact that the word is strongly related to the most reported world issues – the conflict between Palestine and Israel. The comparison analysis also shows that the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬in sport created a higher score than the word ِ٤‫ ع‬in world affairs. In world affairs. such as meetings between leaders and their comments.79. the higher the frequency of words in sport. the comparison in Table 5. ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ ٓغ‬and ‫و‬٤ٛ‫ عٔب‬were the collective nouns most related to sports news. football. indicating that it is a general noun common to most types of news.2.As in world affairs. other matters were also highlighted.

several high frequency nouns in sport were used more frequently than the high frequency collective nouns in world affairs.2. as sports news is more specific to particular sports. Thus. while the word ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government). Table 5. while it occurred 105 times in sport (see Table 5. indicating that this word is more specifically 300 . However. although the two sections are totally different in terms of news coverage. the word َٚ‫ أك‬occurred only 11 times in world affairs (see Table 5. with 72 occurrences. with 59 occurrences. is clearly related more to world affairs than to sport. The outstanding feature that emerged is that. the results show that the word ‫ أًضو‬was the most frequently used in world affairs. showing that it was a general comparative in both sections and therefore produced no keyness score. the word َٚ‫( أك‬better) was the used most. the word ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬in sport was used for sports teams. they tend to use the same collective nouns. mostly football teams. the use of the word ‫( أًضو‬more) was not limited to one particular area.73 shows that only a few collective nouns in both sections created a significant keyness score.45). while in sport.13). the researcher found that they were used to indicate different meanings in the two sections. For example. with 105 occurrences. while the same word in world affairs was used to indicate a group of leaders.The comparison analysis also shows that most of the collective nouns were used in both sections. However. For example. The word ‫ أًضو‬came second in sport. 6.7 Noun in terms of comparatives The discussion of comparatives may be different from other parts of the analysis because all the comparatives were general words that were used regularly in all types of articles. Discussing the situation. In contrast. for instance.

Despite this. This is due to the nature of sport. which would lead to the use of comparatives. the word ٠ِ‫ أؿ‬was distinguished by its use as a metaphor to indicate the value of winning in sporting competitions. which is aimed at finding the best and strongest competitors. this is not the main purpose in world affairs. 301 . the researcher still considers the word َٚ‫ أك‬to be a general term applicable to all areas of news. which was not found in world affairs. which deliberately sets out to find the better athletes or teams. Although the above findings do not show any new usage of comparatives in Arabic newspapers. In world affairs. The researcher had anticipated that the sports news would use more because of the competitive nature of sport. the word ٠ِ‫( أػ‬higher) recorded a higher keyness score. the fact that the number of the comparatives used in each section was almost the same (15 in world affairs and 16 in sport) is unexpected. Similarly. The words ٠ِ‫( أؿ‬more valuable) and ٟٞ‫( أه‬stronger) were also notable for their regularity of use in sport as compared to world affairs. Furthermore. This word was not common in sport because ٠ِ‫ أُغٌِ األػ‬implies the top level of organisations with high profile members. although it is used with less regularity in world affairs. the words ٟٞ‫ أه‬and َٚ‫ أك‬reflect the nature of sporting competition. Further analysis showed that most usages of this word were related to the „supreme‟ committees of the organisations such as ٠ِ‫أُغٌِ األػ‬.related to sport than to world affairs. indicating its higher use there than in sport.

war victims and suicide bombing. For the first word. Semantic broadening has been used to add language capability to accommodate a changing world and developments in events over time. the original meaning of word ‫ل‬٣ is „hand‟.6. However. ‫ ٖٓوع‬٢‫ُو‬. … ْٜ٣‫ل‬٣‫م أ‬ٞ‫… َذ هللا ك‬ (48: 10) 302 . In some circumstances. as shown by examples in Table 5. For example.14. but it may be used metaphorically to indicate „power‟ as in the phrase ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ل اُؾ‬٣. World affairs also used several other metaphors. several metaphors were found in world affairs. For example. beyond simple information.353 The newspapers also used the metaphors ‫ ٖٓوع‬٢‫ ُو‬and ‫ ؽزق‬٢‫( ُو‬died) when people died or were killed in a certain situation. In any case. in terms of frequency. In this study. the word َ‫( هُز‬35 occurrences) was preferred to the metaphor (14 occurrences). alongside providing information.8 The use of noun metaphorically The use of metaphor has become a common style in media writing in all languages. the combination of the words ‫ء‬ٞٙ (light) and ‫( االرلبم‬agreement) conveys to readers that the „agreement‟ between parties was 353 The use of the word ‫ل‬٣ to indicate power has become normal in Arabic and even occurs in the Qur‟an in reference to the unlimited power of Allah over everything on the world. for example. meant the same as َ‫( هز‬was killed) and both were used in relation to similar issues. these metaphors have become current in normal usage in Arabic writing. however. including Arabic. such as war attacks. such as ٕ‫ب‬٤‫اُج‬/‫ؾبد‬٣‫رٖو‬/‫ء االرلبم‬ٞٙ (light). arousing readers‟ feelings was also important. This contradicts the usual newspaper practice of using direct and clear words to facilitate quick understanding. so that risk of misunderstanding is minimal.2. The study also revealed that there was no difference between the meaning of some metaphors and more direct terms. ٗ‫األه‬/‫( ٕبؽت أٌُِخ‬owner) and ‫خ‬٣ٞ‫األف‬/‫االٗلٓبط‬/‫كح‬ُٞٔ‫ػ ا‬ٝ‫( ه‬spirit) to deliver deeper meanings to readers.

Further analysis showed that the metaphor ‫ ٕبؽت أٌُِخ‬was used to convey the subject‟s power to make decisions. while the word ٕ‫ كوٍب‬was used to refer to players as the representative of large community. 303 . ‫ت اُؼبّ أُئهذ‬٤‫ ُِزور‬١‫ك‬ٞ‫ رٖله أهثؼخ ٖٓ فشساٌ أُ٘زقت اَُؼ‬.. However.. while the word ‫ػ‬ٝ‫( ه‬spirit) was used to show indicate depth of ‫كح‬ُٞٔ‫( ا‬friendship). In addition to the word ْ‫( ٗغ‬star). The most frequently used was the word ّٞ‫ٗغ‬/ْ‫( ٗغ‬star) which was used in reference to the most important players in a team. “black. The use of the word ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ أ‬to contrast with ٘٤‫ أث‬plays on the negative associations of the word „black‟. s. . such as the Arab world..355 and it was used in combination with the words ‫اُؼوة‬. 354 355 The Consice Oxford Dictionary. ‫االٗلٓبط‬ (consolidation) and ‫خ‬٣ٞ‫( األف‬brotherhood). in expressions such as „black mood‟ to refer to portending trouble or difficulty. the sports news also used the word ٕ‫( كوٍب‬knight) metaphorically and ‫و‬٤‫بعْ فط‬ٜٓ (dangerous attacker) to indicate the important players in the team. „black out‟ to refer to temporary or complete lose of vision and „black list‟ to refer to a list of persons under suspicion. the analysis revealed that the words ْ‫ ٗغ‬and ‫و‬٤‫بعْ فط‬ٜٓ were used to refer to a particular key player in the team.similar to a „light‟ that could bring brightness and cheer for the nation after a crisis. The satirical use of the term ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫( اُج‬Black House) was intended as a rebuke to the White House for its unfair decisions and actions towards issues in the Arab world.354 More metaphors were used in sport than in world affairs.. the player brings hope and delight to the team. ‫ اُجِل‬and ‫ أُ٘زقت‬for this purpose. .v. The use of the word ‫ ٕبؽت‬indicated possession in the examples above. to indicate that just as a twinkling star lights up the night sky.” An example is. 8th ed.

“black sheep. the word ‫( فطو‬danger) was used to indicate not only a „dangerous player‟. The Concise Oxford Dictionary. . the use of the word ‫( ؽوة‬war) indicated that a competition was like a war. cooperation. 62. “ٕ‫ؽٖب‬.357 356 Several dictionaries such as al-Mawrid indicate that the phrase ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ف األ‬ٝ‫( اُقو‬black sheep) is used to indicate this meaning instead of ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫اُؾٖبٕ األ‬. As noted in reference to ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫اُج‬. etc. retreating and surrendering. For example in a football game. the „danger area‟ may the penalty area. symbolised as a black horse standing among white horses. but referred to potential danger for the team. defending. 1981). The word ‫ػ‬ٝ‫( ه‬spirit) was more related to sport than to world affairs and more phrases were used in the sport sections. competition.Elsewhere. were very important for sporting success. counter-attacking. The analysis shows that team spirit and a spirit of responsibility.” 357 George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. Metaphors we live by (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. but also a „danger area‟ and the „critical stage‟ in a sports competition. The word ‫ق‬٤‫( ٗظ‬clean) was used with ‫لف‬ٛ (goal) to indicate that there was no doubt about the winning result achieved by one football team over another.v. acceptance. with the challenges of establishing territory. .356 Finally.v. Sport used the phrase ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫( اُؾٖبٕ األ‬black horse) as a negative judgement on a player for his bad performance in a match compared with his team mates. (see page 304) the word „black‟ was often used to denote negativity. attacking. s. s. 304 . victory. It was normally used in the context of a total win with no goals from the opposing team. which were more attractive. 8th ed.”. Al-Mawrid. 22nd ed. The use of this word did not indicate physical injury or harm to players.

which report more about past events. The reason for the domination of the perfect verbs over the imperfects in both sections goes back to the nature of newspapers. ٍٞ‫و‬٣. This is does not take into account the number of imperfect verbs that described past situations. the top 10 imperfect verbs started with the word ٌٕٞ٣ (71 occurrences) which ranked 89th. which was used in Al-Quds al-„Arabi. such as ٌٕٞ٣. ٌٖٔ٣. which the highest imperfect verb was ٌٕٞ٣ (68 occurrences). while. which were not analysed in this study. In explanation of this. all the verbs 305 . ‫ أػِ٘ذ‬and ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫ )أ‬had human subjects. clear words. The results also show that seven out of the top ten perfect verbs (ٍ‫هب‬. Table 5.47 shows that the top ten perfect verbs in sport started with the word ٕ‫( ًب‬204 occurrences). in the 17th place on the overall list.The researcher did not find that any new elements were revealed from this particular analysis. ranked 105th. ِٖ‫أػ‬. ‫أًل‬. ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. ١‫رغو‬. ّٞ‫ رو‬and ‫غت‬٣ have anything as their subject. Although it has been said that the use of metaphor goes against the usual newspaper preference for direct. ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣.2. while only one imperfect verb. ٌٕٞ‫ر‬. ‫هبُذ‬.15 shows that the top ten perfect verbs in world affairs started with ٍ‫( هب‬326 occurrencies). Table 5. including humans. ّٞ‫و‬٣. ْ‫ز‬٣. which was also the second highest in the overall list. 6.9 The use of verbs in terms of tense The analysis also showed that both sections used perfect verbs more than imperfect verbs. metaphors are not new as they have become a features of MSA. More imperfect verbs. necessarily takes a human subject. except the phrase ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫ذ األ‬٤‫اُج‬.

see page 308. 358 For discussion of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs. Pakistan. indicating that the imperfect verbs were used less frequently than perfect verbs. In relation to the words ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬and ‫ٓجبهاح‬. news reporters always quoted leaders‟ comments on these issues.with human subjects in world affairs can be related to the study‟s previous finding that most news about world issues reported on government leaders. Russia. it is notable that in terms of the number of different verbs. especially those in the countries related to the events. On the other hand. Iraq. the domination of verbs with non-human subjects arose from that fact that many were used as auxiliary verbs supportive of the events. As world affairs. not creating them. As noted before the number of verbs did not result in the domination of imperfect verbs as most of them were used in low frequency. Tables 5. Despite the domination of perfect verbs in the top ten verbs. such as Palestine. in that the verb ٕ‫ ًب‬is a very general word that can be used in any situation. the verbs in sport that had human subjects were in the perfect tense more than in the imperfect.16 and 5. etc. Iran. 306 . because it is the leaders who have the final say in any issues that arise in the world and have power to take action to solve the crisis. there were more imperfect verbs than perfect verbs in both sections. the verb ٕ‫ ًب‬was used to describe the team situation and scenes in sports events. that the highest and second highest words on the sport list were ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) and ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match). In confirmation.358 In sport. the verb ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) occurred in highest verb frequency. Although these issues were matters of war and peace. which relates to the important previous finding. Israel.48 show that perfect verbs in both sections recorded higher mean scores than imperfect verbs.

This eventually creates higher scores for verbs in sport sections. The table also shows that world affairs used these verbs more than sport in every case. For the imperfect. ‫( ًبٗذ‬to be) and ْ‫( ر‬completed). mostly requires the use of the same verbs. due to the diversity of focus in each section. while the occurrence of the verbs ٕ‫ ًب‬and ْ‫ ر‬in both sections indicates the generality of auxiliary verbs as supportive verbs in describing world and sporting events as will be discussed later (see page 366). ٍٞ‫و‬٣ (say). َ‫ٍغ‬ (scored) created a higher score (119. although in different countries. but the contexts generally show that both sections report extensively on people‟s comments. In addition. ‫( أًل‬confirmed). The higher frequency score for the words َ‫ ٍغ‬and ‫ِؼت‬٣ in sport confirms the previous finding more specific verbs were used in sport than in world affairs. with the verb ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play) in sport creating a higher score (64. with 12.72. using verbs ٍ‫هب‬. 307 . The verbs used by both are ٍ‫( هب‬said).74 shows that the highest perfect verb in sport. Table 5. ٕ‫( ًب‬to be). while sport focuses mostly on football. ‫ أًل‬and ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. Table 5.35) than the highest verbs in world affairs. ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added). there is a notable overlap between sections with more perfect verbs being used by both sections than were used by only one.In comparison analysis.75 shows the same result. There is no specific discussion of why the same and different verbs occur in the two sections.50) than the highest verb in world affairs. It has been noted before (see page 114) that world affairs highlights a broader range of different issues. Focusing on a variety of different issues requires the use of a variety of different verbs in world affairs and the focus on the same sport.

ْ‫ ر‬and ‫ ًبٗذ‬were found in both lists in high frequency. ‫أًل‬.In summary of the above discussion. Such verbs are more common to world affairs because news reporting generally covers leaders‟ comments and views. the small 308 .10 Discussion of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs Analysis of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs in both sections showed no great differences. some specific verbs in sport. ٕ‫ًب‬. ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. The reason for this goes back to the fact that these three verbs are verbs specific to sport which rarely occur in world affairs. showing they were general to both kinds of writing. It is predictable that the high frequency verbs would be dominated by perfect tense verbs because news reports deal with past events.2. In other situation. In the comparison analysis. This is because verbs such as ٍ‫هب‬. although the auxiliary verbs seem to be slightly fewer in world affairs. in contrast to what was observed in the case of nouns. ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) and ٍ‫( هب‬said) were used in high frequency in world affairs than in sport.77) shows that more non-auxiliary verbs such as ‫( أًل‬confirmed). Analysis of non-auxiliary verbs (Table 5. This is because auxiliary verbs do not describe world or sporting events but act as a supportive verbs to the events. such as ‫ِؼت‬٣ (play).76 shows that seven out of ten of the top auxiliary verbs in both sections were used in the other section. However. ‫( كبى‬won) and َ‫( ٍغ‬scored) that clearly dominated the section compared to world with higher score. Table 5. the existence of several examples of the same verbs being used in both sections shows that there is no clear domination of section-related verbs. the researcher did not generally find examples of any new word usage in terms of tenses in Arabic newspaper. This is why they can be used to any kind of writings. In conclusion. 6.

as many as non-auxiliary verbs. always spoke in a representative capacity. This indicates that interviewees in world affairs sections. The reason for this goes back to the previous finding that masculine nouns occurred more than feminine (see page 284). masculine verbs also occurred more in both sections. The results in Table 5. almost all the specific verbs with masculine subjects occurred more than the specific verbs with feminine subjects.18 (world affairs) and Table 5. However. As some of these masculine nouns were the subjects of verbs.g. this is not very applicable to general verbs because auxiliary verbs.11 Discussion of verb in terms of gender of subject The analysis showed that verbs with masculine subjects were used more than werbs with feminine and neuter subjects in both sections. 6. The results also revealed a remarkable fact: in world affairs verbs with neuter subjects were used more in the plural than in the singular. in the top ten high frequency verbs. who were usually leaders of organisations or governments. are likely to be used in high frequency in any writing and are therefore widely found in all newspapers texts. ّ‫( هب‬stand) and ْ‫( ر‬completed). e. not as individuals.50 (sport) show that. This phenomenon can also be related to the types of verb used in news reports – either general or specific to the subject area. ٕ‫( ًب‬to be) and its derivitives. 309 .difference in the numbers of auxiliary and non-auxiliary verbs in top ten high frequency verbs in both sections reveals a new trend in news writing.2. There is a tendency to use more auxiliary verbs in news writing.

the subject ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ ؽ‬in world affairs would take different verbs from ‫ ٓجبهاح‬in sport. ‫بف‬ٙ‫ أ‬and ِٖ‫ أػ‬in both world affairs and sport makes the phenomenon less obvious. It will be noted later that world affairs reports contained more news about 310 .In comparison analysis. showing that reporters in that section saw the importance of quoting interviewees directly in the first person. when such verbs occurred in both sections (normally the general verbs) world affairs section always created higher keyness scores. The analysis shows that eight out of the ten highest frequency verbs in each section were different from the verbs in the other section. such as ٟ‫ ٗو‬and ‫ل‬٣‫ ٗو‬dominated world affairs more as compared with sport. Comments about sport would not have the same impact on the world community and so would not need to be quoted directly. Comparison of verbs with feminine subjects produced a different result. This may be less apparent in verbs with masculine subjects as most of the masculine subjects in both sections were human males and the frequent occurrence of verbs indicating speaking and commenting such as ٍ‫هب‬. With regard to verbs with neuter subjects. However. This arises from the fact that the feminine subjects of verbs differed between sections and so the verbs were also different. with higher keyness scores recorded for several verbs. the study of verbs with masculine subjects showed that the verbs in sport were more specific than those in world affairs. The comparison table also shows that neuter verbs that indicate „suggestion‟ or „view‟. For examples. showing they were more used in that section than in sport. the comparison notably revealed that they were used more in world affairs than in sport. because they were usually world leaders whose comments would be of interest to the world community.

leaders and world conflicts had strong relation to the issue of „power‟. indicating that world affairs quoted more interviewees speaking on behalf of a group of people or an oganisation. For example. This also has a major effect on the gender of the subjects. where the words ‫ْٓبهًخ‬. this study has shown that the nature and focus of each section determine the types of verb that were used in high or low frequency.” 311 . while report about governments.... the word ‫( اؽبُخ‬feminine singular) was used with the masculine verb ْ‫ ر‬and the word ‫( ػ٘بٕو‬feminine plural) was used with the masculine singular verb ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣. The use of verbs specific to the type of news may also reveal the gender of subjects involved in the events reported. In world affairs. which are not typical of world affairs. as verbs related to football reports clearly involve more males than females. the nature of sport sections..„meetings‟ and „suggestions‟ (see page 313). 1. 359 In researcher‟s view. The same occurred in sport. In conclusion. Spokes people may use the plural because it attributes „power‟ to the speaker. which focus on football matches. ‫٘خ‬٣‫ ٓؼب‬and ‫ح‬ٞ‫( كػ‬all feminine singular) were used with masculine verbs. the word ‫ل‬٣‫ ٗو‬may indicate „power‟ because it may indicate the speaker‟s need for others to grasp his vision as a leader or to join him in action.359 There were also more plural neuter verbs in world affairs (nine plural and one singular) than in sport (five plural and one singular). “ . For example. Verb and subject agreement in gender The analysis of feminine subjects shows that they were used with masculine verbs in both sections in lower frequencies. is to use the verbs ‫ِؼت‬٣ and ‫كبى‬. a government minister says. ‫لح‬٣‫ٓخ اُغل‬ٌٞ‫ل ٖٓ أُغزٔغ ارجبع أٗظٔخ اُؾ‬٣‫ ٗو‬.

while the highest action verb was َ‫( ٍغ‬98 occurrences).20 shows that all the top ten verbs in world affairs were non-action verbs. 1972). This was due to the dominance of the masculine over the feminine in Arabic grammar. 312 . Table 5. The researcher did not find any usage of masculine subjects with feminine verbs in the corpus. especially in Arabic newspapers. However.360 In sport. N. although the whole list shows the domination of action verbs with 282 compared to non-action with 270. see The Oxford English – Arabic Dictionary of Current Usage.The researcher considers that this is a new tendency in Arabic style which has been promoted by the Arabic media deliberately to simplify Arabic writing.v. Thus.11 Discussion of verb in terms of semantics 1. not the reverse.52 shows the top two non-action verbs occurred in higher frequencies than all action verbs. Action and non-action Non-action verbs were used more than action verbs in all the word lists across all three frequency groups in world affairs. The original meaning shows that the verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫ أ‬is an action verb meaning to „put in additionally‟ or „join on‟. The highest frequency non-action verb was ٕ‫( ًب‬204 occurrences). after the non-action verbs ٕ‫ ًب‬and ٍ‫هب‬. even though no physical movements are involved in the meaning of the verb in this specific context. for example ‫ اُْوة‬٢‫لذ اٌَُو ك‬ٙ‫أ‬ (I added some sugar to the drink) is an action. when the need to quickly communicate breaking news is taken into account. ed. but this was not the case in sport. Table 5.S. 6.” This ُ should involve physical meaning literally. which is the third verb overall. 360 This is considered an action verb by reference to its literal meaning. apart from the verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added). all examples showed that this new tendency promoted the use of feminine subjects with masculine verbs. Doniach (Oxford: The Clarendon Press. s.2. “‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬.

particularly expressed by the occurrence of the verb ‫ ُؼت‬and ‫ِؼت‬٣ in the table.82 shows the small frequency difference between 313 . This feature of world affairs writing can also be related to the fact that several verbs were used metaphorically. the increased usage of auxiliary verbs is a feature of MSA (see page 309). Table 5. ٕ‫ًب‬. the whole list in general shows the domination of action verbs in sport and this is explained by the fact that most sporting events involve action. For example. As noted before. even though its literal meaning indicates an action. ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣. the reason for the domination of non-action verbs in world affairs is that they give heavy coverage to leaders‟ comments and suggestions about world issues.However. mostly related to military action or leaders‟ visits.20. so that physical movements were not involved in the action. As noted before. ‫ٗوِذ‬. are used metaphorically. ْ‫ر‬. ّٞ‫ رو‬and ّٞ‫و‬٣. Table 5. whether an action or a non-action verb (see page 173). such as ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. In comparison analysis. ٌٕٞ٣ and ٌٕٞ‫ )ر‬were found in both sections. ١‫رغو‬. the concordance tool showed that all the occurrences of the verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫ أ‬were as non-action (metaphorical) verbs. the results showed no major differences in frequency of use between the two sections. On the other hand. ‫عبء‬. ‫أًل‬. This can be related directly to the fact that most of them are auxiliary verbs (except for ٍ‫ هب‬and ‫)أًل‬. It can therefore be concluded that most of the verbs that are literally action verbs were used metaphorically in world affairs. ‫أّبه‬. Thus. The concordance showed that most of the verbs in Table 5. Only a few actions are described in world news. to indicate a non-action meaning. ‫ًبٗذ‬. With regard to action verbs. metaphors are defined according to their semantic origin.81 shows that seven out of ten non-action verbs (ٍ‫هب‬.

‫( عبء‬came) (29 and 26).362 which is appropriate for both sections. although the top ten high frequency verbs in sport were dominated by non-action verbs because of the strong presence of auxiliary verbs. which originally indicated a physical action of „adding into something‟. “‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. the verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. The analysis also shows that. apart from ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added). Generally speaking. “‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬. The reason for this situation is that different sections cover different events. s.the highest verbs in each sections (‫بف‬ٙ‫ أ‬in world affairs (108 occurrences) and َ‫ ٍغ‬in sport (98). 2. For example. although it was regularly used metaphorically to indicate „someone who extends his words or comments‟. Discussion of verbs used metaphorically and literally Analysis in both sections showed that several verbs were only used metaphorically and that these verbs were the same in both sections: ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) (108 occurrences in world affairs and 68 in sport).” The Oxford English – Arabic Dictionary of Current Usage. the results above did not show any new trends in language use in this particular area. the top ten action verbs were different in the two sections.” 314 . ‫( أّبه‬pointed) (46 in world affairs and 26 in sport).v. Non-action verbs dominated in world affairs and action verbs dominated in sport.361 was only used occasionally in its literal sense. ‫( عود‬ran) (12 and 21) and ‫لد‬ّٜ (witnessed) (ten and 23). s.v. 361 362 The Oxford English – Arabic Dictionary of Current Usage. The existence of similar verbs used as metaphors in both sections is due to their regularity in Arabic language use.

the verbs ‫( هكغ‬raised). In world affairs. َٕٝ and َٕ‫ا‬ٞ٣ were used more in their literal sense. ٟ‫و‬٣ (see) and ٢‫ؤر‬٣ (come) were used more often metaphorically than literally. the verbs ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return). ‫( ػبك‬returned).The comparison analysis showed that the frequency of use of all these verbs differed between sections. Two out of five verbs (‫بف‬ٙ‫ أ‬and ‫ )أّبه‬created positive significant scores in world affairs and only one (‫لد‬ّٜ) created a positive score in sport. ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣. In sport.v. In contrast. َٕٝ (arrived) and ٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫( ر‬faced) were used more often in their literal sense. ٜ‫( ٍو‬fell) and ‫وكغ‬٣ (raise) were used more often as metaphors than literally.363 Except in a few cases of leaders returning to their countries. In some circumstances action verbs were used both in their literal meaning and metaphorically. while َٖ٣. found it is not a new usage of Arabic language as both verb ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) and ‫( أّبه‬pointed) were closely related to the world affairs news because they describe „additional speaking or comment‟ and the verb ‫ل‬ّٜ (witnessed) was closely related to the sports section because it describe the sports match-holding.” 315 . s. “٢‫ؤر‬٣ and ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣. In world affairs. however. ٟ‫و‬٣ was used more as metaphor to indicate „consider‟ or „view‟ than in the literal sense of seeing. indicating that world affairs used more verbs metaphorically than sport. 363 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi. the concordance tool revealed that most instances of the verbs ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ and ٢‫ؤر‬٣ did not indicate their literal sense of physically „going back‟ or „coming‟. Similarly. The researcher.

the verbs ‫هكغ‬.. ‫ػبك‬. the verb َٕٝ was used more in its literal sense: a leader arrived at his destination. the verb ٜ‫ ٍو‬was used to indicate a player who fell and ‫ ػبك‬was used to indicate a player who returned to his home country or game. For example. except with a few verbs such as َٕٝ and its derivitives. . etc. The analysis showed that this referred to football teams‟ positions in league tables. ‫ن‬٣‫ػبك اُلو‬. The verb ٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫ ر‬was also used more to indicate the action of journeying towards a destination. The researcher considers that this indicates there is a new tendency for news writers to use certain verbs metaphorically rather than in their literal sense.. 316 . after match results. there was no major difference in frequency between the metaphorical and literal usages of the verb َٕٝ and its derivations (َٖ٣ was used metaphorically slightly more. for example . ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣. It can be generally observed that metaphorical use was more frequent than literal use. either falling or rising..In contrast. In sport. ٜ‫ ٍو‬and ‫وكغ‬٣ were used more often metaphorically with sport teams as subjects. This is not to deny their less frequent literal usage. Exceptionally.. َٕٝ was used metaphorically and literally the same number of times). ‫ن‬٣‫ اُلو‬ٜ‫ٍو‬.

indicating that it was more accurate to use ٍ‫ هب‬in news writing rather than ‫ رؾلس‬or ٌِْ‫ر‬. to indicate critical comment. although the analysis shows that newspapers reported both kinds of response situation (critical attack and reply). as world affairs reports were more about speaking and comment. the verb ‫( اٗزول‬criticised) was used more (though only slightly more) than ‫وك‬٣/‫( هك‬replied) (eight and seven occurrences respectively).04 positive keyness score. a slight semantic difference exists. Although these two verbs might be used for a similar purpose. therefore.3. The verb ‫ اٗزول‬can be used to give a negative comment on any issue. Thus. For similar reasons. the verb ‫ هك‬was used when the commentator. there were no great differences in terms of frequency between these two verbs. Comparison analysis showed that world affairs used the verb ٍ‫ هب‬more than sport. depending on context. because meaning differences still exist between synonyms. even when the commentator has no interest in it. either individually or on behalf of his organisation. 317 . It could be stated. had been criticised before. The researcher considers that this relates not to semantic differences but to the nature of the two sections. However. with a 75. that different contexts require the use of different words from within the same semantic family. Discussion of verbs in one semantic meaning The analysis went further to investigate verbs with similar meanings and showed that the verb ٍ‫( هب‬said) was used in very high frequencies as compared with its synonyms in both sections. represented by ٍ‫هب‬. as compared with sport.

while the verb َِ‫ هُز‬was used to indicate death in other countries such as Afghanistan. As world affairs contains more about comment and speaking. not in their literal sense. The verb ‫ل‬ّٜ was therefore used more in sport because referred to supporters „witnessing and experiencing‟ sports competitions. The use of verbs such as َ‫( هُز‬killed) and ‫ل‬ْٜ‫( اٍز‬died as a martyr) are closely related to this situation. It should be noted that ٟ‫و‬٣ was mostly used metaphorically and its lower frequency in sport is therefore unsurprising because sports news contains more reports about sports events. the researcher considers that most of these verbs were used metaphorically. the verb ٟ‫و‬٣ (see) was used more than ‫ل‬ْٜ٣ (witness) and ‫٘ظو‬٣ (look). For example. ٟ‫و‬٣ was used to indicate „having a point of view‟ and ‫٘ظو‬٣ was used to indicate „thinking‟. showing that both sections used it in 318 . the high frequency of ٟ‫و‬٣ was to be expected. In the comparison analysis. Table 5. for ٟ‫و‬٣ no significant score was recorded. The concordance tool showed the verb ‫ل‬ْٜ‫ اٍز‬referred three times to the Palestinian opposition or Hamas members in the world affairs sub-corpora. For the verbs that mean „watching‟. in sport.World news contains many reports about war and people killed in crises. This is because the verb ‫ل‬ْٜ‫ اٍز‬was used to indicate the death of a person for their faith.85 shows clearly the contrast between world affairs and sport for these two verbs. Table 5. However. Philippines and even Israel. not „points of view‟. while this specific sense is not carried in َِ‫هُز‬. Conversely. This shows that Arabic newspapers considered Palestinians‟ deaths as martyrdoms or heroic. The analysis shows that َ‫ هُز‬was used more frequently than ‫ل‬ْٜ‫( اٍز‬35 and three occurrences respectively).55 shows that the verb ‫ل‬ّٜ was used more than ٟ‫و‬٣. Iraq. However.

join or get together‟364 is appropriate for a number of leaders having meetings or discussions. Further analysis showed that this verb was used in sport for public announcements. the verb ِٖ‫( أػ‬announced) was used more frequently than the verb ‫( أفجو‬informed) in world affairs. although world affairs contained more uses of ٟ‫و‬٣ to indicate „points of view‟ (18 occurrences). This is to be expected in world affairs because the verb ٢‫ِزو‬٣ meaning „meeting. especially the verb َ‫وبث‬٣ (encounter). the verb ٢‫ِزو‬٣ (meet) was used more (14 occurrences) in world affairs than its synonyms. The verb ِٖ‫ أػ‬was used for announcements to a large number of people. while the verb‫ أفجو‬was normally used when the target audience was small. One might expect this verb (٢‫ِزو‬٣) not to be regularly used in sport because the verb َ‫ هبث‬meaning 364 Al-Mawrid. For verbs meaning „announcing‟. although the frequency for ِٖ‫ أػ‬was lower. This indicates that. although their meanings may appear similar. s. because they were normally used in different situations. . 22nd ed. Similar in sport. for the same reason as the verb ٍ‫( هب‬said). the verb ٢‫ِزو‬٣ was used more (27 occurrences) than the verb َ‫وبث‬٣. It was similar situation in sport. with world affairs containing more verbs about „speaking and comment‟ as well as „announcing‟. mostly by the sports or team management.v. “٠‫اُزو‬. sport was not too far behind with ten.similar frequencies. It was common for world affairs to carry reports of leaders announcing (ِٖ‫ )أػ‬to large numbers of people. In the comparison analysis.50 positive score for world affairs. For verbs meaning „meeting‟. the verb ِٖ‫ أػ‬recorded a 45.” 319 . which occurred only once. indicating that newspapers preferred to use ٢‫ِزو‬٣ rather than َ‫وبث‬٣ in both sections.

This relates to previous findings that world affairs reported more on speaking and comment. For verbs meaning „affirmation‟. Previous findings have shown that sport covered a lot of matches and meetings between atheletes. However. the results showed that ٢‫ِزو‬٣ was used more than َ‫ هبث‬in sports section. The researcher considers that the verb ‫ أًل‬is more related to „speaking‟ than the verb ‫أصجذ‬. As both sections contain more spoken confirmation than „affirmation‟. normally a place. killing. revenge and anger. the verb ‫ أًل‬dominated the usage. which involve physical challenge rather cordial meetings. similar to leaders meeting in world affairs. Comparison analysis showed that the verb ٢‫ِزو‬٣ in sport was used more often than in world affairs. while world affairs reported more on world crises than on leaderss meetings. The researcher believes this is because sports competitions are not real wars which involve death.„to encounter. indicating that newspapers preferred to use the verb ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ to indicate something returning to its origin. This is because there are more reports on sporting matches between teams than on meetings between leaders in world affairs. to oppose and to face‟ might appear to be more appropriat to sports. 320 . as in world affairs. the verb ‫( أًل‬confirmed) was used more than ‫أصجذ‬ (affirmed) in both sections. The comparison analysis showed that the verb ‫ أًل‬was used more in world affairs than in sport. but are temporary battles that should end in friendship and sporting spirit. especially football. For verbs meaning „return‟. Newspapers thus preferred to use ٢‫ِزو‬٣ rather than َ‫ هبث‬to indicate a more friendly meeting. which did not occur at all. in world affairs the verb ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ (return) was used more (22 occurrences) than ‫وعغ‬٣ (go back).

This can be related to the general and specific meaning of these verbs. The verb ‫ ٗغؼ‬was also used to refer to success. including competition. and tests.22 shows that this verb was used literally to indicate a leader who „returns‟ from a visit and metaphorically to mean „a particular matter is caused by (goes back to)‟. Table 5. although the verb ‫ ٗغؼ‬was used more in world affairs than ‫كبى‬. verbs meaning „award‟ were analysed. In sport. The comparison between sections showed that. while the verb ‫ ٗغؼ‬is more appropriate for success in discussions. while the others are general to any kind of achievement.This was confirmed by the previous findings about verbs used metaphorically and literally. although the opposite was true in sport. This indicates that sports reports are more related to the sense of „successful and achievement‟ than world affairs. but less often than ‫كبى‬. there are noticeable differences 321 . The verbs ‫ؾوى‬٣/‫( أؽوى‬achieve) were used more than َٖ‫ؾ‬٣/َٖ‫ؽ‬ (obtain) and ٍ‫٘ب‬٣/ٍ‫( ٗب‬gain). The verb ‫ٔ٘ؼ‬٣/‫( ٓ٘ؼ‬award) was used more than ٢‫ؼط‬٣/٠‫( أػط‬give). From a semantics perspective. because the verb ‫ كبى‬is more suitable for situations related to competition and challenge. it still occurred less often than in sport. because the verb ‫ أؽوى‬was specifically used to indicate someone who wins a prize in competition. in sports competition. Additionally. as most sports news covers sporting competition involving win or lose situations. such as examinations. the verb ‫( ؽون‬achieve) was also used with ‫ى‬ٞ‫( اُل‬victory) or ‫( اُ٘غبػ‬success) and other verbs were also used. Of verbs meaning „succeed in achieving something‟. although both verbs may indicate similar meanings of „awarding‟ or „giving‟. the verb ‫٘غؼ‬٣/‫( ٗغؼ‬succeed) was used more than ‫ى‬ٞ‫ل‬٣/‫( كبى‬win) in world affairs. tests or meetings in world affairs. in sport.

the generality of the verb ّ‫ رول‬made it applicable for most situations. option. money etc. goal. Although they seemed to indicate similar meanings. This is because the verb ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬was used in both sections to indicate ending with the aim fulfilled. chance. the verb ّ‫زول‬٣/ّ‫ رول‬was used more than ‫زٖله‬٣/‫ رٖله‬and ‫م‬ٞ‫زل‬٣/‫م‬ٞ‫ رل‬in sport. 322 . the relation between is one of the general and the specific. The verb ‫ ٓ٘ؼ‬was normally used to indicate granting something special such as gifts. In other words. while the verbs ‫م‬ٞ‫ رل‬and ‫ رٖله‬were used in a quite limited sense to describe team rankings in league tables or competitions. This can also be related to the previous finding that the verb ْ‫ر‬ is an auxiliary verb. which is appropriate for all definitions of „advancing‟. As the sports news covered all sports events. Therefore it could be concluded that there was no specific reason for frequency differences between these verbs as they were used for all situations in sport. the verb ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫( ر‬complete) was used more than ٠ٜ‫( اٗز‬ended) in both sections.‟.between them. Of verbs meaning „advance over other competitors‟. while the verb ٠‫ أػط‬could apply to all kinds of gifts. However. the concordance showed that there were no differences between these two verbs in terms of semantics with both being used to indicate awarding „freedom. whether material or abstract. rest. without taking the aim into account. the verb ّ‫رول‬. was used more than its synonyms. while the verb ٠ٜ‫ اٗز‬was mostly used in reference to simple ending. Of verbs meaning „end‟. talents and rewards.

The concordance analysis showed that the three positive verbs that occurred more than their antonyms were mostly related to comments from organisers and participants in meetings. achieve. 4. Nevertheless. but the opposite was true of the verb ٢ٜ‫٘ز‬٣/٠ٜ‫اٗز‬. Meanwhile. the positive verb ‫َٔؼ‬٣ (allowed) occurred in the same frequency as its antonym ‫َٔؼ‬٣ ‫( ال‬prohibit). due to the varying requirements of different situations. obtain). World affairs used ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬for the completion of several world events. Discussion of verbs that have positive and negative meanings Further investigation reveals the verbs that semantically indicate specific meaning. which take place less frequently in the area of sport. ‫ؾون‬٣/‫ ؽون‬and َٖ‫ؾ‬٣/َٖ‫( ؽ‬succeed. conferences or peace discussions. are verbs with a positive meaning which are used more than their antonyms. Table 5.The comparison analysis showed that the verb ْ‫ز‬٣/ْ‫ ر‬was used more frequently in world affairs than in sport. 323 . the results highlighted many important instances of some verbs being more commonly used than others with similar meanings.24 in world affairs shows that three out of five words. in coverage of matches and games. such as meetings and conferences. ‫٘غؼ‬٣/‫ٗغؼ‬. the verb ٠ٜ‫ اٗز‬is more appropriate as it indicates the ending of an allotted time. and the negative verb ٘‫( هك‬denied) occurred more frequently than its positive equivalent َ‫هج‬ (accepted). For verbs with positive and negative meanings. In contrast. The researcher notes that these represent the current language style in news writing without pinpointing any new usage.

although admittedly lower in number. because the examples in world affairs showed the negative verb ٘‫ هك‬was used more than its antonym. and other positive sporting outcomes. the reflection of the Hamas representative on Israel‟s invasion.86 shows that sport sections were more concerned with positive events than world affairs. However. In the comparison analysis. it is to be expected that more negative verbs will be used. such as outcomes of world leaders‟ meetings and discussions. 324 . the statement of the Kosovo leader disagreeing with conflict with Russia. such as the winning competitor or team. than to negative ones. this does not mean that failure by a competitor or team was not reported. with positive verbs clearly dominating the sport sections. and the negative verb ‫َٔؼ‬٣ ‫ ال‬was used in equal frequency to its antonym.The verb ٘‫( هك‬rejected) was used mostly in relation to opposition to the subject of the report by. As long as world affairs is concerned with world crises and conflict. although newspaper tried to report positively on world crises. The trend is less obvious in world affairs. as is shown by the occurrence of some negative verbs. indicating that the sport section in Arabic newspapers preferred to report on a team‟s success. Examples of this are a statement from the Iranian leader (Ahmedinejad) about their nuclear programme. Table 5. the opposing political party. achieving targets. The researcher believes this is because sports news is by nature more concerned with competition and prefers to report positive results. qualifying to the next stage. as is clear in all the examples. and others. for example. It can thus be generally stated that both sections report more on positive situations than negative. In sport.56 shows that the newspapers paid more attention to positive subjects. Table 5.

etc. and second. In the comparison analysis. and their opposites The results showed that verbs meaning „striving‟ were used more than their opposite in world affairs. Similarly. indicating that. use with no particle at all. security authorities.2. most authorities. the United Nations. 325 .87 shows that sport used more verbs that meant „striving towards achievement‟ than world affairs. the verb ‫زلهة‬٣ (train) occurred in sport but not in world affairs because it involves physical actions. were continuously making efforts to solve conflicts in order to maintain global security. whereas world issues do not. the verbs analysed demonstrated two styles of verb transitivity in addition to the normal usage: first. especially the verbs ٠‫َؼ‬٣ (strive) and ‫زلهة‬٣ (train). verbs meaning „striving‟ were used more than their opposites. For example. although the world is facing various conflicts and crises. This can be related to the fact that sportsmen strive more to become winners in competitions than world leaders strive to solve global crises..5. 6. Discussion of verbs of striving toward achievement. regional organisations. several verbs that regularly take particles were chosen. in sport. Generally. striving in sports involves physical actions. transitivity with a particle other than the usual particle. Table 5.12 Discussion of verb in terms of transitivity In order to analyse the Arabic style in newspaper in terms of transitivity. In addition. such as government leaders.

326 . The consequence of not using the particle is that the verb becomes non-specific. One important indicator was the particle ٢‫ ك‬to indicate a specific event. which indicated indirectly expectation of injury or death. such as bombings and attacks. which occurred in Al-Furat.. (was hit in a bomb blast) is different from the normal usage (.. such as a bomb attack. while there was no result for Al-Khabar. which concentrated on the events and number of people involved instead... Further analysis of individual newspapers (Table 5.. The analysis showed that the use of this verb without particle ‫ثـ‬ was higher than the normal usage. For example. the results showed there were two kinds of acceptance: first. ‫ح‬ٞ‫ ػج‬٢‫ت ثغواػ ك‬٤ٕ‫ أ‬. (was injured in a bomb blast).. The researcher also found that specifying types of harm was not the main focus in world news. and second. which occurred in Al-Ahram and Al-Quds al-„Arabi.. using the verb without the particle. the researcher believes this confusion would be very rare in world affairs. especially in the presence of other contextual indicators. . However. the results showed that the verb ‫ت‬٤ٕ‫( أ‬be hit) was used both without the particle ‫( ثـ‬with) to refer to being struck by a kind of sickness. Although most of them recognised the exclusion of the particle ‫ثـ‬. The use of the verb was usually directly related to particular events.. The use of this verb with the particle ‫ ثـ‬is a normal combination and excluding the particle may confuse readers as to the kind of injury sustained. Al-Jazirah and Al-Safir. using both styles (with ‫ ثـ‬and without it). ‫ح‬ٞ‫ ػج‬٢‫ت ك‬٤ٕ‫ أ‬.For the first verb in world affairs. by using the particle ٢‫( ك‬in).29) shows that the use of this verb without a particle was recognised by all the newspapers except Al-Sabah al-Jadid. as well as with the usual particle ‫ثـ‬.

This shows that. including in non-Arab countries. AlKhabar proved that it only recognised the use of َٖ٣ with the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬four occurrences). In contrast. indicating that the use َٕٝ without ٠ُ‫ ا‬was widespread in most Arabic newspaper contexts. while the verb َٖ٣ was used in world affairs metaphorically. Table 5. However.v. A similar situation occurred in sport for the verb َٖ٣ (arrive). where no results were found. as it was used more often in its literal sense of physical movement. while Al-Jazirah used only the particle ‫ ُـ‬. a different situation can be seen between the two newspapers in that Al-Ahram still preferred to use ٠ُ‫( ا‬six occurrences). with one occurrence each. This was due to the semantic aspect of this particular verb.61 shows that the usage of the particle ‫ ُـ‬occurred in two newspapers. without a particle. while world affairs widely excluded the use of the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬with this verb. The results showed that the former was used more than the latter (12 and two occurrences respectively).29 shows that the use of the verb without a particle was recognised in all the newspapers except Al-Ahram and Al-Jazirah. Generally. 365 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi.” 327 . “َٕٝ. Further investigation in the concordance tool showed that the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬might be omitted in order to avoid repetition in an article. the results showed this verb was used in quite similar frequency both in its normal usage with the particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬to)365 and without it. s. although the difference here is between the use of particle ٠ُ‫( ا‬to) and particle ‫( ُـ‬for). which requires the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬. Al-Ahram (Egypt) and Al-Jazirah (Saudi Arabia). Further analysis in Table 5. articles in sport used the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬more frequently than ‫ُـ‬.For the verb َٕٝ (arrived).

v.29 showed that Al-Safir (Lebanon) was distinctive in that it always used the particle ‫ُـ‬. while the other newspapers used both styles.” However.” 366 328 . Al-Furat. which may be translated as ‫ ُـ‬٠‫ رَؼ‬in Arabic. Al-Khabar and Al-Sabah al-Jadid. Table 5. further analysis in Table 5.61 shows that all the newspapers except AlSabah al-Jadid and Al-Furat used the particle ‫ُـ‬. especially English. and only small differences can be seen in sport. the results showed that world affairs used it with the particles ٠ُ‫ا‬ and ‫ ُـ‬in equally (seven occurrences each). where the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬was used 12 times and ‫ ُـ‬ten. ‫ب‬ٜ٤‫لَل ك‬٤ُ ٗ‫ األه‬٢‫ ك‬٠‫ ٍؼ‬٠ُٞ‫اما ر‬ٝ. as the researcher considers the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬to be usual with the verb ٠‫رَؼ‬. (2: 205). the fact proves that this verb might come with other particles such as ٢‫ ك‬as it was used in al-Qur‟an.For the verb ٠‫( رَؼ‬strive)..366 the discussion focuses on the particle ‫ُـ‬. . s.v.. indicating that they had not totally escaped from normal Arabic usage.367 Table 5. The researcher believes its occurrence could be related to the effects of other languages. The previous chapter discussed (see page 66) the possibilities of Arabic language style being affected by a foreign language and the researcher found no mistake occurred in applying the foreign style as it would not create a different meaning. The results for the verb ‫لف‬ٜ‫( ر‬aim) showed that world affairs used it with the particle ‫ُـ‬ instead of the more usual ٠ُ‫ا‬.29 shows that the particle ‫ ُـ‬was used in four newspapers. Al-Ahram. Although this newspaper was alone in promoting this Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi. Similarly. s. However. Al-Ahram (Egypt) was distinctive in that it always used the particle ‫ُـ‬. in sport. However. Al-Ahram differed in that all its usages were with the particle ‫ُـ‬. In further investigation. although most of them used both styles. indicating that Al-Ahram played an important role in promoting the use of this verb with the particle ‫ُـ‬. 367 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi. However. “٠‫ٍؼ‬. because English uses „strive for‟ to mean „exert strenuous effort to achieve something‟... “‫لف‬ٛ.

.style. where the results showed the verb was used once differently from its normal usage. ٢‫خ فطو ٕؾ‬ٜ‫اع‬ٞٓ ٜ‫زؼِن كو‬٣ ‫ُ إٔ األٓو ال‬ٞ‫اػزجو ث‬ٝ”.” The sentence is “. which shows it was used 22 times). Similarly. the researcher found this was not misleading. the conclusion can be drawn that the particle ‫ ثـ‬could be omitted after the verb ‫زِؼن‬٣ if they were separated by other words such as ٜ‫( كو‬only) in the sentence in question. By reference the concordance tool. in similar contexts. the concordance also showed another use of the verb ‫زؼِن‬٣ with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬even though they were separated by the word ‫ب‬ٜ‫ؽَج‬. s.” 329 . It can therefore be concluded that Al-Sabah alJadid created a different usage for this verb in news writing.369 Table 5.v. The verb ‫زؼِن‬٣ was always used with the particle ‫ ثـ‬in normal usage. because both usages explained the objective of the particular action. with the omission of the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬. However. Meanwhile. „purpose to‟ which can be paired with ٠ُ‫لف ا‬ٜ٣ and „aim for‟ which is similar to ‫لف ُـ‬ٜ٣. the table also shows that the particle ‫ ُـ‬may also be used.29 shows that this style was used by Al-Sabah al-Jadid (Iraq). Style variation is also found with the verb ‫زؼِن‬٣ (relate). However. “‫كػب‬. as found in Al-Khabar. though less frequently. “‫رؼِن‬. even if it is rare. The verb ‫( كػب‬called) was always used with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬when it was used to mean „calling for joining‟370 (see Table 5.v. other languages such as English use two styles to link to the objective. without the particle ‫ثـ‬. for example. the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬is translated into English as „to‟.368 but this one exceptional example shows its recognition in Arabic newspapers.26. where it might be a translation of „call for‟. as the phrase ٠ُ‫ كػب ا‬has become normal in 368 369 A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. s. 370 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi. The researcher considers that the use of the particle ‫ ُـ‬may be related to the effect of English.. Therefore.

albeit on fewer occasions (six) without a particle. the omission of the particle in some 371 372 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi. the result show a variation in this verb.29 showed that Al-Ahram and Al-Khabar were distinctive in their recognition of both styles. 372 The researcher does not consider this usage as misleading. regularly occurs in Arabic with the particle ‫ُـ‬. s. while the particle ‫ ُـ‬was used in Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Safir. Furthermore. In sport.. Table 5. because sporting competitions involved meetings between two teams confronting [in front of] one another. The researcher considers that the use of ّ‫ أٓب‬does not lead to misunderstanding. as omitting the particle ‫ ُـ‬does not affect the sentence order or message. A new feature of MSA in newspaper Arabic is clear here. “‫ٍجن‬.‫ٍبًب‬ٝ‫ًٔب سثك نه إٔ ُؼت ٓغ أ‬.61 shows that ّ‫ أٓب‬was used in Al-Sabah al-Jadid once. ٕ‫ يغ ثوا‬٢َٗ‫ٖ اُلو‬٣‫( رؼبكٍ ه‬French Rennes drew with Brann) and ٖ٤‫و‬٣‫ٖ أياو اُلو‬٤‫ ٓجبهر‬٢‫( رؼبكٍ ك‬drew in front of two teams).v. indicating „had previously‟. where it was used. although using the verb with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬was still more frequent. However. Table 5. In further analysis. indicating that several newspapers.371 However. in its used with the particle ّ‫ أٓب‬as well as ‫ ٓغ‬in similar contexts.ٖ٤٤ُٝ‫ اُل‬ٚٓٞ‫ ًَ ٗغ‬ٚ‫يٓ٘ب ث‬ٛ ٌ‫ سثك أ‬١‫ب اُن‬٤ُ‫ْ ٓ٘زقجبد ًَ ٖٓ أٍزوا‬ٚ‫ر‬ 330 . especially Al-Sabah al-Jadid.Arabic. for example . the table showed that the verb was also used with other particles such as ّ‫( أٓب‬in front of) and ‫( ُـ‬for)... or without a particle. The verb ‫( ٍجن‬passed). believed in the viability of these particles‟ usage with the verb ٍ‫رؼبك‬. the verb ٍ‫( رؼبك‬drew) was normally used with the particle ‫( ٓغ‬with) to indicate an equal result in a particular game. For examples. the use of ‫ كػب ُـ‬may be considered a new feature of MSA Arabic newspapers.. In further analysis. so the use of the particle ّ‫ أٓب‬can be considered simply a style variation.” The example of verb usage without particle is .

the verb ‫ت‬٤‫ـ‬٣ without the particle ٖ‫ ػ‬semantically already means „be absent from‟. s. ٖ‫وؿت ػ‬٣ meaning „hate‟ can be understood as „stay away from a hateful thing‟. However. the verb ٖ‫ت ػ‬٤‫ـ‬٣ was also used to indicate „be absent from‟ which can be explained as „stay away from certain event‟. Table 5. In addition.61 shows that the newspapers either recognised both styles (Al-Jazirah. there were no newspapers that always used the verb without the particle ٖ‫ػ‬. Al-Khabar and Al-Safir. Thus. Thus.contexts could simplify the Arabic. Thus. indicating that news articles tend towards the use of simple sentences in newspaper reports. Al-Khabar and AlSafir). the results show that the newspapers also recognised the less frequent use of this verb without a particle.373 For example. especially in Al-Ahram. mentioning the particular „occasion‟ from which a person was absent was not important for the reports. Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Sabah alJadid). “‫ؿبة‬. Here. In further analysis. or only recognised the use of the verb without ٖ‫( ػ‬Al-Ahram. or was already understood by readers. The verb ‫ت‬٤‫ـ‬٣ (absent) was regularly used with the particle ٖ‫ػ‬. Table 5. the omission of the particle ٖ‫ ػ‬may be related to the fact that in some contexts. and omitting to specify the „occasion‟ leads to the omission of the particle ٖ‫ ػ‬too. as long as the meaning is clear to readers. which indicates „away‟ from something.61 shows that the omission of the particle ‫ ُـ‬was recognised by all the newspapers except Al-Ahram (with the proviso that there were no results for Al-Khabar or Al-Quds al-„Arabi). even when this contravenes normal usage. 373 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi. indicating that the relationship between the verb and the particle ٖ‫ ػ‬was still strong as a normal usage.” 331 .v.

. Both usages referred to players‟ attitudes. However.The verb َٛ‫( رؤ‬qualified) was regularly used with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬because it related to „moving from a lower stage to a higher‟ in sport. the results showed that media Arabic may apply different styles so that the particle ‫ ُـ‬was used with lower frequency. with two occurrences.. However. ٜ‫االُزياّ كو‬ٝ ّ‫ؾزبط ُِ٘ظب‬٣ ٕ‫ًب‬ٝ. The verb ‫ؾزبط‬٣ (need) is also regularly used in Arabic with the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬. such as endeavour and commitment. but also had to possess it. this usually related to an attitude in sport. In further analysis. Table 5. In the researcher‟s view. The reason for this can be found in previous explanations about the verb َٛ‫( رؤ‬qualified). 332 .61 shows that the particle ‫ ُـ‬was only recognised in Al-Jazirah. the results showed that the particle ‫ ُـ‬was also used with low frequency. The concordance tool for this verb showed that both occurrences of the particle ‫ ُـ‬were related to „moving from qualification stage to the final stage‟. which was considered the most important and firm objective of participation in any sport.v. when it reported sport competitors qualifying for the final stage. the use of ‫ ُـ‬might also indicate „possession of the required thing‟. the verb ‫ؾزبط‬٣ was normally used with ٠ُ‫ا‬ literally to mean „be in need of‟. “‫اؽزبط‬.374 However. s. The researcher considers that this was due to news writers‟ perception of the qualification in question: the use of the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬only indicated „moving from a lower stage to a higher stage‟. the concordance tool showed that ‫ ُـ‬was used to indicate that the subject not only needed the object in order to do something important. In this context. but the use of ‫ ُـ‬might also indicate the „crucial qualification from one stage to another as a main objective‟.” The example of this situation is .375 374 375 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi.

The verb ٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ (suffer) was regularly used with the particle ٖٓ to mean „subject suffering from negative occasion‟. while other newspapers only recognised ٠ُ‫( ا‬excluding Al-Jazirah. simplicity of writing was preferred as long as readers were able to understand the story. Table 5. the results show that Arabic newspapers might not use a particle in this context. while the omission of the particle ٖٓ was justifiable. ‫خ فبٗوخ‬٤ُ‫ َؼاٍَ أىٓخ ٓب‬٢ِ٤‫ إٔ اإلٍٔبػ‬٠ُ‫أّبه اُؤبُ ا‬.. along with Al-Quds al-„Arabi. one problem might arise from the omission of the particle ٖٓ.61 shows that only Al-Ahram used the verb ‫ؾزبط‬٣ with the particle ‫ُـ‬. Table 5. The researcher considers this a new style in newspaper writing where..61 shows that Al-Ahram is again distinct. In relation to previous discussions. such as health problems in sporting events. However. but also „need to possess something‟ especially with regard to attitude. in the sentences in question. this did not arise because the word directly after ٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ was definitely the object suffered. Al-Khabar and Al-Sabah al-Jadid for which there were no results). only Al-Ahram and Al-Quds al-„Arabi applied it. 333 . such as ٖٓ in this context. since either is grammatically possible. 376 The example of this situation is . in some circumstances. to mean not only „need something‟. as the only two newspapers that recognised the use of this verb without ٖٓ.In further analysis.376 In further analysis. not the subject who did the suffering. Nevertheless. Thus. However. Readers might become confused about whether the word following ٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ is the subject or the object of the verb. Al-Ahram was distinctive in creating a different verb transitivity with the verb ‫ؾزبط‬٣. This was achieved by omitting several particles that were usually widely used.

s. which is still preferred. less often. ‫ اُلوو‬٠ٗ‫ ػب‬and ‫ أُزبػت‬٠ٗ‫ . The researcher found that in certain circumstances. leading „to‟. ٚ‫و‬٣‫وبف ٓجبهاح كو‬٣‫ أدي إل‬١‫و اُن‬٤ٛ‫ ٖٓ ّـت اُغٔب‬ٚٓ‫ٕل‬. and that only once. which was the only style recognised by the other newspapers. use the verb with the particle ‫ ُـ‬.Reference to al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi shows that the use of the verb (٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ /٠ٗ‫)ػب‬ without a particle is recognised. “٠ٗ‫ػب‬. s.378 In further investigation.61 shows that only Al-Quds al-„Arabi used the particle ‫ ُـ‬in combination with the verb ٟ‫أك‬. 379 Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi.v.. regardless of whether they are regularly used in Arabic. The verb ‫وؿت‬٣ (interested) was regularly used with the particle ٢‫ ك‬to indicate „subject desires something‟.v.. it simply explains the use of the particle ‫ ُـ‬in addition to the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬.377 The verb ٟ‫( أك‬led) was normally used with the particle ٠ُ‫ ا‬to mean „event that led to further situation‟.ػب‬see Al-Mu‟jam al-„Arabi al-Asasi. This newspaper also used the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬. Although the particle ‫ ُـ‬is therefore accurate in terms of meaning.” The example of this situation is . this does not preclude the use of the particle ٠ُ‫ا‬. Table 5. Rather. The result of any cause can be shown in Arabic by the particle ‫ُـ‬. In the sentence in question. “‫هؿت‬. However. the results show that Arabic newspapers may. However. The researcher noted that the meaning of the verb ٟ‫ أك‬directly indicated cause and effect in certain sports events.” 377 378 334 . news articles omit or replace several particles when they do not significantly contribute to the readers‟ understanding.379 However. the verb without a particle was accompanied by a clear indication of meaning by means of the For example. the researcher considers that confusion might happen if no particle was used with this particular verb (‫وؿت‬٣ only) because it was also used in the opposite meaning with the particle ٖ‫وؿت ػٖ( ػ‬٣) (hate). the results show that this verb may also be used with the particle ‫ ثـ‬or without a particle in Arabic news writing.

As stated previously. The researcher found that this situation occurred in most newspapers in the corpus. and two in the United Kingdom and Australia. ٙ‫ الػت ال َشغة اُِؼت ُٔ٘زقت ثالك‬١‫ ػٖ أ‬٠٘‫ ؿ‬٢‫ ك‬١‫ٖ أُٖو‬ُٛٞ‫ن ا‬٣‫كو‬. the results show that the normal usage of verb combinations with particles is still preferred by Arabic newspapers. The above discussion has shown that variations of language style in verb transitivity with particles are used in newspaper writing. e. 380 For more explanation.13 Discussion of words by newspaper In order to take the study to greater depth.negative particle ‫ ال‬before the verb (‫وؿت اُِؼت‬٣ ‫)ال‬. further analysis revealed that several newspapers are eager to escape from traditional Arabic and create a new identity for media Arabic. 6. Table 5. 335 .2. while the particle ‫ ثـ‬was used in Al-Quds al-„Arabi in place of the more usual particle ٢‫ك‬. indicating again the distinctiveness of these two newspapers in terms of verb transitivity compared with other newspapers. Using this method for further investigation was expected to produce more detailed results about the language style in media Arabic according to the country and region of publication. Nevertheless. However. several aspects of the language features in Arabic newspapers from seven regions were analysed by newspaper.g the normal usage of ٠ُ‫ كػب ا‬occurred more than ‫كػب ُـ‬.380 In further analysis... the sentence is . five of the seven analysed are published in various Arab countries.61 shows that the omission of the particle with ‫وؿت‬٣ was used in Al-Ahram.

The other two newspapers. While the Iraq issue was a matter for the national news section in this Iraqi newspaper. especially government leaders.27 analysed the top five highest frequency words by newspaper in world affairs. had the words ‫ اُؼوام‬and ٍ‫ هب‬respectively at the top of the frequency list. which is also the highest frequency word overall. Iraq and Iran‟s nuclear programme) covered in other newspapers. ranks the highest in five out of the seven newspapers. 1. The reason for this may be that the newspaper is published by Iraqis who migrated to Australia after the American allied attack on Iraq in 2003. however. this showed that most newspapers reported on world leaders. On the other hand. Generally speaking. organisations and political parties. the lack of 336 . the word ‫ اُؼوام‬had the highest frequency and. Al-Sabah al-Jadid (Iraq) produced an interesting result in that the conflict in Kosovo was the newspaper‟s focus rather than the other main world events (Palestine. especially the analysis in terms of phrase and verb transitivity. In Al-Furat. The word ٌ٤‫( اُوئ‬leader). Al-Furat and AlQuds al-„Arabi. one of the newspaper‟s focuses was on spreading information about Iraq to Iraqi immigrants in Australia (see page 86). this indicated that Iraq was the newspaper‟s main concern.It should be noted that this part will not discuss all the results analysed in chapter 5 by newspaper as some of them have already been discussed. As mentioned before in chapter 3. with the words ٢‫ػواه‬ and ‫خ‬٤‫ ػواه‬in fourth and fifth place. High frequency words Table 5.

Al-Sabah al-Jadid was previously published as Al-Sabah and was relaunched and renamed after the American attack in 2003. as can be seen clearly in Al-Sabah al-Jadid from Iraq. the sport sections showed that every newspaper had a different focus. while. Table 5. ‫ اُيٓبُي‬and ٢ِٛ‫ األ‬are football club names in Egypt and Saudi Arabia respectively. Thus.focus on the Palestine-Israel issue may be due to the newspaper‟s stand on other world issues. some newspapers avoided from the main issue by shifting to another. Egypt was the defending champion in the African Cup of Nations and was participating in the next Africa Cup in 2008 to defend their title. with football clubs‟ names and a nation‟s name in the top five high frequency words: ‫( ٖٓو‬Egypt) and ‫( اُيٓبُي‬al-Zamalik) for Al-Ahram and ٢ِٛ‫( األ‬al-Ahli) for Al-Jazirah. 337 . and so it may have been used to spread American propaganda against Russia by highlighting the Kosovo conflict. were mainly focused on internal football issues. This is due to the football situation in those countries at the time of corpus collection.59 shows that most of the newspapers focused most on reporting about football teams and matches. especially football. However. Al-Ahram and AlJazirah. especially in Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir. the most notable point is that two newspapers. Meanwhile. where the words ‫( ٗوطخ‬point) and ‫ه‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory) were prominent. analysis in world affairs revealed that while most newspapers were concentrating on prominent world matters. Its publication was controlled by the American allies in Iraq. As mentioned before in chapter 3. according to their interests in either internal or general sports events. In the sport sections. Sports results were also highlighted.

such as ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬which was also spelled ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ٍزور‬. a normal phenomenon for loan words because several sound clusters are not available under Arabic spelling rules.2. With regard to the indirectly related loan words. the concordance tool showed that the word ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬related to the strategic plans drafted by relevant countries and organisations to solve world crises. see page 345. 338 . ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫( اٍزوار‬strategy) and others. such as ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬and ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٘‫( ر‬technology). most of the loan words that occurred in world affairs were related to government administrative terminology. The researcher believes that the loan words listed in the results were closely related to the main issues in world affairs. or indirectly. Table 5. either directly. For the general loan words in world affairs. The occurrence of such differences is. The spelling variations arise because Arabic language authorities. ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫( ك‬٢ٛ‫ٔووا‬٣‫ )ك‬and ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫خ( كًزبر‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫)ك‬. ٢َِٛ‫( أ‬٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫)أ‬. with different backgrounds and 381 For further discussion of spelling differences. followed by ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫( ك‬democracy). general and specific. The table also shows that several words have different spellings. while the word ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٘‫ ر‬related to a particular issue. in the researcher‟s view. In line with this. namely Iran‟s nuclear programme to develop nuclear technology. Loan words This study divided the loan words into two parts. where matters of leaders and governments dominated the list. as previously defined (see page 186-187). such as ‫خ‬٤ً‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ ك‬and ٕ‫ثؤُب‬.30 shows that the word ٕ‫( ثؤُب‬parliament) ranked at the highest frequency with 64 occurrences. 381 so new spelling rules were needed for such words to be accepted into Arabic.

In sport.attitudes. were also found in sport. while no high frequency loan words in sport were found in world affairs. some of which were widely accepted and applied. such as ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫اٍزوار‬. and ‫ ٍزبك‬without the vowel (‫)أ‬. mostly football.31 shows 11 examples of specific loan words in world affairs. the low frequency loan words (one and two occurrences) either had no 382 For further discussion of spelling differences. ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ ك‬and ‫ه‬ٞ‫كًزبر‬. Table 5. ٚ٤‫( ًبهار‬karate) and ‫ثو‬ٍٞ (super). namely ٛ‫هوا‬ٌٞ٘‫( ر‬technocrat). Table 5. The examples are all foreign words imported spelled in Arabic letters.382 Comparison between general loan words in both sections (see Table 5. 339 . were related to administration terminology in line with the main issues in world affairs. although in lower frequency.88) showed that several high frequency loan words in world affairs were more general because some of them. ‫( أٍزبك‬stadium). ًٍٞٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫( ثو‬protocol) and ٞ‫ز‬٤‫( ك‬Veto). see page 348. All the examples occurring in high frequency (three and more occurrences). with 119 occurrences. although the concordance tool showed that it was related to the names of sports leagues. followed by ‫خ‬٣‫ٗي‬ٝ‫( ثو‬bronze). and others less so. which the researcher thinks might be used in other fields as well. while.62 shows that the loan word ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ٓ (medal) and its variations were used most. This confirms that there were more specific loan words in sport than in world affairs. developed their own spelling rules. which was widely used. ٢َِٛ‫أ‬. Most of the examples in the table showed a direct relation to the sports news except the word „super‟. which we have seen was also the case with Arabic words too. The results also show that the word „stadium‟ has two spellings: ‫أٍزبك‬.

384 The fact that this particular word was found in Al-Quds al-„Arabi (United Kingdom) is an indication that this newspaper was more exposed to foreign language influence.close relationship to world issues or were rarely used because of the unavailability in Arabic of specific terms to translate „marine soldier‟ and „virus‟. The first two words are very general and the third word can be related to sports news in a short glance. The sentence is “. 340 . while the word ‫ٌبد‬٤‫ رٌز‬referred to tactics applied by the army which mean it can be used in both sections 383 384 The word refers to the news agency United Press International. the use of the word ‫و‬٤‫ رواَٗل‬is an innovation in media Arabic as there was no similarly significant reason for using the foreign word. The example shows that the word ‫و‬٤‫ اُزواَٗل‬is not a specific term so the Arabic word should be preferred.. ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫( ر‬t-shirt) and ‫ٌبد‬٤‫( رٌز‬tactics). The word ٍ‫ٗب‬ّٞ‫ اٗزوٗب‬referred to the name of a specific company in a non-Arab country. this is not as accurate as a direct transfer of the original word because most such words are technical terms whose meaning would be distorted if translation methods were applied. The concordance tool revealed that both words were used in specific contexts. which were found in Al-Ahram. The results showed that most of the examples can easily be related to world news. where the use of the Arabic ٢ُٝ‫ اُل‬might cause a generalisation of the company‟s name. ‫ٖ اُضبُش‬ُٛٞ‫ ٖٓ ا‬٢‫انرشاَسفُش اُطوك اُغٔبػ‬ٝ ٢ٗ‫خ ُِزجبكٍ اٌَُب‬٤ُٝ‫ ُْوػ٘خ اُل‬ٚ٤‫ ٖٓواػ‬٠ِ‫لزؼ اُجبة ػ‬٣”. which both have Arabic equivalents („ٍ‫ ‟اٗزوب‬and „٢ُٝ‫ ‟ك‬respectively). Exceptions were the words ‫و‬٤‫( رواٗل‬transfer) and ٍ‫ٗب‬ٞ٤ٍ‫( اٗزوٗب‬international). the exceptions being ‫( عبًذ‬jacket).383 However.. In explanation of their occurrence in world affairs. the concordance tool showed that the words ‫ عبًذ‬and ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ ر‬were used in one article relating to prisoner needs in Guantanamo Bay. Although translations of foreign terms into Arabic can be done by using descriptive words.

‫خ‬٤ٌ٤‫( كهآبر‬dramatic) and ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫( ث‬psychology) might seem to have no relation to the sports news at first glance. The use of ‫ عبًذ‬rather than ‫ ٍزوح‬was probably because the news writer considered that the word ‫ ٍزوح‬did not accurately translate „jacket‟ because it is a translation based on the Arabic root meaning and gives the sense of „a thing that covers‟.385 This is certainly not a precise translation of „jacket‟. “‫ٍزو‬. the use of the word ‫ة‬ٞ‫ ص‬instead of ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ ر‬was too general. For example. The word ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ ر‬has no Arabic equivalent. the concordance came up with the word ‫ عبًذ‬in a similar sentence. In sport. ‫خ‬٤ٌ٤‫ رٌز‬and ‫ٌبد‬٤‫ )رٌز‬in both newspapers.” 341 . In this context. Several dictionaries show that the word ‫ عبًذ‬can be translated ‫ ٍزوح‬but there was no translation for ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ر‬. while other words were used in one form only. Table 5. ‫ؿواكبد‬ٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫( أ‬autographs). The researcher considers the word ‫ي‬٤‫ رٌز‬to be a regular loan word in Al-Furat and AlKhabar because of the existence of its variants (٢ٌ٤‫رٌز‬. but the concordance tool revealed their relationship. all the examples were foreign words inported and spelled in Arabic letters. the word ‫و‬٤ٍ related to Manchester United football club manager Sir Alex Ferguson. the researcher considers that the real issue in the words ‫ عبًذ‬and ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ ر‬was not in their relation to world news. which is also a specific garment. The table shows that most examples are closely related to the sports news. The table shows only one high frequency word. As in world affairs. and the word ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫ ث‬related to mental 385 This is because ‫ ٍزوح‬comes from ‫ ٍزو‬which mean „cover‟. while others occurred in low frequency. see Al-Mawrid. .However.63 shows 11 examples of specific loan words. namely ‫ي‬٤‫( رٌز‬tactics). Several words such as ‫و‬٤ٍ (Sir). but in their usage as loan words. s. 22nd ed.v. and the news author probably thought there was a need to specify the exact kind of garment.

The concordance tool revealed that it was the scientific name of a measurement method in sporting competitions.. the word ‫و‬٤ٍ can be translated ‫ل‬٤ٍ and the word ‫ي‬٤ً َ‫ كث‬can be translated ‫خ‬٤‫اُوًِخ اُض٘بئ‬. such as ٕٞ‫( ثبكٓ٘ز‬badminton) which is 386 387 Further discussion of this word comes in page 346. Words such as ‫و‬٤‫أُ٘بع‬ (manager). ‫خ‬٤ٌ٤‫( كهآبر‬dramatic) and ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫( ث‬psychology) might have Arabic translations.. but they are excluded from newspaper writing for reasons of accuracy.7 ‫يه‬٤ُِ‫اهة ا‬ٞ‫ٍ ُِو‬ٝ‫وبّ اَُجبم األ‬٣ ‫ش‬٤‫ ؽ‬. the researcher noted that the spelling of the word ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫ ث‬which started with the consonant (‫ )ثـ‬to replace (p) in psychology is a special case. ‫ي‬٤ً َ‫( كث‬double kick). and this will be discussed later in view of the fact that dictionaries give the spelling as ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤ٍ without (‫)ثـ‬. The specific sentence is “.. but these translations might not precisely convey the sense of the foreign word. but that newspapers still preferred to use foreign words. ‫و‬٤ٍ (Sir). For example.” 342 . namely 387 ‫يه سراَذسد ٓقزِخ‬٤ُِ‫اهة ا‬ٞ‫ ه‬which can be justified in a way similar ٍ‫ٗب‬ّٞ‫ اٗزوٗب‬discussed above. The word ‫ل‬٤ٍ is too general for ‫و‬٤ٍ because the latter is a specific title only available in the United Kingdom.386 The existence of the word ‫ ٍزبٗلهد‬in sport as a loan word required extensive elaboration because of its generality and ambiguity in the sports area. However. The word ‫ي‬٤ً َ‫ كث‬is a specific action performed by a player in football and so the use of the translation (‫خ‬٤‫ )اُوًِخ اُض٘بئ‬may be confusing to readers. while the word ‫ل‬٤ٍ can refer to all levels of people. The researcher also found that some of the loan words in sport were imported from foreign languages because there were no specific Arabic equivalents. ‫يه ٍزبٗلهك ٓقزِخ‬٤ُِ‫اهة ا‬ٞ‫ه‬ٝ ِٜ‫ ٓقز‬4.preparation before participating in a sporting competition. the table shows that several other words were available in Arabic. In contrast..

and was therefore categorised as a specific loan word on the basis of the limits set by the researcher.widely known as ‫ْخ‬٣‫ ًوح اُو‬and ‫( اٌُبهد‬card). newspapers from Arab countries only used foreign words either because there was no Arabic equivalent or because the news writer believed the Arabic term would not precisely convey the meaning. because both these newspapers are published in non-Arab countries. a specific word should occur in only one section. The researcher found this to be a special feature that newspapers. which in Arabic is ‫اُجطبهخ‬. On this basis. the analysis revealed that the word ‫ي‬٤‫رٌز‬ (tactics) occurred in both sections. not both. This is a very important point because in normal practice. However. When the specific loan words were compared. The researcher believes this is related to the place of publication. This word was used in only two newspapers out of seven. In contrast. by the frequency of occurrence. The occurrence of this word in both sections therefore requires an explanation. it should be concluded that the word specificity in this part of the analysis was not concerned with appropriateness for different types of news (sport or world affairs). This also applies to other specific loan words already discussed. were adopting in media Arabic. The fact that the Arabic word ‫ اُجطبهخ‬was used frequently instead of ‫ اٌُبهد‬in other newspapers strengthens this claim. Specific loan words were determined first by the number of newspapers in which they occurred and second. the occurrence of this word in both sections indicates that it was originally not a specific loan word but a general one. such as ‫ عبًذ‬and ‫ود‬٤ّ ٢‫ ر‬which were in fact general loan words. AlFurat and Al-Khabar. especially Al-Furat and Al-Quds al„ Arabi. 343 . but with their usage in the present corpus.

Discussion of words with spelling differences Because the results showed several spelling differences. In normal practice. The analysis was divided into two sections. 3. the researcher regarded them as worthy of consideration in this study. foreign 344 . while loan words in Arab country newspapers were only used when first. but the findings show that they are open to use any loan word in a wider perspective. when the Arabic word would not precisely translate the word in question. first.In conclusion of both studies in world affairs and sport. as in the case of ‫( اٌُبهك‬card) and ٕٞ‫ثبكٓ٘ز‬ (badminton).32 shows that the plural for ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ (scenario) had two spellings: ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ and ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ. As the Arabic words showed only slight spelling differences. Although each spelling was used in only one newspaper. The analysis from the non-Arab country newspapers produced the unexpected finding that they readily used loan words even when a suitable Arabic word already existed. Table 5. there was no specific Arabic equivalent and second. specifically between newspapers from non-Arab and Arab countries. the differences in the loan words have been given more attention. the spelling ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ was used more frequently than ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ. spelling differences in loan words. It would have been expected that non-Arab countries would be exposed to more loan words than Arab-country newspapers within the above situations only. spelling differences in Arabic words and second. it could be stated that the acceptability level of the usage of new loan words differs considerably. The word ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ was used once in Al-Sabah al-Jadid and the word ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ was used five times in Al-Khabar.

while the spelling ٢َِٛ‫أ‬ comes from the word ٌِٛ‫( أ‬atlas). Al-Safir and Al-Sabah al-Jadid. with ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬occurring more often than ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ٍزور‬. creating (‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ). ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫ك‬ٞ‫ ٍز‬and ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ because Arabic phonetics prohibits the consecutive vowel-less letters. The existence of another spelling (‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ) shows that the Iraqi newspaper decided to innovate. Because those words end with ( ْٝ). most often in Al-Furat. and the second is to insert a short vowel to ٍْ make ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫زور‬ ِ . Arabic rendition of 345 . Even so. For the word „strategy‟. the spelling ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬was used in five newspapers. The spelling ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ أ‬is a direct transfer from English. The solution is to add the consonant (‫ـ‬ٛ) to separate the vowel-less ِ ٤ٍ letters. the first is to prefix the vowel (‫ )ا‬to enable pronounciation as ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫اٍْزوار‬. the same newspaper used both spellings. This proved that the use of the second spelling was not the main identity in Al-Furat in particular to refer to the country of publishing. while ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ ٍزور‬was used only in Al-Furat and only once. studio and scenario form their plurals by adding consonant (‫ـ‬ٛ) in addition to (‫ )اد‬as an sound plural. the addition of (‫ ) ْاد‬to form the plural breaks the rule (‫ْ ْاد‬ُٞ٣‫ْ٘به‬ ِ ). although corrupt. The analysis indicated that the former is preferred by Arabic newspapers as the latter only occurred once. The researcher believes this variation is due to differences in direct and indirect loan words from a foreign language.words ending in „io‟ such as radio. the spelling ٢َِٛ‫ أ‬was used 19 times in in Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Jazirah and the spelling ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ أ‬was used twice in Al-Ahram. such as (‫ْ ْا‬ٝ) or (ْ‫) ْاا‬. to become ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫هاك‬. This is because Arabic has two different methods for solving the problem of sound the clusters „stra‟ and „sta‟ which are prohibited in Arabic. For the word „Atlantic‟. in Al-Furat. a traditional.

and both spellings were used in quite similar frequencies (three and two occurrences respectively). the ١. This means that even short vowels in English are usually represented by Arabic letters. “٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫أ‬. which each occurred once. „dictator‟ should be spelled in Arabic as ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫ك‬. The fact that the spelling ٢َِٛ‫ أ‬was used in more often than ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫أ‬. strictly speaking. which is a sound that does not exist in Arabic. However. The two spellings were used in different newspapers (Al-Safir and Al-Khabar used ‫ه‬ٞ‫كًزبر‬. despite the fact that the latter is a more correct transliteration. The researcher considers that the use of ٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ أ‬as a spelling variation in MSA was promoted by Al-Ahram388 as a result of foreign language influence. The normal method is to represent all foreign letters by Arabic letters. The latter spelling is a transcription of the word as it is pronounced. which in Arabic would normally indicate a long „i‟. while Al-Ahram and Al-Sabah al-Jadid used ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫)ك‬. the p being silent. Al-Khabar (Algeria). with the Arabic ‫ ثـ‬representing the p. only writes consonants and long vowels. both in the same newspaper.” 346 .„Atlantic‟.v. For the word „dictator‟. the results showed two spellings for „psychology‟. Reference to several dictionaries showed that the spelling 388 This spelling (٢‫ِ٘ط‬ٛ‫ )أ‬is also found in a modern Arabic dictionary. the results showed that the spelling ‫ه‬ٞ‫ كًزبر‬was used more than ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٌزبر‬٣‫ك‬. giving the spelling ‫ه‬ٞ‫كًزبر‬. According to this system. The former spelling is based on the Western spelling of the word. even though Arabic. rather than by „vowel points‟. see A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫ ث‬and ٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤ٍ. The reason for this variation is related to the transposition of English vowels into Arabic. In sport. may indicate that the newspapers preferred to avoid a direct foreign loan word as long as an Arabic alternative was available. is sometimes omitted. s.

the hard g is found normal in the Egyptian dialect. These spellings were found in only two newspapers: Al-Sabah al-Jadid used the first spelling and abbreviation. the researcher believes the second spelling was probably a spelling mistake on the part of the writer or a typographical error. However. 22nd ed.v. For example. so the spelling with (‫ )ثـ‬may be considered an innovation. indicating that this newspaper was distinctive in that it recognised both variants. s.without (‫ )ثـ‬is a recognised spelling. The researcher believes this is due to the differences in Arabic dialect sound systems.389 The analysis also showed that the word kilogram had two different Arabic spellings and one abbreviation: ّ‫ؿوا‬ِٞ٤ً and ّ‫عوا‬ِٞ٤ً (with a variation in the consonants ‫ ط‬and ‫ؽ‬. with the first clearly used more (38 times in five newspapers) than the second (only once in AlSabah al-Jadid). This might be related to phonics and the transposition of the ْ‫ػ‬ sound combinations „nb‟ and „mb‟. Nevertheless. 389 Al-Mawrid. The hard vowel g does not exist in standard Arabic and was therefore replaced by the consonant ‫ ؽ‬to give the spelling ّ‫ؿوا‬ِٞ٤ً or ْ‫ًـ‬.” 347 . and the abbreviation ْ‫ًـ‬. For the word November. so the fact that the spelling ّ‫عوا‬ِٞ٤ً with the consonant ‫ ط‬occurred in the UK newspaper may be because the writer was originally from Egypt or had been affected by Egyptian Arabic. “٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤ٍ. the Arabic word ‫٘جَو‬ َ („anbar) has become „amber‟ in English. the table showed the use of two spellings. . and Al-Quds al-„Arabi used the second spelling. Al-Sabah al-Jadid was also included among the five newspapers that used the more common spelling. ‫كٔجو‬ٞٗ and ‫ك٘جو‬ٞٗ.

where again only one newspaper. This was due to a conflict in the rules of orthography for writing the consonant (‫ )ء‬in the middle of the word390 and for avoiding the repetition of the letter (ٝ) within a word. although the spelling ‫ أٍزبك‬was used more frequently.For the word ‫ٍزبك‬. especially in the word ٍٝ‫َٓئ‬. while most newspapers preferred to follow the rule for writing (‫ )ء‬on (‫ )إ‬when it is associated with ُ . AlAhram.v.alshref.html. However. both words having differences in using the letter (‫ )إ‬or (‫ )ئ‬to carry the hamza. with ( ‫ )ئ‬related to Egyptian practice.)إ‬see A Dictionary of Egyptian Arabic. as in ٕٝ‫ ّئ‬and ًٝ‫ًئ‬. The researcher considers that there are parallels between this and the two spellings of the word ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬in world affairs discussed above.” 348 . The words ٕٝ‫ٕ( ّئ‬ٞ‫ )ّئ‬and ٍٝ‫ٍ( َٓئ‬ٞ‫ )َٓئ‬were discussed together because of their similarity. including 18 times in Al-Ahram. In both cases. while (‫ )إ‬is related to the Levant. The (‫ )ء‬is also written on (ٝ) when it is vocalised with dhammah and the preceding letter has sukun. 391 Several linguists agree with the use of ( ‫ )ئ‬for ٕٞ‫ ّئ‬and ٍٞ‫ َٓئ‬purposely to avoid a double waw (ٝ).391 It was clear that Al-Ahram newspaper preferred to avoid repeating the (ٝ) by using (‫)ئ‬. used both the alternative spellings.). This has also been attributed to regional variations. as in ٍٝ‫ َٓئ‬and ّٝ‫ْٓئ‬. Al-Furat. 1986). “ٍٝ‫َٓئ‬. the variant without (‫ )أ‬was less frequently used than the more usual spellings (‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬and ‫)أٍزبك‬.). dhammah ( َ 390 The general rule states that the consonant hamzah in written on (ٝ) when it is vocalised with dhammah and the preceding letter is also vocalised with dhammah.com/vb/t60354. http://www. but not as many as in loan words. The results showed that the spelling with (‫ )ئ‬was popular in only one newspaper. the researcher found the spelling ٍٝ‫ َٓئ‬with (‫ . Spelling differences also occurred in original Arabic words. especially in ٕٝ‫ ّئ‬where the preceding letter also has dhammah ( َ ُ . Hinds Martin and El-Said Badawi (Beirut: Maktabah Lubnan. The conclusion can be drawn that Al-Ahram (‫ أٍزبك‬and ‫)ٍزبك‬ and Al-Furat (‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ اٍزوار‬and ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ )ٍزور‬are distinctive in that they were the only newspapers that accepted both spelling variants for sound clusters starting with „st‟. while (‫ )إ‬was used in other newspapers. the results showed it was spelt without (‫ )أ‬three times in Al-Ahram. s. eds.

the spelling differences occurred as a result of differences in practices different regions. forming ‫بد‬٣‫ٓجبه‬. 349 . which leads to various solutions. (‫ )اد‬replaces (‫ )ح‬at the end of the word. 1896). 3rd ed. 194. which is prohibited by the rules of Arabic orthography. the normal spelling dominated the usage and occurred more frequently. Nevertheless. W. and the question of whether this should be construed as a sound feminine plural. although most of the analysed words occurred in two different spellings. Al-Quds al-„Arabi (ّ‫عوا‬ِٞ٤ً. see Wright. even though they occurred quite rarely. forming ‫ٓجبهاد‬. Al-Sabah al-Jadid (‫ك٘جو‬ٞٗ and ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ). Table 5. and ‫بك‬٤‫ُٔج‬ٝ‫)أ‬. especially between Egypt and other parts of the Arab world. With Arabic words. Al-Furat (‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫ )ٍزور‬and Al-Ahram (‫)ٍزبك‬.64 shows that the spelling ‫بد‬٣‫ ٓجبه‬was used more than ‫( ٓجبهاد‬171 and 20 occurrences respectively).The spelling difference between the words ‫ ٓجبهاد‬and ‫بد‬٣‫ ٓجبه‬occurred as a result of the presence of the vowel (‫ )ا‬in the singular ‫ٓجبهاح‬.392 or to delete the first (‫)ا‬. However. The researcher noted the unexpected spelling ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ (without ‫ـ‬ٛ) which was used in Al-Sabah al-Jadid because there is no 392 This is a normal grammar rule which states that if ١ or ٝ reject their fetha in the feminine singular and become quiescent before (‫)ح‬. Various factors may lead to differences in the spelling of loan words and Arabic words. indicates the emergence of innovations in language usage in Arabic media. as in ‫عبٓؼبد – عبٓؼخ‬. The word ‫ ٓجبهاح‬should thus become in the plural ‫ٓجبهااد‬ with double (‫)اا‬. In sound feminine plurals. The original vowel (‫ )ا‬in ‫ ٓجبهاح‬is (١) to become ‫خ‬٣‫ٓجبه‬. the existence of variant spellings for several words. There are two solutions to this problem: to convert the first (‫ )ا‬into (١). The differences in loan word are usually caused by clashes in the representation of sound clusters between oral and written forms and dialects. A Grammar of the Arabic Language. the table also shows that both spellings were regularly used in all the newspapers in the corpus. passing into (‫ )ا‬they are restored in the plural along with the vowel. The analysis also showed that. especially in Al-Khabar (٢‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٤َ‫)ث‬. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

and third. 6. while the sport corpus concentrated mostly on football news around the world. notably ٌ٤‫( اُوئ‬leader). comparison between the world and sport sections.strong foundation for this spelling. were also used in high frequency in sport. as in ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫هاك‬. so it occurred 189 times in sport. comparison between newspapers from Arab and non-Arab countries. and second.90 showed there were more keywords with a keyness score of 100 or more in sport than in world affairs. ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫ك‬ٞ‫ ٍز‬and ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ. This word is used in relation to administration not only in governments and world organisational structure. This unexpected finding also presents the high possibility of spelling two other examples without the consonant ‫ـ‬ٛ (‫اد‬ٞ٣‫ هاك‬and ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫ك‬ٞ‫)ٍز‬. several high frequency words in world affairs. ٞ٣‫ك‬ٞ‫ ٍز‬and ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ would form plurals with ‫بد‬ٛ. 350 . in this study the world affairs corpus focused on several different issues that might generate different words.14 Discussion of comparison analysis 1. First. second. Table 5. but also in sports team administration. For the first section. words in world affairs were more general than in sport. The researcher noted two reasons for this. The recognised rule is that the words ending with „io‟ such as ٞ٣‫هاك‬. Comparison between sections The keyword comparison analysis using the Wordsmith tool was divided into three sections: first.2. That being said. comparison between newspapers.

The researcher found this to be very clear in Al-Jazirah (Saudi Arabia). For example. Several other words occurred in quite low frequency in the other corpus. where ‫ ارؾبك‬was used in reference to world organisations and the word ‫لف‬ٛ was used to mean „objective‟. The concordance also showed that the football league in Iraq was often concerned with the on-going war. The word ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫ ا‬indicates government involvement in sport through a sports minister. In contrast. The researcher noted two contributory factors.Furthermore. which were used most in world affairs. Table 5. world affairs contained more sports-related words that occurred in high frequencies. which might threaten their sports activities. ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫( ا‬USA) and ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫( ا‬minister). the fact that governments in several countries have special relationships with sports clubs and organisations. except the word ٌ٤‫ اُوئ‬for reasons discussed above. 351 . Second. words such as ّ‫ هل‬and ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬occurred in several football reports that appeared in world affairs because they were related to world issues. words such as ‫ ارؾبك‬and ‫لف‬ٛ were not used in the same sense in sport as in world affairs. such as ‫( ارؾبك‬union). where the word ‫و‬٤ٓ‫( أ‬prince) emerged as a high frequency word because of royal involvement with sports clubs in an advisory capacity. ‫لف‬ٛ (goal). not a „goal‟ in football. while the concordance tool showed that ‫بد أُزؾلح‬٣‫ال‬ُٞ‫ ا‬was used in reference to an American basketball game. ‫ن‬٣‫ كو‬and ّ‫( هل‬foot). also occurred 12 times in sport. is also a reason why the word ٌ٤‫( اُوئ‬leader) is regularly used in sports news.90 also shows that all the words in both comparisons have a very close relationships with their respective corpus. First. ‫ى‬ٞ‫( ك‬victory). especially in terms of management and sponsorship. ‫( ٗوطخ‬point).

with both words recording higher frequencies than in Al-Khabar or Al-Furat. the results showed that this Egyptian newspaper focused more on the issues of world petrol prices and production. Another main concern of the Saudi newspaper was the issue of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Words such as ‫( اُؼوام‬Iraq).2. In world affairs in Al-Ahram. Al-Furat was more concerned about Iraqi issues. ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫( ع‬troops) and ِ٤‫( ع‬army) also occurred more in Al-Furat than in other newspapers. ‫( ٍجزخ‬Sabtah) is a Morrocon territory still under Spanish control. even though independence was achieved decades ago. ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬. Comparison between newspapers The second comparison analysed the language style across newspapers. when the word was found to be highly used when comparing Al-Jazirah newspaper to Al-Quds al„ Arabi and Al-Safir. the 352 . ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraqi). Because the Iraq issue was related to war. the words ‫اد‬ٞ‫( ه‬forces). indicating that the concern of Iraqis in Australia for their country of origin. as well as on countries such as Pakistan. The occurrence of the word ٕ‫بُجب‬ٛ (Taliban) indicates that the issue of these countries was related to the Taliban organisation. even though they lived abroad. The occurrence of the words ‫( ِٓي‬king) and ‫( ٌِٓٔخ‬kingdom) were. Afghanistan and Iraq. The Saudi Arabian Al-Jazirah focused more on the relationship between Morocco and Spain due to their history. and Iran‟s nuclear programme were also highlighted. ‫ثـلاك‬ (Baghdad) and ‫( األٗجبه‬al-Anbar) were used more in this Australian newspaper because it was published by Iraqis. evidenced by the use of more Iraq-related words than in other newspapers. The American military presence in Iraq. and the detainees in Guatanamo Bay.

This is because the newspaper was founded by Palestinians people in response to Israeli settlement in Palestine many years ago. no specific concern was evident other Middle East issues. The Iraqi Al-Sabah al-Jadid gave more attention to the Kosovo-Russia conflict than any of the other newspapers. which was unique in the newspapers sampled. The fact that the Algerian general election was the focus of the newspaper‟s world affairs section rather than the national section shows how important this issue was to the Algerian people. with reference to only two countries: Spain. indicating that the country was involved in the main world events highlighted in the corpus such as Iraq. The researcher related this to the newspaper‟s history. The UK published Al-Quds al-„Arabi emerged as more concerned with the issue of Palestine and its security in almost all comparison processes. and Saudi Arabia itself. Palestine. The results also revealed that the main issue concerning the political parties was reform (َ٣‫ )رؼل‬of the government administration. rather than a world affairs subject for this Iraqi newspaper. with the word ‫لح‬ٛ‫( ٓؼب‬agreement) coming up in all comparisons. Iran and Pakistan. Even though one of the main world issues (Iraq) was a national. with regard to the issue noted above. It was published before the 353 .researcher believes. The Algerian Al-Khabar focused on the issue of the general election held in the country just after the corpus collection. such as Palestine and the Iran nuclear programme. The main issue covered was the effort to solve the problem through agreement and meetings. The domination of this issue was confirmed by the occurrence of the words ّ‫( ٍال‬peace) and ٌ٤ُٞ‫( أٗبث‬Annapolis) where a peace conference convened by America was to be held at the time of data collection.

A special feature in the sport section in this newspaper that set it apart from others was the active involvement of the Saudi Royal family in sports 354 . For the Lebanese Al-Safir. In sport. which was rare in other newspapers. ٢ِ٤‫أٍبػ‬ (Isma’ili) and ‫( أُؾِخ‬al-Mahallah). the word ٍ‫ال‬ُٜ‫( ا‬al-Hilal) is a Saudi football club and the table also indicates a focus on the Saudi national football team with the occurrence of the words ‫( ٓ٘زقت‬national team). Table 5. as one of its enemies. The word ‫( ٖٓو‬Egypt) also strengthened the evidence that the newspaper reported on Egyptian sports. the analysis showed that four newspapers. especially the PalestineIsrael and Pakistan issues. In Al-Jazirah. especially football. under American allied control. Al-Ahram. Discussing these newspapers separately. the researcher found a little more focus on the comments of the Turkish Prime Minister about world issues. The researcher concludes that this newspaper must be in line with the American agenda. The researcher believes this was due to their being runners up in the Asian Cup after losing to Iraq in the final. by highlighting their conflict. ١‫ك‬ٞ‫( ٍؼ‬Saudi) and ٢ٗ‫( اُوؾطب‬alQahtani).American invasion under the name Al-Sabah. with different results emerging in comparison with every other newspaper. concern focused on all the main world issues equally. including putting pressure upon Russia.98 shows that Al-Ahram (Egypt) highlighted football club names such as ‫( اُيٓبُي‬al-Zamalik). Al-Khabar and Al-Sabah al-Jadid. However. Al-Jazirah. ٢ِٛ‫( األ‬al-Ahli). clearly focused on their own national sports reports. After the American occupation in 2003 the newspaper ceased publication and was republished under the name Al-Sabah al-Jadid (New Sabah). The results showed that the Lebanese newspaper tried to emphasise his involvement in world issues.

Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Safir) reported more external than internal sports news. ‫( ٓٔزبى‬premier). In contrast. ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraqi). a few months before the data collection.management. Referring to Table 5. Three other newspapers (Al-Furat. as in the other newspapers. This is most evident in the Australian Al-Furat where the Iraqi national football team was the focus. ٍْٞٓ (season) and ١‫ه‬ٝ‫( ك‬league). ‫كبم‬ٝ (Wifaq). names of Algerian football clubs. This was related to current issues in Iraq after the American invasion because several clubs had to withdraw their participation from the football league because of security concerns.99 and Table 5. The national football league also gained focus in the Iraqi Al-Sabah al-Jadid. as well as several terms related to the Iraqi football league. the silence about their national football team‟s success in the Asian Cup may be because the championship finished in July. Several related articles from Al-Sabah al-Jadid revealed that the issue of the new football league season was dominating the Iraqi sports news at the time of data collection. In Al-Khabar. ‫ق‬٤‫( ٍط‬Satif) and ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ُٞٞٓ (Mawludiyyah) are. although it was still considered an important event for Iraqis in Australia (Al-Furat). such as ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ (team).103 to compare this newspaper with Al-Sabah al-Jadid shows that there were even more reports about the Iraqi football team in the Australian newspaper than the Iraqi newspaper. which were used in high frequency compared with other newspapers. words such as ٕ‫( ٍؼلا‬Sa‟adan). indicated by high keyness scores for the words ٍٞٔ (highness) and ‫و‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ (prince). where several football clubs such as ‫( ٍبٓواء‬Samarra) and ‫ى‬ٞٛ‫( ك‬Duhuk) recorded higher scores in top keywords. 355 .

together with Spain. Al-Sabah al-Jadid and Al-Khabar. and the writers attributes this to the fact that. It should be remembered that the England national team and its clubs are among the most popular football teams in the world. ‫ٗخ‬ِّٞ‫( ثو‬Barcelona) and ٢ٗ‫( اٍجب‬Spanish). Nevertheless. However. although the newspaper is published in the United Kingdom. The occurrence of the word ‫( اُٖلاهخ‬al-Sadaqah).In the UK‟s Al-Quds al-„Arabi broad coverage was given to football games around the world. Saudi Arabia and Algeria) normally focused on their national football leagues. the four newspapers from four major footballing countries in the Arab world (Egypt. Al-Jazirah. the words ‫( ٗوطخ‬point). The Lebanese Al-Safir was more concerned than other newspapers with events in the American basketball league. with the Spanish La Liga receiving more attention. which contained more indicators such as football club names in the top keyness scores. َ‫ٍغ‬ (scored) and ‫( اٗزٖبهاد‬victories) are evidence of reports on other sports. especially football. 356 . in Al-Safir indicates that football reports came next in priority after basketball. َٚ‫( أك‬better). as indicated by the occurrence of more keywords such as ‫ل‬٣‫( ٓله‬Madrid). In addition. This contrasted with Al-Quds al-‘Arabi. Table 5. a Lebanese football club. An American basketball club.104 lists words such as ٖ‫ٍط‬ٞ‫ث‬393 ٕ‫ٍب‬394 and ‫ٍِخ‬ (basket) which referred to basketball. ‫( لاير‬Real). the researcher found that coverage of football was not as extensive as in Al-Ahram. Table 5. most of the articles were written by Arab authors from around the world so that sporting events in many countries were covered.102 shows that football events in the UK itself. Iraq. Germany and Africa were given more focus than in other newspapers. This is explained by the fact that football is a much more 393 394 One of the basketball clubs in America. while only the word ١‫ي‬٤ٌِٗ‫( ا‬English) represented English football and ٕ‫و‬٣‫( ثب‬Bayern) German.

major sport in the countries where these newspapers are published (Egypt. which is published by Iraqis in Australia. Table 5. Iraq and Algeria) than in Lebanon. The issues of Syria and alQaeda also received great attention. ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister). 3. while the high frequency of leadership issues in the newspapers published in Arab countries was contributed to by Al-Khabar. In the world affairs. which was covering the Algerian general election at the time of data collection. In contrast. ‫( ثـلاك‬Baghdad).105 shows that newspapers from the Arab countries paid more attention to matters of leadership and government. 357 . with the existence of keywords such as ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader). The issues of Pakistan and Iran‟s nuclear programme were also highlighted. ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ (government) and ‫( اٗزقبثبد‬elections). Comparison between newspapers published in Arab and non-Arab countries The reason for an analytical comparison between newspapers published in Arab and nonArab countries was the researcher‟s hypothesis that the publication of Arabic newspapers in non-Arab countries (Al-Quds al-„Arabi and Al-Furat) would give rise to particular features in media Arabic. ‫اُؼوام‬ (Iraq).106 shows that newspapers from non-Arab countries paid more attention to the issue of Iraq. Saudi Arabia. with the existence of keywords such as ٢‫( ػواه‬Iraqi). ‫ىهاء‬ٝ (ministers). ‫خ‬٤‫( ػواه‬Iraqi) and ٕ‫( ًوكٍزب‬Kurdistan). The researcher believes the high frequency of Iraq issues in the non-Arab countries was contributed to by Al-Furat. Table 5.

They also focused more on their national football teams. In contrast.108 shows that the newspapers from non-Arab countries gave more attention to football matches outside their respective countries than did the newspapers from non-Arab countries. all the newspapers from Arab countries. the table shows that the newspapers from Arab countries reported more about referees. 358 . after the players. This was because in non-Arab countries. focused more on their own country‟s football clubs and league reports. In addition. the newspapers from non-Arab countries reported more about the ‫( ٓلهة‬coach). The researcher considers this to be because. the coach is a prominent club figure. than the newspapers in non-Arab countries.107 shows that the newspapers from the Arab countries paid more attention to football clubs with the high mean of the words ١‫( ٗبك‬club). team officials and supporters. This has already been dealt with above on page 355. Nevertheless. referees‟ controversial decisions were often criticised by players.For sport section. Table 5. in Arab countries. especially those attached to the losing teams. as indicated above. especially in Al-Ahram. and victory for the team partly depends on his tactics. Table 5. Al-Quds al-„Arabi gave no particular attention to any national football team. and this was particular true of Al-Ahram. The frequent occurrence of the words ‫ اُيٓبُي‬and ‫ ٖٓو‬indicates that Egyptian football clubs were the most popular clubs in the Arab world and they were regularly reported on. ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team) and ‫( اُيٓبُي‬al-Zamalik). In a contrasting comparison. and particularly in European football clubs. It has already been shown that this was affected by the extensive coverage in Al-Furat of Iraq‟s victory in the Asian Cup in July 2007. except the Lebanese Al-Safir. especially Iraq. In contrast.

foreign words ending with „io‟ should normally be spelt with ‫ـ‬ٛ in the plural. Although the discussion shows that a contribution to this phenomenon was the use of the word ٠ِ‫ أػ‬in ٠ِ‫أُغٌِ األػ‬. although this word appeared significantly more often in world affairs than in sport. this is not enough to support a denial of the frequent use of this type of word in other contexts in world affairs. This chapter reveals that comparatives were also used in almost equal frequency in world affairs and sport sections. such as badminton and card. it has been shown that the newspapers from Arab countries tended to use Arabic words rather than loan words as long as an accurate Arabic term existed. 359 . several words such as ٌ٤‫( اُوئ‬leader) occurred in both sections in high frequencies. such as ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ (without ‫ـ‬ٛ) . In contrast. The use of different spellings for loan words also creates a new dimension of Arabic language which can be traced clearly in several examples. However. either world affairs or sport. it can be stated that the words that occurred in high frequencies were mostly related to their respective section. In addition. even though an Arabic equivalent was available. As already discussed. which contradicts the researcher‟s expectation.6. It had been anticipated that the sport sections would use more comparatives than world affairs because of the nature of sport.3 Conclusion In conclusion. the newspapers in non-Arab countries there were circumstances in which a foreign word was used.

writing a good news article requires numerous skills. By mastering these. by analysing their frequency of occurrence in corpus data collected from seven newspapers from different countries.CHAPTER 7 CONCLUSIONS 7. among them the ability to select accurate words and familiarity with current media language styles.1 Summary of the study Newspapers are a very important medium for the transmission of news and information to the public. This study has attempted to obtain information about the words commonly used in newspapers. and between styles in the various categories within newspapers. because they are read by various groups of people in the community. specifically in world affairs and sport sections. including students at every level. In practice. The study also attempted to look into the extent of the differences that exist between newspapers and sections in terms of word usage from similar resources. the author becomes capable of differentiating between writing styles in newspapers and other media. Their popularity has caused them to be used in Malaysian universities as a teaching resource. Specifically. this study attempted the following: 360 . especially for students of language and communication or journalism. mostly Arab countries.

To discuss the cause and effect of several language characteristics in word usage in Arabic newspapers. the dialectal aspect) has contributed to shaping the language characteristics in Arabic newspapers (see page 5-6). To reveal whether or not the region where a newspaper is published (i. The instrument also examined the differences that occurred between newspapers published in different countries and differences between sections (world affairs and sport) in several word categories. namely world affairs and sport. from the most to the least commonly used. To reveal the word usage and style in Arabic newspapers in their world affairs and sport sections by analysing word frequency. 4. 2. 361 . 3. in seven Arabic newspapers from different countries. This study comprises 422 articles from two sections. The instrument examined the style of word usage in the corpus by analysing word frequency.1. The researcher used the internet for data collection to build a self-constructed corpus. To reveal the differences in word usage and style between Arabic newspapers in the sub-corpora. The results were set out in lists according to frequency.e. The articles were published between November and early December 2007 for six daily newspapers and June 2007 to January 2008 for one newspaper because it was published weekly.

organisation or player occurred frequently. ٖ٤‫( الػج‬players) and ١‫( ٗبك‬club) dominated the top rank of the frequency list in sport. The results are explained by the fact that singular terms for a sports club. while words such as ‫ن‬٣‫( كو‬team). the words of which. ِ٤‫( ع‬army). This finding might be challenged with regard to sports news. where men dominated the reports. because it contains a high proportion of reports about football matches. It was revealed that words such as ٌ٤‫( هئ‬leader). The study also revealed that the singular noun was used more than duals or plurals in both sections as a normal news writing feature. when both forms were available. ‫( ٓئرٔو‬conference) and ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ (minister) dominated the top rank of the frequency list in world affairs. Investigation into sound and broken plurals showed that. in terms of gender. The results of the study show that. ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ (national team). which involve a group of players. masculine nouns were used more in both sections than feminine. The same occurred for nouns that referred to people. with a high masculine usage frequency in the corpus. ٌِ‫( ٓغ‬council). ‫( ًوح‬ball).2 Conclusion 1. ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫( ؽ‬government).7. ‫( ٓجبهاح‬match). were used in high frequency. especially considering the 362 . Nouns The overall findings from the study suggest that both sections (world affairs and sport) have their own specific vocabularies. especially the nouns. This is probably because most world events were initiated by men. newspapers preferred to use broken rather than sound plurals.

The findings of this study also suggested that Arabic newspapers tend to move on from the strictures of Classical Arabic (CA) to new language characteristics. usage variation occurred quite clearly in verb transitivity. With regard to verb transitivity. Similarly in sport. both ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ ًؤً آ‬and ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ًؤً أْٓ آ‬ were used in Al-Furat and ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ا‬ٝ and ‫بئغ‬ُٚ‫هذ ثلٍ ػٖ ا‬ٝ were used in Al-Safir. as in some circumstances a metaphor may convey a situation better than a direct word.preponderance reports in the corpus about leaders and world conflicts. The analysis of phrases showed that several different phrase combinations were used to indicate the same meaning in one newspaper. which is a feature of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA). This study found that. The greatest difference was found between newspapers published in Arab countries and those published in non-Arab countries. phrases and loan words. it was not applied absolutely and several words were used metaphorically as well as literally. With respect to loan words. most sports are dominated and played by men. although directness is an important features in news writing. several verbs were used in combination with different particles from those usually employed in CA. For example. the latter being more open to 363 . the selection of words mostly depends on the context and the objective of writing. In terms of word usage. the study revealed that all the newspapers accepted them but to varying degrees. Furthermore. This is because choosing the right word is more important than the choosing the most direct word. especially taking into account the fact that football was the main focus of the articles in the corpus.

For example. depending on the extent of their influence in the area. in different frequencies. In other situations. and third. even there was already an equivalent term in Arabic. and this can be traced quite clearly in respect of loan words. for example the spelling ‫اد‬ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ (scenario) in Al-Sabah alJadid and spelling ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫( ٍزور‬strategy) in Al-Furat. second. 364 . The study also revealed that spelling differences exist between newspapers in several words. spelling variations in Arabic words were clearly characteristics of certain newspapers. while this tendency was not observed in newspapers from the Arab countries. especially the Egyptian Al-Ahram. the Arabic words themselves were not immune from spelling variations. This study has suggested that three factors lead to this phenomenon: first.accepting the loan words. phrases and verb transitivity. the influence of foreign languages. However. The analysis revealed that the region in which the newspapers were published affected their language styles. there is no clear regional reason for variations in spelling. particularly loan words. The findings show that the variations occurred as a result of applying different rules of Arabic orthography. Several sound clusters in words in their original language are not available in Arabic. In contrast to the loan words. so no specific rules were applied for spelling those foreign morphemes Arabic letters. spelling. variations in Arabic grammatical usage. the influence of the local Arabic dialect. Al-Ahram used both ‫( ٍزبك‬stadium) and ‫أٍزبك‬.

the study has shown that perfect verbs were used more frequently than imperfect. most phrases were not used in both sections. because sport has a stronger link with contexts of comparison than does world affairs. although they were used less frequently than established phrases. The study also revealed 365 . they were used more in sport than in world affairs. For example. 2. The results for comparatives showed that both sections used the same number of words. ‫ ٓ٘زقت‬and ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ٓغ‬.This study has suggested that world affairs and sport might use the same phrases to convey either the same or different meanings. This can be put down to the fact that most of the articles in sport are about team games such as football. The findings suggest that there was no significant difference between the two sections in terms of the number of collective nouns and comparatives in the corpus. When phrases appeared in both sections. several new terms have been created by Arabic newspapers. indicating that each section has its own phrases to create its identity. However. This is interesting. rugby and basketball around the world. although it showed that similar numbers of different verbs were used across the two forms. those specifically relevant to one section would appear less frequently in the other. However. the study revealed that the new phrase ‫ل‬٣‫ اُغل‬ٍٜٝ‫ اُْوم األ‬was used less than ٍٜٝ‫اُْوم األ‬. Also with regard to phrases. Verbs In accordance with the fact that news writing describes past events. with a few exceptions. especially the three words ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬. in the researcher‟s view. in terms of the frequency of collective nouns.

the top 10 high frequency analysis revealed that there were no great differences between the two sections. although in different frequencies. This is probably due to some writers choosing to simplify their grammar where it did not lead to potential misunderstanding. such as ٍ‫( هب‬said). nor that some specific verbs were used in both sections. verbs that indicate achievement were used more in sport. New features in newspaper Arabic can also be seen in grammar. The reason for the high frequency of verbs. The reason for this can be related to the fact that the 366 . is that they were mostly required in the descriptions of events and situations in both sections. this does not deny the occurrence in high frequency of several verbs specific to the sections. The analysis showed that general verbs. However. However. ٌٕٞ٣. leading to a possible lack of concentration on grammatical rules. and auxiliary verbs such ٕ‫( ًب‬to be). The newspapers used masculine verbs with feminine subjects and the singular verbs with dual subjects. especially ٕ‫ ًب‬as an auxiliary verb. For example. ‫ ًبٗذ‬and ْ‫( ر‬completed) came at the top of the lists. as occurred with nouns. while verbs that indicate speaking and suggestion were used more in world affairs. The study showed that action verbs were used more in sport than in world affairs for the whole list. ‫( أًل‬confirmed) and ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added). with several general verbs appearing high on the frequency lists for both. where the findings show the existence of a new language style that seemed to contradict CA grammar. It may also be due to the fact that news articles report on current events and the element of speed is therefore important.that no specific verbs clearly dominated either sections.

The study has also shown that world affairs used more verbs as metaphors than did sport. despite the differences. The parameter set by the researcher that these words should be counted in their literal action meaning contributes to the preponderance of action verbs in both sections. but. which involves more physical movement. ٠ُ‫لف ا‬ٜ٣ and ‫لف ُـ‬ٜ٣.high frequency action verbs in world affairs included several verbs. 367 . which involves discussion and suggestion. as indicated by the higher frequency of words used metaphorically in world affairs compared with sport. This is because world affairs used more non-action verbs than sport.g. such as ‫بف‬ٙ‫( أ‬added) and ‫( أّبه‬pointed). The study showed that the verbs used with particle might take different particles while conveying the same. The study of „verbs with the same semantic meaning‟ showed that verb accuracy is very important in news writing. e. The same newspaper sometimes used more than one style. both for precision and for attracting readers‟ attention. such as the region where the newspapers were published and the influence of other languages. that more established styles were used more frequently than the innovations. More verbs that literally indicate physical movement become to non-action (metaphorical) verbs in world affairs in line with the nature of news in that section. but which were used metaphorically. The analysis indicated that this was caused by several factors. especially English. which are literally action verbs. This was indicated by the fact that some verbs within one semantic family were used more frequently than others.

focused on internal sports events. though at lower frequency. focused most on the Iraqi national football team. mostly football. while sports news only reports on sports events. This can be seen clearly in AlSabah al-Jadid. especially those published in Arab countries. most newspapers. some newspapers did not cover these issues. There were more words in world affairs that also occurred in sport.3. Al-Sabah al-Jadid contained more reports about the Russia-Kosovo conflict. although it is important to point out that the Australian Al-Furat. than there were words in sport that also occurred in world affairs. although most newspapers focused on particular prominent world issues. The comparison between world affairs in newspapers in Arab and non-Arab countries revealed that the newspapers from Arab countries focused more on government and 368 . While other newspapers concentrated on issues such as Iran‟s nuclear programme. because it covers a range of world issues including economy. crisis and sports itself. This means that the vocabulary used in sport is more specific than the vocabulary used in world affairs. The analysis also revealed that. One of the reasons for this is that world news is more general than sports news. In sport. being published by Iraqis who migrated to Australia after the 2003 US-led invasion of Iraq. Palestine-Israel issues and the Iraq war. Keyword analysis The comparison analysis showed that sport sections used more words specifically related to sports news than world affairs used words specifically related to world news.

it is suggested that future research might explore in greater deptth how to make the best use of these manually-annotated resources. that can provide data for studies in this area. Therefere. Finally. the researcher is aware that plenty of Arabic newspapers are available.leadership issues. 369 . especially for learning and teaching Media Arabic. especially in the Arab world. the Arab country newspapers gave more attention to internal football issues. This is because the researcher has the option of annotating the words relevant to his or her aim without the irrelevant annotations perfomed by automated tagging. as in the case of a specialised corpus. the study proposes that the manually-annotated specialist corpora is very useful as a potential resource for conducting this kind of study and dictionary building. while the non-Arab countries‟ newspapers focused on the issue of Iraq. while in sport. while the non-Arab countries focused on football issues abroad. which normally involves a small number of words. In general conclusion. this is only possible when the corpus size is small. It was the technical limitations and specific aims targeted by the researcher that were the main factors that determined the size and content of the corpus in this study. However.

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aspx?page=1460 (accessed October 24.newspapers24.org/specialreports. World Press Trends.alshref.htm (accessed October 4. Home page. 2009). The newspaper Society.com/index_files/inter. Newspaper Society.htm (accessed October 11.ineas.htm (accessed May 28.org. Salman. 2010). http://www.pdf.edu/~wlowe/Publications/rev. 2 (accessed March 31. Erik K. 2008). W.iq.aspx?page=146 (accessed October 24.newslink.com/largest-newspapers. 2008).furatnews. http://www. 2009). Muntadayat al-Sharif al-Ta‟limiyyah.com/vb/t60354.newsabah.newspapersoc. Home page. 382 . Wordsmith home page.uk/Default.newspapersoc.harvard. 2.htm (accessed April 7.uk/Default. Meyer.lexically. http://people. The World Association of Newspapers 2005. New Sabah Newspaper. http://www. Home page. http://www.html (accessed March 21. http://www.” American Journalism Review (1998).org/omco110. W Software for Content Analysis: A Review. “Unexpectedly Wider Web for the world‟s Newspapers. 2008).tpl? (accessed October 10.org. 2008). Khoshnow. 2008). Arab Excellence: A special report from London. http://www. http://www. 2008). Home page.html (accessed October 15.net/wordsmith/corpus_linguistics_links/papers_using_wordsm ith.com/look/about. H. 2008). Lowe. http://www. http://www.Institute of Near Eastern & African Studies (INEAS).

Elashiry. Lebanon 383 .” Our permission is granted momentarily and solely for the purpose of Mr.APPENDIX I PERMISSION FROM NEWSPAPER PUBLISHER Permission for data collection reply . On the other hand. we would like to inform you that Mr. with regards to the permission for Data Collection. The best of luck for Mr. Zainur Rijal Bin Abdul Razak. Mr. Dr. Sincerely. we would like to remind you to credit Assafir Newspaper for any of its contents that shall be used in the study.Mr. Mohammed Elashiry Dear Dr. Salman From: < > To: Cc: ATTN. 2009. Zainur Rijal Bin Abdul Razak Ahmad T. Deputy General Manager As-Safir Newspaper Beirut. In response to your letter dated August 19. Bin Abdul Razak study. Zainur Rijal Bin Abdul Razak is most welcome to use any article from Assafir Newspaper he finds relevant to his Thesis: “Modern Standard Arabic: A Study of Word Frequency in World Affairs and Sports Sections in Arabic Newspapers. Zainur Rijal Bin Abdul Razak ATTN.

‫‪APPENDIX II‬‬ ‫‪TAGSET‬‬ ‫‪DESCRIPTION‬‬ ‫‪NOUN‬‬ ‫اٍْ فبٓ اَٗبٕ‬ ‫اٍْ فبٓ ٌٓبٕ‬ ‫اٍْ فبٓ ؿ‪٤‬و‬ ‫اٍْ ٕلخ‬ ‫اٍْ ٕلخ ٓض٘‪٠‬‬ ‫اٍْ ٕلخ عٔغ‬ ‫اٍْ ػبّ ٓلوك‬ ‫اٍْ ػبّ ٓض٘‪٠‬‬ ‫اٍْ ػبّ عٔغ‬ ‫اٍْ ظوف ٌٓبٕ‬ ‫اٍْ ظوف ىٓبٕ‬ ‫اٍْ ٓ‪ ٍٕٞٞ‬ػبّ‬ ‫اٍْ ٓ‪ٓ ٍٕٞٞ‬ضز‪٠‬‬ ‫‪VERB‬‬ ‫كؼَ ٓ‪ٚ‬بهع ٓغوك‬ ‫كؼَ ٓ‪ٚ‬بهع ٓي‪٣‬ل‬ ‫كؼَ ٓ‪ٚ‬بهع ٓغ‪ٍٜٞ‬‬ ‫كؼَ ٓبٗ ٓغوك‬ ‫كؼَ ٓبٗ ٓي‪٣‬ل‬ ‫كؼَ ٓبٗ ٓغ‪ٍٜٞ‬‬ ‫كؼَ ٓبٗ ٓض٘‪٠‬‬ ‫كؼَ أٓو َٓزوجَ‬ ‫كؼَ أٓو ٓلوك‬ ‫كؼَ أٓو عٔغ‬ ‫‪PARTICLE‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫إٔ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫إٔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ْ‬ ‫إ‬ ‫آب‬ ‫‪TAG‬‬ ‫االسى‬ ‫افب‬ ‫افْ‬ ‫افؾ‬ ‫إق‬ ‫إْ‬ ‫إظ‬ ‫اػق‬ ‫اػْ‬ ‫اػظ‬ ‫اظْ‬ ‫اظي‬ ‫آغ‬ ‫آْ‬ ‫انفؼم‬ ‫ك‪ٚ‬ل‬ ‫ك‪ْٚ‬‬ ‫ك‪ٚ‬ظ‬ ‫كٔل‬ ‫كْٔ‬ ‫كٔظ‬ ‫كٔش‬ ‫كبّ‬ ‫كبف‬ ‫كبط‬ ‫انحشف‬ ‫ؽ٘ب‬ ‫ؽ٘ت‬ ‫ؽ٘ذ‬ ‫ؽ٘ش‬ ‫ؽْو‬ ‫‪384‬‬ .

contract to accuse.6 ‫آصبه‬ ‫و‬ َ َّ‫أص‬ 5 ‫ئصو‬٣ 3 ‫اعبثخ‬ ‫أعبى‬ 6 ‫ي‬٤‫غ‬٣ 3 ‫أعجود‬ 3 ‫اعجبه‬ 17 menjadikan. selamanya menunjuk. establish evident. combination Europen Union African Union Democratic Force Union to take. primary eternity to show. menonjol menyampaikan penyampaian anak lelaki putih pengikut. asas kekal.17 ‫أث٘بء‬ 19 ٘٤‫أث‬ ‫ ط‬. menuip keterujaan. tinggalan mengakibatkan jawapan membenarkan mendesak. start elementary. proof consequence. keteransangan menegaskan.‫ارٖبالد‬ 3 ‫ؾذ‬ٚ‫ار‬ 9 ‫ارلن‬ 3 ‫ارلوذ‬ 83 ‫ارلبم‬ 15 ّ‫ارلبم اَُال‬ ‫ ط‬. pembuktian akibat dari kesan.6 ‫أرجبع‬ 4 ‫ارجبع‬ 21 ٙ‫ارغب‬ 55 ‫ارؾبك‬ 33 ٢‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫االرؾبك األ‬ 3 ٢‫و‬٣‫االرؾبك اإلكو‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ اُل‬ٟٞ‫االرؾبك اُو‬ 7 ‫ارقن‬ 4 ‫ارقند‬ 7 ‫زقن‬٣ 10 ‫رزقن‬ 29 ‫ارقبم‬ 6 ‫أرواى‬ 13 ٍ‫ارٖب‬ 5 ٢‫برل‬ٛ ٍ‫ارٖب‬ 19 ‫ ط‬. result effect.3 ‫ارلبهبد‬ 12 ‫خ‬٤‫ارلبه‬ ‫ ط‬.‫بٓبد‬ٜ‫ار‬ ٠‫أر‬ 13 ٢‫ؤر‬٣ 13 ٢‫رؤر‬ 8 ‫أصبه‬ 3 ‫أصبهد‬ 3 ‫اصبهح‬ 3 ‫أصجزذ‬ 3 ‫اصجبد‬ 21 ‫اصو‬ 5 ‫أصو‬ ‫ ط‬. arouse excitement to prove. present to inform notification. to assume ‫ائزالف‬ 8 ‫اثبكح‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫اثبكح عٔبػ‬ 5 ‫اثزلاء‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫اثزلائ‬ 3 ‫أثلًا‬ 8 ٟ‫أثل‬ 16 ‫أثوى‬ 3 ‫أثِؾ‬ 3 ‫اثالؽ‬ 5 ٖ‫اث‬ ‫ ط‬. destruction genocide beginning. membuktikan penegasan.4 ‫بد‬٤‫ارلبه‬ 15 ْٜ‫ار‬ 4 ‫ٔذ‬ٜ‫ار‬ 5 ْٜ‫رز‬ 14 ّ‫ب‬ٜ‫ار‬ 20 ‫ ط‬.pengikut ikutan arah kesatuan Kesatuan Eropah Kesatuan Africa Kesatuan Tentera Demokratik menjadikan harmony extermination. contract peace agreement agreement.APPENDIX III WORLD AFFAIRS ‫أ‬ harmoni kehancuran pembunuhan beramai-ramai permulaan permulaan. adoption Turks connection telephoning to become clear to agree agreement. kemestian to excite. perjanjian perjanjian keselamatan berkenaan perjanjian menuduh assumption. reply to allow to force compulsion 385 . influance answer. remains to affect. mewajibkan wajib. charge tuduhan tuduhan-tuduhan datang accusation accusations to come membangkitkan. ambil sebagai bangsa Turks hubungan hubungan telefon menjadi jelas bersetuju persetujuan. mempersembah jelas. information son white followers following direction union. demonstrate make apparent.

licik memperolehi. menjalankan menjalankan. menunda kata sepakat secara keseluruhan asing mengecewakan. urusan urusan keamanan mengantikan. alien to frustrate. mengawal pendudukan. bekerja pentadbiran. maklumat berita-berita peperiksaan. transpiercing grabbing. penjajahan kemungkinan keperluan-keperluan penipuan. necessities trickery. insertion to percieve. akhir persembahan mentadbir. halangan penghormatan berkenaan upacara. office to condemn.5 ‫اؽزغبعبد‬ 8 ‫اؽزغبى‬ 13 ّ‫اؽزوا‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫اؽزلب‬ ‫اؽزلع‬ 3 ‫رؾزلع‬ 54 ٍ‫اؽزال‬ 19 ٍ‫اؽزٔب‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫اؽزٔبالد‬ ‫ ط‬. information experiment. buat salah penghinaan kemasukan kandungan.6 ‫افو‬ٝ‫أ‬ 6 ‫افواط‬ 3 ‫أفطو‬ 5 ‫افلبء‬ 3 ‫ ط‬. vitalisation sometime. mesyuarat mesyuarat antarabangsa sosial berkumpul pelanggaran. cubaan kemasukan. notice ‫اعزبػ‬ ‫اعزضبس‬ ‫اعزٔبع‬ 5 ٢ُٝ‫االعزٔبع اُل‬ ‫ ط‬. rampasan percanggahan mengambil lain to invade. tewas memerlukan bantahan sekatan. tusukan penaklukan. overall foreigner. mengetahui last taking out dangerous hiding. evacuation last. reason to postpone unanimous. be sufficient for cause. majlis menjaga. seizure possibility needs. melepasi penarikan keluar perjumpaan.4 ‫افزالكبد‬ 6 َ َ‫أَف‬ ‫ن‬ 6 ‫رؤفن‬ 75 ‫آفو‬ 102 ٟ‫أفو‬ 3 ّ – ٕ‫آفوا‬ ‫ ط‬. termasuk memahami. pejabat mengkritik. mendapat merah penghidupan kadang kala berita. final performance to manage. occasionally news. fraud acquisition. memasuki mengadakan.‫افلبهبد‬ 6 ‫افالء‬ 22 ‫و‬٤‫أف‬ 32 ‫وح‬٤‫أف‬ 8 ‫أكاء‬ ‫ه‬ َ ‫أَكَا‬ 3 ‫و‬٣‫رل‬ 54 ‫اكاهح‬ 4 ٕ‫أكا‬ 4 ‫أكاٗذ‬ 9 ‫اكاٗخ‬ 5 ٍ‫اكفب‬ 7 ‫اكهاط‬ ‫ى‬ َ ‫ْه‬ َ ‫أك‬ 3 71 3 386 . convict condemnation entrance.menceroboh. matter security measures to replace. memadai sebab melengahkan. constraint respect ceremonial to keep. contradiction to take another akhir pengeluaran berbahaya terlindung. menyimpan. trespass to perform. trespass plucking out. gathering international meeting social to meet.48 ٕٝ‫آفو‬ 6 ‫أفو‬ ِ ‫ ط‬. seizing difference.19 ‫اعزٔبػبد‬ 5 ٢‫اعزٔبػ‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤‫اعزٔبػ‬ ‫اعزٔغ‬ 3 ‫غزٔغ‬٣ 10 ‫بػ‬٤‫اعز‬ 10 ٟ‫أعو‬ 9 ‫أعود‬ 65 ‫اعواء‬ ‫ – ط‬26 ‫اعواءاد‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤٘ٓ‫اعواءاد أ‬ 3 ‫اعياء‬ 60 َ ْ‫أع‬ 3 ‫أعِذ‬ 8 ‫اعٔبع‬ 4 ٢ُ‫أعٔب‬ 15 ‫خ‬٤‫أع٘ج‬ ‫ ط‬. admission inclusion. to work administration. concealing failures vacating. making. tersembunyi kegagalan-kegagalan pengosongan terakhir. agreement general.5 ‫بعبد‬٤‫اؽز‬ 3 ٍ‫ب‬٤‫اؽز‬ 3 ‫اؽواى‬ 6 ‫أؽٔو‬ 4 ‫بء‬٤‫اؽ‬ 7 ٕ‫ب‬٤‫أؽ‬ 3 ١‫افجبه‬ 6 ‫خ‬٣‫افجبه‬ 6 ‫افزجبه‬ 3 ‫افزوام‬ 6 ‫افزطبف‬ 5 ‫افزالف‬ ‫ ط‬. come together invasion. retain occupation. do performance. test penetration. defeat need protest restraint.5 ‫أعبٗت‬ 3 ٛ‫أؽجب‬ ‫اؽزبط‬ 5 ‫ؾزبط‬٣ 17 ‫اؽزغبط‬ ‫ ط‬. obtainment red animation. extraction meeting.

edaran hendak. kepuasan kawasan. keadah orang Spain. pleasure side. establishment to send. area postponement. tindak balas soal siasat. membarui encik. reaction interrogation. foundation fundamental styles. membarui menjauhi. persoalan patut mendapat. deliver to do. berkaitan Spain weekly basis. berkaitan Jordan penubuhan. region.6 ٌٍُ‫أ‬ 5 ٢ٍ‫أٍب‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫أٍب‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ت‬٤ُ‫أٍب‬ 23 ٢ٗ‫اٍجب‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫بد‬٤ٗ‫اٍجب‬ 20 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫اٍجب‬ ّ – 4 ٖ٤‫ز‬٤ٗ‫اٍجب‬ 15 ‫اٍزئ٘بف‬ 4 ‫أٍزبم‬ 3 ‫اٍزؤٗلذ‬ 3 ‫اٍزجؼبك‬ ‫ل‬ َ‫ؼ‬ َ ‫اٍزج‬ 3 ‫َزجؼل‬٣ 3 ‫اٍزضٔبه‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫اٍزضٔبهاد‬ 4 ‫اٍزض٘بء‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫اٍزض٘بئ‬ 3 ‫اٍزغبة‬ َ 6 ‫اٍزغبثخ‬ 6 ‫اة‬ٞ‫اٍزغ‬ 5 ‫اٍزؾوبم‬ 3 ٢ٍ‫االٍزؾوبم اُوئب‬ 3 387 . lantar ganas keganasan wish. naik kenaikan. lead to penyebaran. insult week this week mingguan asas asas gaya.10 ‫غ‬٤‫أٍبث‬ ّ – 7 ٖ٤‫ػ‬ٞ‫أٍج‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ػ‬ٞ‫أٍج‬ 14 ً‫أٍب‬ ‫ ط‬. kelayakan kelayakan Presiden resumption. berhadapan bertambah pertambahan krisis krisis politik krisis nuclear krisis presiden serangan. wish kehendak. pergi dari menjauhkan. ground terror terrorism bertentangan. menyampaikan membuat. angkatan melakukan perlakuan kelegaan.3 ‫اكػبءاد‬ 4 ٠ُ‫أك‬ 17 ٟ‫أك‬ 7 ‫أكد‬ 15 ١‫ئك‬٣ 8 ١‫رئك‬ 16 ‫اماػخ‬ ‫أهاك‬ 8 ‫ل‬٣‫و‬٣ 18 ‫ل‬٣‫رو‬ 12 ‫ل‬٣‫ٗو‬ 3 ‫اهاكح‬ 3 ‫اهرلغ‬ 3 ‫رورلغ‬ 21 ‫اهرلبع‬ 3 ‫اهرٌت‬ 5 ‫اهرٌبة‬ 8 ‫بػ‬٤‫اهر‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫أهعبء‬ 4 ‫اهعبء‬ 20 ٢ٗ‫أهك‬ 18 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫أهك‬ 7 ‫اهٍبء‬ 3 ٍَ‫أه‬ 4 ‫أهٍِذ‬ 10 ٍ‫اهٍب‬ 24 ٗ‫أه‬ 34 ‫ – ط‬٢ٙ‫أها‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫أه‬ 33 ‫بة‬ٛ‫اه‬ 13 ٢‫بث‬ٛ‫اه‬ 23 ‫خ‬٤‫بث‬ٛ‫اه‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ٖ٤٤‫بث‬ٛ‫اه‬ 14 ‫اىاء‬ 3 ‫اىكاكد‬ 4 ‫بك‬٣‫اىك‬ 78 ‫أىٓخ‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ ‫أىٓخ‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣ُٝٞ٘‫األىٓخ ا‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫أىٓخ هئب‬ ‫ ط‬. methods Spanish bermula semula. exclusion exceptional to respond to response. kemahuan mengangkat. renewal professor. membawa kepada allegation. desert presidency eligibility ‫رُلهى‬ 5 ‫اكػبء‬ ‫ ط‬. dispatch sending. hak. go up rise to commit committing satisfaction. claim to make. dispatching land floor. growth crisis political crisis nuclear crisis presidential crisis offense. delaying Jordanian anchorage. tuan bermula semula.10 ‫أىٓبد‬ 3 ‫اٍبءح‬ 39 ‫ع‬ٞ‫أٍج‬ 3 ١‫ع عبه‬ٞ‫أٍج‬ ‫ ط‬. questioning merit. grow increase. circulation to want. mengelakkan pelaburan pengecualian yang dikecualikan menjawab jawapan. desire to rise. facing to increase.dakwaan membuat. to renew removal. taking away to set aside investment exception. pelabuhan menghantar penghantaran tanah tanah. mahu spreading. penghinaan minggu minggu ini opposite to. master to resume. daerah penangguhan orang Jordan. perform.

constancy independence complesion. utilisation request for a legal opinion to resign resignation reception. melibatkan sepenuhnya penggunaan sepenuhnya permintaan pendapat. penemuan kembali. panggilan strategi mati syahid syahid boleh.berhak penyiasatan. intelligence employment. ketetapan kemerdekaan sempurna pendengaran. engage wholy exploitation. last kelansungan berdasarkan kepada keputusan. fatwa meletak jawatan perletakan jawatan penerimaan. base on conclusion becoming subject to to aim at. to meet stability.3 ‫اٍزوبالد‬ 10 ٍ‫اٍزوجب‬ 4 َ‫اٍزوج‬ 21 ‫اٍزوواه‬ 19 ٍ‫اٍزوال‬ 3 ٍ‫اٍزٌٔب‬ 6 ‫اٍزٔبع‬ 6 ‫اٍزٔو‬ 9 ‫اٍزٔود‬ 11 ‫رَزٔو‬ 20 ‫اٍزٔواه‬ 4 ‫اٍز٘بك‬ 3 ‫اٍز٘زبط‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫اٍز٘غبؽبد‬ 8 ‫لاف‬ٜ‫اٍز‬ 15 ‫لف‬ٜ‫اٍز‬ 13 ‫لكذ‬ٜ‫اٍز‬ 9 ‫لف‬ٜ‫رَز‬ 5 ‫بء‬٤‫اٍز‬ 3 ‫واك‬٤‫اٍز‬ 4 ٕ‫طب‬٤‫اٍز‬ 5 ٢ٗ‫طب‬٤‫اٍز‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫طب‬٤‫اٍز‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ائ‬ْٞ‫خ اُؼ‬٤ٗ‫طب‬٤‫االٍز‬ 3 ‫الء‬٤‫اٍز‬ 4 ‫أٍَْو‬ 4 ‫أًٍْوح‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫ٍو‬ َ ُ‫أ‬ 5 ‫و‬ ٍَ َ ً‫أ‬ 135 ٢ِ٤‫اٍوائ‬ 97 ‫خ‬٤ِ٤‫اٍوائ‬ ‫ – ط‬31 ٕٞ٤ِ٤‫اٍوائ‬ 5 ‫أٍوع‬ 6 ‫ٍق‬ َ ‫أ‬ 8 ْ َ‫أ‬ ‫و‬ َ َ‫ٍل‬ 4 ‫َلو‬٣ 6 ‫أٍلود‬ 8 ّ‫اٍال‬ 388 . to be able kajian. dengar bersambung. sambutan menerima. astonishing absorb. arrest family to capture Israelian lebih cepat kecewa. merit investigation. strive for ketidakpuasan. use to use jemputan. study recovery. readiness strategy preparation to get ready colonialism. regaining preparedness. research. receiving to receive. kesal mengakibatkan menyebabkan Islam faster regret to result. berkaitan Israel random outpost seizure. hearing to continue. pendudukan tahanan keluarga menangkap. rasa geram impot pendudukan resentment. calling for strategy martyrdom die as a martyr can. perfection listening. capture capture. pemulihan persediaan persediaan strategi bersedia penjajahan penggunaan. mampu sending for. berjumpa kestabilan. application surprise. dissatisfaction importation settlement pendudukan haram penjajahan. berterusan exploration. perbuatan kejutan menyerap. produce Islam ‫ – ط‬3 ‫اٍزؾوبهبد‬ َّ ‫اٍزؾ‬ ‫ن‬ 3 ّ ‫َزؾ‬٣ ‫ن‬ ِ ‫ – ط‬12 ‫اٍزقجبهاد‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫اٍزقجبه‬ 22 ّ‫اٍزقلا‬ ّ‫اٍزقل‬ 4 ّ‫َزقل‬٣ 4 ّ‫رَزقل‬ 4 ّ‫َٗزقل‬ 3 ‫لٓذ‬ ِ ‫أٍُزُق‬ 5 ‫اٍزلػبء‬ 7 ٢‫غ‬٤‫اٍزوار‬ 20 ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤‫اٍزوار‬ 9 ‫بك‬ْٜ‫اٍز‬ 3 ‫ل‬ُْٜ‫اٍُز‬ ‫اٍزطبع‬ 3 ‫غ‬٤‫َزط‬٣ 3 ‫غ‬٤‫رَزط‬ 4 ‫غ‬٤‫َٗزط‬ 10 ‫اٍزطالع‬ 8 ‫اٍزؼبكح‬ 18 ‫اٍزؼلاك‬ 3 ٢‫غ‬٤‫اٍزؼلاك اٍزوار‬ ‫اٍزؼل‬ 4 ‫رَزؼل‬ 7 ‫اٍزؼٔبه‬ 3 ٍ‫اٍزؼٔب‬ 4 ‫اٍزـواة‬ ‫اٍزـوم‬ 3 ‫َزـوم‬٣ 4 ٍ‫اٍزـال‬ 4 ‫اٍزلزبء‬ 5 ٍ‫اٍزوب‬ 29 ‫اٍزوبُخ‬ ‫ ط‬. employment. menahan orang Israel. penjelasan penggunaan menggunakan to deserve. dapatan mempunyai tujuan bertujuan continuation lean on.

terdesak pergolakan. demonstation to show ٢ٓ‫اٍال‬ ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫اٍال‬ ‫ ط‬. perlonggaran melepaskan. turning loose release of fire launch of negotiation rocket launching Atlantic to know. confusion overthrowing framework.14 ‫أٍٔبء‬ 9 ‫أ‬ٍٞ‫أ‬ 3 ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫أ‬ 5 ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫آ‬ 4 ٕ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫آ‬ 15 ‫و‬٤ٍ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. notifying release. pembaharuan bersifat memperbaharui menambah reformation reformative to add penambahan. to score.ٖ٤٤ٓ‫اٍال‬ 93 ٍْ‫ا‬ ‫ ط‬. source reformasi. membebaskan tembakan pelancaran rundingan pelancaran jet Atlantik melihat. menzahirkan show. publishing resolution release to release insistence.3 ‫إبثبد‬ 4 ‫إٔجؼ‬ 10 ‫إٔجؾذ‬ 4 ‫ٖجؼ‬٣ 14 ‫إلاه‬ 3 ‫إلاه هواه‬ 7 ‫إٔله‬ 10 ‫إٔلهد‬ 5 ‫إواه‬ 7 َٕ‫أ‬ 4 ‫ ط‬.5 ‫إالؽبد‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫إالؽ‬ 108 ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬ 12 ‫بكذ‬ٙ‫أ‬ 5 ‫ق‬٤ٚ٣ 29 ‫بكخ‬ٙ‫ا‬ 4 ٢‫بك‬ٙ‫ا‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫بك‬ٙ‫ا‬ 7 ‫واة‬ٙ‫ا‬ 5 ‫واه‬ٙ‫ا‬ 6 ‫طو‬ٙ‫ا‬ ‫ ط‬. to get hit by. kena. commend to make as sign. accident. tambahan bersifat tambahan bantahan. mark to resemble. diserang kena. direction to supervise to hit. pressing origin. tunjuk menyerupai menyerupai. memperlihat menunjukkan. become aware to release. penegasan asal release. bidang pemberitahuan perlepasan. to force disturbance. field informing. injury to become pengeluaran pengeluaran resolusi mengeluarkan desakan. free persembahan. captive to praise. mengetahui melepaskan addition additional strike harming.ٍٕٞ‫أ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ٢ُٕٞ‫أ‬ 7 ‫إالػ‬ ‫ ط‬. fighting supervision.3 ‫طواثبد‬ٙ‫ا‬ 9 ‫بؽخ‬ٛ‫ا‬ 28 ‫به‬ٛ‫ا‬ 3 ‫الع‬ٛ‫ا‬ 47 ‫الم‬ٛ‫ا‬ 19 ‫الم ٍواػ‬ٛ‫ا‬ 8 ‫الم ٗبه‬ٛ‫ا‬ 4 ‫بد‬ٙٝ‫الم ٓلب‬ٛ‫ا‬ 4 ‫ـ‬٣‫اه‬ُٖٞ‫الم ا‬ٛ‫ا‬ 21 ٢َِٛ‫أ‬ 4 ‫ِغ‬ٛ‫ا‬ 8 ‫ِن‬ٛ‫أ‬ 10 ‫ِوذ‬ٛ‫أ‬ 3 ‫طِن‬٣ 3 ‫رطِن‬ 4 ‫ا‬ٞ‫ِو‬ٛ‫أ‬ 4 ‫به‬ٜ‫اظ‬ 4 ‫و‬ َ َٜ‫أظ‬ 9 ‫ود‬ٜ‫أظ‬ 34 15 22 389 .21 ٟ‫أٍو‬ 5 ‫أّبك‬ 46 ‫أّبه‬ 15 ‫أّبهد‬ 3 ‫ا‬ٝ‫أّبه‬ 8 ‫و‬٤ْ٣ 7 ‫و‬٤ْ‫ر‬ 13 ‫اّبهح‬ ٚ‫أّج‬ 3 ٚ‫ُْج‬٣ ٚ‫اّزج‬ 4 ٚ‫ْزج‬٣ 4 ٚ‫رْزج‬ ‫ – ط‬6 ‫اّزجبًبد‬ 9 ‫اّواف‬ ‫أّوف‬ 3 ‫رْوف‬ 3 ‫إٔبة‬ 28 ‫جذ‬٤ُٕ‫أ‬ 34 ‫إبثخ‬ ‫ ط‬. meragui sign. beckon tanda. doubt pergeseran. mendapat. hurting to compel. menghormati menunjukkan name worse black Asia Asian prisoner. pergaduhan penyeliaan menyelia betul. attacked by hit. terkena. kecederaan menjadi clash. look like to suspect.Islamik Islamic nama lebih teruk hitam Asia Asian tawanan memuji. penggulingan rangka. pukulan pemudaratan terpaksa.

determine to belief arrest. declaration to announce. berita berkenaan perhubungan deklarasi. memulangkan pengembalian. terbanyak pembunuhan. the mejority majority. trust depend on preparation death to prepare. granting to give keutamaan informasi. selalu majoriti. membuka opening introductory release to release to compel. menahan to arrest pergantunggan bergantung kepada persediaan mati bersedia menyatakan rebut. puting beliung pemberian memberi dependence. restoration democratic restoration considering to consider serangan. attack apology objection recognition to recognise determination to resolve. disclose ‫و‬ٜ‫ظ‬٣ ‫أػبك‬ 5 ‫ل‬٤‫رؼ‬ 40 ‫اػبكح‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫اػبكح ك‬ 22 ‫اػزجبه‬ 31 ‫اػزجو‬ 7 ‫اػزجود‬ 3 ‫ا‬ٝ‫اػزجو‬ 6 ‫ؼزجو‬٣ 10 ْ٣ ‫ؼزَجو‬ 3 ٕٝ‫ؼزجو‬٣ 10 ‫اػزلاء‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫اػزلاءاد‬ 3 ‫اػزناه‬ 3 ٗ‫اػزوا‬ 9 ‫اػزواف‬ 3 ‫اػزوف‬ 3 ‫رؼزوف‬ 3 ّ‫اػزيا‬ ّ‫اػزي‬ 7 ّ‫رؼزي‬ 7 ‫اػزوبك‬ 28 ٍ‫اػزوب‬ ‫ ط‬. detention to believe menangkap. to press Africa African to reveal.9 ‫اػزوبالد‬ ‫اػزول‬ 11 ‫ؼزول‬٣ 8 ‫أػزَوِل‬ 3 ‫ُؼزوَل‬٣ 5 ٕٝ‫ؼزول‬٣ 3 ‫ٗؼزول‬ 6 َ‫اػزو‬ 10 ‫اػزوِذ‬ 4 َ‫اُػزُو‬ 3 َ‫رؼزو‬ 9 ‫اػزٔبك‬ 5 ‫اػزٔل‬ 3 ‫اػلاك‬ 17 ّ‫اػلا‬ 5 ‫أػلد‬ 25 ‫أػوة‬ 12 ‫أػوثذ‬ 4 ‫اػٖبه‬ 7 ‫اػطبء‬ ٠‫أػط‬ 6 ٢‫ؼط‬٣ 3 ٢‫رؼط‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ٔ‫أػظ‬ 23 ّ‫اػال‬ 13 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫اػال‬ 48 ٕ‫اػال‬ 85 ِٖ‫أػ‬ 5 ِٖ‫ُؼ‬٣ 57 ‫أػِ٘ذ‬ 25 ٠ِ‫أػ‬ 4 ‫أؿِت‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫أؿِج‬ 13 ٍ‫ب‬٤‫اؿز‬ 3 ‫بالد‬٤‫اؿز‬ 12 ‫اؿالم‬ 10 ‫أكبك‬ 3 ‫ل‬٤‫رل‬ 11 ‫أكبكد‬ 9 ‫اكززبػ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫اكززبؽ‬ 26 ‫اكواط‬ 4 ‫أكوط‬ ٗ‫أكو‬ 3 ٗ‫رُلو‬ 9 ‫ب‬٤‫و‬٣‫اكو‬ 3 ٢‫و‬٣‫اكو‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫اكو‬ ْ‫أ‬ ٠ْ‫ك‬ 5 390 . perosakan penutupan menggunakan. menyatakan higher most.mengembalikan. to inform pembukaan pendahuluan perlepasan. tornado giving. to delcare tertinggi kebanyakan. pembebasan melepaskan mewajibkan Afrika berkenaan Afrika mendedahkan. pencerobohan kemaafan. give back returning. greater part assasination closing. supreme information informative announcement. pengumuman mengumumkan priority. pemulangan pengembalian demokrasi mengambil kira mengambil kira. keampunan bantahan pengiktirafan mengiktiraf keazaman berazam kepercayaan tangkapan. mengaggap to return. assault. tahanan mempercayai aggression. ready to express hurricane. closure to benefit.

sharing power sharing economy economic to call for. perkongsian perkongsian kuasa ekonomi berkaitan ekonomi memanggil. territory regional persuasion. mempertaruhkan mengakui. mengharungi perihal mendekati cadangan mencadangkan pembahagian. membuang pembuangan. to annex cancellation. undertake to confess. acknowledge confession nearer as soon as. pelampiran melampirkan. casting to deliver. lebih utama bersifat Afganistan ufuk pemecatan menubuhkan. menyatakan pengakuan lebih dekat masa terdekat sejauh. membuang elektrik request. affirm menyempurnakan keluarga. jauh lebih sedikit kawasan. rayuan penambahan. dismisal to raise. smaller region. skyline deposition. daerah berkaitan kawasan memuaskan. berkaitan Albania iltizam. invalid throwing. mencukupi lebih besar penemuan lebih banyak majoriti menegaskan erection. mendirikan better Afghan horizon.lebih baik. meminta usaha. penyampaian menyampaikan. appending to attach to.3 ٕ‫أُلب‬ 3 ٢ٗ‫أُجب‬ 18 ّ‫اُزيا‬ ‫ ط‬. require to venture. komitmen beriltizam Albanian commitment to commit to mengambil gambar bertemu to snap to meet memohon.33 ‫آالف‬ ّ . convince bigger discovery more majority to confirm. pendirian pembentukan Negara menceroboh. latest more distant less. establishment state establishment breaking into.5 ‫اهزواؽبد‬ 5 ‫اهزوػ‬ 7 ‫اهزوؽذ‬ 3 ّ‫اهزَب‬ 3 ‫اهزَبّ اَُِطخ‬ 4 ‫اهزٖبك‬ 15 ١‫اهزٖبك‬ 25 ‫خ‬٣‫اهزٖبك‬ ٠ٚ‫اهز‬ 3 ٢ٚ‫روز‬ 4 ‫أهلٓذ‬ 5 ‫أهو‬ 3 ‫أهود‬ 7 ‫اهواه‬ 9 ‫أهوة‬ 3 ‫هذ‬ٝ ‫أهوة‬ 3 ٠ٖ‫أه‬ 32 َ‫أه‬ 57 ْ٤ِ‫اه‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ْ٤ُ‫أهب‬ 6 ٢ٔ٤ِ‫اه‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤ٔ٤ِ‫اه‬ 13 ‫اه٘بع‬ 35 ‫أًجو‬ 8 ‫اًزْبف‬ 72 ‫أًضو‬ 19 ‫خ‬٣‫أًضو‬ 111 ‫أًل‬ 20 ‫أًلد‬ 14 ‫ئًل‬٣ 3 ٕٝ‫ئًل‬٣ 9 ‫رئًل‬ 6 ‫ٗئًل‬ 3 ًَٔ‫أ‬ 10 ٍ‫آ‬ 34 ‫أُق‬ ‫ ط‬. menambah membatalkan.8 ‫اُزيآبد‬ ّ‫اُزي‬ 4 ّ‫ِزي‬٣ 3 ّ‫رِزي‬ 3 ‫اُزوطذ‬ 5 ٠‫اُزو‬ 14 ٢‫ِزو‬٣ 3 ‫اُزوذ‬ 4 ً‫اُزٔب‬ 5 ‫اُؾبم‬ ‫أُؾن‬ 3 ‫ُِؾن‬ ِ ٣ 12 ‫اُـبء‬ 3 ‫أُـذ‬ 13 ‫اُوبء‬ ٠‫أُو‬ 5 ٢‫ُِو‬٣ 4 ٢ٗٝ‫أٌُزو‬ 11 5 3 391 . saudara seribu to complete family. relative thousand orang Albania. appeal annexation. to throw electrical ٢ْ‫رل‬ َٚ‫أك‬ ٢ٗ‫أكـب‬ 14 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫أكـب‬ 4 ‫أكن‬ 3 ‫اهبُخ‬ 4 ‫أهبٓذ‬ 6 ‫ٔذ‬٤‫أه‬ 3 ْ٤‫و‬٣ 5 ٕٞٔ٤‫و‬٣ 46 ‫اهبٓخ‬ 18 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫اهبٓخ اُل‬ 3 ّ‫اهزؾب‬ 7 ‫اهزواة‬ 24 ‫اهزواػ‬ ‫ ط‬. break through approach suggestion to suggest division. establish penubuhan.

7 ‫ت‬٤‫أٗبث‬ 24 ‫اٗزبط‬ 3 ٜ‫اٗزبط اُ٘ل‬ 5 ٙ‫اٗزجب‬ 3 ‫اٗزؾبه‬ 5 ١‫اٗزؾبه‬ ‫ ط‬. menunggu ability.51 ٕٞ٤ٌ٣‫أٓو‬ 11 ٕ‫آٌب‬ 15 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫آٌب‬ 29 َٓ‫أ‬ ‫ – ط‬5 َٓ‫آ‬ َٓ ِ‫أ‬ 3 َٓ َ ‫ٗؤ‬ 123 ٖٓ‫أ‬ 11 ٢ٓٞ‫األٖٓ اُو‬ 8 ٢ُٝ‫األٖٓ اُل‬ 4 ٢ِ‫األٖٓ اُلاف‬ ‫ ط‬.5 ٕٞ٣‫اٗزؾبه‬ 65 ‫اٗزقبة‬ ‫ – ط‬101 ‫اٗزقبثبد‬ 16 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫اٗزقبثبد اُوئب‬ 11 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫اٗزقبثبد ثؤُب‬ 14 ‫خ‬٤‫ؼ‬٣‫اٗزقبثبد رْو‬ 7 ‫اٗزقبثبد ؽوح‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫بث‬٤ٗ ‫اٗزقبثبد‬ 4 ‫اٗزقبثبد اُؼبٓخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫اٗزقبثبد أ‬ 13 ‫خ‬٤‫اٗزقبث‬ 3 ًٌ‫اٗزوكب‬ 5 ‫اٗزوٗذ‬ 11 ‫اٗزْبه‬ 3 ‫اٗزْو‬ 4 ‫٘زْو‬٣ 7 ‫اٗزٖبه‬ 9 ‫اٗزظبه‬ ‫اٗزظو‬ 7 ‫٘زظو‬٣ 4 ‫ر٘زظو‬ 3 ‫ٗ٘زظو‬ 7 ‫خ‬ٙ‫اٗزلب‬ 13 ‫ ط‬.‫اٗزوبكاد‬ 3 ٍ‫اٗزوب‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫اٗزوب‬ 8 ‫اٗزول‬ 10 5 8 392 . berkaitan Amerika to order. temporary critic ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫أُٔب‬ ‫خ‬٤ُ‫آ‬ ‫ ط‬. revolt critism movement. motion transition.8 ‫آلاكاد‬ 50 ‫ٓو‬ ْ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. intifada kritikan peralihan peralihan. tube production oil production attention suicide suicidal election presidential elections parliamentary elections legislative elections free elections parliamentary elections general election primary election electoral interfax Internet spreading to spread victory waiting to wait kebangkitan. perkara. safety national security international security internal securiy security. berkaitan German mekanisma orang UAE. discontinuation supplying. pemberian hal.64 ْٓ‫أ‬ 64 ‫األْٓ أُزؾلح‬ َّ ‫آز‬ ‫ل‬ 4 ُّ ‫رٔز‬ ‫ل‬ 8 ‫آزالى‬ ‫آزِي‬ 3 ‫رٔزِي‬ 4 ‫آز٘بع‬ 7 ‫آلاك‬ ‫ ط‬. menyuruh wanita orang Amerika.5 ‫آو‬ٝ‫أ‬ 3 ‫ٓو‬ َ‫أ‬ 3 ‫أٓود‬ 4 ‫آوأح‬ 111 ٢ٌ٣‫أٓو‬ 143 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫أٓو‬ ‫ ط‬.5 ٕ‫آٓب‬ 32 ٢٘ٓ‫أ‬ 48 ‫خ‬٤٘ٓ‫أ‬ 19 ‫و‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ 30 ٖ٤ٓ‫أ‬ 27 ّ‫ٖ اُؼب‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. sementara mengkritik uprising. peace Prince faithful. affair mengarahkan. halangan penyediaan. capbility possibility.orang German. melangkaui pemilikan memiliki larangan. memungkinkan kemampuan. dependable Secretary-General pipe. pemilihan pilihanraya presiden pilihanraya parlimen pilihanraya perundangan pilihanraya bebas pemilihan wakil pilihanraya umum pilihanraya pembukaan berkaitan pemilihan Interfaks Internet penyebaran menyebarkan kemenangan penantian menanti. keamanan keselamatan negara keselamatan antarabangsa keselamatan dalaman keamanan Putera orang yang dipercayai Setiausaha Am/ Agong paip pengeluaran. matter. hasil pengeluaran minyak perhatian pembunuhan berkaitan pembunuhan pilihanraya.19 ‫ه‬ٞٓ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. potential hope to hope security. kemungkinan harapan mengharapkan keselamatan. arahan German mechanism Emirate nation United Nations to extend possession posses abstention. bangsa Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu melebihi.‫بد‬٤ُ‫أ‬ 5 ٢‫آبهار‬ 13 ‫أٓخ‬ ّ . berkaitan UAE umat. furnishing order. to command lady American membolehkan.

consolidation human being human withdrawal. keberangkatan ketiadaan. come to an end salah guna mencipta kejayaan memperoleh. penyatuan pemergian. melaksanakan kejatuhan. to mention Europe European tengah. pertengahan lebih luas menjelaskan berhenti. initial time. breakdown concern. penyatuan manusia kemanusiaan penarikan. tenggelam letusan. Eropah orang Eropah.4 ٢ُ‫ب‬ٛ‫أ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ِٛ‫أ‬ 11 ْٛ‫أ‬ 22 ‫خ‬٤ٔٛ‫أ‬ 18 ‫ثي‬ٝ‫أ‬ ٠‫ؽ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 3 ٢‫ؽ‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫هكد‬ٝ‫أ‬ 35 ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ 40 ٢‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ 24 ‫خ‬٤‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ٕٞ٤‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ 31 ٍٜٝ‫أ‬ 3 ‫ٍغ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 39 ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬ َ 18 ‫ؾذ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬ 5 ‫هلذ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 77 ٍ ّٝ‫أ‬ 3 َ‫ائ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 38 ٠ُٝ‫أ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ُٞٝ‫أ‬ 7 ‫بد‬٣ُٞٝ‫أ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫أ‬ 8 ‫ٗخ‬ٝ‫آ‬ 7 ٢‫غبث‬٣‫ا‬ 19 ‫خ‬٤‫غبث‬٣‫ا‬ 15 ‫غبك‬٣‫ا‬ 3 ‫ل‬٣‫أ‬ 4 ‫ل‬٣‫رئ‬ 3 5 393 . blow up bom explosion bom explosion burst out. assembly to meet. revolution ending. meletus pemisahan bersifat berpisah perlepasan diri selamat pembahagian penggulingan. berkaitan Eropah spending explosion. finishing collapse. hang out merging. moving forward missing. letusan letupan bom letupan bom meletup. attention Opec to reveal to to lead to. interest relative. lacking convention. pembaharuan penamatan keruntuhan penting. berdiri tetap pertama middle. mendedahkan menyatakan.13 ‫بًبد‬ٜ‫اٗز‬ 10 ‫اٗغبػ‬ 5 ‫اٗغبى‬ ‫ ط‬. production to support ‫اٗزٔبء‬ ٠ٔ‫اٗز‬ ٢ٔ‫٘ز‬٣ 24 ‫بء‬ٜ‫اٗز‬ ٠ٜ‫اٗز‬ 8 ‫ذ‬ٜ‫اٗز‬ 9 ٢ٜ‫ر٘ز‬ 3 ‫بى‬ٜ‫اٗز‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ٕ‫اٗلغبها‬ 5 ‫اٗلغود‬ 3 ٍ‫اٗلٖب‬ 3 ٢ُ‫اٗلٖب‬ 3 ‫اٗلالد‬ 9 ‫اٗوبم‬ 7 ّ‫اٗوَب‬ 11 ‫اٗوالة‬ 18 ‫بء‬ٜٗ‫ا‬ 3 ‫به‬٤ٜٗ‫ا‬ 11 ّ‫زٔب‬ٛ‫ا‬ 5 َٛ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. pendermaan letupan. perhimpunan berjumpa. execution dropping. permulaan masa. partision overthrow. pembangunan penyertaan. sekarang positif pewujudan. break out separation separationist escape rescue. saving division. to relate end. now positive creation. competence more important concern. to gather perbelanjaan. penghabisan berakhir belonging.5 ‫اٗغبىاد‬ 3 ٗ‫اٗقلب‬ 4 ‫اٗلالع‬ 8 ‫اٗلُؼذ‬ 3 ‫اٗلٓبط‬ 21 ٕ‫اَٗب‬ 4 ٢ٗ‫اَٗب‬ 13 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫اَٗب‬ 9 ‫اَٗؾبة‬ 16 ‫اْٗبء‬ 14 ّ‫ٔب‬ٚٗ‫ا‬ 12 ‫اٗطالم‬ 4 ّ‫اٗؼلا‬ 23 ‫اٗؼوبك‬ ‫اٗؼول‬ 3 ‫٘ؼول‬٣ 5 ‫ر٘ؼول‬ 3 ‫اٗلبم‬ 52 ‫اٗلغبه‬ 6 ‫ح‬ٞ‫اٗلغبه ػج‬ 5 ‫اٗلغبه اُو٘جِخ‬ ّ . retreat establishment joining. sinking outbreak. kepunyaan mengaitkan. ambil berat ahli. central wider to clarify to stand. entering rushing. make stand first keutamaan pertama. mempunyai selesai. relationship to belong to. pembuatan menyokong priority first. berkumpul profanation. saudara-mara pakar. breaking out to stick out. memancar percantuman.hubung kait. conclusion to end. kin capacity. pengeluaran penubuhan. desecration make succes carrying out. kekurangan konvensyen. ahli dalam bidang lebih penting kepentingan Opec memperlihatkan. pancaran meletus.

plain hero.3 ‫ٗبد‬ُٞ‫ثب‬ 26 ٍٝ‫ثزو‬ 3 َ ‫ثش‬ 4 ‫ثضذ‬ 4 ‫ثش‬ 7 ‫ثؾش‬ 4 ‫رجؾش‬ 3 ٕٞ‫جؾض‬٣ 28 ‫ثؾْ ش‬ ‫ ط‬. beginning to change. come out to start permulaan menukar. berkaitan Itali perberhentian. menonjol. center settlement centre door to spend the night cold. keluar bermula Research sea. start to appear. study penyelidikan. chilly prominent Pakistanian 3 3 ‫ثئه‬ ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫طب‬٤‫ثئه اٍز‬/‫ثئهح‬ 9 ‫ثبة‬ ‫ ط‬. tengah pusat pendudukan pintu bermalam sejuk jelas. magnify balloon petrol to spread. memberikan terbaik program program nuclear Parlimen nisbah kepada parlimen protokol orang British. terang orang Pakistan. dispatching 394 . propagate spreading. pengantunggan kanan pendudukan to despair ISAF Italian stopping.5 ٕٞ٤ٗ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬ ٌ٣‫أ‬ 3 ً‫ؤ‬٣ 8 ‫َبف‬٣‫ا‬ 3 ٢ُ‫طب‬٣‫ا‬ 5 ‫وبف‬٣‫ا‬ 3 ٖٔ٣‫أ‬ 3 ‫اء‬ٞ٣‫ا‬ 57 ‫ب‬ fokus. exchange to give generously to sacrifice program nuclear program Parliament Parliamentary protocol British pembentangan senang. berkaitan Britain starting. berkaitan Pakistan focus. champion sending. berkaitan Iran AIDS Iranian putus asa ISAF orang Itali. membesar belon petrol menyebarkan penyebaran. propagation research. alternate equivalent. maritime definitely beginning. modify substitute. ocean marine. lautan berkaitan laut. lurus pahlawan. putting up 6 ‫لى‬٣‫ا‬ ٢ٗ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬ 41 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬ ‫ ط‬. suspension right lodging. propaganda menyelidik exaggerate.5 ‫اة‬ٞ‫أث‬ 6 ‫ثبد‬ 3 ‫ا‬ٞ‫ثبر‬ 3 ‫ثبهكح‬ 7 ‫ثبهى‬ 28 ٢ٗ‫ثبًَزب‬ 31 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ثبًَزب‬ ‫ ط‬.AIDS orang Iran. maritime semestinya permulaan muncul. hero penghantaran extension. alternative tukaran.5 ٕٞ٤ٗ‫ثبًَزب‬ 9 ‫ثبُِؾ‬ 8 ‫ثبُـخ‬ ‫ ط‬.4 ‫أثؾبس‬ 5 ‫ثؾو‬ 9 ‫خ‬٣‫ثؾو‬ 4 ‫ال ثل‬ 19 ‫ثلء‬ 4 ‫ثلا‬ 10 ٝ‫جل‬٣ 12 ‫ثلأ‬ 13 ‫ثلأد‬ 9 ‫جلأ‬٣ 7 ‫رجلأ‬ 4 ‫ا‬ٝ‫ثلأ‬ 13 ‫خ‬٣‫ثلا‬ 5 ٍ‫ثل‬ 6 َ٣‫ثل‬ 6 ْ ٍ‫ثن‬ َ‫ث‬ ٍ‫ن‬ 4 ٍ‫جن‬٣ 47 ‫ثوٗبٓظ‬ 24 ١ٝٞٗ ‫ثوٗبٓظ‬ 9 ‫ثوآظ – ط‬ 64 ٕ‫ثؤُب‬ 19 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ثؤُب‬ 4 ًٍٞٞ‫ر‬ٝ‫ثو‬ 14 ٢ٗ‫طب‬٣‫ثو‬ 22 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫طب‬٣‫ثو‬ ‫ – ط‬6 ٕٞ٤ٗ‫طب‬٣‫ثو‬ 3 َْٜ‫ث‬ 7 ‫طخ‬٤َ‫ث‬ 6 َ‫ثط‬ 4 ‫ثؼْش‬ sampai. kajian laut. expansion simple. persamaan mengorbankan. merubah gantian.

local to reach. pengukuhan perniagaan. period historical. stay tinggalan negara bendera.kejauhan sebahagian jauh tinggal. berhadapan melepaskan. construction Pentagon bank Burmian environment statement. staying to remain. deferment history. rest state. succeeding effect. affirmation to follow Times supporting. flag Belgian country. dclaration joint statement house White House ‫ثؼضخ‬ 11 ‫ثُؼل‬ ‫ ط‬. tinggal farness half. country paving stone. go on 18 ‫ربثغ‬ ‫زبثغ‬٣ 3 ‫رزبثغ‬ 4 ‫ربثِغ‬ 15 ‫ربثؼخ‬ 8 ‫و‬٤‫رؤص‬ 17 َ٤‫رؤع‬ 15 ‫ـ‬٣‫ربه‬ 6 ٢‫ق‬٣‫ربه‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫ق‬٣‫ربه‬ 4 ٌ٤ٍ‫رؤ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫واد‬٤ّ‫رؤ‬ 28 ‫ل‬٤ً‫رؤ‬ 11 ٢ُ‫رب‬ 7 ‫ٔي‬٣‫رب‬ 16 ‫ل‬٤٣‫رؤ‬ 8 ٍُ‫رجبك‬ 4 ‫ل‬٣‫رجل‬ 4 ‫و‬٣‫رجو‬ 4 َّ ٠‫جو‬ َ‫ر‬ 11 َّ ٠٘‫رج‬ 3 ُٚ‫رزغ‬ ِ 3 ٠ِ‫رزق‬ 4 ‫ؼ‬٤‫رز‬ 5 ‫ذ‬٤‫رضج‬ 7 ‫رغبهح‬ 3 yang mengikut kesan. stay to adopt to tent to. vindication to remain. arrive Balkan plotunium penghabluran billion pembinaan Pentagon bank orang Burma. penetapan berikut Times (nama khusus) sokongan penukaran. batu pijak orang Belgium. influence postponement. historic founding. surrender to allow. land tempatan sampai provincial. interchange dispersal.‫أثؼبك‬ 67 ٘‫ثؼ‬ 8 ‫ل‬٤‫ثؼ‬ 5 ‫لح‬٤‫ثؼ‬ 16 ‫ثوبء‬ 4 ٠‫ثو‬ 7 ٠‫جو‬٣ 12 ٠‫رجو‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ثو‬ 114 ‫ثالك‬ 4 ‫خ‬ٛ‫ثال‬ 3 ٢ٌ٤‫ثِغ‬ 27 ‫ثِل‬ 12 ٕ‫ثِلا‬ 20 ‫ثِلح‬ ّ – 23 ٕ‫ثِلا‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣‫ثِل‬ 6 ‫ثِؾ‬ 6 ‫ثِـذ‬ 8 ‫جِؾ‬٣ 7 ‫رجِؾ‬ 3 ٕ‫ثِوب‬ 4 ّٞ٤ٗٞ‫ر‬ِٞ‫ث‬ 6 ‫هح‬ِٞ‫ث‬ 4 ٕٞ٤ِ‫ث‬ 34 ‫ث٘بء‬ 4 ٕٞ‫ث٘زبع‬ 3 ‫ث٘ي‬ 4 ٢ٓ‫ه‬ٞ‫ث‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫ه‬ٞ‫ث‬ 3 ‫ئخ‬٤‫ث‬ 69 ٕ‫ب‬٤‫ث‬ 5 ‫بٕ ْٓزوى‬٤‫ث‬ 27 ‫ذ‬٤‫ث‬ 17 ٘٤‫ذ األث‬٤‫اُج‬ 3 8 ‫خ‬ bersambung. justifikasi mengekalkan. tetap mengambil anak angkat. to direct to abandon. perdagangan following. backing up exchange. baki kekal. meneruskan to continue. scattering justification. berkaitan Belgium negara. pengasasan Visa pengesahan. trade 395 . mengelak membenarkan penetapan. permit fixing. memberi kesan penangguhan sejarah. berkaitan Burma persekitaran pernyataan. setting up visa confirmation. pengumuman pernyataan bersama rumah Rumah Putih Balkan plutonium crystallisation billion building. fastening. menerima menghala. masa lampau berkaitan sejarah pembinaan. tanah remainder. part far remaining. establish commerce. persimpangan penyebaran alasan berasas.

fructification uranium enrichment specification. kemerdekaan pembaikan. warehousing. melebihi sesuai. stor penyuburan. berhimpun pembekuan pengelakan. come back to head. terhadap mengabaikan melepasi. caution materielisation. pemprosesan pemprosesan uranium pengkhususan. to give up Turkish focusing. supply(ing). bertutur ancaman. worth renewal. percubaan kehancuran. movement liberation. test gathering. smash reservation. defiance definition. menyertai ketakutan pentadbiran. perancangan perancangan keamanan campur tangan. sinking into fear. fallback. cubaan perhimpunan berkumpul. kemudahan pengabaian. merchant facing. increment. penyebaran semasa. resolution change. melanggar penempahan. freeing improvement. mengepalai penyediaan. berpatah balik kembali. perkembangan persediaan memecahkan. lead education. caution (ing) motion. simultaneity increase. specification warning. to crash to make as leader retreat. serentak pertambahan. sepatutnya pembaharuan.9 ‫و‬٤‫رلاث‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤٘ٓ‫و أ‬٤‫رلاث‬ 23 ُّ َ‫رلف‬ 3 ٢‫رلفَ فبهع‬ 3 ١‫رلفَ ػٌَو‬ 8 ‫ت‬٣‫رله‬ 6 ‫و‬٤ٓ‫رل‬ 4 ‫ه‬ٞٛ‫رل‬ 3 ً‫روإ‬ 12 ‫رواعُغ‬ 3 ْ ‫ؼذ‬ َ ‫اع‬ َ ‫َو‬ َ‫ر‬ 3 ً‫روأ‬ 4 ً‫زوأ‬٣ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫روث‬ 3 ‫روٍبٗخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ُٝٞ٘‫اُزوٍبٗخ ا‬ َ‫روى‬ َ 3 ‫زوى‬٣ 32 ٢ً‫رو‬ 26 ‫خ‬٤ً‫رو‬ 9 ‫ي‬٤ً‫رو‬ 4 ‫ظ‬٣ٝ‫رو‬ 5 ٖٓ ُ ‫ريا‬ 6 ‫ُل‬٣‫ريا‬ 3 ‫ريكاك‬ َّْ‫ريػ‬ 3 ْ‫زيػ‬٣ 9 ‫ل‬٣ٝ‫ري‬ 14 3 3 396 . cabaran definnasi.7 ‫بد‬٣‫رؾل‬ 14 ‫ل‬٣‫رؾل‬ 6 ‫و‬٣‫رؾن‬ 8 ‫رؾوُّى‬ ‫ – ط‬9 ‫رؾوًُّبد‬ 10 ‫و‬٣‫رؾو‬ 14 ٖ٤َ‫رؾ‬ ‫ ط‬. opposite (to). shunning preparation. interposition external intervention military intervention training. lineation lightening abandonment. bersekutu bercakap. going past to pass.berkaitan perdagangan berhadapan. in front of ignoring. berkaitan Turkey penumpuan peredaran. talking challenge. sunyi dari memasuki. spreading synchronism. kehancuran menjadi ketua kembali. particularisation drawing. go past appropriate. give up wading into. pemusnahan keruntuhan. drill (ing) destruction. melebihi melepasi. actualisation realisation. growth to make addition to lead. pedagogy arsenal nuclear arsenal to leave. planing security measures intervention. pembatasan amaran. pengelokan memperdagangkan ujian. confederacy speaking. disregarding passing. renovation to trade (in). ruin(ing) to fall. plan keringanan. carry on trade (in) experiment. assemble freezing. penswastaan perancangan. assemblage to gather. glaciation avoidance. pembekalan commercial. to quit.7 ‫واد‬٤ٚ‫رؾ‬ 3 ‫رؾطٔذ‬ 3 ُّ ‫رؾلع‬ 4 ُّ ‫رؾون‬ 74 ‫ن‬٤‫رؾو‬ 4 َ٤ِ‫رؾ‬ 6 ٍ ُّٞ‫رؾ‬ 3 ‫َُّذ‬ٞ‫رؾ‬ 3 ٖ٣‫رقي‬ 18 ‫ت‬٤ٖ‫رق‬ 14 ّٞ٤ٗ‫ها‬ٞ٣ ‫ت‬٤ٖ‫رق‬ 4 ٔ٤ٖ‫رق‬ 8 ٜ٤‫رقط‬ 3 ‫ق‬٤‫رقل‬ 9 ِّ ٢ِ‫رق‬ ٠َِّ‫رق‬ 4 َّ ٠ِ‫زق‬٣ 3 ٗٞ‫رق‬ 4 ‫ُّ ف‬ٞ‫رق‬ ‫ ط‬. sampuk campur tangan luar campur tangan tentera latihan. penjauhan persediaan perhubungan. dread arrangement. reversion to reverse. amelioration preparation. keadaan sebenar merealisasikan. pencapaian analisa. giving up to abandon. rulling. concentration circulation. perhatian pergerakan pembebasan. alteration to change. readying alliance. pulang mengetuai pendidikan pertahanan pertahanan nuklear meninggalkan orang Turkey. readying to break. alter storage. head. perkembangan penambahan mengetuai. fertilisation. resolusi perubahan berubah penyimpanan. kesunyian mengabaikan. providing ‫خ‬٣‫رغبه‬ ٙ‫رغب‬ َُٛ‫رغب‬ 5 ‫ُى‬ٝ‫رغب‬ ‫ى‬ٝ‫رغب‬ َ 3 ‫ى‬ٝ‫زغب‬٣ 3 ‫رغله‬ 6 ‫ل‬٣‫رغل‬ 3 ‫رغو‬ 3 ‫رغوثخ‬ 12 ‫ٔغ‬ ُّ ‫رغ‬ 3 ‫ٔغ‬ َّ ‫رغ‬ 9 ‫ل‬٤ٔ‫رغ‬ 7 ‫رغُّ٘ت‬ 3 ‫ي‬٤ٜ‫رغ‬ 24 ‫رؾبُُق‬ 6 ‫رؾلَّس‬ 5 ‫زؾلس‬٣ 8 ١‫رؾل‬ ‫ ط‬. fright. tumble. perhatian kenyataan. achievement analysis.

menjelang pengesahan pembangunan. radikal memohon. pungutan suara perpaduan. penekanan perundangan pelaksanaan. introduction belief. taking on forming. steal away receipt. facing. evolution development.3 ‫ياد‬٣‫رؼي‬ 7 َ٤‫رؼط‬ 4 ‫ت‬٤‫رؼو‬ 4 6 3 397 . pertahanan ekspot. stress legislative. uttering modification. recording acceleration. perkembangan pembangunan. kegagalan ulasan. peningkatan industri pembuatan undian. peryataan perubahan. simulation pergaulan. menyebabkan menyebabkan. kebenaran deklarasi. defiance exportation. muamalat kerjasama kerjasaama negara-negara teluk pengucapan. kenyataan laporan media kenaikan. planning. turning over facilitation. believing. voicing. bertanya menyebabkan. penubuhan penubuhan kerajaan penubuhan jawatankuasa bahasa Czech peningkatan. poll(ing). endorsing development. agonising exposure to. receiving to receive. kenaikan konfrantasi. armament. pengeluaran kepercayaan. shaping government formation committee formation Czech language rise. remark. aggravation industrialisation voting. confer. meminta kemuncak. penyerahan kemudahan penyamaan.3 ‫واد‬ٛ‫رظب‬ 4 ‫وح‬ٛ‫رظب‬ 17 َٓ ُ ‫رؼب‬ 49 ُٕٝ‫رؼب‬ 4 ٢‫غ‬٤ِ‫ٕ اُق‬ٝ‫اُزؼب‬ 11 ‫و‬٤‫رؼج‬ 26 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 11 ‫ه‬ٞ‫َ اُلٍز‬٣‫رؼل‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫الد‬٣‫رؼل‬ 7 ‫ت‬٣‫رؼن‬ 10 ٗ ُّ‫رؼو‬ 3 َّٗ‫رؼو‬ 7 ْ ‫ذ‬َّٙ‫رؼو‬ 4 ‫ق‬٣‫رؼو‬ 23 ‫ي‬٣‫رؼي‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫رطِؼبد‬ 6 ‫و‬٤ٜ‫رظ‬ 14 ‫ُّ ه‬ٞ‫رط‬ ‫ ط‬. revolusi perubahan perlembagaan penyeksaan tertedah.mempersoal. mendedahkan definasi. to take arming. mengakibatkan pendaftaran perihal mempercepatkan perihal bersenjata menyeludup. pertimbangan galakan. applying. pretending. incurrence of to be or become exposed definition. making easy leveling. mendapat perihal bersenjata penyampaian. radicalism to require. collaboration cooperation of Arab gulf states expression. putting into agreement appliacation extremism. review ٍ َ ‫ء‬ َ ‫ر‬ َ ‫َب‬ ‫رَجت‬ ‫رَججذ‬ 7 َ٤‫رَغ‬ 4 ‫غ‬٣‫رَو‬ 5 ُّ ‫رَِؼ‬ ََِ‫ر‬ 3 ‫ا‬َِِٞ‫ر‬ 5 ُّ َِْ‫ر‬ ََِّْ‫ر‬ 3 َِْ‫ز‬٣ 3 ‫ؼ‬٤َِ‫ر‬ 19 ْ٤َِ‫ر‬ 8 َ٤َٜ‫ر‬ 15 ‫خ‬٣َٞ‫ر‬ 15 ١‫رْبك‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫رْبك‬ ‫ ط‬. disablement commentary. determination consolidation. include pembiasaan. formation. call for looking forward. rearmament handing over. pertanggungjawaban mengandungi. change. strengthening breakdown. grading Chad perundingan.3 ٕٞ٣‫رْبك‬ 6 ‫ُه‬ٝ‫رََْب‬ 4 ‫غ‬٤‫رْغ‬ 11 ‫ل‬٣‫رْل‬ 15 ‫خ‬٤‫ؼ‬٣‫رْو‬ 5 َ٤‫رْـ‬ 23 َ٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 10 ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫َ اُؾ‬٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 3 ‫َ اُِغ٘خ‬٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 3 ‫ِخ‬٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٤ْ‫ر‬ 8 ‫رٖبػُل‬ 6 ١ِّ‫رٖل‬ 4 ‫و‬٣‫رٖل‬ 7 ‫ن‬٣‫رٖل‬ 14 ‫ؼ‬٣‫رٖو‬ ‫ – ط‬52 ‫ؾبد‬٣‫رٖو‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ؾبد ٕؾل‬٣‫رٖو‬ 16 ‫ل‬٤‫رٖؼ‬ 4 ‫غ‬٤ٖ٘‫ر‬ 12 ‫ذ‬٣ٖٞ‫ر‬ 4 ٖٓ ُ ‫ب‬ٚ‫ر‬ ٖٔٚ‫ر‬ 5 ٖٔٚ‫ز‬٣ 10 ٖٔٚ‫رز‬ 3 ‫غ‬٤‫رطج‬ 40 ‫ن‬٤‫رطج‬ 6 ‫ن االرلبم‬٤‫رطج‬ 3 ‫رطوُّ ف‬ ‫رطَِّت‬ 6 ‫زطِت‬٣ ‫ ط‬. consult encouragement. ballot solidarity. reception. menunjuk-nunjuk demonstrasi. hiring. declaration press release escalation. to get obtain. dorongan pengetatan. expectation endorsement. accasion registration. query to cause. tabiat pelaksanaan. rearmament to sneak away. asending confrontation. demonstrate demonstration. statutory. intercourse. melepaskan penerimaan menerima. amendment constitutional amendment torture. speedup. trade cooperation. emboldening emphasis. pengradan orang Chad. going up. termasuk to deliberate. aplikasi pelaksanaa perjanjian melampau. takrif pengukuhan. perhatian dealings. advancement to pretend. penggunaan pembentukan.9 ‫هاد‬ٞ‫رط‬ 10 ‫و‬٣ٞ‫رط‬ 5 ‫َو‬ٛ‫رظب‬ 3 ‫ُو‬ٛ‫رظب‬ ‫ ط‬. joint liability to contain. pickup armament. perkembangan tunjuk perasaan. legal employment. faith statement. pengabungan kerosakan. berkaitan Chad to ask oneself (whether). tunjuk perasaan normalisation application.

offering to be decided. appreciation presentation. agreement negotiation coolness. entanglement to be or become exposed to hang (down). acceptance television televisional. bebanan tanggungjawab.‫ٔبد‬٤ِ‫رؼ‬ 3 ‫ن‬٤ٔ‫رؼ‬ 4 ‫ُّل‬ٜ‫رؼ‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫بد‬ٚ٣ٞ‫رؼ‬ 13 ٖ٤٤‫رؼ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫رـن‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤‫رـط‬ 19 ‫و‬٤٤‫رـ‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫واد‬٤٤‫رـ‬ 6 ٍُ‫رلبإ‬ ‫ ط‬. memorandum final report intelligence report division. look after to appoint. pemisahan tradisi. pengumpulan pengulangan berulang. perlantikan pemakanan. decrease technical demolition. protection to take care of. suspend pergantungan. penghargaan persembahan. liputan. televisual to receive. nomination nutrition. repeat trouble. sempurna hanging down. signal to be completed. pengecutan mengurangkan teknikal kemusnahan. disconnection tradition. mengulangi masalah. obligation technocracy technology hill. parting. mound. convention progress. care. forego estimation. beckoning. tutup perubahan harapan. to get. angkat penerimaan. laporan laporan terakhir laporan penyiasatan pembahagian tradisional pengurangan. mengawal melantik. kesukaran mendedahkan.10 ‫و‬٣‫روبه‬ 14 ْ٤َ‫رو‬ 11 ‫خ‬٣‫ل‬٤ِ‫رو‬ 4 ٔ٤ِ‫رو‬ 3 َ٤ِ‫رو‬ 3 ٢٘‫رو‬ 5 ٘٣ٞ‫رو‬ 6 ْ٤٤‫رو‬ 3 ُّ َ‫رٌز‬ 5 ‫رٌواه‬ ‫ه‬ َّ ٌ‫ر‬ َ‫و‬ 4 ‫رزٌوه‬ 6 ‫رٌِلخ‬ 5 ‫ق‬٤ٌِ‫ر‬ 5 ٛ‫هوا‬ٌٞ٘‫ر‬ 5 ‫ب‬٤‫ع‬ٌُٞٞ٘‫ر‬ 9 َّ‫ر‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫رِج‬ 21 ٕٞ٣‫رِلو‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ٗٞ٣‫رِلي‬ 3 َّ ٠‫رِو‬ 3 ْ َّ ‫رِوذ‬ 4 ‫ؼ‬٣ِٞ‫ر‬ 75 ْ َّ ‫ر‬ 10 ‫رٔذ‬ 57 ْ‫ز‬٣ 398 . feeding covering. pertimbangan pemecahan. alteration optimism detailing. pulling down evaluation. partition traditional decrease. optimis perincian. taught waving. reiteration to recur. suspending suspention of membership suspention of participation teaching. mencari letupan. pembahagian pengaktifan pemikiran. full. bergantung complication. whole 6 ‫ل‬٤‫رؼو‬ ٗ ّ‫رؼو‬ 5 ّٗ‫رزؼو‬ ‫رؼِن‬ 12 ‫زؼِن‬٣ 13 ‫رزؼِن‬ 26 ‫ن‬٤ِ‫رؼ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣ٞٚ‫ن اُؼ‬٤ِ‫رؼ‬ 3 ‫ن أُْبهًخ‬٤ِ‫رؼ‬ 12 ْ٤ِ‫رؼ‬ 4 ‫ ط‬. selesai. menghulurkan memutuskan.3 ‫ل‬٤ُ‫روب‬ 27 ُّّ‫رول‬ 4 َّّ‫رول‬ 3 ‫رولَّٓذ‬ 5 ‫و‬٣‫رول‬ 22 ْ٣‫رول‬ 3 ‫رووَّه‬ 9 ‫ت‬٣‫روو‬ 74 ‫و‬٣‫روو‬ 7 ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫و ا‬٣‫اُزوو‬ 5 ‫و االٍزقجبهاد‬٣‫روو‬ ‫ ط‬. menetapkan hampir. consideration disassembly. kesejukan. inconvenience charging.6 ‫ُّلاد‬ٜ‫رؼ‬ 10 ‫َّل‬ٜ‫رؼ‬ َّٖ٤‫رؼ‬ 9 َّٖ٤‫زؼ‬٣ ‫ ط‬. wraping change. charge.4 ‫واد‬٤‫رلغ‬ 4 ‫ن‬٣‫رلو‬ 5 َ٤‫رلؼ‬ 5 ‫و‬٤ٌ‫رل‬ 7 ‫ي‬٤ٌ‫رل‬ ‫ ط‬. terbuka berkaitan. dangle. kebiasaan perkembangan mendahului. anggaran repot. ketenangan pemeriksaan. kawalan menjaga. memberi jawatan gantian. penangguhan penggantungan keahlian penggantungan penyertaan pengajaran. nutrisi perlindungan. pampasan pengkhususan. nearly report. shrinking lessening. inspection explosion. tanah tinggi. lambaian. ke hadapan takdir. elevation compliance. tanda lengkap. belajar panggilan.6 َ٤ٕ‫رلب‬ 4 ُ ْ‫رلبه‬ 16 ُْٛ‫رلب‬ 17 ُٗٝ‫رلب‬ 3 ‫رلزو‬ 18 ِ٤‫رلز‬ 19 ‫و‬٤‫رلغ‬ ‫ ط‬. blowup separation. division activation thinking. panggilan televisyen berkaitan televisyen menerima. development to precede. determined approximation. conglomeration repitition. compensatory. assessment agglomeration. letusan pemisahan.kerumitan. kehnacuran penilaian kumpulan gagasan. compensational specification. arahan perihal mendalamkan penjagaan. tepidity search(ing). arahan teknokrat teknologi bukit. perjanjian perundingan. elaboration aggravation. worsening understanding. instruction deepening. penjelasan bertambah teruk persefahaman.

harmony. kecaman penyelarasan. haluan penyatuan pembabitan. simpanan pendamaian. providing conciliation. lengkap mengecapi. holding on ability. perluasan pemberontakan perlepasan. petunjuk andaian. requisite direction. being. konflik berpindah. education deep penetration. arrangment Al-Qaeda Organisation carrying out. implikasi penyebaran. penerangan kesedaran. bersama sempurna. kordinasi pengurusan. planning. mendapat nasihat.sejajar. pengecualian pegangan. pelarian tuduhan. forwarding unification. perpindahan perkembangan. kemampuan boleh melakukan. spreading insurrection. thorough study saving. to be able to. commendation clarification. kesesuaian kesepakatan politik berkaitan perjanjian. continuance agreement. kewangan perletakan jawatan. movement development. mewajibkan arah. rebellion passing . menjamah kritikan. convey to take. attain. didikan tusukan yang dalam penyediaan. strain to become necessary. allowing to pass clinging to. subscription ْ‫رز‬ ٢ّ‫رٔب‬ 8 ّ‫رٔب‬ ‫رٔزَّغ‬ 4 ‫زٔزغ‬٣ 4 َ٤‫رٔض‬ 3 ‫ل‬٣‫رٔل‬ 8 ‫رٔوُّ ك‬ 3 ‫و‬٣‫رٔو‬ 6 ‫رَُّٔي‬ 4 ُّ ٌٖٔ‫ر‬ 3 َّ ٌَٖٔ‫ر‬ 4 ّ ٔ‫ر‬ ‫ٌ٘ذ‬ 5 َّ ٌٖٔ‫ٗز‬ 8 ‫ل‬٤ٜٔ‫ر‬ 9 َ٣ٞٔ‫ر‬ 5 ُ ‫ر٘ب‬ ٍ‫ى‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫ر٘بىالد‬ 3 ّ٘‫ر٘بك‬ 3 ‫ر٘بهِذ‬ ٍ َ ٝ‫َب‬ َ ٘‫ر‬ 3 ٍٝ‫رز٘ب‬ 4 ‫ل‬٣‫ر٘ل‬ 19 ‫ن‬٤َ٘‫ر‬ 47 ْ٤‫ر٘ظ‬ 30 ‫ْ اُوبػلح‬٤‫ر٘ظ‬ 38 ‫ن‬٤‫ر٘ل‬ 5 ٌْ‫ن اُؾ‬٤‫ر٘ل‬ 3 ‫ن اُوواه‬٤‫ر٘ل‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫ن‬٤‫ر٘ل‬ 3 ُّ َ‫ر٘و‬ 19 ‫خ‬٤ٔ٘‫ر‬ 3 ‫لئخ‬ٜ‫ر‬ 16 ‫ل‬٣‫ل‬ٜ‫ر‬ ‫ ط‬. achievement to reach. berseronok perwakilan. condemnation coordination. persetujuan datang kemudian. introduction financing relinquishment. harmonisation. pembesaran pencapaian. conflict. union involvement. berubah mengambil. gantian penyambungan. arrive at recommendation. ketegangan memastikan. stretching. pengedaran perluasan. dapat sampai. be capable pendahuluan. capability can. heading to go to. dakwaan kewujudan. implication distribution.3 ‫هُّؼبد‬ٞ‫ر‬ ‫غ‬ َ َّ‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 7 ‫هغ‬ٞ‫ز‬٣ ‫هَّق‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫هق‬ٞ‫ز‬٣ 8 ‫ذ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ٢ِ‫ذ أُؾ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫اُز‬ 17 ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 17 399 . entity continuity. scheduling local time signature. broadening attainment. menggantung masa. giving up. allotment widening. penurunan pertembungan. go together completeness. anticipation to expect. jangkaan menjangka. censure. kedamaian ancaman. pautan kebolehan. organisation. to pick up criticism. clash to carry. gertak penyeludupan. menghadap panghadapan. berharap berhenti. clearing up enlightenment. running accusation. mengikuti tekanan. bearing. sambungan persetujuan. menace smuggling. execution law implimentation implementation of resolution executive moving. keberadaan kelangsungan. to savor representation extension. cease to move on timing. dispatch(ing). penyamaan pembiayaan. tiba. pembangunan ketenangan. pertubuhan Pertubuhan al-Qaeda pelaksaaan pelaksanaan hukum pelaksanaan resolusi eksekutif pergerakan. mampu to walk together. proceed to sending. quieting threat. wholness to enjoy. promotion calming. hala tuju menghala. charge existence. congruity political consensus harmonius. penentuan masa masa tempatan tanda tangan leveling.12 ‫لاد‬٣‫ل‬ٜ‫ر‬ 7 ‫ت‬٣‫و‬ٜ‫ر‬ 23 ‫ٔخ‬ َ ٜ‫ر‬ 7 َُْٜ‫ر‬ 4 ‫اعُل‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 َُٕ‫ا‬ٞ‫ر‬ 39 ُ ‫اكن‬ٞ‫ر‬ 4 ٢ٍ‫ب‬٤َُ‫اكن ا‬ٞ‫اُز‬ 9 ٢‫اكو‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ٢ُ‫ا‬ٞ‫ر‬ 4 8 ‫رُّو‬ٞ‫ر‬ ‫عَّت‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ‫عَّت‬ٞ‫ز‬٣ 8 ٚ ُّ‫ع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 8 َّٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫ز‬٣ 12 ٚ٤‫ع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 4 ‫ل‬٤‫ؽ‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ٛ ُّ‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫غ‬٣‫ى‬ٞ‫ر‬ 13 ‫غ‬٤ٍٞ‫ر‬ 41 َ ُّٕٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫َِّٕذ‬ٞ‫ر‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫بد‬٤ٕٞ‫ر‬ 5 ‫ؼ‬٤ٙٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ػ‬ٞ‫ر‬ 9 ُّ َ‫ؿ‬ٞ‫ر‬ 16 ‫و‬٤‫ك‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫ن‬٤‫ك‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 ُّ ‫هغ‬ٞ‫ر‬ ‫ ط‬. reconciliation expectation. pesanan. perakuan penjelasan. resignation to contradict each other. anticipate to stop. in agreement to follow in succession or without interruption tension.

kebaikan dwi. tekun baru. agenda bersungguh. disebabkan kecederaan. pertengkaran memperbaharui. tersedia bukit. undertake orang Tunisia. strong revolution. kumpulan Liga Negara-negara Arab bersebelahan. brow. weaving table. balah jadual. orang yang cedera ready.4 ‫عضش‬ 3 ‫علاه‬ 3 ٍ‫علا‬ 4 ‫علَّك‬ 7 ٍْ‫عل‬ 17 ٍٝ‫عل‬ 11 ٢٘ٓ‫ٍ ى‬ٝ‫عل‬ 4 ٍ‫ٍ أػٔب‬ٝ‫عل‬ 5 ١ِّ‫عل‬ 10 ‫خ‬٣‫عل‬ 57 ‫ل‬٣‫عل‬ 64 ‫لح‬٣‫عل‬ 11 ‫عواء‬ 9 ‫عواػ‬ ‫ ط‬. streaming to keep pace with. offense.peberhentian. rebellion. laluan aliran elektrik Tunisian current. tekun berlaku. fahaman hadapan. memikul tugas stopping. front accordance front democratic front corpse. group League of Arab States to walk by the side of 29 ‫عبء‬ ‫عبءد‬ 4 ‫عبكح‬ 3 ‫عبه‬ 16 ١‫عبه‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫عبه‬ 20 ‫عبٓؼخ‬ 11 ‫خ‬٤‫ٍ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫ اُل‬/‫عبٓؼخ‬ 99 ‫عبٗت‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫اٗت‬ٞ‫ع‬ 20 ّ – ٖ٤‫عبٗج‬ 3 ‫يح‬ٛ‫عب‬ 3 َ‫عج‬ ‫ ط‬. discontinuation assumption(of). determinism forehead. show up serious. revolusi berkaitan pemberontakan to be firm. earnest. revolt revolutionary. berlangsung running. list time table agenda serious. to renovate. chart. memikul tugas mengandaikan. tiba bersungguh-sungguh. terkini diakibatkan. in earnest flowing. trust. fixed. pergantungan anggapan. kukuh kebangkitan. pengetahuan kepercayaan. berkaitan dua tetap. sekarang universiti. menhadkan budaya. senarai. berdekatan to come. serius. duality establishment. education confidence. arrive. rebelluos ‫صجذ‬ ‫رضجذ‬ 4 ‫صوبكخ‬ 12 ‫صوخ‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤‫ص٘بئ‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫اثذ‬ٞ‫ص‬ 4 ‫هح‬ٞ‫ص‬ 4 ١‫ه‬ٞ‫ص‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ص‬ 5 ‫ج‬ datang. utama persetujuan depan barisan hadapan demokrasi mayat dinding perbalahan. racing jenayah. firm. kejahatan crime. sekarang berkaitan masa kini. faith dualism. fresh because of. grave new. arguing to renew. gunung fatalisma. mengembalikan pusingan. delict 400 . to follow university.10 ٠‫عوؽ‬ 10 ‫ػ‬ٝ‫عو‬ 3 ‫ؼ‬٣‫عو‬ 8 ٟ‫عو‬ 12 ‫عود‬ 10 ١‫غو‬٣ 23 ١‫رغو‬ 6 ‫ٔخ‬٣‫عو‬ 7 bersedia. stable culture. berkaitan Tunisia aliran. undertaking to assume. prepare mountain fatalism. aturan jadual masa jadual tugas.3 ٍ‫عجب‬ ‫خ‬٣‫عجو‬ 40 ‫خ‬ٜ‫عج‬ 9 ‫اكن‬ٞ‫خ اُز‬ٜ‫عج‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫خ اُل‬ٜ‫اُغج‬ 4 َّ ‫عضخ‬ ‫ ط‬. stream electric current ‫ق‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ ٢ُِّٞ‫ر‬ ٠َُّٞ‫ر‬ 5 ٠ُٞ‫ز‬٣ 4 ٠ُٞ‫رز‬ 3 ٢َٗٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤َٗٞ‫ر‬ 25 ‫به‬٤‫ر‬ 3 ٢‫وثبئ‬ٌُٜ‫به ا‬٤‫اُز‬ 5 6 10 ‫ز‬ menetapkan. recent.body wall argument. flow. restore twisting. due to surgeon berlari.

lofty. pose election session Parliament session group. proximity Georgian round. ketinggian duduk kerusi. team crowd. wages to make. majesty. weather good.48 ‫ك‬ٜٞ‫ع‬ 6 ‫اه‬ٞ‫ع‬ 8 ٢‫هع‬ٞ‫ع‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤‫هع‬ٞ‫ع‬ 18 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ع‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫و‬ٛٞ‫ع‬ 8 ١ٞ‫ع‬ 9 ‫خ‬٣ٞ‫ع‬ 9 ‫ل‬٤‫ع‬ 14 ‫لح‬٤‫ع‬ 184 ِ٤‫ع‬ 8 ٍ‫ِ االؽزال‬٤‫ع‬ 401 . sit down posture. pertubuhan semua. cuaca baik. tentera geography to be or become great. asas udara. holy war Islamic Jihad apparatus.7 ‫عَِبد‬ 13 ‫عٔبػخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫عٔبػخ اٍال‬ 8 ‫عٔبػبد – ط‬ 3 ٢‫عٔبػ‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤‫عٔبػ‬ 4 ‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬. penal wing. seat. trip essentialism air. throng. loftiness.5 ‫و‬٤ٛ‫عٔب‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫و اُؼوث‬٤ٛ‫اُغٔب‬ 5 ١‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫ع‬ 39 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫ع‬ 5 ‫ٔغ‬ ْ‫ع‬ ‫ظ‬ َ ٔ َ َ‫ع‬ 3 ‫ٔغ‬ َ ْ‫رغ‬ 13 ‫خ‬٤‫عٔؼ‬ 57 ‫غ‬٤ٔ‫ع‬ 3 ٢‫ع٘بئ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ع٘بئ‬ 12 ‫ع٘بػ‬ 7 ١‫اُغ٘بػ اُؼٌَو‬ 4 ‫ؽ٘ت‬ 31 ١‫ع٘ل‬ ّ – 14 ٕ‫ب‬٣‫ع٘ل‬ ‫ – ط‬47 ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 21 ٍ‫ع٘وا‬ ‫ ط‬. render geografi yang mulia.22 ‫يح‬ٜ‫أع‬ 10 ١‫يح اُطوك أُوًي‬ٜ‫ أع‬/‫بى‬ٜ‫ع‬ 9 ٖٓ‫يح األ‬ٜ‫ أع‬/‫بى‬ٜ‫ع‬ 3 ‫يح االٍزقجبهاد‬ٜ‫أع‬ 77 ‫خ‬ٜ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬. perang suci Jihad Islam peralatan.4 ‫بد‬٤َ٘‫ع‬ 83 ‫ة‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 15 ٢‫ث‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤‫ث‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ٕٞ٤‫ث‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 5 ‫بك‬ٜ‫ع‬ 4 ٢ٓ‫بك اإلٍال‬ٜ‫اُغ‬ 14 ‫بى‬ٜ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬. sistem emparan kawalan keamanan badan penyiasatan arah. appliance centrifuge security services intelligence services side. kumpulan kumpulan orang. fraction Algerian salary. jamaah Jamaah Islam secara bersama. berkaitan Georgia pusingan. citizenship south southern jihad. berkaitan Algeria gaji. clenched hand to gather society. mass Arab masses crowd. setiap berkaitan jenayah sayap sayap tentera sebelah askar.3 ‫بد‬ٜ‫ع‬ 4 ‫ل‬ُٜ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬. perfect army. set. lengkap tentera tenters penjajah jihad.bahagian orang Algeria. endeavor neighborhood. aerial. tumbukan mengumpul kelab. hala usaha. gathering. band Islamic group collective. mass. tinggi kemuliaan. ikhtiar kejiranan orang Georgia. pendapatan menjadi. throng. republik pengumpulan. the military occupation army ‫ ط‬. direction effort. association. perhimpunan komuniti Arab berkaitan kumpulan orang. kedudukan sesi pilihanraya sesi Parlimen kumpulan. bangsa selatan arah selatan General nationality. lawatan penting. portion. club all. gathering fist. private General kebangsaan. membuat part. flank military wing side solder. company. every criminal.12 ْ‫عوائ‬ 15 ‫عيء‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫عيائو‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ٕٞ٣‫عيائو‬ 4 َْ‫عؼ‬ 7 َ‫عؼ‬ 6 َ‫غؼ‬٣ 3 َ‫رغؼ‬ 3 ‫ب‬٤‫عـواك‬ 5 َّ‫ع‬ 3 ‫عالُخ‬ ٌ َ َِ‫ع‬ َ 3 ٌِ‫رغ‬ 67 ‫عَِخ‬ 17 ‫عَِخ اٗزقبة‬ 3 ٕ‫عَِخ ثؤُب‬ ‫ ط‬.

incident. to specify kejadian baru. menetapkan death to urge. ilmu hisab sahaja. keinginan pergerakan. diwariskan memberi amaran. bellicose. attending bus. frontier event. suppose settlement. mengandai freedom freedom.4 ‫ؽَبثبد‬ 46 ‫َت‬ َ ‫ؽ‬ 5 ‫َت‬ ِ ‫ؽ‬ 8 َْْ‫ؽ‬ 15 situasi kecemasan masa sekarang. berdebat. political party calculation. happening. merely to think. arguing. circumstance ‫ؽبعخ‬ 5 ‫ؽبك‬ 5 ‫ؽبكح‬ 9 ‫كس‬ ِ ‫ؽب‬ 3 ‫و‬ٙ‫ؽب‬ ِ 21 ‫ؽبكِخ‬ 14 ًْ ِ ‫ؽب‬ 7 ‫ؽبًٔخ‬ 42 ٍ‫ؽب‬ 56 ‫ؽبُخ‬ 6 ‫ ط‬.13 ‫أؽلاس‬ 6 ‫ؽلح‬ 3 َ ‫ؽل‬ ‫َس‬ 8 ‫ؾلس‬٣ 6 ‫ؽلك‬ 3 ‫ؽلَّكد‬ 3 ‫ؾلك‬٣ 7 ‫رؾلِّك‬ 12 ‫س‬ٝ‫ؽل‬ 25 ‫ش‬٣‫ؽل‬ 4 ‫ضخ‬٣‫ؽل‬ 13 َّ ‫ؽنه‬ 8 َّ ‫ؽ‬ ‫نهد‬ 4 َ ‫ؽنه‬ ‫ ط‬. governor situation. keen. kejadian bersendirian. necessity sharp. want.‫ح‬ hajat. situasi need. escort to try.5 ‫ة‬ٝ‫ؽو‬ 9 ‫ؽُوّح‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫ؽو‬ 10 ٓ ْ‫ؽو‬ 83 ‫ؽوًخ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ؽوًبد‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ؽوًخ ّؼج‬ 6 ٖ٤ٓ‫ؽو‬ 129 ‫ؽية‬ ‫ ط‬. perhatian kebakaran peperangan perang saudara Perang Dunia berkaitan peperangan happening. plea. semasa pengiring. wish.44 ‫ك‬ٝ‫ؽل‬ ‫ ط‬. take place to define. had berkaitan sempadan. diminish boundary. menghadkan sempadan. motion popular movement Holy Hrmyn party. actual garrison. current. keinginan tajam. yang baru hadir. border borderline. incite. mendorong perbalahan. come down to warn. semata-mata berlaku menghadkan.5 ١‫ك‬ٝ‫ؽل‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٝ‫ؽل‬ ‫ؽلَس‬ َ ‫ ط‬. decision 402 . excuse to curtail. taking place present. occurrence solitude. hujjah mengurangkan. semata-mata mengira. recent. fresh to descend. tiba bas pemerintah keadaan. garison mencuba. terkini menuruni. attempt. berusaha emergency situation present.‫ؽبالد‬ 40 ‫اهئ‬ٞ‫ ؽبالد اُط‬/‫ؽبُخ‬/ٍ‫ؽب‬ 58 ٢ُ‫ؽب‬ 15 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ؽب‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫ؽب‬ 7 ٍٝ‫ؽب‬ َ 5 ‫ُذ‬ٝ‫ؽب‬ 3 ‫ا‬ُٞٝ‫ؽب‬ 9 ٍٝ‫ؾب‬٣ 9 ٍٝ‫ب‬ َ ُ‫ر‬ ِ ‫ؾ‬ 3 ُٕٞٝ‫ؾب‬٣ 3 ٍٝ‫ٗؾب‬ 3 ْ‫ؽ‬ ‫زق‬ 4 َّ ‫ؽش‬ 3 ‫ؽغخ‬ ‫ ط‬. hostilities civil war World War warlike.9 ‫أؽياة‬ 6 ‫ؽَبة‬ ‫ ط‬. coach ruler. nyaring. essay kematian mengalakkan. menusuk yang berlaku. piercing occurring. caution fires war. had peristiwa. liberty desire. occurrence new.3 ‫ؽغبط‬ 9 ْ‫ؽغ‬ 39 ّ‫ؽ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ ط‬. loneness to happen. prompt argument. consideration only. military kebebasan berkaitan kebebasan harapan. aspiration movement.12 ‫ؽوائن‬ 69 ‫ؽوة‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ِٛ‫ؽوة أ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُٔ‫ؽوة ػب‬ 3 ٢‫ؽوث‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ؽوث‬ ‫ ط‬. aksi gerakan popular dua masjid suci Islam parti politik perkiraan.

gerombolan kepungan mendapat.5 ‫ؽوبئت‬ 6 َّ ‫ؽون‬ 4 ‫ؽووذ‬ 4 ‫ؾون‬٣ 7 ‫وخ‬٤‫ؽو‬ 3 ‫ؽوبئن‬ 14 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٤‫ؽو‬ 36 ْ ٌْ‫ؽ‬ 9 ْ‫ؽ‬ ٢‫ٌْ مار‬ 7 ّ‫ؽٌْ اإلػلا‬ 3 ٢‫بث‬٤‫ؽٌْ ؿ‬ 3 ‫ؽٌٔخ‬ ِ 3 ‫ؽٌٔذ‬ 4 ٌْ‫رؾ‬ 3 ‫ٌٔذ‬ ُ ِ‫ؽ‬ 267 ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫ٓبد‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ٓخ اٗزوب‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫ٓخ أُوًي‬ٌٞ‫اُؾ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ٘ٛٞ‫ٓخ ا‬ٌٞ‫اُؾ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫و ّوػ‬٤‫ٓخ ؿ‬ٌٞ‫ؽ‬ 6 ٢ٌٓٞ‫ؽ‬ 82 َّ‫ؽ‬ َ 6 ٍ‫اؽال‬ 11 ‫ؽَ أىٓخ‬ 6 ٢ٍِٔ َ‫ؽ‬ 3 ٕ‫ؽَ ثؤُب‬ 5 ْ‫اُؾَ اُلائ‬ 4 ٢‫بئ‬ٜٗ َ‫ؽ‬ 25 ‫ؽَِق‬ 11 ٢َِٛ‫ؽِق أُْبٍ األ‬ 12 ٍِٞ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫ق‬٤ِ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫لخ‬٤ِ‫ؽ‬ ‫ ط‬. siege take place. sincerely crowd. approximately district.kecantikan. kempen dialog. jangkaan kawasan. protection right human rights jural. hukum. hadir kedatangan.10 ‫ؽِلبء‬ 86 ً‫ؽٔب‬ 4 ً‫ؽٔب‬ 15 ‫خ‬٣‫ؽٔب‬ 4 َ َ ٔ َ َ‫ؽ‬ 7 َٔ‫ؾ‬٣ 4 َ ُ ٔ ِ ْ‫رؾ‬ 17 ‫ؽِٔخ‬ 36 ‫اه‬ٞ‫ؽ‬ ‫ ط‬. hakikat bersifat kenyataan kerajaan.government death panelty judgement by default wisdom. semangat penjagaan. hikmah memerintah. section Sunni neighborhoods 5 َْٖ‫ؽ‬ ُ ‫خ‬٤ُ٘‫ؽَٖ ا‬ 12 ْ ‫ؽْل‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ك‬ْٞ‫ؽ‬ 15 ‫ؽٖبه‬ 6 َٖ‫ؽ‬ 5 َٖ‫ؾ‬٣ 6 َٖ‫رؾ‬ 3 ‫ؽِٖذ‬ 12 ٍٖٞ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫ِخ‬٤ٖ‫ؽ‬ 4 ‫و‬ٚ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫و‬ٚ ْ‫ؾ‬٣ 28 ‫ه‬ٞٚ‫ؽ‬ 11 َ ‫ؽظو‬ 5 ّ‫ؽظو األُـب‬ ٢‫ؽظ‬ ِ 3 ٠‫ؾظ‬٣ 6 ْ ‫ؽلع‬ 7 ‫ؽلبظ‬ 44 ّ ‫ؽ‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ – ط‬38 ‫م‬ٞ‫ؽو‬ 21 ٕ‫م اإلَٗب‬ٞ‫ؽو‬ ‫ ط‬. kuasa kuasa autonomi hukuman mati penghakiman tanpa hadir kejayaan. get. assembly blockage. defense to carry. mencapai occurrence. permulaan ahli pakatan government transitional government federal government federal government illegitimate government governmental to untie. government autonomy. present presence. resolve crisis solution peace solution parliamental solution permanant solution final solution treaty North Atlantic Treaty residing. berkuasa truth. perbincangan lebih-kurang. legal bag to realise. attendance banning. self. prohibition mining prohibition to acquire. genuine rule. conversation about. syeksen kawasan Sunni attack. obtain pendapatan. reality real. beginning ally. kejadian datang. offence. berlaku beauty. to hold serangan. obtainment attend. goodness good faith. pertahanan membawa Hamas Organisation enthusiasm protection.3 ‫اهاد‬ٞ‫ؽ‬ 15 ٠ُ‫ا‬ٞ‫ؽ‬ 10 ٢‫ؽ‬ 14 ‫بء‬٤‫أؽ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٍ٘ ‫بء‬٤‫أؽ‬ 3 403 . jagaan hak hak kemanusiaan bersifat undang-undang beg merealisasikan. sageness to rule. confederate Pertubuhan Hamas keghairahan. menyelesaikan penyelesiaan krisis penyelesaian keamanan penyelesaian melalui parlimen penyelesiaan berkekalan penyelesiaan akhir perjanjian Perjanjian Atantik Utara pendudukan. kebaikan berniat baik golongan. campaign dialogue. dominate kerajaan kerajaan peralihan kerajaan pusat kerajaan pusat kerajaan haram berkaitan kerajaan meleraikan. achieve kenyataan. mendapat simpanan. kehadiran larangan pengharaman perlombongan meminta. true.3 ‫خ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ؽو‬ 6 ‫جخ‬٤‫ؽو‬ ‫ ط‬. obtain keeping.

merancang bahaya. percanggahan grabbing. bimbang takut. dropping conflict. surrender ّ‫ك‬ ِ ‫فب‬ ‫فبهط‬ ِ 4 ‫فبهعخ‬ 9 ٢‫فبهع‬ 133 ‫خ‬٤‫فبهع‬ 9 ‫خ‬ٛ‫فبه‬ 8 ‫ن‬٣‫خ اُطو‬ٛ‫فبه‬ 17 ٓ‫فب‬ 58 ‫فبٕخ‬ 26 ٖٓٞ‫ف‬ 3 ‫ئ‬ٛ‫فب‬ 8 ّ‫فب‬ 12 ‫فجو‬ 7 ‫فجوح‬ 11 ‫و‬٤‫فج‬ ‫ ط‬. ucapan pelan. utama penting. liveliness ‫بح‬٤‫ؽ‬ ‫بىح‬٤‫ؽ‬ ٍ‫ب‬٤‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤‫ؽ‬ 6 6 25 ‫خ‬ orang suruhan. specialis akhir. regard wrong. living possession. damage fear. projek merangka. kerja keluar koyakan. specialist final. duty to go. emerge tearing. in front of vitality.kehidupan kedapatan. to work service. exterior external. obtainment in view of. apprehend. dread to specify opponent. closing to serve. risiko line gas line pipeline hotline frame line error. serious lowering. tunduk luar. didahulukan kejatuhan. mengikut kehidupan. penutup berkhidmat.18 ‫فجواء‬ 7 ّ‫فزب‬ ّ َ َ‫ف‬ َ‫ل‬ 3 ُّ‫قل‬٣ 10 ‫فلٓخ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫فلٓبد‬ 3 ‫وط‬ َ‫ف‬ 4 ‫فَ وْ م‬ 13 ‫ط‬ٝ‫فو‬ 4 ‫طخ‬٣‫فو‬ 5 ‫ق‬٣‫فو‬ 3 ‫فَبهح‬ ‫ ط‬. keluar bersifat luar peta pelan pejalanan khas khususnya salah. speech plan. seizing step seriousness grave. enemy green to submit to. unrefined news experience expert. pemilikan terhadap. mistake address. incorrect raw. shredding going out. different 404 . project to plan. to draw danger. gementar mengkhaskan musuh hijau tunduk kepada servant outside. hancur pengeluaran peta musim gugur kerugian ketakutan.4 ‫فَبئو‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤ْ‫ف‬ ٢ ِ َ ْ‫ف‬ 4 ٠ْ‫رق‬ 3 ‫فٖٖذ‬ 4 ّٖٞ‫ف‬ 6 ‫واء‬ٚ‫ف‬ ‫غ‬ٚ‫ف‬ 3 ‫غ‬ٚ‫رق‬ 3 ٕٞ‫ؼ‬ٚ‫ق‬٣ 18 ّ ٜ‫ف‬ 3 ‫ ؿبى‬ٜ‫ف‬ 6 ‫ت‬٤‫ أٗبث‬ٜ‫ف‬ 3 ٖ‫ ٍبف‬ٜ‫ف‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ٛٞ‫فط‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٌِ٤ٛ ٛٞ‫فط‬ 7 ‫فطؤ‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫أفطبء‬ 23 ‫فطبة‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫فطبثبد‬ 20 ‫فطخ‬ ُ ‫ – ط‬11 ٜ‫فط‬ َّٜ‫فَ ط‬ 3 ِّ ٜ‫رقط‬ 24 ‫فطو‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫أفطبه‬ 6 ‫فطوح‬ 8 ْ ‫فطق‬ 28 ‫ح‬ٞ‫فط‬ ‫ ط‬. fall loss. risk tangkapan. kerendahan perbezaan.15 ‫اد‬ٞ‫فط‬ 13 ‫هح‬ٞ‫فط‬ 11 ‫و‬٤‫فط‬ 11 ‫وح‬٤‫فط‬ 11 ْ‫ف‬ ٘‫ل‬ 23 ‫فالف‬ 31 6 garisan lapisan gas garisan paip garisan panas garisan rangka kesalahan tujuan. exterior map road plan specific respect. tahan lama life. anxiety to fear. kelasahan mentah berita pengalaman pakar. rebutan langkah kepentingan. emergence map autumn. berkerja khidmat.

9 ‫فالكبد‬ 3 ٔ َ َِّ‫ف‬ 3 ِِّٔ‫ق‬٣ 6 ‫فَ ِْق‬ 6 ‫فَ َِق‬ َ‫فَ َِق‬ 4 ْ ‫قُِق‬٣ 6 ‫لخ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 4 ‫ ط‬. entry study.‫ب‬٣‫فال‬ 5 ‫ظ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 10 ٢‫غ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 5 ٗٞ‫ف‬ 7 ‫ف‬ٞ‫ف‬ 5 ‫به‬٤‫ف‬ ‫ ط‬.5 ‫بهاد‬٤‫ف‬ 5 ‫جخ‬٤‫ف‬ 4 ‫و‬٤‫ف‬ ‫د‬ bulatan. research step. desakan kumpulan support. memasuki bimbang.4 ٢‫اػ‬ٝ‫ك‬ 3 ‫كغ‬ ِ ‫كا‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫كثبثبد‬ 15 ٢ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫كث‬ 16 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫كث‬ ‫ – ط‬10 ٕٞ٤ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫كث‬ 3 ٢‫ ؿوث‬٢ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫كث‬ 5 ‫كفَِذ‬ 4 ‫ا‬ِٞ‫كف‬ 4 ُ ‫ل‬٣ َ‫ف‬ 18 ٍٞ‫كف‬ 18 ‫كهاٍخ‬ 5 ‫كهعخ‬ ً َ ‫كه‬ َ 3 ًُ‫له‬٣ 12 ‫كهع‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ف‬ٝ‫كهع اُٖبه‬ 4 ‫كهى‬ 36 ‫ه‬ٞ‫كٍز‬ 8 ١‫ه‬ٞ‫كٍز‬ 16 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫كٍز‬ 25 ‫كػب‬ 9 ٞ‫لػ‬٣ 6 ٞ‫رلػ‬ 13 ‫كػذ‬ 5 ٞ‫ٗلػ‬ 60 ْْ‫كػ‬ 30 ‫ح‬ٞ‫كػ‬ 12 ٟٞ‫كػ‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫بئ‬ٚ‫ اُو‬ٟٞ‫اُلػ‬ 60 ‫ككبع‬ 8 ٢‫ف‬ٝ‫اُلكبع اُٖبه‬ 3 ١ٞ‫ككبع ع‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ككبػ‬ 5 ‫غ‬ َ َ‫كك‬ 3 ْ ‫ؼذ‬ َ ‫كك‬ 11 ْ ‫ككغ‬ 4 ْ‫ك‬ ُ ‫كؼخ‬ demokratik barat memasuki western democratic to go in. kes dakwaan undang-undang pertahanan pertahanan misil pertahanan udara bersifat mempertahan mendesak. keperluan perkara yang menyebabkan kereta kebal diplomatik circle. case lawsuit defense missile defence air defence defensive to push. membangkitkan rangsangan. rescue from back. berterusan dalaman. necessity repelling tank diplomatic 4 ‫كائوح‬ ‫ ط‬. terselamat belakang terdahulu. area lasting. come after succesor nerve gulf gulfy wading into. to stimulate pushing. sokongan panggilan. stimulation group 405 . sinking ito fear. level study. choice failure. dakwah dakwaan. perisai pertahanan misil pasukan polis perlembagaan bersifat berperlembagaan memanggil entering. kawasan berkekalan. takut pilihan kegagalan kebaikan to save from. to enter kemasukan pembelajaran tahap. peringkat belajar hadangan. unsuccess good. datang kemudian pengganti saraf teluk bersifat teluk tenggelam. afraid option. interior cause. enduring inside. sustainment calling. shield missile shield police. benefit ‫ ط‬. summon cause. interior internal. learn armor. dalam bersifat dalam akibat. descendent to follow.melepaskan. rear succescor. pengganti ikut.3 ‫ائو‬ٝ‫ك‬ 16 ْ‫كائ‬ 4 ‫كائٔخ‬ 53 َ‫ف‬ ِ ‫كا‬ 10 ٢ِ‫كاف‬ 20 ‫خ‬٤ِ‫كاف‬ 4 ٢‫كاػ‬ ‫ ط‬. gendarmerie constitution constitutional to call dokongan.

biro. siri. pejabat Mahkamah Diraja hutang 3 ‫ن‬٤‫كه‬ ‫وخ‬٤‫كه‬ 5 ‫ ط‬.7 ‫أكُخ‬ 6 ّ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬. pusingan bersifat bersiri. person personal. berkaitan Denmark thin. bureau. nipis minit secara diktator doktor tanda darah kehancuran menghancurkan airmata orang Denmark. bahagian sesi. holder ‫س‬ kepala mengetuai ketua.3 ‫كٓبء‬ 3 ‫ٓبه‬ َ َََ‫ك‬ 3 ‫ٓو‬ َّ ‫ك‬ 4 ‫ع‬ٞٓ‫ك‬ 10 ٢ً‫كٗٔبه‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ً‫كٗٔبه‬ ‫ ط‬. referring intelligent. presiden. seseorang persendirian puncak. subjective summit. turn session. delicate minutes dictatorship doctor sign. bijak pemergian. perlepasan pemilik. office Royal Court debt Dollar agama Dinar jabatan.6 ٕٞ٤ً‫كٗٔبه‬ 45 ‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 6 ‫هح‬ٝ‫ك‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬. president parliament speaker ً‫هأ‬ ً َ َ‫هأ‬ 5 ً‫وأ‬٣ 522 ٌ٤‫هئ‬ 10 ٕ‫ٌ اُجؤُب‬٤‫هئ‬ 12 406 . kemuncak atom perantara. ingatan cerdik. bright leaving.teliti. medium. pemegang mention. halus. menyatakan self.‫كهبئن‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫كًزبر‬ 16 ‫ه‬ٞ‫كًز‬ 7 َ٤ُ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ٕٞ٣‫ك‬ 6 ‫ر‬ sendiri. sumber menyebut. round round. departure owner. rujukan. series country. state Arabs countries member states Hebrew state international bersifat democratik democratic democracy Dollar religion Dinar department. resource to mention ‫ماد‬ ٢‫مار‬ 3 ُ ‫ح‬ٝ َ ْ‫مه‬ 20 ‫خ‬٣‫مه‬ 3 ‫ؼخ‬٣‫مه‬ 21 ‫َو‬ َ ً‫م‬ 32 ‫مًود‬ 5 ‫نًو‬٣ 7 ْ٣ َ ‫ُن‬ ‫و‬ ُ ً 6 ْ ‫مًو‬ ِ 3 ‫خ‬٤ً‫م‬ 4 ‫بة‬ٛ‫م‬ 3 ١‫م‬ 10 24 penyataan. pemimpin Yang Dipertua Parlimen head lead leader.9 ‫بد‬٣‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 107 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬. indication blood destruction to destruct tearful Denmark peranan. pusingan negara negara-negara Arab negara-negara anggota negara Hebrew antarabangsa role. peak atomic mean. series.116 ٍٝ‫ك‬ َ 23 ‫خ‬٤‫ٍ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫اُل‬/‫ُخ‬ٝ‫اُل‬ 8 ‫بء‬ٚ‫ٍ أػ‬ٝ‫ك‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ُخ اُؼجو‬ٝ‫اُل‬ ّ – 10 ٕ‫ُزب‬ٝ‫ك‬ 66 ٢ُٝ‫ك‬ 99 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫اُل‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ٕٞ٤ُٝ‫ك‬ 16 ٢ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ك‬ 34 ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ك‬ ‫ – ط‬6 ٕٞ٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ك‬ 53 ‫اله‬ٝ‫ك‬ 4 ٖ٣‫ك‬ ِ 4 ‫٘به‬٣‫ك‬ 5 ٕ‫ا‬ٞ٣‫ك‬ 3 ٢ٌُِٔ‫إ ا‬ٞ٣‫اُل‬ ‫ ط‬.

to lift company. pertubuhan pergi radar radio berdamping. give back returning. quadruple to tie man to make outweigh. wish genuine desire refusal. to give greater value to welcome trip.5 َ‫هٍبئ‬ 33 ٢ٍٔ‫ه‬ 19 ‫خ‬٤ٍٔ‫ه‬ 3 ٍّٞ‫ه‬ 7 ٓ‫ٕب‬ َ ‫ه‬ َ 4 ٍ‫هٕبٓ االؽزال‬ 10 ‫خ‬٣‫هػب‬ 16 ‫هؿجخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٤‫هؿجخ ؽو‬ 21 ْ‫ه‬ ٘‫ك‬ 17 ٘ َ َ‫هك‬ َ 7 ُ٘‫وك‬٣ 4 ٕٞٚ‫وك‬٣ 16 ٘‫روك‬ 3 ‫ذ‬ٚ َ ‫هك‬ 16 ْ ‫هكغ‬ ‫غ‬ َ َ‫هك‬ 3 ‫وكغ‬٣ 3 ً ْ ‫هكوخ‬ ِ 6 ‫غ‬٤‫هك‬ 5 ٟٞ‫غ أَُز‬٤‫هك‬ 3 ‫ؼخ‬٤‫هك‬ 6 ‫ههبثخ‬ 3 ْ‫هه‬ ‫ ط‬. persahabatan yang tinggi. bersama bertujuan. present suggestion. menaikkan dampingan. atasan peringkat atasan penjagaan. membalas balasan mengulangi surat. giving back to repeat letter official painting. fellowship high. masa kini pendapat. top-level high-level. bantahan menolak. superior supervision.ketua perjanjian ketua kakitangan (dalam tentera) consensus President chief of staff kepimpinan Ketua kerajaan Presiden republic bersifat kepimpinan bersifat keketuaan wawasan. harapan keinginan hakiki penolakan. membantah fourfold. lukisan peluru peluru penjajah penjagaan keinginan. protection desire. journey to return. to reject angkatan. vision link. pandangan hubungan. rejection to refuse.4 ‫هًبة‬ َّ ‫ه‬ ًَ ‫ي‬ َ 3 6 407 . principal seeing. look empat segi mengikat lelaki mengutamakan menyambut. cadangan melihat leadership Head of government Presidency of republic presidential chief. picture bullet bullet occupation care. menumpukan raising. to condense ٢‫اكو‬ٞ‫ٌ ر‬٤‫هئ‬ ٕ‫ٌ األهًب‬٤‫هئ‬ ‫ – ط‬6 ‫هإٍبء‬ 13 ‫َخ‬٤‫هئ‬ 3 ٕ‫َب‬٤‫هئ‬ 69 ‫هئبٍخ‬ 3 ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫هئبٍخ اُؾ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫هئبٍخ اُغ‬ 7 ٢ٍ‫هئب‬ 31 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫هئب‬ 8 ٢َ٤‫هئ‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤َ٤‫هئ‬ 11 ‫خ‬٣‫هإ‬ 11 ‫هاثطخ‬ 3 ‫هاػ‬ 9 ‫هاكاه‬ 5 ٞ٣‫هاك‬ 3 ‫هاكوذ‬ 7 ‫واكن‬٣ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫ها‬ 9 ٖٛ‫ها‬ 3 ‫٘خ‬ٛ‫ها‬ 18 ١‫هأ‬ 7 ٟ‫هأ‬ 6 ٟ‫رو‬ 3 ٟ‫أه‬ 18 ٟ‫و‬٣ 12 ٟ‫ٗو‬ 6 ‫آهاء‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤‫هثبػ‬ ََٜ‫هث‬ َ 4 ٜ‫روث‬ 13 َُ‫هع‬ 20 ٍ‫هعب‬ 3 ‫َّؾذ‬ َ ‫هع‬ ‫هؽَّت‬ 3 ‫وؽِّت‬٣ 3 ‫هؽِخ‬ 4 َ٤‫هؽ‬ َّ ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ 3 ُّ ‫رو‬ ‫ك‬ 33 ‫هك‬ ‫ ط‬. lifting to raise. desire current. to company aim at. kemahuan sekarang. mengalukan perjalanan. association go away. pengembaraan kembali. control number passengers to concentrate. utusan rasmi gambar. penyeliaan nombor penumpang-penumpang memfokuskan.5 ّ‫أههب‬ ‫ ط‬. leave radar radio to associate with. opinion to See. kenaikan mengangkat.4 ‫ك‬ٝ‫هك‬ َّ ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ َ‫ك‬ َ 4 ‫روكِّك‬ 34 ‫هٍبُخ‬ ‫ ط‬.

19 ‫ىػٔبء‬ 3 ّ‫ىٓب‬ ‫ ط‬. to allege leader. hangat berjalan kaki jam. mengakui ketua kuasa pemerintahan kawan. period temporal. membuang tawanan-tawanan orang Rwanda. inquiry driver. to offer more planting. kawasan lapang hentaman. increment visit surprise visit ‫ط‬ soalan pemandu terdahulu question.3 ‫ىٓالء‬ 6 ٖٓ‫ى‬ 14 ٢٘ٓ‫ى‬ 9 ‫عخ‬ٝ‫ى‬ 3 ‫كَد‬ٝ َّ ‫ى‬ 20 ‫بكح‬٣‫ى‬ 64 ‫بهح‬٣‫ى‬ 3 ‫بهح ٓلبعئخ‬٣‫ى‬ 4 ‫بهاد – ط‬٣‫ى‬ 5 3 sudut menawarkan lebih tinggi tanaman kepimpinan gegaran. to shake unsettle existence to claim. staff to throw hostages Rwandian spirit Russian Reuter wind ‫روًي‬ ْ‫ه‬ ًٖ ُ ‫أهًبٕ – ط‬ ٠ٓ‫ه‬ 3 ٢ٓ‫و‬٣ ‫ – ط‬5 ٖ‫بئ‬ٛ‫ه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫اٗل‬ٝ‫ه‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ٕٞ٣‫اٗل‬ٝ‫ه‬ 3 ‫ػ‬ٝ‫ه‬ 22 ٢ٍٝ‫ه‬ 28 ‫خ‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 12 ‫زوى‬٣ٝ‫ه‬ 3 ‫بػ‬٣‫ه‬ 10 4 ‫ص‬ tambahan bertambah. zaman bersifat zaman isteri menyediakan pertambahan lawatan lawatan mengejut corner to outbid. companion time. sekarang. extra to increase.9 ٕٞ‫ٍبثو‬ 4 ‫ٍبؽخ‬ 3 ‫ٍبؽن‬ ِ 3 ٢ِ‫ٍبؽ‬ 4 ٖ‫ٍبف‬ ‫ٍبه‬ 4 ‫و‬٤َ‫ر‬ 29 ‫ٍبػخ‬ 3 12 dataran. berkaitan Rwanda ruh. tidak tetap kedudukan tidak tetap mendakwa.sudut. jiwa orang Rusia. masih additional. motorist previous. space crushing. time wife to provide with increase. grow to visit to disappear. go on foot hour. pukul square. sahabat masa. berkembang melawat menghilang. menolak tepi pantai panas. preceding ٍ‫ٍئا‬ ‫ٍبئن‬ 68 ‫ٍبثن‬ 33 ‫ٍبثوخ‬ ‫ ط‬. chief reins of power colleague. kakitangan membaling. growing leadership unsettle. still ‫ىائل‬ ‫ك‬ َ ‫ىَ ا‬ 3 ‫ل‬٣‫ي‬٣ 3 ‫ىاه‬ 10 ‫ه‬ٝ‫ي‬٣ 6 ٍ‫ىا‬ 12 ٍ‫يا‬٣ 3 ُٕٞ‫يا‬٣ 15 ٍ‫ريا‬ 17 ‫ىاُذ‬ 6 ‫ا‬ُٞ‫ىا‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ٝ‫ىا‬ 5 ‫ل‬٣‫ىا‬ 4 ‫ىهْ ع‬ 3 ‫ىػبٓخ‬ 4 ‫ىػيػخ‬ 3 ‫ىػيػخ اٍزوواه‬ 3 ْ َ ‫ى‬ َ‫ػ‬ 3 ْ‫ريػ‬ 31 ْ٤‫ىػ‬ ‫ ط‬. currently 408 . berkaitan Rusia Reuter angin corner. smashing coastal hot warm to walk.

orang terdahulu menyerahkan. permit ‫ ط‬. sextuple position. keizinan membenarkan effort. drop falling. post presidency dismissal.21 ‫ٍبػبد‬ ‫ل‬ َ‫ػ‬ َ ‫ٍب‬ َ 3 ‫َبػل‬٣ 3 ‫رَبػل‬ ‫ٍبٗل‬ 3 ‫رَبٗل‬ 62 ‫ٍجت‬ 3 ٜ‫بؿ‬ٙ ‫ٍجت‬ ‫ – ط‬12 ‫أٍجبة‬ 18 ‫ن‬ َ َ‫ٍج‬ 3 ‫َجن‬٣ 3 َ٤‫ٍج‬ ‫ – ط‬13 َُ‫ٍج‬ 3 َّ‫غ‬ ِ ِ ٍ 29 ٖ‫ٍغ‬ 3 ‫بح‬٤‫ اُؾ‬ٟ‫ٍغٖ ٓل‬ ‫ ط‬. alasan. to draw last meal before fasting sixfold. path. drawing to pull. mencabut makan sahur segi enam kedudukan. mengalir keluar cepat. imperial ancestor to hand over. rapid price. tabiat kebenaran. mencari political prisoners pulling. manners permission to allow. record prison. journey ambassador ambassy to fall. rantaian kekuasaan kerajaan. power royal. menahan sebab. penjara penjara seumur hidup to support.menolong. security national security Arab security negative chain. trek rekod. segera harga harga minyak harga petrol orang Arab Saudi. melampaui jalan. jawatan kepimpinan perlepasan. quick. drop residents secretary weapon. penyingkiran bocor. beraja keturunan.31 ‫أٍِؾخ‬ 6 ‫خ‬٣ُٝٞ٘‫األٍِؾخ ا‬ 126 ّ‫ٍال‬ 5 ٢ُ٘ٛٞ‫اَُالّ ا‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫اَُالّ اُؼوث‬ 4 ‫ٍالٓخ‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ٍِج‬ 11 ‫ٍَِِخ‬ 40 ‫ٍِطخ‬ ‫ ط‬. laluan. cabutan menarik. series authority. jail life imprisonment tahanan politik tarikan. flow out speed. velocity secret. arm nuclear weapon air force nuclear weapon peace.5 ‫ٍغ٘بء‬ ‫ ط‬. attempt usaha.52 ‫ٍِطبد‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ٍِطب‬ 9 ‫ٍَِق‬ َ 4 َّ ٍِْ 4 ِّ ْ ُ َُِ‫ر‬ 8 ٢ٍِٔ 10 ‫خ‬٤ٍِٔ 4 ‫ى‬ٍِٞ 12 ‫ٍٔبػ‬ 4 ‫ٍٔؼ‬ 409 . faktor faktor yang mendesak berlalu. endeavor travel. berkaitan Arab Saudi berusaha. track register.10 ٕٞ‫ٍغ‬ 8 ٖ٤‫ٍغ‬ 3 ٢ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ ٖ٤‫ٍغ‬ 9 ‫ٍؾْ ت‬ ‫ؾت‬ ِ ٍ 3 ‫رَؾت‬ 12 ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٍؾ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ٍلا‬ 8 ‫ٍلّح‬ 8 ‫ٍلح اُوئبٍخ‬ 21 ‫واػ‬ ٍَ َ ‫ة‬ َ ‫و‬ َ ِ ٍ 3 ‫رَوُة‬ 7 ‫ٍُوػخ‬ 7 ١ِّ‫ٍو‬ ِ 8 ‫خ‬٣‫ٍو‬ 4 ‫غ‬٣‫ٍو‬ 20 ‫ٍؼو‬ ‫ – ط‬28 ‫أٍؼبه‬ 6 ْ ٜ‫أٍؼبه اَُ٘ل‬ 6 ٍٝ‫أٍؼبه اُجزو‬ 17 ١‫ك‬ٞ‫ٍؼ‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ٖ٤٣‫ك‬ٞ‫ٍؼ‬ ٠‫ٍؼ‬ 5 ٠‫َؼ‬٣ 14 ْ َ‫ر‬ ٠‫ؼ‬ ََ 12 ٢ْ‫ٍؼ‬ َ 7 ‫ٍلَو‬ 8 ‫و‬٤‫ٍل‬ 10 ‫ٍلبهح‬ 5َ َٜ‫ٍو‬ 12 ٛٞ‫ٍو‬ ٍّ ‫ – ط‬27 ٕ‫ٌب‬ 3 ‫و‬٤‫ٌٍور‬ 20 ‫ٍالػ‬ 8 ١ٝٞٗ ‫ٍالػ‬ 4 ٞ‫ٍالػ اُغ‬ ‫ ط‬. rate oil prices oil price Saudian to seek. membantu help. sustain reason. daftar jel. cause compressor reason to precede. present to peaceful behavior. kelajuan rahsia cepat. bersungguh-sungguh perjalanan duta kedutaan jatuh kejatuhan penduduk setiausaha senjata senjata nuklear tentera udara senjata nuklear keselamatan keselamatan negara keselamatan negara Arab negatif rantai. siri. memberi keamanan perangai. private fast. release to leak. forego way. assist menyokong.

wintertide 410 . berkaitan Syria reputation highness.nama baik. buruk sama orang Sudan. dasar dasar luar bersifat politik politic.‫بٍبد‬٤ٍ 49 ٢ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ 68 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ 13 ‫ٕ – ط‬ٞ٤ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ 13 ‫بم‬٤ٍ 25 ‫طوح‬٤ٍ ‫طو‬٤ٍ 4 ‫طو‬٤َ٣ 6 ‫طو‬٤َ‫ر‬ 3 ‫طود‬٤ٍ 7 ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ ‫ ط‬. mastery car politik. similarity. rangkaian jaringan Internet rangkaian televisyen persamaan. keadaan hal ehwal luar hal ehwal dalaman mencampurkan jalan. ketinggian Senator ahli Sunnah nisbah kepada Sunnah tahun tahunan mudah. hedge sovereignty.5 ‫بهاد‬٤ٍ ّ – 3 ٕ‫بهرب‬٤ٍ 30 ‫بٍخ‬٤ٍ 7 ‫خ‬٤‫بٍخ فبهع‬٤ٍ 7 ‫ ط‬. lorong menyertai matter.6 ‫بد‬ٛٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ ‫ ط‬. keadaan banjir scenario flood ‫َٔؼ‬٣ ‫رَٔؼ‬ 7 ‫ٍٔؼخ‬ 9 ٍٞٔ 6 ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٍ٘بر‬ 22 ّ ‫ٍ٘خ‬ 7 ّ ٢ٍ٘ َ 10 ‫خ‬٤ٍ٘ 28 ‫اد – ط‬ٍٞ٘ 3 ١ٍٞ٘ 3 ‫خ‬٣ٍٞ٘ 3 ٍَٜ 10 ‫ء‬ٍٞ 8 ‫اء‬ٍٞ 5 ٢ٗ‫كا‬ٍٞ 7 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫كا‬ٍٞ 25 ١‫ه‬ٍٞ 48 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ ‫ ط‬. kehebatan yang mulia. lindung ketuanan. haling. sempurna pemuda jaringan. kepimpinan kereta market global market fence. simple evil. affair external affairs internal affairs to admix. network. mis same. dignity Senator Sunnis Sunni. young generation net. berkaitna Sudan orang Syria. inclusive youth. sequence domination to dominate senario. mix way. similar Sudanese Syrian pasar. policy foreign policy political konteks penguasaan menguasai context.6 ٕٞ٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 12 ‫م‬ٍٞ 6 ‫ام – ط‬ٍٞ‫أ‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ُٔ‫ام ػب‬ٍٞ‫أ‬ 3 ‫بط‬٤ٍ 17 ‫بكح‬٤ٍ 21 ‫بهح‬٤ٍ ‫ ط‬.9 ‫اهع‬ّٞ ‫ى‬ َ ‫ّبه‬ َ 3 ‫ْبهى‬٣ 3 ًٕٞ‫ْبه‬٣ 7 ‫رْبهى‬ 15 َٓ ِ ‫ّب‬ 5 ‫ّبِٓخ‬ 3 ‫ّجبة‬ 17 ‫ّجٌخ‬ 3 ‫ّجٌخ اٗزوٗذ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٗٞ٣‫ رِلي‬/ٕٞ٣‫ّجٌخ رِلي‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ّجٌبد‬ 6 َٚ‫ّج‬ 5 ‫ّزبء‬ lengkap. senang jahat. road to participate 89 ٕ‫ّؤ‬ ‫ – ط‬39 ٕٝ‫ّئ‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕ فبهع‬ٝ‫ّئ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ِ‫ٕ اُلاف‬ٝ‫اُْئ‬ 3 ‫ّبثذ‬ 5 ‫ة‬ْٞٗ 8 ‫ّبهع‬ ‫ ط‬. kesamaran musim sejuk comprehensive.5 ٍٞ٤ٍ 4 9 ‫ش‬ hal. pasaran pasaran antarabangsa pagar. reticulaton Internet network network tv resemblance. wintertime. Sunnite years annually easy. rule.

fighting to wage. stress strong. whole brother doubt. form.‫أّوبء‬ 4 ‫أّوبء اُؼوة‬ 10 ‫ن‬٤‫ّو‬ ّ .4 ٕ‫ب‬٤ٖ‫ّق‬ 4 ٢ٖ‫ّق‬ 11 ‫خ‬٤ٖ‫ّق‬ ‫ – ط‬10 ‫بد‬٤ٖ‫ّق‬ 14 ‫ّلّح‬ 20 ‫ّلَّك‬ 5 ‫ل‬٣‫ّل‬ 7 ‫لح‬٣‫ّل‬ 3 ‫ّواء‬ ‫ ط‬. kuat pembelian syarat. chip. slit. ragu-ragu meragukan. indication video cassate participation. see. perasaan perasaan pekerjaan. legal.keberanian. work. sekatan. nation. misgive form. tegas. prerequisite policeman conditional. sharing to explain.4 ٕ‫وب‬٤‫ّو‬ 8 ‫ّي‬ ‫ ط‬. fashion utara berkaitan utara mengandungi.9 ‫ّوًبد‬ 4 ‫ي‬٣‫ّو‬ 3 ْ ‫ّطت‬ 3 ‫ّطوٗظ‬ 3 ‫ب‬٣‫ّظب‬ 3 ‫ّؼبه‬ 54 ‫ّؼت‬ ّ . menubuhkan nationality to feel. job to occupy. suspicion to doubt. tanda video kaset penyertaan. bersifat individu personal. penubuhan membentuk. individually kekuatan.3 ‫ى‬ٌّٞ 5 َّ ّ ‫ٌٌذ‬ 46 ْ ٌَّ 3 َّ ٌَّ 11 ٌَْ٣ 3 ٌِْٕٞ٣ 15 ِّ ٌَْ‫ر‬ 98 ٍ‫ّٔب‬ 11 ٢ُ‫ّٔب‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ّٔب‬ َّٔ 5 ‫ِّٔذ‬ 5 َْٔ٣ 8 َْٔ‫ر‬ 9 ُّّٖ 7 َّّٖ 6 ‫ّ٘ذ‬ 3 ْٖ٣ 4 ‫ل‬ّٜ 10 ‫لد‬ّٜ 4 ‫ل‬ْٜ٣ 14 ‫ل‬ْٜ‫ر‬ 54 35 4 411 . berkenaan undang-undang timur Timur Tengah arah timur syarikat. hadir to witness. to attend ‫ّغبػخ‬ ٔ‫ّق‬ ‫ ط‬. labour.4 ٕ‫ّؼجب‬ ‫ ط‬. public kebangsaan merasa. sensation. purchase sign. contain. power to emphasise. powerfull. termasuk north northern to include. perkongsian menjelaskan. jarang saudara. bravery a person. corporation. watchword. membuat sesuatu kejernihan. lawful east Middle East eastern company. masyarakat slash. cencellation chess splinter. shape. sense. semangat seseorang. shape. firm potongan.7 ٛٝ‫ّو‬ 86 ُ ‫خ‬ٛ‫ّو‬ 5 ٢ٛ‫ّو‬ 4 ٢‫ّوػ‬ 17 ‫خ‬٤‫ّوػ‬ 75 ‫َّوْ م‬ 31 ٍٜٝ‫اُْوم األ‬ 4 ٢‫ّوه‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤‫ّوه‬ 11 ‫ّوًخ‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ٜ‫ّوائ‬ 3 ٞ٣‫ل‬٤‫ ك‬ٜ‫ّوائ‬ 6 ‫ّواًخ‬ ‫ػ‬ َ ‫ّو‬ َ 3 ‫ْوػ‬٣ ‫ ط‬. sign people. busy transparency.beradik syak.14 ‫ة‬ٞ‫ّؼ‬ 12 ‫خ‬٤‫ّؼج‬ ‫و‬ َ‫ؼ‬ َّ 4 ٕٝ‫ْؼو‬٣ 9 ‫ه‬ٞ‫ّؼ‬ 3 ْ ُ َ‫ّـ‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ٍ‫أّـب‬ َّ َ َ ‫ـ‬ 3 ُ ْ٣ َ‫ـ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ّلبك‬ ّْ َ ٢‫و‬ 6 ‫ ط‬. fight menyaksikan. diaphaneity brother Arab brothers full brother. to perceive feeling.ٓ‫أّقب‬ ّ . teragak-agak pembentukan. fragment slogan. sangat menegaskan. kerabat keturunan Arab adik. tanda bangsa. menerangkan syarat-syarat polis berkaitan polis mengikut syarak. individu courage. peperangan membuat serangan attack. pecahan lambang. provisional legitimate. individual perseorangan. batal permaianan catur serpihan. firma strength. elucidate condition. menekankan keras. sibuk bekerja. war. comprise serangan. forceful buy(ing). figure to.

senator Shiite. wholesome desert. crony frankness.5 ٕ‫وا‬ّٜ 24 ‫ء‬٢ّ 35 ‫ـ‬٤ّ ‫ – ط‬13 ‫ؿ‬ٞ٤ّ 15 ‫ؼخ‬٤ّ 10 ٢‫ؼ‬٤ّ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ؼ‬٤ّ 3 ٢‫ػ‬ٞ٤ّ ‫ص‬ sahabat. pergaduhan orang Serbia. clash. realiti helaian. strife Serbian to bundle. consciousness true. reporter 10 ‫ٕبؽت‬ Yang Mulia yang diterbitkan. benar. page friendship. berkaitan Serbia membalut. impact respect. mengeluarkan press. issued kejutan. stuff old man.7 ‫ٕؾُق‬ 21 ٢‫ٕؾبك‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕؾبك‬ 33 ٕٞ٤‫ٕؾبك‬ ‫ ط‬. regard.wild wakefulness.33 ‫ـ‬٣‫اه‬ٕٞ 8 ٢‫ف‬ٝ‫ٕبه‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤‫ف‬ٝ‫ٕبه‬ 9 ‫ٕبُِؼ‬ 28 ‫ٕجبػ‬ 4 ‫ٕؾبكخ‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫ٕلآبد‬ 9 ‫ٕلَك‬ 8 ‫ٕلَه‬ َ 4 ‫ٕلهد‬ 6 ‫ٖله‬٣ 7 ‫رٖله‬ 3 ‫ٕلٓخ‬ 9 ‫ه‬ٝ‫ٕل‬ 3 ‫ن‬٣‫ٕل‬ 3 ‫ٕواؽخ‬ 15 ‫ٕواع‬ ‫ ط‬. follower Shiite Communist 4 ‫ل‬٤ّٜ ‫ – ط‬17 ‫لاء‬ّٜ 4 ‫ك – ط‬ّٜٞ 3 ٕ‫ب‬٤‫ك ػ‬ّٜٞ 53 ‫و‬ّٜ 7 ١‫و عبه‬ّٜ ‫ – ط‬19 ‫ُو‬ّٜ‫أ‬ ّ . object. stroke publication. media masa berkaitan media masa. issued. rempuhan berkaitan. sheet. openness struggle. menyelubungi mengumumkan. wilderness. peluru berpandu berkaitan jet. state. ekspot pengekspotan senjata bersahabat. real.4 ‫ٕواػبد‬ 16 ٢‫ٕوث‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕوث‬ ‫و‬ َّ ٕ 4 ّ‫ٖو‬٣ 24 ‫ػ‬ َّ ٕ َ ‫و‬ 7 ‫ٕوْ ف‬ 412 . blow. amity collision. right morning journalism. the press journalist. witness saksi bulan bulan ini witnesses month this month sesuatu. issue friend. relation to be published. pengeluaran sahabat. jujur pergelutan. advanced in year. wrap to declare. fight. tiba-tiba penerbitan.mati syahid martyr. muka surat persahabatan perlanggaran. aged.7 ٢‫ٕؾل‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕؾل‬ 11 ‫ٕؾخ‬ 4 ٢‫ٕؾ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕؾ‬ 11 ‫ٕؾواء‬ 17 ‫ح‬ٞ‫ٕؾ‬ 9 ‫ؼ‬٤‫ٕؾ‬ 44 ‫لخ‬٤‫ٕؾ‬ 5 ‫ٕلاهخ‬ ‫ ط‬. dikaitkan dengan jet. pegguguran shock. an associate of His Highness published. kawan terus terang. betul pagi kewartawanan. announce dismissal. put out arms exports to make friend with.‫ٕبكهاد‬ 3 ‫األٍِؾخ‬/‫ٕبكهاد اَُالػ‬ 4 ‫ٕبكهح‬ ‫ٕبكَم‬ 3 ‫ٖبكم‬٣ 7 ‫ؿ‬ٝ‫ٕبه‬ ‫ ط‬. associate with rocket. veritable leaf. pemilik. menyatakan pemecatan. missile related to rocket good. peluru baik. displacement ‫ – ط‬4 ‫إٔؾبة‬ 4 َُٞٔ‫ٕبؽت ا‬ 8 ‫كه‬ ِ ‫ٕب‬ 13 ‫ ط‬. newspaper health healthy. hal orang tua. orang lama pengikut Syiah berkaitan Syiah Komunis thing. kesedaran betul. kewartawanan Surat khabar kesihatan berkaitan kesihatan padang pasir pembangunan. pendamping to be or become a companion of. berhubungan menerbitkan.

brightness. pengilangan berkaitan pembuatan kotak. box manufacture. need. needful weakness. contact cross Red Cross silence. mendesak tentera. penguasa. berkaitan China highland. kaitan palang Palang Merah kesunyain. strike. hentakan serangan tentera memukul.7 ‫ٕالؽبد‬ 3 ‫ِٕخ‬ 3 ‫ت‬٤ِٕ 3 ‫ت األؽٔو‬٤ُِٖ‫ا‬ 3 ‫ٔذ‬ َ ْٕ 11 ‫ٕ٘بػخ‬ 4 ٢‫ٕ٘بػ‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕ٘بػ‬ 6 ‫م‬ٝ‫ٕ٘ل‬ 5 ْ ‫ٕ٘غ‬ َ 6 ٢ٗٞ٤ٜٕ 11 ‫د‬ٕٞ ‫ – ط‬14 ‫اد‬ٕٞ‫أ‬ 16 ‫هح‬ٕٞ ‫ ط‬. mengasak bertentangan. contrary tax. portrait Somali formula. exigency necessary. pembinaan Zionis suara. jelas menjadi susah. kaedah musim panas orang Cina. tawanan mangsa berdenyut. di atas kecil sebagai. senyap industri. manufacture industrial case. sukar kesukaran. gaya. keperluan berkaitan perkara penting kelemahan. interior.terang. police compressor. injury necessity. hard difficult.6 ‫واه‬ َ َْٙ‫أ‬ 31 ‫هح‬ٝ‫و‬ٙ 10 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫و‬ٙ 7 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٝ‫و‬ٙ 3 ‫ؼْق‬ٙ َ 6 ‫ق‬٤‫ؼ‬ٙ 7 ْ ٜ‫ـ‬ٙ َ ‫ ط‬. undian gambar. little. hit damage. excise beating. harm. berkaitan Somalia formula. striking. hitting military strike to beat. bekas pembuatan. quiet. shape summertime Chinese 3 ‫ؼ‬٣‫ٕو‬ ‫ؾخ‬٣‫ٕو‬ ‫ٕؼُت‬ 4 ‫ٖؼت‬٣ 3 ‫ٕؼجخ‬ 5 ‫ثخ‬ٞ‫ٕؼ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ثبد‬ٞ‫ٕؼ‬ 28 ‫ل‬٤‫ٕؼ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫إٔؼلح‬ 3 ‫و‬٤‫ٕـ‬ 4 ‫وح‬٤‫ٕـ‬ 10 ‫ٕلخ‬ 3 ْ ‫ٕلو‬ ِ ‫ ط‬. compression international pressure to join.9 ‫ف‬ٞ‫ٕل‬ ‫ ط‬. keletihan tekanan. requisite. sifar barisan kebenaran. officer seisure. berciri kosong. kecederaan kepentingan. pressing army. rightness connection. menyakitkan mudharat. duty. voice picture. tiny character. form. unite. feature zero lining up. production Zionist sound. kesulitan frank. glow 413 . desakan desakan antarabangsa menyertai. terhadap cukai pukulan. harapan. sudah pasti termasuk. catching victim to pump opposite. upland small. hard tempat tinggi. gambaran orang Somalia. open to become difficult. keburukan. polis yang menekan. arraying goodness. pegawai tangkapan.18 ‫ظ‬ٞ‫ـ‬ٙ 6 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ اُل‬ٛٞ‫ـ‬ُٚ‫ا‬ ْ ّٙ 9 ْٚ٣ 17 ْٚ‫ر‬ 7 ٕ‫ٔب‬ٙ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ٔبٗبد‬ٙ 10 ٖٔ ْٙ ِ 14 ‫ء‬ٞٙ 3 5 jaminan.13 ‫ه‬ُٞ َٕ 6 ٢ُ‫ٓب‬ٕٞ 4 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ٓب‬ٕٞ 7 ‫ـخ‬٤ٕ 4 ‫ق‬٤ٕ 5 ٢٘٤ٕ 6 ‫ض‬ pegawai.3 ‫وائت‬ٙ 7 ‫وْ ة‬ٙ َ 8 ‫وثخ‬ٙ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫وثخ اُؼٌَو‬ُٚ‫ا‬ ‫ة‬ َ ‫و‬ َٙ َ 3 ‫وة‬ٚ‫ر‬ 11 ‫وه‬ َٙ َ ‫ ط‬. kecerahan guarantee. feebleness pressure.20 ‫ب‬٣‫ؾب‬ٙ 4 ّ ‫ـ‬ٙ 93 ‫ّ ل‬ٙ ‫ ط‬. bergabung officer. tergolong cahaya. hush industry. warranty inside. bring together ٜ‫بث‬ٙ ٜ‫ؿ‬ ِ ‫ب‬ٙ 5 ٛ‫جب‬ٙ 6 ْٜ‫ج‬ٙ َ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫ؾ‬ٙ ‫ ط‬. kebaikan hubungan. inner light.

come out appearance. baby. fesyen lontaran. group. potongan mengenepikan.8 ‫ُوُم‬ٛ ْٛ ‫لئ‬ ‫ ط‬. membuang tepi. semula jadi paluan drum. keluar. request. shade darkness noon. bayi pelajar sekolah berkaitan pelajar meminta. semboyan semboyan peperangan doktor perubatan berkaitan perubatan semula jadi. fashion throwing. had. border. laluan to hammer. situasi. sempadan Taliban Organisation relating to Taliban printing. kapasiti tenaga atom memohon. strike. denominationalism energy. penghapusan kanak-kanak. set during. permohonan keinginan. route pemadahan. bayang. limit memukul. power.‫ؽبد‬ٞٔٛ 3 ٖٛ 44 ‫اهئ‬ٞٛ 3 ‫ ط‬. throughtout long ‫ظ‬ keadaan. deduction driving away or out. terbit kemunculan. midday to appear. doctor medical nature natural style. jenis. seek permintaan. capacity atomic anergy Pertubuhan Taliban berkaitan Taliban percetakan. beat way. memohon going out.7 ‫لبء‬ٛ‫أ‬ 3 َ‫ل‬ٛ ‫ – ط‬31 ٍ‫لب‬ٛ‫أ‬ 4 ً‫لبٍ أُلاه‬ٛ‫أ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫خ‬٤‫الث‬ٛ 20 ‫ت‬ َ ََِٛ 4 ْ ‫ِجذ‬ٛ 3 ‫طِت‬٣ 24 ‫ََِت‬ٛ 4 ‫ ط‬. throwing out edge. extinguish infant.‫ط‬ kapal terbang airplane. teduh kegelapan. incidental crew. nature drum drum of war physician. timbul situation. road.36 ‫واف‬ٛ‫أ‬ ّ – 18 ٕ‫وكب‬ٛ ‫وَّم‬ٛ 3 ‫رطوِّم‬ 50 ‫ن‬٣‫و‬ٛ 20 ‫وخ‬٣‫و‬ٛ ‫ ط‬. seluruh panjang ambitious. kumpulan sepanjang. aspirant ton accidental. inspirasi ton (unit timbangan) kecemasan kakitangan. child school pupils students to ask for.ْ‫اه‬ٞٛ 5 ٍ‫ا‬ٞٛ 3 ٍٞٛ 7 َ٣ٞٛ 12 ‫ِخ‬٣ٞٛ berkaitan berpuak. realiti lindungan. emergence 18 ‫ف‬ٝ‫ظو‬ 13 َّ‫ظ‬ ِ 3 ّ‫ظال‬ 6 ‫ْو‬ُٜ‫ظ‬ 3 ‫ود‬ َ ََٜ‫ظ‬ 7 ‫ه‬ٜٞ‫ظ‬ 414 . malap tengah hari muncul. circumstances shadow. berkumpulan tenaga. kebiasaan bersifat semula jadi gaya. aircraft 17 ‫بئوح‬ٛ ‫ – ط‬14 ‫بئواد‬ٛ 8 ٕ‫وا‬٤ٛ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫بئل‬ٛ 51 ‫بهخ‬ٛ 15 ‫خ‬٣‫اُطبهخ اُنه‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣ٝٞٗ ‫بهخ‬ٛ 22 ‫ت‬ َ َُ‫ب‬ٛ 9 ‫بُجذ‬ٛ 9 ‫طبُت‬٣ 12 ‫رطبُت‬ 45 ٕ‫بُجب‬ٛ 5 ٢ٗ‫بُجب‬ٛ 3 ‫َجْغ‬ٛ 3 ٍٞ‫ج‬ٛ 3 ‫ٍ اُؾوة‬ٞ‫ج‬ٛ 4 ‫ت‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 8 ‫ؼخ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 8 ٢‫ؼ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ؼ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 4 ‫واى‬ٛ 6 ‫َوْ ػ‬ٛ 16 ‫َوْ ك‬ٛ 17 ‫وف‬ٛ ‫ ط‬. mengetuk jalan. meminta sectarianism.

nisbah kenderaan penumpang menunjuk. menyatakan king. to find finding. resist to live. menderita general worker.‫ع‬ keluarga bahu. hitting upon fair. common.9 ٕ‫ػبٓب‬ 62 ّ‫ػب‬ 24 ‫ػبٓخ‬ 5 َٓ ِ ‫ػب‬ ‫ ط‬. household shoulder immediate. expression to express Hebrew. kebiasaan berkaitan adat adil. cepat. number bilangan. ungkapan. serta-merta kembali. tidak wujud musuh number justice. metropolis world wordwide. demonstrate 415 . berdaulat frasa. modal dunia peringkat dunia. saksama.3 ‫أػلاء‬ 18 ‫ل‬٣‫ػل‬ 5 ‫لح‬٣‫ػل‬ 83 ٢‫ػواه‬ 88 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ ‫ ط‬. global capital. factor to suffer. bertembung hidup habit. a number to count. fairness non-. kesamarataan ketiadaan. sama rata bertentangan. nonexistence enemy beberapa. mendapati terjatuh. usual to equal. just several. sovereign phrase. berkaitan Iraq numerous. exist ibu negara. mempersembah Arab Arabs carriage. wont ordinary. global. tanggung segera. universal tahun tahun ini year this year umum pekerja. nombor keadilan. bahasa Hebrew bom tergelincir. Hebrew language bomb to stumble. many Iraqis Arab orang Arab. come back 4 ‫ػبئِخ‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫ػبئالد‬ 3 ‫ػبرِن‬ 8 َ‫ػبع‬ ِ 5 ‫ػبعِخ‬ ‫ػبك‬ 22 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ؼ‬٣ 6 ‫ك‬ٞ‫رؼ‬ 8 ‫ػبكح‬ 3 ١‫ػبك‬ 4 ٍ‫ػبك‬ ٗ‫ػبه‬ 5 ٗ‫رؼبه‬ ُ‫ػب‬ 8 ِ٤‫ؼ‬٣ 4 ِ٤‫رؼ‬ 44 ‫ػبٕٔخ‬ 45 ُْ‫ػب‬ 5 ٢ُٔ‫ػب‬ 20 ‫خ‬٤ُٔ‫ػب‬ 3 ٢ُ‫ػب‬ 151 ّ‫ػب‬ 3 ١‫ػبّ عبه‬ ‫ – ط‬8 ّ‫ا‬ٞ‫أػ‬ ّ . vehicle to show. undergo raja.25 ٕٞ٤‫ػواه‬ 19 ‫ػوة‬ 19 ٢‫ػوث‬ 65 ‫خ‬٤‫ػوث‬ 4 ‫ػوثخ‬ 4 ٗ‫َو‬ َ‫ػ‬ adat. faktor terkena.41 ٍ‫ػٔب‬ ٠ٗ‫ػب‬ 4 ٢ٗ‫ؼب‬٣ 4 ٕٞٗ‫ؼب‬٣ 4 ٢ٗ‫رؼب‬ 19 َٛ ِ ‫ػب‬ 3 ‫ػجبهح‬ 6 ‫ػجّو‬ 5 ‫ػجَّود‬ 3 ‫رؼجِّو‬ 9 ‫خ‬٣‫ػجو‬ 13 ُ ‫َّح‬ُٞ‫ػج‬ 8 َ ‫ػضو‬ َ 7 ْ ‫ػضود‬ 7 ‫ه‬ٞ‫ػض‬ 9 ‫ػلاُخ‬ 26 ‫ػلّح‬ ّ‫ػ‬ ‫ل‬ 3 ُّ ‫ؼ‬٣ ‫ل‬ 13 ُّ ‫ُؼ‬٣ ‫ل‬ 11 ُّ ‫رُؼ‬ ‫ل‬ 84 ‫ػلك‬ 7 ٍْ‫عَََ ك‬ 3 ٍٝ‫ػل‬ 75 َّ‫ػل‬ َ 9 ٝ‫ػل‬ 7 ٕ‫ا‬ٝ‫ػل‬ ‫ ط‬. pulang family. be equivalent to oppose. pernyataan mengungkap. membilang Hebrew. peroleh keadilan beberapa mengira. instant to return. sebilangan orang Iraq.

aral mengadakan. lebih-lebih lagi menggantung ilmu. practice military operation peace process political process combat operation election process ٗ‫ؼو‬٣ 14 ٗ ْ‫ػَو‬ َ‫ػَوَف‬ 6 ‫ؼوف‬٣ ِ 3 ‫ْوف‬ َ ‫ُؼ‬٣ 3 َ‫أ‬ ‫ػوف‬ ِ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ػوه‬ ِ َّ ‫ػ‬ ‫يى‬ 4 ‫ؼيى‬٣ 6 ْ ‫ػيف‬ 5 ْ ٍ‫ػ ي‬ َ 4 ْ ّ‫ػي‬ 57 ١‫ػٌَو‬ 76 ‫خ‬٣‫ػٌَو‬ ‫ ط‬. to conclude kontrak.6 ‫ػْبئو‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ائ‬ْٞ‫ػ‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤ْ‫ػ‬ 4 ‫ػٖبثخ‬ 17 ٞٚ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫خ‬ٜ‫ اُغج‬ٞٚ‫ػ‬ ‫ – ط‬46 ‫بء‬ٚ‫أػ‬ 12 ‫خ‬٣ٞٚ‫ػ‬ 4 ْ٤‫ػظ‬ 5 ْ ٞ‫ػ ل‬ ‫ػوِت‬ َ ‫ ط‬. punishment economic sanctions colonel reversal.‫ػالهبد‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫اُؼالهبد االهزٖبك‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫اُؼالهبد اُض٘بئ‬ 3 ‫ح‬ٝ‫ػال‬ 4 ّ ‫ػِن‬ 4 ‫ػَِّوذ‬ 4 ْ ْ ِ‫ػ‬ ِ ‫ ط‬. mengukuhkan persembahan. performance separation.7 ٕٞ٣‫ػٌَو‬ ‫ ط‬. publicity highness to embark. demonstration to know.3 ‫ػوالء‬ 4 ‫ثخ‬ٞ‫ػو‬ 36 ‫ثبد – ط‬ٞ‫ػو‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫ثبد اهزٖبك‬ٞ‫ػو‬ 3 ‫ل‬٤‫ػو‬ 3 ٌٌ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫ػالط‬ 14 ‫ػالهخ‬ 66 ‫ ط‬. pengucapan pemisahan keazaman ketenteraan racism to consolidate. aimless evening gang. determination military. barrier to hold. large forgiveness immediately after to follow. penyembuhan hubungan. intelligent penalty. come after obstacle. pengetahuan pakar. golongan ahli ahli kumpulan hadapan keanggotaan besar. kinfolk random. troop. reflection remedy. berlawanan rawatan. army kaum kerabat. senjakala kumpulan. hang science. act assanination activities acts of torture violence activities operation. menganjurkan clan.52 ٍ‫أػٔب‬ 3 ٍ‫ب‬٤‫بد االؿز‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬/ٍ‫أػٔب‬ 3 ‫ت‬٣‫بد اُزؼن‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬/ٍ‫أػٔب‬ 11 ‫أػٔبٍ اُؼ٘ق‬ 97 ‫خ‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ 17 ‫خ‬٣‫بد اُؼٌَو‬٤ِٔ‫اُؼ‬/‫خ‬٤ِٔ‫اُؼ‬ 8 ّ‫خ اَُال‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ ‫خ‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫بد هزب‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬/‫خ‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫خ اٗزقبث‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ 5 416 . diketahui umum tertinggi memulakan perbuatan sengaja umur perlakuan. perbuatan perbuatan pembunuhan perbuatan menyeksa aktiviti keganasan operasi. kaitan hubungan ekonomi hubungan dua hala di samping. keluarga rawak malam. keampunan selepas sahaja mengikuti. strengthen recital. isolation resolution.6 ‫أػوبة‬ ‫ػوِت‬ َ 3 ْ٣ ‫ؼوِت‬ 5 ‫ ط‬. aware perkauman memartabatkan.‫ػَوجبد‬ 13 ‫ػول‬ 3 ‫ؼول‬٣ 5 ‫رؼول‬ 5 ‫ُؼوَل‬٣ 4 ‫رُؼوَل‬ 6 ُ ‫ػوِلَد‬ 31 ْ ‫ػول‬ 9 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ػو‬ ‫ ط‬. expert to know keterbukaan.6 ‫ػِٔبء‬ ْ َ ِِ‫ػ‬ 3 َ ِْ‫ؼ‬٣ 3 ْ ‫ٔذ‬ ِ‫ػ‬ َِ 3 ‫خ‬٤ِ٘‫ػ‬ 25 ‫ب‬٤ِ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫ل‬ َٔ َ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫ٔل‬ ْ‫ػ‬ 6 ُ ‫ٔو‬ ْ‫ػ‬ 60 َٔ َ َ‫ػ‬ ‫ ط‬. group member front member membership great. bijaksana hukuman. amalan operasi tentera proses keamanan proses politik operasi peperangan proses pilihanraya openness. perform intention. denda sekatan ekonomi kolonal pantulan. tribe. agreement reasonable. cure relationship economic relations bilateral relation in addition to to suspend. knowledge scholar. selepas halangan. ahli mengetahui contract. sangat kemaafan.persembahan mengetahui show. perjanjian cerdik pandai. perpuse age deed.

festival to specify. coming back viewing. compartment invasion. guardian result. pengarah unsur pasukan polis keganasan. kekejaman alamat.3 ‫اهت‬ٞ‫ػ‬ 40 ‫كح‬ٞ‫ػ‬ 3 ٕ‫ب‬٤‫ػ‬ 3 ‫ل‬٤‫ػ‬ 5 َّٖ٤‫ػ‬ 4 ُ َِّٖ٤‫ػ‬ 4 ْٖ٤‫ػ‬ ‫ؽ‬ meninggalkan. within boy. youth closing. luring fine. godaan denda barat arah barat to leave. treaty. remaja penutupan ketidakhadiran tidak hadir di suatu tempat menukar aim.operasi keganasan operasi pemeriksaan melakukan. ruang serangan.3 ‫ائن‬ٞ‫ػ‬ ‫ ط‬. bahagian terbesar tujuan. objectif awal pagi umpanan. perjanjian. pulang penyaksian perayaan. menentukan mata violent. barrier protector. membuat terrorist operations inspection operations to act. to do 6 ketua. ignoring angry during.4 ‫ؿبهاد‬ 14 ‫ؿبى‬ 4 ٢‫اُـبى اُؼوث‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ؿبُج‬ 20 ‫خ‬٣‫ؿب‬ 3 َ ‫ؿلَاح‬ 5 َ ‫ؿوَّاه‬ 3 ‫ؿوآخ‬ 33 ‫ؿوة‬ 12 ٢‫ؿوث‬ 49 ‫خ‬٤‫ؿوث‬ ‫ – ط‬8 ٕٞ٤‫ؿوث‬ 3 ٗ‫َو‬ َ‫ؿ‬ ‫ ط‬. berlepas pelanggaran. attacking overlooking. depart from raid.8 ْٕ‫ا‬ٞ‫ػ‬ ‫ ط‬. beerti chief. component police violent address. title. indicate.3 ٗ‫أؿوا‬ 9 ُ ‫ؿوكخ‬ 9 ْ ٝ‫ؿي‬ 3 ٘‫ؿ‬ ‫ثـّ٘ اُ٘ظو‬ 3 ‫ت‬ٚ‫ؿ‬ َ 24 ٕٞٚ‫ؿ‬ 3 ّ‫ؿال‬ 3 ْ ‫ؿِن‬ 4 ‫بة‬٤‫ؿ‬ 4 ٢‫بث‬٤‫ؿ‬ ‫َّو‬٤‫ؿ‬ 3 ْ ‫ود‬٤‫ؿ‬ 3 ‫ِّو‬٤‫رـ‬ 3 tujuan. fierce period. tugas halangan. outcome returning. pelanggaran tanpa melihat marah semasa. hala tuju bilik. locking absent staying away to change 417 . eye ‫ – ط‬49 ‫بد‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫بد اإله‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬/ٍ‫األػٔب‬ 3 ِ٤‫بد اُزلز‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬/‫خ‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ َ َ َ ٔ ِ‫ػ‬ 4 َٔ‫ؼ‬٣ 14 َٔ‫رؼ‬ 5 ‫ل‬٤ٔ‫ػ‬ 6 ‫ػٖ٘و‬ ‫ – ط‬46 ‫ػ٘بٕو‬ 5 ‫خ‬ٛ‫ػ٘بٕو اُْو‬ 33 ْ‫ػ‬ ُ ‫٘ق‬ 7 ٕ‫ا‬ٞ٘‫ػ‬ ٢َ٘‫ػ‬ 7 ٢٘‫ؼ‬٣ 3 ٢٘‫رؼ‬ 7 ‫لخ‬٤٘‫ػ‬ 15 ‫ْل‬ٜ‫ػ‬ َ ‫ ط‬. witnessing feast. aral penjaga. tajuk utama bermaksud. festival menunjukkan. akibat kembali. jagaan hasil. dalam masa budak lelaki. head element. kejam tempoh. invasion air strike gas Arabs gas domination aim. purpose early morning delusive. penalty west western 5 ‫ؿبكَه‬ ‫ـبكه‬٣ 12 ‫ؿبهح‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣ٞ‫ؿبهاد ع‬/‫ؿبهح‬ ‫ ط‬. obligation obstacle. serangan serangan udara gas gas orang Arab dominasi. objective room. headline mean ganas.

69ٕٞ٤٘٤‫كَِط‬ 124 ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫كَِط‬ ‫ ط‬. kebaikan gagal. real poverty passage. sihir mengejut. rottenness fail. act actual.8 ٓ‫و‬ َ ُ‫ك‬ 7 ٗ َ ‫كو‬ َ 3 ْ٣ ٗ‫و‬ ‫ل‬ َ ِ 3 ْ ُ٣ ٗ‫و‬ َ‫ل‬ 40 ٗ ْ‫كو‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫كو‬ 13 ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ ‫ ط‬. party. perlakuan reality. disturbance sudden. unsuccesful actors opening Fatah Organisation to open period.4 ٍِٞ‫ك‬ 4 ‫ٍ اُوبػلح‬ِٞ‫ك‬ 6 ٢ِ٣ٝ‫ك٘ي‬ 4 ْْٜ‫ك‬ 10 ‫ه‬ٞ‫ك‬ 6 ١‫ه‬ٞ‫ك‬ 15 ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ 10 ٠ٙٞ‫ك‬ 4 ٖ٤ٓ‫زب‬٤‫ك‬ 3 ٞ‫ز‬٤‫ك‬ 3 ٞ٣‫ل‬٤‫ك‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫بٗبد‬ٚ٤‫ك‬ 4 ‫ؿواك‬ٞ٘٤‫ك‬ 3 6 5 pemaksaan andaian.10 َ‫كٖبئ‬ 13 َ ْٚ‫ك‬ 4 ‫كؼَّبُخ‬ 19 َْ‫كؼ‬ ِ 3 ‫خ‬٤ِ‫كؼ‬ 8 ْ ‫ك وو‬ 4 ‫وح‬٤‫كو‬ 6 ‫كووح‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫كوواد‬ 9 ‫كٌوح‬ ‫ ط‬.6 ‫أكٌبه‬ 100 ٢٘٤‫كَِط‬ ‫ ط‬. berkaitan Palestin decay. tidak berjaya kegagalan pemisahan kebaikan. view Palestinian sisa.‫ف‬ kumpulan faedah. unsucces failing. side branch. troop benefit failing. saki-baki saki-baki al-Qaeda orang Vanezuela kefahaman segera segera. supposition group. berkaitan Perancis imposition assumption. tidak berjaya pelaku. time charm. terpancar kosong. dengan kehebatan berkesan perbuatan. tempoh ujian. angaapan pihak cawangan.16 ٕٞ٤َٗ‫كو‬ 13 ‫كَبك‬ 6 ََ َ َْ‫ك‬ 5 ْ ‫كِْذ‬ 23 َََْ‫ك‬ 3 َ ْٖ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬. section. unsuccesful partition.8 ‫كُوهبء‬ 3 ‫كوهبء األىٓخ‬ 25 ٢َٗ‫كو‬ 40 ‫خ‬٤َٗ‫كو‬ ‫ ط‬. letusan.4 ‫وم‬ َ ِ‫ك‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫كوػ‬ ‫ ط‬. by virtue of effective deed. secondary separators opponents of the crisis French kehancuran gagal. immediately instant. immediate success. tiba-tiba waktu pagi letupan. explode vacancy. to order ‫كئخ‬ ‫كبئلح‬ ‫كبِّخ‬ ‫ ط‬. gangguan. hakikat kemiskinan bahagian. trial. part idea. separation grace.3 ِٕٞ‫كبػ‬ 5 ْ ‫كزؼ‬ 29 ْ ‫كزؼ‬ 4 ‫َؼ‬ َ ‫كَز‬ 3 ‫لزؼ‬٣ 25 ْ‫ك‬ ‫زوح‬ 7 ‫كز٘خ‬ 3 ‫كغؤح‬ 9 ‫كغْ و‬ 3 ‫و‬ َّ ‫ك‬ َ‫غ‬ 13 ‫كواؽ‬ 4 ‫كوك‬ ‫ – ط‬18 ‫أكواك‬ 15 ‫كوٕخ‬ ‫ ط‬. pendapat orang Palestin. kemenangan kacau-bilau vitamin kuasa veto video banjir Winograd remnant al-Qaeda remnant Vanezualian understanding to moment. sekunder pemisah penentang-penentang krisis orang Perancis. pembuat pembukaan Pertubuhan Fatah membuka masa. disorder vitamin veto video flood Winograd 418 . cepat kejayaan. kindness. empty single. ruang seseorang peluang mewajibkan. surprise dawn to cause overflow. sole oppurtunity to impose. rangkap idea. menyuruh group. victory chaos.

hurlers 419 . saying standing. war fighting to kill. murder.5 ‫هلهاد‬ ‫ه‬ َ ‫هل‬ 3 ‫رُولَه‬ 12 َّ‫هَل‬ 19 َّّ‫هل‬ 5 ‫هلَّٓذ‬ 3 ِّّ‫ُول‬٣ 12 ِّّ‫رُول‬ 3 ْ٣‫هل‬ ‫ ط‬. agree acceptence killing.8 ‫هنائق‬ mampu. capability can. peperangan membunuh law. sah kaum. speak berdiri. terletak memimpin leader teller. to murder mangsa pembunuhan bilangan. bersetuju penerimaan pembunuhan. sambil berkata bersifat berdiri. kewujudan.5 ‫اػل‬ٞ‫ه‬ 326 ٍ‫هب‬ 75 ‫هبُذ‬ 5 ‫ا‬ُٞ‫هب‬ 29 ٍٞ‫و‬٣ 8 ٍٞ‫رو‬ 3 ٍ‫وب‬٣ 5 ٍٞ‫ٗو‬ 13 ّ‫هب‬ 15 ‫هبٓذ‬ 4 ‫ا‬ٞٓ‫هب‬ 20 ّٞ‫و‬٣ 21 ّٞ‫رو‬ 62 ٕٞٗ‫هب‬ 4 ‫ٖ أَُبءُخ‬٤ٗ‫ا‬ٞ‫ ه‬/ ٕٞٗ‫هب‬ 6 ‫ٖ – ط‬٤ٗ‫ا‬ٞ‫ه‬ 10 ٢ٗٞٗ‫هب‬ ‫ ط‬. located. cut off cutting. principle to say. cara-cara bercakap. perejam old. mengambil peranan to rise.‫ق‬ pemimpin pengucap. competent mampu. bring forward lama pembaling.9 ‫خ‬٤ٗٞٗ‫هب‬ ‫ – ط‬6 َ‫هجبئ‬ 9 ْ٘‫هج‬ 25 ََ‫هِج‬ 3 َِ‫هج‬ 3 ْ‫ر‬ ََ‫وج‬ 13 ٍٞ‫هج‬ 18 ْ َ‫هز‬ 10 ٍ‫هزب‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫هزب‬ 3 ‫هزِخ‬ 4 ََ‫هز‬ 3 ‫ا‬ِٞ‫هز‬ 35 َ َ ِ‫هُز‬ 20 ‫ا‬ِِٞ‫هُز‬ 7 َ٤‫هز‬ 12 ‫ – ط‬٠ِ‫هز‬ 3 ‫هلْه‬ 11 ‫هلهح‬ ‫ ط‬. existent to lead. catch on the part of to accept. magistrate to interrupt. sharp rule. measure ability. hakim memotong pemotong kaedah. to guide 46 ‫هبئل‬ ‫ – ط‬23 ‫هبكح‬ 18 َ‫هبئ‬ 4 ‫هبئِخ‬ 8 ْ‫هبئ‬ 29 ‫هبئٔخ‬ 4 ‫هبك‬ 3 ‫هبكد‬ 12 ‫ك‬ٞ‫و‬٣ 10 ‫ك‬ٞ‫رو‬ 3 ‫كه‬ ِ ‫هب‬ 5 ‫هبكهح‬ 3 ‫ ط‬. kadar. ukuran kemampuan mampu melakukan berlalu mendahului. stand up undang-undang. ancient throwers. berkemampuan able. to be able to precede to advance. kehadapan killed in battle amount.ٕٝ‫هبكه‬ 14 ّ‫ك‬ ِ ‫هب‬ 7 ‫هبكٓخ‬ 21 ٢ٙ‫هب‬ ‫ ط‬. puak tangkapan dari pihak menerima. act accountability law legal tribe grasp.5 ‫بح‬ٚ‫ه‬ 3 َ ‫غ‬ٛ‫هب‬ 3 ‫غ‬ٛ‫هب‬ ِ 5 ‫هبػلح‬ ‫ ط‬. peperangan pergaduhan. berkemampuan magistret. akta kebolehpercayaan undang-undang mengikut undang-undang. competent judge. berkata able.

smashing short judiciary. division intention. maksud istana pengeboman. purpose castle bombardment.28 ‫هواهاد‬ 50 ‫هُوْ ة‬ 10 ‫ت‬٣‫هو‬ 10 ‫جخ‬٣‫هو‬ ‫هوُة‬ 4 ‫ووُة‬٣ 5 ‫هوَّه‬ 3 ‫هوهد‬ 3 ‫رُووِّ ه‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣‫هو‬ ‫ ط‬.ٕ‫هطبها‬ 89 ‫هطبع‬ ‫ ط‬. bahagian pemotongan memotong membalik. te determine kampung tanda.38 ‫ب‬٣‫ب‬ٚ‫ه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫و‬ٛٞ‫ب ع‬٣‫ب‬ٚ‫ه‬ 4 ٠ٚ‫ه‬ 3 ‫هطبه‬ ‫ ط‬. hentaman pendek penghakiman bersifat penghakiman dakwaan. hati menjadi sedikit sector. gelisah sedikit kemuncak kemuncak bangsa penindasan. juridical action. to stop turning. heart to become little bimbang. anxiety little. context part. few summit summit of the peoples repression. force international force the force of change major power political force security force democratic force armed forces security forces occupation forces alliance forces international force Democracy Forces foreign troops conventional force armed conventioanal force saying. ketetapan berdekatan reading relationship. powerful ‫هواءح‬ ‫هواثخ‬ ‫هواه‬ ‫ ط‬. speech national strong. execute train sektor. matter. situasi bahagian niat. sekatan bom bom tangan bom nuclear terusan. section cutting. tentera tentera antarabangsa tentera revolusi kuasa besar tentera politik tentera keselamatan tentera demokratik tentera bersenjata tentera keselamatan tentera pendudukan Tentera Perikatan tertera antarabangsa Tentera Demokratik tentera asing tentera konvensional tentera bersenjata konvensional percakapan. grenade hand grenade nuclear bomb channel. pengucapan kebangsaan kekuatan worry. restraint bomb.6 ‫هطبػبد‬ 7 ْ ‫هَطغ‬ 3 ‫ؼذ‬ َ َ‫هَط‬ 3 ‫وطغ‬٣ 6 ‫هَ ِْت‬ َ َّ ‫ه‬ 8 ّ ِ‫و‬٣ َ 3 ّ ‫رو‬ َ 24 ‫هِن‬ 4 َ٤ِ‫ه‬ 14 ‫ِخ‬٤ِ‫ه‬ 52 ‫هٔخ‬ 3 ‫ة‬ٞ‫هٔخ اُْؼ‬ 3 ‫ٔغ‬ ْ‫ه‬ 20 ‫ه٘جِخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ٝ‫ل‬٣ ‫ه٘جِخ‬ ‫ – ط‬7 َ‫ه٘بث‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ُٝٞ٘‫ه٘بثَ ا‬ 10 ‫ه٘بح‬ 4 ‫ ط‬.5 ‫هطبهاد‬ 5 ّ . to near to decide. closeness mendekati menetapkan to approach. kinship decision.4 ٟ‫هو‬ 3 ‫٘خ‬٣‫هو‬ 11 َِْْ‫ه‬ 3 ‫هْٖ ل‬ 7 ‫هْٖ و‬ 15 ‫هَْٖ ق‬ 3 ‫وح‬٤ٖ‫ه‬ 19 ‫بء‬ٚ‫ه‬ 6 ٢‫بئ‬ٚ‫ه‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤‫بئ‬ٚ‫ه‬ 76 ‫خ‬٤ٚ‫ه‬ ‫ ط‬. saluran kekuatan.‫اد‬ٞ٘‫ه‬ 48 ‫ح‬ٞ‫ه‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ح اُل‬ٞ‫اُو‬ 29 ٟٞ‫ه‬ 3 ‫و‬٤٤‫ اُزـ‬ٟٞ‫ه‬ 3 ٟ‫ ًجو‬ٟٞ‫ه‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ ٟٞ‫ه‬ 5 ٖٓ‫ األ‬ٟٞ‫ه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫ اُل‬ٟٞ‫اُو‬ ‫ ط‬. disconnection to cut.pembacaan hubungan kekeluargaan resolusi. judgement judicial. canal strength. hal keadaan perkara-perkara utama melaksanakan keretapi village indication.196 ‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ 17 ‫اد أَُِؾخ‬ٞ‫ه‬ 19 ٖٓ‫اد األ‬ٞ‫ه‬ 8 ٍ‫اد االؽزال‬ٞ‫ه‬ 9 ‫اد رؾبُق‬ٞ‫ه‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫اد اُل‬ٞ‫ اُو‬/‫ح‬ٞ‫اُو‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٛ‫هوا‬ٞٔ٣‫اد ك‬ٞ‫ه‬/ٟٞ‫ه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫اد األع٘ج‬ٞ‫اُو‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ل‬٤ِ‫اد رو‬ٞ‫ه‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣‫ل‬٤ِ‫اد أَُِؾخ اُزو‬ٞ‫ه‬ 46 ٍٞ‫ه‬ 13 ٢ٓٞ‫ه‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٓٞ‫ه‬ 4 ّ١ٞ‫ه‬ 4 104 3 420 . affair primary affairs to carry out. resolution nearness.

blok blok politik mengikat. membuka pendedahan mencukupi semua mewajibkan. berkata perkataan kuantiti. chain living. to tie book orang Kurdis Kurdish mendedahkan. pelaksanaan rantai. kemusnahan semua. lazim bangun. worth ‫خ‬٣ٞ‫ه‬ ‫بكح‬٤‫ه‬ ‫ ط‬. kumpulan.11 ‫ًجبه‬ 11 ٟ‫ًجو‬ ‫ – ط‬13 ‫ًزبئت‬ 6 ‫ًزبة‬ 3 َ ‫َت‬ َ ‫ًز‬ 4 ‫ًزجذ‬ 5 ُ ‫ت‬ َ ِ‫ًز‬ 4 ْ َ َ‫ًز‬ 13 ‫ًزِخ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ب‬٤ٍ ‫ًزِخ‬/َ‫ًز‬ 3 ‫ًضَّق‬ 15 ‫و‬٤‫ًض‬ 5 ‫وح‬٤‫ًض‬ ‫ ط‬. author disaster all.‫ك‬ٞ٤‫ه‬ 13 ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ه‬ 41 8 6 ‫ك‬ kapten penulis malapetaka. membalut banyak group. sekelompok. sufficient complete to be. keseluruhan mencukupi lengkap wujud. piawai.kepimpinan kepemimpinan biasa. ikatan kehidupan nilai leadership leading.18 ‫أًواك‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣‫ًوك‬ 10 َ ‫ًَْق‬ 7 ‫ًْلذ‬ 10 ْ ً َ ‫ْق‬ َ ٠َ‫ًل‬ 4 ْ َ٣ ٢ِ‫ٌل‬ 89 ًَّ 4 ‫ًَِّق‬ 3 ‫ٌِّق‬٣ 12 َّ ْ ًِ 13 ‫ًِٔخ‬ 3 ‫ًِٔبد – ط‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫بد‬٤ًٔ 13 ‫وثبء‬ًٜ 3 ٢‫وثبئ‬ًٜ 3 ٢‫ث‬ًٞ 3 ٢‫ٓج‬ًُٞٞ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫ٓج‬ًُٞٞ 5 3 besar large. menjadi.5 ٕٞ٣‫بك‬٤‫ه‬ 3 ٢ٍ‫ب‬٤‫ه‬ 37 ّ‫ب‬٤‫ه‬ 10 ‫ل‬٤‫ه‬ 4 ‫بح‬٤‫ل اُؾ‬٤‫ه‬ 7 ‫ ط‬. big betalion tentera buku menulis battalion book to write. to talk word quantity. all of enough. to charge with to speak. membebani bercakap. amoun elektrik bersifat electric orang Cuba orang Colombia to uncover. adalah capten writer. existent value. normal rising. standing up tie. major standard. uncovering to be enough all assign to. expose exposure.5 ٕٝ‫و‬٤‫ًض‬ 31 ٢ٗ‫ًوكٍزب‬ 6 ١‫ًوك‬ ‫ ط‬.‫بكاد‬٤‫ه‬ 14 ١‫بك‬٤‫ه‬ ‫ ط‬. to exist ٖ‫ًبثز‬ ‫ًبرِت‬ 8 ‫ًبهصخ‬ 15 ‫ًبكخ‬ 4 ٢‫ًبك‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ًبك‬ 11 َٓ‫ًب‬ 8 ‫ًبِٓخ‬ 146 ٕ‫ًب‬ 3 ‫ًبٗب‬ 104 ‫ًبٗذ‬ 4 ‫ً٘ب‬ 19 ‫ا‬ٞٗ‫ًب‬ 71 ٌٕٞ٣ 57 ٌٕٞ‫ر‬ 6 ٌٕٞٗ 4 ٌٕٞٗٞ٣ 35 ‫و‬٤‫ًج‬ 27 ‫وح‬٤‫ًج‬ ‫ ط‬. bloc political blocs to bind. amount electricity electrical Cubian Colombian 421 .

seek shelter committee. sidang sidang media sidang akhbar baru-baru.8 ٕٞ٤ٗ‫ُج٘ب‬ 3َ ‫ُغؤ‬ َ 63 ‫ُغ٘خ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫خ االٗزقبث‬٣‫ُغ٘خ أُوًي‬ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫ن‬٤‫ُغ٘خ ر٘ل‬ 5 ‫ن‬٤‫ُغ٘خ اُزؾو‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ُغ٘خ اٗزقبث‬ 4 ‫ؿواك‬ٞ٘٤‫ُغ٘خ ك‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫اُِغ٘خ اُوثبػ‬ ‫ ط‬. papan kenyataan bahasa Latin pelarian berikut. tegas penyokong-penyokong hundreds conference press conference press conference recently. followong necessary. baru sahaja yayasan kekesalan. lately foundation sad.Komanwel kejadian kongres konsortium orang Kuwait cara. gaya. board Central Election Commission enforcement committee investigating committee election committee Winograd commission quartet committee subcommittees resorting to language mine to wrap up. sepatutnya pelihat. table Latin refugees subsequent.17 ‫ٓئٍَبد‬ 5 ‫ٓئٍلخ‬ ‫ ط‬.17 ّ‫أُـب‬ 7 ْ ّ ‫ُ لذ‬ 56 ‫ُوبء‬ ‫ – ط‬13 ‫ُوبءاد‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ُوطبد‬ 9 ٢‫ُو‬ َ 7 ‫اء‬ُٞ 6 ٢‫ج‬٤ُ 7 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬٤ُ 57 ٌ٤ُ 24 ‫َذ‬٤ُ 19 َ٤ُ 4 ‫ِخ‬٤ُ 4 13 berlindung jawatankuasa Jawatankuasa Pusat Pilihanraya Jawatankuasa Pelaksana Jawatankuasa Penyiasatan Jawatankuasa Pilihanraya Jawatankuasa Winograd Jawatankuasa Empat Penjuru jawatankuasa kecil perlindungan bahasa lombong melipat. sign confirmatory supporters ‫ٓئبد‬ ‫ٓئرٔو‬ 22 ٢‫ٓئرٔو ٕؾبك‬ 5 ٢‫ٓئرٔو ٕؾل‬ 7 ِّ ‫ٓئفو‬ 12 ‫ٓئٍَخ‬ ‫ ط‬. cebisan bertemu bendera. kian rentang orang Libya. tanda secara yakin. regretable indicator. penarik perhatian menyambut. mathod kilometer ‫ُش‬ًٞ٘ٓٞ 11 ًٕٞ ً‫ٗغو‬ًٞ 5 ّٞ٤ٍ‫ه‬ًَٞٗٞ 3 ٢‫ز‬٣ًٞ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫ل‬٤ً 8 ‫ٓزو‬ِٞ٤ً 5 10 ‫ل‬ senarai. kaedah kilometer Commonwealth being. datang kemudian keperluan. fold up meeting shot. membungkus pertemuan detik. existence congress consortium Kuwait manner.ٕٝ‫ل‬٣‫ٓئ‬ 175 16 422 . berkaitan Libya bukan malam to resort to. answer Lebanese ‫الئؾخ‬ ‫خ‬٤٘٤‫الر‬ ‫ ط‬. flag Lybian not night ‫و‬ beratus-ratus seminar. kesal penunjuk.11 ٖ٤‫العئ‬ 6 ‫الؽن‬ ِ 3 ‫الىٓخ‬ 10 ‫الكِذ‬ ٠َّ‫ُج‬ 3 ١ َِ َّ‫رُِت‬ 45 ٢ٗ‫ُج٘ب‬ 41 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ُج٘ب‬ ‫ ط‬. proper attention. berkaitan Lubnan list. snap to meet banner. eye-catching respond to.4 ‫ٓئّواد‬ 19 ‫ٓئًل‬ 10 ‫ٓئًلح‬ 3 ‫ ط‬.10 ٕ‫ُغب‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫اُِغبٕ اُلوػ‬ 6 ‫ء‬ٞ‫ُغ‬ 6 ‫ُـخ‬ ْ ُُ ْ‫ـ‬ ‫ ط‬. menjawab orang Lubnan.

advanced demonstraters various. pertengahan perkembangan tertuduh bersambung terbabit. melebihi prinsip. dugaan tempat pertemuan contoh. tindakan secara langsung berlebih-lebih. property financial granter. stern connected.32 ٕٜٞٔ‫ٓز‬ 6 َٕ‫ا‬ٞ‫ٓز‬ 4 ٛ‫ه‬ٞ‫ٓز‬ 10 ِّ ‫هغ‬ٞ‫ٓز‬ 7 ‫ٓضبثخ‬ ََ‫ٓض‬ َ 3 ‫ ط‬. straigtforward exaggerate. implicated expecting. meransang bidang lapangan udara majlis. proceeding late. physical to practise masa kritikal. lasting sequence. alasan utusan awal prosiding. instance similar. like to represent.ٍ‫أٓضب‬ 36 ْ َ‫ٓض‬ َُّ‫ٓض‬ 13 ِّ َ‫ٔض‬٣ 6 ِّ َ‫رُٔض‬ 5 ‫و‬٤‫ٓض‬ ُ 3 ‫وح‬٤‫ٓض‬ 23 ٍ‫ٓغب‬ 3 ١ٞ‫ٓغبٍ ع‬ ‫ ط‬. immoderate developed.6 ٕٞ‫ٓزطوك‬ 5 ‫هح‬ٞ‫ٓزط‬ ‫ ط‬.30 ٕٝ‫ٓزٔوك‬ 5 ُٖ‫ٓز‬ ُ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫ٓز٘ب‬ 17 َّْٜ‫ٓز‬ ‫ ط‬. stimultive field. syarikat jurucakap jurucakap rasmi kepakaran meter serentak bertambah bertegas.5 ٕٝ‫و‬ٛ‫ٓزظب‬ 9 ‫ٓزؼلكح‬ 4 ‫ٓزؼِن‬ 9 ‫ٓزؼِوخ‬ 3 ‫ٓزؼٔل‬ ‫ ط‬. domain air space commission. numerous related. menarik. bygone harta kewangan pemberi.5 ٢ٗ‫ٓجب‬ 4 ‫ٓجوِّ ه‬ 9 ‫س‬ٞ‫ٓجؼ‬ 8 ‫ٓجٌوح‬ 9 ‫ٓزبثؼخ‬ 3 ‫ٓزؤفوح‬ 5 ‫ٓزجبكُخ‬ ‫ ط‬. rule building justification sent. intentional explosive. delayed alternate remaining. barang fizikal. series united correspondence official correspondence specialised. menandakan jangkaan.12 ‫ٓزلغواد‬ 5 ‫ٓزلوهخ‬ ‫ ط‬. donor talk.bahan.10 ‫ٓغبالد‬ 182 ٌِ‫ٓغ‬ 423 . asas bangunan justifikasi. divided insurgent.3 ٖ٤‫ٓزجو‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ٓززب‬ 68 ‫ٓزؾلح‬ 51 ‫ٓزؾلِّس‬ 7 ٢ٍٔ‫ٓزؾلس ه‬ 13 ‫ٓزؾلصخ‬ 4 ‫ٓزقٖٖخ‬ 3 ‫ٓزو‬ 3 ٖٓ‫ٓزيا‬ 4 ‫ل‬٣‫ٓزيا‬ 3 ‫ٓزْلكح‬ 5 َٖ‫ٓز‬ 6 ‫ٓزطوِّ كخ‬ ‫ ط‬. board 12 ‫ٓبكح‬ ‫ ط‬. action direct. bermaksud letupan terpisah. maju penunjuk perasaan pelbagai berkaitan sengaja. telampau berkembang. linked extreme. jalan buntu berlalu impasse. penderma perbincangan inisiatif. body growing. jawatankuasa exciting. terpecah pemberontakan badan. expert meter synchronised. discussion initiative. rendezvous example. serupa mewakili money. simultaneous increasing. overdone principle. relating to deliberate. bersifat lewat bertukar-tukar baki. premature continuation. growing strict. anticipating meeting place. stuff material. tinggalan berikut-ikut bersatu.5 ‫اك‬ٞٓ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ٓبك‬ ً‫ٓبه‬ 3 ً‫ُٔبه‬ ِ ٣ 4 ً‫رُٔبه‬ 4 ‫ٓؤىم‬ 68 ٢ٙ‫ٓب‬ 15 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ٓب‬ ّ – 4 ٖ٤٤ٙ‫ٓب‬ 3 ٍ‫ٓب‬ 10 ٍ‫ا‬ٞٓ‫أ‬ 4 ٢ُ‫ٓب‬ ‫ – ط‬14 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ٓب‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ٕٞ‫ٓبٗؾ‬ ‫ – ط‬14 ‫ٓجبؽضبد‬ 32 ‫ٓجبكهح‬ 5 ‫ٓجبّو‬ 12 ‫ٓجبّوح‬ 5 ‫ٓجبُؾ‬ 5 ‫ٓجلأ‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫ٓجبكئ‬ 12 ٠٘‫ٓج‬ ‫ ط‬. keras bersambung pelampau. bomb separated. sambungan lewat. dispatched early. developing accuser continuous involved. rebellious middle. critical situasion past. umpama sama. harta benda berlatih material.

absolute criminal institute.26 ٖ٤ٓ‫ٓؾب‬ 39 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ٓؾب‬ 3 ‫ُخ االٗوالة‬ٝ‫ٓؾب‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫الد‬ٝ‫ٓؾب‬ ‫ ط‬.7 ًْ‫ٓؾب‬ 6 ِّ َِ‫ٓؾ‬ 8 ‫ ط‬. station forbidden. sheer. sekeliling komunikasi bahaya ketakutan. held protestors occupied. anxieties various. seized possible. ocean communication dangers. terperinci Security Council Council of Representative Awakening Councils Council of Ministers Supreme Council Islamic Supreme Council The Senate Cooperative Council Coordinating Council Military Council freedom fighters neighborhood. kejiranan masyarakat masyarakat dunia perhimpunan bersifat membaharui semata-mata penjahat.3 ٕٞٓ‫ٓغو‬ 6 ‫ٔغ‬ َ ‫ٓغ‬ 6 َٔ‫ٓغ‬ ُ 3 ‫ع‬ٞٔ‫ٓغ‬ 53 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ٓغ‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ػخ اُل‬ٞٔ‫أُغ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ػخ األىٓبد اُل‬ٞٔ‫ٓغ‬ ‫ ط‬.40 ‫ٓؾبكصبد‬ 5 ّ‫ٓؾبكصبد اَُال‬ 8 ‫ٓؾبهثخ‬ 4 ‫ٓؾبٍجخ‬ 28 ‫ٓؾبكظخ‬ ‫ ط‬. terjajah kemungkinan. banned examiner. group international groups International Crisis Group unknown anonymous conversation. prsecution lawyer.3 ٕٝ‫ل‬ٛ‫ٓغب‬ 7 ‫هح‬ٝ‫ٓغب‬ 20 ‫ٓغزٔغ‬ 16 ٢ُٝ‫أُغزٔغ اُل‬ 3 ‫ٓغزٔؼخ‬ 18 ‫ٓغلك‬ 7 ‫ٓغوك‬ 8 ّ‫ٓغو‬ ِ ‫ ط‬. total. dewan kesimpulan. vicinity society international community meeting. kebimbangan pelbagai pelbagai dihasilkan yang dikhususkan orang yang dilarikan stop. distinct fertile.14 ‫ف‬ٝ‫ٓقب‬ 17 ‫ٓقزَِق‬ 18 ‫ٓقزِلخ‬ 6 ‫ٓقٖت‬ 5 ‫ٓقٖٖخ‬ ‫ ط‬.4 ‫ٓقبثواد‬ ‫ ط‬.8 ‫و‬ٛ‫ٓقَب‬ ِ ‫ ط‬. brief gathered. detective court Supreme Court International Court analyst local.ِِٕٞ‫ٓؾ‬ 9 ِّ ٢ِ‫ٓؾ‬ 14 ‫خ‬٤ِ‫ٓؾ‬ 5 ٜ٤‫ٓؾ‬ 4 ‫طخ‬٤‫ٓؾ‬ ‫ ط‬. province trial. jiran. assambled renewed mere. agent.3 ٕٝ‫ٓؾزغي‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ٕٞ ُّ‫ٓؾزغ‬ 8 ََّ‫ٓؾز‬ 12 ‫ٓؾزِخ‬ 6 ََٔ‫ٓؾز‬ 4 ‫ٓؾزِٔخ‬ 11 ‫ٓؾلَّك‬ 5 ‫ٓؾلكح‬ 9 ‫كح‬ٝ‫ٓؾل‬ 9 َّ ‫ٓؾطخ‬ 3 ‫ ط‬. pemeriksa mahkamah Mahkamah Tinggi Mahkamah Antarabangsa pengalalisis tempatan lautan. penyiasat. bearable specific. dialogue peace talks fighting. particular perhentian terlarang agen. daerah penghakiman peguam percubaan cubaan penggulingan tahanan pembangkang. mampu ditanggung tertentu.‫ٓؾطبد‬ 5 ‫ى‬ٞ‫ٓؾظ‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ٕٞ‫ٓؾوِّو‬ 52 ‫ٓؾٌٔخ‬ 15 ‫ب‬٤ِ‫أُؾٌٔخ اُؼ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫أُؾٌٔخ اُل‬ ‫ ط‬.9 ‫ٓؾبكظبد‬ 15 ‫ٓؾبًٔخ‬ 17 ٢ٓ‫ٓؾب‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫ػبد‬ٞٔ‫ٓغ‬ 3 ٍٜٞ‫ٓغ‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣ُٜٞ‫ٍ ا‬ٜٞ‫ٓغ‬ 3 ‫ٕ – ط‬ُٜٞٞ‫ٓغ‬ ‫ ط‬. keseluruhan jumlah. risks fears. abducted ٖٓ‫ٓغٌِ األ‬ ‫اة‬ُٞ٘‫ٓغٌِ ا‬ ‫ح‬ٞ‫ ٓغبٌُ ٕؾ‬/ٌِ‫ٓغ‬ 13 ١‫ىاه‬ُٞ‫ ا‬/‫ىهاء‬ُٞ‫ٓغٌِ ا‬ 13 ٠ِ‫أُغٌِ األػ‬ 5 ٢ٓ‫ اإلٍال‬٠ِ‫أُغٌِ األػ‬ 10 ‫ؿ‬ٞ٤ُْ‫ٓغٌِ ا‬ 12 ٕٝ‫ٓغٌِ اُزؼب‬ 5 ‫ن‬٤َ٘‫ٓغٌِ اُز‬ 3 ١‫أُغٌِ اُؼٌَو‬ ‫ – ط‬16 ٌُ‫ٓغب‬ ‫ ط‬. attempt coup attempt restrainded. battle accounting protection. pertempuran perkiraan penjagaan. attorney trial. convention summerrised. varied different. pesalah institute. negeri. domestic surrounding. productive specified kipnapped. pemprotes tertakluk.5 ٖ٤‫ك‬ٞ‫ٓقط‬ 32 13 22 424 .Majlis Keselamatan Majlis Perwakilan Jawatankuasa pembangunan Majlis Menteri Majlis Tertinggi Majlis Tertinggi Islam Majlis Senat Majlis Kerjasama Majlis Penyelarasan Majlis Tentera pejuang kebebasan berdekatan. himpunan kumpulan kumpulan antarabangsa Pertubuhan Krisis Antarabangsa tidak diketahui identiti tidak diketahui perbincangan perbincangan keamanan peperangan.

responsible tanggungjawab petang. penyertaan persamaan responsibility evening request.3 ٕٞ‫ٓورجط‬ 3 ‫ٓورلؼخ‬ 3 ‫ٓورلؼخ‬ 3 ‫ٓوعِّ ؼ‬ ُ 21 َّ ‫ٓوّؼ‬ 6 ‫ٓوّؾخ‬ ‫ ط‬.perkhemahan sekolah-sekolah pesalah tempoh.12 ‫َٓبػلاد‬ 3 ‫َٓبكخ‬ 24 ‫َٓؤُخ‬ 3 َ‫َٓبئ‬ 5 ‫َٓبٗلح‬ 3 ‫ٔخ‬ٛ‫َٓب‬ 3 ‫اح‬ٝ‫َٓب‬ 425 . reminder memorandum of understanding pass by tahap. mudah dilentur ladang-ladang peladang-peladang tuduhan. melalui leader.ٕٞ‫ٓواهج‬ 26 ‫ٓوح‬ 7 ‫ٓواد‬ 3 ٜ‫ٓورج‬ ‫ ط‬. stage. kemusnahan bandar. perjalanan kelenturan. wakil Wakil Jurucakap pendamping. companion control. dakwaan membuat keputusan tambahan tanggungjawab guide. backing contribution. pekan camping. leader illness. phase correspondent Agency Correspondent escort. aid. city perbandaran. participation equality.16 ٖ٤٤ٗ‫ٓل‬ 14 ‫و‬٣‫ٓل‬ 10 ّ‫و اُؼب‬٣‫أُل‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫و‬٣‫ٓل‬ 5 ‫ٓنًوح‬ 3 ْٛ‫ٓنًوح رلب‬ ‫و‬ َّ ٓ 5 ّ‫ٔو‬٣ 5 ُّ‫رٔو‬ 21 ‫ٓوؽِخ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 َ‫ٓواؽ‬ 4 ٍَ‫وا‬ ِ ٓ ُ 3 ‫ًبُخ‬ٝ ٍَ‫ٓوا‬ 3 ‫ٓواكِن‬ 16 ‫ٓواهَجخ‬ 3 ‫ ط‬. malam rayuan. claims determined. yang memilih calon level.8 ٕٞ‫ٓوّؾ‬ 3 ‫ٓوّل‬ 5 ٗ‫ٓو‬ 3 ‫ ط‬. urbanised ketua. claimer public presecutor destroyed. masalah dokongan. devastated town. problem support. pembantu Timbalan Menteri bantuan. incriminated period supported. decided increased task. accountability path. penjaga penyeliaan.6 ٖ٤ٗ‫ٓلا‬ 15 ‫ٓلح‬ 3 ‫ٓخ‬ٞ‫ٓلػ‬ 7 ٢‫ٓلَّػ‬ 4 ّ‫ اُؼب‬٢‫أُلػ‬ 4 ‫ٓلٓوح‬ 117 ‫٘خ‬٣‫ٓل‬ ‫ – ط‬16 ُٕ‫ٓل‬ ّ . peringkat jurucakap. kebolehpercayaan laluan. preferrable candidate pemimpin. supervision supervisor. track assistant Assistant Minister help.ٗ‫أٓوا‬ 24 ‫ٓوًي‬ 7 ‫خ‬ٛ‫ٓوًي اُْو‬ 3 ِ٤‫ٓوًي اُزلز‬ 13 ١‫ٓوًي‬ 14 ‫خ‬٣‫ٓوًي‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫ؽ‬ٝ‫ٓو‬ 10 ‫ه‬ٝ‫ٓو‬ 3 ‫ٗخ‬ٝ‫ٓو‬ ‫ – ط‬6 ‫ٓياهع‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ٕٞ‫ٓياهػ‬ ‫ ط‬. penunjuk sakit pusat balai polis balai pemeriksaan berpusat helikopter laluan. related high. sustained alleger. pertolongan jarak persoalan. sick centre police station check point central helicopter passing. membangun urban. bantuan sumbangan. going by flexibility. masa disokong pendakwa peguam awam kehancuran. asistance distance question. jalan penolong. camp schools convicted. elevated likely. equivalence 16 ْ٤‫ٓق‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫ٔبد‬٤‫ٓق‬ 9 ‫ ط‬. di atas diutamakan. controller once correlated. penjagaan penjaga sekali terikat tinggi. pliability fields farmers allegations.ً‫ٓلاه‬ ‫ ط‬.18 ٕ‫٘زب‬٣‫ٓل‬ 16 ٢ٗ‫ٓل‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ٓل‬ ‫ ط‬.5 ْ‫ٓياػ‬ 3 ‫ٓيٓغ‬ 31 ‫ل‬٣‫ٓي‬ 62 ٍٝ‫َٓئ‬ 5 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫َٓئ‬ ‫ – ط‬62 ُٕٞٝ‫َٓئ‬ 18 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫َٓئ‬ 24 ‫َٓبء‬ 4 ‫َٓبءُخ‬ 7 ‫َٓبه‬ 8 ‫َٓبػل‬ 3 ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫َٓبػل ا‬ 38 ‫َٓبػلح‬ ‫ ط‬. manager General Manager directorate memorandum. pengarah Ketua Pengarah jawatan pengarah memorandum memorandum persefahaman berlalu.

terpisah. attempts armed orang Muslim perjalanan.ًٕٞ‫ْٓبه‬ 43 ‫ع‬ٝ‫ْٓو‬ 6 ‫ع اُوواه‬ٝ‫ْٓو‬ 3 ٢ٗٞ٤ٜٕ ‫ع‬ٝ‫ْٓو‬ ‫ – ط‬8 ‫ػبد‬ٝ‫ْٓو‬ ‫ ط‬. collective intensifying.31 ٕٞ‫َِٓؾ‬ 14 َِٕٞٔٓ 18 ‫وح‬٤َٓ 59 ‫ْٓبهًخ‬ 13 ‫ ط‬. samar bersama menegaskan menunjukkan terkena perampasan persahabatan kesusahan kebaikan.4 ‫بد‬٤‫َٓزْل‬ 4 ‫َٓزؼل‬ 8 ‫َٓزؼلح‬ ‫ ط‬.ٕٞ٘ٛٞ‫َٓز‬ 27 ٟٞ‫َٓز‬ ‫ ط‬. opposite ‫ٓخ‬ٝ‫َٓب‬ 6 ‫َٓجن‬ ‫م‬ٞ‫َٓج‬ 3 ‫َٓزجؼلح‬ 4 ‫َٓزْبهح‬ ‫ ط‬. ready masa hadapan bersifat futuristik tersendiri.8 ‫غ‬٣‫ْٓبه‬ 9 ‫ٌِْٓخ‬ ‫ ط‬. pementasan usaha-usaha bersenjata level. doubtful joint. attacked by confiscation.8 ًَ‫ْٓب‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫ٌْٓالد‬ ‫ ط‬. hardships interest.7 ‫بد‬٣ٞ‫َٓز‬ 3 ‫َٓغل‬ 3 ‫َٓوػ‬ 3 ٠‫َٓؼ‬ ‫ – ط‬8 ‫َٓبع‬ 17 ّ ‫َِٓؼ‬ 29 ‫َِٓؾخ‬ ‫ ط‬. accompanied becoming. in advance advance.3 ٕٝ‫َٓزْبه‬ 6 ٠‫َٓزْل‬ ‫ ط‬. berterusan pendudukan future futurism independent. stage mosque theater. benefit national interest common interests peace. counselor hospital prepared. jarak penyertaan program. paln draft resolution Zionist project masalah problem mesyuarat-mesyuarat keraguan. distance participation program.ٖ٤‫ٖٓبث‬ 3 ‫ٖٓبكهح‬ 5 ‫ٖٓبكهخ‬ 3 ‫ٖٓبػت – ط‬ 13 ‫ِٖٓؾخ‬ ‫ ط‬.21 ‫ٖٓبُؼ‬ 11 ‫خ‬٤ُ٘ٛٞ‫أُٖبُؾخ ا‬ 3 ‫ٖٓبُؼ ْٓزوًخ‬ 16 ‫ٖٓبُؾخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ٖٓلاه‬ 32 ‫ٖٓله‬ 4 ٢ٍ‫ٓب‬ِٞ‫ٖٓله كث‬ ‫ – ط‬74 ‫ٖٓبكه‬ 8 ‫خ‬٣‫ٖٓبكه ػٌَو‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤٘ٓ‫ٖٓبكه أ‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ ‫ٖٓبكه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫ٖٓبكه اإلػال‬ 4 ‫ٖٓلهح‬ 14 ‫ٖٓوع‬ 10 ١‫ٖٓو‬ 3 ‫ ط‬. stage efforts. projek pelan resolusi perancangan Zionis Moslem journey. teater.menawar terdahulu didahului tidak mungkin. peringkat masjid pentas. penunjuk hospital bersedia bargaining. haggle beforehand. bebas berlarutan.ٕٞ٣‫ٖٓو‬ 3 ‫ٖٓطؾت‬ 13 ‫و‬٤ٖٓ 4 ‫بكح‬ٚٓ 4 3 426 .7 ‫اد‬ٝ‫ْٓبه‬ 4 ٚ‫ْٓزج‬ 26 ‫ْٓزوى‬ 22 ‫ْٓزوًخ‬ 8 ‫ْٓلك‬ 8 ‫ْٓلكح‬ 38 ‫و‬٤ْٓ 14 ‫وح‬٤ْٓ 4 ‫ ط‬.15 ‫٘بد‬ٛٞ‫َٓز‬ 7 ‫ ط‬. expropriation making friend. didampingi perjalanan. turning into contrary.11 ٕٝ‫َٓزؼل‬ 34 َ‫َٓزوج‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ِ‫َٓزوج‬ 3 َّ‫َٓزو‬ 9 ‫َٓزوِخ‬ 7 ّ‫َٓزٔو‬ 6 ‫َٓزٔوح‬ 4 ‫٘خ‬ٛٞ‫َٓز‬ ‫ ط‬. kemaslahatan kemaslahatan negara kemaslahatan bersama perdamaian kebolehpercayaan sumber sumber deplomasi sumber ketenteraan sumber keselamatan sumber perubatan sumber informasi kematian orang Mesir. peacemaking credibility resource diplomatic source military sources security sources medical sources sources of information death Egptian associated by. association difficulties. tightening indicative of hit by. berkaitan Mesir ditemani. eliminated advisor. premature unlikely. disingkir penasihat. perubahan bertentangan meetings suspicious. project.tawar. separate continuous settlement tahap.

go away going. risiko orang Maghribi. sudden meaning.4 ْٕٞ‫ٓلز‬ 4 3 427 . menjejak berpusing. semangat. signification reactant. pass consider. peperangan rawatan.3 ‫ٓلبػالد‬ 7 ٗٝ‫ٓلب‬ ِ ‫ – ط‬6 ٕٞٙٝ‫ٓلب‬ ‫ ط‬. fighting treatment highness. standard crossing point. majority jail. regard arrester.berlipat-ganda isi kandungan berlalu pemergian bersifat menambah. unlimited desire. shut. reactor reactions negotiator negotiations examiner. semata-mata yang dituntut. show opposition opponents battle. muamalah penderitaan perjanjian kriteria tempat melintas. awal mutlak. dealings suffering treaty. rayuan permulaan. mengejut signifikan. terkunci kunci-kunci tergempar.6 ‫ٓؼلاد‬ 4 ‫ٓؼلُخ‬ 6 ‫ٓؼوة‬ 3 ٗ‫ٓؼو‬ 6 ‫ٓؼوكخ‬ 10 ‫ف‬ٝ‫ٓؼو‬ 21 ْ‫ٓؼظ‬ 6 َ‫ٓؼو‬ 3 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ٓؼو‬ 3 ِٖ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ ط‬. pelaku perlakuan-perlakuan perunding. agreement criterion. risk Moroccan bermakna.ٖ٤‫ز‬٤‫ٓـوث‬ 4 ٟ‫ٓـي‬ 4 ‫ٓـِوخ‬ 4 ‫ ط‬. sense jiwa. altered expressing showing. maksud tertutup. steward lapangan terbang kejar. multiplying content pass. berkaitan Maghribi morale. spirit life. captor dependable. inspector ‫بػلخ‬ٚٓ ٕٞٔٚٓ 8 ٠ٚٓ َ 7 ٢ ّ ٚٓ ُ 27 ‫ق‬٤ٚٓ 5 ‫لبد – ط‬٤ٚٓ 5 ‫لخ‬٤ٚٓ 7 ‫ٓطبه‬ 3 ‫ٓطبهكح‬ 3 ‫ٓطبف‬ 16 ‫ٓطبُجخ‬ 14 ‫ٓطِغ‬ 5 ‫ٓطِؼخ‬ 4 ‫ٓطِن‬ 3 ٖ٤‫ٓطِو‬ 4 ‫ة‬ِٞ‫ٓط‬ 4 ‫ثخ‬ِٞ‫ٓط‬ ‫ – ط‬16 ‫ٓطبُت‬ 6 ‫وح‬ٛ‫ٓظب‬ ‫ ط‬.74 ‫بد‬ٙٝ‫ٓلب‬ 3 ِِّ‫ٓلز‬ ‫ ط‬. masuk akal yang mengumumkan maklumat. tawanan boleh dipercayai tersedia peralatan-peralatan diubahsuai yang menyatakan yang menunjukkan pengetahuan diketahui kebanyakan penjara. bermakna pembuat. erti demonstration exhibition. start absolute. in demand tunjuk perasaan pertunjukan.19 ‫ٓؼبهى‬ 12 ‫ٓؼبُغخ‬ 3 ٢ُ‫ٓؼب‬ 3 ‫ٓؼبِٓخ‬ 3 ‫ٓؼبٗبح‬ 34 ‫لح‬ٛ‫ٓؼب‬ ‫ ط‬. leaving adventure.7 ‫واد‬ٛ‫ٓظب‬ ‫ ط‬.‫ؼ‬٤‫ٓلبر‬ 3 ‫ٓلبعئ‬ 6 ‫ٓلبعئخ‬ 5 ‫ٓلبك‬ 8 َ‫ٓلبػ‬ ‫ ط‬.10 ٗ‫ٓؼبه‬ ِ 78 ‫خ‬ٙ‫ٓؼبه‬ 9 ‫ ط‬. request. leaving in addition. tinggi pergaulan.38 ِٕٞ‫ٓؼزو‬ 3 ‫ٓؼزٔل‬ 3 ّ ‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ ط‬. sense locked. buru. deep meaning.5 ‫و‬٤٣‫ٓؼب‬ 4 ‫ٓؼجو‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫ٓؼبثو‬ 12 ‫جو‬ ِ ‫ٓؼز‬ 27 َ‫ٓؼزو‬ ‫ ط‬. business. rational announcer information. jururunding perundingan-perundingan pemeriksa meaning. expo pertentangan pembangkang pertempuran. going around claim. living departure. data secara mendalam makna.32 ‫ٓبد‬ِٞ‫ٓؼ‬ 3 ‫ٓؼٔوخ‬ 10 ٠٘‫ٓؼ‬ 12 ‫خ‬٤٘‫ٓؼ‬ 3 ‫ٖ – ط‬٤٤٘‫ٓؼ‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫بد‬٣ٞ٘‫ٓؼ‬ 4 ‫ْخ‬٤‫ٓؼ‬ 12 ‫ٓـبكهح‬ 3 ‫ٓـبٓوح‬ 16 ٢‫ٓـوث‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤‫ٓـوث‬ 3 ّ . prison reasonable. melalui yang menganggap tahanan. tracking circling. demonstrating knowledge known most. superiority treatment. pelayan doubling. chase. penyelesaian ketinggian. reliable prepared. demand beginning. data in depth. perlepasan cabaran. diminta airport pursue. closed keys surprise. mengelilingi permintaan. designed equipments modified.ٕٞٙ‫ٓؼبه‬ 3 ‫ٓؼوًخ‬ ‫ ط‬. pusat tahanan rasional. moral kehidupan pemergian.

9 ِٕٞ‫ٓٔض‬ 5 ‫بد – ط‬ٙ‫ٓٔو‬ 11 ٌٖٔٓ 3 ‫ٌٓٔ٘خ‬ 20 ‫ٌِٓٔخ‬ 3 428 . shaped clothes refuge.4 ٕٞٔ٤‫ٓو‬ 4 ‫ٌٓبكؤح‬ 18 ‫ٌٓبكؾخ‬ 16 ٕ‫ٌٓب‬ ‫ – ط‬8 ًٖ‫أٓب‬ 19 ‫ٌٓزَت‬ 3 ‫ثخ‬ٞ‫ٌٓز‬ 4 ‫ٌٓضَّق‬ 5 ‫ٌٓضلخ‬ 3 ‫َّٗخ‬ٌٞٓ ‫ ط‬. pejabat menebal. contention place table. rapat ditetapkan tempat duduk. hadiah bersungguh-sungguh tempat meja.‫ٓالعئ‬ 8 ‫ٓالؽوَخ‬ 3 ّ‫ٓالى‬ ِ 3 ‫ِٓيٓخ‬ 4 ‫ِٖٓن‬ 4 ‫ٓخ‬ٞ‫ِٓـ‬ 27 ّ‫ِٓق‬ 7 ١ُٝٞ٘‫أُِق ا‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ِٓلبد‬ 52 ‫ِِٓي‬ 6 ‫ٌِٓخ‬ 8 ٢ٌِٓ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٌِٓ َ‫ِٓي‬ 5 ‫ِٔي‬٣ 6 ‫رِٔي‬ 7 ‫ٍخ‬ِٞٔٓ 5 َ‫ٓٔبص‬ 7 ‫ٓٔبصِخ‬ 8 ‫ٓٔبهٍخ‬ َ 10 ِّ َ‫ٓٔض‬ 5 ‫ٓٔضِخ‬ ‫ ط‬. exercise to represent jururawat mungkin. combat comparison boycott article. assey keys resisting.terbuka sepatutnya. chair residents reward struggle. opposition cemetery mass grave next. shelters pursuit. killing introduction sites. buru pendamping. dictated legation facing. peperangan perbezaan pemulauan artikel. pejuang pembunuhan. kandungan pakaian-pakaian tempat berlindung kejar. bertambah terdiri. karangan kunci-kunci tentangan. places headquarters slose. tidak bersedia penentangan tanah perkuburan perkuburan besar masa hadapan diterima cadangan kematian. cover nuclear file. affirmed seat. opinion death. sahabat komited. nuclear issue king. folder. menyerupai latihan berlakon. mewakili touched. felt similar. pembunuhan pendahuluan tempat. berhadapan bertentangan pahlawan. opposite opposition fighter. balutan program nuklear raja berkaitan raja memiliki opened required. kediaman tetap ibu pejabat hampir. unwilling resistance. warrior fighting.5 ‫ل‬٤ُ‫ٓوب‬ 4 ّٝ‫ٓوب‬ ِ ‫ ط‬. fixed mined file. own disentuh. office condensed. bertanggungjawab lampiran dilombong fail. future accepted suggestion. like practice. dirasai menyamai. thickened formed. kerusi penduduk-penduduk balasan. intimate fixed.23 ِٕٞ‫ٓوبر‬ 3 ‫ٓوبرَِخ‬ 6 ‫ٓوبهٗخ‬ 6 ‫ؼخ‬ٛ‫ٓوب‬ 4 ٍ‫ٓوب‬ 5 ‫ٓوبُخ‬ ‫ ط‬.6 ٕٞٓٝ‫ٓوب‬ 20 ‫ٓخ‬ٝ‫ٓوب‬ َ 3 ‫ٓوجوح‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ٓوجوح عٔبػ‬/‫ٓوبثوح‬ 44 َِ‫ٓوج‬ 19 ‫ٓوجِخ‬ 7 ٍٞ‫ٓوج‬ 3 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ٓوج‬ 11 ‫ٓوزوػ‬ َ ‫ ط‬. diwajibkan perwakilan diplomatik bertentang. monarch royal to posses.6 ‫ٓوزوؽبد‬ 49 ََ‫ٓوز‬ 11 ‫ٓولّٓخ‬ 31 ّ‫ٓوو‬ 3 ّ‫أُوو اُؼب‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ٓوبه‬ 5 ٕٞ‫ٓووث‬ 30 ‫ٓووَّه‬ 10 ‫ٓووهح‬ 4 ‫ٓوؼل‬ ‫ ط‬. attendant committed. obligated attached. boleh jadi kerajaan nurses possibility kingdom 4 ‫ػ‬ٞ‫ٓلز‬ ‫ؽخ‬ٞ‫ٓلز‬ 3 ٗٝ‫ٓلو‬ 6 ‫خ‬ٙٝ‫ٓلو‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤ٙٞ‫ٓل‬ 26 َ‫ٓوبث‬ 25 ‫ثِخ‬ َ ‫ٓوب‬ 4 َِ‫ٓوبر‬ ‫ ط‬. chase accompanying.3 ٌ‫ٓالث‬ 3 ‫ ط‬.

rational granting. detach emigrants attack. launching organisation OPEC organisation international organisations Armed Force Organisation International Amnesty Organisation Red Cross Organisation terrorist organisations Lawyers Organisation prevention to prevent. pengikut mati.43 ‫ن‬ٛ‫ٓ٘ب‬ 5 ٢‫ٓ٘طو‬ 8 ْ ‫ٓ٘ؼ‬ 8 ‫ة‬ٝ‫ٓ٘ل‬ 26 ٍ‫ٓ٘ي‬ ‫ ط‬. bersempena peserta. found unified.9 ٕٝ‫بعو‬ٜٓ 5 ‫بعٔخ‬ٜٓ 4 ّ‫ب‬ٜٓ 4 ‫زٔخ‬ٜٓ 11 ْٜٓ 23 ‫ٔخ‬ٜٓ 4 ‫لَّكح‬ٜٓ 11 ‫ِخ‬ٜٓ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ِخ اُلٍز‬ُٜٔ‫ا‬ 5 ً‫٘ل‬ٜٓ 32 ‫خ‬ٜ‫اع‬ٞٓ ‫ – ط‬13 ‫بد‬ٜ‫اع‬ٞٓ ‫ ط‬. terpecah imigran. perdebatan tentangan peranginan pasukan kebangsaan forum pertengahan jawatan kawasan. limited time constitutional deadline architect opposition resources parallelism. fit suitability. rakyat persetujuan.12 ٍ‫ٓ٘بى‬ 4 ‫ْٓ٘ؤح‬ ‫ ط‬. ganti rumah yayasan. region green area logiacal. national approval. institusi kemudahan-kemudahan nuklear kemudahan minyak bergegas. bengkok terpisah. offensive important ugutan. equivalence cintinuation citizen.4 ‫اهك‬ٞٓ 7 ‫اىاح‬ٞٓ 10 ‫إِخ‬ٞٓ َ 9 ٖٛ‫ا‬ٞٓ ِ 29 ‫ٕ – ط‬ٞ٘ٛ‫ا‬ٞٓ 22 ‫اكوخ‬ٞٓ 7 ‫االح‬ٞٓ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ا‬ٞٓ 3 ‫ ط‬. argument resistence. followers death positive. house foundation.4 َٕٞ‫ٓ٘بك‬ 11 ‫ٓ٘بهْخ‬ ‫ ط‬. institution nuclear facilities oil facility rushing. continuation following. meninggal positif berdepan. retreat national team forum middle post area. opposition health resort.10 ‫ٓ٘بهْبد‬ 5 ‫خ‬ٚٛ‫ٓ٘ب‬ 4 ‫ٓ٘زغغ‬ 6 ‫ٓ٘زقت‬ 4 ٟ‫ٓ٘زل‬ 18 ‫ٓ٘زٖق‬ 33 ‫ٖٓ٘ت‬ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫ٓ٘بٕت‬ ِ 123 ‫ٓ٘طوخ‬ 6 ‫واء‬ٚ‫أُ٘طوخ اُق‬ ‫ ط‬. to stop lengkungan. site ‫ٓ٘بٍت‬ ‫ٍجخ‬ َ ‫ٓ٘ب‬ ٌِ‫ٓ٘بك‬ ‫ ط‬. presenting delegate. curve separated. terhadap kewujudan bersatu. langkah penggal perlembagaan arkitek pertembungan sumber-sumber kesamarataan perhubungan penduduk. logik penganugerahan wakil. agreement supporting.bersesuaian sesuai. pengembara menyerang penting.10 ‫ْٓ٘آد‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣ُٝٞ٘‫أُْ٘آد ا‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ْٓ٘ؤح ٗلط‬ 3 ‫ٓ٘طِوخ‬ 72 ‫ٓ٘ظٔخ‬ 3 ‫ثي‬ٝ‫ٓ٘ظٔخ أ‬ 11 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ أُ٘ظٔبد اُل‬/‫أُ٘ظٔخ‬ 3 ‫اد أَُِؾخ‬ٞ‫ٓ٘ظٔخ ه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ اُل‬ٞ‫ٓ٘ظٔخ اُؼل‬ 3 ‫ت األؽٔو‬٤ُِٖ‫ٓ٘ظٔخ ا‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫بث‬ٛ‫ أُ٘ظٔبد اإله‬/‫أُ٘ظٔخ‬ 3 ٖ٤ٓ‫ٓ٘ظٔخ أُؾب‬ ‫ – ط‬14 ‫ٓ٘ظٔبد‬ 20 ْ ‫ٓ٘غ‬ ‫ٓ٘غ‬ 5 ‫َٔ٘غ‬ ْ٣ 3 ‫رٔ٘غ‬ 4 ‫ٓ٘ؼطق‬ ِ 3 َٖ‫ٓ٘ل‬ 5 ‫ٓ٘لِٖخ‬ ‫ ط‬. kedudukan threatened term. satu yang menjelaskan tempat. menakutkan tempoh. directed present. subject to supporters. pesaing perbincangan. berturutan yang mengikut penyokong. affirmative sent. representative home. persepakatan menyokong . united explaining place. pelancaran pertubuhan Pertubuhan OPEC pertubuhan antarabangsa Pertubuhan Tentera Bersenjata Pertubuhan Pengampunan Antarabangsa Pertubuhan Palang Merah pertubuhan penganas pertubuhan peguam larangan melarang suitable. bahagian kawasan hijau akal. utama bent. on the occasion competitor debate.ٖ٤ُ‫ا‬ٞٓ 5 ‫د‬ٞٓ 9 ‫عت‬ٞٓ 8 َّٚ‫ع‬ٞٓ 3 ‫خ‬ٜ‫ع‬ٞٓ 6 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ع‬ٞٓ 14 ‫ؽَّل‬ٞٓ 7 ‫ؽلح‬ٞٓ 21 ‫ِّ ؼ‬ٙٞٓ 3 ‫ؾخ‬ٙٞٓ 3 ‫غ‬ٙٞٓ ِ 16 3 5 429 .

side such as.3 ‫غ‬٤ٙ‫ا‬ٞٓ 26 ‫ع‬ٞٙٞٓ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ػ‬ٞٙٞٓ ‫ ط‬. trend ‫ ط‬. memperlekeh perbalahan. representative Vice President Deputy Minister NATO resulting. direction fire people. dynamite active. perkara bertujuan. timbalan Timbalan Presiden Timbalan Menteri NATO keputusan. seperti seluruh dunia pilihan. detained procession. pembantu pandai bertutur. muncul arah. elite call. censure inclined to. kemenangan berjaya. virtous 430 . argue news result. able to speak official correspondence to debate. pergaduhan pencabutan. energetic 16 71 ‫ٗبئت‬ ٌ٤‫ٗبئت اُوئ‬ 8 ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ُٞ‫ٗبئت ا‬ ‫ ط‬. bercakap jurucakap rasmi berbahas.5 ٕٞ‫ظل‬ٞٓ 36 ‫ػل‬ٞٓ 8 ‫ػل االٗزقبثبد‬ٞٓ 31 ‫هغ‬ٞٓ 5 ‫هغ هاكاه‬ٞٓ 3 ‫هؼخ‬ٞٓ ‫ ط‬. menang supporter. bertenaga deputy.8 ‫أٖٗبه‬ 13 ‫ن‬ٛ‫ٗب‬ ِ 6 ٢ٍٔ‫ن ه‬ٛ‫ٗب‬ 3 ‫وخ‬ٛ‫ٗب‬ ِ‫ٗبه‬ 5 ِ‫٘به‬٣ 4 ‫ٗجؤ‬ ‫ ط‬. appeal to criticise. terhadap umpama. menarik keluar adil to appear. hala tuju pekerja. rise. arah api manusia. digantung kenderaan. kedudukan kedudukan bersatu pendirian negara Arab ditahan. orang letupan. for example world wide choice. outcome success. delegated water square. pick. masa yang dijanjikan tarikh pilihanraya tempat. field. staff appointment.perbalahan cergas. proceeding survivors side. mankind explosive. alamat kedudukan radar placed.prosiding yang selamat. prosperity to succeed.6 ٙ‫ب‬٤ٓ 5 ٕ‫لا‬٤ٓ 4 ٢ٗ‫لا‬٤ٓ 6 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫يا‬٤ٓ 4 َ٤ٓ َ ٌ pemangku. location radar location pendapat. membantah berita keputusan kejayaan. train empowered.5 ‫ْٗطبء‬ ‫َبٕو‬ ِ ٗ ‫ ط‬. position unified position Arab positions stopped. rekod. to manage keluar dari. perarakan diwakilkan air dataran. elit panggilan. masih hidup bahagian. conflict pulling out. spring from direction.26 ‫ٗزبئظ‬ 14 ‫ٗغبػ‬ 4 ‫ٗغؼ‬ 7 ‫ٗغؾذ‬ 7 ‫٘غؼ‬٣ 5 ‫ر٘غؼ‬ 6 ْ َ َ ‫ٗغ‬ 43 ٞ ْ‫َٗؾ‬ 17 ٞ َ ْ‫َٗؾ‬ ٞ َ ْ‫َٗؾ‬ ‫ ط‬. date election date place. domain field study budget tendency. kecenderongan stand.11 ‫اهغ‬ٞٓ 44 ‫هق‬ٞٓ 3 ‫ؽل‬ٞٓ ‫هق‬ٞٓ 22 ‫اهق‬ٞٓ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫اهق اُؼوث‬ُٞٔ‫ا‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ٕٞ‫ك‬ٞ‫ه‬ٞٓ 3 ‫ًت‬ٞٓ 3 َّ ًَٞٓ ‫ ط‬.10 ‫أٗؾبء‬ 3 ‫ٗقجخ‬ 15 ‫ٗلاء‬ 4 ّٗ ‫ك‬ َ‫ل‬ 4 ‫ٗلكد‬ 19 ‫ٗياع‬ 8 ْ ‫ٗيع‬ 6 ‫خ‬ٜ٣‫ٗي‬ penyokong. lapangan bidang ilmu bajet. helper articulate.ditempatkan. subject objectivity employer. haluan. ledakan. rayuan mengkritik. pendirian.51 ‫اة‬ٞٗ 7 ٞ‫ٗبر‬ 3 ْ‫ٗبع‬ ِ 5 ‫ٗبعٔخ‬ 3 ٖ٤‫ٗبع‬ 16 ‫خ‬٤‫ٗبؽ‬ 18 ‫ٗبه‬ 10 ً‫ٗب‬ 9 ‫ٗبٍلخ‬ ِ 4 ّٜ‫ٗب‬ ِ ‫ – ط‬9 ٕٞ‫ٗبّط‬ ‫ ط‬. belanjawan batu.31 ‫أٗجبء‬ 14 ‫غخ‬٤‫ٗز‬ ‫ ط‬. site. extraction fair.

moiety struggle. keturunan nisbah. power disclaim. intent pengganti. association debate. dikaitkan salinan aktiviti. chant.4 ٍ‫أٗلب‬ 7 ‫م‬ٞ‫ٗل‬ 8 ٠‫ٗل‬ 4 ٢‫٘ل‬٣ 3 ٢‫ر٘ل‬ ‫ ط‬. mahu. regard lawan. dictate text. dot check point starting point decrease. perhubungan kenderaan awam ketua. similar breath. carrying public transport head. fraud half. kinship ascription.5 ‫ب‬٣‫ا‬ٞٗ 8 ‫ع‬ٞٗ 3 ّٞٗ 60 ١ٝٞٗ 47 ‫خ‬٣ٝٞٗ ٟٞٗ 4 ١ٞ٘٣ 3 ١ٞ٘‫ر‬ 4 ‫بثخ‬٤ٗ 3 ٢‫بث‬٤ٗ 13 ‫خ‬٤‫بث‬٤ٗ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٗ 3 30 4 431 . minyak petroleum. stretching lagu. presiden tamat. attribution copy activity. loss to transport. wakil perwakilan niat. purpose ‫َٗبء‬ ‫َت‬ َ َٗ ‫َٗجخ‬ 9 ‫َٗقخ‬ 6 ٛ‫ْٗب‬ ‫ – ط‬10 ‫بد‬ٛ‫ْٗب‬ ‫ – ط‬8 ‫أْٗطخ‬ 21 ْ ‫ٗ ْو‬ 7 ‫ْٗود‬ 3 ‫ْو‬ ِ ُٗ 8 ‫ل‬٤ْٗ 3 ٢ُ٘ٛٞ‫ل ا‬٤ُْ٘‫ا‬ 5 ّٔٗ 10 ُّٔ٘٣ 7 ٔٗ 3 ‫ْٖٗ ت‬ 15 ‫ٖٗق‬ 5 ٍ‫ب‬ٚٗ 7 ‫ٗطبم‬ 45 ّ‫ٗظب‬ ‫ ط‬. selari. last daytime river rising windows kind. order sight. kuasa menafikan counterpart. syarat penipuan. sama bernafas. bermaksud transporting. authority. pandangan melihat song. president end. termination final. strife range. sendiri terowong petroleum.3 ‫ٗوبّبد‬ 15 ‫ٗوطخ‬ 3 ِ٤‫ٗوطخ اُزلز‬ 3 ‫ٗوطخ االٗطالم‬ ‫ ط‬. harta rampasan pengaruh. oil petroleum. hilang berubah. akhir berkenaan akhir hari sungai kebangkitan tingkap jenis tidur nuklear berniat. gift influence. parallel. minyak hadiah. tanda pusat pemeriksaan titik permulaan berkurang. denial persatuan. anthem national anthem to provide for. version erection. oil donation. slumber nuclear mean.3 ‫ٗظواء‬ ‫ٗظو‬ 3 ‫٘ظو‬٣ 5 ‫ر٘ظو‬ 16 ‫و‬٤‫ٗظ‬ 66 ٌ‫ٗل‬ 3 ٌ‫أٗل‬ ‫َٗلَن‬ ‫ – ط‬14 ‫أٗلبم‬ 47 َٜ‫ٗل‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ٗلط‬ ََ‫َٗل‬ ‫ ط‬. carry kenderaan. vision to look. perdebatan titik. sela. sort sleep.wanita sanak saudara. lanjutan sistem. pengarah. energy penyebaran spreading.4 ‫ٗوبثبد‬ ‫ ط‬. sebahagian bertungkus-lumus. diri. menentikan teks. deputyship representative intent. tegak. usaha bidang. extent. raising. maksud representation. nasyid lagu kebangsaan menetapkan. dispute point.7 ٛ‫ٗوب‬ 12 ْٗ ٔ‫و‬ 8 َ َ َ‫ٗو‬ 30 ‫ٗوِذ‬ 3 ‫ا‬ِِٞ‫ُٗو‬ 3 ‫ُٗوِِذ‬ 3 َِ‫٘و‬٣ 37 ْ َ‫ٗ و‬ 3 ّ‫ٗوَ ػب‬ 7 ‫ت‬٤‫ٗو‬ 40 ‫خ‬٣‫ب‬ٜٗ 25 ٢‫بئ‬ٜٗ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫بئ‬ٜٗ 6 ‫به‬ٜٗ 5 ‫و‬ٜٗ 3 ‫خ‬ٜٚٗ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫اكن‬ٞٗ ‫ ط‬. angkat separuh. self tunnel petroleum. undang-undang penglihatan. pertubuhan perbincangan. want. pindah union. perbuatan women descent.8 ‫أٗظٔخ‬ 39 َ ‫َٗظو‬ ‫ ط‬. field system.

13 ‫لاف‬ٛ‫أ‬ َ‫لف‬ٛ 3 ‫لف‬ٜ٣ 7 ‫لف‬ ِ ٜ‫ر‬ 6 ‫ء‬ٝ‫ل‬ٛ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫ة‬ٝ‫و‬ٛ 4 ‫ٔخ‬٣‫ي‬ٛ 3 ١‫٘ل‬ٛ 3 ‫اء‬ٞٛ 12 ‫خ‬٣ٞٛ 23 ‫ئخ‬٤ٛ 5 ‫ئخ ػِٔبء‬٤ٛ 4 ‫ٔ٘خ‬٤ٛ 5 3 3 tujuan. foot note emigration. personality form. sesuai clear. besar menyambung incoming. quiet(ness) to flee. kehandalan calm(ness). penyakit gaya. reality epidemic. pandemic manner. disebut luar. ascendancy ‫و‬ tanggungjawab. 14 ٕ‫وا‬٤ٗ ‫هـ‬ telefon berkenaan telefon serangan tenang. deed documentary 432 . menjauhkan kekalahan orang India. berkaitan India angin. reported wide. front ‫اعت‬ٝ ‫ة‬ٞ‫ع‬ٝ ٚ‫اع‬ٝ 10 ٚ‫اع‬ٞ٣ 6 ٚ‫اع‬ٞ‫ر‬ ِ 3 ٚ‫اع‬ٞٗ 3 ‫ذ‬ٜ‫اع‬ٝ 7 ٕٜٞ‫اع‬ٞ٣ 4 ‫اهكح‬ٝ 15 ‫اٍؼخ‬ٝ َٕ‫ا‬ٝ 5 ‫إِذ‬ٝ 3 َٕ‫ا‬ٞ٣ 4 َٕ‫ا‬ٞ‫ر‬ ِ 15 ‫ؼ‬ٙ‫ا‬ٝ ِ 4 ‫ؾخ‬ٙ‫ا‬ٝ 5 ‫اكن‬ٝ 10 ‫اكوذ‬ٝ 3 ‫اكِن‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ‫اهِغ‬ٝ 10 ‫اهؼخ‬ٝ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫اهؼ‬ٝ 4 ‫ثبء‬ٝ 3 ‫وح‬٤‫ر‬ٝ 20 ‫وخ‬٤‫ص‬ٝ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫صبئن‬ٝ 3 ‫ ط‬. run away defeat.27 ‫غٔبد‬ٛ 5 ‫لَّك‬ٛ 3 ‫لكد‬ٛ 3 ‫لّك‬ٜ٣ 6 ‫لِّك‬ُٜ‫ر‬ 38 ‫لف‬ٛ ‫ ط‬. top margin. assail calm. rout Indian air identity. quiet important. shape. mode. expatriation attack. menggertak telephone telephonic to attack. go on jelas. imigran serangan mengancam. pengenalan diri bahagian. explain to agree to. yang menjelaskan bersetuju. stated.٢‫صبئو‬ٝ 3 6 datang. terdapat. spacious to continue. utama nota kaki. group Muslim scholars supremacy. aman penting. method document. bersua duty. udara identiti. aim to aim at. consent to berlaku.pembakaran flame. jatuh realiti. happen realism. dropping. kumpulan golongan ulama Muslim kekuasaan. wajib bertemu. drive at ketenangan pelarian. catatan perjalanan. menace ‫برق‬ٛ ٢‫برل‬ٛ ‫خ‬٤‫برل‬ٛ 4 ْ‫بع‬ٛ 3 ‫ا‬ٞٔ‫بع‬ٛ 3 ‫بكئ‬ٛ 8 ‫بٓخ‬ٛ 5 ِٓ‫ب‬ٛ 4 ‫غوح‬ٛ 58 ّٞ‫غ‬ٛ ‫ ط‬. benar wabak. objektif bertujuan target. obligation to face. cara dokumen berkenaan dokumen falling. offensive to threaten.

hadapan face. schedule ‫عت‬ٝ َ ‫غت‬ ِ ٣ ‫عل‬ٝ 4 ‫علد‬ٝ 3 ‫غل‬٣ 7 ‫عل‬ٞ٣ 6 ‫عل‬ٞ‫ر‬ 10 َّٚ‫ع‬ٝ 9 ‫ذ‬ّٜ‫ع‬ٝ 4 ٚ ِّ‫ع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 10 ٚ ْ‫ع‬ٝ 7 ‫خ‬ٜ‫ع‬ٝ 4 ‫بد – ط‬ٜ‫ع‬ٝ 41 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ع‬ٝ 6 ‫ؽْ ل‬ٝ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫ؽلاد‬ٝ 21 ‫ؽلح‬ٝ 6 ‫خ‬٤ُ٘ٛٞ‫ؽلح ا‬ُٞ‫ا‬ 15 ‫ل‬٤‫ؽ‬ٝ ‫ههَخ‬ َٝ َ ‫ ط‬. appropriate time. medium. determine Minister. department Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Defense Ministry of Oil ministerial. represent penjelasan. jadual homeland. menujukan to send.6 ‫هام‬ٝ‫أ‬ 48 ‫ىاهح‬ٝ 24 ‫خ‬٤‫ىاهح اُقبهع‬ُٞ‫ا‬ 5 ‫ىاهح اُلكبع‬ٝ 3 ٜ‫ىاهح اُ٘ل‬ٝ ّ . intervention middle. kumpulan berdasarkan. requisite to find. situation final status to put. hampir mendekati menyifatkan. spacious mediator.mewajibkan. kerja menepati. berseorangan existence. visage kewujudan kesatuan. post faithfulness. menentukan terdapat. agency mass media mediation. arrive at kesampaian. keadaan situasi terkini meletak arrival. being alone.4 ٛ‫ٍب‬ٝ‫أ‬ 4 ‫ٍْغ‬ٝ ُ 6 ٜ٤ٍٝ ‫ ط‬. intercessor to be quick. native job. fast imminent. fatherland national.3 ‫ظبئق‬ٝ 6 ‫كبء‬ٝ 3 ‫كبح‬ٝ 27 ْ ‫ك ل‬ٝ 21 ْ ‫ كن‬ٝ ِ 136 ‫هذ‬ٝ 32 433 . tengah luar. approaching to describe. centre to widen. dispatch muka. kesetiaan kematian deligasi. decease delegation fit.131 ‫ىهاء‬ٝ 8 ‫ٓخ‬ٌٞ‫ىهاء اُؾ‬ٝ 26 ‫وح‬٣‫ى‬ٝ ‫ – ط‬20 َ‫ٍبئ‬ٝ 13 ّ‫ٍبئَ اإلػال‬ٝ 6 ‫خ‬ٛ‫ٍب‬ٝ ‫ ط‬.3 ٕ‫ىاهرب‬ٝ 6 ١‫ىاه‬ٝ 5 ‫خ‬٣‫ىاه‬ٝ 4 ٕ‫ى‬ٝ 166 ‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ 71 ‫خ‬٤‫ىهاء اُقبهع‬ٝ/‫وح‬٣‫ى‬ٝ/‫و‬٣‫ى‬ٝ 26 ‫و اُلكبع‬٣‫ى‬ٝ 3 ّ‫و اإلػال‬٣‫ى‬ٝ ‫ ط‬. office. wadah media massa perantaraan pusat.4 ‫ٍطبء‬ٝ 3 ‫َّي‬ٝ 3 ‫ي‬٤ّٝ 20 ‫ٕق‬ٝ 3 ‫ٕق‬ٞ‫ر‬ 14 ‫ٕلَذ‬ٝ 10 ‫ْٕ ق‬ٝ 14 َٕٝ 6 ‫ِٕذ‬ٝ 9 َٖ٣ 4 َٖ‫ر‬ 46 ٍٕٞٝ 91 ‫ْ غ‬ٙٝ 8 ٢‫بئ‬ُٜ٘‫غ ا‬ُٙٞ‫ا‬ ‫ – ط‬27 ‫بع‬ٙٝ‫أ‬ 5 ‫غ‬ َ ٙ َ ٝ َ 6 ‫غ‬ٚ٣ 4 ‫غ‬ٚ‫ر‬ 4 ‫ؼذ‬ٙٝ 3 ‫ؼذ‬ُٙ ِ ٝ 7 ٖٛٝ 29 ٢٘ٛٝ 35 ‫خ‬٤٘ٛٝ ‫ ط‬. reaching putting. cabinet to weigh. representation to reach. ketibaan perletakan. fidelity death. placing. pembentangan sampai description. meluaskan orang tengah pantas. solitary penyatuan kebangsaan kertas kementerian Kementerian Luar Kementerian Pertahanan Kementerian Minyak berkenaan kementerian timbangan menteri Menteri Luar Menteri Pertahanan Menteri Perhubungan menteri-menteri kerajaan medium. selaras waktu. mewakili national unity piece of paper.4 ‫بد‬ٛ‫ٍب‬ٝ 42 ٍٜٝ ‫ ط‬. sheet of paper ministry. place negara kebangsaan tugas. to meet with mengarahkan. ada become necessary. secretary Foreign Ministers Defense Minister Information Minister ministers of government means.

everyday UNICEF 3 ٢ٗ‫بثب‬٣ ‫ ط‬. drop. handmade certainty. rising representative. occurrence standing. now to revere. located berhenti to stop. state. ikrar ikrar perlembagaan orang Yahudi uranium pemprosesan uranium Euro hari seharian. bangun wakil wakil berita wakil antarabangsa Agensi Tenaga Atom Antarabangsa dibawah jagaan.masa sekarang menghormati jatuh. harian UNICEF Japanese hand manual.16 ٖ٤ٓٞ٣ 18 ٢ٓٞ٣ 8 ‫خ‬٤ٓٞ٣ 4 ‫ق‬٤َ٤ٗٞ٣ 434 . halting fuel fall. okejadian berdiri. berlaku. agency news agency international agency International Atomic Energy Agency guardianship. berkaitan Jepun tangan berkenaan tangan yakin boleh. close to guardian. halt pemerhentian minyak jatuh. hamper penjaga. to be able Yemenian oath constitutional oath Judaism uranium enriched uranium Euro day daily. mandate presidential mandate to give birth to follow. mampu orang Yaman sumpah. negeri mandat Presiden dilahirkan mengikuti.5 ‫بد‬٣‫ال‬ٝ 3 ‫َُل‬ٝ 6 ٢ُٝ 3 َّ ٠ُٝ 3 ْْٛٝ 6 ٌ orang Jepun. ketua yg dilantik samar.3 ٕٞ٤ٗ‫بثب‬٣ 13 ‫ل‬٣ 5 ‫خ‬٣ٝ‫ل‬٣ 5 ١‫ل‬٣‫أ‬ 3 ٖ٤‫و‬٣ 53 ٌٖٔ٣ 14 ٢٘ٔ٣ ّ 10 ‫خ‬٤٘ٔ٣ 8 ٖ٤ٔ٣ 6 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٞ‫ٖ اُلٍز‬٤ٔ٤ُ‫ا‬ 16 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٜٞ٣ 25 ّٞ٤ٗ‫ها‬ٞ٣ 6 ‫ّ ٓقٖت‬ٞ٤ٗ‫ها‬ٞ٣ 5 ٝ‫ه‬ٞ٣ 158 ّٞ٣ ّ . tempat present time. respect fall. ragu-ragu stopping. curator illusion. occur. delusion ٖٛ‫هذ اُوا‬ُٞ‫ا‬ ‫ – ط‬6 ‫هبد‬ٝ‫أ‬ ‫كَّو‬ٝ 3 ِّ ‫كو‬ٞ‫ر‬ 17 ‫هغ‬ٝ 4 ‫وغ‬٣ 3 ‫روغ‬ 3 ‫هؼب‬ٝ 8 ‫هؼذ‬ٝ 10 ‫هَّؼذ‬ٝ ‫هق‬ٝ 7 ‫روق‬ 3 ‫وق‬٣ ‫هَّق‬ٝ 3 ‫هِّق‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫هلذ‬ٝ 29 ْٝ ‫هق‬ 17 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ه‬ٝ 13 ‫ع‬ٞ‫ه‬ٝ 7 ‫ف‬ٞ‫ه‬ٝ 76 ‫ًبُخ‬ٝ 15 ‫ًبُخ األٗجبء‬ٝ 15 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ًبُخ اُل‬ُٞ‫ا‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ًبُخ اُنه‬ُٞ‫ا‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫ًبالد‬ٝ 39 ‫خ‬٣‫ال‬ٝ 6 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫خ هئب‬٣‫ال‬ٝ ‫ ط‬. certitude become possible.

gathering social to meet. enrichment do excellently meeting. present removal. pergi dari pengekalan. confiderasi Persatuan Bolasepak Asia kesatuan antarabangsa konfiderasi bolasepak Persatuan Afrika persatuan Arab Pusat Persatuan Iraq kerkenaan kesatuan menjadikan. urusan proses undian proses kelayakan sewa. menunda kata sepakat coming. agreement 435 . offer direction union. balasan mengadakan. penjagaan penyampaian anak lelaki izin. demonstrate make apparent. next. do cause. remains becoming rich. memperelok perjumpaan sosial berkumpul menjalankan.5 ‫ارؾبكاد‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣‫ارؾبك‬ 8 ‫ارقبم‬ 5 َ َّ ‫ارقَ ن‬ 6 ‫زقن‬٣ 10 ٍ‫ارِّٖب‬ ‫ ط‬. adoption to take.APPENDIX IV SPORT ‫ا‬ menjauhi. result effect.4 ‫آصبه‬ 3 ‫اصواء‬ ‫أعبك‬ 3 ‫ل‬٤‫غ‬٣ 23 ‫اعزٔبع‬ 3 ٢‫اعزٔبػ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫اعزٔبػ‬ 3 ‫غ‬ َ ٔ‫اعز‬ 3 ‫رغزٔغ‬ 28 ‫اعواء‬ 5 ‫اعواء اُووػخ‬ 3 ‫بد‬٤‫اعواء اُزٖل‬ ‫ ط‬. contract agreement. komunikasi menjadi jelas persetujuan. leaving eternity to show. making. kekal menunjuk. menuip keterujaan. present. keterangsangan menegaskan.13 ‫ارٖبالد‬ ‫ؼ‬َّٚ‫ار‬ 3 ‫ؼ‬َّٚ‫رز‬ 13 ‫ارلبم‬ 5 ٢‫ارلبه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ارلبه‬ 4 ‫ن‬ َ ‫ارَّل‬ ٠‫أر‬ 7 ٢‫ؤر‬٣ 9 ٢‫رؤر‬ 4 ٢‫آر‬ 3 ‫به‬ َ َ‫أص‬ 4 ‫اصبهح‬ 3 ْ َ‫أصجَذ‬ 31 ْ ‫اصو‬ 8 ‫أصَو‬ ‫ ط‬.6 ‫اعواءاد‬ 3 ‫أُعوح‬ 7 ٟ‫و‬ َ ْ‫أَع‬ 5 ُ ‫ذ‬٣ َ‫و‬ ِ69 ْ‫أع‬ َ ْ‫أع‬ َ َّ ‫أ‬ َ ‫ع‬ 3 ََّ‫ئع‬ َ ُ‫ر‬ 4 ‫اعٔبع‬ 5 berikut. membuktikan akibat dari kesan. tinggalan menjadi kaya memperbaiki. selepas membangkitkan. hire to perform. ambil sebagai menjadikan hubungan. taking away retention. menonjol menjauhkan. keeping notification. mempersembah jelas. following to excite. pergi dari selamanya. to assume connection. tawaran. mendapat arah kesatuan. menjalankan sebab melengahkan. confideration AFC Football international federation football confideration African union Arab union Center for Iraq Union unionism. contract to agree to come ‫اثزؼبك‬ 4 ‫أثلا‬ 9 ْ‫أ‬ َٟ‫ثل‬ 15 ‫ْوى‬ َ ‫أث‬ 6 ‫اثؼبك‬ 5 ‫اثوبء‬ 4 ‫اثالؽ‬ 5 ٖ‫اث‬ ‫ ط‬. information son permission. reason to postpone unanimous. federalism assumption. establish consequence. come together performance. arouse excitement to prove. communication to become clear agreement. perjanjian berkenaan perjanjian bersetuju datang moving away. kelab.10 ‫أث٘بء‬ 3 ‫اربؽخ‬ 5 ٙ‫ارغب‬ 278 ‫ارؾبك‬ 28 ١ٞ٤ٍ٥‫االرؾبك ا‬ 11 ٢ُٝ‫ارؾبك ك‬ 28 ‫ارؾبك اٌُوح‬ 7 ٢‫و‬٣‫االرؾبك اإلكو‬ 7 ٢‫االرؾبك اُؼوث‬ 6 ١‫ أُوًي‬٢‫االرؾبك اُؼواه‬ ‫ ط‬. matter draw holding qualifier rental.

final performance. menamatkan experiment. memelihara generally. finish berbeza. cubaan. pelaksanaan mentadbir.7 ‫بعبد‬٤‫اؽز‬ 9 ٟ‫اؽل‬ 49 ‫اؽواى‬ 16 ‫اؽواى اُِوت‬ 11 ‫لف‬ُٜ‫اؽواى ا‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫لا‬٤ُٔ‫اؽواى ا‬ 34 َ‫وى‬ َ ‫أؽ‬ 3 ْ ‫وىَ د‬ َ ‫أؽ‬ 8 ‫ؾوى‬٣ ّ‫أؽو‬ 3 ّ‫ُؾْ و‬٣ 3 َٖ َ ْ‫أؽ‬ 3 ِّ َ ‫خ‬٤ َ ‫ؽو‬ َ ‫أ‬ 6 ‫أؽٔو‬ 8 ‫افزبه‬ 3 ‫قزبه‬٣ 3 ْ ُ‫ا‬ ‫و‬٤‫ز‬ َ ‫ف‬ 4 ‫افزجبه‬ ‫ ط‬. obtainment make the title make the goal medal achievement to obtain. saving to keep. overall do well. nurture penjagaan. bercanggah pemilihan. mendapat lain to differ. moral to perceive. retain ceremony. satu memperolehi. be wrong dangerous last. berpuas hati memeluk. to achieve mengharamkan. selection to take. pilihan mengambil. satisfaction to calculate. select peperiksaan. pengakhiran mengakhiri. management club management union administration team management administrative moral. penyelenggaraan menjaga. akhir persembahan. close. necessities one.3 ٖ٤٣‫اكاه‬ 3 ٢‫أكث‬ 4 َ‫أكهى‬ 3 4 436 . become different choice.secara keseluruhan tercantik.3 ‫افزجبهاد‬ 3 ّ‫افززب‬ 3 ْ َ ‫افزز‬ 7 ْ‫قزز‬٣ 4 ْ‫ز‬ ِ ‫رقز‬ ‫افزِق‬ 3 ‫رقزِق‬ 28 ‫به‬٤‫افز‬ 3 َ َ‫أف‬ ‫ن‬ 54 ‫آفَو‬ ‫ ط‬. execution to manage. end to end. pengurusan pengurusan kelab pentadbiran persatuan pengurusan pasukan berkenaan pentadbiran last taking out make mistake. hold. one of acquisition. melarang lebih baik keutamaan merah memilih to ban. mendapat mendapat gelaran membuat gol mendapat pingat memperoleh.4 ٕٝ‫آفَ و‬ 95 ٟ‫أفو‬ 15 ‫آفو‬ ِ 5 ‫افواط‬ 3َ َ ْ َ ‫أفطؤ‬ 3 ‫أفطو‬ 71 ‫و‬٤‫أف‬ 81 ‫وح‬٤‫أف‬ 34 ‫أكاء‬ 3 ‫ه‬ َ ‫أكا‬ 5 ‫و‬٣‫ل‬٣ 109 ‫اكاهح‬ 40 ١‫اكاهح اُ٘بك‬ 12 ‫اكاهح االرؾبك‬ 5 ‫ن‬٣‫اكاهح اُلو‬ 18 ١‫اكاه‬ 17 ‫خ‬٣‫اكاه‬ 4 ‫ ط‬. memperolehi keeping. to grab another akhir pengeluaran melakukan kesalahan berbahaya terakhir. satisfy with to embrace. majlis menguasai. menyedari literary. memegang upacara.‫اكاهاد‬ ‫ ط‬. bekerja pentadbiran. realise ٢ُ‫اعٔب‬ َٔ َ ْ‫أع‬ ‫اؽزبط‬ 10 ‫ؾزبط‬٣ 5 ‫اؽزغبط‬ 10 ‫اؽزواف‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫اؽزواك‬ 11 ّ‫اؽزوا‬ 9 ‫اؽزَبة‬ ‫اؽزَت‬ 3 ‫ؾزَت‬٣ ٖٚ‫اؽز‬ 3 ‫َ٘ذ‬َٚ َ ‫اؽز‬ 3 ٖٚ‫ؾز‬٣ 4 ٖٚ‫رؾز‬ 3 ‫اؽزلبظ‬ ‫اؽزلع‬ 3 ‫ؾزلع‬٣ 8 ٍ‫اؽزلب‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫اؽزلبالد‬ 4 َ َّ ‫اؽز‬ 8 ّ ‫ؾز‬٣ َ 3 َ ُّ ‫رؾز‬ 3 ٍ‫اؽزٔب‬ ‫ ط‬. test last. precedence red to choose. to prohibit better priority. kesusasteraan memahami. do excellently need protest professionalism respect calculation. maintaining. pengiraan mengira. mendapat possibility needs. take possession kemungkinan keperluan-keperluan salah satu. ujian tamat. feast take control. to work administration. lebih elok memerlukan bantahan profesionalisma penghormatan kepuasan.

to renew stadium professor. establish stability. mengelakkan pelaburan berhak orang Australia. master removal.membuat. kembali melayan. menaik. sedar hendak. tuan menjahui. renewal to resume. constancy ‫ْهى‬ ِ ‫ُل‬٣ 13 َّٟ‫أَك‬ ‫أكَّد‬ 4 ١‫ئك‬٣ 4 ‫اكهاى‬ 3 ‫ك‬ َ ‫أها‬ 5 ُ٣ ْ ‫ُو‬ ‫ل‬ ٣ ِ 4 ‫ل‬٣‫ٗو‬ 6 ‫اهاكح‬ 4 ‫اهرجبى‬ 5 ‫اهرلغ‬ 6 ‫غ‬ ُ ِ‫َوْ رَل‬٣ 3 ٠‫اهرو‬ 3 ‫اهرٌبة‬ 4 ‫اهرٌت‬ 22 ٢٘٤‫أهع٘ز‬ 16 ٢ٗ‫أهك‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫أهك‬ 3 ٍ‫اهٍب‬ 4 َ َ ٍ َ ْ‫أه‬ 4 ‫أهٍِذ‬ 50 ٗ‫أه‬ 16 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫أه‬ 8 ٕ‫لا‬٤ُٔ‫خ ا‬٤ٙ‫أه‬ 4 ‫بم‬ٛ‫اه‬ 3 ‫أىهم‬ 3 ‫األىهم اُلبرؼ‬ 9 ‫أىٓخ‬ 10 ً‫أٍب‬ 3 ‫ ط‬.6 ‫غ‬٤‫أٍبث‬ ّ . pemulihan persediaan menggunakan sepenuhnya penggunaan sepenuhnya tidak memerlukan mendapat faedah berguna.11 ‫اٍزؼلاكاد‬ 8 َ‫اٍزـ‬ َ 11 ٍ‫اٍزـال‬ 9 ‫اٍزـ٘بء‬ 5 ‫اٍزلبك‬ 10 ‫اٍزلبكح‬ 8 ‫اٍزوبُخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫اٍزوبُخ عٔبػ‬ 13 ٍ‫اٍزوجب‬ 5 َ‫اٍزوج‬ 4 ‫و‬ َّ ‫اٍزو‬ 9 ‫اٍزوواه‬ 3 4 437 . dispatch land floor. host layanan. merit Australian recovery.11 ٖ٤‫ػ‬ٞ‫أٍج‬ 5 ‫اٍزئ٘بف‬ َ‫اٍزؤَٗق‬ 4 ُ‫َزَؤِْٗق‬ ْ َ٣ 40 ‫أٍزبك‬ 3 ‫أٍُْزبم‬ 8 ‫اٍزجؼبك‬ 5 ْ ‫اٍز‬ ‫ل‬ َ‫ؼ‬ َ‫ج‬ 3 ُ‫ؼ‬ ْ َ‫َز‬ ْ ٣ ‫ل‬ َ ِ‫ج‬ 4 ْ ‫اٍزضٔبه‬ َّ ‫َؾ‬ ْ ‫ا‬ ‫ن‬ َ ‫ٍز‬ 4 ُّ ‫َؾ‬ ْ ٣ ‫ن‬ َ ِ ‫َز‬ 11 ٢ُ‫أٍزوا‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫أٍزوا‬ 3 ‫اٍزوعبع‬ ‫بف‬ٚ‫اٍز‬ 5 ُ‫ق‬٤َٚ ْ َ٣ ِ ‫َز‬ 10 ‫ق‬٤ٚ‫رَز‬ 20 ‫بكخ‬ٚ‫اٍز‬ 8 ‫ع‬ َ ‫اٍزطب‬ 3 ‫ا‬ٞ‫اٍزطبػ‬ 3 ‫ْغ‬٤‫َط‬ َ ِ ‫َز‬٣ 9 ‫اٍزؼبك‬ 4 ُ ٤‫ؼ‬ ْ ٣ ‫ل‬ ِ َ‫َز‬ 4 ‫اٍزؼبكح‬ 26 ‫اٍزؼلاك‬ ‫ ط‬. perform.ٌٍُ‫أ‬ 11 ٢ٍ‫أٍب‬ 12 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫أٍب‬ 44 ٢ٗ‫اٍجب‬ 56 ‫ع‬ٞ‫أٍج‬ ‫ ط‬. dasar asas orang Spain. to climb committing to commit Argentinian Jordanian sending. receiving to receive. bermanfaat perletakan jawatan perletakan jawatan beramai-ramai penerimaan. go up ascend. disconcertion to rise. realisation to want. panjat perlakuan melakukan orang Argintina. membarui stadium encik. utilise exploitation. regaining preparedness. lead to pemahaman. menyambut menetap. berkaitan Spain minggu wish. regaining to entertain. to conclude utility. lantar tingkat bawah keletihan. mampu entertaining. berkaitan Jordan penghantaran menghantar tanah tanah. tuan rumah kpd boleh. ground ground floor exhaust. wish kemahuan. burden. not to need to benefit. membawa kepada to do. regain recovery. ketetapan to come back. jadi tuan rumah resumption. readiness to exploit. kehendak samar. kurang senang mengangkat. host to can. foundation fundamental Spanish week bermula semula. kembali kembali. membarui bermula semula. beban. sambutan menerima. mengekal kestabilan. taking away to set aside investment to deserve. utilisation manage without. pergi dari menjauhkan. to meet to settle. naik menokok. mahu perception. usefulness resignation mass resignation reception. desire confusion. berkaitan Australia pemulihan. dispatching to send. fatigue blue light blue crisis basis. berkaitan Argintina orang Jordan. to be able pulang. kepenatan biru biru cerah krisis asas.

field release. pemulangan pinjaman. trust depend on ٍ‫اٍزٌٔب‬ ‫و‬ َّ ٔ‫اٍز‬ ‫اٍزٔود‬ 3 ْ ٣ ‫و‬ ُّ ٔ ِ َ‫َز‬ 5 ‫و‬ ُّ ٔ‫رَز‬ 12 ‫اٍزٔواه‬ 4 ‫بء‬٤‫اٍز‬ 3 ٢ِ٤‫اٍوائ‬ 3 ‫أٍلود‬ 11 ‫ة‬ٍِٞ‫أ‬ 22 ٍْ‫ا‬ ‫ ط‬. give back returning. accident. perfection to continue. last kelangsungan ketidakpuasan. mathod name to fatten. pay attention hindering. keadah nama menggemukkan lebih buruk hitam Sungai Hitam (Iraq) Asia nisbah kpd Asia memuji. dissatisfaction Israeli to result. demonstration to show to return. restoration lending. terdesak rangka. beckon tanda. to force framework. injury to become insistence. trespass. keampunan bantahan mengiktiraf mempercayai aggression. mengajar pemberitahuan. plump worse black Black River (Iraq) Asia Asian to praise. penegasan asal menambah sign. melepasi kemaafan. mark cub participation supervision. tambahan terpaksa. tunjuk ajar menyelia. memperlihat menunjukkan. sekatan mengambil kira mengambil kira addition to compel. produce style.10 ‫أٍٔبء‬ 6 ْ ‫أ‬ ‫َٔ٘ذ‬ ٍَ 4 ‫أ‬ْٞ َ ٍ‫أ‬ 9 ‫ك‬ٍٞ‫أ‬ 8 ٖ٣‫ك اُواكل‬ٍٞ‫أ‬ 66 ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫آ‬ 49 ١ٞ٤ٍ‫آ‬ 31 ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ‫آ‬ 8 ‫ك‬ َ ‫أّب‬ 26 ‫أّبه‬ 6 ‫أّبهد‬ 6 ‫و‬ ُ ٤ُْ ِ ٣ 5 ‫و‬٤ْ‫ر‬ 3 ‫و‬٤ْٗ 11 ‫ه‬ ُ ‫َُْب‬٣ 6 ‫اّبهح‬ 3 ٍ‫أّجب‬ 3 ‫اّزواى‬ 14 ‫اّواف‬ ْ َ‫أ‬ َ‫ّوَف‬ 6 ْ ُ٣ ُ‫وف‬ ْ ِ 4 ‫اّؼبه‬ 41 ‫إبثخ‬ 16 ‫ؼ‬ َ َ‫إْٔ ج‬ 5 ‫ؾذ‬ َ َ‫إْٔ ج‬ 7 ‫إواه‬ 3 َٕ‫أ‬ 68 ‫بف‬ٙ‫أ‬ 4 ‫بكذ‬ٙ‫أ‬ 14 ُ‫ق‬٤ُٚ ِ ٣ 38 ‫بكخ‬ٙ‫ا‬ 3 ٢‫بك‬ٙ‫ا‬ 3 ‫و‬ َّ ‫ط‬ٙ‫ا‬ 15 ‫به‬ٛ‫ا‬ 7 ‫الم‬ٛ‫ا‬ 6 ‫ن‬ َ ِٛ‫أ‬ 3 ْ ٣ ُ ِِ‫ُط‬ ‫ن‬ 5 ٕ‫ٔئ٘ب‬ٛ‫ا‬ 3 ‫به‬ٜ‫اظ‬ ‫و‬ َ ٜ‫أظ‬ 4 ْ ُ‫ر‬ ‫و‬ٜ‫ظ‬ 8 ‫أػبك‬ 4 ُ ٤‫ؼ‬ ‫ل‬ ِ ُ٣ 11 ‫اػبكح‬ 3 ‫اػبهح‬ 3 ‫اػبهخ‬ 13 ‫اػزجبه‬ 11 ‫اػزجو‬ َ 7 ْ ُ٣ ‫و‬ ُ َ‫ؼزَج‬ 3 ‫رُؼْزجو‬ 4 ‫اػزلاء‬ 3 ٟ‫اػزل‬ 3 ‫اػزناه‬ 7 ٗ‫اػزوا‬ 4 َ‫اػزوف‬ ْ ‫ا‬ ‫ل‬ َ َ‫ػزَو‬ 3 ُ ِ‫ؼزَو‬ ْ َ٣ ‫ل‬ 5 ْ ‫أ‬ ُ ِ‫ػزَو‬ ‫ل‬ 3 ‫ٗؼزول‬ 8 ‫اػزٔبك‬ 7 ‫ل‬ َ ٔ‫اػز‬ 5 ُٔ ْ٣ ‫ل‬ ِ َ‫ؼز‬ 15 5 3 438 . invade apology objection to recognise to believe pergantunggan bergantung kepada dependence. berkaitan Israel mengakibatkan. menghormati menunjukkan continuation resentment. pressing origin. assault. direction to supervise. tranquil show. turning loose to release. menyebabkan gaya. menzahirkan mengembalikan. free peaceful. tunjuk anak singa (hero) penyertaan penyeliaan. beri perhatian halangan. commend to make as sign. nasihat kena. kecederaan menjadi desakan. attack attack. memulangkan pengembalian.sempurna bersambung. obstruction considering consider serangan. berterusan complesion. rasa geram orang Israel. perlonggaran melepaskan ketenangan hati persembahan. pencerobohan menyerang. advice hit. to train notification. bidang perlepasan. source to add penambahan.

berita berkenaan perhubungan deklarasi. pengumuman mengumumkan preparation forgiveness. melangkaui hal. preference dismiss. perkara. membolot berpuas hati lebih banyak menegaskan erection. pilihan memecat pemecatan menubuhkan. persuation stronger academy bigger to sweep. lebih utama pemain terbaik penjaring terbaik keutamaan. memasuki iltizam. the mejority more valuable opening to open.10 ‫آالف‬ 5 ‫اُزؾبم‬ 5 ‫ن‬ َ ‫اُزؾ‬ َ 6 ُ ‫ؾ‬ ‫ن‬ ِ َ‫َ ِْز‬٣ 18 ّ‫اُزيا‬ ٠َ‫اُزو‬ 27 ٢ِ‫َ ِْزَو‬٣ 5 ْ ٕ‫ب‬ ِ َ٤ِ‫ِزَو‬٣ 20 ٢‫آبهر‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤‫آبهار‬ 3 ‫أٓبٗخ‬ َ‫ٓزَبى‬ ْ‫ا‬ 3 ُ ‫ٔزَب‬ ‫ى‬ ْ َ٣ َّ َ‫ٓز‬ ‫ل‬ ْ‫ا‬ 4 ُّ َ‫ٔز‬ ‫ل‬ ْ َ٣ 33 ‫ٓو‬ ْ‫أ‬ 18 ‫ه‬ٞٓ‫أ‬ َٓ ٌَٖ َ َ‫أ‬ 24 3 439 . dismisal to raise. establishment attendant. persuation nearer more distant less. berkaitan Afrika lebih baik. kehadiran keyakinan. declaration to announce. komitmen bertemu family.persediaan ampun. keep away to give greater. kepercayaan lebih dekat sejauh. kemasukan menyertai. loyalty to be distinguished to extend order. mendirikan higher most. affair become possible ‫رؼزٔل‬ ‫اػلاك‬ 3 ‫اػناه‬ 13 ‫ة‬ َ ‫ْو‬ َ ‫أػ‬ ٗ َ ‫ْو‬ َ ‫أػ‬ 13 ٗ‫ْو‬ ‫رُؼ‬ ِ 7 ٠‫أػْط‬ 3 َ ْ َ‫أ‬ ْ ‫ػظ‬ 16 ّ‫اػال‬ 8 ٢ٓ‫اػال‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٓ‫اػال‬ 16 ٕ‫اػال‬ 19 َ ْ ‫أ‬ َِٖ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫أػَِ٘ذ‬ 10 ُِِٖ‫ؼ‬ ْ ُ٣ 3 ٠ِ‫أػ‬ 4 ‫أؿِت‬ 6 ْ ‫أ‬ ٠ِ‫ؿ‬ 26 ‫اكززبػ‬ 4 ‫اكززؾذ‬ َ 3 ‫رلززؼ‬ ‫ل‬ َ َ‫اكزَو‬ 5 ْ َ٣ ُ ِ‫لزَو‬ ‫ل‬ 19 ٢‫و‬٣‫اكو‬ 21 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫اكو‬ 101 َٚ‫أك‬ 38 ٖ٤‫الػج‬/‫الػجخ‬/‫َ الػت‬ٚ‫أك‬ 9 َ‫َ َٓغ‬ٚ‫أك‬ 11 ‫خ‬٤ِٚ‫أك‬ 4 ٍ‫أهب‬ 13 ‫اهبُخ‬ 4 ّ َ ‫أهب‬ 3 ْ ُ ٤ِ‫ُو‬٣ 39 ّ‫روب‬ 17 ّ ُ ‫ُوَب‬٣ 5 ْ َ ٤‫أه‬ 22 ‫ٔذ‬٤‫أه‬ 27 ‫اهبٓخ‬ 4 ٍ‫اهجب‬ 3 ‫اهز٘بع‬ 5 ‫أهوة‬ َ 4 ٠ٖ‫أه‬ 20 َّ‫أه‬ 4 ‫اه٘بع‬ 4 ٟٞ‫أه‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٔ٣‫أًبك‬ 26 ‫أًجو‬ 3 ‫اًزَؼ‬ 6 ٠‫اًزل‬ 59 ‫أًضو‬ 64 َّ ‫أًل‬ 3 ‫أًلد‬ 7 ‫ئًل‬٣ 4 ‫رئًل‬ 9 ٍ‫آ‬ ‫ ط‬. to depose deposition. approach conviction. to start to miss African better best player top scorer priority. arahan membolehkan Emirate faithfulness. matter. manjauhi memberi lebih besar informasi. selalu berharga pembukaan membuka. kepercayaan lebih kuat akademi lebih besar menyapu. beribu penyertaan. entering to join. arrival. to delcare tertinggi kebanyakan. memulakan kehilangan orang Afrika. berkaitan UAE amanah cemerlang. to participate commitment to meet orang UAE. excuse to express avoid. bigger information informative announcement. carry away to be satisfy more to confirm. establish penubuhan. relative thousands joining. smaller conviction. jauh lebih sedikit keyakinan. affirm keluarga. pendirian sampai. kemaafan menyatakan mengelak. terbaik melebihi.

pembangunan kesibukan menyertai. execution English to count.3 ‫اٗزوبالد‬ 4 ‫ل‬ َ ‫اٗزو‬ 6 َ‫اٗزو‬ َ 3 ْ ُ٣ َ ُ ِ‫٘زَو‬ 14 ‫بء‬ٜ‫اٗز‬ 13 ٠ٜ‫اٗز‬ 9 ‫ذ‬ٜ‫اٗز‬ 9 ْ َ٣ ٢ٜ ِ َ‫٘ز‬ 6 ٢ٜ‫ر٘ز‬ 7 ‫اٗغبػ‬ 20 ‫اٗغبى‬ 14 ‫ ط‬. sesuai penarikan. mencabut kemenangan kemenangan berturut-turut penantian menanti. pengeluaran menarik. menganggap percikan. retreat establishment busyness. consider rushing. mengeluarkan penubuhan. berkaitan Amerika tandatangan membolehkan. conclusion to end. memungkinkan kemampuan. current pulling out. pemergian pergi. potential hopeful. to change position end. peace Prince faithful. hoping to hope nations Asian nations African nations security. nisbah mengira. notice to warn. loneliness to isolate. safety security. pencabutan menarik. melonjak amaran. kemungkinan yang berharap mengharapkan bangsa. starting off. berangkat make succes carrying out. occupancy joining. penyatuan memulakan sesuatu. entering joining. capbility possibility. assume. memasuki penyertaan. melaksanakan bahasa Inggeris. meluru. caution harmony. departure to rush. entering rushing. penghabisan berakhir critism movement.harapan orang Amerika. berubah tempat selesai. dependable Secretary-general Secretary-general Treasurer now. menunggu hope American signiture ability. eruption warning. meluru. to separate ٌُٖ ِٔ ْ ُ٣ 14 َٓ‫أ‬ ٍ‫آٓب‬ 23 ٢ٌ٣‫أٓو‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ٌ٣‫أٓو‬ 3 ‫بء‬ٚٓ‫ا‬ 7 ٕ‫آٌب‬ 7 ‫آبًبٗبد‬ 11 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫آٌب‬ 10 ‫بد‬٤ٗ‫آٌب‬ 5 َٓ‫آ‬ َ َ ٓ ِ‫أ‬ 3 َٓ‫ؤ‬٣ 26 ْٓ‫أ‬ 5 ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫أْٓ آ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫األْٓ اإلكو‬ 4 ٖٓ ْ‫أ‬ 3 ‫آٓبٕ – ط‬ 7 ٢٘ٓ‫أ‬ 14 ‫خ‬٤٘ٓ‫أ‬ 35 ‫و‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ 24 ٖ٤ٓ‫أ‬ 12 ‫ٖ اَُو‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ 5 ّ‫ٖ اُؼب‬٤ٓ‫أ‬ 3 ٢ُ‫ٖ أُب‬٤ٓ‫األ‬ 39 ٕ‫آ‬ 5 ‫اٗزياع‬ 4 ‫ع‬ َ ‫اٗزي‬ 17 ‫اٗزٖبه‬ 31 ‫اٗزٖبهاد – ط‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫اٗزٖبهاد ٓززب‬ 14 ‫اٗزظبه‬ 3 ‫اٗزظو‬ َ 19 ْ٣ ‫و‬ ُ ‫َظ‬ ِ ‫٘ز‬ 6 ‫ر٘زظو‬ 4 ‫ٗ٘زظو‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫اٗزوبكاد‬ 9 ٍ‫اٗزوب‬ ‫ ط‬.‫اٗغبىاد‬ 39 ١‫ي‬٤ٌِٗ‫ا‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫ي‬٤ِ‫اٗغ‬ ‫ت‬ َ َ َ ‫اٗؾ‬ َ 5 ْ٣ ُ‫َت‬ َ ٘ َ ِ ‫ؾ‬ 4 ‫اٗلكبع‬ 3 ‫اٗناه‬ 3 ‫أٗنه‬ َ 6 ّ‫اَٗغب‬ 8 ‫اَٗؾبة‬ 3 ‫اَٗؾت‬ َ 9 ‫اْٗبء‬ 5 ٍ‫اْٗـب‬ 3 ْ ّ ٚٗ‫ا‬ 4 ّ‫ٔب‬ٚٗ‫ا‬ 22 ‫اٗطالم‬ 8 ‫اٗطالهخ‬ ‫اٗطِن‬ 5 ‫اٗطِوذ‬ 5 ْ َ٣ ُ َِِ‫٘ط‬ ‫ن‬ 14 ‫ر٘طِن‬ 4 ‫اٗلواك‬ ‫ك‬ َ‫و‬ َ َ‫اٗل‬ 3 ْ َ٣ ُ‫و‬ ‫ك‬ ِ َ‫٘ل‬ 13 25 440 . agreement withdrawal. negara negara-negara Asia negara-negara Afrika keselamatan keamanan Putera orang yang dipercayai Setiausaha Setiausaha am/ agong Bendahari sekarang penarikan. retreat to withdraw. unison. motion critic to move. extract victory consecutive victories waiting to wait kritikan peralihan mengkritik beralih. come to an end mencipta kejayaan memperoleh. move forward keadaan berseorangan berseorangan isolation. notis memberi amaran secocok. extraction to pull out.

start to appear. menyambung menjelaskan menjatuhkan. saudara-mara. alternatif orang Brazil. prosciption to outlaw. interest outlawful. finish concern. persamaan fizikal gantian. beginning equivalent. suspension right َ ‫أٗو‬ ‫ن‬ ‫بء‬ٜٗ‫ا‬ 11 ٠ٜٗ‫أ‬ 3 ْ ُ٣ ٢ٜ ِ٘ 19 ّ‫زٔب‬ٛ‫ا‬ 5 ‫لاه‬ٛ‫ا‬ 5 ‫له‬ٛ‫أ‬ َ 4 َٛ‫أ‬ 15 ْ ّ ٛ‫أ‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤ٔٛ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. save ending.4 َ‫ائ‬ٝ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. Berkaitan Brazil kemahiran.menyelamatkan penamatan menamatkan penting. pengantunggan kanan to rescue. lebihan perlawanan selebihnya sampai penyelidikan. perhubungan orang Itali. pakar lebih penting kepentingan golongan pertama golongan terakhir tengah. central Europe European to take to. menyebabkan berhenti. to study ‫ثبة‬ ‫ثبد‬ 7 ‫ثبرذ‬ 5 ‫ثبهؽخ‬ 3 َ َ َ ٛ‫ثب‬ 11 ٢‫ثبه‬ 3 ‫بد‬٣‫ أُجبه‬٢‫ثبه‬ 4 ‫ثبُِؾ‬ 6 ‫ثبُـخ‬ 11 ‫ثؾْ ش‬ َ ‫ثؾش‬ 9 ‫جؾش‬٣ 4 ُ ‫ؾش‬ َ ‫رج‬ 6 ٢٘٣‫ثؾو‬ 9 ‫ثلْء‬ 11 ‫ثلا‬ 10 ٝ‫جل‬٣ 9 ٝ‫رجل‬ 15 ‫ثلأ‬ 4 ‫ثلأد‬ 19 ‫جلأ‬٣ 3 ‫رجلأ‬ 45 ‫خ‬٣‫ثلا‬ 36 ٍ‫ثل‬ 3 ٢ٗ‫ثل‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ثل‬ 19 َ٣‫ثل‬ 44 ٢ِ٣‫ثواى‬ 5 ‫ثواػخ‬ 15 ٢ُ‫ثورـب‬ 9 5 orang Bahrain. attention first group last group middle. to cause To stand. explain to drop. proscribe relative.5 ‫افو‬ٝ‫أ‬ 5 ٍٜٝ‫أ‬ ‫ ط‬. berkaitan Bahrain permulaan muncul. keluar Bahrainian beginning. berkaitan Itali perberhentian. finishing to end. berdiri tetap Olimpik Olimpiad pertama tempat lawan negatif pewujudan. expert more important concern. preficiency Portugese 441 . communication Italian stopping.3 ٍٜ‫ا‬ٝ‫أ‬ 15 ‫ثب‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ 9 ٢‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ث‬ٝ‫ه‬ٝ‫أ‬ َ َ ٕٝ‫أ‬ 3 َٕ ِ ٞ‫ر‬ 24 ‫ؼ‬ٙٝ‫أ‬ َ 5 ‫هؼذ‬ٝ‫أ‬ 9 ‫هق‬ٝ‫أ‬ 48 ٢‫ُٔج‬ٝ‫أ‬ 26 ‫خ‬٤‫ُٔج‬ٝ‫أ‬ 17 ‫بك‬٤‫ُٔج‬ٝ‫أ‬ 5 ٢ُٝ‫أ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫أ‬ 47 ‫بة‬٣‫ا‬ 22 ‫خ‬٤‫غبث‬٣‫ا‬ 4 ‫غبك‬٣‫ا‬ 9 ٢ٗ‫وا‬٣‫ا‬ 9 ‫َو‬٣‫أ‬ 3 ٍ‫ٖب‬٣‫ا‬ 29 ٢ُ‫طب‬٣‫ا‬ 20 ‫وبف‬٣‫ا‬ 3 ٖٔ٣‫أ‬ 4 12 ‫ب‬ pintu bermalam kelmarin membatalkan baki. make stand Olympic Olympiad first away negative creation. alternate Brazilian skillfulness. exchange physical substitute. berkaitan Iran kiri penyampaian. kin. pertengahan Eropah berkaitan Eropah menyampai. pembuatan orang Iran. research research. production Iranian left delivery. bring to to clarify. lasting rest of the games exaggerate. ambil berat pengharaman menumpahkan darah ahli. kajian menyelidik door to spend the night yesterday to make invalid remaining. berkaitan Portugal starting. come out bermula to start permulaan tukaran. kecekapan orang Portugal.

go on following. berehat negara. influence postponement. offer extend extension card. tanah orang Belgium. ujikaji gangsa berkorban. hero keberanian. jaguh appear. menunda tunda. sambungan kad. jarak tetap. bronzy grant liberally. pengajaran sejarah. tiket kad merah juara. bahagian jauh. arrive to ketibaan. ticket red card champion. para binaan rumah orang Peru.muncul. masa to continue. tanah penduduk asal. period ‫ثغ‬ َ ‫رب‬ ‫ربثِغ‬ 5 ‫ربثِؼخ‬ ‫و‬ َ َّ‫رؤص‬ 3 ‫زؤصو‬٣ 4 ‫و‬٤‫رؤص‬ 13 َ٤‫رؤع‬ 3 ُّ ‫رؤفو‬ 5 ‫ت‬٣‫رؤك‬ 29 ‫ـ‬٣‫ربه‬ 3 34 442 . construction clause. arrival building. sampai bangunan. menjelma memprogramkan perancangan ujian. perwakilan misi pasukan sesetengah.3 ‫ثطبهبد‬ 64 َ‫ثط‬ 3 ً‫ثطَ ًؤ‬ 4 ‫ثطِخ‬ 208 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 14 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ُخ ك‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 12 ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫أثطبٍ آ‬/َ‫ثط‬ 8 ُْ‫الد ػب‬ٞ‫ ثط‬/‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 5 ٍٜٝ‫ُخ ّوم األ‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ُخ اُؼوث‬ٞ‫اُجط‬ 4 ‫ُخ ٓبٍزوى‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 3 ‫ظ‬٤ِ‫ُخ اُق‬ٞ‫ثط‬/ٍ‫أثطب‬ 4 ‫٘جخ‬ٛٝ ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫ُخ اإلكو‬ٞ‫اُجط‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ٥‫ُخ ا‬ٞ‫اُجط‬ 22 ‫الد‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 3 ٖ٤‫ُز‬ٞ‫ثط‬ 61 ٍ‫أثطب‬ 14 ‫ثؼضخ‬ 4 ‫ثؼضخ أُ٘زقت‬ 60 ٘‫ثؼ‬ 9 ‫ل‬٤‫ثؼ‬ 4 ‫لح‬٤‫ثؼ‬ 12 ‫ثوبء‬ 9 ٢‫ثو‬ 3 ‫ذ‬٤‫ثو‬ 15 ٠‫جو‬٣ 7 ٢‫رجو‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤‫ثو‬ 39 ‫ثالك‬ 5 ٢ٌ٤‫ثِغ‬ 11 ‫ثِل‬ 6 ١‫ثِل‬ 30 ‫خ‬٣‫ثِل‬ 8 َ ِ‫ث‬ ‫ؾ‬ 10 ‫ثِـذ‬ 6 ‫جِؾ‬٣ 6 ‫ؽ‬ِٞ‫ث‬ 16 ‫ث٘بء‬ 3 ‫ك‬ٞ٘‫ث‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤٘‫ث‬ 6 ‫ذ‬٤‫ث‬ 6 ٢‫ك‬ٝ‫و‬٤‫ث‬ 4 ‫بء‬ٚ٤‫ث‬ 3 ‫غ‬٤‫ث‬ 5 ‫خ‬ mengikuti yang berikut. disciplining history.deferment delay. distant remaining. staying selebihnya. penangguhan. experiment bronze. home Peruvian white sale. land native. succeeding to be affected. indigenous to reach. setup house. term structure. come out programming program. delegation team mission some. negeri. retardation education. pembinaan klausa. berkaitan Belgium negara. mempengaruhi kesan. negeri. influenced effect. plan test. menyerahkan perlanjutan. rest country. berkaitan Peru putih jualan reaching. portion far. land Belgian country. sell 5 َ‫ثوى‬ ‫ثوٓغخ‬ 12 ‫ثوٗبٓظ‬ ‫ ط‬. Kejuaraan Liga jaguh Asia Kejohanan Dunia Kejohanan Timur Tengah kejohanan Arab Kejohanan Masters Kejohanan Teluk Kejohanan Kebangsaan kejohanan Afrika Kejohanan Asia bravery Champion League Asian champion World Championship Middle East Championship Arab championship Masters Championship Gulf Championship National Championship African championship Asian championship misi. asli sampai remainder. pengaruh. tinggal mission.4 ‫ثوآظ‬ 3 ‫كخ‬ٝ‫ثو‬ 38 ‫خ‬٣‫ٗي‬ٝ‫ثو‬ ٍ‫ثن‬ َ 3 ٍ‫جن‬٣ 3 َْٜ‫ث‬ 24 ‫ثطبهخ‬ 13 ‫ثطبهخ ؽٔواء‬ ‫ ط‬. berjaya menjejaskan. kerencatan pendidikan.

membaiki masuk campur berlatih latihan berkenaan latihan secara perlahan dokongan. crowning facing. alteration stumbling. affirmation to be formed. specified challenge. setting up confirmation. daya tahan menanggung. membalikkan kekalahan qualification taekwando Thai to exchange. sustainment downfall. stay to adopt become clear coronation.4 ‫واد‬٤ٚ‫رؾ‬ 3 ‫ي‬٤‫رؾل‬ 69 ‫ن‬٤‫رؾو‬ 14 ْ٤ٌ‫رؾ‬ 3 ِّ ٢ِ‫رؾ‬ 3 َٔ ُّ ‫رؾ‬ َ َ ٔ َّ ‫رؾ‬ 4 َٔ‫زؾ‬٣ 3 ٍ ُّٞ‫رؾ‬ 6 َ٣ٞ‫رؾ‬ 3 ُّٜ‫رقج‬ 4 َّ ٠‫رقط‬ 5 ٠‫زقط‬٣ 3 ٜ٤‫رقط‬ 3 ‫ق‬٤‫رقل‬ 5 ‫رلاهُى‬ 7 ُّ َ‫رلف‬ ‫رلهة‬ 6 ‫زلهة‬٣ 17 ‫ت‬٣‫رله‬ 24 ‫جبد – ط‬٣‫رله‬ 45 ٢‫ج‬٣‫رله‬ 18 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬٣‫رله‬ 3 ٢‫غ‬٣‫رله‬ 4 ْ٤‫رلػ‬ 3 ‫ه‬ٞٛ‫رل‬ 3 َ٤ُ‫رن‬ 6 3 5 443 . stimulation realisation. mengambil menjadi jelas pemahkotaan berhadapan. melampaui melebihi.8 ‫ياد‬٤ٜ‫رغ‬ 7 ‫رؾلَّس‬ َّ ‫رؾ‬ ‫ك‬ َ‫ل‬ 4 ‫زؾلك‬٣ 7 ١ِّ‫رؾل‬ 18 ‫ل‬٣‫رؾل‬ 3 ََّٖ‫رؾ‬ 23 ‫و‬٤ٚ‫رؾ‬ ‫ ط‬. tidak stabil melangkaui. historic to be founded.berkaitan sejarah mengasaskan penubuhan. assurance to qualify kelayakkan taekwando orang Thailand. resist definition. correction intervention. bertentangan melebihi. floundering to overstep. established founding. limitation to improve in preparation. kepastian terdiri. materialisation to freeze. melebihi perancangan peringanan pembetulan. training training gradual support. defeating ٢‫ق‬٣‫ربه‬ ٌٍ‫رؤ‬ ٌ٤ٍ‫رؤ‬ 15 ‫ل‬٤ً‫رؤ‬ ‫رؤَُّق‬ 4 ‫زؤُق‬٣ 3 ُ‫رزؤَُّق‬ 8 َّ ‫رؤُن‬ 12 ُّ ‫رؤُن‬ 29 ٢ُ‫رب‬ 7 ّ‫رب‬ 6 ‫ربٓخ‬ 11 ٖ٤ٓ‫رؤ‬ 13 ََّٛ‫رؤ‬ 4 ‫ِّذ‬ٛ‫رؤ‬ 8 َٛ‫زؤ‬٣ 6 َ٤ٛ‫رؤ‬ 46 َُّٛ‫رؤ‬ 5 ٝ‫اٗل‬ٌٞ٣‫رب‬ 3 ١‫الٗل‬٣‫رب‬ 3 ٍَ‫رجبك‬ 3 ّ ٠‫رجو‬ 3 َّ ٠٘‫رج‬ 4 َّٖ٤‫رج‬ 14 ‫ظ‬٣ٞ‫رز‬ 9 ٙ‫رغب‬ 4 َ‫ى‬ٝ‫رغب‬ َ 3 ‫ى‬ٝ‫زغب‬٣ 7 ‫ُى‬ٝ‫رغب‬ 5 ‫ ط‬. tumble surmounting. membeku menjauhi. train pratice. go pass passing. terbentuk historical. opposite to pass. decrease making right. cabaran definisi. bearing to bear. kilauan berikut sempurna insuran. pengelakkan pewarganegaraan penyediaan bercakap menghadkan mengugut. menghadkan memperbaiki dalam persediaan motivasi. test experimentalism embodiment. pengasasan penegasan. harden avoiding. pemangkin merealisasikan penghakiman menghiasi diri tanggungan. flash shining. yang tinggal menyerap. berkilau sinaran. sokongan kejatuhan. readying to speak to be defined. endure change. flashing to follow perfect insurance. stand.‫ىاد‬ٝ‫رغب‬ 6 ‫رغوثخ‬ 3 ‫رغبهُة‬ 12 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬٣‫رغو‬ 3 ‫ل‬٤َ‫رغ‬ 11 ‫ٔل‬ َّ ‫رغ‬ 4 ‫رغُّ٘ت‬ 3 ٌ٤٘‫رغ‬ 3 ‫ي‬٤ٜ‫رغ‬ ‫ ط‬. interchange to remain. melampaui percubaan berkenaan percubaan berkenaan merealisasikan mengeras. going past experiment. bertahan perubahan. jaminan melayakkan to shine. go beyond planning lightening. intrusion to practice. averting naturalisation preparation. ready oneself motivation. peralihan pergolakan. set up bersinar. carrying out arbitration making oneself pretty endurance. berkaitan Thailand menukarkan kekal.

likely to hesitate. expect development. membuat perjanjian bergaul. perkembangan demonstrasi. lentok trail (istilah dalam sukan) menghendap. infiltration. entering to. sikap penjelasan. droop trial lurk. formation. disposal group standing considering. penubuhan pembentukan asal squad orang Czech pembinaan. gambaran perpaduan. melayan pergaulan. tersungkur pengiraan. kelonggaran perjalanan. change exposure to. mendedahkan disposal. pretending become equal. ragu-ragu penubuhan. conception solidarity. harapan pembangunan. menyebabkan menyebabkan. incurrence of to be or become exposed ‫غ‬ َ ‫رواع‬ َ ‫رواعُغ‬ ٢‫رواف‬ 4 َ٣‫روا‬ 8 ُّٔ‫روث‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫روث‬ 52 ‫ت‬٤‫رور‬ 6 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫ت أُغ‬٤‫رور‬ 7 ‫ؼ‬٤‫روع‬ 5 ‫روكَّك‬ 3 ‫ـ‬٤ٍ‫رو‬ 4 ‫ؼ‬٤ّ‫رو‬ 3 َ‫َوى‬ َ‫ر‬ 3 ‫زوى‬٣ 3 ‫روًذ‬ 9 ‫روْ ى‬ 10 ٢ً‫رو‬ 13 ‫ي‬٤ً‫رو‬ 60 َ٤‫رَغ‬ 8 ‫ل‬٣‫رَل‬ 11 ‫لح‬٣‫رَل‬ 4 ‫ؼ‬٣‫رَو‬ 3 ُّ ََِ‫ر‬ 7 ُّ َِْ‫ر‬ 3 َّ َِْ‫ر‬ 4 َ٤َٜ‫ر‬ 7 ‫و‬٤٤َ‫ر‬ 10 ‫غ‬٤‫رْغ‬ 10 َ٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 35 ‫ِخ‬٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫ِخ أٍب‬٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 8 ‫ن‬٣‫ِخ اُلو‬٤ٌْ‫ر‬ 3 ٢ٌ٤ْ‫ر‬ 3 ‫ل‬٤٤ْ‫ر‬ 5 ‫ؼ‬٤‫رٖؾ‬ 5 ‫رٖلُّه‬ 8 ‫رٖلَّه‬ 10 ‫زٖله‬٣ 4 ‫رزٖلَّه‬ 5 ‫رٖوُّ ف‬ 6 ‫ؼ‬٣‫رٖو‬ ‫ ط‬. listing modification. settlement nomination. shaping basic configuration squad Czech building. pernyataan kenaikan. berkaitan Turki penumpuan. perkembangan pembangunan. penjelasan pencalonan. advancement to demonstrate. aturan kedudukan kumpulan pilihan. menanti pendidikan susunan. qualification World Cup Qualifies final qualifying World Cup qualification ranking. emboldening forming. joint liability to contain. categorisation imagination. mendapat pemudahan. dorongan pembentukan. include application. equivalence goalless draw making. ubah suai pendedahan. collaboration Cooperation of Arab Gulf States stumbling.‫رؼبكال‬ 89 ٍُ‫رؼبك‬ 10 ٢‫رؼبكٍ ٍِج‬ 11 ُ ‫رؼبهل‬ 3 َٓ َ ‫رؼب‬ 3 َٓ‫زؼب‬٣ 8 َٓ ُ ‫رؼب‬ 12 ُٕٝ‫رؼب‬ 3 ٢‫غ‬٤ِ‫ٕ اُق‬ٝ‫اُزؼب‬ 4 ُّ ‫رؼضو‬ 3 ‫رؼلاك‬ 4 َ٣‫رؼل‬ 5 ٗ ُّ‫رؼو‬ َّٗ َ ‫رؼو‬ 9 5 9 444 . vibrate establishment. intercourse cooperation. evolution development. emendation leading to head. to quit. muamalat kerjasama Kerjasama Negara-negara Arab Teluk terjatuh. quitting Turkish concentration. recording payment. sasaran lepasan. mendapat menerima. pembaikan berada di hadapan mengetuai. even equality. declaration escalation. receiving to receive. fokus pendaftaran penyelesaian. tergagap. construction correction. draw back retreat. firing offside. pertanggungjawaban mengandungi.berundur. peningkatan saringan. discharge. manarik balik penarikan semula kelonggaran.12 ‫ؾبد‬٣‫رٖو‬ 3 ‫ل‬٤‫رٖؼ‬ ‫ ط‬. aggravation clarification. putting into to look forward. sifat. candidacy to leave. applying. membiar to retreat. termasuk pelaksanaan. behaviour statement. drive. impulsion encouragement. pengurusan sokongan. kategori imaginasi. lebih utama teragak-agak. focusing registration.72 ‫بد‬٤‫رٖل‬ 12 ُْ‫بد ًؤً اُؼب‬٤‫رٖل‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫بئ‬ٜٗ ‫بد‬٤‫رٖل‬ 5 ٍ‫ب‬٣‫ٗل‬ٞٓ ‫بد‬٤‫رٖل‬ 4 ‫ق‬٤ٖ٘‫ر‬ 4 ‫ُّ ه‬ٖٞ‫ر‬ 3 ٖٓ ُ ‫ب‬ٚ‫ر‬ 3 َٖٔ َّ ٚ‫ر‬ 4 ٖٔٚ‫ز‬٣ 4 ‫ن‬٤‫رطج‬ ‫غ‬ َ َِّ‫رط‬ 8 ‫زطِغ‬٣ 8 ‫ُّ ه‬ٞ‫رط‬ 9 ‫و‬٣ٞ‫رط‬ 3 ‫وح‬ٛ‫رظب‬ 29 ٍَ‫رؼبك‬ 6 ّ . penyusupan penerimaan. to deal dealings. tunjuk perasaan seri. keadaan sama seri tanpa jaringan membuat sesuatu. going back slackness. aiming release. pedagogy arrangement. tembakan terkeluar. penyenaraian perubahan. di hadapan leaving. menjelang. kelayakan kelayakan piala dunia pusingan akhir kelayakan kelayakan Piala Dunia tahap. ambush education. probably. pemilihan meninggalkan. penubuhan pembetulan. stammer calculation. concluding to treat one another. lead penghapusan. to give up peninggalan orang Turki. obtain facilitation. making easy management. sama seri. to get. reception. aplikasi kemuncak.

ledakan pengabaian. perubahan letusan. reception. rivalry tennis organisation. determination surmounting. selesai. simpanan perlantikan. alteration exploding. intolerance to hang (down). televisual to receive. mampu to imitate. practice can. belajar penerimaan. pelajaran lengkap. regulative carrying out. berlawan to compete. memorandum financial report pembahagian tradisional pengurangan. anggaran repot. reiteration to recur. customary contraction. overcome change. remissness superiority. laporan laporan kewangan estimation. penangguhan taklimat. panggilan televisyen berkaitan televisyen menerima. pemberian memutuskan. indemnity specification.4 ‫واد‬٤٤‫رـ‬ 4 ‫و‬٤‫رلغ‬ 3 ٜ٣‫رلو‬ 17 ‫ُّ م‬ٞ‫رل‬ 3 ٢٘‫م ك‬ٞ‫رل‬ ‫َّم‬ٞ‫رل‬ 6 ‫م‬ٞ‫زل‬٣ 28 ُّّ‫رول‬ 27 َّ ‫رو‬ ّ َ‫ل‬ 4 ‫رولٓذ‬ 11 ّ‫زول‬٣ 9 ‫و‬٣‫رول‬ 19 ْ٣‫رول‬ 3 ‫رووِّ ه‬ 3 ‫ت‬٣‫روو‬ 19 ‫و‬٣‫روو‬ 5 ٢ُ‫و أُب‬٣‫اُزوو‬ 4 ٕ‫وا‬٣‫روو‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫و‬٣‫روبه‬ 5 ْ٤َ‫رو‬ 6 ١‫ل‬٤ِ‫رو‬ 5 ٔ٤ِ‫رو‬ 3 ْ٤٤‫رو‬ 3 ‫رٌبكئ‬ 3 ‫رٌواه‬ ‫َّه‬ َ ‫رٌو‬ 3 ‫زٌوه‬٣ 3 ْ٣‫رٌو‬ 3 ٖ٣ٌٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫رالػُت‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫رِج‬ 4 ‫رِليح‬ 3 ٢ٗٞ٣‫رِلي‬ 10 ّ ٠‫رِو‬ 3 َّ ‫رِوذ‬ 5 ِّ ٢‫رِو‬ 37 ْ َّ ‫ر‬ 33 ْ‫ز‬٣ 5 ْ ُّ ‫رز‬ 16 ّ‫رٔب‬ ‫رٔزَّغ‬ 4 ‫زٔزغ‬٣ 3 َّ ‫رزٔزغ‬ 3 ِّ َ‫رٔض‬ 17 َ٤‫رٔض‬ 9 ‫ل‬٣‫رٔل‬ 11 ‫وح‬٣‫رٔو‬ ‫ – ط‬9 ‫واد‬٣‫رٔو‬ ‫ ط‬. memenangi pertukaran. sempurna division.3 ‫ٔبد‬٤ِ‫رؼ‬ 19 ٘٣ٞ‫رؼ‬ 5 ٖ٤٤‫رؼ‬ 15 ‫رـُِّت‬ 17 ‫ت‬ َ َِّ‫رـ‬ 7 ‫رـِجذ‬ 5 ‫و‬٤٤‫رـ‬ ‫ ط‬. spreading passing . maraikan completeness. penghormatan pembentukan. gantian penyambungan. penerangan gantian. pegecutan penilaian persamaan. dangle. offering to be decided. penyenaraian kemenangan. stretching. pengabungan taksub. copy representation extension. progresion to precede. repeat honoring. suspending teaching. nearly report. instruction compensation. overcoming to surmount. shaping play. strengthening fanaticism. determined approximation. acceptance television televisional. perlawanan tennis pengurusan. di depan consolidation. lengkap mengecapi. tribute forming. appriciation presentation. assessment equivalence. pembuangan cemerlang. pemanjangan melepasi. suspend hanging down. menyampaikan latihan boleh melakukan. peluang sama pengulangan mengulangi.8 ٖ٣‫رٔبه‬ 12 َّ ٌٖٔ‫ر‬ 8 ٌٖٔ‫ز‬٣ 3 ٌٖٔ‫ٗز‬ ٌ َ َ‫ر٘بك‬ 3 ٌ‫ز٘بك‬٣ 3 ٌُ‫رز٘بك‬ 7 ٌُ‫ر٘بك‬ 11 ٌ٘‫ر‬ 27 ْ٤‫ر٘ظ‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٔ٤‫ر٘ظ‬ 12 ‫ن‬٤‫ر٘ل‬ 4 445 . to be able bertarung. shrinking evaluation. antecede takdir. bergantung pergantungan. whole sempurna. menetapkan hampir. penghargaan persembahan. berulang kemuliaan. hebat pendahuluan mendahului. execution ٗ‫زؼو‬٣ 10 ‫ي‬٣‫رؼي‬ 3 ‫رؼُّٖ ت‬ ‫ن‬ َ َِّ‫رؼ‬ 5 ‫زؼِن‬٣ 5 ‫ن‬٤ِ‫رؼ‬ ‫ ط‬. vie. penganjuran berkaitan penganjuran pelaksanaan. excel progress. teach to be complete. kehebatan kehebatan teknikal cemerlang. arrangment organisational. mengatasi mengatasi. menyerupai wakil. cheat. rial pertarungan. fraud compliance. taught receipt. membuat competition. full. penipuan penerimaan. wholness to enjoy. to savor meniru. explosion negligence. fanatik berkaitan. partition traditional. equality repitition. excellence technical excellence to surpass. penubuhan mempermainkan.pengukuhan. allowing to pass exercise.

education saving. cease to move on timing. readying existence. segi tiga harga. subscription raising. nilai menilai. weighty weight. harapan perberhentian. entity to affect passion balance. perpindahan bergerak. kesumat kepercayaan.berkaitan pelaksanaan pergerakan. anugerah anugerah pemain terbaik jiran berkaitan masa kini. show up prize. setting up to assume. cost to estimate. anticipate expectation. anticipation stopping. tiba hadiah. arrive. forwarding distribution. bearing. kesesuaian datang kemudian. halt. simpanan menjangka. haluan penyebaran. keringganan executive supererogation to perform more than is required threat. allotment enlightenment. trust. bernilai revenge. menyekat masa. memikul tugas orang Tunisia. menace objectivity preparation. ugutan yang bertujuan persediaan. undertake Tunisian facilitation. repair tobe take oneself sending. berhadapan penghadapan. pengedaran kesedaran. ternary price. didikan penyediaan. halting to stop. revolusi double.15 ٍ‫أصوب‬ 10 ٢‫صالص‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫صالص‬ 4 ٖٔ‫ص‬ 4 َٖٔ َّ َ‫ص‬ 14 ٖ٤ٔ‫ص‬ 6 ‫٘خ‬٤ٔ‫ص‬ ّ – 4 ٖ٤‫٘ز‬٤ٔ‫ص‬ 7 ٢‫ص٘بئ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ص٘بئ‬ 7 ٢ٗ‫ا‬ٞ‫ص‬ 5 ‫هح‬ٞ‫ص‬ 17 3 dua kali. faith heavy. perantungan mengandaikan. mengikuti dimahkotakan berhadapan. economising to expect. penentuan masa tanda tangan peberhentian.7 ‫هُّؼبد‬ٞ‫ر‬ 8 ‫هُّق‬ٞ‫ر‬ 6 َ‫هَّق‬ٞ‫ر‬ 4 ‫هق‬ٞ‫ز‬٣ 4 ‫ذ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 7 ‫غ‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ‫ق‬٤‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 4 ٠ُٞ‫ر‬ 20 ٢َٗٞ‫ر‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤َٗٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫و‬٤َ٤‫ر‬ 4 ‫ز‬ dendam. gravity tripartite. wujud persamaan. berkaitan Tunisia kemudahan. to follow ‫عبء‬ ‫عبءد‬ 35 ‫عبئيح‬ 10 ‫الػجخ‬/‫َ الػت‬ٚ‫عبئيح أك‬ ‫ ط‬. heading to go to. to enthrone direction. penyeusunan keberadaan. sekatan berhenti. menjangka berharga. being. berharap jangkaan. scheduling signature. sekarang to come. pertemuan bertemu. rebellion ‫ج‬ datang. assess valuable. making easy 3 ١‫ن‬٤‫ر٘ل‬ ‫خ‬٣‫ن‬٤‫ر٘ل‬ 6 ُّ َ‫ر٘و‬ 3 َّ َ‫ر٘و‬ 3 ‫ل‬٣‫ل‬ٜ‫ر‬ 4 ‫ق‬٣‫ل‬ٜ‫ر‬ 3 ‫ئخ‬٤ٜ‫ر‬ 4 ‫اعُل‬ٞ‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ َ ‫اع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 8 ‫اعل‬ٞ‫ز‬٣ 10 ُ ‫ا‬ٞ‫ر‬ ٕ‫ى‬ 5 ُ ‫اكن‬ٞ‫ر‬ 33 ٢ُ‫ا‬ٞ‫ر‬ 12 ‫ط‬ َ ٞ ِ ُ‫ر‬ 3 ‫َّط‬ٞ‫ُز‬٣ 4 ٚ ُّ‫ع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 َّٚ‫ع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ٚ٤‫ع‬ٞ‫ر‬ 5 ‫غ‬٣‫ى‬ٞ‫ر‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ػ‬ٞ‫ر‬ 10 ‫و‬٤‫ك‬ٞ‫ر‬ ‫غ‬ َ َّ‫ه‬ٞ‫ر‬ 8 ‫هغ‬ٞ‫ز‬٣ ‫ ط‬. kewujudan berada. precious ‫صؤه‬ ‫صوخ‬ 4 َ٤‫صو‬ َ‫صو‬ ‫ ط‬.10 ‫ائي‬ٞ‫ع‬ 4 ‫عبه‬ 33 ١‫عبه‬ 25 26 446 . reward best football player neighbor to keep pace with. kebaikan berat berat. dual seconds revolution. vengeance confidence. dua saat perubahan. perseimbangan persetujuan. berpindah ancaman. dispatch(ing). dwi. equilibrium agreement. harmony to follow in succesion to crown.

bahagian balasan. serius. majlis.7 ‫بد‬٤‫عٔؼ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ب‬٣‫بد ه‬٤‫عٔؼ‬ 23 ‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬.4 ‫بد‬ٜ‫ع‬ 11 ‫ل‬ٜ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬. getting session. to pick pengumpulan persatuan. persediaan atmosfera. flank south southern Egypt Pound apparatus. duduk secara bersama. prepared ready.3 ٕٞ٣‫عيائو‬ َْْ‫ع‬ ِ ‫ ط‬. mengembalikan jadual. suasana judo pusingan. due to surgeon surgical. tour. diakibatkan kecederaan. meeting sitting. lawatan pusingan timbal balik all. wajar. berlangsung university. perhimpunan berkaitan kumpulan orang. endeavor readiness. the side of ready. collecting society. senarai jadual perlawanan bersungguh-sungguh. lebih baik disebabkan.universiti. berharga. republik gathering.3 ٖ٤‫عبٗج‬ 4 ‫ي‬ٛ ِ ‫عب‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫ي‬ٛ‫عب‬ 20 ّ‫ع‬ ‫ل‬ 3 ‫علاهح‬ 6 ‫علَّك‬ 3 ‫غلّك‬٣ 18 ٍٝ‫عل‬ 8 ‫ٍ أَُبثوخ‬ٝ‫عل‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ّ‫عل‬ 74 ‫ل‬٣‫عل‬ 27 ‫لح‬٣‫عل‬ 4 ‫و‬٣‫عل‬ 4 ‫عواء‬ 4 ‫عواػ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫عواؽ‬ 5 ٟ‫عو‬ 21 ‫عود‬ 8 ١‫غو‬٣ 5 ١‫رغو‬ 3 ‫عيء‬ 40 ‫عياء‬ 17 ١‫عيائو‬ 9 ‫خ‬٣‫عيائو‬ ‫ ط‬. tubuh membuat.‫اء‬ٞ‫أع‬ 6 ٝ‫ك‬ٞ‫ع‬ 57 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ع‬ 3 ‫بة‬٣‫ُخ ا‬ٞ‫ع‬ 447 . portion. professional training device administrative body side. operative running. memikat sayap selatan arah selatan matawang Mesir alat. association sports associations crowd. creating bringing. sistem profesional peralatan latihan badan pentadbiran arah. restore table. mengutip making. perbuatan pendapatan. earnestness new. seluruh cantik. throng. berdekatan bersedia. team to gather. patut memperbaharui. recent. menjadikan body to make. group League of Arab States to walk by. berkaitan Algeria part. gathering crowd. fresh worthy. peralatan. kumpulan Liga Negara-negara Arab bersebelahan. graceful wing.23 ‫ك‬ٜٞ‫ع‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ى‬ٜٞ‫ع‬ ‫ْ ء‬ٞ‫ع‬ َ 8 ‫ ط‬. list tournament table seriousness. chart. denda orang Algeria.39 ‫و‬٤ٛ‫عٔب‬ 8 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٜٞٔ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬. orang yang cedera pembedahan berlari. pertubuhan pertubuhan-pertubuhan sukan kumpulan orang. sesi pendudukan. circuit round second leg 6 ‫عبٓؼخ‬ ‫خ‬٤‫ٍ ػوث‬ٝ‫عبٓؼخ ك‬ 78 ‫عبٗت‬ ّ . sitting.4 ٕ‫بىا‬ٜ‫ع‬ 35 ‫خ‬ٜ‫ع‬ 3 ٟ‫َو‬٣ ‫خ‬ٜ‫ع‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ّ‫أعَب‬ 4 َ َ ‫ؼ‬ َ‫ع‬ 6 َ‫غؼ‬٣ 3 َ‫ٗغؼ‬ 3 ْ‫ع‬ َ ُ ‫ؼ‬ 5 ْ ‫عِت‬ 7 ‫عَِخ‬ 3 ًِٞ‫ع‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫عٔبػ‬ 6 ‫غ‬ َ ٓ َ َ ََ‫ط‬ 12 ‫عٔؼذ‬ 7 ‫رغٔغ‬ 4 ‫ٔغ‬ َ ْ‫ع‬ 12 ‫خ‬٤‫عٔؼ‬ ‫ ط‬.13 ١‫و‬٤ٛ‫عٔب‬ 8 ‫خ‬٣‫و‬٤ٛ‫عٔب‬ 79 ‫غ‬٤ٔ‫ع‬ 3 ‫ِخ‬٤ٔ‫ع‬ 3 ‫ع٘بػ‬ 26 ‫ة‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 7 ٢‫ث‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 21 ‫خ‬٤‫ث‬ٞ٘‫ع‬ 10 ٚ٤٘‫ع‬ 52 ‫بى‬ٜ‫ع‬ 40 ٢٘‫بى ك‬ٜ‫ع‬ 6 ٢‫ج‬٣‫بى رله‬ٜ‫ع‬ 5 ١‫بى اإلكاه‬ٜ‫اُغ‬ ّ . penarikan perhimpunan. ikhtiar kesediaan. penalty Algerian badan. melakukan. merit to renew. collect. direction left side effort. hala sebelah kiri usaha. racing 5 sebahagian. set. tekum baru sepatutunya. tersedia persediaan menjadi baik. prepare become good worthiness. prepare atmosphere judo round. every beautiful. taking a seat collective. gathering semua. appliance artistic device. punishment. berkumpulan mengumpulkan. render perlakuan. deserving because of. mass. fraction reward. to renovate. throng.

fresh to define. kasih. kehendak. keadaan obstacle. penjagaan percuma. happening. current. release freedom. alasan batu batu asas saiz. tergelincir. bearer defending champion to try. tiba menjaga. consideration only. ukuran sempadan. occurrence violence incident to happen. moden. pembahagi yang berlaku. size. sekatan keinginan. privation desirous. menetapkan to descend. session. actual to prevent. boundary. decision lesson. border extent of saying event.baik. division. perfect 23 26 ‫ل‬٤‫ع‬ ‫لح‬٤‫ع‬ ‫ح‬ halangan. to decide penetapan. take place baru. kesungguhan pengiraan. menyimpan penuh dengan hal. incident. wishful calculation. pengawasan penjagaan gol perang kemahuan. hanya memutuskan. attempt sayang. filled with situation. preserve full of. bagus good. hindrance need. recent. prohibit deprivation. to keep carrier. taking place guard. menghalang yang membawa. menentukan new. attending to keep. wish. hostilities desire. plea. perdebatan. care free. pembawa juara bertahan mencuba present. melarang kehilangan. jatuh perhatian. kini menjaga. period 448 . conclusive present. lookout goal keeper decisive.‫ؽَبثبد‬ 28 ‫ؽَْت‬ 3 ْ َ ‫ؽ‬ َ ََ 3 َْ‫ؾ‬٣ 3 َْ‫رؾ‬ ِ 8 َْْ‫ؽ‬ 15 ‫ؽَّٖخ‬ 16 4 sekarang. to specify turun. merely to cut off. aspiration to forbid. want. kemerdekaan penjagaan. yabg baru penjaga penjaga gol bersifat tegas. muktamad hadir. suka hujah. pertimbangan semata-mata. had had pengucapan kejadian. keputusan jangka masa. come down caution. barrier occurring.5 ‫ك‬ٝ‫ؽل‬ ‫ؽلَس‬ َ ‫ ط‬. kerugian keinginan. circumstance َ‫ؽبئ‬ ‫ؽبعخ‬ 7 ‫ؽبعي‬ ِ ‫ – ط‬6 ‫اعي‬ٞ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫كس‬ ِ ‫ؽب‬ 5 ‫ؽبكصخ‬ 80 ً‫ؽبه‬ ِ 37 ٠ٓ‫ؽواٍخ أُو‬/ً‫ؽوا‬/ً‫ؽبه‬ 14 ‫ ط‬. excuse stone foundation stone mass. keperluan tembok. terkini menghadkan. kesungguhan mengharamkan.4 ‫ؽبالد‬ 72 ٢ُ‫ؽب‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ؽب‬ 4 ‫ؽبُذ‬ 34 َٓ ِ ‫ؽب‬ 32 ‫ؽبَٓ اُِوت‬ 11 ٍٝ‫ؽب‬ َ 13 ٍٝ‫ؾب‬٣ 3 ٍٝ‫ٗؾب‬ 3 ّ‫ؽُت‬ 3 ‫ؽغخ‬ 5 ‫ؽغو‬ 4 ً‫ؽغو األٍب‬ 10 ْ ْ‫ؽغ‬ 16 ّ‫ؽ‬ ‫ل‬ 3 ٍٞ‫ؽل اُو‬ ‫ ط‬. waktu settlement. situasi kejadian keganasan berlaku love. passion argument. necessity partition.12 ‫أؽلاس‬ 3 ‫أؽلاس اُؼ٘ق‬ 8 َ ‫ؽل‬ ‫َس‬ َ 3 ‫ؽلصذ‬ 4 ‫ؾلس‬٣ 3 ‫رؾلُس‬ 21 ‫ش‬٣‫ؽل‬ 3 ‫ضخ‬٣‫ؽل‬ َّ ‫ؽ‬ ‫ك‬ َ‫ل‬ 3 ‫ؾلك‬٣ 3 َّ ‫ُؾ‬٣ ُ‫ل‬ ‫ك‬ 3 َّ ‫ه‬ َ ‫ؽن‬ 5 ‫ؽنه‬ 3 ّ‫ؽُو‬ 18 ‫ؽوح‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫ؽو‬ 12 ‫ؽواٍخ‬ 4 ٠ٓ‫ؽواٍخ أُو‬ 6 ‫ؽوة‬ 6 ٓ ْ‫ؽو‬ 4 َّّ‫ؽو‬ 6 ٕ‫ؽوٓب‬ 3 ٔ٣‫ؽو‬ 15 ‫ؽَبة‬ 14 ‫ ط‬. liberty to guard.ً‫ؽوا‬ 19 ‫ؽبٍٔخ‬ 5 ‫و‬ٙ‫ؽب‬ ِ 5َ ‫ؽبكَع‬ 3 َِ‫ؽبك‬ 18 ٍ‫ؽب‬ 27 ‫ؽبُخ‬ ‫ ط‬. watch goal keeping war. pembebasan kebebasan.

untung mendapat. merungkaikan penyelesaian kebaikan.8 ٍِٞ‫ؽ‬ 5 ْ ِْ‫ؽ‬ ِ 4 ‫ؽٔبح‬ 3 ً‫ؽٔب‬ 3 ‫ؽٔبٍخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ؽٔب‬ 3 ‫ٔل‬ َ ْ‫ؽ‬ 17 ‫ؽٔواء‬ َ َ ٔ َ َ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫ؽِٔذ‬ 6 َٔ‫ؾ‬٣ 8 َٔ ِ ‫رؾ‬ 6 ‫ؽِٔخ‬ 3 ٗٞ‫ؽ‬ 3 ٢‫ؽ‬ ّ 7 ‫بح‬٤‫ؽ‬ ‫خ‬ luar tempat lawan luaran tewas. dapatan hadir. vacant news experience expert. perolehi mendapat. obtainment attend. reaping take place. mencapai training session to harvest. government to untie. tangki kawasan. khabar pengalaman berpengalaman. kalah. mendapat. kempen kolam. campaign basin. unfastening patience. to hold serangan. living ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬٣‫اُؾٖٔ اُزله‬/‫اُؾٖخ‬ 6 ‫ل‬ َ ٖ‫ؽ‬ 9 ‫ؽْٖ ل‬ 20 َ َ ٖ َ ‫ؽ‬ 7 ‫ؽِٖذ‬ 15 َٖ‫ؾ‬٣ 26 ٍٖٞ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫ِخ‬٤ٖ‫ؽ‬ 6 ‫و‬ َٚ َ ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫ود‬ٚ‫ؽ‬ 4 ‫و‬ٚ‫ؾ‬٣ 40 ‫ه‬ٞٚ‫ؽ‬ 3 ‫ؽع‬ ‫ ط‬. specialist 449 . mencapai. tiba.sesi latihan menuai. obtain keeping. memegang truth. mencapai presence. present kehadiran. defense praise. offence. bekas. obtain 7 pencapaian. forfeiter specific 5 20 ‫فبهط‬ ٗ‫فبهط األه‬ ِ 6 ٢‫فبهع‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫فبهع‬ 7 ‫فبٍو‬ ِ 13 ٓ‫فب‬ 74 ‫فبٕخ‬ 34 ٖٓٞ‫ف‬ 27 ٗ‫فب‬ 23 ٗٞ‫ق‬٣ 5 ٗٞ‫رق‬ 4 ٢ُ‫فب‬ 8 ‫فجو‬ 15 ‫فجوح‬ 3 ‫و‬٤‫فج‬ memasuki. true referee international referee assistant referee rule. go into kosong. benar pengadil pengadil antarabangsa penolong pengadil undang-undang. mendapat penuaian. berpengetahuan empty. datang occurrence. fortune to acquire. protection gathering. kedatangan nasib. keinginan penjagaan.19 ّ‫ؽٌب‬ 4 ْ ٌْ‫ؽ‬ ُ َ َّ ‫ؽ‬ 19 َّ‫ؾ‬٣ 9 َ‫ؽ‬ َ ‫ ط‬. pengawasan pujian merah membawa. achieve hakikat. peraturan menyelesaikan. assembly right to realise.4 ‫ظ‬ٞ‫ؽظ‬ 3 ٢‫ؽظ‬ 3 ٠‫رؾظ‬ 8 ‫ؽلبظ‬ 15 ْ َ‫ؽل‬ 17 ‫ؽن‬ 56 َّ ‫ؽون‬ 14 ‫ؽووذ‬ 4 ‫ا‬ٞ‫ؽوو‬ 12 ‫ؾون‬٣ 3 ِّ ‫رؾون‬ 6 ‫وخ‬٤‫ؽو‬ 10 ٢‫و‬٤‫ؽو‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٤‫ؽو‬ 79 ٌَْ‫ؽ‬ 4 ٢ُٝ‫ؽٌْ ك‬ 4 ‫ؽٌْ َٓبػل‬ ‫ ط‬. realiti hakiki. sambutan hak merealisasikan. tank. commendation red to carry. mengharungi to wade into. pool district. attendence luck. rugi khas outside. reality real. sunyi berita. reap harvesting. tolerance mother in law enthusiasm. pegawasan perhimpunan. exterior out of ground external. memperoleh penjagaan. toleransi ibu mertua bersemangat. resolve untying. section life. eagerness protection. get. daerah kehidupan attack. exterior loser.

11 ‫فلٓبد‬ 10 ‫فوط‬ 13 ‫قوط‬٣ 33 ‫ط‬ٝ‫فو‬ 64 ‫فَبهح‬ 3 ّ . susunan bahaya merebut. lembut percangahan. quintuple neck. choice failure. emerge going out.penutup. mandapat rebutan. pencapaian langkah kepentingan. continue to enter. embarrassed service. kajian tahap. area lasting. penyingkiran kekalahan. menunduk garisan. benefit ‫ ط‬. serious light. necessity to last. entry study. berkaitan dalam berpusing. masih. seizing step seriousness. throat wading into.ٖ٤‫فَبهر‬ 30 ‫َو‬ ِ ‫ف‬ 3 ‫فَود‬ 7 ‫قَو‬٣ َّٔ‫ف‬ 3 ٔ‫ق‬٣ 4 ْ ْٔ‫ف‬ َّ 4 ‫غ‬ َ ٚ‫ف‬ 27 ّ ٜ‫ف‬ 5 ‫ اُلكبع‬ٜ‫ف‬ 7 ّٞ‫غ‬ُٜ‫ ا‬ٜ‫ف‬ 5 ٍُٜٞ‫ ا‬ٜ‫ف‬ 24 ‫فطؤ‬ ‫ ط‬. berputar faktor. penyertaan analisa. bagus to distinguish with opponent. unsuccess good. enduring inside. berkisar. perbalahan datang kemudian. summon 450 . interior inner area internal. pengikut mengikuti. closing ashamed. emergence loss. masuk dalam circle. mild disagreement. berterusan memasuki. keutamaan penting. come after background gulf gulfy succesor fivefold. muncul pengeluaran. mistake. selalu di dalam. leher kemasukan. revolve cause. importance grave. level to call support. tewas kalah. duty to go out. lima penjuru tengkuk. sustainment calling.3 ‫فجواء‬ 10 ّ‫فزب‬ 3 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫فغ‬ 8 ‫فلٓخ‬ ‫ ط‬. risk to snatch. menyeru sokongan. datang kemudian latar belakang teluk berkaitan teluk pengganti ketua lima segi. come into ‫كائوح‬ ْ‫كائ‬ 40 َ‫ف‬ ِ ‫كا‬ 10 ‫كافَ ٓ٘طوخ‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ِ‫كاف‬ 4 ‫َاه‬ َ ‫ك‬ 5 ٢‫ػ‬ ِ ‫كَا‬ 4 ْ ‫ٓذ‬ َ ‫كَا‬ 14 َ َ َ َ‫كف‬ 11 َ‫لف‬٣ 3 ِٕٞ‫لف‬٣ 3 ُ ‫رل‬ َ‫ف‬ 18 ٍٞ‫كف‬ 19 ‫كهاٍخ‬ 44 ‫كهعخ‬ 3 ‫كػب‬ 20 ْْ‫كػ‬ 4 ‫ح‬ٞ‫كػ‬ 11 5 kemasukan. grab grabbing. istimewa lawan. tugas keluar. discord succescor. tewas final. pengharungan pilihan kegagalan. forfeit mengkhususkan.4 ٜ‫فط‬ 10 ‫فطو‬ 6 َ‫فطق‬ 7 ْ ‫فطق‬ 4 ‫ح‬ٞ‫فط‬ 19 ‫هح‬ٞ‫فط‬ 5 ‫و‬٤‫فط‬ 7 ‫وح‬٤‫فط‬ 4 ‫ق‬٤‫فل‬ 9 ‫فالف‬ 4 ‫فالكخ‬ 3 ‫فِق‬ 3 َ‫فَِق‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫فِل‬ 8 ‫ظ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 8 ٢‫غ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫غ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 5 ‫لخ‬٤ِ‫ف‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫فٔب‬ 4 ‫ف٘بم‬ 28 ٗٞ‫ف‬ ‫ ط‬. barisan barisan pertahanan barisan penyerang barisan tengah salah perancangan. utama. tewas baik. interior to turn. sinking ito option. research step.4 ‫بهاد‬٤‫ف‬ 6 ‫جخ‬٤‫ف‬ 6 ‫و‬٤‫ف‬ ‫د‬ bulatan. subjected to line line of defense line of attack line of midfield error. forfeiture to lose. peringkat memanggil. penyebab selagi. musuh tunduk kepada. ajakan entering. dalam dalam kawasan dalaman.22 ‫أفطبء‬ 5 َّ ‫فطخ‬ ‫ ط‬. punca. penghabisan memalukan khidmat. descendent to follow. line danger. fault planning. adversary to submit. kawasan sentiasa. serius ringan. dokongan panggilan.

perlawanan. turn. pertahanan kumpulan minit cause.18 ٖ٤‫وز‬٤‫كه‬ 14 ‫ه‬ٞ‫كًز‬ 5 َ٤ُ‫ك‬ 6 ٢ً‫كٗٔبه‬ 128 ‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 17 ٢‫بئ‬ٜٗ ‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 7 ‫ػبد‬ٞٔ‫ه ٓغ‬ٝ‫ك‬ 5 ٢‫بئ‬ٜٗ ‫ه ٖٗق‬ٝ‫ك‬ 4 ٢‫بئ‬ٜٗ ‫ه هثغ‬ٝ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬. series. stimulation group minute doktor tanda. departure to go to gold golden pemikiran. indication Denmark role. alasan pertahanan berkaitan pertahanan mendesak.3 ٕ‫ب‬ٛ‫أم‬ 11 27 pernyataan pergi. bukti orang Denmark. pusingan siri perlawanan Negara Arab sesi perlawanan perlawanan persahabatan perlawanan sukan sesi latihan negara negara-negara Arab antarabangsa. sendiri menyatakan.5 ٖ٤‫ز‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫م‬ ‫ ط‬. pusingan pusingan akhir pusingan kumpulan pusingan separuh akhir pusingan suku akhir siri perlawanan negara Arab siri perlawanan. berkaitan Denmark peranan.dakwaan. round Arab series games session friendly tournament/match sports tournaments traning sessions country. menyebut self. perlepasan pergi emas berkaitan emas mention. state Arab countries international Dollar merekodkan. case defense defensive to push. otak mind. series Premier League final round national league elite league First Class League session. round final round groups round semi final round quarter final round Arab series round.28 ‫كهبئن‬ ّ . intellect 451 . referring leaving.3 ‫اد‬ٞ‫كػ‬ 3 ٟٞ‫كػ‬ 51 ‫ككبع‬ 8 ٢‫ككبػ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ككبػ‬ 11 ‫غ‬ َ َ‫كك‬ 3 ‫لكغ‬٣ 6 ْ ‫ككغ‬ 5 ‫كُكؼخ‬ 155 ‫وخ‬٤‫كه‬ ‫ ط‬. force pushing. person. pusingan Liga Perdana pusingan akhir liga tempatan liga elit Liga Kelas Pertama sesi. menulis Davies Dinar hutang Dollar to record.4 ‫بد‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫م‬ ٖٛ‫م‬ ‫ ط‬.ٖ٤٤ُٝ‫ك‬ 24 ‫اله‬ٝ‫ك‬ 3 ََّٕٝ‫ك‬ 6 ٌ٤‫ل‬٣‫ك‬ 14 ‫٘به‬٣‫ك‬ 6 ٕٞ٣‫ك‬ ‫ر‬ mempunyai. to stimulate. dunia doctor sign. mempertahankan desakan. take note Davies Dinar debts ‫ ط‬. individu. posses to mention ‫ماد‬ ‫َو‬ َ ً‫م‬ 5 ‫نًو‬٣ 14 ْ٣ َ ‫ُن‬ ‫و‬ ُ ً 4 ْ ُ‫ر‬ ‫نًَو‬ 5 ْ ‫مًو‬ 39 ‫بة‬ٛ‫م‬ 3 َ ‫َت‬ٛ‫م‬ 9 َ ‫َت‬ٛ‫م‬ 3 ٢‫ج‬ٛ‫م‬ 64 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ‫م‬ ّ .14 ‫هاد‬ٝ‫ك‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫هاد ػوث‬ٝ‫ك‬ 265 ١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 51 ‫ ٓٔزبى‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 17 ٢‫بئ‬ٜٗ ‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 8 ٢ِ‫ ٓؾ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 7 ‫ ٗقجخ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 5 ٠ُٝ‫ كهعخ أ‬١‫ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 146 ‫هح‬ٝ‫ك‬ 38 ‫خ‬٤‫هاد ػوث‬ٝ‫ك‬/‫هح‬ٝ‫ك‬ 28 ‫هح أُؼبة‬ٝ‫ك‬ 6 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٝ ‫هح‬ٝ‫ك‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ب‬٣‫هح ه‬ٝ‫ك‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬٣‫هاد رله‬ٝ‫ ك‬/‫هح‬ٝ‫ك‬ 12 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬.30 ٍٝ‫ك‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤‫ٍ اُؼوث‬ٝ‫اُل‬ 63 ٢ُٝ‫ك‬ 31 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫ك‬ 9 ‫ ط‬.

teman menolak. to lift kenaikan. gainer link. menjawab. rejection to raise. banner to bind. pengukir hendak. formal bullet outstanding.٢ُٞ‫هع‬ 3 ‫هؽَّت‬ 3 ‫هؽجذ‬ 7 ‫هؽِخ‬ 6 َ٤‫هؽ‬ 10 َّ ‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ 3 ُّ ‫و‬٣ ‫ك‬ 17 ‫هك‬ 3 ّ‫ه‬ َ‫ك اُلؼ‬ٝ‫هك‬/‫ك‬ 5 ‫هٍبُخ‬ 5 ّ‫هٍب‬ 3 ٍْ‫ه‬ 27 ٢ٍٔ‫ه‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤ٍٔ‫ه‬ 3 ‫هٕبٕخ‬ 125 ‫ل‬٤ٕ‫ه‬ 3 ‫ب‬ٙ‫ه‬ 21 ‫خ‬٣‫هػب‬ ‫ت‬ َ ‫ؿ‬ َ ِ ‫ه‬ 5 ُ‫َوْ ؿَت‬٣ 14 ‫هؿجخ‬ 3 ‫هكبم‬ 13 ٘‫هك‬ َ 5 ‫ذ‬ٚ‫هك‬ 3 ُ٘‫وك‬٣ 10 ْ‫ه‬ ٘‫ك‬ 25 ‫غ‬ َ ‫هك‬ 4 ‫هكؼذ‬ 10 ‫غ‬ ُ َ‫َوْ ك‬٣ 38 ْ ‫هكغ‬ 15 ٍ‫هكغ األصوب‬ 189 8 bendera mengikat suku suku akhir kembali. for official. lifting weight-lifting 452 . protection to desire. angkat sukan angkat berat raising. look ‫هئبٍخ‬ ٌ٤‫هئ‬ 23 ‫ٌ االرؾبك‬٤‫هئ‬ 30 ‫ٌ اُِغ٘خ‬٤‫هئ‬ 13 ١‫ٌ اُ٘بك‬٤‫هئ‬ 12 ٌِ‫ٌ أُغ‬٤‫هئ‬ 10 ّ‫ٌ اُؼب‬٤‫اُوئ‬ ّ . penafian mengangkat. memadai penjagaan. balasan respon. lifter rally to bet. pulang lelaki kelakian. pertubuhan Liga Juara-Juara pertubuhan kebangsaan rehat kepala tanduk yang mengangkat. wish companion. menyambut perjalanan. bertarung melihat. to reject penolakan. wager. lindungan mahu. wish desire. drawer intended for. sahabat. menaikkan refusal. journey departure. memulangkan jawapan.‫س‬ kepimpinan Ketua. principal wonderful. mencadangkan leadership leader. leaving to return. berjaya. association champions league national association rest. kemahuan kawan. fasten quarter quarter final to return. tajaan. back man manly. headline raiser. come. giving back respond letter draftsman. relaxation head heading. memikat untung. marvelous winner. company to refuse.3 ٕ‫َب‬٤‫هئ‬ 4 ٢َ٤‫هئ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤َ٤‫هئ‬ 9 ‫هائغ‬ 8 ‫هائؼخ‬ 4 ‫هاثؾخ‬ 27 ‫هاثطخ‬ 7 ٍ‫هاثطخ أثطب‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤٘ٛٝ ‫هاثطخ‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ٜ‫اث‬ٝ‫ه‬ 6 ‫هاؽخ‬ 30 ْ ً‫هأ‬ 10 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫هأ‬ 8 ‫كغ‬ ِ ‫ها‬ 14 ٢ُ‫ها‬ ََٖٛ‫ها‬ 5 ُٖٛ ِ ‫وا‬٣ ٟ‫هأ‬ 10 ٟ‫و‬٣ 8 ٟ‫أه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ها‬ ََٜ‫هث‬ َ 4 ِٜ‫روْ ث‬ 20 ‫هُثغ‬ 11 ٢‫بئ‬ٜٗ ‫هثغ‬ ‫غ‬ َ ‫ع‬ َ ‫ه‬ َ 5 ‫غ‬ ُ ‫أهع‬ ِ 9 َ‫هع‬ ‫ – ط‬31 ٍ‫هعب‬ 3 ‫ ط‬. balasan surat pelukis. berkaitan lelaki mengalu-alukan. tujuan rasmi peluru kedudukan kepuasan. reminder become satisfied care. ingin keinginan. menaikkan rali (sukan bermotor) bertaruh. give back returning. perpindahan perlepasan. Presiden Presiden persatuan Presiden jawatankuasa Presiden kelab Presiden Majlis Ketua Pengarah berkaitan ketua menarik. menafikan flag. masculine to welcome trip. pemergian membalas. pemenang hubungan. gamble to see. president President of the union President of the committee President of the club President of the council General Manager chief.

5 ‫بد‬٤ٓ‫ه‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫اثؼ‬ٝ‫ه‬ ‫ ط‬. companion pelawat pertambahan lawatan visitors increase.‫ىٓالء‬ ّ – 3 ٖ٤ِ٤ٓ‫ى‬ ‫ ط‬. casting profit. grow 8 ‫ىاك‬ ُ ‫ْل‬٣‫ي‬ َ٣ ِ 3 ‫ل‬٣‫ري‬ ‫ه‬ َ ‫ىا‬ 3 ُ َ٣ ‫ه‬ ُ ٝ‫ي‬ 13 ٍ‫ىا‬ 4 ‫ىاُذ‬ 7 ٍ ُ ‫يَا‬٣ 4 ٍ‫ريا‬ 8 ٍ‫ٗيا‬ 6 ‫خ‬٣ٝ‫ىا‬ 3 ْ٤‫ىػ‬ 14 ٖٓ‫ى‬ 18 َ٤ٓ‫ى‬ 11 ‫ ط‬. still sudut ketua masa.3 ‫أٍئِخ‬ 46 ‫ثن‬ ِ ‫ٍب‬ 27 ‫ٍبثوخ‬ ّ – 3 ٖ٤‫ٍبثوز‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ٖ٤‫ٍبثو‬ 4 ‫ٍبؽخ‬ 3 ‫ٍبهع‬ 44 ‫ٍبػخ‬ dataran. zaman kawan. masih to visit to disappear. explorer.7 ّ‫أههب‬ 3 ‫هًجخ‬ 16 ٢‫هًج‬ 4 َّ ‫هًي‬ 27 ‫هًِخ‬ 22 ‫هًالد اُغياء‬/‫هًِخ‬ 9 ‫هًِخ ؽوح‬ ‫ – ط‬4 ‫هًالد‬ 4 ‫ؼ‬٤‫هًالد اُزوع‬ 8 ‫خ‬٤ً٘‫ه‬ 3 ‫هٓي‬ 3 ١‫هٓي‬ 3 ٢ٓ ْ‫ه‬ ‫ ط‬. chief time. space to hurry. teman nombor.pendamping. bilangan nombor rekod lutut ragbi menumpukan. berkaitan Rusia orang Romania. increment visit ‫ط‬ soalan terdahulu question. sahabat corner leader. sekarang. tanda balingan. guideline spirit fighting spirit Russian Romanian reuter sport sportive. sign throwing.ٖ٤٤ٙ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ 62 ‫لاير‬ 21 12 3 ‫ص‬ bertambah. fellowship number record knee rugby focus. kemenangan penjelajah.4 ‫اه‬ٝ‫ى‬ 4 ‫بكح‬٣‫ى‬ 18 ‫بهح‬٣‫ى‬ 4 melawat menghilang. sporty Riyal Riyal ‫هكوخ‬ ْ‫هه‬ ٢ٍ‫ب‬٤‫ههْ ه‬ ‫ ط‬. penyelidik ruh. period colleague. cepat jam. preceding 6 ٍ‫ٍئا‬ ‫ ط‬. winning pioneer. pukul square. memfokuskan sepakan sepakan penalti sepakan percuma sepakan penalti sudut lambang. berkaitan Romania reuter sukan berkenaan sukan company. kawasan lapang bergegas. berkembang to increase.3 ‫اك‬ٝ‫ه‬ 13 ‫ػ‬ٝ‫ه‬ 3 ٍ‫ػ اُوزب‬ٝ‫ه‬ 16 ٢ٍٝ‫ه‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤ٍٝ‫ه‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ٓب‬ٝ‫ه‬ 4 ‫زوى‬٣ٝ‫ه‬ 80 ‫خ‬ٙ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ 57 ٢ٙ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ 71 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫بد‬ٙ‫ب‬٣‫ه‬ 14 ‫ ط‬. rejaman keuntungan. concentrate kick penalty kick free kick penalty shootout corner symbol. hasten hour. jiwa semangat berjuang orang Rusia. inquiry previous. currently 453 . gain.

track to register. melampaui help.5 ٖ٤٣‫ك‬ٞ‫ٍؼ‬ 3 ٢ْ‫ٍؼ‬ ٠‫ٍؼ‬ 22 ْ َ٣ ٠‫ؼ‬ ََ 8 ٠‫رَؼ‬ 6 ‫ٍلو‬ 3 ‫و‬٤‫ٍل‬ 14 َ ٜ‫ٍو‬ 8 ٛٞ‫ٍو‬ ٍَ ٌَٖ َ 4 َُ ٌُٖ ْ َ٣ 3 ‫ٍالٓخ‬ 6 ‫ٍِت‬ َ 11 ٢‫ٍِج‬ 37 ‫ٍِخ‬ 3 ‫ٍَِِخ‬ ‫ ط‬. journey to fall. simple jahat. mencatat antecedence. power sultan. bersungguh-sungguh berusaha. forego keutamaan. note menjaringkan. buruk sama super orang Sudan. attempt perjalanan jatuh.20 ‫اد‬ٍٞ٘ 6 ١ٍٞ٘ 4 ٍ‫ٍ٘زوا‬ 10 ْ٤‫ٍ٘ز‬ 4 ‫ٍ٘ؾذ‬ 9 ‫ًو‬ٍٞ٘ 5 ٍَْٜ 15 ‫ِخ‬ٍٜ 3 ‫ُخ‬ٍٜٞ 4 ‫ء‬ٍٞ 10 ‫اء‬ٍٞ 16 ‫ثو‬ٍٞ 9 ٢ٗ‫كا‬ٍٞ 34 ١‫ه‬ٍٞ 6 ‫خ‬٣‫ه‬ٍٞ 454 . siri kekuasaan. rob. mudah annually central centimeter to occur. jaring rantaian. menjunan tinggal. alasan menyebabkan. berpeluang snuker senang. assist to invest. velocity fast. kehebatan yang mulia. bertemu melangsaikan. sovereignty permission to allow. rapid happiness. ketinggian Yang Mulia Raja tahun travel. drop to live.14 ‫أٍجبة‬ ‫ٍجَّت‬ 3 ‫رَجِّت‬ 17 ‫ن‬ َ َ‫ٍج‬ 5 ‫ٍجوذ‬ 3 ُ ‫ج‬ ْ ٣ ‫ن‬ َ َِ 4 ‫ٍجْن‬ 3 َ٤‫ٍج‬ 3 َ‫ٍج‬ 98 ََّ َ ‫ٍغ‬ 4 ‫ٍغِذ‬ 22 َ ُ ِّ‫ََُغ‬٣ 11 َ ْ‫ٍغ‬ 4 ‫ن‬ َ ‫ؾ‬ ِ ٍ 15 ‫ٍلَّك‬ 9 ُ‫ل‬ ِّ َ ‫ك‬ َ ُ٣ 12 ّ‫ٍو‬ 9 ‫ٍواه‬ 11 ‫ٍوػخ‬ 4 ‫غ‬٣‫ٍو‬ 8 ‫ؼخ‬٣‫ٍو‬ 9 ‫ٍؼبكح‬ 74 ١‫ك‬ٞ‫ٍؼ‬ 19 ‫خ‬٣‫ك‬ٞ‫ٍؼ‬ ‫ ط‬. berkiatan Syria worse. junam kejatuhan. mencari effort. mis same. endeavor to seek. penguasaan raja. dwell in security to steal. kepantasan dengan pantas. sultan kebenaran. crush. share swimming sevenfold race. keizinan membenarkan nama baik. compitition reason. recorded clash. path.6 ‫بد‬٤‫ٍجبػ‬ 17 ‫ٍجبم‬ 83 ‫ٍجت‬ ‫ ط‬. to aim secret forehead fast. drop falling. permit reputation highness. seronok orang Arab Saudi. diami keselamatan menarik. beat to pay. dignity Royal Highness year tahunan berpusat. pusat centimeter berlaku. similar super Sudanese Syrian ‫ ط‬. contribute. speed. pilihan jalan. merampas negatif raga. perlumbaan sebab. trek medaftar. record. priority way. cepat kebahagiaan. cause to cause. berkongsi renang tujuh penjuru pertandingan.4 ‫ٍِطبد‬ 12 ٕ‫ٍِطب‬ 4 ‫ٍٔبػ‬ 4 ‫ٍٔؼ‬ َ 7 ْ َ٣ ‫ؼ‬ ُ ٔ ََ 7 ‫ٍٔؼخ‬ 33 ٍٞٔ 11 ٢ٌُِٔ‫ ا‬ٍٞٔ 21 ‫ٍ٘خ‬ ّ . membantu menyumbang. betujuan rahsia dahi kecepatan.4 ٖ٤‫ٍ٘ز‬ ‫ ط‬. berkaitan Arab Saudi scored. had a change snooker easyness. contest. berkaitan Sudan orang Syria. settle. quick.menolong.8 ‫ٍبػبد‬ ‫ل‬ َ‫ػ‬ َ ‫ٍب‬ 4 ُ‫ػ‬ ‫ل‬ َ ُ٣ ِ ‫َب‬ 7 ْ َ ٛ‫ٍب‬ 5 ‫ٍجبؽخ‬ ‫ ط‬. generate to precede. felicity Saudian usaha. plunder negative basket series domination. mengakibatkan berlalu. mendaftar bertembung. turun. laluan.

berkaitan Switzerland buruk. young man youth way. nation. menonton pintu. semangat seseorang. boldness a person.beradik syak wasangka kesyukuran. fashion aduan. figure to. bersifat individu menegaskan. bantahan utara arah utara kesatuan. terima kasih bentuk. gratitute form. kesamaran keberanian. masyarakat kebangsaan merasa. ketinggian kemuliaan. firm chess slogan. shape. suspicion thankfulness. disturbance brother full brother. road to participate 9 ‫ّبة‬ ‫ّجبة‬ 4 ٢‫ّجبث‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ّجبث‬ 4 ‫ّبهع‬ ِ ‫ى‬ َ ‫ّبه‬ 17 ُ ‫َبه‬ ‫ى‬ ِ ُْ٣ 17 ‫رْبهى‬ 19 ٕ‫ّؤ‬ ‫ ط‬. individu perseorangan. shape. purchase policeman legitimate. mis-deed car politic context. bravery. lord. forceful buy(ing). sequence master. kesalahan kereta politik konteks tuan. powerfull. protest north northen union. unity 455 . whole brother doubt. sign people. kemegahan timur syarikat. kuat pembelian polis mengikut syarak kemuliaan. kerabat adik. kacau bilau saudara. berkaitan Sweden orang Switzerland. perasaan matter. public nationality to feel. keadaan Swedish Switzerland sin. tegas. firma catur lambang. watch window resemblance. watchword. tingkap persamaan. courage. similarity.‫أّوبء‬ 5 ‫ن‬٤‫ّو‬ 5 ‫ّي‬ 4 ‫ ط‬. man Sir to dominate domination scenario 7 ١‫ل‬٣ٍٞ ١‫َو‬٣ٍٞ 3 ‫ئخ‬٤ٍ 6 ‫بهح‬٤ٍ ‫ – ط‬5 ‫بهاد‬٤ٍ 7 ‫بٍخ‬٤ٍ 6 ‫بم‬٤ٍ 29 ‫ل‬٤ٍ ‫ – ط‬20 ‫لاد‬٤ٍ 4 ‫و‬٤ٍ 5 ‫طو‬٤ٍ َ 26 ‫طوح‬٤ٍ 7 ٞ٣‫٘به‬٤ٍ 11 ‫ش‬ pemuda berkaitan pemuda jalan. legal. menekankan keras. dignity honorary east company. rupa membentuk riot. encik. corporation. to perceive kalut. persatuan complaint.‫ى‬ٌّٞ 5 ْ ُ ‫ٌّو‬ 35 ْ ٌَّ 3 َّ َ َ ٌّ 4 ‫ٌِّذ‬ 3 ِّ َ ُ٣ َ ُ ٌْ 7 ٌّٟٞ 7 ٍ‫ّٔب‬ 3 ٢ُ‫ّٔب‬ 20 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ّٔب‬ 4 َٔ ّْ 101 hal.5 ٕٞ‫ّئ‬ 4 ‫ل‬ َ ٛ‫ّب‬ 36 ‫ّجبى‬ 3 ٚ‫ّج‬ 3 ‫ّغبػخ‬ 7 ٔ‫ّق‬ 10 ٢ٖ‫ّق‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٖ‫ّق‬ 5 َّ ّ ‫ك‬ َ‫ل‬ 3 ‫ل‬٣‫ّل‬ 4 ‫لح‬٣‫ّل‬ 3 ‫ّواء‬ 6 ‫خ‬ٛ‫ّو‬ 3 ٢‫ّوػ‬ 11 ‫َوف‬ َّ 3 ٢‫ّوك‬ 6 ‫ّوم‬ 9 ‫ّوًخ‬ 3 ‫ّطوٗظ‬ 4 ‫ّؼبه‬ 11 ‫ّؼت‬ 4 ٢‫ّؼج‬ 9 ‫خ‬٤‫ّؼج‬ ‫و‬ َ ‫ّؼ‬ 3 ْ َ٣ ‫و‬ ُ ‫ؼ‬ ُْ 3 ‫و‬ ُ ‫أّؼ‬ 4 ‫ّـت‬ ٢‫ّو‬ 4 ‫ ط‬.orang Sweden. individually to emphasise. individual personal. lelaki Sir menguasai penguasaan scenario. affair witness. form. tanda bangsa. keadaan menyaksikan. stress strong. fault. lorong menyertai young. sense. lawful honor.

kesahihan kejutan kawan. tahap kecil sifat. zero 456 . baik pembuat. aged. ascending highland. crony frankness. regard.mengandungi penyaksian. rakan jujur. morning newspaper press. fight. tontonan menonton.4 ‫ثبد‬ٞ‫ٕؼ‬ 7 ‫ل‬ َ‫ؼ‬ ِٕ 4 ‫ٕؼلد‬ 3 ُ‫ؼ‬ ‫ل‬ َ ْٖ٣ َ 6 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ٕؼ‬ 10 ‫ل‬٤‫ٕؼ‬ 5 ‫ٕـبه‬ 4 ‫و‬٤‫ٕـ‬ 6 ‫ٕلخ‬ 70 ْ ‫ٕلو‬ 12 kesihatan betul. berkaitan Serbia mengumumkan. pemilik. asli penolakan memimpin. bergelut orang Serbia. character nil. lead respect.14 ‫إٔؾبة‬ 5 ‫ٕبكوح‬ 7 ‫ٕبُخ‬ ‫ ط‬. object. quality. kawan kedudukan liga Yang Mulia Duli Yang Maha Mulia tuan rumah berbagai jenis burung dewan. pencipta perancang utama pagi surat khabar liputan. hard memajat. little adjective. reportage 51 ‫ٕبؽت‬ ‫ٕبؽت أُوًي‬ 12 َُٞٔ‫ٕبؽت ا‬ 11 ٢ٌُِٔ‫ ا‬َُٞٔ‫ٕبؽت ا‬ 16 ٗ‫إٔؾبة األه‬/‫ٕبؽت‬ ‫ ط‬. contain witness.3 ٖ٣‫و‬ّٜ 114 ٛ ّْٞ 5 ‫ أُجبهاح‬ّٛٞ ّ – 3 ٖ٤ّٛٞ ‫ ط‬. strife Serb to declare. jelas pembuangan. openness struggle. sukar healthy true. senator َ َ ّٔ ْ ‫ر‬ َٔ َْ 4 ‫بكح‬ّٜ 13 ‫ل‬ٜ ِّ 23 ‫لد‬ّٜ 8 ْ َ٣ ُ َْٜ ‫ل‬ 11 ْ ‫ر‬ ‫ل‬ْٜ 3 ‫لاء‬ّٜ 64 ‫ْو‬ّٜ ْ ‫أ‬ ‫ – ط‬9 ‫ُو‬ّٜ ّ . di hadapan hal. sending away difficult. terus terang berusaha gigih. become clear dismissal. betul. to watch bulan month separuh masa separuh masa perlawanan half time half time of the match benda. mendaki to climb. room good. valid maker. bilik tepat. right.6 ‫ٕبالد‬ 18 ‫ٕبُِؼ‬ 7 ‫ٕبِٗغ‬ 5 ‫ٕبٗغ األُؼبة‬ 16 ‫ٕجبػ‬ 3 ‫ؾخ‬٤‫ٕج‬ 6 ‫ٕؾبكخ‬ 12 ‫لخ‬٤‫ٕؾ‬ ‫ ط‬.6 ٢‫ٕؾل‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕؾل‬ 8 ٕٞ٤‫ٕؾل‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ٕؾ‬ 11 ‫ؼ‬٤‫ٕؾ‬ 4 ّٕ ‫ل‬ 46 ‫ٕلاهح‬ 7 ‫ٕلك‬ 5 ‫ٕله‬ َ 3 ‫ٕلهد‬ 5 ‫ٕلْم‬ 6 ‫ٕلٓخ‬ 3 ‫ن‬٣‫ٕل‬ 3 ‫ٕواؽخ‬ 8 ‫ٕواع‬ 5 ٢‫ٕوث‬ 13 ‫ػ‬ َّ ٕ َ ‫و‬ 3 ‫ػ‬ ُ ِّ‫َُٖو‬٣ 5 ‫ٕوْ ف‬ 12 ‫ٕؼْت‬ 24 ‫ثخ‬ٞ‫ٕؼ‬ 19 ‫ٕؼجخ‬ ‫ ط‬. real. stuff old man. watak kosong. owner league place His highness His Royal Highness owner of the land oriole hall. level small. ascend pendakian tanah tinggi. genuine repulsion. sifar climbing. pemergian susah. akhbar to be a companion of. creator playmaker dawn. objek orang tua. impact friend. issued truth. matter to be published. menyaksikan to include. sesuatu. advanced in year. trueness shock. repelling front. mengeluarkan kebenaran. evidence to witness.7 ٛ‫ا‬ّٞ‫أ‬ 25 ‫ء‬٢ّ 20 ‫ـ‬٤ّ 7 ‫قخ‬٤ّ 4 ‫ص‬ tuan. senator thing. perkara menerbitkan.

image summer Chinese 5 ‫ٕلوخ‬ ‫ ط‬. package line.6 ‫اء‬ٞٙ‫أ‬ 4 ‫بع‬٤ٙ 3 ‫بكخ‬٤ٙ 69 ‫ق‬٤ٙ 3 ‫لخ‬٤ٙ 15 tekanan penyertaan. require table printing. huge opposite. limit. striking penalty shoot need. perlu lemah. holding visitor. penyatuan menyertai. ususan barisan hubungan gambar. contact picture. hujung airplane emergency. buangan dibuang. pasukan pelawat guarantee. throwing to be expelled. meminta meja percetakan. power crew technical staff to claim. ditolak had. waste entertaining. memastikan cahaya.41 ‫ف‬ٞ‫ٕل‬ 3 ‫ِٕخ‬ 14 ‫هح‬ٕٞ 13 ‫ق‬٤ٕ 6 ٢٘٤ٕ ‫ض‬ yang hilang menggandakan. driven away edge. necessity weakness. berkaitan China deal. unite. bertentangan pukulan sepakan penalti penting. side ‫بئوح‬ٛ ‫بهئ‬ٛ ‫ – ط‬3 ‫بهبد‬ٛ 12 ْ‫به‬ٛ 5 ٢٘‫بهْ ك‬ٛ 8 ‫بُت‬ٛ َ 4 ُ‫ُطَبُِت‬٣ 11 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ب‬ٛ 7 ‫جْغ‬ٛ 4 ٢ِّ‫ج‬ٛ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 8 ‫ت‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 6 ٢‫ؼ‬٤‫ج‬ٛ 3 ‫وْ ػ‬ٛ 20 ‫وْ ك‬ٛ 4 ‫ك‬ َ‫و‬ ِ ُٛ 18 ‫وف‬ٛ ّ – 11 ٖ٤‫وك‬ٛ ‫ ط‬. transaction. to double big. contrary beating. bring together jaminan menjamin. road. discount expulsion. brightness loss. penganjuran tetamu. lorong melalui kesalahan path. imej musim panas orang Cina. warranty to guarantee. kecerahan kehilangan layanan. perubatan doktor secara semula jadi lontaran. semula jadi kedoktoran. missing to add. bentuk. ensure light. menambah besar berlawanan.pakej. kekuatan anak kapal kakitangan teknikal memohon. composition connection. bahagian.4 ‫واف‬ٛ‫أ‬ 47 ‫ن‬٣‫و‬ٛ 3 ‫ن اُقطؤ‬٣‫و‬ٛ 21 ‫وخ‬٣‫و‬ٛ 3 8 jalan. sudden energy. cemas tenaga.ٛٞ‫ـ‬ٙ 5 ْ ُّ ٙ ْ َّ ٙ 8 ‫ٔذ‬ٙ 18 ْ َّ ٙ 22 ْ ّ ٚ‫ر‬ 8 ٕ‫ٔب‬ٙ 5 َِٖٔٙ 11 ُٖٔ َ َْٚ٣ 7 ‫ء‬ٞٙ ‫ ط‬. guest ‫ط‬ kapal terbang mengejut. bersatu pressure joining. pengurangan penolakan. powerless ‫بئغ‬ٙ َ‫بػَق‬ٙ 3 ُ‫ػق‬ َ ٣ ِ ‫ب‬ُٚ 3 ‫قٔخ‬ٙ 32 ّٙ ‫ل‬ 4 ‫وْ ة‬ٙ 23 ‫وثخ‬ٙ 7 ‫وثخ اُغياء‬ٙ 14 ‫هح‬ٝ‫و‬ٙ 9 ‫ؼق‬ٙ 3 ‫ق‬٤‫ؼ‬ٙ 3 ‫لخ‬٤‫ؼ‬ٙ 17 ْ ٜ‫ـ‬ٙ 4 ‫ ط‬. uniting to join. natural medical doctor naturally deduction. way by mistake 457 . tidak bertenaga lost.

shade noon. all during baik. mengejar muncul. to ask request. saksama berlaku adil. belakang pertahanan kiri pertahanan kanan occation.ٍ‫لب‬ٛ‫أ‬ 3 ‫لخ‬٤‫ل‬ٛ 9 ‫ِت‬ٛ َ 5 ُ ْ ُ‫َطِت‬٣ 11 ‫ِت‬ٛ ‫ٔؼ‬ٛ 3 ْ ‫رطٔؼ‬ 4 ‫ػ‬ٞٔٛ ‫ ط‬. come back ‫ػبئل‬ ‫ػبئِخ‬ 3 ‫ػبة‬ 3 ‫ػبرن‬ 18 ‫ػبك‬ 5 ‫ػبكد‬ 23 ُ ُٞ‫ََِ ػ‬١ ‫ك‬ 9 ‫ك‬ٞ‫رؼ‬ 9 ‫ػبكح‬ 9 ٍ‫ك‬ ِ ‫ػب‬ ٍَ َ ‫ػَبك‬ 5 ٍ ُ ‫ك‬ َ ُ٣ ِ ‫ؼب‬ 12 ‫خ‬ٙ‫ػبه‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤٘‫خ ك‬ٙ‫ػبه‬ 5 ُ‫ػب‬ 5 ُِ٤‫ؼ‬ ِ َ٣ 24 ‫ػبٕٔخ‬ 3 ٢ٕٔ‫ػب‬ 74 َ ُْ‫ػب‬ 10 ٢ُٔ‫ػب‬ 16 ‫خ‬٤ُٔ‫ػب‬ 9 ٢ُ‫ػب‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫ػب‬ 178 ّ‫ػب‬ ‫ – ط‬10 ّ‫ا‬ٞ‫أػ‬ ّ – 14 ٖ٤ٓ‫ػب‬ 45 ّ‫ػب‬ 14 ‫ػبٓخ‬ 4 ّٞٔ‫ػ‬ 4 َٓ ِ ‫ػب‬ 4 7 adat. harapan sepanjang stabbing. aviation Emirate Airline ْٖ‫ؼ‬ٛ ْٛ َ‫ل‬ ‫ ط‬. desakan bercita-cita. pleasant flying.back 5 ‫ظوف‬ ‫ ط‬. exist capital. global tinggi. household criticise. kanak-kanak tipis meminta. aim to. dishonor shoulder.cabaran. challenge baby. back left-back right. menjatuhkan bahu. remain shadow. lindungan tengah hari belakang. seri pendemonstrasi. kebiasaan adil. responsible to return. tanggungjawab pulang. child slight. atas tahun habit. keadaan situasi sukar masih. keluat kemunculan pembantu. tikaman budak. coming back family. universal high. memohon permintaan. minor to request. bagus penerbangan Penerbangan Emirate good. global. hinder to appear. seek ambition. aspirant throughout. rear. modal berkenaan ibu negara dunia peringkat dunia. bertujuan cita-cita. demonstrator technical bar to live. faktor worker. kembali returning. midday back. tall year umum general pekerja. metropolis capitality world wordwide. menyambung teduh. just to equal. demand. custom fair.22 ‫ف‬ٝ‫ظو‬ 4 ‫ف اُٖؼجخ‬ٝ‫ظو‬ 6 َّ‫ظ‬ 18 َ‫ظ‬ ِ 13 ‫ْو‬ُٜ‫ظ‬ 3 ‫ْو‬َٜ‫ظ‬ 9 ‫و‬ َ ََٜ‫ظ‬ 12 ‫ه‬ٜٞ‫ظ‬ 10 ‫و‬٤ٜ‫ظ‬ 5 ‫َو‬٣‫و األ‬٤ٜ‫اُظ‬ 4 ٖٔ٣‫و األ‬٤ٜ‫اُظ‬ ‫ع‬ kembali Keluarga memalukan. come out appearance. factor 458 . situasion difficult conditions to continue to do. emergence helper. claim to aspire.4 ‫ؽبد‬ٞٔٛ 10 ٍ‫ا‬ٞٛ 10 َ٣ٞٛ 9 ‫ِخ‬٣ٞٛ 5 ‫جخ‬٤ٛ 11 ٕ‫وا‬٤ٛ 11 ‫وإ اإلٓبهاد‬٤ٛ 10 3 ‫ظ‬ situasi. to balance exhibitor. penyampai rintangan teknikal hidup ibu negara.

strengthen determination to camp evening nerve afternoon muscular member member of union member of commission member of honor club members membership gift. berkaitan Arab Arab Arabs persembahan silang. wide to consolidate. large to hold. knowledge scientific. post. to conclude contract. a number number non-. pengetahuan berkaitan ilmu mengetahui hindering. penyembuhan hubungan. besar memartabatkan. undergo burden. tidak wujud tidak dikira beberapa. hadangan luas. rasa petang mengenai otot ahli.‫ػالهبد‬ 3 َّ ‫ن‬ َ ِ‫ػ‬ 19 ْ ْ ِ‫ػ‬ ِ 3 ‫خ‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ ْ َ ِ‫ػ‬ َِ 7 َ ْ َ٣ ْ ُ ِ‫ؼ‬ 4 ‫ػِِٔ٘ب‬ 3 ِٞ‫ػ‬ 7 ‫ب‬٤ِ‫ػ‬ ‫ػٔبك‬ ‫ ط‬. present great. berkaitan Iraq several. penganjuran hukuman. anggota anggota persatuan ahli majlis anggota golongan elit ahli kelab keanggotaan pemberian. many Iraqis Arab orang Arab. menyatakan mengira. hang science. horizontal to know. aware halangan. nonexistence non-culculation numerous.3 ‫أػٔلح‬ 10 459 . berlawanan rawatan.3 ‫أػلاك‬ 52 َّ‫ػل‬ 4 ‫ػلّ االؽزَبة‬ 19 ‫ل‬٣‫ػل‬ 3 ‫لح‬٣‫ػل‬ 146 ٢‫ػواه‬ 22 ‫خ‬٤‫ػواه‬ ‫ ط‬. sebilangan orang Iraq. mnedatar mengetahui show.13 ٗٝ‫ػو‬ 16 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ػو‬ ‫وف‬ َ َ‫ػ‬ 5 ‫ػوكذ‬ 8 ُ‫ْوف‬ ِ ‫ؼ‬٣ 4 ُ‫أػوف‬ ِ 7 ‫رؼوف‬ 3 ُ‫ْوف‬ َ ‫ُؼ‬٣ 3 ‫ػوهِخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬ٚ٣‫ػو‬ 3 َّ ‫ػ‬ َ‫يى‬ 3 ْ ّ‫ػي‬ ََ ْ ‫ػ‬ ‫و‬ َ ٌَ 4 ْ ‫ؼ‬ ‫و‬ ُ ٌ َ ُ٣ َِ 8 ‫خ‬٤ْ‫ػ‬ ِ ‫ػٖت‬ 4 ‫أػٖبة – ط‬ 14 ‫ػْٖ و‬ 3 ٢ِٚ‫ػ‬ 9 ٞ ْٚ‫ػ‬ 7 ‫بء االرؾبك‬ٚ‫أػ‬/ٞٚ‫ػ‬ 12 ٌِ‫بء أُغ‬ٚ‫أػ‬/ٞٚ‫ػ‬ ‫ ط‬. number beberapa bilangan.3 ‫ثبد‬ٞ‫ػو‬ 3 ٌٌ‫ػ‬ 3 ٌٌ ِ ‫رؼ‬ 11 ‫ػالط‬ 7 ‫ػالهخ‬ 8 ‫ ط‬. menganjurkan kontrak. demonstration cross. agreement. pillar ٠َٗ‫ػَب‬ ٢ِٗ‫ؼب‬ َ ُ٣ ‫ػتْ ء‬ ِ 3 ‫أػجبء‬ 6 ‫َّو‬ َ ‫ػج‬ َّ ‫ػ‬ ‫ل‬ 12 ُّ ‫ؼ‬ ‫ل‬ َ ُ٣ 6 ُّ ‫رُؼ‬ ‫ل‬ 21 ‫ػلَّح‬ 88 ‫ػلك‬ ‫ ط‬. altitude higher support.16 ٕٞ٤‫ػواه‬ 38 ‫ػوة‬ 26 ٢‫ػوث‬ 115 ‫خ‬٤‫ػوث‬ 4 ً ْ‫ػو‬ 34 ٗ ْ‫ػو‬ ‫ ط‬. punishment penalty stop reversal. membilang to suffer. holding penalty. cure relationship to suspend. sangat mengadakan.10 ‫ك‬ٞ‫ػو‬ 24 ‫ثخ‬ٞ‫ػو‬ 3 ‫وبف‬٣‫ثخ ا‬ٞ‫ػو‬ ‫ ط‬. nombor ketiadaan. hadiah besar. tiang height. denda hukuman berhenti pantulan. perjanjian. menderita beban mengungkap. senjakala saraf. onstruction broad. kaitan menggantung ilmu. keazaman berkhemah malam. academic to know ketinggian lebih tinggi sokongan. load to express to count. reflection remedy.44 ‫بء‬ٚ‫أػ‬ 3 ‫َوف‬ َ ُْ‫بء ا‬ٚ‫أػ‬ 4 ١‫بء اُ٘بك‬ٚ‫أػ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣ٞٚ‫ػ‬ 5 ‫ػطبء‬ 3 ْ٤‫ػظ‬ 6 ‫ل‬ َ َ‫ػو‬ 3 ‫ػولد‬ 34 ْ ‫ػول‬ ‫ ط‬.terkena.

die-hard period. jaguh perbezaan perbezaan gol perbezaan mata memenangi group. foreign opponent. bright sudden. stay away to leave. liat tempoh. instead of to rely on. to surprise knight. hardship absent 8 ‫ؿبة‬ ُ‫ْت‬٤‫ـ‬ ِ َ٣ ‫ه‬ َ ‫ؿَب‬ َ‫ك‬ 5 ‫ه‬ ُ ‫ك‬ ِ ‫ُـَب‬٣ 6 ٢ُ‫ؿب‬ 7 ٢ٗ‫ؿب‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ؿب‬ 23 ‫خ‬٣‫ؿب‬ 3 ‫ؿواثخ‬ 5 ‫ؿواه‬ 3 ٢‫ؿوث‬ 7 ‫ت‬٣‫ؿو‬ 4 ْ٣‫ؿو‬ 3 ١‫ل‬٤ِ‫ْ اُزو‬٣‫اُـو‬ 6 ُّ٘‫ؿ‬ 6 ‫ؿ٘ اُ٘ظو‬ 4 ‫ت‬ٚ‫ؿ‬ 4 ‫و‬٤‫ؿل‬ 4 ‫و‬٤‫ه اُـل‬ٜٞٔ‫اُغ‬ 6 ‫ؿٔبه‬ 35 ‫بة‬٤‫ؿ‬ ‫ ط‬. besar bilangan ramai penonton genting. head element. masa kembali. aneh lawan. bentuk stubborn. berlepas berharga. act operation. gain ‫كئخ‬ ‫كبئلح‬ 23 ‫كبئي‬ 3 ‫كبئيح‬ 4 ‫رؼ‬ ِ ‫كب‬ 3 ‫كبعؤ‬ 10 ً‫كبه‬ ِ 76 ‫كبهم‬ ِ 14 ‫لاف‬ٛ‫كبهم األ‬ 17 ٛ‫ٗوب‬/‫كبهم اُ٘وطخ‬ 72 ‫كبى‬ 3 5 460 . mahal orang Ghana.18 ‫ػ٘بٕو‬ 7 ‫ػ٘ق‬ ٢٘‫ػ‬ َ 8 ْ َ٣ ٢ِ٘‫ؼ‬ 3 ٢٘‫رؼ‬ 4 ‫ل‬٤٘‫ػ‬ 3 ‫ْل‬ٜ‫ػ‬ 4 ‫لح‬ٜ‫ػ‬ 56 ‫كح‬ٞ‫ػ‬ 3 ٗٞ ِ َ‫ػ‬ ٍَّ َ َ ٞ‫ػ‬ 5 ٍ ُ َِّٞ‫ُؼ‬٣ 7 ٖ٤‫ػ‬ 3 ‫٘خ‬٤‫ػ‬ 4 8 15 ‫ؽ‬ tidak hadir meninggalkan. different goal different point different to win. beerti deed. victor light.umur melakukan. luring western strange. large large crowds distress. perjanjian. pattern ‫ٔو‬ ْ‫ػ‬ َٔ ِ‫ػ‬ ْ ُ٣ َ ُ ٔ َ‫ؼ‬ 3 ْ٣ َُِٕٞٔ َ َ‫ؼ‬ 28 ََٔ‫ػ‬ 13 ‫ ط‬. the same sample. hero distinctive. sukar ketidakhadiran absent. to do perlakuan. godaan arah barat pelik. penting. troop benefit. objectif keanehan umpanan. kebaikan pemenang cerah mengejutkan pahlawan. berkaitan Ghana tujuan.ٍ‫أػٔب‬ 18 ‫خ‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤‫خ عواؽ‬٤ِٔ‫ػ‬ 8 ‫ػٔالم‬ 7 ‫ل‬٤ٔ‫ػ‬ 3 ‫ػٖ٘و‬ ‫ ط‬. practice surgery operation giant chief. oddity delusive. odd. component violent mean degil. ignoring angry great. pulang sebagai ganti bergantung kepada mata. rival arch-rival overlooking. perbuatan operasi. purpose strangness. amalan pembedahan gergasi ketua. depart from valuable Ghanian aim. kekejaman bermaksud. coming back substitute. obligation returning. treaty. pengarah unsur keganasan.3 ‫بثبد‬٤‫ؿ‬ 16 ‫ف‬ kumpulan faedah. advantage winner. depend on eye. membuat age to act. pasukan musuh musuh tradisi tanpa melihat marah besar. sama contoh.

4 ‫و‬٤‫ار‬ٞ‫ك‬ 300 ‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ 10 ٖ٤ٔ‫ى ص‬ٞ‫ك‬ 8 ‫و‬٤‫ى ًج‬ٞ‫ك‬ ّ . menyuruh cawangan. view hotel. separation to separate.keberkesanan FAF pembukaan membuka masa. tempoh tempoh pergantungan ujian.3 ‫ك٘بكم‬ 106 ٢٘‫ك‬ 23 ‫خ‬٤٘‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ٖ٤‫كوٕز‬ 4 ٗ َ ‫كو‬ َ 6 ‫كوْ ع‬ 3 ‫ع‬ٝ‫كو‬ 3 ‫كوْ م‬ 25 ٢َٗ‫كو‬ 7 ‫خ‬٤َٗ‫كو‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٍٝ‫كو‬ 4 ‫ل‬٣‫كو‬ 591 ‫ن‬٣‫كو‬ 11 ١‫ن اُ٘بك‬٣‫كو‬ 5 ١ٝ‫ن ًو‬٣‫كو‬ 3 ٢ٌُِٔ‫ن ا‬٣‫اُلو‬ ‫ ط‬. scattering grace. unsucces failing. happy single. empty Agency France-Presse (AFP) joy. to prefer silver effective efficiency effectiveness of fighting deed. dengan kehebatan mengutamakan.5 ‫بد‬٤‫كز‬ ‫ ط‬. section. part idea. penyebaran kebaikan. trial. hero oppurtuniny.3 ‫ٕبد‬ٞ‫كؾ‬ 5 ‫كـ‬ 4 ‫كواؽ‬ 3 ٌٗ‫كوا‬ 4 ‫كوْ ػ‬ 4 ‫كوؽخ‬ 3 ‫كوؽذ‬ ‫كوك‬ ‫ ط‬. disturbance young women. pemerikasaan perangkap. berkaitan Perancis sukan equestrian tersendiri. section. to order branch. perlakuan kehilangan bahagian. individu pahlawan. jabatan perbezaan orang Perancis. jaguh peluang. memilih perak berkesan keberkesanan keberkesanan pertarungan perbuatan. penginapan skil. pendapat hotel.3 ٍ‫أكؼب‬ 4 ٕ‫كولا‬ 3 ‫كوواد‬ 5 ْ‫ك‬ ‫ٌوح‬ 5 ‫ك٘لم‬ ‫ ط‬. gangguan wanita muda ujian.ٖ٤‫و‬٣‫كو‬ 11 َْ‫ك‬ ِ 4 ْ َْ ‫ك‬ 5 َ ْٖ‫ك‬ َ َ ٖ َ َ‫ك‬ 5 ْ َ٣ َ ُ ٖ ِ ‫ل‬ 3 ُّ٘‫ك‬ 28 َ ْٚ‫ك‬ َ َّ َ‫ك‬ َ ٚ 3 َ ُ َِّٚ‫ُل‬٣ 41 ‫خ‬٤ٚ‫ك‬ ّ . technical invoice. by virtue of choose. happiness to become glad. acommodation skill. unik pasukan pasukan kelab pasukan bola Pasukan Diraja pasukan-pasukan kumpulan gagal. forfeiture passage. unsuccesful partition. sole personal. rangkap idea. kindness. teknikal bil kejayaan. tidak berjaya kegagalan pemisahan memisahkan pembukaan. bill success.6 ‫أكواك‬ 9 ١‫كوك‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣‫كوك‬ 7 ٕ‫كوٍب‬ 37 ‫كوٕخ‬ ‫ ط‬.64 ‫كوم‬ َ 10 ‫ػخ‬ٞٔ‫كوم أُغ‬ 55 ّ .4 ٖ٣‫ى‬ٞ‫ك‬ 23 ‫لب‬٤‫ك‬ 10 3 79 461 . time period of suspention charm. girl examination. dissimilarity French horsemanship. victory precious victory great victory FIFA ‫كبىد‬ ‫ى‬ُٞ‫َل‬٣ ‫ى‬ٞ‫رل‬ ‫ ط‬. to divide opening. ruang Agensi Akhbar Perancis kegembiraan bergembira seseorang berseorangan.32 ٓ‫كو‬ َ ّ . jerat kosong. individual team club team football team Royal Team group teams fail. chance mewajibkan. check trap. equestrian unique. individual knight. act loss. ruang efficiency FAF opening to open period. division different. kemenangan kemenangan berharga kemenangan besar FIFA to impose.3 ٕ‫زب‬٤ٚ‫ك‬ 4 ‫كؼّبُخ‬ 6 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫كؼب‬ 3 ٍ‫خ هزب‬٤ُ‫كؼب‬ ‫ ط‬.9 ‫بد‬٤ُ‫كؼب‬ 21 َ‫كؼ‬ ‫ ط‬.3 ‫بد‬٤ِ‫كبػ‬ 8 ‫كبف‬ 7 ْ ‫كزؼ‬ ‫كزؼ‬ 3 ْ‫ر‬ ‫ؼ‬ ُ ‫لز‬ 40 ْ‫ك‬ ‫زوح‬ 4 ‫هق‬ٞ‫كزوح اُز‬ ‫ – ط‬7 ‫كزواد‬ 3 ‫كز٘خ‬ ‫ ط‬. snare vacancy.

te determine draw. ketua ketua pasukan ketua pasukan pengucap. hampir niat.7 ‫هواهاد‬ 3 ٌْ‫هواهاد اُؾ‬ 16 ‫َّه‬ َ ‫هو‬ 6 ‫هوهد‬ 19 ‫هوػخ‬ 7 ‫ت‬٣‫هو‬ 8 ‫جخ‬٣‫هو‬ 5 ‫هْٖ ل‬ 5 ‫وح‬٤ٖ‫ه‬ 3 ‫بء‬ٚ‫ه‬ 5 ٠ٚ‫ه‬ 17 ‫خ‬٤ٚ‫ه‬ 6 ‫هطبع‬ 28 ١‫و‬ ِ َ‫هط‬ 4 َ‫هلَي‬ 7 ْ ‫ه لي‬ 12 bertemu.‫ق‬ pemimpin. berkata able. pergaduhan orang lama bilangan. competent comer continent continental hard. located. bring forward hubungan kekeluargaan resolusi. sambil berkata bersifat berdiri.ٖ٤ٗ‫ا‬ٞ‫ه‬ 3 ‫ٖ اُؼبٓخ‬٤ٗ‫ا‬ٞ‫اُو‬ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٗٞٗ‫هب‬ 31 َ‫ج‬ َ‫ه‬ ِ 6 ٍ‫هزب‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُ‫هزب‬ ‫ ط‬. meet. kewujudan Pemangku Pengarah leader Commander of the team team leader teller. perlakuan melakukan. existent Acting Director 36 ‫هبئل‬ ‫هبئل أُ٘زقت‬ 7 ‫ن‬٣‫هبئل اُلو‬ 14 َ‫هبئ‬ 12 ْ‫هبئ‬ 4 ‫و‬٣‫هبئْ ثؤػٔبٍ ٓل‬ 14 ‫هبئٔخ‬ ‫ ط‬. cara-cara bercakap. berkemampuan yang datang benua berkenaan benua keras. war fighting old people. affair sector. poll near.4 ٖ٤ٔ‫هبئ‬ َ َ َ‫هَبث‬ 4 َ ُ ِ‫ُوَبث‬٣ 8 َ‫ر‬ ِ ‫هب‬ 30 ‫هبك‬ 4 ‫هبكد‬ 11 ُ ُٞ‫و‬٣ ‫ك‬ ‫ ط‬. speak berdiri. berkaitan Qatar melompat lompatan relationship. solid. principle to say. capability foot to advance. firm hall rule. bertembung yang membunuh memimpin crash. section Qatar to jump jumping 462 . peraturan peraturan-peraturan am mengikut peraturan dari pihak pergaduhan. resolution association dicision referee decision to decide. spending. measure ability.10 ‫هلهاد‬ 202 َّ‫هل‬ 27 َّ ‫ه‬ ّ َ‫ل‬ 4 ‫هلٓذ‬ 9 ِّ َ‫ُو‬٣ ّ ُ‫ل‬ 5 ‫هواثخ‬ 49 ‫هواه‬ 3 ‫هواه االرؾبك‬ ‫ ط‬. hal keadaan sektor. stand up undang-undang. matter.3 ٕٝ‫هبكه‬ 19 ّ‫ك‬ ِ ‫هب‬ 15 ‫هبكٓخ‬ 12 ‫هبهح‬ 8 ١‫هبه‬ 6 ‫خ‬٣‫هبه‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٍ‫هب‬ 12 ‫هبػخ‬ 3 ‫هبػلح‬ 142 ٍ‫هب‬ 14 ‫هبُذ‬ 8 ٍ ُ ُٞ‫و‬٣ 3 َُُُٕٞٞ‫َو‬٣ 5 ٍٞ‫أه‬ 12 ّ‫هب‬ 5 ‫هبٓذ‬ 3 ‫ا‬ٞٓ‫هب‬ 14 ّ ُ ُٞ‫َو‬٣ 11 ّٞ‫رو‬ 3 ٕٞٗ‫هب‬ 5 ‫ ط‬. pass action. purpose short judiciary. close intention. saying standing. bahagian orang Qatar. tegas dewan kaedah. melaksanakan dakwaan. kadar. peperangan perjuangan. ukuran kemampuan kaki mendahului. mengambil peranan to rise. kinship decision.3 ٠ٓ‫هلا‬ 3 ‫هَلْه‬ 6 ‫هلهح‬ ‫ ط‬. ancient amount. to guide mampu. act general laws legal on the part of fighting. clash killer to lead. ketetapan keputusan persatuan keputusan pengadil menetapkan undian dekat. kehadapan law. maksud pendek penghakiman. passing to spend.

worth 3 ْ ‫هِت‬ ‫ ط‬. pengucapan kebangsaan kekuatan. adalah capten to be. army armed forces strength. normal record. lazim rekod. sufficient complete full fitness Cameroon to be. keseluruhan mencukupi lengkap kecergasan yang mencukupi orang Cameron.3 ‫ة‬ِٞ‫ه‬ ‫ت‬ َ ََِّ‫ه‬ 3 ُ‫ُوَِِّت‬٣ 3 ‫هِخ‬ 4 ٔ َ َِّ‫ه‬ 5 ‫هِن‬ 9 َ٤ِ‫ه‬ 8 ‫ِخ‬٤ِ‫ه‬ 10 ‫هٔخ‬ 7 ‫ ط‬. big buku banyak bola bola sepak bola keranjang bola tamper book a lot. powerful leadership standard. many ball football basketball volleyball ‫ًبف‬ ‫ًبكخ‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫ًبك‬ 15 َٓ ِ ‫ًب‬ 4 ‫بهخ‬٤ُِ‫ًبَٓ ا‬ 11 ‫ًبِٓخ‬ 3 ٢ٗٝ‫و‬٤ٓ‫ًب‬ 204 ٕ‫ًب‬ 4 ‫ًبٗب‬ 98 ‫ًبٗذ‬ 12 ‫ا‬ٞٗ‫ًب‬ 4 ُ ‫ً٘ذ‬ 68 ُ َ٣ ٌُٕٞ 5 ُ٣ َٕ ٌُْٞٗٞ 4 ًٕٞ‫أ‬ 42 ٌٕٞ‫ر‬ 66 ‫و‬٤‫ًج‬ 35 ‫وح‬٤‫ًج‬ ‫ ط‬. tentera percakapan. chain value. tentera kekuatan kepimpinan biasa. piawai. peak force. ikatan nilai turning. standard rising.‫اد‬ٞ‫ه‬ 4 ‫اد َِٓؾخ‬ٞ‫ه‬ 41 ‫ح‬ٞ‫ه‬ 10 ٍٞ‫ه‬ 7 ٢ٓٞ‫ه‬ 10 ٟٞ‫ه‬ 19 ١ٞ‫ه‬ 32 ‫خ‬٣ٞ‫ه‬ 42 ‫بكح‬٤‫ه‬ 3 ً‫ب‬٤‫ه‬ 14 ٢ٍ‫ب‬٤‫ه‬ 6 ّ‫ب‬٤‫ه‬ 5 ‫ل‬٤‫ه‬ 18 ‫ٔخ‬٤‫ه‬ 3 ْ٤‫ه‬ ‫ك‬ kapten hampir-hampir staf latihan staf karate piala Piala Dunia Piala Asia piala negara-negara piala kejohanan Bolasepak Piala Asia Piala Afrika Piala Davies (nama rasmi kejohanan tennis) Konfiderasi Bolasepak Afrika semua. force saying. menjadi. gelisah sedikit kemuncak tentera tentera bersenjata kekuatan. all of enough. about to staff staff training karate cup World Cup Asian Cup Cup of Nations championship cup Asian Cup Football African Cup Davies Cup Confideration of African Football all. pelaksanaan rantai.hati. menyusut bimbang. membalik membalikkan. hearh to turn littlenes. to exist ٖ‫ًبثز‬ ‫ًبك‬ 4 ‫ًبكد‬ 3 ‫كه‬ ِ ‫ًب‬ 4 ٢‫ج‬٣‫كه اُزله‬ ِ ‫اٌُب‬ 18 ‫خ‬٤‫ًبهار‬ 121 ً‫ًؤ‬ 31 ُْ‫ًؤً اُؼب‬ 25 ‫ب‬٤ٍ‫ًؤً آ‬ 20 ْٓ‫ًؤً أ‬ 3 ‫ُخ‬ٞ‫ًؤً ثط‬ 7 ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ٥‫ًؤً األْٓ ا‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫ً اإلكو‬ٝ‫اٌُئ‬/ً‫اٌُؤ‬ 4 ٌ٤‫ل‬٣‫ًؤً ك‬ 13 8 besar large. piawai bangun. few summit. speech national strength.8 ‫ًجبه‬ 3 ٟ‫ًجو‬ 5 ‫ًزبة‬ 34 ‫و‬٤‫ًض‬ 8 ‫وح‬٤‫ًض‬ 339 ‫ًوح‬ 197 ّ‫ًوح اُول‬ 26 ‫ًوح اَُِخ‬ 14 ‫ل‬٤ُ‫ًوح ا‬ 11 6 463 . standing up tie. merubah sedikit mengurangkan. berkaitan Camaron wujud. reduce worry. anxiety little. fewness to shrink. force strong.

374 ٖ٤‫الػج‬ 12 ‫ن‬٣‫ اُلو‬ٞ‫الػج‬ 8 ‫ أُ٘زقت‬ٞ‫الػج‬ 5 ‫ٕ اٌُجبه‬ٞ‫اُالػج‬ 3 ١‫ اُ٘بك‬ٞ‫الػج‬ 3 ‫ٕ ّجبة‬ٞ‫الػج‬ 4 ‫الكِذ‬ 22 ٢ٗ‫ُج٘ب‬ 5 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫ُج٘ب‬ َ ‫غؤ‬ َ َُ 3 ‫غؤ‬ َ ِْ َ٣ 102 ‫ُغ٘خ‬ 15 ‫خ‬٤‫ُٔج‬ٝ‫ُغ٘خ أ‬ 10 ‫ُغ٘خ َٓبثوبد‬ 8 ‫ُغ٘خ ٓ٘ظٔخ‬ 10 ّ‫ُغ٘خ ؽٌب‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ن‬٤‫ُغ٘خ ر٘ل‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ُٝ‫خ ك‬٤‫ُٔج‬ٝ‫ُغ٘خ أ‬ 3 ‫ء‬ٞ‫ُغ‬ pemain-pemain pasukan pemain-pemain kebangsaan pemain-pemain utama pemain-pemain kelab pemain-pemain muda pelihat. perolehan memecahkan pemecahan mendedahkan. breaking to uncover. uncovering jersy to be enough bail. sepatutnya pemain pemain tengah pemain Asia pemain antarabangsa list. leret bola tamper ping pong tenis bolasepek Afrika berkenaan bola orang Croatia. round Croatian gaining. seek shelter committee.3 ‫ائؼ‬ُٞ 5 ‫الؽن‬ ِ 5 ّ‫الى‬ ِ 279 ‫ػت‬ ِ ‫ال‬ 11 ٍُٜٞ‫الػت ا‬ 11 ١ٞ٤ٍ‫الػت آ‬ 4 ٢ُٝ‫الػت ك‬ 10 ‫الػجبد‬ 8 ٕ‫الػجب‬ 24 ‫الػجخ‬ ‫ ط‬. guaranteeing all talk.bola silang. ensuring. existence Kuwait kilogram ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ًواد ػو‬/‫ًوح‬ 4 ‫ًوح اُطبئوح‬ 4 ‫ُخ‬ٝ‫ًوح اُطب‬ 4 ‫وة‬ُٚٔ‫ًوح ا‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤‫و‬٣‫اٌُوح اإلكو‬ ‫ ط‬. jaminan semua percakapan masalah. break into smashing. papan kenyataan berikut. penarik perhatian orang Lubnan. to charge with kilometer word final dicision faculty. berkaitan Kuwait kilogram exposure. berkaitan Croatia kemenangan. berkaitan Kolombia kejadian orang Kuwait. winning to smash. datang kemudian keperluan. school Korean Colombian being.7 ‫ًواد‬ 17 ١ٝ‫ًو‬ 12 ‫خ‬٣ٝ‫ًو‬ 9 ٢‫ار‬ٝ‫ًو‬ 6 ‫ًَْت‬ 3 ‫ّو‬ َ ًَ 4 ‫ًَْو‬ 9 َ ً َ‫ْق‬ 5 ‫ًْلذ‬ 3 ْ َ٣ ُ‫ْق‬ ِ ٌ 3 ْ ً ‫ْق‬ 5 ‫كبد‬ًْٞ 4 ‫ًلخ‬ َ ٠َ‫ًل‬ 4 ْ َ٣ ٢ِ‫ٌل‬ 3 ‫ِخ‬٤‫ًل‬ 135 ًَ 5 ّ‫ًال‬ 6 ‫ًِلخ‬ 3 ‫ًِلذ‬ 14 ًِْ 11 ‫ًِٔخ‬ 3 ‫وح‬٤‫ًِٔخ أف‬ 3 ‫خ‬٤ًِ 13 ١‫ه‬ًٞ 4 ٢‫ٓج‬ًُٞٞ 16 ًٕٞ 16 ٢‫ز‬٣ًٞ 4 ‫خ‬٤‫ز‬٣ًٞ 31 ّ‫ؿوا‬ِٞ٤ً ‫ل‬ senarai. inconvenient assign to. speak trouble. membuka ball cross volleyball table tennis tennis African football ball-shaped. table subsequent. board Olympic Committee Competition Committee Organiser Committee Referees committee Executive Commitee International Olimpic Commitee resorting to 464 . jersi mencukupi kepastian. eye-catching Lebanese to resort to. followong necessary. berkaitan Korea orang Kolombia. tidak selesa mewajibkan. expose 12 pendedahan baju. proper player midfielder Asian player international player 7 ‫الئؾخ‬ ‫ ط‬. berkaitan Lubnan berlindung jawatankuasa Jawatankuasa Olimpik Jawatankuasa Pertandingan Jawatankuasa Penganjur Jawatankuasa Pengadil Jawatankuasa Pelaksana Jawatankuasa Olimpik Antarabangsa perlindungan team players national team players top players club players youth players attention. membebani kilometer perkataan kata putus fakulti orang Korea.

sidang sidang akhbar yang ditunda. clash friendly meeting second leg match title African title to meet to touch. put off current. barang bahan maraton masters yang lalu.3 ٖ٤‫ُؼجز‬ 102 ‫ُوبء‬ 5 ١‫ك‬ٝ ‫ُوبء‬ 4 ‫بة‬٣‫ُوبء ا‬ ‫ ط‬. writing qualified for.4 ‫ٓئٍَبد‬ 15 ‫ٓئهذ‬ 17 ‫ٓئًل‬ 6 ‫ٓئُق‬ 17 ‫ِخ‬ٛ‫ٓئ‬ 4 ‫ل‬٣‫ٓئ‬ 3 ‫ٓبء‬ 6 ‫ٓبكح‬ 3 ١‫ٓبك‬ 3 ‫خ‬٣‫ٓبك‬ 6 ٕٞ‫ٓبهار‬ 9 ‫ٓبٍزوى‬ 124 ٢ٙ‫ٓب‬ 31 ‫خ‬٤ٙ‫ٓب‬ ّ . backed up water material. game Arab games track and field games Asian games pertemuan pertemuan persahabatan pertemuan pusingan kedua gelaran gelaran Afrika bertemu merasa. reproach fitness. kecekapan kecergasan fizikal orang Lybia. tindakan persaingan. requisite to play permainan.ٖ٤٤‫ج‬٤ُ 24 ٌ٤ُ 10 ‫َذ‬٤ُ 5 َ٤ُ 10 ‫ِخ‬٤ُ 5 4 4 ‫و‬ seminar.78 ‫أُؼبة‬ 21 ‫خ‬٤‫األُؼبة اُؼوث‬ 9 ٟٞ‫أُؼبة اُو‬ 4 ‫خ‬٣ٞ٤ٍ‫أُؼبة آ‬ 62 ‫ُؼجخ‬ ّ . action contest.7 ‫ُوبءاد‬ 139 ‫ُوت‬ 3 ٢‫و‬٣‫اُِوت اإلكو‬ 8 ٢‫ُو‬ 3 ‫َُٔذ‬ 13 ‫اء‬ُٞ 3 ُّٞ 12 ‫بهخ‬٤ُ 4 ‫خ‬٤ٗ‫بهخ ثل‬٤ُ 26 ٢‫ج‬٤ُ 3 ‫ ط‬.‫ُؾظبد‬ 3 ّ‫ُيا‬ 37 ‫ؼت‬ ُِ 3 ‫ُؼجذ‬ 3 ‫ُؼجب‬ 3 ‫ا‬ٞ‫ُؼج‬ 57 ُ‫َ ِْؼَت‬٣ 19 ‫رِؼت‬ 55 ‫ُُؼْت‬ ‫ ط‬. transitory confirmatory forming. preceding 5 ‫ٓئرٔو‬ ٢‫ٓئرٔو ٕؾل‬ 3 ‫ٓئعِخ‬ 10 ‫ٓئفو‬ 3 ‫ٓئٍَخ‬ ‫ط‬. while necessary. di akhir yayasan sementara secara yakin. pembentukan yang layak. handle banner.menewaskan sekejap keperluan. menyentuh bendera kehinaan. melayakkan yang menyokong air bahan. stuff material