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Differentiation and its applications

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Applications in Biology
Example 2: Enthalpy and Entropy of a chemical reaction

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

Enthalpy, Entropy
G0 = RT ln K eq

( )
S + R

RT ln K eq = H 0 TS
0 eq

( ) H ln( K )= RT

G0 = H 0 TS

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay

ln K eq

( )

H 0 S = + R RT dy dx
d ln( keq )

Derivative (slope)=

H 0 = = d (1/ T ) R

S Y intercept = R
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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Growth of fish population


At what population density, we will get maximum yield ?

When the derivative (slope) is maximum, growth is fastest


Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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Bacterial growth (eg. E. Coli)


1=20
~ 20 minutes

2=21
~ 20 minutes

4=22
~ 20 minutes

8=23
Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay
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Bacterial (eg. E. Coli) growth


Number of bacteria at time t is given by

N (t) = 2

kt
1 k= 20min

k = rate of cell division; for E-coli, typically When t=60 minutes, N = 23 = 8

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Bacterial (eg. E. Coli) growth

k=

1 20min

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

Bacterial growth : Log phase

1 k= 20min

Slope=(log2)/20

Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Department of Biotechnology, IIT Bombay

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Curvature: Change in slope


Positive slope Zero slope Negative slope

Slope decreases as we go along x (convex)


Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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Curvature, C(x)
y

dy m( x ) = dx d dy d 2 y d C ( x ) = (m( x )) = = 2 dx dx dx dx
x

C(x) is negative Slope decreases as we go along x


Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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Curvature: Change in slope


Negative slope Zero slope Positive slope C(x) is positive

Slope increases as we go along x (concave)


Prof. Ranjith Padinhateeri, Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay
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