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Index Numbers   .

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4  1   ..    )  A %    .    . C .   .( ? A %  C (2      .

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+ . % ? .   @ 1 . .

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4 (6 .+ . 1   @ 6  A    #    4  1  .

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  7  – 5 B  –  6   8 # .

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      2  (    #  1  (  @ B  /  1   1     0 2  F 6 1  8 1  .

  . .   5  .   1   B  2   %   '    5  # %    .  # 9  .    ! #   %  . ) '  .'  # 7     .

.  ! #  $ A  / G  C  )  .  ? %  4 #  6 %  7  ?  .

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.  * % G .    ! #  . C    .% .4   5   )  ' #  $ A  H " #    .    ! #  . . B 7  .#  .

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1 2 %  .

) 3 .    3 4 10     &    0 3 *  (        5 10     6 '   $ 7  8 "   # "     # $ %   .9 %    0  :    (  :   2  .

   # &     <        0  0  ('  = 0  * 7 0   * 7 0 0    >     ?    1950      2 %   &  &  #  0   ' > "  # 3   :  (  '  10  <  0  .#  .   # 0         > "  @  0  ('  ) 3  0  #  /  &  #  & - :         '   / 0  & 0  > 1  .

  # 0  & 7   A #    %  &  B  0  %   8  (   >  C '     &  D%   0 3       &  <   )   3  #    - ( . . :   .

  9  7  . ) 3  6#   .  ( 0 0 .# ' )  0  # '  :          ('  .

 # 0    # 0 * 10 C )  *   0 #   . ) 3 .

# 0  E   # 0    # 0 >  ( 0 0  # ! &   4   #   #  *       (  & )3 @  # %    9  .

 # 0 >  0  0 )  *  # 0 >  * 1 ' # & 7  0  .( / 0    3 @ "  . +  <  % # 0  ( 2 &  . '  H 5   8 . # 0 >  0  0 )  .

1 2 %    0 & # 0 1 # 0  *  # 0  7   < .

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7   & "  ' 0 # &  17 0  .1 0 )      # & " "  #  0  # 3   (   4    .

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:          :   .

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1 2 %  (  0        > < &  .

I   #  0  # 3 "  .!  # $   /     & 7   6# $   7    &  ? 7 0 #  0  <  I   "   9 7 0 > "      4    #  0  * 7 0  7  &  * 1 8   4   . #  0  # 3  '       ./     & B 7      # 3  )   & B 7   0  .

  * 1   #  0  # 3  &  #  1 2 %   :  0 0 0  "   J 7   J ' 0 J % 9   0   .

7 6 "  2 J 1  # J 0   0  "   .# 0  .

' 0 0     K (180). /      K (2) < 1 "   .

 &         B 7  # $ <   &  "   H )  ) L  ./      "   .   6/     & B 7  .

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   :  9 7 0 # 3  ( 0     . ' 0  9 7  & .

1 2 %  (  0  ('  .  :   .

      9 <  9 " &  .

"  9 7 0 2 %  # "    1 10 H )  $ !   # 1<  %      # "    1   :#    <  "  D1  "   C  .3  69 7  & #  1 2 %   '  A   (   9 <  0 3 .

1   >  / & 0     E0 .% 1  2 &  .

% # !  9   2 &   # 0     # ! N( .%  A .  O <  %      # ! NE . # ' 0   1 NA .

(2 1 2 &  >    ) %  2 &   .& $  9 < .

# 0     O < N  1  )  %  9 7  &   # 1< B    .2 &    %  #  $ !   9 7    .

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) 3 0   :   17 0 . # " & 7  %        .  9  .   $ !      8 "   > "  / &    (   9 .

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"   #  $ :3  #  1 2 %  (   1< 0 3 A g g r e g a t i v e I n d e x N u m b e r s  .

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    ! :%!  R e l a t i v e I n d e x N u m b e r s  .

&    .

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    ! : .

#  '     # <   # 1< >  7 0 .  1<  3  # 1<  : .    .

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    ! :%!    I= S i m p l e A g g r e g a t e I n d e x $ .

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   &   $ .    (1  ' ( )      *      ∑ P ×100 ∑P +  .

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  !     ' ( )  .    :. 1 2 1 .      *    / )        n :(1)    o 2 %  (  A 62000، 1995، 1990   0  .. .

#  "  ?  4  '  &  & .

< &  .

*  A # 0  1990 # 0 2    "  . ) 3 & . (1) ' .

& '  .

6 2 1. 00 0.0 0 19 9 0 0. 10 1 9 9 5 0. 05 2. 15 1. 08 0. 00 5 . 50 1. 1 2 0 0 0 0. 0 0   ) (2 +  " ) (# 0 ) ? (" )   (2 +  " )2   *    :    (100 ) 2 I 90 = (100) = 100 2 4 I 95 = (100) = 200 2 6     . 04 0. 80 3. 00 2. 30 0.0 0 I = (1)   ∑ ∑ Pn PO 4 .

 ♦ .

5 I2000 = (100) = 250 2 0  1990 2  0 1995 2  % 100 # 0  & 7  "  . ) 3 &  .

0 &  = $ 0  . ) 3  .1990 2  0  2000 2  % 150 #  0  & 7  5 !  % / 0  #  1 2 %    3 .

& '  2 %  ) 3  9      @  0 :3  3  > "  / $    "  0   0 0     0  "  * %    8   .

# 1<  . ) 3 )   (A   8  >  &  8  .

(  '  %  ? &  .

.Q 1 * 7 0  B )    &  8 "   Q 1  & * 1 ."   # 0   2 + .# " &  * 7 0 &  "  '  # & "  #  0  # 3  .  6..

) 3  # 3    # 3     . )   # 1<  .

1 2 %  0    /    9   0   >  0 "  A  " .  7  #  + # & " & B 7  # ' 0 .

'  2 %  ) 3 &  ('  )  .  0 &  <    # 0 1 # 0  *  # 0 . 1 2 %  7  %  ./      # 3 * %  3  ( 0    # & "  .

%  A '    # & " W e i g h t e d A g g r e g a t e I n d e x 5      .

     .

   (2  0 0  # 1<  . ) 3 .

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& '  .

1 2 %  (  > "  (" "  2 %  ) 3 2    *  .

'  .0  <        # 0 C  # 0 1 # 0  *  # 0  . ' 0 :3 A .

& '  .

 '   # 0 1  : L a s p e y r e s I n d e x  . 1 2 %  (   9 <  2  0 7 0 ' 0 )  .

&  !   (1 # 0 J ( " J 2  !  2 %  ) 3 8 &  )  *  # 0  . '  2  2 %  ) 3 .

:.

"  2 %  ) 3 8 &   B a s e y e a r M e th od *  I = ∑ ∑ Pn q 0 p0q0 : 3  2 %   *  # 0  . '  .

1 2 %  :  .

# 0 1 # 0 . &  !   (100 ) .

# 17 0   10  B  '   # 0 1 &  *  # 0  2 % : # 0 J .

*  7 ::  pnq0 p0q0    .J # 17 0   10  B  '   *  # 0 &  *  # 0  2 % ∑ :∑ .

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.

 (2  "      6?   0  .

"  &    6  )9     .

"  C  0    ? 6.

 2  '  2   .

  3 :2      *  # 0 .

& '  .

1 2 %  (  6 '  * 7 0  5، 4، 3  .

 .

10 0. 80 100 3. 00 2. 40 0. 50 1. 05 C  0   1990 qO (2 ) 700 0. 00 70    (1 ) (2 +  " ) (# 0 )?  (" )   (2 +  " ) 2   :  . 62 1.( 2 % ) *  # 0  . '  (0 )& 2000 1995 p2 p1 (5 ) (4 ) 0. 80 (2) 1990 pO (3 ) 0.3 2000، 1995، 1990 . 00 0. 30 0. 15 100 1.

  2    # & "  (1990) *  # 0 .

C  0   #  >  qO I = ∑ ∑ pnqO pO qO : 0 1"  1   2 %  (  0 6. ' "     ( qO) *  # 0 (100 ) .

 0 :      <   (3)  ' . *  # 0 #  (!  5، 4، 3  > "  .

"  . '  .# & "  # 0 1 # 0 & .# 0 1 # 0 2  %  ( 2 % )*  # 0  . ) 3 > "  # 17 0   10  B  '    5، 4، 3  B  '  .

1 2 %  .

 *  # 0 .< &   '    8 .

# 17 0   10  B  '  > "  # 0 1 # 0 .

  .&  × #  = # 1 :  *  # 0 . # 17 0   10  B  '  #  1 / "   .

% > "  # 0 1 # 0 .

"  # % #  1 C A 8    .

 ♦ .

4 70 70 470 369. 7 100    (1 ) (2 +  " ) (# 0 )?  (" )   (2 +  " ) 2   B  '   2 %  . 4 200 235 184.(3)  2000 qOp2 (5 ) 70 1995 qOp1 (4 ) 56 C  0   1990 1990 qO q Op O (3 ) (2 ) 35 700 40 30 51 100 150 100 80 100 210 183.

/ "    1995 2  .

7 . %  "  & . % 284. .

1 2 %   C A J  % 135 .

  J   2000 2  & & 7  )  % 84.1990 *  # 0 . 7   &  C A 1990 2  .

'  2  2 %  ) 3 . / "  0  P a a s h e ’s I n d e x 6  &   ( ) J  # 0 1 # 0  # 0 1 # 0 &  *  # 0 & .

:.

"   2 %  ) 3 8 &   G i v e n y e a r m e th od # 0 1 # 0 # 1< 2  # 1<  . '  . ) 3 8 &  I= ∑p q ∑p q : 3 (Q  2 % )# 0 1 # 0  .

& '  * 1 2 %  :6  &   n n O n (100) ::  # 0 .

# 17 0   10  B  '   3  A # 0 1 # 0 &  # 0 1 # 0  2 % B  '  : pnqn .# 0 1 .

# 17 0   10  B  '   3  *  # 0 &  # 0 1 # 0  2 % B  '  : POqn .*  # 0 9    .

 ♦ .

# 0  1990 *  # 0 .

2  "     ? # 17 0  # 1 1995 1990 pnqn pOqn (7 ) (6 ) 52 32. 5 I 90 = = ∑ ∑ 3       &  (4) .

 "  & .2000 # 0 1 (4) #  1995 1990 qn qO (5 ) (4 ) 650 700 .  '  .

6 2 pnqn pO qn # & "  (1 ) (2 +  " ) (# 0 )?  (" )   (2 +  " )2   B  '  :C    (Q  2 % )# 0 1 # 0  . 1 Q  2 %  (  (0 )&  1995 1990 pn pO (3 ) (2 ) 0. 15 80 64. 0 80 100 1. 30 0. 00 427 213 2. 00 0. '  . 05 33 16. 0 100 70 1. 5 110 100 0. 80 262 100. 08 0.

5 213 .1990 2  3 &  % 100. 1 2 %    ) 3  (100 ) 427 (100) = 200. 5 #  0   1995 2  "  &  C A :6  &   .

. &  ! .

'    @  0 / 7   Q   #  1       . J  1 # 0 1  Q  . & #  . '  0  *   .

  * 0  0   < 0   # J   * 7 0 > 1       * 0  0  .

 < 0     C A  &  #  + .  # 0 . .

 #  +    * &   0 *  . #         6   "  * 0  ! 7  > 1   J  . . ' J   J ! Q J    / "  6#  .

  .  - ) 3  6*  # 0 *  # 0 1 # 0 .0  7  < ) # .

# "   > J "  J &  / 0 )          3  2 %  H ) 3  2 +   .# 0 1  J  J 0  '  >  E  Q  2 %  0  # 0  ' 0  >  E   *  # 0 0  # J 7 "       > "    *   ) 3  6   17 0  #  0 O   5 ' (" <  1 0    .

 ♦ .

% J  (J    #   0  .

#  .  . #   O      )  .

   .

 )  #    F i s h e r ’s I n d e x N u m b e r  7 . . 1 2 %    2 %  (    .

'   ( I d e a l I n d e x N u m b e r  !    .

    > "  3  ! 7  (& .  & '   (    1   '  %    J .

J %  .

J 0  <     ' %  '   %    ' %  . :.

"   / 7 &   .  .

1 2 %    2 %  '  2 %  .

  .Q  :  !   7 .

'   : C A Q   .

%    .

0  <   C    I ( F ) = I ( L).(3)9     .I ( P ) = ∑p q .∑p q ∑p q ∑p q n O n n O O O n (4 )    .

 "  &   .

5 = 1995 2 &  Q  2 %  3    I ( F ) = I ( L). 1 2 %  (  :  . 3 = 1995 2 &   2 %  2    200.184.I ( P ) : C A Q   .

%    .

1990 2  *  # 0 .7)( 200.5) = 37032.4 .35 = 192. 0  <   =  2 %  = (184.

3 &  % 92. 4 #  0   1995 2  "  &  C A T y p i c a l y e a r m e t h o d  .

 8        .

" & 5      .

     .

   ( HJ  # J 0 1 # 0  *  # 0 +   # 0 .

' 0  0 0  # J .  & . > J < &  2 %  )  ) 3  # 0 1 # 0  *  # 0  <    # ' )  0 # 0   I = 1 1 ∑ ∑ pnqt pO qt :#  (100 )    .

 ♦ .

. 2 %  2 %  .. t=o 0  )  3  0 # 0 C A .

 t=n 0  )  2 % J  . .0 &  :t .Q  2 %  2 %  .

J 1 2 % J  > J  # 0 1  *  .

0  <     qt 0  )  :.

M a r s h a l l -E d g e w pr th Ind e x :  '  N ::    9  7      :# 0 1 # 0  *  # 0  ."  2 %  ) 3 8 &   .

   <     2 %  ) 3 .

5 108 31. 2 ∑ Pn (qO + qn ) (100) = ∑ PO (qO + qn ) n (5 )    . 5 I= 1 2 qO+qn :  # 1<  . qO + q n 2 I= (100) qO + q n ∑ PO .9   (3)  0  :  '  –  2 %  (  :  Po(qo+qn) Pn(qo+qn) 67.   ∑P .

4 170 100 70 2. 0 445. 30 144. 08 63 210 110 100 0. 4 ∑ P (q ∑ P (q n O O O = 192. 80 170.8 + qn ) + qn ) 1990 PO 0. 0 180 180 80 100 1. 00 413 796. 00 0.  '  (5) #  &  1350 1995 qn 650 1990 qO 700 1995 Pn 0. 05 # & "  ? 0. 62 1. 15    2  B  '  (100)    .

 ♦ .

3 0  . ' "     # 0 1  *  .

0  .

0  <   2    / 0  ) 3 I= ∑P ∑P qo q n n qo q n O :C    2 %  . .9     0  # 0 1  *  . (100) :6    .

0  =   .

& '  .

q n 6 q o .q n 6 Pn qO . 1 2 %  (  (  0 0  PO qO .q n 2 % .

< &   #  9   (5)  ' ∑P ∑P n o = >  8 ! 0 :.

"  # 0 1  *  .

0  . '  .

5 104.q n (6) ' 53. 9 31. 6 q o . 7 15.q n 674. 7 B  '  (100) 394.6 # 0 1  *  .q n q o . 7 204. 4 219. 5 89. 9 89. 1 Pn qO .q n 33.q n I= :  q o . 5 83.6 204. 3 394. 4 83.1 (100) = 192. 7 71. 1 2 %  PO qO .

0  .

1990 2  0  1995 2  1 % 92. 6 #  0  & 7  #      &  . 8 K   .192.   <   2    (   2 %   ' (%  3  .

0 &  ) 3  : Relative Index numbers  .

&    .

  .

    ! 9% .

) 3  .    .

) 3 (   .  # " &  (    3  #  0  &  <   .( 0  : Price Relative          &  ( 0  >   > "  #  1 2 %  ( 9 <  ? &  % 8 & 0 0  ( <    3  . 1 2 %  (  0 2 # & "  &  ( 0  '  D  2  10 2 %  .

1 2 %  0  >   .

# & "  . ) 3 & >     .

# 0 &  # & " & #  0 C    :  #  1 2 %  5 0 . *  # 0 3  0   1 3    .

 ♦ .

       ( 0    ) $ 0  .

   > "  # 0 1 # 0  *  # 0 .

 # & " &   Pn‫ و‬Po B  I= Pn (100) Po : 3 (I)# & "  . ) 3 &  <   .

#  $  #  0  &  ( 0   . 1 2 %   &  .

1990 2    0   1995 2  0  . 5 C     0  0  3.*  # 0 . 1 2 %   & "  # $  2 %  #  0  (! 2. 5  3 2000 2  2  "   2 +  "  "   &  ? 2  1 :(7)    7 0  .

5 ( P2) (7) .    <  !  .3 1990 # 0 0  ) 2  "   #  0  &   (  :  1990 # 0  ( 0    )&  1 ( Po) 1995 2 . 5 ( P1) 2000 3 .

  '  (.

5  I 1 =  1  ( 1 0 0 )=   ( 1 0 0 )= 2 5 0 P 1   o   P   3 .   1  2 %  )&  ( 0  P  I 0 =  o  ( 1 0 0 ) = 1 0 0  Po  P   2 .5  I 2 =  2  ( 1 0 0 )=   ( 1 0 0 )= 3 5 0  1   Po  2   >  1990 2     %150 #  0   &7   2  "   &  .

0 & ) 3  250 C   I1  0 3 .1995 2   >  1990 2     %250  &7   2  "   &  .

) 3 2     #    1  2  %  (   9 < > "  8 &    2 1 0 &  ( 0   0   & . 0 & 350 C   I2 6 1995 .(  0   :  3      '  >  #   0  #    1  2  %  2 1  .# <    #   0  #    1  2  %  (1 .#  '   #   0  #    1  2  %  (2  & <   #   %   14 : simple Relative Index  $ .

 &  .

&    .

  .

 & (  0   .     ! (1   & "  #      #   0  *    1   2     2  %   '      .

1   <   .

0   <   .

    <   #   0     .

 ♦ .

I=    .

    )  &    $   (1 Pn 1 ∑ n PO : L :   .

  1  2 %  (  .

# "    "     '   & (  0  B  '  3 : ∑ R3       ‫و ا‬ .

R2 . + log Rn ] n ..Rn log I =    ‫ "  ا م ا‬#   $     %  ‫ *  ن ا  ( ' & ا‬+ ‫ و‬. $   ( R1 >  # &" "     R     &  ( 0    0     R2        ‫و‬ : ‫ا               ه‬ I = n R1 ..     )    . 0       + "    0 % 2     1 [log R1 + log R2 + ... Rn      :> "   . R3 .

..     )   '   $   ( n I= Pn PO 1 1 1 + + .19951990  0 "  (2)     0     :   9 <   <    . + R1 R2 Rn n = n 1 ∑1 R (8)    .

 0  .

0038 2 I= 15 1 ∑R n L og R 2.   1  2 %  (  (8) 0. 00 2. 006 25 2. 4 18 30 200 26 2 :  &  1995 0. 30103 2. 08 0. 00500 0. 8 0 1. 00 # &"  (2   )   (# 0   )?  ( )   (2   )2   B  '   (  0  "  . 15 0. 02036 7 4 7 1 R 0. 6 2 1990 0. 096 91 125 0. 204 12 %&  ( 0  R P1 9 9 5 ÷P1 9 9 0 16 0 0. 30 1. 05 0. 02300 9. 008 00 2.

    <  (A    .

 ♦ .

1 (747) 4 = 187% =     &  C 1990 2   /  "        1995 2   .

%8 7 #  0  1 ∑ log R n 9. % 2 %   C A .25509 4 I = 179.  .9 log I = I= n ∑R 1 = = 173.4% 4 0. %18 7 .02036 = = 2.02307 (  0  "  .

1990 2     0  1995 2   %7 9. 9 #  0      &  C (  0  "  . 0   <  (( .

1990 2     0  1995 2   %7 3. 1   <  (E . 4 #  0      &  C # 7 "      "     #   0  #   3 .

C     0 # <    (  0   # 1  < (  2 3       0 0     . & .

  & 2  %  . )   )  6 .       # 1  %   .

  1  2 %  (  .

# "   . ) 3  &0  :Weighted Relatives        .# &"   #   3   (  0       2  %  .

  .

        (2 #   1    &0 #   0  2  %  .

   .  '  "             0    #  &  '   #    1  2  %  .

      .#   1  = pq C        # &"  & (!     "   .  0        .

   6 .  '  "  *    :#           *  # 0  &   *  # 0 .

 '   (A poqo = *       × *   & C A *  # 0  &   # 0  1   # 0 .  "  #   1  .

 '   (( poqn = # 0  1        × *   & C A # 0  1   # 0  &   *  # 0 .  "  #   1  .

 '   (E pnqo = *       × # 0  1    & C A # 0  1   # 0  &   # 0  1   # 0 .  "  #   1  .

 "  #   1  .  '   ( pnqn = # 0  1        × # 0  1    & C A ptqt C      # 0 .

 "  #   1  .  (  0  "  .  '   (J 3 16 :#     . '   .

    <  )      )          .

 ♦ .

p ∑ p (p q ) I= ∑p q ∑p q = ∑p q n o (A o o o o n o o o .

'     2 %  / 7 0 3 2 %  ) 3    @    .     <   C *  # 0       .  2 %       C   *  # 0  &   *  # 0 .

#   1   . '   I = ∑ pn ( poqn ) po ∑ poqn ∑ ∑ = p n q n p o q n (( .

    <   C # 0  1   # 0       . '   Q   2 %  / 7 0 3 2 %  ) 3  @     .Q   2 %       C   *  # 0  &   # 0  1   # 0 .

'   I= ∑ R( p q ∑p q n n o ) (E o ::   pn =R po I= ∑ R( p q ∑p q n n I= 17 n ) n ∑ R( p q ) ∑pq t t ( (J 3 t t .#  ' )  0  # 0         # 0  . .

3 t :      .

 ♦ .

'   .  .(9)    C #      # &   >  K  .

 0  .

ii .# 0  1   # 0  &         <    .# 0  1   # 0 . ' 0  .   1  2 %  (  (3)     0    2     : 2  1  #  '   .*  # 0 .i .

iii Rpn(qo+qn) =R(pnqt)    Pn(qo+qn) =pnqt R(pnqn) R(poqo)  (9)  1995  . 3        # 0  .

0 8     0.4 6 86 4 4 183 4 0 2 6 2 2 6 2 7 0 100 7 0 2 . 80 4 4 5 . 05 (   )   (    ) (   )  (  )       :3 *  # 0  &   *  # 0 2  1  . 4 93 5 6 4 3 6 94 0 7 4 7 4 2 7 2 00 116 6 94 . :      1990 1995 1990     1995 1990 17 2 80 108 83 2 0 5 6 00     R 16 0 12 6 00 6 3 6 6 00 3 000 2 00 3 3 15 110 100 0. 15 2 2 5 00 180 10000 10000 12 5 80 80 80 100 1. 8 pn qn po qo 5 2 3 5 6 5 0 7 00 0. 3 0 0. '   . 00 0.6 2 1. 8 16 907 4 . 00 7 96 .

i I= ∑ R( p q ∑p q o o = o ) o 36940 = 184. 7 #  0      &    .     <  .7 200 2     0  %8 4 .

19 9 0 I= ∑ R( p q ∑p q n n = 18 n ) :3 # 0  1   # 0  &   # 0  1   # 0 2  1  . '   . 0 & ) 3  6 (2    @ 0 )   2 %  / 7 0 3 ) 3  .

ii n 93564 = 219.19 9 0 2     0  %119 .1 427  .     <  . 1 #  0      &    .

0 & ) 3  :3 # 0  1   # 0  &         <    . '   .

    <  .iii    .

 ♦ .

3 #  0      &  C :Chain or Link Relatives (       .3 796.19 9 0   0  19 9 5 2   %112.4 .I= ∑ R( p q ) ∑p q n n t t 169074.8 = = 212.

   )             .

    .

   # 0      7   < .

 0  C !    / 0 *  # 0       0   0   0  ) .

     ('    '    &"  (      3 5    ('   .

# " "  # 1  < 2      ) > "  ("         6 .  '       . 7     &"  # 0  1   # 0  *  *  &    '    '   "  )  3  6           # &" "  #   0  #   3     (   2 %      0       . ) 3      ! 7      )  6  "  ? &      % .

) 3 (    . ) 3 B  '   ) &      .# 1    (  7     B          > "   .   1   )# 0   &   #  $  #  0  (#  0      )# 0    & (  0 # 1  <  . %   0  1          )     *   @ 0  >    ) >  # '         "              #     / 0     # 0      .   *  >  #  $   ( 0  .#    1  2  %       (        "  ?  3 & >  #  0   19 9 1 2   .

 !       %125 3 19 9 1 2   . # 0  & #  "   # &" &  ? & E        7 0 # 1  <  .

 3 & >  #  0   19 9 2 2   .

 3 &     %120 3 19 9 0 2   19 9 2 2   .

# &"  &   %130 3 19 9 2 2   .

 3 & >  #  0   19 9 3 2   .

 3 & : 3 19 9 0 # 0 .

 3 &  #  0   (120) 125  = 150%  100  :3 19 9 0 2  & #  0   19 9 3 2    3 &     (150) 130  = 195%  100  19 9 3 2   .

&  ( 0  3 *    19 9 0 2   >  19 9 3 2   .

*    19 9 0 2   >  19 9 1 :. &  ( 0   C 2   &  ( 0  × *    19 9 1 2   >  19 9 2 2   &  ( 0  × *    19 9 2 2   >  .

      # 7 "      0  .

) 3 &  . # &"  .

  1  2 %    *  # 0 19 9 0  0    ) 19 19 9 3 19 9 2 19 9 1 19 9 0 19 5 15 0 120 10 0 # 0  .

  1  2 %     .

 ♦ .

            "    #   '   # " "  9  <  .

  1  2 %  (  0 .

(  0  "  .   .

    <  (  0 2 *    # 1      7 "  #  0       .

 & (  0  (  0 :.

 !  "  :(10) 19 9 0 # 0  #  0   19 9 4 ، 19 9 3، 19 9 2، 19 9 1  0  .        )  H 0 .

 " :         & (  0   0    ? 7 0 :.

    '  .

   *    10      ! " # .

$   %  .

  .

 .

( 19 9 0'      .

19 9 4 &19 9 1 19 9 4 19 9 3 19 9 2 19 9 1 120 115 110 10 5 115 110 10 5 10 3 110 10 5 10 3 9 5 115 110 10 6 10 1 # &"  A ( E (  0   <   *    19 9 0 # 0 >  #  0   19 9 4 N19 9 1 0  .

115 ، 110 ، 10 6 ، 10 1 (    > "  .  &   #    1   &    )    .

3      .

# &"  & ( 0  (  0     *    C # " "  # 1  <  #    1  2  %   '   .

   = $   0   19 9 0 # 0 >  #  0                   # 1    # 0  >  #  0   # 0 (11)    19 9 4     .

 .

)     :.

   (11) J '   .

$   %  .

 19 9 3 19 9 2 19 9 1 10 4 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 5 10 2 10 3 10 5 10 2 10 8 10 8 10 5 10 4 10 5 10 1 .

 A ( E <    .

  1  2 %   10 1 3 19 9 0 # 0  #  0   19 9 1 # 0 .

 &   .

  1  2 %  )  3  # 0  #  0   19 9 3 # 0 .

 &   .

  1  2 %   10 5 3 19 9 1 # 0  #  0   19 9 2 # 0 .

 &   .10 5 3 19 9 3 # 0  #  0   19 9 4 # 0 .

 &   .

  1  2 %   10 4 3 19 9 2 2 0    .

 ♦ .

:   .

    .

   .

(           )*  . ) 3 C 8 &0   0     #      #   . .    # " !  7     ! K  . :#          :   3 #    1  2  %   '   8   "           0 3 .  *  (   )  # 7 "    = $   0 >  C 4    0    0  A #    1  2  %  (   9 <  &  0 ! & 1  > "  8 %   # 7 "     K  .

*   &0     (1 .   &  .

) 3   0  0 . *   &0     (2 :  '         .

"      : Ba s e r e v e r s a l t e s t (         )  .

              (1   %125 C   19 9 0 2    3 &  #  0   20 0 0 2   # 0  & # &"  .

  1  2 %     )  20 0 0 # 0  #  0   19 9 0 # 0 # &"  . ) 3 &  .

  1  2 %  (" 1  2 %  ) 3 C    ('  %8 0 C   20 0 0 2  & #  0   19 9 0 2   # &"  &  .

08 # 0  1   #   .25 = 125% 0.   1  2 %      ('       & :C   2 %  ) 3 (" 1  :   1 = 1.

.

  1  2 %  (" 1  >    6 .

0    *  .

) 3 >   . *   &0 # '   0  . T im e r e c ipr oc a l .

0            0           ('  %120 C    . "  #  0      .

# &"  &  .

 "  .   1  2 %     )  )   C  . "  #  0       2 %  (" 1  C   C %8 3. 3     #  0    .

  1  2 %        # 0  1   #   .

.

  1  2 %  (" 1  >   .

0     *  .

*   &0 3 ) 3  .%120 (" 1     %  (!  .      ('  2  & > "  ‫ و‬. Pl a c e r e c ipr oc a l .

0           7 "      0    :  C 1=            .

1=            !   ×  .             1  .

       . ) 3  9  < 0 C ) *    # 0  1    # 0  1    *     0     .    ) 3 9 1      # &   3  ) 9    #    1  2  %  > "     1  . "  #   '  > "  9  < 0     # &" > "  9  < 0      .

*   &0   .

  1  2 %  #    2 1 # &     .

 ♦ .

J J 3      9  < 0  .

J " . 2 J % "  .

 0 ( o J  n  n J  o    0 1=/ "   ×. 0        > J "   .

  1  2 %  :    ) 3 # '   0 .

    . "      ∑ ∑ I = ∑p ∑p po n :3        n o o n ∑p q ∑p q o o o o n n n :3         n o o n o o n n n o n o n o ≠1 .

    . *   & 0      %   + 2 %   ) 3  C :)      (( n o .

*   &0      % 2 %  ) 3  C :3 .

0    / "   ∑p q ×∑p q ∑p q ∑p q ∑p q ∑p q =1 :   .

    (' n ∑p q ∑p q ∑p q ∑p q :3 .

0    / "    o ∑p ×∑p ∑p ∑p :3 .

0    / "   ∑p q ×∑p q ∑p q ∑p q 2 2 pn :%  .

    &    .

       ($ :3       n n o o o n n o ≠1 .    .

*   & 0      %   + 2 %   ) 3  C    .

 ♦ .

∑ ∑ pn qo poqo .∑ p q ∑p q ∑p q o n o o n n n o :3 . :(      ) *      ∑ ∑ pnqn poqn ∑ p q .

1= . 0    / "    .

0    / "   .

2 %   ( ! <  *  & 0    0       .

*  & 0  (!  -   .    .

'     <    ) . *   & 0      %   2 %    C (.

    .     <                .

<    .

0   : Factor reversal test  .

'  0   &  ( 0     #     ( 0  2   0 #     .#         &    . '  0              #    1  2  %  (  0   !  .  '   "        2   0  0     &      #    1  2  %  (  0 8    1   0   # 0  *  # 0   & 5    &   . ) 3 .               (2  0 0    .

 .# 0   1   .

  1     &   .

*   & 0       .   &   (Factor)             &     >   : 2  &  / "   .     .

        +  .

     .    '&  .

            .   .

 . .

*  # 0  # 0   1   # 0 * 7 0 .         .

( "  B  '   ) "  .

) 3       &   .    %    #  0  C    ('  C  - #   - .

*   & 0 ) 3 9 1   .

     # 1  1  >   #     .   1  2 %   #   . 0   )  .

#  0   #     .    &           -H    & 2   *  > "       ) 3 2 1              &       0 C .

2 %  "  .    &     &   -H        2    .

"   &       > "   - 0 # 1  "   2  %       2      &                  % 2 %      ) 23 ∑p q ∑p q .# 1  "   2  %           0 < 1 n n o o     .

"   &   / "   .

2 %   ( ! qn .

   &   . "   &   / "   qo pn   po  -      ('   .

*   & 0      .

 ♦ .

:   &   .

#    1  2  %  ? ∑p ∑p ∑q ∑q ∑ p .∑q ∑ p ∑q n n o o ≠ ∑p q ∑p q &  *   & 0 *  0 .

"     % .

    &       ($ n o .

"   &   / "    n o n n o o .  & .

.

1  1        *  &  .

          &   .

∑ ∑p q ∑p q pn qn ∑p q o o :            ()       . *  & 0  2 %   )  )  3  . .

         &         n n o o ∑q ∑q C   C   :.  ).

"     ∑q ∑q n pn o pn n po o po n o o n o n o n o n n n ∑p q ∑p q .

"   &   / "   .

∑ p q C      &   / "   ∑p q ∑ p q .∑ p q × ∑q ∑p q ∑p q ∑q n ∑p q ∑ p qo .

"   &   / "   .

o n n o n o ('    2 %  ( ! Q   2 %  ( ! :      .

         -    )   .

  .

  1  2 %   ( ! n o po po . ∑q ∑q n pn o pn = ∑p q ∑p q n n o o  -  ((  -     .

  . ) 3     &   .              .

*   & 0      %   .

  1  2 %    C #  '    # <    3  0   .

   &   .    /     >   3  0  00   # 1 <  * 70 .   #    1  2  %   > "  24 .

*  & 0     .

 ♦ .

:     .

  : Cost of living index        .

         (1   &  9  7     & .

  1  2 %     "       & .

  1  2 %   2    !  8  &   .   #  0              "    .

         "    & .

         &  3  6 # $  '   '&    / 0 6   & #  %   .

  '    .

  !   6 .     )    :   # -  #   3 2 %   )   .

     7    *     1    2  3 4 *    5  .

  *     1            8  .

  !   6 .   .

   !   7    *    5  .

  8  .       9 !!3      9     .

      &  #   &      B  7     0    7 "  .

1  1      ?      #   3  2 %   (  .

9   1   1   .  7 0 .    .

0&  #  &   # 170 B 7  .

1  1      B  7   :             .

       6 #   &   # 1 7 0  .

  1  2 %   (    0    2 @ &  C  '   .*  # 0      )   #   0       #   3   (  0   .

  .  '             .

  1  2 %   (  .

   .

 '       8  ! 0      '        3   -    "       "  &        3          #    .  0  #  "             "  . ) 3 > "  9 7 0     1  > "  5  0  # 7 "      " "  .          "        #  0    >      2   &  .

 0   %      > "    ' %   &   V #   &   # 1 7 0  .

  1  2 %     0  (    .

           / 0    0 3 :#      .

     1 7 0 (7 :.#  $ )      (1 .    (3 .#    0       '   (5 . ) 3 .5        5       %     (2 .#                 (6 . 3 #   $  2  % # &  > "           .*  "   (4 .

    .

       &  #   &   # 1 7 0 :     ?  70 :. !  7      2 1 0   '    2 %   ) 3 (    #  7   O     (11)      > "    %           7 @      .

     0  > "  # 1    9  7 0 2  % > "  B    2  "   25    .

 ♦ .

) 3 )        .  '   "      ( 0  .%50 #  $ )      %6 5        5       %     %15     %10 * "  %7 #    0       '   %9     170 %3     (    *        2    .

  1  2 %   (           3 (   3    2    "     2 %   (    :   # &   2  %   2 %    .

  % 2 %  1 0      / 1 7 0    3 B  '        @  0   #     .

( !    3  &    2      "       .

  & ( !   =   0  B  '   >  B  '   ) 3 ( 0          7  .

2 1    & . 2 1  ) 3 > "  .

  1  2 %   3 =   0           * 7 0 .

     )   #  $   #  0  . *  2 1 "    @  0   .

( !  2 %    .

#   &   # 1 7 0  .   1  2 %   (  &  .

  1  2 %   > "   - 0 10 0 > "  B  '   2 1   = $   0    '      &  :   # &   2  %    . '    .

    <  C   #   &   # 1 7 0  .

.    0    )  3  : The wholesale Price index                   (2 # 0  &  #   '    & .#   &  "  ? 7  0     > "    .   1  2 %    ) 3 > 0 &   .  '   "      #   &   # 1 7 0      # 1    ( 0  #  $ )      > "  9  7 0 #  0  " %   "  #   &       7     "  / 0 >  /   0   ('   ) 3 .

     <   *   1  #  $  -   3 # "  '    & .

  1  2 %   .      # 0  &              2   .

  # "  '        6 # "  '      .

   .

        '     # "  '    & .

  1  2 %  "         "   #      "     #  $ )     "  # "  '    &     %   %      H  # $ > "   - 1  .  -        :  &    .

  .

        '       % :#       <     !   # "  '    & .

2 %     0  (    .   1  2 %      .

*        (( 26 ..      #  $  %   (A .  '          (E    .

 ♦ .

#       &   ' ( .(   #   ..   0  2 %   (  ( : <   .   (J 3 .. ) 3 2 3  ' 0 .

"      :!    :   ! !7  ($ .

      8 "     6 # "  '  9  .

 '      2 3 > "     2 %   ) 3     2  % . ) 3    1 #   $  2  %     !    8 0 -    "    2 %   ) 3   0  (    :.

5  0     (5 #  $ )       6     2 !  # $      $ >  .      0  > "    2  % #   .#    0 -   '  0   (3 .   2 1  #   $   2  % . ) 3       :.#  $ )      (1 .#       (2 .  %     (4 .

3   $    8     %   8     % 6 #        6    #  $ ) +    6     6     6 2  "  6  1   6 9  %   (    $7 > " #       50 > " .

H  0   )  6 .   0 .

   H  0   ) :.

3    $   #  $ )          1 6       8  # $    .        )      $ 7  > "  #       30 > "      % #        .      )   ..  $ 7   2  % .

%    #  0    )  3  :  .

  9    ! !3  ('   & .

 &        ! !3  ((   / 0 #       7     *     7  . ($  C   .#        #           7     . ) 3 9 " &         .      *   ) #    1  2  %     &      )  6 # 0   1   :.     <  3    B  7     8 -  #  &   < *         ('  #     #  &   < #     # 0  '   ) &  )  0   <   A # 0  &  # 0 *        %     7        # 1       7  *        %  6 #   - %    & ..  '   "      *  # 0    # "  '        '           2  % <   )   0   0 0     27    .  '       9 " &     ! 7     .

 ♦ .

:  .

  6  & B !     5  -  $     0   #       & > "   -  2     &  .

) 3  0   )   . ) 3 .(  "      )      &      ('  #     . (!  3 )        "   -         &   # " -7   5  -   0  2   &    2 @ &  2 1  :   5 ' "      6    ( C ?      #      +    0  .

 .      #    3   -     &   ' >  . ) 3 &  '  .

                   '   ('     6   & 2          '  8  :' .

3  <  = .  #   .C 2     # "  '    & .  & ! !3  (J 3 #  '    #    1  2  %  K  .

  1  2 %   (   0 0    :#      K  - .

3   &  K  - . ) 3     3  0   .

'    .(1 ∑p q ∑p q n n × 100 o o Q   #   .(2 I= ∑p q ∑p q n n o n × 100 *  # 0 2  1  .   I=    #   .

(3 ∑ p (p q I= ∑p q pn o o o ) 3    #   - # "    = $   0 >   1   o ) × 100 o  0   )    1  . 3  0 &  O !          )   3   +     &            #   .*  # 0 2  1  .   1  2 %   #   . '    . ) 3     #   -     "  .   &   .

  1  2 %   #   .C #    #   - :>  *       ' .

  0  2 %   ) 3    2          '        # 0  &  # $ 7    .  '        *            &  . 3 ( 2 %   (   2 1 0 (   #   - ..

  1  28    .

 ♦ .

:                         (3 2  %          .

  #  '        '    5  -   0  2   &    2 @ &  2 1     - > "   A < 360 >   & 7   2 . .

    <   #  &  .

  0        -   0     "  30 0 # 0  &  # 0 . (+  0   0 & .

   - /    "    &  "  .

  360 × 100 = 120 300 :.

"     2  1 "  .

  1  2 %    C    # 0 .

#      & 5  1      - #       (2 . ) 3   .   0     "  : #            # '   0              .  & B  7       #    W %  0  (5    / 0     A    - .  &     2      #       (2 . ) 3    %20 #  0    %   -   C .  & B  7       - #       (4 .  & B  7       #       (4 .  & <  3     - #       (3 .  & B  7       #       (1 .  & <  3     #       (3 .  & B  7       - #    W %  0  (5 %25 #  0  C   0     "  50 0 >    0     "  40 0      #   %       )  :#            # '   0              .  & B  7       - #       (1 .

#    :  3 6 #  '        '  "       %    %  (  ('    )  '    . Q u an tu m in d e x n u m b e r #        .      ) 3 5      # 1         C                5  1           - #   % > "           &      (  .

  1  2 %    .U n it val u e in d e x n u m b e r     &  .

  1  2 %     29 :  ) > "     .

"         .

 ♦ .

: (12)    :.

 <  *   : 3  3 × 100 = 115.4% :C      - #     .#   . "      0          -   0     ? 20 0 0 # 0 3 1990 # 0 2. 6 550 450  70 (  0 <       )    - #    (  0  0        )   - #   % . ) 3    .

.   1  2 %   2 . 4 #  0        - #     C 550 × 100 = 122.%15.2 :C      - #   1  .6 .

!  C )    #     .%22. 2 #  0        - 2  %  C  .   1  2 %   450 .

           0   #   1  .

      > "    ) 3  :.

  &   . "          1  (         -  #   .   -  & 7   %   & .

  1  2 %   × #    "  .

  1  2 %   = #   1 "  .

  1  2 %   #  1" .

1 2 %  10 0 ×J J J J J J J J J J J J J =  &   .

2 ×100=105.4 #   " .9 115.   1  2 %   ∴ = 122.

20 0 0 N1990    7     %5. 1 2 %  . 9  1    0   %   &  > "  / 0          (    3  0   .

  #   .    &  .   #    1  2  %  K  .C    &          ) 3   2 @ &     $      / 0   + .

  1  2 %    #        .

  1  2 %     ∑q ∑q n po o po ∑p q ∑p q 30 n o o o :.

2   2   &  × 100 C   #        . "        #   .

  1  2 %   (A .*    &   #  '    #  '        '            <  *  1  × 100 C       &  .

  1  2 %   (( .*          '       &  <  *  1     .

 ♦ .

: .

    .

      #  '        '     '  *   1  2   1      #  '        '  "       1     %     ) 3 (  &       .

        #  0 (     )  #  '        '   C  .#  '        '   C  (     )    '  (            -    1  #      "   -  .

           C   -        5  1   3     2 %   > "     #     .

  1  2 %   #  1    ) (       .

'     2   &  >           #     .

  1  2 %   :C    - #     .

  1  J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J    - #     .

  1  2 %   2 '     1   3         .

   "       .

#  1  1         (   *  &  *   1   ) 3 .

  -   "      &   1     1     "   -      (*  # 0  #  0    )         #     ) 6 #   .   .   -        #  0  . ) 3  0   )  .   -      < 1   &       #  '  0        (    1  (  0   0  )   *   1    0 3  :C   3  #  '        '   C  .  <  > "      )   .

 - >   *   1   ) 3     -   & .

  1  2 %   J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J      & .

  1  2 %     & .

) 3  0   )   . ) 3  0   )         #  0  . :  C )          ) > 0 &     .     & 8 %             & /      @  0      # "   %    - #  0     & 7   %    -   &    ) > 0 &  .   -   <     0 )    #  0    .   -   C   #  0  .

 - .

        &      # '   0   )   "  "  .

'     C  - % 2      %    3  -  0   .

#   - % #  3    # '       .      - #    * 7 0          #    > "   -   .

1  1   .

 1      7      - >   < !     )   #      ) > 0 &  .   -     #  0   ! 7  0 )     % >   < !    0       #     * 7 0 > "   -     1  .

0 <    '   0      #     "  2 '  ? 7 0          C .

   - #    * 7 0            % #    #  3    # '   Q   0   .  .

1  1   .

 1     ? 31 7  0   .

"         #            .#   - %    .

 ♦ .

:Th e p r odu c tion index nu m b er    .

          (4   "   B  )         <      0      E  0    8 "    E  0   .

  1  2 %  "  #  0                 '     E  0   .

E  0 *   %       3   +  .E  0 B 0   B 0    > < &  .   1  2 %  "   0    0   .

  .  '       3  %  .

   &  ) 3  # 7 "        . ) 3 :.

E  0         < &  . 3     . '  0         # &     0 3  .

   $  7   B    (1 .# '  0        & (2 .      E  0 #     .

. 0  0   &        K  .  - )  3  .E  0   .

2          +  :.   1  2 %   (      (3 .E  0 2  % (4 #   .

"     # 1    # &     & "  #      2 %    *  # 0 .

(# 0   1   # 0 )#    # 0  . # '  0         /  "   - 0 C )  B      $  7     0  '  ) L (1 I= ∑q ∑q n o fo = 100 fo :3 E  0      .

E  0 #    :qn :   .*  # 0 .

*  # 0 . E  0 #    :qo .

B      $  7  :fo I= ∑q ∑q n po o po . ) 3  × 100 :   O   0   .fo #   %   1  #  & - 9   <   # 0      + #   &   .

  1  2 %  "     #   .*  # 0   & po :         #   .   *  # 0 .    &    0  '  )   (2 .

v = ∑ν qn o o o × 100 :.       E  0 #       &        0  '  )  (3 I= ∑q h ∑q h n o o o ∑ q (q p I= ∑q p q ∑ q .

*  # 0 . "  .

   E  0    E  0 #       &      .

  *  # 0 . 3 ho :   :      #   .

qopo :C    *  # 0 . E  0 #   1   0  '  )     (4 o) o n o o o 32 .

#  '   0    #   % .

3 vo :      .

 ♦ .

:purchasing Power of Money    .

 #  7   Q %  0 0 5  '  ) 3 .

      &   &  .#    1  2  %  (   K  -    &   >    0  %  0 1  .  .

2  %  2   .#       7       & .

      *   % 3   &   .

  1  2 %  "  .

  &       "  W .# "  & "  #  $     1  *   % 3        &   %  0   # "   C #  $     1   8  &     2 %   2  1  10 0 C   # 0   1   # 0 .  8         <   > 0 &    .

# "  & "  #  $     1    10 0 3 *  # 0  .

  1  2 %   : C .# 0   1   # 0 .

  &   .

  1  10 0 10 0 ×J J J J J J J J J J J J J = # "  & "  #  $     1   &   .

1 2 %   1    %120 3 1990 2  &  #  0    20 0 0 2   100 × 100 120 :13    .

  &   .

  1  2 %    ?  70 :C   1990 2  &  # 0   1  20 0 0 2   .

0    0  "  #  $    = 0 . 83 :C     .

  0   0 .71 = 0. 71=  :   :14  12  '  .59 120 .  "  #  $     1      100 × 0.

    3    1994N1988  0 "  #  "       & .

  1  2 %      ) .#  %  &     0 "  # "  & "  #  $     1  (  6 .

    (12)  "     & .

1 2 %  1988=10 0 10 0 10 3 10 5 10 8 112 114 115 33 # 0  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994    .

 ♦ .

:  :#      # %  &    # 0   .

# "  & "  #  $     1  (  0 10 0 10 0 ×J J J J J J J J J =# "  & "  #  $     1  .

1 2 %  :.

    13  '  .

89 0 . 95 0 . 97 0 . # 0    = $   0   # "  & "  #  $     1  *  # 0 1988 1. 0 0 0 . 88 0 . 87   0 . 93 0 . 87   &  1994 2   # "  & "  #  $     1   .

0 &  1994 # 0  # 0  1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994   @  0   0 . 87 # '   0  .1988 2      %  #    "  .

1  1      #   %  0   !    <  0  "       & .

  1  2 %   2     .# & " "  .

1  1    &   # "  & "  .

1  1    '  ).

1  1    '   *  # 0 .

10 0 C    "       & # 0 1  # 0 .

1 2 %     .

( &       )  ' C   # <    3 (.

1  1    &   .

              ×         .# "  & "  #  $     1       !  . 1  1      .

   = .

     .

             *  # 0 .

.

1 2 %  ! "#  $ %  :       &  A J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J ×# 0   1   # 0 .

   =.

1  1      # 0 1  # 0 .

.

1 2 %  34    .

 ♦ .

:.

          #  1  1     &   '     .

(D e fl ation )Q    0 ) 3 . ! 0 :(15)    7      "      &  .

  1  2 %      #   .

    C        <      ) *  # 0 # "  &  #  %  &     0 "     <   '  .

    (14) ' .

   .

3 1994N1990  &  " .

1990 (14)   C        <   80 10 0 120 130 150 # 0  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 C        <   #  1  1990 *  # 0 # "  &    "  C     <    (  0   0 0    :  15  '  . 1 2 %  10 0 10 3 10 8 112 115 .

# 0    = $   0   10 0 .

=   0  ( !  # 0   "    @  0   .

  1  2 %   > "  # 0  &  # 0  C        <   1990 # "  &  80 97 111 116 130 35 (15 ) .

1 2 %   &   10 0 10 3 10 8 112 115 :.

       <   C     80 10 0 120 130 150 # 0  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994    .

 ♦ .

  .   &   <    .:          # "           20 0 0 1990 (16 )   20 0 0 :   (  )   "  *   )  + $ (1     & 5 1990 # & "  3 2 3 2 4 2 4 1 8 5 5 3 6 5 10   7 6  3   2  :.  + .

&   '   .

i . '      &   .   1  2 %   .*  # 0       .

&   '   .

# 0   1   # 0       . '      &   .   1  2 %   .ii .

&   '   .

iii .   1  2 %   .  &     .

     "    .iv .   1  2 %   .

v .   &   .   1  2 %   .

*   & 0 #  -    2 %   9 1    3       ) 3 .

vi .19 9 4، 19 9 0 . .

 + .  .

/   / "  )  +     .     $ .

Q   2 %  .  " (    &  12 # & "         1     (       0 2   .   2 %  .ii .i .:  '  N     2 %  .  (     .  #  .  .iii .*  # 0   &   *  # 0 .  "  (2 #    1994 (17 )   1990  &  #    420 15 280 14 640 19 80 0 20 30 0 32 250 30 60 0 14 40 0 .3      19 9 0 0  .

#   1      '   .

  1  2 %   .iv 36    .

 ♦ .

# 0   1   # 0   &   # 0   1   # 0 ..

#   1      '   (  0  "  .

# 7 "     9  <     *  # 0 1990        20 0 0   & <    .  #  # 0 . qn 7 20 0 0 (18 )   1990    (  )   "  *   )  + $ (3 pn 3 qo 5 Po 2 10 5 9 4 12 8 8 5 # & "  A ( E :   .   1  2 %   .v :/   4 1  )  +     .

 0  .

i .   1  2 %   .

#  1  '   *  # 0 1990        20 0 0  & .

 0  .

  1  2 %   .ii <   6 .

0   <  6 .

    <  C )# 7 "     9  <     # 0   1   # 0   &   # 0   1   .(.

1   :.

  + 19 9 4519 9 0 .

 .

 /   4 1  )   "  )  +        $ (4 1994 150 0 20 0 0 270 0 #    (19 )  1990 120 0 150 0 20 0 0 1994 25 18 12  &  1990 20 15 10 # & "  I II III :3     19 9 0  " ( " .

  &   Q   2 %  .  .     "     2 %  .i .    .ii . #  .iii 37    .  &      2 %  .

 ♦ .

#   1 "  .iv ..     "  Q   2 %  .

v 1 *  6 (       .   1  2 %   .

   0 2    /  7   .

    .

+ $ (5  9   "    .      #   (  .

     #   (    .

 (  (20 )   .

 + .

% 19 9 9 519 9 5   ( 8   & .

75 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999    . 1 2 %   "    10 0 10 4 10 7 110 112 38 (20 )  . 75 4. 50 4. 25 3.(19 9 5)3      #      ' # 0  3. 15 4.

 ♦ .

: .

 .<    .

     "     2 %  = .96 % 46 × 100 = .96)(176.ii ∑p q ∑ p q × 100 = 145 × 100 = 176. &  '   2 %   = ∑ .i 86 × 100 = 186.82 % .73370 = 173.iii .  &      2 %  = IL.83 % = 82 ∑p q o n n o n o .IP = (186.   2 %  = ∑ .83) = 181. = .37 % qo po qo p n 46 86 / "   .7 % 19 .Q   2 %  pn ∑p p n qo × 100 = o 33 × 100 = 137.iv qn po qn pn 82 145 . = 1.

  &     2 %   ( !  -   (1    &   .

152 = ∑p q ∑p q n n o o .vi =     "    2 %   .v 9 1   2 & 0 . *   & 0 #  -  3.

4=   2 %  . 4=   2 %  .%10 3.ii .%10 4. 5=      2 %  .i (2 .iii .%10 3. 4=*  # 0   &   *  # 0 .%10 2.iv 2 %  * 7 0 3  )%10 2. 5=Q   2 %  . "   &   .

#   1    . '    2 %   .v # 0 1  # 0  &  # 0 1  # 0 .

(   (  0  "  . #  1  '    &  ( 0  R :   .

vi .   1  2 %   . 2= R =  & (  0   <    .%10 5.

2 %  & (  0   <    .     <  (3 3 145= 3 R1 .R2 .R3 = 3 3000000 = 144.

0   <  = ∑ R( p q ∑p q n n 39 n n ) = 3 = 143 %  & (  0   <    .

1   <  1 1 1 + + 150 125 160 24760 = 148 % 167 # 0   1   # 0 .

#   1      '   (   0  "  .

ii    .     <   .

 ♦ .

# 0 1  # 0 .

#  1  '   (  0 " .

4 % = ∑p q 1 ∑R p q n n n = # 0 1  # 0 .  0  <   ∑ pn q n π ( p q = n n = 167 (150 ) 21 .(160 ) 96 = 147 .(125 ) 50 .

#  1  '   (  0 " .

7 .iv .3 .iii .8 .2 5 .96 150 125 160 (4 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 3 0 1 3 0 1 59 1 9 9 9 1 9 9 8 1 9 9 7 1 9 9 6 1 9 9 5 4.i .ii .6 1 3 .8 8 3 .5 1 1 1 0. 2 4 4.v # 0   ' 1 9 9 5# "  &  40    .7 . 1   <   n 167 = 146.50 + 0.21 + 0. 0 9 3 .8 .

 ♦ (5 .

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