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Copyright by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Permission is granted to reproduce the material contained herein on the condition that such material be reproduced only for classroom use; be provided to students, teachers, and families without charge; and be used solely in conjunction with the Chemistry: Matter and Change program. Any other reproduction, for use or sale, is prohibited without prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, OH 43240-4027 ISBN 0-07-824537-0 Printed in the United States of America. 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 045 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Contents
To the Teacher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iv Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 Chapter 6 Chapter 7 Chapter 8 Chapter 9 Introduction to Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 MatterProperties and Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 The Structure of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Electrons in Atoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 The Periodic Table and Periodic Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 The Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Ionic Compounds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

Chapter 10 Chemical Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Chapter 11 The Mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Chapter 12 Stoichiometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Chapter 13 States of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Chapter 14 Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Chapter 15 Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Chapter 16 Energy and Chemical Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 Chapter 17 Reaction Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Chapter 18 Chemical Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Chapter 19 Acids and Bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Chapter 20 Redox Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Chapter 21 Electrochemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Chapter 22 Hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Chapter 23 Substituted Hydrocarbons and Their Reactions . . . . . . . . 359 Chapter 24 The Chemistry of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373 Chapter 25 Nuclear Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 Chapter 26 Chemistry in the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401 Appendix A Practice Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 Appendix B Math Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451

Solutions Manual

Chemistry: Matter and Change

iii

To the Teacher
The Solutions Manual is a comprehensive guide to the questions and problems in the student edition of Chemistry: Matter and Change, including the Practice Problems, Section Assessments, and Chapter Assessments for each chapter as well as the supplemental problems and Math Handbook problems that appear at the back of the student edition. The Solutions Manual restates every question and problem so that you do not have to look back at the text when reviewing problems with students. In addition, it supplies detailed solutions of the Practice Problems following the same methods shown in the Example Problems in the text.

iv

Chemistry: Matter and Change

Solutions Manual

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CHAPTER

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Introduction to Chemistry
Section 1.1 The Stories of Two Chemicals
pages 36

October Ozone Concentrations


450 400 350 DU 300 250 200 150 100 50 0
19 19 19 19 19 20 50 60 70 80 90 00 10 20

Section 1.1 Assessment


page 6

1. Why is ozone important in the atmosphere?


Ozone absorbs harmful UV light from the sun, preventing it from reaching Earths surface where it could damage living organisms.

2. Where is ozone formed and stored?


in the stratosphere

3. What are CFCs? How are they used?


chlorofluorocarbons; refrigerants, in foams, propellants in spray cans

Year

4. Thinking Critically Why do you think ozone is

formed over the equator? What is the connection between sunlight and ozone formation?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 1.2 Chemistry and Matter


pages 79

Sunlight provides energy needed for ozone formation. Sunlight is more intense at the equator, so more ozone forms.

Section 1.2 Assessment


page 9

5. Comparing and Contrasting What general

6. Define matter.
anything that has mass and volume

trend in ozone concentration is shown in the graph at the right? How do the data for the years 19771987 on this graph compare to the same time span on the graph in Figure 1-5? What do you notice?
Ozone levels are decreasing. As CFCs increase, ozone concentration decreases.

7. Compare and contrast mass and weight.


Mass is a measure of the amount of matter. It is independent of gravity. Weight is the effect of gravity on matter.

8. Why does chemistry involve the study of the

changes in the world at a submicroscopic level?


The changes you see with your eyes all begin with changes at the submicroscopic level.

9. Thinking Critically Explain why a scientist

must be cautious when a new chemical that has many potential uses is synthesized.
Scientists might not be able to predict how a chemical may react with substances in its environment.

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10. Using Numbers If your weight is 120 pounds

15. Thinking Critically Why must Molina and

and your mass is 54 kilograms, how would those values change if you were on the moon? The gravitational force on the moon is 1/6 the gravitational force on Earth.
Your mass will still be 54 kg, but your weight will be 1/6 your weight on Earth (120 lb/6 20 lb).

Rowlands data in the laboratory be supported by measurements taken in the stratosphere?


In the lab, conditions are carefully controlled. In the stratosphere, conditions vary widely. Data must show that the same phenomena occur in an unstructured environment.

16. Interpreting Data A report in the media states

Section 1.3 Scientific Methods


pages 1013

Section 1.3 Assessment


page 13

that a specific diet will protect individuals from cancer. However, no data are reported to support this statement. Is this statement a hypothesis or a conclusion?
It is only a hypothesis unless data support it.

11. What is a scientific method? What are its steps?


a systematic approach used in scientific study; observation, hypothesis, experiment, data analysis, conclusion

Section 1.4 Scientific Research


pages 1417

12. You are asked to study the effect of temperature

Section 1.4 Assessment


page 17

on the volume of a balloon. The balloons size increases as it is warmed. What is the independent variable? Dependent variable? What factor is held constant? How would you construct a control?
the temperature; the size of the balloon; the amount of air in the balloon; an identical ballon kept at room temperature

17. Compare and contrast pure research and applied

research.
Pure research is done for the sake of knowledge. Applied research is done to solve a specific problem.

18. What is technology? Is technology a product of

pure research or applied research? Explain.


Technology is the practical use of scientific information and is the result of both pure and applied research.

13. Critique Molina and Rowlands hypothesis

of ozone depletion as to its strengths and weaknesses.


Answers might include that scientific evidence supports the hypothesis, but the hypothesis must be tested using models instead of actually observing the reaction.

19. Explain why it is important to read each

CHEMLAB and miniLAB before you come to class.


You need to know what the objectives are, safety precautions, materials needed, and how to manage time.

14. Jacques Charles described the direct relationship

between temperature and volume of all gases at constant pressure. Should this be called Charless law or Charless theory? Explain.
It is called Charless law because it describes a phenomenon that consistently takes place.

20. Thinking Critically Explain the reason behind

each of the following. a. Wear goggles and an apron in the lab even if you are only an observer.
Materials can spatter or spill.

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

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Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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b. Report all accidents to your teacher.


Specific means of disposal or cleanup might be needed.

Mastering Concepts 23. What is a chemical? (1.1)


any substance with a definite composition

c. Do not return unused chemicals to the stock

bottle.
They might be contaminated.

24. Where is ozone located in Earths atmosphere?

(1.1)
90% in the stratosphere

21. Interpreting Scientific Diagrams What safety

precautions should you take when you see the following safety symbols?

25. Explain the balance between oxygen and ozone

in the stratosphere. Why is it important? (1.1)


Chemical reactions in the atmosphere form ozone from oxygen and oxygen from ozone. Ozone protects Earth from UV rays.

Use proper protection when handling materials that are cold or hot. Make sure the area is well ventilated; never smell fumes directly; wear a mask. Wear dust mask and gloves; practice extra care when handling materials. Avoid open flames.

26. What were common uses of CFCs? (1.1)


refrigerants, foams, propellants for spray products

27. What is chemistry? (1.2)


the study of matter and the changes it undergoes

Chapter 1 Assessment page 22


Concept Mapping 22. Complete the concept map using the following terms: theory, revised theory, experiments, data analysis, conclusion.
1. is formed in the 2. when 3. breaks up 4. 1. ozone; 2. stratosphere; 3. ultraviolet radiation; 4. oxygen gas; 5. CFCs is destroyed by 5.

28. Why is chemistry called the central science?

(1.2)
An understanding of chemistry is central to all sciences and to our everyday lives.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

29. Which measurement depends on gravitational

forcemass or weight? Explain. (1.2)


Weight depends on gravitational force and changes as the gravitational force changes. Mass remains the same.

30. Which branch of chemistry studies the composi-

tion of substances? Environmental impact of chemicals? (1.2)


Analytical chemistry studies the composition of substances; environmental chemistry studies the environmental impact of chemicals.

31. How does qualitative data differ from quantita-

tive data? Give examples of each. (1.3)


Qualitative data, such as color or shape, are made with the five senses. Quantitative data, such as mass or length, are measurements.

32. What is the function of a control in an

experiment? (1.3)
A control is a standard used for comparison.

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33. What is the difference between a hypothesis, a

38. Designing an Experiment How would you

theory, and a law? (1.3)


A hypothesis is a tentative explanation about what has been observed. A theory is an explanation that has been supported by many experiments. A scientific law describes a relationship in nature.

design an experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of a new and improved chemical fertilizer on bean plants? Be sure to describe your hypothesis, procedure, variables, and control.
The hypothesis might say that the new fertilizer increases the number of beans produced by each bean plant. The procedure might be to have three groups of bean plants, one group with no fertilizer, one group with the un-improved fertilizer, and the other group with the new fertilizer. The independent variable would be the use of fertilizer. The dependent variable would be the number of beans produced by each plant. Constants are the amount of light and water received by each plant. The control would be the plants that received no fertilizer.

34. In the study of water, what questions might be

asked in pure research? Applied research? Technology? (1.4)


Pure research might examine the properties of water. Applied research might ask what chemicals should be added to drinking water to promote health, such as fluoride to promote healthy tooth formation. Technology might include creating filters to filter harmful contaminants out of water or machines to purify it.

39. Inferring A newscaster reports, The air

Thinking Critically 35. Compare and Contrast Why is CFC depletion of the ozone layer a theory and not a scientific law?
It has been supported by many experiments but still relies on further experiments for support. It does not describe a law of nature that always occurs, such as gravity.

36. Classifying CFCs break down to form chemi-

cals that react with ozone. Is this a macroscopic or a microscopic observation?


microscopic because it cannot be seen with human eyes

The qualitative statements are that air quality is poor and that people should spend little time outside. Quantitative statements include that visibility is only a quarter mile and that the pollutants will rise above 0.085 ppm in the next eight-hour average.

37. Communicating Ideas Scientists often learn as

40. Comparing and Contrasting Match each of

much from an incorrect hypothesis as they do from one that is correct. Explain.
Data obtained testing an incorrect hypothesis provide useful information.

the following research topics with the branch of chemistry that would study it: water pollution, the digestion of food in the human body, the composition of a new textile fiber, metals to make new coins, a treatment for AIDS.
Answers will vary but might include environmental, biochemistry and inorganic, organic, analytical, and biochemistry, respectively.

Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 1

Solutions Manual

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

quality today is poor. Visibility is only a quarter mile. Pollutants in the air are expected to rise above 0.085 parts per million (ppm) in the next eight hour average. Spend as little time outside today as possible if you suffer from asthma or other breathing problems. Which of these statements are qualitative and which are quantitative?

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Writing in Chemistry 41. Based on your beginning knowledge of chemistry, describe the research into depletion of the ozone layer by CFCs in a timeline.
Answers will vary but should include increased use of CFCs and the decrease in the ozone layer, including the effects of the depletion on life on Earth.

2. Mass is preferred as a measurement over weight

for all of the following reasons EXCEPT _____. a. it has the same value everywhere on Earth b. it is independent of gravitational forces c. it becomes less in outer space, farther from Earth d. it is a constant measure of the amount of matter
c

42. Learn about the most recent measures taken by

countries around the world to reduce CFCs in the atmosphere since the Montreal Protocol. Write a short report describing the Montreal Protocol and more recent environmental measures to reduce CFCs.
Answers will vary but should include the measures taken by the United States to limit the use and control the disposal of CFCs. Answers should also include the measures taken by several other countries.

3. Which of the following is an example of pure

research? a. creating synthetic elements to study their properties b. producing heat-resistant plastics for use in household ovens c. finding ways to slow down the rusting of iron ships d. searching for fuels other than gasoline to power cars
a

43. Name a technological application of chemistry

that you use everyday. Prepare a booklet about its discovery and development.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4. When working with chemicals in the laboratory,

Check student booklets for accuracy. Be sure students clearly explain how the application is related to chemistry.

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 1


page 23

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Matter is defined as anything that _____. a. exists in nature b. is solid to the touch c. is found in the universe d. has mass and takes up space
d

which of the following is something you should NOT do? a. Read the label of chemical bottles before using their contents. b. Pour any unused chemicals back into their original bottles. c. Use lots of water to wash skin that has been splashed with chemicals. d. Take only as much as you need of shared chemicals.
b

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Interpreting Tables and Graphs Use the table and graph to answer questions 57. 5. What must be a constant during the experiment? a. temperature b. mass of CO2 dissolved in each sample c. amount of beverage in each sample d. independent variable
c

Page From a Students Laboratory Notebook


Step Observation Notes Carbonated beverages taste fizzier (more gassy) when they are warm than when they are cold. (Carbonated beverages are fizzy because they contain dissolved carbon dioxide gas.) At higher temperatures, greater amounts of carbon dioxide gas will dissolve in a liquid. This is the same relationship between temperature and solubility seen with solids. Measure the mass of carbon dioxide (CO2) in different samples of the same carbonated beverage at different temperatures. See graph below. ?

Hypothesis

6. Assuming that all of the experimental data are

correct, what is a reasonable conclusion for this experiment? a. Greater amounts of CO2 dissolve in a liquid at lower temperatures. b. The different samples of beverage contained the same amount of CO2 at each temperature. c. The relationship between temperature and solubility seen with solids is the same as the one seen with CO2. d. CO2 dissolves better in a liquid at higher temperatures.
a

Experiment

Data Analysis Conclusion

Mass of CO2 Dissolved in a Carbonated Beverage


0.35 Mass of CO2 (g) 0.30
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0 5 10 15 20 25 Temperature (C)

7. The scientific method used by this student

showed that _____. a. the hypothesis is supported by the experimental data b. the observation accurately describes what occurs in nature c. the experiment is poorly planned d. the hypothesis should be thrown out
d

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Data Analysis
Section 2.1 Units of Measurement
pages 2530

5. Describe the relationship between the mass,

volume, and density of a material.


Density is the mass-to-volume ratio of a material.

Practice Problems
page 29

6. Which of these samples have the same density?


Density Data
Sample A B C B and C Mass 80 g 12 g 33 g Volume 20 mL 4 cm3 11 mL

1. A piece of metal with a mass of 147 g is placed

in a 50-mL graduated cylinder. The water level rises from 20 mL to 41 mL. What is the density of the metal?
mass density volume volume 41 mL 20 mL 21 mL 147 g density 7.0 g/mL 21 mL

7. What is the difference between a base unit and a

derived unit?
Base units are defined based on a physical object or process. Derived units are defined based on a combination of base units.

2. What is the volume of a sample that has a mass

of 20 g and a density of 4 g/mL?


mass volume density
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. How does adding the prefix mega- to a unit

affect the quantity being described?


It multiplies the quantity by 106.

20 g volume 5 mL 4 g/mL

9. How many milliseconds are in a second? How 3. A metal cube has a mass of 20 g and a volume

of 5 cm3. Is the cube made of pure aluminum? Explain your answer.


No; the density of aluminum is 2.7 g/cm3; the density of the cube is 4 g/cm3.

many centigrams are in a gram?


1000 ms/s; 100 cg/g

10. Thinking Critically Why does oil float on

water?
Oil is less dense than water.

Section 2.1 Assessment


page 30

11. Using Numbers You measure a piece of wood

4. List SI units of measurement for length, mass,

time, and temperature.


length: meter; mass: kilogram; time: second; temperature: kelvin

with a meterstick and it is exactly one meter long. How many centimeters long is it?
100 cm

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Section 2.2 Scientific Notation and Dimensional Analysis


pages 3135

Solve the following addition and subtraction problems. Express your answers in scientific notation. 14. a. 5 105 m 2 105 m
7 105 m

Practice Problems
page 32

12. Express the following quantities in scientific

b. 7 108 m 4 108 m
3 108 m

notation. a. 700 m
7 102 m

c. 9 102 m 7 102 m
2 102 m

b. 38 000 m
3.8 104 m

d. 4 1012 m 1 1012 m
5 1012 m

c. 4 500 000 m
4.5 106 m

e. 1.26 104 kg 2.5 103 kg


1.26 104 kg 0.25 104 kg 1.51 104 kg

d. 685 000 000 000 m


6.85 1011 m

f. 7.06 103 kg 1.2 104 kg


7.06 103 kg 0.12 103 kg 7.18 103 kg

e. 0.0054 kg
5.4 103 kg

g. 4.39 105 kg 2.8 104 kg


4.39 105 kg 0.28 105 kg 4.11 105 kg
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

f. 0.000 006 87 kg
6.87 106 kg

h. 5.36 101 kg 7.40 102 kg


5.36 101 kg 0.740 101 kg 4.62 101 kg

g. 0.000 000 076 kg


7.6 108 kg

h. 0.000 000 000 8 kg


8 1010 kg

Practice Problems
page 33

13. Express the following quantities in scientific

notation. a. 360 000 s


3.6 105 s

b. 0.000 054 s
5.4 105 s

Solve the following multiplication and division problems. Express your answers in scientific notation. 15. Calculate the following areas. Report the answers in square centimeters, cm2. a. (4 102 cm) (1 108 cm)
4 1010 cm2

c. 5060 s
5.06 103 s

b. (2 104 cm) (3 102 cm)


6 102 cm2

d. 89 000 000 000 s


8.9 1010 s

c. (3 101 cm) (3 102 cm)


9 101 cm2

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d. (1 103 cm) (5 101 cm)


5 102 cm2

c. Convert 6800 cm to m.
1m 6800 cm 68 m 100 cm

16. Calculate the following densities. Report the

answers in g/cm3. a. (6 102 g) (2 101 cm3)


3 101 g/cm3

d. Convert 25 kg to Mg.
1 Mg 25 kg 0.025 Mg 1000 kg

b. (8 104 g) (4 101 cm3)


2 103 g/cm3

Practice Problems
page 35

c. (9 105 g) (3 101 cm3)


3 106 g/cm3

19. How many seconds are there in 24 hours?


60 min 60 s 24 h 86 400 s 1h 1 min

d. (4 103 g) (2 102 cm3)


2 101 g/cm3

20. The density of gold is 19.3 g/mL. What is

golds density in decigrams per liter?


10 dg 19.3 g 1000 mL 193 000 dg/L 1L 1 mL 1g

Practice Problems
page 34

21. A car is traveling 90.0 kilometers per hour.

Refer to Table 2-2 to figure out the relationship between units. 17. a. Convert 360 s to ms.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

What is its speed in miles per minute? One kilometer 0.62 miles.
1h 90.0 km 0.62 mi 0.930 mi/min 1h 1 km 60 min

1000 ms 360 s 360 000 ms 1s

b. Convert 4800 g to kg.


1 kg 4800 g 4.8 kg 1000 g

Section 2.2 Assessment


page 35

22. Is the number 5 104 greater or less than

1.0? Explain your answer.


c. Convert 5600 dm to m.
1m 5600 dm 560 m 10 dm less than one because the exponent is negative

23. When multiplying numbers in scientific nota-

tion, what do you do with the exponents?


d. Convert 72 g to mg.
1000 mg 72 g 72 000 mg 1g Add them.

24. Write the quantities 3 104 cm and 3

104 km in ordinary notation.


0.0003 cm; 30 000 km

18. a. Convert 245 ms to s.


1s 245 ms 0.245 s 1000 ms

25. Write a conversion factor for cubic centimeters

b. Convert 5 m to cm.
100 cm 5 m 500 cm 1m

and milliliters.
1 cm3/1 mL

26. What is dimensional analysis?


a method of problem solving that focuses on the units used to describe matter

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27. Thinking Critically When subtracting or

30. Calculate the percent errors for Student Cs

adding two numbers in scientific notation, why do the exponents need to be the same?
Equal place values should be added to each other.

trials.
0.11 100 6.92% 1.59 0.10 100 6.29% 1.59 0.12 100 7.55% 1.59 Note: The answers are reported in three significant figures because student error is the difference between the actual value (1.59 g/cm3) and the measured value.

28. Applying Concepts You are converting 68 km

to meters. Your answer is 0.068 m. Explain why this answer is incorrect and the likely source of the error.
Because meters are smaller than kilometers, there should be more meters than kilometers. The 68 km was divided by 1000, not multiplied by 1000.

Section 2.3 How reliable are measurements?


pages 3642

Practice Problems
page 39

Practice Problems
page 38

Determine the number of significant figures in each measurement. 31. a. 508.0 L


4

Table 2-4
Errors for Data in Table 2-3
Student A Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 0.05 g/cm3 0.01 0.02 g/cm3 g/cm3 Student B 0.19 g/cm3 0.09 0.14 g/cm3 g/cm3 Student C 0.11 g/cm3 0.10 g/cm3 0.12 g/cm3

b. 820 400.0 L
7
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. 1.0200 105 kg
5

d. 807 000 kg

Use data from Table 2-4. Remember to ignore plus and minus signs. 29. Calculate the percent errors for Students Bs trials.
0.19 100 11.9% 1.59 0.09 100 5.66% 1.59 0.14 100 8.80% 1.59 Note: The answers are reported in three significant figures because student error is the difference between the actual value (1.59 g/cm3) and the measured value.

32. a. 0.049 450 s


5

b. 0.000 482 mL
3

c. 3.1587 108 g
5

d. 0.0084 mL
2

10

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Practice Problems
page 41

c. 4.32 103 cm 1.6 103 cm


2.7 103 cm

Round all numbers to four significant figures. Write the answers to problem 34 in scientific notation. 33. a. 84 791 kg
84 790 kg

Practice Problems
page 42

b. 38.5432 g
38.54 g

Complete the following calculations. Round off the answers to the correct number of significant figures. 37. a. 24 m 3.26 m
78 m2

c. 256.75 cm
256.8 cm

b. 120 m 0.10 m
12 m2

d. 4.9356 m
4.936 m

c. 1.23 m 2.0 m
2.5 m2

34. a. 0.000 548 18 g


5.482 104 g

d. 53.0 m 1.53 m
81.1 m2

b. 136 758 kg
1.368 105 kg

38. a. 4.84 m/2.4 s


2.0 m/s

c. 308 659 000 mm


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.087 108 mm

b. 60.2 m/20.1 s
3.00 m/s

d. 2.0145 mL
2.014 mL

c. 102.4 m/51.2 s
2.00 m/s

Complete the following addition and subtraction problems. Round off the answers when necessary. 35. a. 43.2 cm 51.0 cm 48.7 cm
142.9 cm

d. 168 m/58 s
2.9 m/s

b. 258.3 kg 257.11 kg 253 kg


768 kg

Section 2.3 Assessment


page 42

39. A piece of wood has a labeled length value of

c. 0.0487 mg 0.058 34 mg 0.004 83 mg


0.1119 mg

36. a. 93.26 cm 81.14 cm


12.12 cm

76.49 cm. You measure its length three times and record the following data: 76.48 cm, 76.47 cm, and 76.59 cm. How many significant figures do these measurements have?
four

b. 5.236 cm 3.14 cm
2.10 cm

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40. Are the measurements in problem 39 accurate?

Are they precise? Explain your answers.


Answers may vary but might include the following. They are not precise for values recorded to four significant figures. The first and second values are close enough to the accepted value to be called accurate.

Section 2.4 Representing Data


pages 4345

Problem-Solving Lab
page 44 How does speed affect stopping distance?

100

41. Calculate the percent error for each measure-

ment in problem 39.


76.49 cm 76.48 cm 100 0.01307% 76.49 cm Distance (m) 76.49 cm 76.47 cm 100 0.02615% 76.49 cm 76.49 cm 76.59 cm 100 0.1307% 76.49 cm 80

60

40

42. Round 76.51 cm to two significant figures. Then

round your answer to one significant figure.


77 cm, 80 cm

20

43. Thinking Critically Which of these measure-

ments was made with the most precise measuring device: 8.1956 m, 8.20 m, or 8.196 m? Explain your answer.
8.1956 m because it has the greatest number of significant figures

0 0

10 Speed (m/s)

20

30

page 45

44. Using Numbers Write an expression for the

45. Explain why graphing can be an important tool

quantity 506 000 cm in which it is clear that all the zeros are significant.
5.060 00 105 cm

for analyzing data.


It provides visual information about relationships between variables, relative amounts, or parts of a whole.

46. What type of data can be displayed on a circle

graph? On a bar graph?


parts of a whole; how a quantity varies with a factor

47. If a linear graph has a negative slope, what can

you say about the dependent variable?


It decreases in value as the independent variable increases.

48. When can the slope of a graph represent

density?
when mass is the y value and volume is the x value

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Section 2.4 Assessment

CHAPTER

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49. Thinking Critically Why does it make sense

for the line in Figure 2-14a to extend to 0, 0 even though this point was not measured?
Extrapolation of measured data extends the line to this point. The graph shows that an object with no mass will have no volume.

Chapter 2 Assessment pages 5052


Concept Mapping 51. Use the following terms to complete the concept map: volume, derived unit, mass, density, base unit, time, length.
SI units

50. Interpreting Graphs Using Figure 2-15,

determine how many months the ozone hole lasts.


from September to November, or approximately three months

1.

2.

CHEMLAB
pages 4647 Density of Copper

3.

5.

4.

6.

7.

1. base unit; 2. derived unit; 3. mass; 4. time; 5. length; 6. volume; 7. density

3 Mass (g)

Mastering Concepts 52. Why must a measurement include both a number and a unit? (2.1)
The number gives you the quantitative value, and the unit indicates what was measured.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

53. Explain why scientists, in particular, need stan1

dard units of measurement. (2.1)


Scientists from different countries have different languages and cultures but must be able to share and compare data.

10

20 30 Volume (mL)

40

54. What role do prefixes play in the metric

system? (2.1)
Prefixes give the magnitude of the measurement.

55. How many meters are there in one kilometer? In

one decimeter? (2.1)


1000; 0.1

56. What is the relationship between the SI unit for

volume and the SI unit for length? (2.1)


The SI unit for volume is the cubic meter, m3, which is equal to three SI measurements of length multiplied together.

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57. Explain how temperatures on the Celsius and

65. In 50 540, which zero is significant? What is the

Kelvin scales are related. (2.1)


The sizes of the units are equal; C 273 K.

other zero called? (2.3)


the first one; placeholder

58. How does scientific notation differ from ordi-

66. Which of the following three numbers will

nary notation? (2.2)


Scientific notation uses a number between 1 and 10 times a power of ten to indicate the size of very large or small numbers.

produce the same number when rounded to three significant figures: 3.456, 3.450, or 3.448? (2.3)
3.450 and 3.448

59. If you move the decimal place to the left to

67. When subtracting 61.45 g from 242.6 g, which

convert a number into scientific notation, will the power of ten be positive or negative? (2.2)
positive

factor determines the number of significant figures in the answer? Explain. (2.3)
the number that has the fewest digits to the right of the decimal point; it is less precise.

60. When dividing numbers in scientific notation,

what must you do with the exponents? (2.2)


Subtract them.

68. When multiplying 602.4 m by 3.72 m, which

factor determines the number of significant figures in the answer? Explain. (2.3)
3.72; it has the smaller number of significant figures.

61. When you convert from a small unit to a large

unit, what happens to the number of units? (2.2)


It decreases.

69. Which type of graph would you choose to

62. If you report two measurements of mass, 7.42 g

You must know the accepted value to know if the measurements are accurate. They are fairly precise because there is only 0.14 g difference between the two measurements.

63. When converting from meters to centimeters,

how do you decide which values to place in the numerator and denominator of the conversion factor? (2.2)
Meters will be in the denominator so that the units will cancel when the starting value is multiplied by the conversion factor.

70. Which type of graph would you choose to

depict changes in gasoline consumption over a period of ten years? Explain. (2.4)
line or bar graph because they can show how consumption varies with time

71. How can you find the slope of a line graph?

64. Why are plus and minus signs ignored in

(2.4)
Choose two points on the line. Divide the difference in the y values by the difference in the x values.

percent error calculations? (2.3)


You need to know only the difference between the measured value and the magnitude of the accepted value.

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 2

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and 7.56 g, are the measurements accurate? Are they precise? Explain your answers. (2.3)

depict data on how many households heat with gas, oil, or electricity? Explain. (2.4)
A bar graph could be used with the method of heating on the x-axis and the number of households on the y-axis. If the data include all the households for a region, relative numbers could be converted to a percentage and expressed as a circle graph.

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Mastering Problems Density (2.1) Level 1 72. A 5-mL sample of water has a mass of 5 g. What is the density of water?
5g mass density 1 g/mL volume 5 mL

c. 7.6352 103 kg
0.007 635 2 kg

d. 3.02 105 s
0.000 030 2 s

Level 2 73. An object with a mass of 7.5 g raises the level of water in a graduated cylinder from 25.1 mL to 30.1 mL. What is the density of the object?
volume 30.1 25.1 mL 5.0 mL 7.5 g mass density 1.5 g/mL volume 5.0 mL

Level 2 77. Complete the following addition and subtraction problems in scientific notation. a. 6.23 106 kL 5.34 106 kL
(6.23 5.34) 106 kL 11.57 106 kL 1.157 107 kL

b. 3.1 104 mm 4.87 105 mm


(0.31 4.87) 105 mm = 5.18 105 mm

74. The density of aluminum is 2.7 g/mL. What is

c. 7.21 103 mg 43.8 102 mg


(7.21 4.38) 103 mg 11.59 103 mg 1.159 104 mg

the volume of 8.1 g of aluminum?


8.1 g mass volume 3.0 mL density 2.7 g/mL

d. 9.15 104 cm 3.48 104 cm


(9.15 3.48) 104 cm 12.63 104 cm 1.263 103 cm

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Scientific Notation (2.2) Level 1 75. Write the following numbers in scientific notation. a. 0.004 583 4 mm
4.5834 103 mm

e. 4.68 105 cg 3.5 106 cg


(4.68 0.35) 105 cg 5.03 105 cg

f. 3.57 102 mL 1.43 102 mL


(3.57 1.43) 102 mL 2.14 102 mL

b. 0.03054 g
3.054 102 g

g. 9.87 104 g 6.2 103 g


(9.87 0.62) 104 g 9.25 104 g

c. 438 904 s
4.389 04 105 s

h. 7.52 105 kg 5.43 105 kg


(7.52 5.43) 105 kg 2.09 105 kg

d. 7 004 300 000 g


7.0043 109 g

i. 6.48 103 mm 2.81 103 mm


(6.48 2.81) 103 mm 3.67 103 mm

76. Write the following numbers in ordinary

notation. a. 8.348 106 km


8 348 000 km

j. 5.72 104 dg 2.3 105 dg


(5.72 0.23) 104 dg 5.49 104 dg

78. Complete the following multiplication and divi-

b. 3.402 103 g
3402 g

sion problems in scientific notation. a. (4.8 105 km) (2.0 103 km)
(4.8 2.0) 1053 km2 9.6 108 km2

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b. (3.33 104 m) (3.00 105 m)


(3.33 3.00) 104(5) m2 9.99 109 m2

c. (1.2 106 m) (1.5 107 m)


(1.2 1.5) 106(7) m2 1.8 101 m2

Level 2 80. Convert the following measurements. a. 5.70 g to milligrams


1000 mg 5.70 g 5.70 103 mg 1g

d. (8.42 108 kL) (4.21 103 kL)


(8.42 4.21) 1083 2.00 105

b. 4.37 cm to meters
1m 4.37 cm 4.37 102 m 100 cm

e. (8.4 106 L) (2.4 103 L)


(8.4 2.4) 106(3) 3.5 109

c. 783 kg to grams
1000 g 783 kg 7.83 105 g 1 kg

f. (3.3 104 mL) (1.1 106 mL)


(3.3 1.1) 104(6) 3.0 102

d. 45.3 mm to meters
1m 45.3 mm 4.53 102 m 1000 mm

Conversion Factors (2.2) Level 1 79. Write the conversion factor that converts the following. a. grams to kilograms
1 kg 1000 g

e. 10 m to centimeters
100 cm 10 m 1000 cm 1m

f. 37.5 g/mL to kg/L


1 kg 37.5 g 1000 mL 37.5 g 1L 1 mL 1000 g

b. kilograms to grams
1000 g 1 kg

c. millimeters to meters
1m 1000 mm

d. meters to millimeters
1000 mm 1m

Percent Error (2.3) Level 1 81. The accepted length of a steel pipe is 5.5 m. Calculate the percent error for each of these measurements. a. 5.2 m
error 5.5 m 5.2 m 0.3 m 0.3 m percent error 100 5.5% 5.5 m

e. milliliters to liters
1L 1000 mL

b. 5.5 m
error 5.5 m 5.5 m 0 m 0m percent error 100 0 5.5 m

f. centimeters to meters
1m 100 cm

c. 5.7 m
error 5.5 m 5.7 m 0.2 m 0.2 m percent error 100 3.6% 5.5 m

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

d. 5.1 m
error 5.5 m 5.1 m 0.4 m 0.4 m percent error 100 7.3% 5.5 m

84. Round each figure to three significant figures. a. 0.003 210 g


0.003 21 g

Level 2 82. The accepted density for copper is 8.96 g/mL. Calculate the percent error for each of the measurements. a. 8.86 g/mL
error = 8.96 g/mL 8.86 g/mL 0.10 g/mL 0.10 g/mL percent error 100 1.12% 8.96 g/mL

b. 3.8754 kg
3.88 kg

c. 219 034 m
219 000 m

d. 25.38 L
25.4 L

b. 8.92 g/mL
error 8.96 g/mL 8.92 g/mL 0.04 g/mL 0.04 g/mL percent error 100 0.446% 8.96 g/mL

e. 0.087 63 cm
0.0876 cm

f. 0.003 109 mg
0.003 11 mg

c. 9.00 g/mL
error 8.96 g/mL 9.00 g/mL 0.04 g/mL 0.04 g/mL percent error 100 0.446% 8.96 g/mL

d. 8.98 g/mL
error 8.96 g/mL 8.98 g/mL 0.02 g/mL 0.02 g/mL percent error 100 0.223% 8.96 g/mL

Level 2 85. Round the answers to each of the following problems to the correct number of significant figures. a. 7.31 104 3.23 103
(7.31 0.323) 104 7.633 104 7.63 104

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Significant Figures (2.3) Level 1 83. Round each number to four significant figures. a. 431 801 kg
431 800 kg

b. 8.54 103 3.41 104


(8.54 0.341) 103 8.199 103 8.20 103

c. 4.35 dm 2.34 dm 7.35 dm


(4.35 2.34 7.35) dm3 74.81565 dm3 74.8 dm3

b. 10 235.0 mg
10 240 mg

c. 1.0348 m
1.035 m

d. 4.78 cm 3.218 cm 5.82 cm


4.78 3.218 5.82 cm 13.818 cm 13.82 cm

d. 0.004 384 010 cm


0.004 384 cm

e. 3.40 mg 7.34 mg 6.45 mg


3.40 7.34 6.45 mg 17.19 mg

e. 0.000 781 00 mL
0.000 781 0 mL

f. 45 m 72 m 132 m
(45 72 132) m3 427 680 m3 430 000 m3

f. 0.009 864 1 cg
0.009 864 cg

g. 38736 km/4784 km
38 736 km 4784 km 8.969899 8.097

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Representing Data (2.4) Level 1 86. Use the accompanying bar graph to answer the following questions. a. Which substance has the greatest density?
mercury

Level 2 87. Graph the following data with the volume on the x-axis and the mass on the y-axis. Then calculate the slope of the line.
Table 2-7
Density Data
Volume (mL) 2.0 4.0 Mass (g) 5.4 10.8 16.2 21.6 27.0
Density

b. Which substance has the least density?


wood

c. Which substance has a density of

7.87 g/cm3?
iron

6.0 8.0 10.0

d. Which substance has a density of

11.4 g/cm3?
lead

30.0 25.0

Density Comparison
Mass (g)

14.0 12.0 Density (g/cm3) 10.0 8.0 6.0 4.0 2.0

20.0 15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 Volume (mL) 10.0 12.0
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The graph shows a direct relationship between mass and volume. 21.6 g 10.8 g slope 2.7 g/mL 8.0 mL 4.0 mL

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 88. You have a 23-g sample of ethanol with a density of 0.7893 g/mL. What volume of ethanol do you have?
mass 1 mL volume 23 g 29 mL density 0.7893 g
Le ad M er cu ry Su ga r W oo d W at er G la ss Iro n

Months

89. Complete the following problems in scientific

notation. Round off to the correct number of significant figures. a. (5.31 102 cm) (2.46 105 cm)
(5.31 2.46) 1025 cm2 13.0626 103 cm2 1.31 104 cm2

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b. (3.78 103 m) (7.21 102 m)


(3.78 7.21) 1032 m2 27.2538 105 m2 2.73 106 m2

92. Three students use a meterstick to measure a

c. (8.12 103 m) (1.14 105 m)


(8.12 1.14) 103(5) m2 9.2568 108 m2 9.26 108 m2

length of wire. One student records a measurement of 3 cm. The second records 3.3 cm. The third records 2.87 cm. Explain which answer was recorded correctly.
The third student (2.87 cm) is correct. A meterstick has markings to the millimeter, so a third digit should be estimated.

d. (5.53 106 km) (7.64 103 km)


(5.53 7.64) 1063 km2 42.2492 103 km2 4.22 102 km2

93. Express each quantity in the unit listed to its

e. (9.33

104

mm) (3.0
1042

right. a. 3.01 g

cg

102
102

mm)
3.1 102

(9.33 3.0)

3.11

100 cg 3.01 g 301 cg 1g

f. (4.42 103 kg) (2.0 102 kg)


(4.42 2.0) 1032 2.21 105 2.2 105

b. 6200 m

km

1 km 6200 m 6.2 km 1000 m

g. (6.42 102 g) (3.21 103 g)


(6.42 3.21) 102(3) 2.00 101

c. 6.24 107 g g
106 g 6.24 107 g 0.624 g 1g

90. Evaluate the following conversion. Will the

answer be correct? Explain.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d. 0.2 L

dm3

75 m 60 s 1 h rate 1s 1 min 60 min


mh 75 m 60 s 1h rate 75 1s 1 min 60 min min2 No, the conversion is not correct because the units of rate should be m/min. This expression yields the units m h/min2. The last conversion factor 60 min should be . 1h

1 dm3 0.2 L 0.2 dm3 1L

e. 0.13 cal/g

kcal/g

1 kcal 0.13 cal/g 1.3 104 kcal/g 1000 cal

f. 3.21 mL

1L 3.21 mL 3.21 103 L 1000 mL

91. What mass of lead (density 11.4 g/cm3) would

have an identical volume to 15.0 g of mercury (density 13.6 g/cm3)?


massmercury volumemercury 15.0 g mercury densitymercury 1 cm3 mercury 1.10 cm3 mercury 13.6 g mercury volumelead volumemercury 1.10 cm3 lead masslead volumelead densitylead 11.4 g lead 1.10 cm3 lead 12.6 g lead 1 cm3 lead

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94. The black hole in the galaxy M82 has a mass

98. Inferring Explain why the mass of an object

about 500 times the mass of our Sun. It has about the same volume as Earths moon. What is the density of this black hole? masssun 1.9891 1030 kg

cannot help you identify what material the object is made from.
Mass itself has no meaning without a measurement of its volume. If the object is a pure substance and its mass and volume are known, its density can help identify it.

volumemoon 2.1968 1010 km3


massblack hole 500 masssun 500 (1.9891 1030 kg) 9.9455 1032 kg volumeblack hole volumemoon 2.1968 massblack hole densityblack hole volumeblack hole 9.9455 1032 kg 4.5273 1022 kg/km3 2.1968 1010 km3 densityblack hole 4.5273 1000 g 1 km 1022 kg/km3 1 kg 1000 m 1010 km3

99. Drawing Conclusions Why might property

owners hire a surveyor to determine property boundaries rather than measure the boundaries themselves?
Surveyors use equipment that is not affected by terrain or obstacles.

100 cm
3

1m

4.5273 1022396 4.5273 1010 g/cm3

95. The density of water is 1 g/cm3. Use your

answer to question 94 to compare the densities of water and a black hole.


The density of the black hole is 4.5273 1010 g/cm3 (almost fifty billion) times greater than that of water.

Writing in Chemistry 100. Although the standard kilogram is stored at constant temperature and humidity, unwanted matter can build up on its surface. Scientists have been looking for a more reliable standard for mass. Research and describe alternative standards that have been proposed. Find out why no alternative standard has been chosen.
Two alternative methods of defining the standard kilogram would base the unit on the Avogadro constant, which is the number of atoms in 12 grams of pure carbon-12. One method would depend in part on X-ray measurements in silicon crystals. Another method would depend on electrical measurements that determine the ratio of the mechanical watt to the electrical watt. At this time, scientists have not gained universal acceptance for either alternative method.

Thinking Critically 96. Comparing and Contrasting What advantages do SI units have over the units in common use in the United States? Is there any disadvantage to using SI units?
Answers will vary but might include that units based on powers of ten are easy to convert from one to another. Most disadvantages involve the initial changing from another system to SI.

101. Research and report on some unusual units of

measurement such as bushels, pecks, firkins, and frails.


Student answers will vary. For example, a firkin (a small wooden tub used for butter and lard) is 1 a unit of volume equal to barrel. 4

97. Forming a Hypothesis Why do you think the

SI standard for time was based on the distance light travels through a vacuum?
There is no chance for matter to interfere with the speed measurement in a vacuum.

102. Research the range of volumes used for pack-

aging liquids sold in supermarkets.


Student answers will likely include fluid ounces, quarts, half-gallons, gallons, liters, and milliliters.

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

103. Find out what the acceptable limits of error are

3. The correct representation of 702.0 g using

for some manufactured products or for the doses of medicine given at a hospital.
Student answers will vary. For definitive information on the subject, encourage students to contact the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), manufacturers, pharmacists, or hospital pharmacies.

scientific notation is _____ . a. 7.02 103 g b. 70.20 101 g c. 7.020 102 g d. 70.20 102 g
c

4. Three students measured the length of a stamp

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 104. You record the following in your lab book: A liquid is thick and has a density of 4.58 g/mL. Which data is qualitative? Which is quantitative? (Chapter 1)
Thick is qualitative; a density of 4.58 g/mL is quantitative.

whose accepted length is 2.71 cm. Based on the table below, which statement is true? a. Student 2 is both precise and accurate. b. Student 1 is more accurate than Student 3. c. Student 2 is less precise than Student 1. d. Student 3 is both precise and accurate.
a

Measured Values for a Stamps Length


Student 1 Trial 1 2.60 cm 2.72 cm 2.65 cm 2.66 cm Student 2 2.70 cm 2.69 cm 2.71 cm 2.70 cm Student 3 2.75 cm 2.74 cm 2.64 cm 2.71 cm

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 2


page 53
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Trial 2 Trial 3 Average

Use the questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Which of the following is NOT an SI base unit? a. second (s) b. kilogram (kg) c. degrees Celsius (C) d. meter (m)
c

5. Chemists found that a complex reaction

occurred in three steps. The first step takes 2.5731 102 s to complete, the second step takes 3.60 101 s, and the third step takes 7.482 101 s. The total amount of time elapsed during the reaction is _____ .
a. b. c. d.
d

2. Which of the following values is NOT equiva-

lent to the others? a. 500 meters b. 0.5 kilometers c. 5000 centimeters d. 5 1011 nanometers
c

3.68 101 s 7.78 101 s 1.37 101 s 3.3249 102 s

6. How many significant figures are there in a

distance measurement of 20.070 km? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5


d

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Interpreting Graphs Use the graph to answer the following questions.


Age of Ice Layers in Vostok Ice Sheet
70 000 65 000 60 000 Age of ice layer (years) 55 000 50 000 45 000 40 000 35 000 30 000 25 000 20 000 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 Depth of ice layer below surface (m)

8. The slope of the graph is about _____ . a. b. c. d.


a

80 years/m 80 m/year 0.015 years/m 1500 m/year

9. What age is an ice layer found at a depth of

1000 m?
a. b. c. d.
d

6.75 104 years 7.00 104 years 6.25 104 years 6.5 104 years

7. Using the graph, a student reported the age of

an ice layer at 705 m as 4.250 104 years. The accepted value for the age of this ice layer is 4.268 104 years. The percent error of the students value is _____ .
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a. b. c. d.
a

0.4217% 99.58% 0.4235% 1.800%

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MatterProperties and Changes


Section 3.1 Properties of Matter
pages 5560

4. Thinking Critically Using what you know

about the compressibility of gases, explain why the oxygen in a SCUBA tank is compressed.
Particles in a gas are spaced far apart and are easily compressed. Therefore, it is possible to put a significant volume of oxygen in a tank, which allows the diver to remain under water longer.

Section 3.1 Assessment


page 60

1. Describe the characteristics that identify a

sample of matter as being a substance.


The sample of matter must have a uniform and unchanging composition to be a substance.

5. Interpreting Data Bromine is a reddish-brown

2. Classify each of the following as a physical or

chemical property. a. Iron and oxygen form rust.


chemical

liquid that boils at 59C. Bromine is highly reactive with many metals. For example, it reacts with sodium to form a white solid. Classify each of these properties of bromine as either a physical or a chemical property.
color, physical; boiling point, physical; reactive with metals, chemical

b. Iron is more dense than aluminum.


physical

c. Magnesium burns brightly when ignited.


chemical

Section 3.2 Changes in Matter


pages 6165

d. Oil and water do not mix.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Practice Problems
page 65

physical

6. From a laboratory process designed to separate

e. Mercury melts at 39C.


physical

3. Create a table that describes the three common

water into hydrogen and oxygen gas, a student collected 10.0 g of hydrogen and 79.4 g of oxygen. How much water was originally involved in the process?
massreactants massproducts massreactants masswater
electrolyzed

states of matter in terms of their shape, volume, and compressibility.


Volume Solid definite Shape definite takes shape of container and fills container to the extent of its own volume Compressibility incompressible virtually incompressible

massproducts masshydrogen massoxygen masswater electrolyzed masshydrogen massoxygen masswater electrolyzed 10.0 g 79.4 g 89.4 g

Liquid definite

7. A student carefully placed 15.6 g of sodium in a

Gas

fills takes shape volume of of container container

reactor supplied with an excess quantity of chlorine gas. When the reaction was complete, the student obtained 39.7 g of sodium chloride. How many grams of chlorine gas reacted? How many grams of sodium reacted?
massreactants massproducts masssodium masschlorine masssodium
chloride

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masssodium 15.6 g masssodium


chloride

10.0 g massoxygen 16.6 g massoxygen 16.6 g 10.0 g 6.6 g

39.7 g

Substituting and solving for masschlorine yields, 15.6 g masschlorine 39.7 g masschlorine 39.7 g 15.6 g 24.1 g used in the reaction. Because the sodium reacts with excess chlorine, all of the sodium (15.6 g) is used in the reaction.

Section 3.2 Assessment


page 65

10. Describe the results of a physical change and

list three examples of physical change.


During a physical change, a substance is altered but its composition does not change. Examples will vary but may include changes such as melting, freezing, boiling, bending, and tearing.

8. In a flask, 10.3 g of aluminum reacted with

100.0 g of liquid bromine to form aluminum bromide. After the reaction, no aluminum remained, and 8.5 grams of bromine remained unreacted. How many grams of bromine reacted? How many grams of compound were formed?
The reactants are aluminum and bromine. The product is aluminum bromide. The mass of bromine used in the reaction equals the initial mass minus the mass remaining after the reaction is complete. Thus, massbromine reacted 100.0 g 8.5 g 91.5 g Because no aluminum remains after the reaction, you know that all of the aluminum is used in the reaction. Thus, massaluminum initial mass of aluminum 10.3 g To determine the mass of aluminum bromide formed, use conservation of mass. massproducts massreactants massaluminum bromide massaluminum massbromine massaluminum bromide 10.3 g 91.5 g 101.8 g

11. Describe the results of a chemical change. List

four indicators of chemical change.


During a chemical change, the composition of a substance is altered. Possible indicators of chemical change include a change in color, odor, or temperature, and the formation of a gas or solid from a liquid.

12. Solve each of the following. a. In the complete reaction of 22.99 g of

sodium with 35.45 g of chlorine, what mass of sodium chloride is formed?


masssodium chloride 22.99 g 35.45 g 58.44 g
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

masssodium chloride masssodium masschloride

b. A 12.2 g sample of X reacts with a sample

of Y to form 78.9 g of XY. What is the mass of Y that reacted?


massX massY massXY massY massXY massX 78.9 g 12.2 g 66.7 g

9. A 10.0-g sample of magnesium reacts with

13. Thinking Critically A friend tells you,

oxygen to form 16.6 g of magnesium oxide. How many grams of oxygen reacted?
Magnesium and oxygen are the reactants. Magnesium oxide is the product. massreactants massproducts massmagnesium massoxygen massmagnesium massmagnesium 10.0 g massmagnesium oxide 16.6 g Substituting and solving for massoxygen yields,
oxide

Because composition does not change during a physical change, the appearance of a substance does not change. Is your friend correct? Explain why.
The statement is false. While the composition does not change, a change in appearance often accompanies a physical change.

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14. Classifying Classify each of the following

d. air
homogeneous

examples as a physical change or a chemical change. a. crushing an aluminum can


physical

e. raisin muffin
heterogeneous

b. recycling used aluminum cans to make new

18. Thinking Critically When 50 mL of ethanol is

aluminum cans
physical

c. aluminum combining with oxygen to form

aluminum oxide
chemical

mixed with 50 mL of water, a solution forms. The volume of the final solution is less than 100 mL. Propose an explanation for this phenomenon. (Hint: Consider what you know about the space between particles in liquids.)
Particles of liquids have space between them. When the two liquids mix, particles of one liquid fit between particles of the other liquid.

Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter


pages 6669

19. Applying Concepts Describe the separation

Section 3.3 Assessment


page 69

technique that could be used to separate each of the following mixtures. a. two colorless liquids
distillation

15. How do mixtures and substances differ?


Substances have a constant composition, mixtures do not. Each substance in a mixture retains its own properties, whereas the properties of a substance are different from those of the elements that comprise it.

b. a nondissolving solid mixed with a liquid


filtration

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. red and blue marbles of same size and mass


manually separating the marbles by color

16. Consider a mixture of water, sand, and oil. How

many phases are present? How could you separate this mixture into individual substances?
There are three distinct phases, water, sand, and oil. The sand could be separated from the oil and water by filtration. The oil and water could be separated by pouring the oil off the top of the water, or by distillation.

Section 3.4 Elements and Compounds


pages 7077

Practice Problems
page 76

17. Classify each of the following as either a

20. A 78.0-g sample of an unknown compound

heterogeneous or homogeneous mixture. a. orange juice


heterogeneous

contains 12.4 g of hydrogen. What is the percent by mass of hydrogen in the compound?
masshydrogen percent by masshydrogen 100 masscompound 12.4 g percent by masshydrogen 100 15.9% 78.0 g

b. tap water
homogeneous

c. steel (a blend of iron and carbon)


homogeneous

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21. If 1.0 g of hydrogen reacts completely with

19.0 g of fluorine, what is the percent by mass of hydrogen in the compound that is formed?
masscompound 1.0 g 19.0 g 20.0 g percent by masshydrogen masshydrogen 100 masscompound

The composition by percent by mass is not the same for the two compounds. Therefore, they must be different compounds.

24. All you know about two unknown compounds is

that they have the same percent by mass of carbon. With only this information, can you be sure the two compounds are the same?
No, you cannot be sure. The fact that two compounds have the same percent by mass of a single element does not guarantee that the composition of the two compounds is the same.

1.0 g percent by masshydrogen 100 5.0% 20.0 g

22. If 3.5 g of X reacts with 10.5 g of Y to form the

compound XY, what is the percent by mass of X in the compound? The percent by mass of Y?
massxy 3.50 g 10.5 g 14.0 g massx percent by massx 100 massxy 3.50 g percent by massx 100 25.0% X 14.0 g massy percent by massy 100 massxy 10.5 g percent by massy 100 75.0% Y 14.0 g

Section 3.4 Assessment


page 77

25. How are elements and compounds similar? How

are they different?


Compounds are substances that can be broken down into elements. Elements are substances that cannot be broken down.

26. What is the basic organizing feature of the peri-

odic table of elements?


The periodic table of elements is organized by similarities in physical and chemical properties.

23. Two unknown compounds are tested.

Compound I contains 15.0 g of hydrogen and 120.0 g of oxygen. Compound II contains 2.0 g of hydrogen and 32.0 g of oxygen. Are the compounds the same?
Compound I masscompound 15.0 g 120.0 g 135.0 g masshydrogen percent by masshydrogen 100 masscompound 15.0 g percent by masshydrogen 100 11.1% 135.0 g Compound II masscompound 2.0 g 32.0 g 34.0 g masshydrogen percent by masshydrogen 100 masscompound 2.0 g percent by masshydrogen 100 5.8% 34.0 g

27. Explain how the law of definite proportions

applies to compounds.
The law of definite proportions describes the constant composition of a substance.

28. What type of compounds are compared in the

law of multiple proportions?


The law of multiple proportions relates the compositions of two compounds composed of the same elements.

29. Thinking Critically Name two elements that

have properties similar to those of element potassium (K). To those of krypton (Kr).
Elements in group 1A have properties similar to K. Elements in group 8A have properties similar to Kr.

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30. Interpreting Data Complete the following

table and then analyze the data to determine if compounds I and II are the same compound. If the compounds are different, use the law of multiple proportions to show the relationship between them.
Analysis Data of Two Iron Compounds
Compound I II Total mass (g) 75.00 56.00 Mass Fe (g) 52.46 43.53 Mass O (g) 22.54 12.47 Mass % Fe 69.95 77.73 Mass %O 30.05 22.27

Chapter 3 Assessment pages 8284


Concept Mapping 31. Organize the following terms into a logical concept map: state, physical properties, virtually incompressible, solid, gas, liquid, tightly packed particles, compressible, incompressible, particles far apart, loosely packed particles.
1. 2. 3. 6. 9. 4. 7. 10. 5. 8. 11.

The compounds are not the same. Compound I: mass Fe/mass O ( 52.46 g)(22.54 g) 2.327 Compound II: mass Fe/mass O ( 43.53 g)(12.47 g) 3.491 (mass ratioCompound I/mass ratioCompound II) ( 2.327)(3.491) 0.6666 0.6666 is equivalent to a 2/3 ratio, thus the ratio of Fe in compound I: Fe in compound II for a fixed amount of O 2:3.

1.physical properties; 2. state; 3. solid; 4. liquid; 5. gas; 6. tightly packed particles; 7. loosely packed particles; 8. particles far apart; 9. incompressible; 10. virtually incompressible; 11. compressible

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mastering Concepts 32. List three examples of substances. Explain why each is a substance. (3.1)
Answers will vary. Water, salt, gold, and sugar are all substances. Each is a substance because it has a unique and unchanging composition.

33. List at least three physical properties of tap

water. (3.1)
Answers will vary. Tap water is colorless, a liquid, freezes at approximately 0C, and boils at approximately 100C.

34. Identify each of the following as an extensive or

intensive physical property. (3.1) a. melting point


intensive

b. mass
extensive

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c. density
intensive

e. silver tarnishes
chemical

d. length
extensive

f. mercury is a liquid at room temperature


physical

35. Properties are not affected by changes in

38. A carton of milk is poured into a bowl. Describe

temperature and pressure. Is this statement true or false? Explain. (3.1)


The statement is false. Properties are affected by changes in temperature, pressure. Specific examples will vary.

the changes that occur in the milks shape and volume. (3.1)
The volume of the milk remains unchanged. Milk, which is a liquid, conforms to the shape of its container, thus the shape of the milk changes as it is poured from the carton into the bowl.

36. Classify each of the following as either solid,

liquid, or gas at room temperature. (3.1) a. milk


liquid

39. Classify each of the following as a physical

change or a chemical change. (3.2) a. breaking a pencil in two


physical

b. air
gas

b. water freezing and forming ice


physical

c. copper
solid

c. frying an egg
chemical

d. helium
gas

d. burning wood
chemical

e. diamond
solid

e. leaves turning color in the fall


chemical

f. candle wax
solid

40. Is a change in phase a physical change or a

37. Classify each of the following as a physical

chemical change? Explain. (3.2)


A change in phase is a physical change because the composition of the substance is not altered.

property or a chemical property. (3.1) a. aluminum has a silvery color


physical

41. List four indicators that a chemical change has

probably taken place. (3.2)


b. gold has a density of 19 g/cm3
physical Probable indicators of a chemical reaction include a change in color, odor, or temperature, and/or the production of a gas or a solid upon mixing.

c. sodium ignites when dropped in water


chemical

42. Iron and oxygen combine to form iron oxide

d. water boils at 100C


physical

(rust). List the reactants and products of this reaction. (3.2)


Iron and oxygen are the reactants, while iron oxide is the product formed. Iron oxygen 0 iron oxide Solutions Manual

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43. Use Table 3-1 to identify a substance that

d. helium and oxygen gases


Cool the gas mixture until it condenses, then distill the condensate.

undergoes a phase change as its temperature increases from 250C to 210C. What phase change takes place? (3.2)
Oxygen undergoes a phase change as its temperature increases from 250C to 210C. Solid oxygen melts to form liquid oxygen at a temperature of 218C.

48. A mixture is the chemical bonding of two or

more substances in any proportion. Is this statement true or false? Explain.


The statement is false because mixtures are a physical blend of substances, not a chemical bonding of substances.

44. After burning for three hours, a candle has lost

half of its mass. Explain why this example does not violate the law of conservation of mass. (3.2)
The mass of the candle is conserved if you consider the gaseous products from the reaction.

49. Which of the following are the same and which

are different? (3.3) a. a substance and a pure substance


same

45. Describe the difference between a physical

change and a chemical change. (3.2)


A physical change alters a substance without changing its composition, while a chemical change involves a change in composition.

b. a heterogeneous mixture and a solution


different

c. a substance and a mixture


different

46. Describe the characteristics of a mixture. (3.3)


Mixtures are a physical blend of two or more substances in any proportion. Mixtures do not have a constant composition. The properties of the mixture are largely those of its component substances.

d. a homogeneous mixture and a solution


same

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

50. Describe how a homogeneous mixture differs

from a heterogeneous mixture. (3.3)


Homogeneous mixtures contain a single phase. Heterogeneous mixtures may have many phases.

47. Describe a method that could be used to sepa-

rate each of the following mixtures. (3.3) a. iron filings and sand
A magnet can be used to draw the iron filings from the sand.

51. A chemistry professor has developed a labora-

b. sand and salt


Add water to the mixture to dissolve the salt. Filter the mixture to remove the sand, and then boil off the water so only the salt remains.

tory task to give her students practical experience using basic separation techniques. She prepares a liquid solution of water and another compound. Assuming you are a student in the class, name the technique you would use to separate and identify the components. Give specific details of the method.
Using distillation, heat the solution until the boiling point of the aqueous component is reached, then note that temperature. Boil away the aqueous component and observe the remaining component. Use a table such as Table 3-1 or another resource to identify the components based on the information obtained from the distillation process.

c. the components of ink


Paper chromatography should be used to separate the components of the ink. If enough ink is available, distillation may also be used, but is far more complicated than chromatography.

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52. State the definition of an element. (3.4)


An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means.

59. Which law states that a compound always

contains the same elements in the same proportion by mass? (3.4)


the law of definite proportions

53. Name the elements contained in the following

compounds. (3.4) a. sodium chloride (NaCl)


sodium and chlorine

Mastering Problems Properties of Matter (3.1) Level 1 60. A scientist is given the task of identifying an unknown compound on the basis of its physical properties. The substance is a white solid at room temperature. Attempts to determine its boiling point were unsuccessful. Using Table 3-1, name the unknown compound.
Table 3-1 shows two compounds that are white solids, but it is sucrose that decomposes before a boiling point is determined. Therefore the unknown substance is sucrose.

b. ammonia (NH3)
nitrogen and hydrogen

c. ethanol (C2H6O)
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen

d. bromine (Br2)
bromine

54. How many naturally occurring elements are

found on Earth? Approximately how many synthetic elements have been identified? (3.4)
There are 91 naturally occurring elements. There are more than 20 synthetically produced elements.

55. What was Dmitri Mendeleevs major contribu-

tion to the field of chemistry? (3.4)


Mendeleev developed the first widely accepted periodic table of elements.

massnitrogen masshydrogen massammonia massammonia 28.0 g 6.0 g 34.0 g

62. A substance breaks down into its component

56. Is it possible to distinguish between an element

and a compound? Explain. (3.4)


Yes, elements can be distinguished from compounds. Compounds can be broken down into their component elements, whereas elements cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

elements when it is heated. If 68.0 grams of the substance is present before it is heated, what is the combined mass of the component elements after heating?
massreactants massproducts 68.0 g Regardless of what the compound decomposes into, mass must be conserved.

57. How are the properties of a compound related to

those of the elements that comprise it? (3.4)


The properties of a compound are unique to that compound and different from those of its component elements.

63. A 13.0-g sample of X combines with a 34.0-g

sample of Y to form the compound XY2. What is the mass of the reactants?
X and Y are the reactants. The formula of the compound formed is not important. massreactants massproducts 13.0 g 34.0 g 47.0 g

58. How are the elements contained within a group

on the periodic table related? (3.4)


Elements within a group of the periodic table have similar chemical and physical properties.

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Conservation of Mass (3.2) Level 1 61. A 28.0-g sample of nitrogen gas combines completely with 6.0 g of hydrogen gas to form ammonia. What is the mass of ammonia formed?

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Level 2 64. Sodium chloride can be formed by the reaction of sodium metal and chlorine gas. If 45.98 g of sodium combines with an excess of chlorine gas to form 116.89 g sodium chloride, what mass of chlorine gas is used in the reaction?
masssodium masschlorine masssodium chloride masschlorine masssodium chloride masssodium Masschlorine 116.89 45.98 g 70.91 g

Level 2 68. When mercury oxide is heated, it decomposes into mercury and oxygen. If 28.4 g of mercury oxide decomposes, producing 2.0 g oxygen, what is the percent by mass of mercury in mercury oxide?
massmercury oxide massmercury massoxygen massmercury massmercury oxide massoxygen 28.4 g 2.0 g 26.4 g percentmercury
by mass

65. Copper sulfide is formed when copper and

sulfur are heated together. In this reaction, 127 g of copper reacts with 41 g of sulfur. After the reaction is complete, 9 g of sulfur remains unreacted. What is the mass of copper sulfide formed?
masssulfur used in the reaction initial mass of sulfur mass remaining after reaction masssulfur = masssulfur 41 g 9 g 32 g
used in the reaction

( massmercury/ massmercury oxide) 100 ( 26.4 g/ 28.4 g) 100 93.0%

Law of Multiple Proportions (3.4) 69. Carbon reacts with oxygen to form two different compounds. Compound I contains 4.82 g carbon for every 6.44 g of oxygen. Compound II contains 20.13 g carbon for every 53.7 g of oxygen. What is the ratio of carbon to a fixed mass of oxygen for the two compounds?
Compound I II Mass C (g) Mass O (g) MassC/MassO 4.82 20.13 6.44 53.7 4.82 g/6.44 g 0.748 20.13 g/53.7 g 0.375

masscopper masssulfur masscopper sulfide masscopper sulfide 127 g 32 g 159 g


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Law of Definite Proportions (3.4) Level 1 66. A 25.3-g sample of an unknown compound contains 0.8 g of oxygen. What is the percent by mass of oxygen in the compound?
percentoxygen by mass ( massoxygen/masscompound) 100 percentoxygen
by mass

(mass ratioCompound I/mass ratioCompound II) = (0.748/0.375) 1.99 ~ 2 The ratio of carbon to a fixed mass of oxygen in compound I is 0.748:1, whereas in compound II, it is 0.375:1. The ratio of carbon to oxygen in compound I is twice that in compound II.

= (0.8 g/25.3 g) 100 = 3%

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 70. Which state of matter is the most compressible? The least? Explain why.
Gases are the most compressible state of matter; solids are the least. Compressibility is determined by the amount of space between particles in each state. Gases have the greatest amount of space between particles; solids have the least.

67. Magnesium combines with oxygen to form

magnesium oxide. If 10.57 g of magnesium reacts completely with 6.96 g of oxygen, what is the percent by mass of oxygen in magnesium oxide?
massmagnesium massoxygen massmagnesium oxide massmagnesium oxide 10.57 g 6.96 g 17.53 g percentageoxygen
by mass

(massoxygen/massmagnesium oxide) 100 ( 6.96 g/17.53 g) 100 39.7%

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71. Classify each of the following as a homoge-

neous mixture or a heterogeneous mixture. (3.3) a. brass (an alloy of zinc and copper)
homogeneous

Thinking Critically 74. Applying Concepts Air is a mixture of many gases, primarily nitrogen, oxygen, and argon. Could distillation be used to separate air into its component gases? Explain.
If the mixture of gases is cooled sufficiently, it will condense into a mixture of liquids. This mixture could then be distilled.

b. a salad
heterogeneous

c. blood
heterogeneous

75. Interpreting Data A compound contains

d. powder drink mix dissolved in water


homogeneous

elements X and Y. Four samples with different masses were analyzed, and the masses of X and Y in each sample were plotted on a graph. The samples are labeled I, II, III, and IV.
40 Mass of X (g) 30 20 IV 10 0 I 2 4 6 Mass of Y (g) 8 II III

72. Phosphorus combines with hydrogen to form

phosphine. In this reaction, 123.9 g of phosphorus combines with excess hydrogen to produce 129.9 g of phosphine. After the reaction, 310 g of hydrogen remains unreacted. What mass of hydrogen is used in the reaction? What was the initial mass of hydrogen before the reaction?
massphosphine masshydrogen massphosphorus masshydrogen massphosphine massphosphorus masshydrogen 129.9 g 123.9 g 6.0 g hydrogen reacted initial mass hydrogen masshydrogen reacted masshydrogen unreacted 6.0 g 310 g 316 g

a. Which samples are from the same


Samples I, III, and IV are the same compound. A straight line can be drawn through these three plotted points. The slope of the line is equivalent to ratio massX/massY. The fact that all three points are on the same line shows that they all have the same mass ratio of X to Y and must be the same compound.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

compound? How do you know?

73. A sample of a certain lead compound contains

6.46 grams of lead for each gram of oxygen. A second sample has a mass of 68.54 g and contains 28.76 g of oxygen. Are the two samples the same?
Sample I: masslead/massoxygen ( 6.46 g)/(1.0 g) 6.46 Sample II: masscompound masslead massoxygen masslead masscompound massoxygen masslead 68.54 g 28.76 g 39.78 g masslead /massoxygen ( 39.78 g)/(28.76 g) 1.381 The two samples are not the same because the two masslead/massoxygen ratios are not the same

b. What is the approximate ratio of mass X to

mass Y in the samples that are from the same compound?


Using values from the graph for Sample IV: massX/massY 15 g/4 g 3.75 Thus, the mass ratio of X to Y for samples I, III, and IV is 3.75: 1.

c. What is the approximate ratio of mass X to

mass Y in the sample(s) that are not from the same compound?
Sample II is a different compound. Using values from the graph, Sample IIs mass ratio is: massX/massY 12.5 g/6.5 g 1.9 Solutions Manual

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Writing in Chemistry 76. Select a synthetic element and prepare a short written report on its development. Be sure to cover recent discoveries, list major research centers that conduct this type of research, and describe the properties of the synthesized element.
Student answers will vary. Students can obtain some information on the elements from the Merck Index.

80. What is mass? Weight? (Chapter 1)


Mass is the measure of the amount of matter an object contains. It is measured on a balance. The weight of an object is the amount of gravitational pull acting on the mass of an object. It is measured on a scale.

81. Express the following in scientific notation.

(Chapter 2) a. 34 500
3.45 104

77. Research the life of a scientist, other than

Mendeleev, who contributed to the development of the modern periodic table of elements. Write a brief biography of this person and detail his or her scientific accomplishments.
Student answers will likely focus on the lives and contributions of scientists such as John Dalton, Henry Moseley, Johann Wolfgang Dobereiner and his triads, A. E. Beguyer de Chancourtois and his spiral arrangement of the elements, John Newlands and his law of octaves, and Lothar Meyer and his eight-column table of the elements.

b. 2665
2.665 103

c. 0.9640
9.640 101

d. 789
7.89 102

e. 75 600
7.56 104

78. The results and interpretations of chemistry


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

f. 0.002 189
2.189 103

experiments and studies are recorded and published in literally hundreds of scientific journals around the world. Visit the local library and look at several of the articles in a chemistry journal such as The Journal of the American Chemical Society. Write a brief summary of your observations regarding the format and style of writing in chemistry.
Student answers will vary. Students may note careful wording and the extensive use of references and scientific terms in scientific articles.

82. Perform the following operations. (Chapter 2) a. 107 103


107 3 1010

b. (1.4 103) (5.1 105)


(1.4 5.1) 103 (5) 7.1 108

c. (2 103) (4 105)
( 2 4) 1035 8 102

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 79. What is chemistry? (Chapter 1)
Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes that it undergoes.

83. Convert 65C to Kelvins. (Chapter 2)


273 65C 338 K

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84.

Graph the following data. What is the slope of the line? (Chapter 2)
Energy Released by Carbon

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 3


pages 85

Mass (g) 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00

Energy released (kJ) 33 66 99 132 Energy Released by Carbon

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test.
Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 1 and 2.
Mass Analysis of Two ChlorineFluorine Compound Samples
Sample I Mass chlorine (g) 13.022 5.753 Mass fluorine (g) 6.978 9.248 %Cl 65.11 ? %F 34.89 ?

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

II

Energy released (kJ)

1. What are the values for %Cl and %F, respec-

tively, for Sample II? a. 0.622 and 61.65 b. 61.65 and 38.35 c. 38.35 and 0.622 d. 38.35 and 61.65
d
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Which of the following statements best

1.00

2.00 3.00 Mass (g)

4.00

132kJ 66kJ slope 33kJ/g 4.00 g 2.00 g

describes the relationship between the two samples? a. The compound in Sample I is the same as in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of definite proportions. b. The compound in Sample I is the same as in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of multiple proportions. c. The compound in Sample I is not the same as in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of proportions. d. The compound in Sample I is not the same as in Sample II. Therefore, the mass ratio of Cl to F in both samples will obey the law of multiple proportions.
d

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3. After elements A and B react to completion in a

8. The percent by mass of sulfur in sulfuric acid,

closed container, the ratio of masses of A and B in the container will be the same as before the reaction. This is true because of the law of _____ . a. definite proportions b. multiple proportions c. conservation of mass d. conservation of energy
c

H2SO4, is _____ . a. 32.69% b. 64.13% c. 16.31% d. 48.57%


a

9. Magnesium reacts explosively with oxygen to

4. All of the following are physical properties of

table sugar (sucrose) EXCEPT _____ . a. forms solid crystals at room temperature b. appears as crystals white in color c. breaks down into carbon and water vapor when heated d. tastes sweet
c

5. A substance is said to be in the solid state if

form magnesium oxide. All of the following are true of this reaction EXCEPT _______ . a. the mass of magnesium oxide produced equals the mass of magnesium consumed plus the mass of oxygen consumed b. the reaction describes the formation of a new substance c. the product of the reaction, magnesium oxide, is a chemical compound d. magnesium oxide has physical and chemical properties similar to both oxygen and magnesium
d

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

_____ . a. it is hard and rigid b. it can be compressed into a smaller volume c. it takes the shape of its container d. its matter particles are close together
a

10. Which of the following is NOT a chemical

6. Na, K, Li, and Cs all share very similar chem-

reaction? a. dissolution of sodium chloride in water b. combustion of gasoline c. fading of wallpaper by sunlight d. curdling of milk
a

ical properties. In the periodic table of elements, they most likely belong to the same _____ . a. row b. period c. group d. element
c

7. A heterogeneous mixture _______ . a. b. c. d.


b

cannot be separated by physical means is composed of distinct areas of composition is also called a solution has the same composition throughout

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The Structure of the Atom


Section 4.1 Early Theories of Matter
pages 8791

5. Comparing and Contrasting Compare and

contrast the atomic theories proposed by Democritus and John Dalton.


Both believed: matter composed of extremely small particles called atoms; all atoms of a given element are identical, but differ from the atoms of other elements; atoms could not be created, divided, or destroyed; apparent changes in matter result from changes in the groupings of atoms. Democritus further believed that matter is composed of empty space through which atoms move, that different kinds of atoms come in different sizes and shapes, and that the differing properties of atoms are due to the size, shape, and movement of the atoms. Dalton further specified that different atoms combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds.

Section 4.1 Assessment


page 91

1. Why were Democrituss ideas rejected by other

philosophers of his time?


Democritus could not explain what held atoms together or verify that atoms moved through empty space.

2. Define an atom using your own words.


An atom is the fundamental building block of nature. It is the smallest component of an element that exhibits all of the characteristic properties of that element.

3. Which statements in Daltons original atomic

theory are now considered to be incorrect? Describe how modern atomic theory differs from these statements.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 4.2 Subatomic Particles and the Nuclear Atom


pages 9297

Dalton was wrong about atoms being indivisible (they are made up of subatomic protons, neutrons, and electrons) and about all atoms of a given element having identical properties (the masses differ slightly).

Section 4.2 Assessment


page 97

6. Briefly evaluate the experiments that led to the

conclusion that electrons were negatively charged particles found in all matter.
The deflection toward positively charged plates demonstrated the negatively charged nature of electrons; the fact that changing the type of electrode or the type of gas used in the cathode ray tube did not affect the ray produced led to the conclusion that electrons are present in all matter.

4. Thinking Critically Democritus and Dalton

both proposed the concept of atoms. Describe the method each of them used to reach the conclusion that atoms existed. How did Democrituss method hamper the acceptance of his ideas?
Democritus developed his ideas about atoms through intellectual thought, whereas Dalton developed his ideas by performing experiments and making careful measurements. Because Democritus used only thought and not controlled experiments, he had no observable facts to support his ideas and no means of testing his theories.

7. Describe the structure of a typical atom. Be sure

to identify where each subatomic particle is located.


A typical atom consists of a central, small, dense nucleus containing protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons.

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8. Make a table comparing the relative charge and

J. J. Thomson

mass of each of the subatomic particles.


Particle Electron Proton Neutron Relative charge 1 1 0 Relative mass 1/1840 1 1 Ernest Rutherford 1919 Ernest Rutherford 1911

Plum-pudding model of the atom Nuclear atomic model based on gold foil experiments Refined model with protons in the nucleus Discover neutron

9. Thinking Critically Compare and contrast

Thomsons plum pudding atomic model with Rutherfords nuclear atomic model.
Thomsons plum pudding model describes atoms as spherical particles with uniformly distributed positive charge in which individual, negatively charged, electrons are located. In contrast, Rutherfords model states that an atom is mostly empty space, with a small, dense, central nucleus containing all of an atoms positive charge and most of its mass. The negatively charged electrons move through the empty space and are held in the atom by their attraction to the positively charged nucleus.

Ernest Rutherford 1932 and James Chadwick

Section 4.3 How Atoms Differ


pages 98104

Practice Problems
pages 99, 101, 104

11. How many protons and electrons are in each of

10. Graphing Make a timeline graph of the devel-

the following atoms? a. boron


b. radon
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

opment of modern atomic theory. Be sure to include the discovery of each subatomic particle.
Student timelines will vary but should include the following: John Dalton Sir William Crookes 1808 mid-1800s Atomic theory Discovers the electron using cathode ray tubes Determines mass of electron 1/2000 mass of a hydrogen atom Determines charge of electron

c. platinum d. magnesium
Element a. boron b. radon c. platinum d. magnesium Protons 5 86 78 12 Electrons 5 86 78 12

J. J. Thomson

late 1890s

12. An atom of an element contains 66 electrons.

What element is it?


dysprosium

Robert Millikan

1909

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13. An atom of an element contains 14 protons.

17. Calculate the atomic mass of magnesium. The

What element is it?


silicon

Isotope Composition Data


Element b. Calcium c. Oxygen d. Iron e. Zinc f. Mercury Atomic number 20 8 26 30 80 Mass number 46 17 57 64 204

three magnesium isotopes have atomic masses and relative abundances of 23.985 amu (78.99%), 24.986 amu (10.00%), and 25.982 amu (11.01%).
For 24Mg: mass contribution ( 23.985 amu)(0.7899) 18.95 amu For 25Mg: mass contribution ( 24.986 amu)(0.1000) 2.498 amu For 26Mg: mass contribution ( 25.982 amu)(0.1101) 2.861 amu Atomic mass of Mg 18.95 amu 2.498 amu 2.861 amu 24.31 amu

14. Determine the number of protons, electrons, and

neutrons for isotopes b. through f. in the table above. Name each isotope, and write its symbol.
Protons Neutrons and electrons b. c. d. e. f.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 4.3 Assessment


page 104

Isotope calcium-46 oxygen-17 iron-57 zinc-64 mercury-204

Symbol
46Ca 20 17 O 8 57 Fe 26 64 Zn 30 204 Hg 80

18. Which subatomic particle identifies an atom as

20 8 26 30 80

26 9 31 34 124

that of a particular element? How is this particle related to the atoms atomic number?
The proton. The number of protons equals the atomic number.

19. What is an isotope? Give an example of an

element with isotopes.


Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Carbon has the three isotopes: C-12, C-13, and C-14.

15. Boron has two naturally occurring isotopes:

boron-10 (abundance 19.8%, mass 10.013 amu), boron-11 (abundance 5 80.2%, mass 11.009 amu). Calculate the atomic mass of boron.
For mass contribution ( 10.013 amu)(0.198) 1.98 amu
10B:

20. Explain how the existence of isotopes is related

to atomic masses not being whole numbers.


Atomic masses arent whole numbers because they represent weighted averages of the masses of the isotopes of an element.

For mass contribution ( 11.009 amu)(0.802) 8.83 amu


11B:

Atomic mass of B 1.98 amu 8.83 amu 10.81 amu

21. Thinking Critically Nitrogen has two naturally

16. Helium has two naturally occurring isotopes,

helium-3 and helium-4. The atomic mass of helium is 4.003 amu. Which isotope is more abundant in nature? Explain.
Helium-4 is more abundant in nature because the atomic mass of naturally occurring helium is closer to the mass of helium-4 (approximately 4 amu) than to the mass of helium-3 (approximately 3 amu).

occurring isotopes, N-14 and N-15. The atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.007 amu. Which isotope is more abundant in nature? Explain.
N-14 must be more abundant because the atomic mass of nitrogen, which is a weighted average, is closer to the mass of N-14 than to the mass of N-15.

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22. Communicating List the steps in the process

27. Classifying Classify each of the following as a

of calculating average atomic mass given data about the isotopes of an element.
First, multiply the mass of each isotope by its percent abundance; then, sum the mass contributions of all the isotopes.

chemical reaction, a nuclear reaction, or neither. a. Thorium emits a beta particle.


nuclear

b. Two atoms share electrons to form a bond.


chemical

Section 4.4 Unstable Nuclei and Radioactive Decay


pages 105107

c. A sample of pure sulfur emits heat energy as

it slowly cools.
neither

Section 4.4 Assessment


page 107

d. A piece of iron rusts.


chemical

23. Explain how unstable atoms gain stability. What

determines whether or not an atom is stable?


Atoms can gain stability by losing energy (emitting radiation). Atomic stability is determined primarily by the ratio of the number of neutrons to the number of protons.

CHEMLAB
page 109

24. Create a table comparing the mass and charge

Analyze and Conclude 5. Hypothesizing Write a hypothesis that explains your observations.
A possible hypothesis is that the latex polymer chains move apart as the balloon inflates. The stretching of the latex walls creates pores. The greater pressure inside the balloon causes the molecules to move from inside the balloon to the outside. The vanilla molecules are very small particles that fit through the pores and are detected by their aroma outside the balloon. The evaporation of the vanilla liquid requires energy. The wall of the balloon feels cool to the touch where the liquid is changing into a vapor. After 24 hours, the liquid evaporates and leaves a dried brown residue inside the balloon.

of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.


Particle Symbol
4He 2 0 1 0 0

Mass (amu) 4 1/1840 0

Charge 2 1 0

25. In writing a balanced nuclear equation, what

must be conserved?
In a balanced nuclear equation, both mass number and atomic number must be conserved.

26. Thinking Critically Explain how a nuclear

reaction differs from a chemical reaction.


Nuclear reactions involve changes in the nuclei of the atoms, usually resulting in changes of atoms of one element into atoms of another element. Chemical reactions involve changes of substances into new substances.

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CHAPTER

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Chapter 4 Assessment pages 112114


Concept Mapping 28. Complete the concept map using the following terms: electrons, matter, neutrons, nucleus, empty space around nucleus, protons, and atoms.
All 1. is composed of 2. which contain 3. in the 6. 4. in the 5.

32. State the main points of Daltons atomic theory

using your own words. Which parts of Daltons theory were later found to be in error? Explain why. (4.1)
See Figure 4-4. Dalton was wrong about atoms being indivisible and all atoms of an element being identical.

33. Explain how Daltons atomic theory offered a

convincing explanation of the observation that mass is conserved in chemical reactions. (4.1)
Mass is conserved because atoms cannot be created, divided, or destroyed. Chemical reactions involve only the separation, combination, and rearrangement of atoms.

34. Which subatomic particle was discovered by

researchers working with cathode ray tubes? (4.2)


the electron

35. What experimental results led to the conclusion


7.

that electrons were part of all forms of matter? (4.2)


changing the type of electrode or the type of gas did not affect the ray produced

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. matter; 2. atoms; 3. electrons; 4. protons or neutrons; 5. neutrons or protons; 6. empty space around nucleus; 7. nucleus

36. What is the charge and mass of a single

Mastering Concepts 29. Who originally proposed the concept that matter was composed of tiny indivisible particles? (4.1)
Democritus

electron? (4.2)
charge 1; mass 9.11 1028 g

37. List the strengths and weaknesses of

Rutherfords nuclear model of the atom. (4.2)


Strengths: Rutherfords model explained the results of the gold-foil experiment and why an atom is electrically neutral.Weaknesses: The model could not account for the total mass of an atom or the arrangement of the electrons.

30. Whose work is credited with being the begin-

ning of modern atomic theory? (4.1)


John Dalton

31. Explain why Democritus was unable to experi-

mentally verify his ideas. (4.1)


The scientific instruments necessary to research matter at the atomic level had not been invented yet.

38. What particles are found in the nucleus of an

atom? What is the net charge of the nucleus? (4.2)


protons and neutrons; net positive charge equal to the number of protons

39. Explain what keeps the electrons confined in the

space surrounding the nucleus. (4.2)


attraction to the positively charged nucleus

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40. Describe the flow of a cathode ray inside a

50. What do the superscript and subscript in the

cathode ray tube. (4.2)


from cathode to anode

notation 40 19K represent? (4.3)


The superscript represents the mass number (40) and the subscript represents the atomic number (19).

41. Which outdated atomic model could be likened

to chocolate chip cookie dough? (4.2)


the plum pudding model

51. Explain how to determine the number of

42. What caused the deflection of the alpha parti-

neutrons an atom contains if you know its mass number and its atomic number. (4.3)
number of neutrons mass number atomic number

cles in Rutherfords gold foil experiment? (4.2)


The particles were deflected by the positively charged gold nuclei.

52. Define the atomic mass unit. What were the

43. Which subatomic particles account for most all

of an atoms mass? (4.2)


protons and neutrons

benefits of developing the atomic mass unit as a standard unit of mass? (4.3)
amu 1/12 of the mass of a C-12 atom; scientists defined the atomic mass unit as a relative standard that was closer in size to atomic and subatomic masses.

44. How is an atoms atomic number related to its

number of protons? To its number of electrons? (4.2)


They are all equal.

53. What type of reaction involves changes in the

nucleus of an atom? (4.4)


nuclear reaction

45. What is the charge of the nucleus of element

89? (4.2)
89

54. Explain how energy loss and nuclear stability

are related to radioactive decay. (4.4)


Radioactivity results when unstable nuclei emit energy in order to gain stability.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

46. Explain why atoms are electrically neutral. (4.2)


The number of positively charged protons equals the number of negatively charged electrons.

55. Explain what must occur before a radioactive

47. Does the existence of isotopes contradict part of

Daltons original atomic theory? Explain. (4.3)


Yes; not all atoms of an element are identical in mass.

atom ceases to undergo further radioactive decay. (4.4)


A stable, nonradioactive atom must be formed.

56. Write the symbols used to denote alpha, beta,

48. How do isotopes of a given element differ? How

are they similar? (4.3)


differ: number of neutrons, masses; similar: chemical properties, number of protons and electrons

and gamma radiation and give their mass and charge. (4.4)
Particle Symbol
4He 2 0 1 0 0

Mass (amu) 4 1/1840 0

Charge 2 1 0

49. How is the mass number related to the number

of protons and neutrons an atom has? (4.3)


mass number number of protons number of neutrons

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57. What change in mass number occurs when a

radioactive atom emits an alpha particle? A beta particle? A gamma particle? (4.4)
, mass number decreases by 4; , no change in mass number; , no change in mass number

Level 2 62. An isotope of mercury has 80 protons and 120 neutrons. What is the mass number of this isotope?
mass number number of protons number of neutrons 80 120 200

58. What is the primary factor determining whether

or not an atom is stable or unstable? (4.4)


the neutron-to-proton ratio

63. An isotope of xenon has an atomic number of

54 and contains 77 neutrons. What is the xenon isotopes mass number?


mass number number of protons number of neutrons atomic number number of neutrons 54 77 131

Mastering Problems Atomic Number and Mass Number (4.3) Level 1 59. How many protons and electrons are contained in an atom of element 44?
number of protons number of electrons atomic number 44

64. How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are

contained in each of the following atoms? a. 132 55 Cs


b. 59 27 Co c. 163 69 Tm d. 70 30 Zn
Symbol Electrons 55 27 69 30 Protons 55 27 69 30 Neutrons 77 32 94 40

60. For each of the following chemical symbols,

determine the element name and the number of protons and electrons an atom contains. a. V
b. Mn
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a. b. c. d.

132 Cs 55 59 Co 27 163 Tm 69 70 Zn 30

c. Ir d. S
atomic number number of protons number of electrons Element a. b. c. d. vanadium manganese iridium sulfur Protons 23 25 77 16 Electrons 23 25 77 16

65. How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are

contained in each of the following atoms? a. gallium-64


b. fluorine-23 c. titanium-48 d. helium-8

61. A carbon atom has a mass number of 12 and an

atomic number of 6. How many neutrons does it have?


number of neutrons mass number atomic number 12 6 6

Symbol a. b. c. d. Ga-64 F-23 Ti-48 He-8

Electrons 31 9 22 2

Protons 31 9 22 2

Neutrons 33 14 26 6

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Atomic Mass (4.3) Level 1 66. Chlorine, which has an atomic mass of 35.453 amu, has two naturally occurring isotopes, Cl-35 and Cl-37. Which isotope occurs in greater abundance? Explain.
Cl-35 must be more abundant because the atomic mass of chlorine is much closer to the mass of Cl-35 than to the mass of Cl-37.

electrons are emitted from the cathode and travel through the tube to the anode.

70. Explain how J. J. Thomsons determination of

the charge-to-mass ratio of the electron led to the conclusion that atoms were composed of subatomic particles.
Thomson determined that the electrons mass was much less than the mass of a hydrogen atom, the lightest atom. This showed there were smaller, subatomic particles. Atoms are divisible.

Level 2 67. Silver has two isotopes, 107 47 Ag has a mass of 106.905 amu (52.00%), and 109 47 Ag has a mass of 108.905 amu (48.00%). What is the atomic mass of silver?
atomic mass ( 106.905 amu)(0.520) (108.905 amu)(0.480) 55.59 amu 52.27 amu 107.86 amu

71. How did the actual results of Rutherfords gold

foil experiment differ from the results he expected?


Rutherford expected the particles to be slightly deflected when they passed through a thin gold foil. Instead, he found that some were deflected at very large angles.

68. Data of chromiums four naturally occuring

72. Complete the table below.


Composition of Various Isotopes
Isotope Atomic number Mass number Number Number Number of protons of neutrons of electrons

isotopes is provided in the table below. Calculate chromiums atomic mass.


Chromium Isotope Data
Isotope Cr-50 Cr-52 Cr-53 Cr-54 Percent abundance 4.35% 83.79% 9.50% 2.36% Mass (amu) 49.946 51.941 52.941 53.939 S-32 Ca-44 Zn-64 F-19 Na-23

16 20 30 9 11

32 44 64 19 23

16 20 30 9 11

16 24 34 10 12

16
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

20 30 9 11

atomic mass ( 49.946 amu)(0.0435) (51.941 amu)(0.8379) (52.941 amu)(0.0950) (53.939 amu)(0.0236) 2.17 amu 43.52 amu 5.03 amu 1.27 amu 51.99 amu

73. Approximately how many times greater is the

diameter of an atom than the diameter of its nucleus? Knowing that most of an atoms mass is contained in the nucleus, what can you conclude about the density of the nucleus?
An atoms diameter is about 10 000 times the diameter of its nucleus. Consequently, the density of the nucleus must be enormous.

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 69. Describe a cathode ray tube and how it operates.
A cathode ray tube has a metal electrode at each end and is filled with a gas at low pressure. One electrode is connected to the negative terminal of a battery (cathode), and the other is connected to the positive terminal (anode). When current flows, negatively charged particles called

74. Is the charge of a nucleus positive, negative, or

zero? The charge of an atom?


The nucleus is positively charged, whereas the atom is neutral.

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75. Why are electrons in a cathode ray tube

80. Identify the two types of radiation shown in the

deflected by magnetic and electric fields?


They are charged particles, and charged particles are affected by the electrostatic forces of attraction and repulsion from electric and magnetic fields.

figure below. Explain your reasoning.

76. What was Henry Moseleys contribution to our

understanding of the atom?


Moseley discovered that each element contains a unique positive charge (or number of protons) in its nucleus. Thus, the number of protons in an atoms nucleus uniquely identifies it as an atom of a particular element.

77. What is the mass number of potassium-39?

The deflected beam is radiation because it is deflected toward the negatively charged plate. The undeflected beam must be neutral gamma radiation.

What is the isotopes charge?


mass number 39; charge 0

81. Describe how each type of radiation affects an

atoms atomic number and mass number.


, atomic number decreases by 2, mass number decreases by 4; , atomic number increases by 1, mass number unchanged; , atomic number and mass number are unchanged

78. Boron-10 and boron-11 are the naturally occur-

ring isotopes of elemental boron. If boron has an atomic mass of 10.81 amu, which isotope occurs in greater abundance?
B-11 must occur in greater abundance because the atomic weight of bromine is much closer to the mass of B-11 than to the mass of B-10.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

82. Silicon is very important to the semiconductor

79. Calculate the atomic mass of titanium. The five

titanium isotopes have atomic masses and relative abundance of 45.953 amu (8.00%), 46.952 amu (7.30%), 47.948 amu (73.80%), 48.948 amu (5.50%), and 49.945 amu (5.40%).
For mass contribution ( 45.953 amu)(0.0800) 3.68 amu
46Ti:

manufacturing industry. The three naturally occurring isotopes of silicon are silicon-28, silicon-29, and silicon-30. Write the symbol for each.
28Si, 29Si, 30Si 14 14 14

For 47Ti: mass contribution ( 46.952 amu)(0.0730) 3.43 amu For 48Ti: mass contribution ( 47.948 amu)(0.7380) 35.39 amu For 49Ti: mass contribution ( 48.948 amu)(0.0550) 2.69 amu For 50Ti: mass contribution ( 49.945 amu)(0.0540) 2.70 amu Atomic mass of Ti 3.68 amu 3.43 amu 35.39 amu 2.69 amu 2.70 amu 47.89 amu

Thinking Critically 83. Applying Concepts Which is greater, the number of compounds or the number of elements? The number of atoms or the number of isotopes? Explain.
The number of compounds is greater than the number of elements because compounds are combinations of elements and the elements can be combined in many ways. The number of isotopes is greater than the number of atoms because each element has only one type of atom but may have more than one isotope.

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84. Analyzing Information An element has three

89. Individual atoms can be seen using a sophisti-

naturally occurring isotopes. What other information must you know in order to calculate the elements atomic mass?
You also need to know the mass and percent abundance of each isotope.

cated device known as a scanning tunneling microscope. Write a short report on how the scanning tunneling microscope works and create a gallery of scanning tunneling microscope images from sources such as books, magazines, and the Internet.
Student reports will vary but should include a discussion of such particles as quarks and gluons.

85. Applying Concepts If atoms are primarily

composed of empty space, why cant you pass your hand through a solid object?
Atoms in a solid object are bonded together by electrical forcesbonds that are not easily broken. These tightly bonded atoms form solid objects.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 90. How is a qualitative observation different from a quantitative observation? Give an example of each. (Chapter 1)
A qualitative observation does not involve measurement (water is hot). A quantitative observation involves measurement (the water is 42C).

86. Formulating Models Sketch a modern atomic

model of a typical atom and identify where each type of subatomic particle would be located.
Sketches should look similar to Figure 4-13.

87. Applying Concepts Copper has two naturally

occurring isotopes and an atomic mass of 63.546 amu. Cu-63 has a mass of 62.940 amu and an abundance of 69.17%. What is the identity and percent abundance of coppers other isotope?
% of second isotope 100% 69.17% 30.83% 63.546 amu ( 62.940 amu)(0.6917) (isotope mass)(0.3083) (isotope mass)(0.3083) 63.546 amu 43.54 amu 20.01 amu isotope mass ( 20.01 amu)/(0.3083) 64.89 amu The other isotope is Cu-65.

91. A 1.0-cm3 block of gold can be flattened to a

1 cm2 volume area 3.3 107 cm2 height 3.0 108 cm 1 sheet sheets 3.3 107 cm2 603 cm2 55 000 sheets of paper

Writing in Chemistry 88. The Standard Model of particle physics describes all of the known building blocks of matter. Research the particles included in the Standard Model. Write a short report describing the known particles and those thought to exist but not detected experimentally.
Student reports will vary.

92. Classify the following mixtures as heteroge-

neous or homogeneous. (Chapter 3) a. salt water


homogeneous

b. vegetable soup
heterogeneous

c. 14-K gold
homogeneous

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thin sheet that averages 3.0 108 cm thick. What is the area (in cm2) of the flattened gold sheet? A letter size piece of paper has an area of 603 cm2. How many sheets of paper would the gold cover? (Chapter 2)

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d. concrete
heterogeneous

237Np 93

233U 92

4 2He

0 1

3. An atom has no net electrical charge because

93. Are the following changes physical or

chemical? (Chapter 3) a. water boils


physical change

b. a match burns
chemical change

c. sugar dissolves in water


physical change

_____ . a. its subatomic particles carry no electrical charges b. the positively charged protons cancel out the negatively charged neutrons c. the positively charged neutrons cancel out the negatively charged electrons d. the positively charged protons cancel out the negatively charged electrons
d

d. sodium reacts with water


chemical change

4. 126 52 Te has _____ . a. b. c. d.


b

e. ice cream melts


physical change

126 neutrons, 52 protons, and 52 electrons 74 neutrons, 52 protons, and 52 electrons 52 neutrons, 74 protons, and 74 electrons 52 neutrons, 126 protons, and 126 electrons

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 4


page 115
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. Assume the following three isotopes of element

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. An atom of plutonium _____ . a. can be divided into smaller particles that retain all the properties of plutonium b. cannot be divided into smaller particles that retain all the properties of plutonium c. does not possess all the properties of a larger quantity of plutonium d. cannot be seen using current technology
b

Q exist: 248Q, 252Q, and 259Q. If the atomic mass of Q is 258.63, which of its isotopes is the most abundant? a. 248Q b. 252Q c. 259Q d. they are all equally abundant
c

2. Neptuniums only naturally occurring isotope,

decays by emitting one alpha particle, one beta particle, and one gamma ray. What is the new atom formed from this decay? a. 233 92 U b. 241 93 Np c. 233 90 Th d. 241 92 U
a Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 4

237Np, 93

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Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 68.


Characteristics of Naturally Occurring Neon Isoptopes
Isotope
20Ne 21Ne 22Ne

8. The atomic mass of Ne is equal to _____ . a. b. [(19.992 amu)(90.48%) (20.994 amu)

19.922 amu 20.994 amu 21.991 amu 3 1 3

Atomic number 10 10 10

Mass (amu) 19.992 20.994 21.991

Percent abundance 90.48 0.27 9.25

(0.27%) (21.991 amu)(9.25%)]

c. (19.992 amu)(90.48%) (20.994

amu)(0.27%) (21.991 amu)(9.25%)

d. 19.992 amu 20.994 amu 21.991 amu


c

6. Based on the table, an atom of neon found in

nature would most likely have a mass of _____ . a. 19.992 amu b. 20.179 amu c. 20.994 amu d. 21.991 amu
a

9. Element X has an unstable nucleus due to an

7. In which of the neon isotopes is the number of

neutrons the same as the number of protons? a. 20Ne b. 21Ne c. 22Ne d. none of the above
a mass number number of protons number of neutrons number of protons atomic number atomic number of neon 10

overabundance of neutrons. All of the following are likely to occur EXCEPT _____ . a. element X will undergo radioactive decay b. element X will eventually become a stable, nonradioactive element c. element X will gain more protons to balance the neutrons it possesses d. element X will spontaneously lose energy
c

10. The volume of an atom is made up mostly of


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

_____ . a. protons b. neutrons c. electrons d. empty space


d

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Electrons in Atoms
Section 5.1 Light and Quantized Energy
pages 117126

b. 9.50 1013 Hz
Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(9.50 1013 s1) Ephoton 6.29 1020 J

Practice Problems
pages 121, 124

1. What is the frequency of green light, which has

c. 1.05 1016 s1
Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(1.05 1016 s1) Ephoton 6.96 1018 J

a wavelength of 4.90 107 m?


c 3.00 108 m/s ( 4.90 107 m)

3.00 108 m/s 6.12 1014 s1 4.90 107 m

6. Use Figure 5-5 to determine the types of radia-

tion described in problem 5.


a. gamma ray or X ray b. infrared c. ultraviolet

2. An X ray has a wavelength of 1.15 1010 m.

What is its frequency?


c 3.00 108 m/s ( 1.15 1010 m) 3.00 108 m/s 2.61 1018 s1 1.15 1010 m
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 5.1 Assessment


page 126

3. What is the speed of an electromagnetic wave

7. List the characteristic properties of all waves. At

that has a frequency of 7.8 106 Hz?


The speed of all electromagnetic waves is 3.00 108 m/s.

what speed do electromagnetic waves travel in a vacuum?


speed, wavelength, frequency, and amplitude; EM waves travel at c.

4. A popular radio station broadcasts with a

frequency of 94.7 MHz. What is the wavelength of the broadcast? (1 MHz 106 Hz)
c 94.7 MHz 9.47 107 Hz 3.00 108 m/s ( 9.47 107 Hz) 3.00 108 m/s 3.17 m 9.47 107 s1

8. Compare the wave and particle models of light.

What phenomena can only be explained by the particle model?


The wave model treats light as an electromagnetic wave. The particle model treats light as being comprised of photons. The wave model could not explain the photoelectric effect, the color of hot objects, and emission spectra.

9. What is a quantum of energy? Explain how

5. What is the energy of each of the following

types of radiation?
a. 6.32 1020 s1
Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(6.32 1020 s1) Ephoton 4.19 1013 J

quanta of energy are involved in the amount of energy matter gains and loses.
A quantum is the minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom. Matter loses or gains energy in multiples of the quantum.

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10. Explain the difference between the continuous

spectrum of white light and the atomic emission spectrum of an element.


A continuous spectrum contains all the visible colors; an atomic emission spectrum contains only specific colors.

Section 5.2 Quantum Theory and the Atom


pages 127134

Problem-Solving Lab
page 130 2. and 4. Pfund series Lyman series Paschen series

11. Thinking Critically Explain how Einstein

utilized Plancks quantum concept in explaining the photoelectric effect.


Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation has a wave-particle nature, that the energy of a photon depends on the frequency of the radiation, and that the photons energy is given by the formula Ephoton h.

12. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations Use

Figure 5-5 and your knowledge of light to match the numbered items on the right with the lettered items on the left. The numbered items may be used more than once or not at all. a. longest wavelength 1. gamma rays
b. highest frequency c. greatest energy
a: 3 b: 1 c: 1

n6 n7

n5

n1 n2 n3 n4

Brackett series Balmer series rn ( 0.529 1010m)n2 Example: n 2 r2 ( 0.529 1010 m)22 2.12 1010 m En (2.18 1018 J)/n2 Example: n = 2 En (2.18 1018 J)/22 0.545 1018 J n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 rn (1010 m) 0.529 2.12 1.59 8.46 13.2 19.0 25.9 En (1018 J) 2.18 0.545 0.242 0.136 0.0872 0.0606 0.0445
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. infrared waves 3. radio waves

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3. and 5. E Ehigher energy Elower energy Remember: The value of En that is more negative corresponds to a level of lower energy. Example: n 7 0 n 1 E 0.0445 1018 J (2.18 1018 J) 2.14 1018 J E h E/h Example: E 2.14 1018 J 2.14 1018 J/6.626 1034 Js 3.23 1015 s1 Lyman series transition 701 601 501 401 301 201 Balmer series transition
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Pfund series transition 705 605 transition 706 E (1018 J) 0.0427 0.0266 E (1018 J) 0.0161 (1015 s1) 0.0644 0.0401 (1015 s1) 0.0243

Section 5.2 Assessment


page 134

13. According to the Bohr atomic model, why do


E (1018 J) 2.14 2.12 2.09 2.04 1.94 1.64 (1015 s1) 3.23 3.20 3.15 3.08 2.93 2.48

atomic emission spectra contain only certain frequencies of light?


Because only certain atomic energies are possible, only certain frequencies of radiation can be emitted from an atom.

14. Why is the wavelength of a moving soccer ball

not detectable to the naked eye?


It is too small to see or detect.

15. What sublevels are contained in the hydrogen


E (1018 J) 0.501 0.484 0.458 0.409 0.303 (1015 s1) 0.756 0.730 0.691 0.617 0.457

702 602 502 402 302 Paschen series transition 703 603 503 403 Brackett series transition 704 604 504

atoms first four energy levels? What orbitals are related to each s sublevel and each p sublevel?
First energy level, s; second energy level, s and p; third energy level, s, p, and d; fourth energy level, s, p, d, and f. Each s sublevel is related to a spherical s orbital. Each p sublevel is related to three dumbbell-shaped orbitals (px, py, and pz).

16. Thinking Critically Use de Broglies waveE (1018 J) 0.198 0.181 0.155 0.106 (1015 s1) 0.299 0.273 0.234 0.160

particle duality and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to explain why the location of an electron in an atom is uncertain.
An electron has wave-particle characteristics and does not have a single, definite location in space. The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time.

E (1018 J) 0.0915 0.0754 0.0488

(1015 s1) 0.138 0.114 0.0736

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17. Comparing and Contrasting Compare and

20. How many electrons occupy p orbitals in a chlo-

contrast the Bohr model and quantum mechanical model of the atom.
Bohr model: the electron is a particle; the hydrogen atom has only certain allowable energy states. Quantum mechanical model: the electron is a wave-particle phenomenon; an electrons energy is limited to certain values. Also, the quantum mechanical model makes no assertions regarding the electrons path around the nucleus.

rine atom?
Chlorine (17 electrons) has the electron configuration [Ne]3s23p5, or 1s22s22p63s23p5. Therefore, 11 electrons occupy p orbitals in a chlorine atom.

21. What element has the following ground-state

electron configuration? [Kr]5s24d105p1


indium (In)

22. What element has the following ground-state

Section 5.3 Electron Configuration


pages 135141

electron configuration? [Xe]6s2


barium (Ba)

23. Draw electron-dot structures for atoms of the

Practice Problems
pages 139, 141

following elements. a. magnesium

18. Write ground-state electron configurations for

the following elements.


a. bromine (Br)
bromine (35 electrons): [Ar]4s23d104p5

Mg
b. sulfur

b. strontium (Sr)
strontium (38 electrons): [Kr]5s2

S Br
d. rubidium
Rb
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. bromine

c. antimony (Sb)
antimony (51 electrons): [Kr]5s24d105p3

d. rhenium (Re)
rhenium (75 electrons): [Xe]6s24f145d5

e. terbium (Tb)
terbium (65 electrons): [Xe]6s24f9

e. thallium

Tl
f. xenon

f. titanium (Ti)
titanium (22 electrons): [Ar]4s23d2

19. How many electrons are in orbitals related to

Xe Section 5.3 Assessment


page 141

the third energy level of a sulfur atom?


Sulfur (16 electrons) has the electron configuration [Ne]3s23p4. Therefore, 6 electrons are in orbitals related to the third energy level of the sulfur atom.

24. State the aufbau principle in your own words.


Electrons tend to occupy the lowest-energy orbital available.

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25. Apply the Pauli exclusion principle, the aufbau

27. Thinking Critically Use Hunds rule and

principle, and Hunds rule to write out the electron configuration and draw the orbital diagram for each of the following elements. a. silicon
Si 1s22s22p63s23p2 )( 1s )( 2s )()()( 2p )( 3s )) 3p

orbital diagrams to describe the sequence in which ten electrons occupy the five orbitals related to an atoms d sublevel.
1 electron 2 electrons 3 electrons 4 electrons 5 electrons 6 electrons ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )() ) ) ) )()() ) ) )()()() ) )()()()()

b. fluorine
F 1s22s22p5 )( 1s )( 2s )()() 2p

7 electrons 8 electrons 9 electrons

c. calcium
Ca 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 )( )( 1s 2s )()()( )( )()()( 2p 3s 3p )( 4s

10 electrons )()()()()( Single electrons with the same spin occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins occupy the same orbital.

d. krypton
Kr 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p6 )( )(
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

28. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations Which

)()()( )( )()()( 2p 3s 3p

)( 4s

1s

2s

of the following is the correct electron-dot structure for an atom of selenium? Explain. a. Se

)()()()()( 3d

)()()( 4p

26. What is a valence electron? Draw the electron-

dot structures for the elements in problem 25.


A valence electron is an electron in an atoms outermost orbitals.

b. Se c. Se d. S

c is correct; a shows three two-electron orbitals; b shows one three-electron orbital; d has the wrong symbol

a. Si b. F

d. Kr

c. Ca

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Chapter 5 Assessment pages 146148


Concept Mapping 29. Complete the concept map using the following terms: speed, c , electromagnetic waves, wavelength, characteristic properties, frequency, c, and hertz.
1.

31. Why did scientists consider Rutherfords

nuclear model of the atom incomplete? (5.1)


Typical answers will say that the model did not explain the following: how the atoms negatively charged electrons occupy the space around the nucleus; why the electrons are not drawn into the atoms positively charged nucleus; a rationale for the chemical properties of the elements.

32. Name one type of electromagnetic radiation.

(5.1)
2. 3. 4. 5. light, microwaves, X rays, radio waves

33. Explain how the gaseous neon atoms in a neon

sign emit light. (5.1)


measured in 6. are related by 7. of all waves 8. Electricity passing through the tube excites neon atoms to higher energy levels. As the excited atoms drop back to lower energy levels, they emit light.

34. What is a photon? (5.1)


1. electromagnetic waves; 2. characteristic properties; 3. frequency; 4. wavelength; 5. speed; 6. hertz; 7. c ; 8. c a particle of electromagnetic radiation having a rest mass of zero and carrying a quantum of energy

a phenomenon in which a metal emits electrons when light of a sufficient frequency shines on it

Frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point per second.

36. Explain Plancks quantum concept as it relates

to energy lost or gained by matter. (5.1)


According to Planck, for a given frequency, , matter can emit or absorb energy only in discrete quanta that are whole-number multiples of h.

b. wavelength (5.1)
Wavelength is the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave.

c. quantum (5.1)
A quantum is the minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom.

37. How did Einstein explain the previously unex-

plainable photoelectric effect? (5.1)


He proposed that photons must have a certain minimum, or threshold, value to cause the ejection of a photoelectron.

d. ground state (5.2)


An atoms ground state is its lowest allowable energy state.

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Mastering Concepts 30. Define the following terms. a. frequency (5.1)

35. What is the photoelectric effect? (5.1)

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38. Arrange the following types of electromagnetic

46. What does n represent in the quantum

radiation in order of increasing wavelength. (5.1) a. ultraviolet light b. microwaves c. radio waves d. X rays
d. X rays, a. ultraviolet light, b. microwaves, c. radio waves

mechanical model of the atom? (5.2)


n represents an orbitals principal quantum number, which indicates the relative size and energy of the orbital.

47. How many energy sublevels are contained in

each of the hydrogen atoms first three energy levels? (5.2)


energy level 1 has one sublevel, energy level 2 has two sublevels, energy level 3 has three sublevels

39. What is the difference between an atoms

ground state and an excited state? (5.2)


An atoms ground state is its lowest energy state, while any energy state higher than the ground state is an excited state.

48. What atomic orbitals are related to a p sublevel?

To a d sublevel? (5.2)
p sublevel: x, y, and z orbitals; d sublevel: xy, xz, yz, x2y2, and z2 orbitals

40. According to the Bohr model, how do electrons

move in atoms? (5.2)


Electrons move in circular orbits around the nucleus.

49. Which of the following atomic orbital designa-

41. What does n designate in Bohrs atomic model?

(5.2)
The quantum number n specifies the electrons orbit.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

tions are incorrect? (5.2) a. 7f b. 3f c. 2d d. 6p


b, c are incorrect

42. Why are you unaware of the wavelengths of

50. What do the sublevel designations s, p, d, and f

moving objects such as automobiles and tennis balls? (5.2)


Their wavelengths are too small to be seen.

specify with respect to the atoms orbitals? (5.2)


their shapes

51. What do subscripts such as y and xz tell you

43. What is the name of the atomic model in which

about atomic orbitals? (5.2)


their orientations

electrons are treated as waves? Who first wrote the electron wave equations that led to this model? (5.2)
the quantum mechanical model of the atom; Erwin Schrdinger

52. What is the maximum number of electrons an

orbital may contain? (5.2)


two electrons

44. What is an atomic orbital? (5.2)


a three-dimensional region around the nucleus describing an electrons probable location

53. Why is it impossible to know precisely the

velocity and position of an electron at the same time? (5.2)


The photon required to measure an electrons velocity or position changes both the position and velocity of the electron.

45. What is the probability that an electron will be

found within an atomic orbital? (5.2)


The probability is 90%.

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54. What shortcomings caused scientists to finally

62. Light is said to have a dual wave-particle nature.

reject Bohrs model of the atom? (5.2)


Bohrs model did not explain the spectra of atoms having more than one electron and did not fully explain the chemical behavior of atoms.

What does this statement mean? (5.3)


Light exhibits wavelike behavior in some situations and particlelike behavior in others.

63. Describe the difference between a quantum and 55. Describe de Broglies revolutionary concept

a photon. (5.3)
A quantum is the minimum amount of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom, while a photon is a particle of light that carries a quantum of energy.

involving the characteristics of moving particles. (5.2)


de Broglie proposed that all moving particles have wave characteristics.

56. How is an orbitals principal quantum number

64. How many electrons are shown in the electron-

related to the atoms major energy levels? (5.2)


Because the orbitals principal quantum number indicates the orbitals relative size and energy, it also specifies the atoms major energy level.

dot structures of the following elements? (5.3) a. carbon


4

57. Explain the meaning of the aufbau principle as

b. iodine
7

it applies to atoms with many electrons. (5.3)


The aufbau principle describes the sequence in which an atoms orbitals are filled with electrons.

c. calcium
2

58. In what sequence do electrons fill the atomic

orbitals related to a sublevel? (5.3)


Each orbital must contain a single electron before any orbital contains two electrons.

d. gallium
3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mastering Problems
59. Why must the two arrows within a single block

of an orbital diagram be written in opposite (up and down) directions? (5.3)


Two electrons occupying a single atomic orbital must have opposite spins.

Wavelength, Frequency, Speed, and Energy (5.1) Level 1 65. What is the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation having a frequency of 5.00 1012 Hz? What kind of electromagnetic radiation is this?
3.00 108 m/s c/ 6.00 105 m 5.00 1012 s1 infrared radiation

60. How does noble-gas notation shorten the

process of writing an elements electron configuration? (5.3)


The noble-gas notation uses the bracketed symbol of the preceding noble gas in the periodic table to represent an atoms inner electrons.

66. What is the frequency of electromagnetic radia-

tion having a wavelength of 3.33 108 m? What type of electromagnetic radiation is this?
3.00 108 m/s c/ 9.01 1015 s1 3.33 108 m UV radiation

61. What are valence electrons? How many of a

magnesium atoms 12 electrons are valence electrons? (5.3)


Valence electrons are the electrons in an atoms outermost orbitals; 2

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67. The laser in a compact disc (CD) player uses

72. What is the energy of an ultraviolet photon

light with a wavelength of 780 nm. What is the frequency of this light?
1m 780 nm 7.8 107 m 109 nm m/s 3.00 c/ 3.8 1014 s1 7.8 107 m 108

having a wavelength of 1.18 108 m?

3.00 108 m/s c/ 2.54 1016 s1 1.18 108 m Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(2.54 1016 s1) 1.68 1017 J

68. What is the speed of an electromagnetic wave

73. A photon has an energy of 2.93 1025 J.

having a frequency of 1.33 1017 Hz and a wavelength of 2.25 nm?


v 3.00 108 m/s

What is its frequency? What type of electromagnetic radiation is the photon?


( 2.93 1025 J)/(6.626 1034 Js) 4.42 108 s1 TV or FM waves Ephoton/h

69. Use Figure 5-5 to determine each of the

following types of radiation. a. radiation with a frequency of 8.6 1011 s1


infrared

74. A photon has an energy of 1.10 1013 J.

What is the photons wavelength? What type of electromagnetic radiation is it?


Ephoton/h ( 1.10 1013 J)/(6.626 1034 Js) 1.66 1020 s1 c/ ( 3.00 108 m/s)/(1.66 1020 s1) 1.81 1012 m an X ray or gamma radiation

b. radiation with a wavelength 4.2 nm


X ray

c. radiation with a frequency of 5.6 MHz


AM radio

d. radiation that travels at a speed of


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.00 108 m/s


any electromagnetic wave

75. How long does it take a radio signal from the

Voyager spacecraft to reach Earth if the distance between Voyager and Earth is 2.72 109 km?
distance d velocity time t 1000 m d 2.72 109 km 2.72 1012 m 1 km t d/v ( 2.72 1012 m)/(3.00 108 m/s) 9070 s or 151 min

70. What is the energy of a photon of red light

having a frequency of 4.48 1014 Hz?


Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(4.48 1014 s1) 2.97 1019 J

71. Mercurys atomic emission spectrum is shown

below. Estimate the wavelength of the orange line. What is its frequency? What is the energy of an orange photon emitted by the mercury atom?
615 nm 6.15 107 m c/ ( 3.00 108 m/s)/(6.15 107 m) 4.88 1014 s1 Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(4.88 1014 s1) 3.23 1019 J

76. If your favorite FM radio station broadcasts at a

frequency of 104.5 MHz, what is the wavelength of the stations signal in meters? What is the energy of a photon of the stations electromagnetic signal?
106 Hz 104.5 MHz 1.045 108 Hz MHz 3.00 108 m/s c/ 2.87 m 1.045 108 s1 Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(1.045 108 s1) 6.92 1026 J

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Electron Configurations (5.3) Level 1 77. List the aufbau sequence of orbitals from 1s to 7p.
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p

e. Zr
Zr [Kr]5s24d2

f. W
W [Xe]6s24f 145d 4

78. Write orbital notations and complete electron

g. Pb
Pb [Xe]6s24f 145d106p2

configurations for atoms of the following elements. a. beryllium


Be 1s22s2 )( )( 1s 2s

h. Ra
Ra [Rn]7s2

i. Sm
Sm [Xe]6s24f 6

b. aluminum
Al 1s22s22p63s23p1 )( )( )()()( )( ) 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p

j. Bk
Bk [Rn]7s25f 9

c. nitrogen
N 1s22s22p3 )( )( ) ) ) 1s 2s 2p

Level 2 80. What elements are represented by each of the following electron configurations? a. 1s22s22p5
F

b. [Ar]4s2
Ca
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d. sodium
Na 1s22s22p63s1 )( )( )()()( ) 1s 2s 2p 3s

c. [Xe]6s24f4
Nd

d. [Kr]5s24d105p4
Te

79. Use noble-gas notation to describe the electron

configurations of the elements represented by the following symbols. a. Mn


Mn [Ar]4s23d5

e. [Rn]7s25f13
Md

f. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p5
Br

b. Kr
Kr [Ar]4s23d104p6

81. Draw electron-dot structures for atoms of each

c. P
P [Ne]3s23p3

of the following elements. a. carbon

d. Zn
Zn [Ar]4s23d10

b. arsenic
As

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c. polonium

Po K

d. 7
n7 number of electrons 2n2 2(7)2 98 electons

d. potassium

85. What is the wavelength with a frequency of

e. barium

5.77 1014 Hz?


c/ ( 3.00 108 m/s)/(5.77 1014 s1) 5.20 107 m

Ba
82. An atom of arsenic has how many electron-

containing orbitals? How many of the orbitals are completely filled? How many of the orbitals are associated with the atoms n 4 principal energy?
An atom of arsenic (1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p3) has 18 electron-containing orbitals, 15 filled orbitals, and 4 orbitals associated with n 4.

86. Using the waves shown below, identify the wave

or waves with the following characteristics.


1. 2. 3. 4.

a. longest wavelength
longest wavelength: 4

Mixed Review
b. greatest frequency

Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 83. What is the frequency of electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength of 1.00 m?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

greatest frequency: 3

c. largest amplitude
largest amplitude: 1 and 3

c/ ( 3.00 108 m/s)/(1.00 m) 3.00 108 s1

d. shortest wavelength
shortest wavelength: 3

84. What is the maximum number of electrons that

can be contained in an atoms orbitals having the following principal quantum numbers? a. 3
n3 number of electrons 2n2 2(3)2 18 electrons

87. How many orientations are possible for the

orbitals related to each of the following sublevels? a. s


1

b. 4
n4 number of electrons 2n2 2(4)2 32 electrons

b. p
3

c. d
5

c. 6
n6 number of electrons 2n2 2(6)2 72 electrons

d. f
7

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88. Describe the electrons in an atom of nickel in

95. How many photons of infrared radiation having

the ground state using the electron configuration notation and the noble-gas notation.
Nickel has 28 electrons. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d8 [Ar]4s23d8

a frequency of 4.88 1013 Hz are required to provide an energy of 1.00 J?


Ephoton h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(4.88 1013 s1) 3.23 1020 J per photon nphoton E/Ephoton ( 1.00 J)/(3.23 1020 J per photon) 3.10 1019 photons

89. Which of the following elements have two elec-

trons in their electron-dot structures: hydrogen, helium, lithium, aluminum, calcium, cobalt, bromine, krypton, and barium?
helium, calcium, cobalt, barium

90. In Bohrs atomic model, what electron orbit

transition produces the blue-green line in hydrogens atomic emission spectrum?


Use Figure 5-10 to answer this question. n40n2

Thinking Critically 96. Comparing and Contrasting Briefly discuss the difference between an orbit in Bohrs model of the atom and an orbital in the quantum mechanical view of the atom.
In the Bohr model, an orbit is a circular path taken by an electron as it moves around the atomic nucleus. In the quantum mechanical model, an orbital is a three-dimensional region around the nucleus that describes the electrons probable location.

91. A zinc atom contains a total of 18 electrons

in its 3s, 3p, and 3d orbitals. Why does its electron-dot structure show only two dots?
The two dots are the atoms two 4s valence electrons

97. Applying Concepts Scientists use atomic

Ephoton h = Ephoton/h ( 3.01 1018 J)/(6.626 1034 Js) 4.54 1015 s1 c c/ ( 3.00 108 m/s)/(4.54 1015 s1) 6.60 108 m

Each element emits a characteristic, unique atomic emission spectrum.

98. Using Numbers It takes 8.17 1019 J of

energy to remove one electron from a gold surface. What is the maximum wavelength of light capable of causing this effect?
( 8.17 1019 J)/(6.626 1034 Js) 1.23 1015 s1 c/ ( 3.00 108 m/s)/(1.23 1015 s1) 2.43 107 m Ephoton/h

93. Which element has the following orbital

diagram?
) ( ) ( )

1s 2s
boron

2p

94. Which element has the ground-state electron

configuration represented by the noble-gas notation [Rn]7s1?


francium

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92. An X-ray photon has an energy of

3.01 1018 J. What is its frequency and wavelength?

emission spectra to determine the elements in materials of unknown composition. Explain what makes this method possible.

CHAPTER

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99. Drawing a Conclusion The elements

c. iron rusts when exposed to moist air


chemical property

aluminum, silicon, gallium, germanium, arsenic, selenium are all used in making various types of semiconductor devices. Write electron configurations and electron-dot structures for atoms of each of these elements. What similarities among the elements electron configurations do you notice?
Al [Ne]3s23p1 Si [Ne]3s23p2 Ga [Ar]4s23d104p1 Ge [Ar]4s23d104p2

d. paper burns when ignited


chemical property

103. Identify each of the following as a pure

As [Ar]4s23d104p3 Se [Ar]4s23d104p4

The atoms have filled s orbitals and p orbitals containing 1 to 4 electrons.

Al Si Ga Ge As Se

substance or a mixture. (Chapter 3) a. distilled water


pure substance

b. orange juice with pulp


mixture

c. smog
mixture

d. diamond
pure substance

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Writing in Chemistry 100. In order to make neon signs emit a variety of colors, manufacturers often fill the signs with gases other than neon. Research the use of gases in neon signs and specify the colors produced by the gases.
Student answers may include the following elements and colors: helium (yellow); neon (orange-red); sodium (yellow); argon (lavender); krypton (white); xenon (blue).

e. milk
mixture

f. copper metal
pure substance

104. An atom of gadolinium has an atomic number

of 64 and a mass number of 153. How many electrons, protons, and neutrons does it contain? (Chapter 4)
number of electrons number of protons atomic number 64 number of neutrons atomic number number of protons 153 64 89 neutrons

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 101. Round 20.561 20 g to three significant figures. (Chapter 2)
20.6 g

102. Identify each of the following as either chem-

ical or physical properties of the substance. (Chapter 3) a. mercury is a liquid at room temperature
physical property

b. sucrose is a white, crystalline solid


physical property

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Standardized Test Practice Chapter 5


page 149

Interpreting Charts Use the periodic table and the chart below to answer questions 36.
Electron Configurations for Selected Transition Metals
Element Vanadium Yttrium _________ Scandium Cadmium Symbol V Y ___ Sc Cd Atomic number 23 39 ___ 21 48 Electron configuration [Ar]4s23d3 [Kr]5s24d1 [Xe]6s24f145d6 [Ar]4s23d1 ____________

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation from outer space. What is the frequency of a cosmic ray that has a wavelength of 2.67 1013 m when it reaches Earth? (The speed of light is 3.00 108 m/s.) a. 8.90 1022 s1 b. 3.75 1012 s1 c. 8.01 105 s1 d. 1.12 1021 s1
d c c/ ( 3.00 108 m/s)/(2.67 1013 m) 1.12 1021 s1

3. Using noble-gas notation, the ground-state

electron configuration of Cd is ________ . a. [Kr]4d104f2 b. [Ar]4s23d10 c. [Kr]5s24d10 d. [Xe]5s24d10


c

2. Wavelengths of light shorter than about

5. The complete electron configuration of a scan-

a Ephoton h Ephoton ( 6.626 1034 Js)(5.45 1016 s1) 3.61 1017 J

dium atom is ________ . a. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d1 b. 1s22s22p73s23p74s23d1 c. 1s22s22p53s23p54s23d1 d. 1s22s12p73s13p74s23d1


a

6. Which of the following is the correct orbital

diagram for the third and fourth principal energy levels of vanadium?
a.
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3s
b.

3p

4s
) ) )

3d

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3s

3p

4s

3d

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Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

4.00 107 m are not visible to the human eye. What is the energy of a photon of ultraviolet light having a frequency of 5.45 1016 s1? (Plancks constant is 6.626 1034 J s.) a. 3.61 1017 J b. 1.22 1050 J c. 8.23 1049 J d. 3.81 1024 J

4. The element that has the ground-state electron

configuration [Xe]6s24f145d6 is ________ . a. La b. Ti c. W d. Os

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

c.

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

10. What is the maximum number of electrons

3s
d.

3p

4s
) ) (

3d

related to the fifth principal energy level of an atom?


a. b. c. d.

) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (

3s
b

3p

4s

3d

10 20 25 50

7. Which of the following orbitals has the highest

energy? a. 4f b. 5p c. 6s d. 3d
a

d number of electrons in a principal energy level 2n2 2n2 2(52) 50 electrons

8. What is the electron-dot structure for indium? a. In b. In c. In

d. In
c
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. The picture below shows all of the orbitals

related to one type of sublevel. The type of sublevel to which these orbitals belong is ________ .
z x y z x y z x y

a. b. c. d.
b

s p d f

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The Periodic Table and Periodic Law


Section 6.1 Development of the Modern Periodic Table
Problem-Solving Lab
page 155 300

Atomic Radius vs. Atomic Number

Atomic radius (pm)

pages 151158

250 200 150 100 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100

1. Using the periodic law as a guide, devise an

approach that clearly displays the trends for each of the properties given in the table and allows you to extrapolate a value for francium.
250 200 150 100 50 0

Melting Point vs. Atomic Number Atomic number


A graph of each property versus atomic number is the best approach. By extending the data curve through to franciums atomic number of 87, its radius, melting point, and boiling point can be determined. R 280290 pm, MP 25C, and BP 675C

Melting point (C)

Section 6.1 Assessment


page 158 0 20 40 60 80 100 120

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Atomic number
1500 1300 1100 900 700 0

1. Describe the development of the modern peri-

Boiling Point vs. Atomic Number

odic table. Include contributions made by Newlands, Mendeleev, and Moseley.


Newlands was the first to organize the elements and show that properties repeated in a periodic way. Mendeleev and Meyer proposed periodic tables showing a relationship between atomic mass and elemental properties. Moseley organized the elements by atomic number instead of atomic mass.

Boiling point (C)

20

40

60

80

100

Atomic number

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2. Sketch a simplified version of the periodic table

c. iron (Fe)
any other group 8B element

and indicate the location of groups, periods, metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1A 2A

Metals Metalloids Nonmetals


8B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B

6. Interpreting Data An unknown element has


8A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 1B 2B

chemical behavior similar to that of silicon (Si) and lead (Pb). The unknown element has a mass greater than that of sulfur (S), but less than that of cadmium (Cd). Use the periodic table to determine the identity of the unknown element.
germanium (Ge)

Simplified tables should resemble Figure 6-7 with the groups and periods labeled.

Section 6.2 Classification of the Elements


pages 159162

3. Describe the general characteristics of metals,

Practice Problems
page 162

nonmetals, and metalloids.


metals: shiny, ductile, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity; nonmetals: dull, brittle, poor conductors of heat and electricity; metalloids: properties midway between metals and nonmetals

7. Without using the periodic table, determine the

4. Identify each of the following as a representa-

group, period, and block of an atom with the following electron configuration. a. [Ne]3s2 b. [He]2s2 c. [Kr]5s24d105p5
Electron configuration a. [Ne]3s2 b. [He]2s2 [Kr]5s24d105p5 Group 2A 2A 7A Period 3 2 5 Block s-block s-block p-block
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

tive element or a transition element. a. lithium (Li)


representative

b. platinum (Pt)
transition

c.

8. Write the electron configuration of the element c. promethium (Pm)


transition

fitting each of the following descriptions. a. the group 2A element in the fourth period
1s22s22p63s23p64s2

d. carbon (C)
representative

b. the noble gas in the fifth period


1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p6

5. Thinking Critically For each of the given

elements, list two other elements with similar chemical properties. a. iodine (I)
any other group 7A element

c. the group 2B element in the fourth period


1s22s22p63s23p64s23d10

d. the group 6A element in the second period


1s22s22p4

b. barium (Ba)
any other group 2A element

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9. What are the symbols for the elements with the

13. Without using the periodic table, determine the

following valence electron configurations? a. s2d1


Sc, Y, La, Ac

group, period, and block of an atom with an electron configuration of [Ne]3s23p4.


group 6A, period 3; p-block

b. s2p3
N, P, As, Sb, Bi

14. Thinking Critically A gaseous element is a

c. s2p6
Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn

poor conductor of heat and electricity, and is extremely nonreactive. Is the element likely to be a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid? Where would the element be located on the periodic table? Explain.
It is most likely a nonmetal noble gas located on the extreme right side of the periodic table. Other gases are reactive.

Section 6.2 Assessment


page 162

10. Explain why elements in the same group on the

periodic table have similar chemical properties.


Chemical behavior is determined by the number of valence electrons. Elements in the same group have the same valence electron configurations.

15. Formulating Models Make a simplified sketch

of the periodic table and label the s-, p-, d-, and f-blocks.

11. Given each of the following valence electron

configurations, determine which block of the periodic table the element is in. a. s2p4
p-block
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

s-block

d-block

p-block

b. s1
s-block

f-block Sketches should look similar to Figure 6-10.

c. s2d1
d-block

d. s2p1
p-block

12. Describe how each of the following are related. a. Group number and number of valence

electrons for representative elements


They are equal.

b. Principal energy level of valence electrons

and period number


They are equal.

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Section 6.3 Periodic Trends


pages 163169

Practice Problems
page 169

Minilab
page 164

1. Graph molar heats of fusion versus atomic

number. Connect the points with straight lines and label the curve. Do the same for molar heats of vaporization.
110 100 90 80 70

Answer the following questions using your knowledge of group and period trends in atomic radii. Do not use the atomic radii values in Figure 6-11 to answer the questions. 16. Which has the largest radius: magnesium (Mg), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), or sodium (Na)? The smallest?
Largest: Na Smallest: S

Hf vs. Atomic Number

17. Which has the largest radius: helium (He),

xenon (Xe), or argon (Ar)? The smallest?


Largest: Xe Smallest: He

Hf (kJ/mol)

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18

18. Can you determine which of two unknown

elements has the larger radius if the only known information is that the atomic number of one of the elements is 20 greater than the other?
No. If all you know is that the atomic number of one element is 20 greater than that of the other, then you will be unable to determine the specific groups and periods that the elements are in. Without this information, you cannot apply the periodic trends in atomic size to determine which element has the larger radius.

Atomic number
700 600 500

Hv vs. Atomic Number

Section 6.3 Assessment


page 169

19. Sketch a simplified periodic table and use

Hv (kJ/mol)

400 300 200 100 0 0

arrows and labels to compare period and group trends in atomic and ionic radii, ionization energies, and electronegativities.
Increasing atomic and ionic radii Decreasing ionization energy Increasing ionization energy Decreasing electronegativity

Decreasing positive ion radii Decreasing atomic radii

Increasing negative ion radii

Increasing electronegativity

Atomic number

10 12 14 16 18

Graphs should reflect data shown in data table.

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20. Explain how the period and group trends

24.

in atomic radii are related to electron configuration.


Atomic radii increase down a group as electrons are added to higher energy levels and inner core electrons shield the valence electrons from the increased nuclear charge. Atomic radii decrease across a period as increased nuclear charge coupled with unchanging shielding by inner core electrons pulls the valence electrons (being added to the same energy level) closer to the nucleus.

Making and Using Graphs Graph the atomic radii of the group A elements in periods 2, 3, and 4 versus their atomic number. Connect the points of elements in each period, so that there are three separate curves on the graph. Summarize the trends in atomic radii shown on your graph. Explain.
300

Atomic Radius vs. Atomic Number

21. Which has the largest atomic radius: nitrogen Atomic radius (pm)

250 K 200 Li 150

(N), antimony (Sb), or arsenic (As)? The smallest?


antimony (Sb); nitrogen (N)

Na

22. For each of the following properties, indicate

whether fluorine or bromine has a larger value. a. electronegativity


fluorine

100 Ar 50 Ne

Kr

b. ionic radius
bromine
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. atomic radius
bromine 0 0 10 20 30 40

d. ionization energy
fluorine

Atomic number
In general, atomic radii decrease across a period because valence electrons are not effectively shielded from increased nuclear charge. Atomic radii increase down a group because inner electrons shield volume electrons from increased nuclear charge.

23. Thinking Critically Explain why it takes more

energy to remove the second electron from a lithium atom than is does to remove the fourth electron from a carbon atom.
Lithiums second removed electron is an inner core electron, not a valence electron. Carbons fourth removed electron is still a valence electron.

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Chapter 6 Assessment pages 174176


Concept Mapping
1.

29. How was Mendeleevs periodic table organized?

(6.1)
The elements were arranged by increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties.

30. What is the periodic law? (6.1)


2. 3. When the elements are arranged by increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their chemical and physical properties.

31. Identify each of the following as a metal,


4. 5. 6. 7.

nonmetal, or metalloid. (6.1) a. oxygen


nonmetal

25. Complete the concept map using the following

terms: electronegativity, electron configuration, periodic trends, ionic radius, atomic radius, ionization energy, and periodic table.
1. periodic table; 2. electron configuration; 3. periodic trends; 4.7. electronegativity, ionic radius, atomic radius, ionization energy

b. barium
metal

c. germanium
metalloid

d. iron

Mastering Concepts
26. Explain how Mendeleevs periodic table was in

metal

e. neon
nonmetal
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

error. How was this error fixed? (6.1)


Mendeleev used atomic mass instead of atomic number to order the elements. This resulted in some elements being out of order. Moseley used atomic number.

f. praseodymium
metal

32. Describe the general characteristics of metals.

(6.1)
27. Explain the contribution of Newlandss law of

octaves to the development of the modern periodic table. (6.1)


Newlands introduced the idea of periodically repeating properties.

Metals are generally dense, solid, shiny, ductile, malleable, and good conductors of heat and electricity.

33. Match each numbered item on the right with the

28. German chemist Lothar Meyer and Russian

lettered item that it is related to on the left. (6.1) a. alkali metals 1. group 8A
b. halogens c. alkaline earth metals d. noble gases
a. 2; b. 4; c. 3; d. 1

chemist Dmitri Mendeleev both proposed similar periodic tables in 1869. Why is Mendeleev generally given credit for the periodic table? (6.1)
Mendeleevs work was published first, he did more to show periodic trends, and he predicted properties of several yet-to-be-discovered elements.

2. group 1A 3. group 2A 4. group 7A

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34. Identify each of the elements in problem 31 as a

40. Give the chemical symbol of each of the

representative element or a transition element. (6.1)


a. rep.; b. rep.; c. rep.; d. trans.; e. rep.; f. trans.

following elements. (6.1) a. the two elements that are liquids at room temperature
Br, Hg

35. Sketch a simplified periodic table and use labels

to identify the alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, inner transition metals, noble gases, and halogens. (6.1)
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals

b. the noble gas with the greatest atomic mass


Rn

c. any metal from group 4A


Sn or Pb Halogens Noble gases

d. any inner transition metal


elements 5871 or 90103

Transition Metals

41. Why do the elements chlorine and iodine have

similar chemical properties? (6.2)


Inner transition metals They have the same valence electron configuration (s2p5).

36. A shiny solid element also is ductile. What side

of the periodic table is it likely to be found? (6.1)


properties describe a metal; left of the stair step line
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

42. How are the numbers of valence electrons of the

group A elements related to the group number? (6.2)


The number of valence electrons equals the group number for group A elements.

37. What are the general properties of a metalloid?

List three metalloid elements. (6.1)


Metalloids have properties intermediate between metals and nonmetals. (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At) are metalloids.

43. How is the energy level of an atoms valence

electrons related to the period it is in on the periodic table? (6.2)


The energy level of an atoms valence electrons equals its period number.

38. What is the purpose of the heavy stair-step line

on the periodic table? (6.1)


The line separates metals from nonmetals. Most elements bordering the line are metalloids.

44. How many valence electrons do each of the

noble gases have? (6.2)


All noble gases have eight valence electrons, except for helium, which has two.

39. Describe the two types of numbering used to

identify groups on the periodic table. (6.1)


One system uses 1A 8A for representative elements, and 1B8B for transition elements. The other system numbers the columns 118 left to right.

45. What are the four blocks of the periodic table?

(6.2)
s-, p-, d-, and f-block

46. In general, what electron configuration has the

greatest stability? (6.2)


ns2np6, where n is the energy level

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47. Determine the group, period, and block in

52. Given any two elements within a group, is the

which each of the following elements is located on the periodic table. (6.2) a. [Kr]5s24d1
3B, period 5, d-block

element with the larger atomic number likely to have a larger or smaller atomic radius than the other element? (6.2)
larger

b. [Ar]4s23d104p3
5A, period 4, p-block

53. Which elements are characterized as having

their d orbitals fill with electrons as you move left-to-right across a period? (6.2)
transition metals

c. [He]2s22p6
8A, period 2, p-block

54. Explain why is it harder to remove an inner

d. [Ne]3s23p1
3A, period 3, p-block

shell electron than a valence electron from an atom. (6.3)


There are fewer shielding electrons between inner electrons and the nucleus. Thus, the inner electrons are more tightly bound to the nucleus by attractive electrostatic forces.

48. Categorize each of the elements in problem 47

as a representative element or a transition metal. (6.2)


a. trans. metal, b. rep., c. rep., d. rep.

55. An element forms a negative ion when ionized.

49. Explain how an atoms valence electron config-

uration determines its place on the periodic table. (6.2)


Elements in a given column have the same number of valence electrons. The energy level of an atoms valence electrons determines its period.

On what side of the periodic table is the element located? Explain. (6.3)
Elements on the right side of periodic table gain electrons to gain a stable octet.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

56. Of the elements magnesium, calcium, and

50. Write the electron configuration for the element

fitting each of the following descriptions. (6.2) a. the metal in group 5A


Bi: [Xe]6s24f145d106p3

barium, which forms the ion with the largest radius? The smallest? What periodic trend explains this? (6.3)
Ba2 is the largest; Mg2 is the smallest; ionic size increases down a group.

57. What is ionization energy? (6.3) b. the halogen in period 3


Cl: [Ne]3s23p5 Ionization energy is the energy needed to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its gaseous state.

c. the alkali metal in period 2


Li : [He]2s1

58. Explain why each successive ionization of an

d. the transition metal that is a liquid at room

electron requires a greater amount of energy. (6.3)


With each removed electron, there are fewer electrons to shield the remaining electrons from the electrostatic force of attraction of the nucleus. The increased nuclear attraction makes it more difficult to remove subsequent electrons.

temperature
Hg: [Xe]6s24f145d10

51. Explain why the radius of an atom cannot be

measured directly. (6.3)


because the boundaries of an atom are indistinct

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59. Which group has the highest ionization ener-

65. Use the illustration of spheres A and B to

gies? Explain why. (6.3)


The group 8A elements have the highest ionization energies because their electron configurations are the most stable.

answer each of the following questions. Explain your reasoning for each answer. (6.3) A

60. Define an ion. (6.3)


An ion is an atom or a bonded group of atoms with a positive or negative charge.

a. If A is an ion, and B is an atom of the same

61. How does the ionic radius of a nonmetal

element, is the ion a positive or negative ion?


The ion is negative. A negative ion is always larger than its atom.

compare with its atomic radius? Explain why the change in radius occurs. (6.3)
The ionic radius of a nonmetal is larger than its neutral atom. Nonmetals tend to gain electrons in the atoms current energy level; these additional electrons repel each other and increase the size of the ion.

b. If A and B represent the atomic radii of two

elements in the same period, what is their correct order (left-to-right)?


A is to the left of B. Atomic radius in a period decreases left-to-right.

62. Explain why atomic radii decrease as you move

left-to-right across a period. (6.3)


Atomic radii decrease left-to-right because the nuclear charge increases as the shielding of inner core electrons remains constant. The increased attraction of the nucleus for its electrons pulls the electrons inward, resulting in a decreased atomic size.

c. If A and B represent the ionic radii of two

elements in the same group, what is their correct order (top-to-bottom)?


A is below B. Ionic radius increases down a group.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

66. How many valence electrons do elements in

63. Which element in each pair has the larger

ionization energy? (6.3) a. Li, N


N

each of the following groups have? (6.3) a. group 8A


8

b. group 3A
3

b. Kr, Ne
Ne

c. group 1A
1

c. Cs, Li
Li

67. Na and Mg2 ions each have ten electrons

64. Explain the octet rule. (6.3)


The ns2np6 electron configuration, known as the octet configuration, contains eight electrons and generally has the lowest energy and is the most stable. Atoms gain, lose, or share electrons in order to obtain the stable octet configuration.

surrounding their nuclei. Which ion would you expect to have the larger radius? Why? (6.3)
Na has the larger radius. The greater nuclear charge of Mg2produces an increased inward pull on its ten electrons and results in a smaller radius.

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Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 68. Match each numbered item on the right with the lettered item that it is related to on the left. a. group A elements 1. periods
b. columns 2. representative

b. 4s23d2
Ti

c. 3s2
Mg

d. 4s24p3
As

elements
c. group B elements d. rows
a. 2; b. 3; c. 4; d. 1

73. Which of the following is not a reason why

3. groups 4. transition

elements

atomic radii increase as you move down a group? a. shielding of inner electrons
b. valence electrons in larger orbitals c. increased charge in the nucleus
c

69. Which element in each pair is more

electronegative? a. K, As
As

74. Explain why there are no p-block elements in

the first period of the periodic table.


The p orbital does not exist for energy level 1. The first energy level consists only of a single s orbital that holds a maximum of two electrons.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. N, Sb
N

c. Sr, Be
Be

75. Identify each of the following as an alkali metal,

70. Explain why the s-block of the periodic table is

two groups wide, the p-block is six groups wide, and the d-block is ten groups wide.
The s-block represents the filling of the s orbital, which holds a maximum of two electrons. The p-block represents the filling of the three p orbitals, which hold a maximum of six electrons. The d-block represents the filling of the five d orbitals, which hold a maximum of ten electrons.

alkaline earth metal, transition metal, or inner transition metal. a. cesium


alkali metal

b. zirconium
transition metal

c. gold
transition metal

71. Arrange the elements oxygen, sulfur, tellurium,

d. ytterbium
transition metal

and selenium in order of increasing atomic radii. Is your order an example of a group trend or a period trend?
The order is O, S, Se, and Te. This is an example of a group trend.

e. uranium
inner transition metal

f. francium 72. Identify the elements with the following valence

electron configurations. a. 5s1


Rb

alkali metal

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76. An element is a brittle solid that does not

79. Interpreting Data The melting points of the

conduct electricity well. Is the element a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid?


The element is most likely a nonmetal.

Thinking Critically 77. Interpreting Data Given the following data about an atoms ionization energies, predict its valence electron configuration. Explain your reasoning.
Ionization Data
Ionization First Second Third Ionization Energy (kJ/mol) 734

period 6 elements are plotted versus atomic number in the graph shown below. Determine the trends in melting point by analyzing the graph and the orbital configurations of the elements. Form a hypothesis that explains the trends. (Hint: In Chapter 5, you learned that half-filled sets of orbitals are more stable than other configurations of partially filled orbitals.)
Melting Points of the Period 6 Elements
4000 3000 2000 Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt

Melting point (K)

1850 16 432

Its a 2A element with a ns2 configuration. The two s electrons are easily removed, but the third electron must be removed from the (n1) p orbital, which is much more tightly held.

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 Cs

La Ba

Au

Tl

At Pb Bi Po

Hg Rn

78. Applying Concepts Sodium forms a 1 ion,


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

while fluorine forms a 1 ion. Write the electron configuration for each ion. Why dont these two elements form 2 and 2 ions, respectively?

100

55

57

73

75

77

79

81

83

85

87

Atomic number

Both ions have the configuration 1s22s22p6; a stable noble gas configuration.

For the d-block elements, the highest values occur for half-filled and near half-filled d orbitals. (Re with a configuration of 5d5 has the highest melting point.) Relating to Hunds rule, it seems that metallic bonding strengthens as the number of unpaired electrons increases, reaching a maximum when the orbital is half-filled. Note that Hg and Rn have no unpaired electrons and substantially lower melting points. For the p-block elements (8186), again the elements with unpaired p electrons tend to have higher melting points.

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Group 5A Density Data


Element nitrogen phosphorus arsenic antimony bismuth Atomic Number 7 15 33 51 83 Density (g/cm3) 1.25 103 1.82 5.73 6.70 9.78

studied the halogen triad composed of chlorine, bromine, and iodine and the alkali-metal triad made up of lithium, sodium, and potassium. Dobereiner proposed that nature contained triads of elements in which the middle element (when ordered by atomic weight) had properties that were an average of the other two members.

82. Electron affinity is another periodic property of

80.

Making and Using Graphs The densities of the group 5A elements are given in the table above. Plot density versus atomic number and state any trends you observe.
Density vs. Atomic Number
9 8

the elements. Research and write a report on what electron affinity is and describe its group and period trends.
Students will find that electron affinity (EA) is the energy change that accompanies one mole of electrons being added to one mole of gaseous atoms or ions. With many irregularities (and excluding the noble gases), first electron affinity (EA1) generally decreases from top to bottom within a group and increases from left to right within a period.

Density (g/cm3)

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 83. Define matter. Identify whether or not each of the following is a form of matter. (Chapter 1)
a. microwaves
no

Atomic number
The graph should show density increasing with increasing atomic number. Note that the density of nitrogen is so low because it is the only element that exists as a gas (the others are solids).

b. helium inside a balloon


yes

c. heat from the Sun


no

Writing in Chemistry 81. In the early 1800s, German chemist J. W. Dobereiner proposed that some elements could be classified into sets of three, called triads. Research and write a report on Dobereiners triads. What elements comprised the triads? How were the properties of elements within a triad similar?
Dobereiner noticed that the atomic weight of strontium fell midway between the atomic weights of calcium and barium, elements that possessed similar chemical properties. He also

d. velocity
no

e. a speck of dust
yes

f. the color blue


no Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

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84. Convert the following mass measurements as

2. Elements in the same group of the periodic table

indicated. (Chapter 2) a. 1.1 cm to meters


1m 1.1 cm 1.1 102 m 100 cm

have the same _____ a. number of valence electrons b. physical properties c. number of electrons d. electron configuration
a

b. 76.2 pm to millimeters
1m 103 mm 76.2 pm 12 1m 10 pm 7.62 108 mm

3. All of the following are true EXCEPT _____. a. b. c. d.


a

c. 11 Mg to kilograms
1 kg 106 g 11 Mg 1.1 104 kg 1 Mg 103 g

atomic radius of Na < atomic radius of Mg electronegativity of C > electronegativity of B ionic radius of Br > atomic radius of Br first ionization energy of K > first ionization energy of Rb

d. 7.23 micrograms to kilograms


1g 1 kg 7.23 g 7.23 109 kg 6 10 g 103 g

4. Which of the following is NOT true of an atom

85. How is the energy of a quantum of emitted radi-

ation related to the frequency of the radiation? (Chapter 5)


The energy of a quantum equals the frequency times Plancks constant.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

obeying the octet rule? a. obtains a full set of eight valence electrons b. acquires the valence configuration of a noble gas c. possesses eight electrons in total d. has a s2p6 valence configuration
c

86. What element has the ground-state electron

configuration of [Ar]4s23d6? (Chapter 5).


iron

5. What is the group, period, and block of an atom

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 6


page 177

with the electron configuration [Ar]4s23d104p4? a. group 4A, period 4, d-block b. group 6A, period 3, p-block c. group 4A, period 4, p-block d. group 6A, period 4, p-block
d

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Periodic law states that elements show a _____. a. repetition of their physical properties when arranged by increasing atomic radius b. repetition of their chemical properties when arranged by increasing atomic mass c. periodic repetition of their properties when arranged by increasing atomic number d. periodic repetition of their properties when arranged by increasing atomic mass
c

6. Moving down a group on the periodic table,

which two atomic properties follow the same trend? a. atomic radius and ionization energy b. ionic radius and atomic radius c. ionization energy and ionic radius d. ionic radius and electronegativity
b

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Interpreting Tables Use the periodic table and the table at the bottom of the page to answer questions 7 and 8.
7. It can be predicted that silicon will experience a

9. Niobium (Nb) is a(n) _____. a. b. c. d.


b

large jump in ionization energy after its _____. a. second ionization b. third ionization c. fourth ionization d. fifth ionization
c

nonmetal transition metal alkali metal halogen

10. It can be predicted that element 118 would have

8. Which of the following requires the most energy? a. b. c. d.


a

second ionization of Li fourth ionization of N first ionization of Ne third ionization of Be

properties similar to a(n) _____. a. alkali earth metal b. halogen c. metalloid d. noble gas
d

Successive Ionization Energies for the Period 2 Elements


Element Li Be B C N O F Ne Valence electrons 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1st 520 900 800 1090 1400 1310 1680 2080 2nd 7300 1760 2430 2350 2860 3390 3370 3950 14 850 3660 4620 4580 5300 6050 6120 25 020 6220 7480 7470 8410 9370 37 830 9440 10 980 11 020 12 180 53 270 13 330 15 160 15 240 71 330 17 870 20 000 92 040 23 070 115 380 Ionization energy (kJ/mol)* 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

* mol is an abbreviation for mole, a quantity of matter.

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The Elements
Section 7.1 Properties of s-Block Elements
pages 179185

8. Applying Concepts Hydrogen can gain one

electron to reach a stable electron configuration. Why isnt hydrogen placed in group 7A with the other elements that share this behavior?
Elements are placed in groups based on electron configuration. Hydrogen (1s1 configuration) is in group 1A.

Section 7.1 Assessment


page 185

1. Why are elements in groups 1A through 8A

called representative elements?


They display a wide range of physical and chemical properties.

Section 7.2 Properties of p-Block Elements


pages 186196

2. What determines the chemical behavior of an

element?
the number and location of its valence electrons

Section 7.2 Assessment


page 196

3. Why are alkali metals stored in oil?


They are very reactive; oil prevents them from reacting with oxygen in the air.

9. In general, how do p-block elements differ from

s-block elements?
There is a wider range of properties among p-block elements.

4. What do group 1A and group 2A elements have

in common? Give at least three examples.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

10. How do animals obtain the nitrogen they need

Valence electrons are in s orbitals; reactive metals; found combined in nature; lose electrons to form positive ions.

to build compounds such as proteins?


Bacteria in soil and plant roots convert N2 to nitrogen compounds, which are used by plants and by animals that consume them.

5. What types of ions make water hard? What is

the main problem with using hard water?


Calcium and magnesium ions; they interfere with the actions of soaps and detergents.

11. Explain why noble gases were among the last

naturally occurring elements to be discovered.


They are colorless and unreactive.

6. Name three factors that make magnesium a

12. What is an allotrope? Describe two allotropes of

good choice for alloys.


abundant; easily molded; alloys of Mg with Al and Zn are light but strong.

carbon.
form of an element that has different structures and properties in the same physical state; graphite is a layered, soft solid; diamond is a hard 3-dimensional solid

7. Thinking Critically Lithium behaves more like

magnesium than sodium. Use what you learned in Chapter 6 about trends in atomic sizes to explain this behavior.
From left to right across the periodic table, atomic size decreases. Therefore, magnesium atoms are smaller than sodium atoms. The size of a lithium atom is similar to that of a magnesium atom.

13. Compare the physical and chemical properties

of fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine.


At room temperature, F and Cl are gases, Br is a volatile liquid, and I is a solid that sublimes. From F to I, reactivity decreases.

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14. How do a mineral and an ore differ?


A mineral is an inorganic element or compound; an ore is a mixture from which a mineral can be mined.

20. Explain how some transition metals can form

ions with more than one charge.


They can lose 2s electrons and form ions with a 2 charge. When d electrons are lost, ions with a charge of 3 or higher can form.

15. Thinking Critically Although carbon and lead

are in the same group, one is a nonmetal and the other a metal. Explain how two elements with the same number of valence electrons can have such different properties.
Carbon has a small atomic radius and a high ionization energy. Lead has a larger atomic radius and a lower ionization energy. In a group, as atomic number increases, elements tend to be more metallic and form positive ions because larger atoms have more inner electrons and a lower ionization energy. Inner electrons shield valence electrons from the nuclear charge.

21. What factor determines the magnetic properties

of an element and the color of its compounds?


the presence or absence of unpaired valence electrons

22. What is metallurgy?


the science of extracting metals from ores

23. Compare and contrast the lanthanide series and

the actinide series.


Lanthanides are silvery metals with high melting points. Actinides are radioactive; all but three are synthetic.

16. Predicting A place has been left for element

113 on the periodic table. To what group does it belong? How many valence electrons will it have? What element will it most closely resemble?
Group 3A; 3; element 81, thallium

24. Thinking Critically Why is silver not used for

electrical wires if it is such a good conductor of electricity?


Silver is too soft. Wires made from silver are likely to bend.

25. Using a Database Vanadium, manganese, and

Section 7.3 Properties of d-Block and f-Block Elements


pages 197201

titanium are used to make different types of steel. Find one use for each type of steel alloy.
Vanadium steel is used for truck springs and axles; manganese steel for armor and bulldozer blades; titanium steel for jet engines.

Section 7.3 Assessment


page 201

17. How do the electron configurations of transition

and inner transition metals differ?


The final electron of a transition metal enters the d sublevel; the final electron of an inner transition metal enters the f sublevel.

18. Why do transition metals share properties with

other transition metals in their period?


They all have two s valence electrons.

19. How do transuranium elements differ from

other inner transition metals?


They are synthetic elements with atomic numbers above 92.

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Chapter 7 Assessment pages 206208


Concept Mapping 26. Complete the following concept map using the following terms: beryllium; magnesium; calcium, strontium, and barium; alkaline earth metals.
Representative elements that have two valence electrons 1. Reacts vigorously with water 2. Does not react with water 4.

31. What is heavy water? (7.1)


Heavy water contains deuterium, an isotope of hydrogen with one neutron.

32. What is the charge on alkali metal ions? On

alkaline earth metal ions? (7.1)


1 and 2, respectively

33. Identify the element that fits each description.

(7.1) a. element in baking soda that turns a flame yellow


sodium

b. metallic element found in limestone


calcium

Will react with hot water 3.

c. radioactive alkali metal


francium

34. List some ways group 2A elements differ from

1. alkaline earth metals; 2. calcium, strontium, barium; 3. magnesium; 4. beryllium

group 1A elements. (7.1)


Group 2A elements have an additional valence electron, are less reactive, harder, and form compounds that are less soluble in water.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mastering Concepts 27. Why are elements within a group similar in chemical and physical properties? (7.1)
Elements within a group have the same number of valence electrons.

35. Explain why cesium is a more reactive alkali

metal than sodium. (7.1)


Sodium, atomic number 11, has a smaller atomic radius and a larger ionization energy than cesium. Cesium, atomic number 55, has a larger atomic radius and more inner electrons to shield the valence electrons from the nucleus. With a larger shielding effect and a lower ionization energy, cesium loses electrons more easily than sodium.

28. Which groups have representative elements?

(7.1)
groups 1A through 8A

29. What is a diagonal relationship? (7.1)


the close relationships between elements in neighboring groups, such as similarities in properties between a period 2 element and a period 3 element in the next group

36. Use their electron configurations to explain why

calcium is less reactive than potassium. (7.1)


Calcium has two valence electrons, and it takes more energy to remove two valence electrons than one. Potassium has only one valence electron and is larger than calcium; therefore, it takes less energy to remove its valence electron.

30. What happens when hydrogen reacts with a

nonmetal element? (7.1)


Hydrogen loses an electron and forms an ion with a 1 charge.

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37. List at least one use for each of the following

44. Why is lead no longer used in paints or for

compounds. (7.1) a. sodium chloride (table salt)


food additive, preservative, source of dietary sodium ions

plumbing pipes? (7.2)


Lead is toxic.

45. Compare the allotropes of oxygen. (7.2)


Both are gases formed from oxygen atoms. Oxygen gas (O2) is colorless, odorless, essential for most living organisms, and abundant in the lower atmosphere. Ozone (O3) is an unstable gas with an irritating odor that is found mainly in the upper atmosphere.

b. calcium oxide (lime)


makes soil less acidic; removes pollutants from smokestacks; is an ingredient in mortar; used in manufacture of steel, paper, and glass

c. potassium chloride
dietary substitute for table salt

46. Identify the element that fits each description.

38. List three types of information that you can

(7.2) a. greenish-yellow gas used to disinfect water


chlorine

obtain from the periodic table. (7.1)


whether an element is a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid; what type of ion an element is likely to form; what group an element is found in (which indicates its reactivity)

b. main element in emeralds and aquamarines


beryllium

c. lightweight metal extracted from bauxite ore 39. Explain why the halogens are extremely reactive

nonmetals. (7.2)
With seven valence electrons, halogens need only one electron to achieve a stable noble gas electron configuration.

aluminum

d. the most abundant element in Earths crust


oxygen
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

40. Explain why most carbon compounds are classi-

47. What could account for the change in color

fied as organic compounds. (7.2)


Many carbon compounds play key roles in the chemistry of living organisms.

within the mineral shown in the photograph below?

41. What is the charge on halogen ions? (7.2)


Halogens form ions with a 1 charge.

42. Argon has only one more proton than chlorine.

Explain why these two gases have such different chemical properties. (7.2)
Argon, an element with a stable noble gas configuration of eight valence electrons, is unreactive. Chlorine, with seven valence electrons, must gain one electron to achieve a noble gas electron configuration.

The change in color may be due to the presence of different trace element impurities.

43. Why is red phosphorus classified as an

amorphous solid? (7.2)


There is no definite pattern to the arrangement of its atoms.

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48. Explain why iodine can be substituted for

53. How do transition metals differ from inner tran-

bromine in some compounds. (7.2)


Iodine and bromine are group 7A nonmetals that have similar chemical properties.

sition metals in their electron configurations? (7.3)


In transition metals, the final electron enters a d sublevel; in inner transition metals, the final electron enters an f sublevel.

49. Explain why fluorine reacts with all elements

except helium, neon, and argon. (7.2)


Fluorine is the most electronegative element on the periodic table and, therefore, the most reactive.

54. Explain why compounds of zinc are white but

compounds containing copper have a color. (7.3)


Copper has d electrons in its partially filled d sublevel that can absorb wavelengths of visible light. Zinc has a filled d sublevel, and transitions in zinc require the higher energy of UV radiation.

50. Name the element that combines with oxygen to

form a compound that fits each description. (7.2) a. the compound that can be melted to form glass
silicon

55. Name three general methods for extracting a

metal from its ore. (7.3)


heat, solutions, and electrolysis

b. the main compound in ruby and sapphire


aluminum

56. What does it mean for a metal to be listed as

strategic or critical? (7.3)


Either the metal or its compounds have critical applications that affect industries or the military.

c. a compound used to preserve fruit and

produce an inexpensive acid


sulfur
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57. Predict which of the transition metals in period

51. List at least one use for each compound. (7.2) a. silicon carbide (carborundum)
an industrial abrasive

4 is diamagnetic. Explain your answer. (7.3)


zinc, because it has no unpaired electrons

58. Explain how the electron configurations of

b. aluminum sulfate (alum)


used in antiperspirants and to remove suspended particles during water purification

chromium and copper determine that one is used to strengthen alloys and the other to make jewelry. (7.3)
Chromium has six unpaired electrons and is a hard metal with a high melting point; copper has only one unpaired electron, making it softer and more malleable.

c. boric acid
a disinfectant and eye wash

d. nitric acid
used to etch metal plates; to produce solid fertilizers, explosives, and dyes

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 59. What distinguishes a metal from a nonmetal?
Metals, located on the left of the periodic table, tend to lose electrons, are conductors, have luster, and are malleable/ductile; nonmetals, located on the right of the periodic table, tend to gain electrons, are dull and brittle as solids, and nonconductors.

52. When the metal gallium melts, is the liquid that

forms an allotrope? Explain your answer. (7.2)


No; the liquid is in a different state and is not a different structure in the same state.

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60. Where are the most reactive nonmetals located

67. Identify the block on the periodic table where

on the periodic table? The most reactive metals?


group 7A; group 1A

you are likely to find: a. a synthetic radioactive element.


f block

61. Which families contain metalloids?


groups 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6A

b. a highly reactive element that forms salts

with halogens.
62. What chemical property does zinc share with

calcium?
Both metals can lose two electrons, forming ions with a 2 charge.

s block

c. an element that forms millions of

compounds.
p block

63. Name at least three elements that are commonly

found in fertilizers.
potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur

68. For each period-3 element, Na through Cl,

64. What physical property is shown by the element

identify the following: a. the metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.


Metals: Na, Mg, Al; metalloids: Si; Nonmetals: P, S, Cl

in the photograph? Identify the element.

b. the appearance of the element and its state at

room temperature.
Na, Mg, Al, and Si are silvery gray solids; P is a white, black, or red solid; the common allotrope of S is a yellow solid; Cl is a greenish-yellow gas.

69. What is the most common ion or ions for each

of these elements: sodium, bromine, neon, cadmium, boron, and hydrogen?


Na, Br, none, Cd2, B3, H or H It is a silvery liquid. It is mercury.

65. Of the period-5 elements, palladium, tin, and

silver, which will display noticeably different properties from the other two? Explain your choice.
Tin is a representative element in group 4A; palladium and silver are transition metals that have similar sizes and ionization energies and similar properties.

Thinking Critically 70. Applying Concepts Which element would be easiest to extract from its ore, gold or iron? Explain your choice.
Gold would be easier to extract because it exists uncombined in nature.

71. Hypothesizing Why might countries have

different lists of strategic and critical materials?


Countries may have their own deposits of critical minerals. They may have different needs based on their industries.

66. What do rubidium and white phosphorus have

in common?
They burst into flame if exposed to air.

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72. Applying Concepts In 1906, Ferdinand

Moissan won a Nobel Prize for producing fluorine in its pure elemental form. Why do you think his achievement was considered worthy of such a prize?
Because fluorine reacts with almost every element, it took decades to find a way to isolate elemental fluorine.

Writing in Chemistry 77. Research the local city or state regulations for removal of lead paint and write a report on your findings.
Answers will vary.

78. Use the example of ozone to argue that a single

chemical can be both beneficial and harmful.


Ground level ozone is an irritating and harmful gas. The ozone layer in the stratosphere protects organisms from harmful UV radiation.

73. Analyze and Conclude Why were metals such

as copper and gold discovered long before gases such as oxygen and nitrogen?
Copper and gold are visible solids often found uncombined in nature. Oxygen and nitrogen are colorless, odorless gases.

79. Describe the uses of fluorine, chlorine, and

iodine compounds related to drinking water and wastewater.


Fluorine is added to drinking water to help protect tooth enamel. Chlorine compounds are used to disinfect wastewater. Campers use iodine tablets to disinfect drinking water.

74. Drawing a Conclusion The most important

function of blood is to carry oxygen to all cells in the body. What could happen if blood flow to a cell were blocked?
The cell would not receive the oxygen it needs to release energy.

80. Research and write a report on the use of silver

iodide for seeding clouds.


Silver iodide particles sprayed into a cloud provide seed crystals on which water can condense into droplets.

75. Using a Database Find out the following: a. the trend for the melting point of alkali
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

metals
Melting point decreases with an increase in atomic number.

81. Research the history of the term bromide, which

is used to describe a remedy designed to ease tension.


Bromine solutions were used as sedatives during the Victorian era, hence, the term bromide for a remedy designed to alleviate tension.

b. the color of copper compounds


Copper compounds are green and blue.

c. the colors of the ions of chromium


Cr2 is red, Cr3 is green, Cr4 is brown-black, and Cr6 is orange.

82. Find out how the daily values for vitamins and

76. Observing and Predicting If you were given

two solutions, one colorless and the other a light blue, which solution would probably contain an ion from a transition metal? Explain your answer.
The blue solution is most likely to contain a transition metal ion because transition metal ions with partially filled d sublevels display color. However, some transition metal ions are colorless, e.g., zinc ions.

minerals are determined. Compare supplements to see whether they all contain the same minerals in the same quantities per tablet. In your report, suggest reasons for any variations you discover.
Students answers will likely refer to the United States Recommended Daily Allowances (USRDAs) for vitamins and minerals, which are devised by the Food and Drug Administration for nutritional labeling. These are the lists on processed foods and vitamin products that tell the percentage of each of 19 essential nutrients provided per serving or dose. Students may mention that it is only a rough guide because it doesn't differentiate among people of varying age and sex, who may have different nutritional requirements. Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 7

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The USRDAs, in turn, are based on the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) derived by a group of nutritional scientists who advise the Food and Nutrition Board, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. The board reviews and revises its recommendations about every five years. The board defines the RDAs as the levels of intake of essential nutrients considered, in the judgment of the Food and Nutrition Board on the basis of available scientific knowledge, to be adequate to meet the known nutritional needs of practically all healthy persons.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 85. Determine the correct number of significant figures in each of the following. (Chapter 2) a. 708.4 mL
4

b. 1.0050 g
5

83. Research the processes of recycling aluminum,

c. 1.000 mg
4

plastic, and glass. Design a poster or a multimedia presentation for members of your community about one of the processes. Include the following considerations: Why is it cost effective to recycle? What resources are conserved? What recycling is available in your area? How can the members of your community use this information to make responsible choices about the products they purchase?
The processes of recycling aluminum, plastic, and glass involve conserving an enormous amount of energy, cutting down on pollution, and saving money. The cost effectiveness of recycling is dramatic. More products can be made for less money from recycled material than products that are produced using natural resources that have never been touched. Many shopping centers, grocery stores, schools, and businesses offer dropoff centers for recyclable items. Communities should support this cause by reusing products as much as possible, avoiding disposable items, and taking recyclables to drop-off centers.

d. 6.626 1034 s
4

e. 2000 people
1, unless it is an exact count; then infinite

86. A quarter has a mass of 5.627 g. What is its

mass in milligrams? (Chapter 2)


5.627 g 1 103 mg / g 5.627 103 mg
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

87. A solution of sugar has a density of 1.05 g/cm3.

If you have 300.0 mL of sugar solution, what is the mass of the solution? (Chapter 2)
300.0 mL 1 cm3/1 mL 1.05 g/cm3 315 g

88. A substance is said to be volatile if it readily

changes from a liquid to a gas at room temperature. Is this a physical change or a chemical change? (Chapter 3)
physical change

84. Find out how the elements are assigned their

names. What elements are named after people? Choose one and research why this person was given such an honor.
Students can obtain information about the discovery, naming, and chemistry of the chemical elements from many sources, including the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics and books in school and public libraries.

89. How many electrons, protons, and neutrons are

there in the following: (Chapter 4) a. carbon-13


atomic number number of electrons number of protons 6 number of electrons mass number number of protons 13 6 7

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b. chromium-50
atomic number number of electrons number of protons 24 number of electrons mass number number of protons 50 24 26

94. Select the atom or ion in each pair that has the

larger radius. (Chapter 6) a. Cs or Fr


Fr

b. Br or As
As

c. tin-119
atomic number number of electrons number of protons 50 number of electrons mass number number of protons 119 50 69

c. O2 or O
O2

95. Arrange the following in order of increasing

90. An AM radio signal broadcasts at 6.00

ionization energy: Li, C, Si, Ne. (Chapter 6)


Li, Si, C, Ne

105 Hz. What is the wavelength of this signal in meters? What is the energy of one photon of this signal? (Chapter 5)
c 3.00 108 m/s c 5.00 102 m 6.00 105 s1

96. Arrange the following in order of increasing

ionization energy: K, Ca, Fr, Mg. (Chapter 6)


Fr, K, Ca, Mg

E h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(6.00 105 s1) 3.98 1028 J

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 7


page 209

91. Determine the energy of a photon with a wave-

length of 4.80 102 nm. (Chapter 5)


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c h 3.00 108 m/s c 6.25 1014 s1 4.80 107 m E h ( 6.626 1034 Js)(6.25 1014 s1) 4.14 1019 J

92. Identify which of the following orbitals cannot

exist according to quantum theory: 4s, 1p, 2p, 3f, 2d. Briefly explain your answer. (Chapter 5)
1p, 3f, and 2d cannot exist; the n 1 energy level can have only one sublevel; when n 3, there are 3 sublevels, s, p, and d; when n 2, there are only 2 sublevels, s and p.

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Which of the following descriptions does NOT apply to gold? a. transition metal b. ferromagnetic c. element d. nonconductor
b

2. On the periodic table, metalloids are found only

93. Mendeleev left a space on his periodic table for

the undiscovered element germanium and in 1886 Winkler discovered it. Write the electron configuration for germanium. (Chapter 6)
[Ar]4s23d104p2

in _________ . a. the d-block b. groups 3A through 6A c. the f-block d. groups 1A and 2A


b

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3. The majority of _________ are radioactive. a. b. c. d.


a

7. Throughout history, dangerous products were

actinides lanthanides halogens alkali metals

4. Which of the following groups is composed

entirely of nonmetals? a. 1A b. 3A c. 5A d. 7A
d

used before people understood their harmful effects. Which of the following historic practices was NOT discontinued because of the health hazard it posed? a. using radium paint to make watch hands glow in the dark b. lining steel cans with tin to prevent corrosion c. using arsenic sulfide to treat illnesses d. adding lead to gasoline to increase engine efficiency
b

Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 8 through 10.


Characteristics of Elements
Element X Y Z Block s p Characteristic soft solid; reacts readily with oxygen gas at room temperature; forms salts inert gas

5. _______ is a major component of organic

compounds. a. Sodium b. Calcium c. Carbon d. Potassium


c

6. Although metals in the same group on the peri-

belong? a. 1A b. 7A c. 8A d. 4B
a

9. Element Y is probably _____ . a. b. c. d.


c

an alkaline metal an alkaline earth metal a halogen a transition metal

10. Element Z is most likely found in the _____ . a. b. c. d.


b

s-block p-block d-block f-block

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odic table have the same number of valence electrons, they do not have identical properties. Which of the following is NOT an explanation for differences in properties within a group? a. The metals have different numbers of nonvalence electrons. b. The reactivity of metals increase as their ionization energies decrease. c. The ionization energies of metals decrease as their atomic masses increase. d. The reactivity of metals increase as their atomic masses decrease.

8. In which group does Element X most likely

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Ionic Compounds
Section 8.1 Forming Chemical Bonds
pages 211214

6. Formulating Models Draw models to repre-

sent the formation of the positive calcium ion and the negative bromide ion.
Models should show that the calcium atom loses two electrons, forming Ca2, and that bromine gains one electron, forming Br.

Section 8.1 Assessment


page 214

1. What is a chemical bond?


a force that holds two atoms together

2. Why do ions form?


Atoms gain more stable electron configurations by losing or gaining electrons.

Section 8.2 The Formation and Nature of Ionic Bonds


pages 215217

Practice Problems
page 217

3. What family of elements is relatively unreactive

and why?
Noble gases are relatively unreactive because they have eight electrons in the outermost energy level, which is a stable configuration.

Explain the formation of the ionic compound composed of each pair of elements. 7. sodium and nitrogen
Three Na atoms each lose 1 e, forming 1 ions. One N atom gains 3e, forming a 3 ion. The ions attract, forming Na3N. 3 1 3 Na ions ( ) 1 N ion( ) Na ion N ion 3(1) 1(3) 0 The overall charge on one formula unit of Na3N is zero.

4. Describe the formation of both positive and

negative ions.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Positive ions form when atoms lose valence electrons. Negative ions form when valence electrons are added to an atom.

5. Thinking Critically Predict the change that

must occur in the electron configuration if each of the following atoms is to achieve a noble gas configuration. a. nitrogen
gain 3 electrons (3 ion) or lose 5 electrons (5 ion)

8. lithium and oxygen


Two Li stoms each lose 1e, forming 1 ions. One O atom gains 2e, forming a 2 ion. The ions attract, forming Li2O. 2 1 2 Li ions ( ) 1 O ion( ) Li ion O ion 2(1) 1(2) 0 The overall charge on one formula unit of Li2O is zero.

b. sulfur
gain 2 electrons (2 ion)

c. barium
lose 2 electrons (2 ion)

d. lithium
lose 1 electron (1 ion)

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9. strontium and fluorine


One Sr atom loses 2e, forming a 2 ion. Two F atoms each gain 1 e, forming 1 ions. The ions attract, forming SrF2. 1 2 1 Sr ion( ) 2 F ions( ) Sr ion F ion 1(2) 2(1) 0 The overall charge on one formula unit of SrF2 is zero.

15. Describe the arrangement of ions in a crystal

lattice.
Each ion is surrounded by oppositely charged ions.

16. What is lattice energy and how is it involved in

an ionic bond?
It is the energy required to separate the ions of an ionic compound and is the energy given off when positive and negative ions attract.

10. aluminum and sulfur


Two Al atoms each lose forming 3 ions. Three S atoms gain 2e each, forming 2 ions. The ions attract, forming Al2S3. 2 3 2 Al ions( ) 3 S ions( ) Al ion S ion 2(3) 3(2) 0 The overall charge on one formula unit of Al2S3 is zero. 3e,

17. Thinking Critically Using the concepts of ionic

radii and lattice energy, account for the trend in melting points shown in the following table.
Trend in Melting Points
Ionic compound KF KCl KBr KI Melting point in C 858 770 734 681

11. cesium and phosphorus


Three Cs atoms each lose 1e, forming 1 ions. One P atom gains 3 e, forming a 3 ion. The ions attract, forming Cs3P. 3 1 3 Cs ions( ) 1 P ion( ) Cs ion P ion 3(1) 1(3) 0 The overall charge on one formula unit of Cs3P is zero. As the ionic radius of the nonmetallic ion increases, the melting point and lattice energy decrease.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 8.2 Assessment


page 220

12. What is an ionic bond?


the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

13. How does an ionic bond form?


Ions form from electron transfer. Oppositely charged ions attract.

14. List three physical properties associated with an

ionic bond.
exist as crystals; have high melting and boiling points; are hard, rigid, and brittle; conduct electricity when dissolved or molten but not solid

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Electron Configuration [Ar] [Ne]3s23p5 0 [Kr] [Kr]5s2 2 5 [Ar] [Ne]3s 3p Sr 2Cl Sr2 2Cl e
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Orbital Notation
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1s 2s
0 0 0

2p
0 0 0 0 0

3s
0 0 0 0

3p
0 0

1s 2s

2p

3s

3p Sr

4s

3d

4p

5s

1s 2s e
0 0 0

2p 2Cl

3s

3p

0 0

1s 2s
0 0 0

2p
0 0 0 0 0

3s
0 0 0 0

3p
0 0

1s 2s

Electron-dot Structures e Cl

Sr

Cl

[Sr]2

[ ] Cl ] [ Cl

2p 3s 2Cl

3p

18. Formulating Models Use electron configura-

22. cesium and nitride


Cs3N

tions, orbital notation, and electron-dot structures to represent the formation of an ionic compound from the metal strontium and the nonmetal chlorine.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

23. barium and sulfide


BaS

See drawing above. Drawing should include an Sr atom losing 2 e, becoming Sr2, and two Cl atoms, each gaining 1 e, forming two Cl. These ions attract, forming SrCl2.

24. sodium and nitrate


NaNO3

25. calcium and chlorate

Section 8.3 Names and Formulas for Ionic Compounds


pages 221227

Ca(ClO3)2

26. aluminum and carbonate


Al2(CO3)3

Practice Problems
pages 224226

27. potassium and chromate


K2CrO4

Write the correct formula for the ionic compound composed of the following pairs of ions. 19. potassium and iodide
KI

28. magnesium and carbonate


MgCO3

Name the following compounds.


29. NaBr
sodium bromide

20. magnesium and chloride


MgCl2

21. aluminum and bromide


AlBr3 Solutions Manual

30. CaCl2
calcium chloride Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 8

0 0

1s 2s

2p

3s

3p 4s Sr2

3d

4p

0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

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31. KOH
potassium hydroxide

c. an alkaline earth metal and a halogen


1, 2

32. Cu(NO3)2
copper(II) nitrate

d. an alkaline earth metal and a nonmetal from

group 6A
1, 1

33. Ag2CrO4
silver chromate

e. a metal from group 3A and a halogen


1, 3

Section 8.3 Assessment


page 227

39. Making and Using Tables Complete the table

34. What is the difference between a monatomic ion

below by providing the correct formula for each compound formed from the listed ions.
Formulas for Some Ionic Compounds
Oxide Potassium Barium Aluminum K2O BaO Al2O3 Chloride KCl BaCl2 AlCl3 NH4Cl Sulfate K2SO4 BaSO4 Al2(SO4)3 Phosphate K3PO4 Ba3(PO4)2 AlPO4

and a polyatomic ion? Give an example of each.


monatomic: one-atom ion, Cl; polyatomic: contains two or more atoms grouped together with a net charge, ClO3

35. How do you determine the correct subscripts in

a chemical formula?
Subscripts are the number of atoms that must be used so that charges in the formula total zero.

Ammonium (NH4)2O

(NH4)2SO4 (NH4)3PO4

36. How are metals named in an ionic compound?

Nonmetals? Polyatomic ions?


Metals: use the name with a Roman numeral if needed. Nonmetals: use a form of the root of the nonmetal plus the suffix -ide. Polyatomic ions: use the ion name.

Section 8.4 Metallic Bonds and Properties of Metals


Section 8.4 Assessment
page 231
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

pages 228231

37. What is an oxyanion and how is it named?


It is a polyatomic ion containing oxygen. For any particular element, the ion with the most oxygen atoms is named by using the root of the nonmetal plus -ate; the ion with one less oxygen atom is named by the root of the nonmetal plus -ite.

40. What is a metallic bond?


the attraction of a positive metallic ion for delocalized electrons

41. Explain how conductivity of electricity and high

melting point of metals are explained by metallic bonding.


Delocalized electrons can move through the solid to conduct an electric current. The number of delocalized electrons and the strength of a metallic bond determine the melting point.

38. Thinking Critically What subscripts would

most likely be used if the following substances formed an ionic compound? a. an alkali metal and a halogen
1, 1

42. What is an alloy?


a mixture of a metal and at least one other element

b. an alkali metal and a nonmetal from group

6A
2, 1

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43. How does a substitutional alloy differ from an

interstitial alloy?
A substitutional alloy has metal atoms that are of similar size, while an interstitial alloy has the spaces in a metallic crystal filled with smaller atoms.

Mastering Concepts 47. When do chemical bonds form? (8.1)


when a positive nucleus attracts electrons of another atom, or oppositely charged ions attract

48. Why do positive ions and negative ions form?

44. Thinking Critically In the laboratory, how

(8.1)
An atom gains or loses electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration.

could you determine if a solid has an ionic bond or a metallic bond?


A metallic solid will conduct and is malleable and ductile, but an ionic solid will not conduct and is brittle.

49. Why are halogens and alkali metals likely to

form ions? Explain your answer. (8.1)


Halogens need to gain only one electron to have a noble gas electron configuration. Alkali metals need to lose one.

45. Formulating Models Draw a model to repre-

sent the ductility of a metal using the electron sea model shown in Figure 8-10.

50. Discuss the importance of electron affinity and

ionization energy in the formation of ions. (8.1)


High electron affinity: atom easily gains an electron; low ionization energy: atom easily loses an electron

51. Discuss the formation of ionic bonds. (8.2)


A positive ion is attracted to a negative ion and lattice energy is released.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Diagrams should show metal ions being moved into a longer, thinner form through a sea of electrons.

52. Briefly discuss three physical properties of ionic

solids that are linked to ionic bonds. (8.2)

Chapter 8 Assessment pages 236238


Concept Mapping 46. Complete the concept map, showing what type of ion is formed in each case and what type of charge the ion has.
An atom loses an electron 1. Type of ion formed gains an electron 2.

exist as crystals; have high melting and boiling points

53. What does the term electrically neutral mean

when discussing ionic compounds? (8.2)


The number of electrons lost is equal to the number of electrons gained.

54. What information is needed to write a correct

chemical formula to represent an ionic compound? (8.3)


the metallic ion and the nonmetallic ion, including their charges

55. When are subscripts used in formulas for ionic


3. Type of charge on the ion

compounds? (8.3)
4. when more than one unit of an ion is in the simplest ratio of the ions

1. cation; 2. anion; 3. positive; 4. negative

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56. Discuss how an ionic compound is named. (8.3)


1. Name the cation first and the anion second. 2. Monatomic cations use the element name. 3. Monatomic anions take their name from the root of the element name plus the suffix -ide. 4. Group 1A and group 2A metals have only one oxidation number. Transition metals and metals on the right side of the periodic table often have more than one oxidation number. 5. If the compound contains a polyatomic ion, simply name the ion.

d. zinc
2

e. strontium
2

62. Discuss the formation of the barium ion.


Ba will lose two electrons and form Ba2, which has the stable electron configuration of Xe.

63. Explain how an anion of nitrogen forms.


N gains three electrons, forming N3, which has the stable electron configuration of Ne.

57. Describe a metallic bond. (8.4)


Each positive metal ion is attracted to delocalized valence electrons.

64. The more reactive an atom, the higher its poten-

tial energy. Which atom has higher potential energy, neon or fluorine? Explain.
F, because it will gain one more electron to fill its outer energy level

58. Briefly explain how malleability and ductility of

metals are explained by metallic bonding. (8.4)


When a force is applied to a metallic solid, the metal ions move as well as the delocalized electrons.

65. Predict the reactivity of the following atoms

based on their electron configurations. a. potassium


Potassium ([Ar] 4s1) will lose one outer electron and form a 1 ion.

59. Compare and contrast the two types of metal

alloys. (8.4)
A substitutional alloy has metal atoms that are similar in size. An interstitial alloy has two differently sized atoms.

b. fluorine
Fluorine ([He] 2s22p5) will gain one more electron and form a 1 ion.

Mastering Problems Ion Formation (8.1) 60. Explain why noble gases are not likely to form chemical bonds.
They already have a full, stable outer energy level.

c. neon
Neon (1s22s22p6) will not react because it already has eight electrons in its outer energy level.

66. Discuss the formation of the iron ion that has a

3 oxidation number.
Iron will lose two outer 4s electrons and one 3d electron.

61. Give the number of valence electrons in an atom

of each of the following: a. cesium


1

b. rubidium
1

Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds (8.2) 67. Determine the ratio of cations to anions for the following ionic compounds. a. potassium chloride, a salt substitute
1:1

c. gallium
3

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b. calcium fluoride, used in the steel industry


1:2

69. Using electron configurations, diagram the

formation of an ionic bond between barium and nitrogen.


[Xe]6s2 [He]2s22p3 Ba N Barium has two valence electrons and nitrogen has five. To form a compound, a total of six electrons must transfer from three barium atoms to two nitrogen atoms. 2e [Xe]6s2 [Xe]6s2 [Xe]6s2 3Ba 1e 1e 2e [He]2s22p3 [He]2s22p3 2N 0 [Xe] [Ne] [Xe] [Xe] [Ne] 3Ba2 2N3 Ba3N2

c. aluminum oxide, known as corundum in the

crystalline form
2:3

d. calcium oxide, used to remove sulfur dioxide

from power plant exhaust


1:1

e. strontium chloride, used in fireworks


1:2

68. Using orbital notation, diagram the formation of

an ionic bond between aluminum and fluorine.


e
0 0 0 0 0

70. Discuss the formation of an ionic bond between

zinc and oxygen.


Zn will lose its outer 4s electrons, forming Zn2. Oxygen will gain the two electrons forming O2. Zn2 attracts O2, forming ZnO.

e 3p
0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1s 2s
0 0 0

2p 0

1s 2s

1s 2s
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2p 3F

e
0 0 0 0 0 0

1s 2s

2p Al3

1s 2s
0 0 0

2p
0 0 0 0 0

Solutions Manual

2p Al

3s

1s 2s

2p

71. Under certain conditions, ionic compounds

conduct an electric current. Describe these conditions and explain why ionic compounds are not always used as conductors.
Ionic compounds will conduct in the molten state or dissolved in water but are nonconducting solids at room temperature.

1s 2s
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1s 2s

2p
0 0

72. Which of the following compounds are not

2p 3F

likely to occur: CaKr, Na2S, BaCl3, MgF? Explain your choices.


CaKr, because Kr is a noble gas; BaCl3 and MgF, because charges are not balanced.

73. Using Table 8-2, determine which of the

following ionic compounds will have the highest melting point: MgO, KI, or AgCl. Explain your answer.
MgO; it has the highest lattice energy.

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Formulas and Names for Ionic Compounds (8.3) 74. Give the formula for each of the following ionic compounds. a. calcium iodide
CaI2

77. Chromium, a transition metal, forms both the

Cr2 and Cr3 ions. Write the formulas for the ionic compounds formed when each of these ions react with a. fluorine
CrF2, CrF3

b. silver bromide
AgBr

b. oxygen
CrO, Cr2O3

c. copper(II) chloride
CuCl2

78. Which of the following are correct formulas for

d. potassium periodate
KIO4

ionic compounds? For those that are not correct, give the correct formula and justify your answer. a. AlCl
AlCl3; one Al3 ion bonds to three Cl ions.

e. silver acetate
AgC2H3O2

b. Na3SO4
Na2SO4; two Na ions bond to SO42.

75. Name each of the following ionic compounds. a. K2O


potassium oxide

c. MgCO3
correct

b. CaCl2
calcium chloride

d. BaOH2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. Mg3N2
magnesium nitride

Ba(OH)2; if a polyatomic ion needs a subscript, parentheses must be used.

e. Fe2O
Fe2O3; or FeO; iron forms either Fe2 or Fe3.

d. NaClO
sodium hypochlorite

79. Write the formulas for all of the ionic

e. KNO3
potassium nitrate

compounds that can be formed by combining each of the cations with each of the anions listed below. Name each compound formed.
Table 8-10

76. Complete Table 8-9 by placing the symbols,

formulas, and names in the blanks.


Table 8-9
Identifying Ionic Compounds
Cation NH4 Pb2 Li Na Mg2 Anion SO42 F Br CO32 PO43 Name ammonium sulfate lead(II) fluoride lithium bromide sodium carbonate magnesium phosphate Formula (NH4)2SO4 PbF2 LiBr Na2CO3 Mg3(PO4)2 Cations K NH4 Fe3 Anions SO32 I NO3

K2SO3, potassium sulfite; KI, potassium iodide; KNO3, potassium nitrate; (NH4)2SO3, ammonium sulfite; NH4I, ammonium iodide; NH4NO3, ammonium nitrate; Fe2(SO3)3, iron(III) sulfite; FeI3, iron(III) iodide; Fe(NO3)3, iron(III) nitrate Solutions Manual

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Metals and Metallic Bonds (8.4) 80. How is a metallic bond different from an ionic bond?
Metallic bond: electrostatic attraction between a positive metal ion and free valence electrons; ionic bond: between a positive metallic ion and a negative nonmetallic ion

87. Which of the following ionic compounds would

have the most negative lattice energy: NaCl, KCl, or MgCl2? Explain your answer.
MgCl2; lattice energy increases with increased charge.

88. Give the formula for each of the following ionic

81. Briefly explain why silver is a good conductor

compounds. a. sodium sulfide


Na2S

of electricity.
It has delocalized electrons that are free to move.

b. iron(III) chloride 82. Briefly explain why iron is used in making the

structures of many buildings.


Iron forms a strong metallic bond, giving solid iron hardness and strength.

FeCl3

c. sodium sulfate
Na2SO4

83. The melting point of beryllium is 1287C, while

that of lithium is 180C. Account for the large difference in values.


Beryllium has two delocalized electrons per atom. Lithium has one. As the number of delocalized electrons increases, lattice energy increases raising the melting point.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d. calcium phosphate
Ca3(PO4)2

e. zinc nitrate
Zn(NO3)2

89. Cobalt, a transition metal, forms both the Co2

84. Describe the difference between the metal alloy

sterling silver and carbon steel in terms of the types of alloys involved.
Sterling silver is substitutional, formed from silver and copper. Carbon steel is interstitial, formed from iron and carbon.

and Co3 ions. Write the correct formulas and give the name for the oxides formed by the two different ions.
CoO, cobalt(II) oxide; Co2O3, cobalt(III) oxide

90. Briefly explain why gold can be used as both a

conductor in electronic devices and in jewelry.


Delocalized electrons allow it to conduct. It is malleable and ductile.

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 85. Give the number of valence electrons for atoms of oxygen, sulfur, arsenic, phosphorus, and bromine.
6, 6, 5, 5, and 7, respectively

91. Discuss the formation of the nickel ion with a

2 oxidation number.
Nickel, [Ar]3d84s2, will lose the two outer 4s electrons.

92. Using electron-dot structure, diagram the forma-

86. Explain why calcium can form a Ca2 ion but

not a Ca3 ion.


4s2)

tion of an ionic bond between potassium and iodine.


K I I 0 [K] [ ]

Ca ([Ar] will lose 2 electrons. If it loses an inner 3p electron, it is unstable.

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93. Magnesium forms both an oxide and a nitride

when burned in air. Discuss the formation of magnesium oxide and magnesium nitride when magnesium atoms react with oxygen and nitrogen atoms.
A Mg atom loses two valence electrons, forming Mg2. An O atom gains two electrons, forming O2. One magnesium ion attracts one oxygen ion, forming MgO. Three Mg atoms each lose two electrons, forming Mg2, while two N atoms each gain three electrons, forming two N3. The ions attract each other, forming Mg3N2.

BaS2O3, barium thiosulfate; BaBr2, barium bromide; Ba(NO2)2, barium nitrite; Cu2S2O3, copper(I) thiosulfate; CuBr, copper(I) bromide; CuNO2, copper(I) nitrite; Al2(S2O3)3, aluminum thiosulfate; AlBr3, aluminum bromide; Al(NO2)3, aluminum nitrite

Thinking Critically 97. Concept Mapping Design a concept map to explain the physical properties of both ionic compounds and metallic solids.
Concept maps will vary.

94. An external force easily deforms sodium metal,

while sodium chloride shatters when the same amount of force is applied. Why do these two solids behave so differently?
Sodium metal contains metallic bonds. Sodium chloride is an ionic solid.

98. Predicting Predict which solid in each of the

following will have the higher melting point. Explain your answer.
a. NaCl or CsCl
NaCl; smaller ion size

95. Name each of the following ionic compounds. a. CaO


calcium oxide

b. Ag or Cu
Cu; it is smaller.

c. Na2O or MgO
MgO; Mg has a greater charge.

b. BaS
barium sulfide

99. Comparing and Contrasting Compare and

c. AlPO4
aluminum phosphate

contrast cations and anions.


Cations are formed from the loss of electrons and have a positive charge. Anions are formed from the gain of electrons and have a negative charge.

d. Ba(OH)2
barium hydroxide

e. Sr(NO3)2
strontium nitrate

100. Observing and Inferring From the following

96. Write the formulas for all of the ionic

incorrect formulas and formula names, identify the mistakes and design a flow chart to prevent the mistakes.
Flow charts will vary.

compounds that can be formed by combining each of the cations with each of the anions listed below. Name each compound formed.
Table 8-11

a. copper acetate
Identify the metal as copper(II) or copper(I).

b. Mg2O2
Cations Ba2 Cu Al3 Anions S2O32 Br NO2 The formula unit is not in the simplest ratio.

c. Pb2O5
Lead can have only the oxidation state of 2 or 4, not 5.

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d. disodium oxide
Prefixes are not used in ionic compounds.

106. Crystals of ionic compounds can be easily

e. Al2SO43
If a polyatomic ion requires a subscript, use parentheses.

grown in the laboratory setting. Research the growth of crystals and try to grow one crystal in the laboratory.
Student answers will vary. Students should include the use of supersaturated solutions and the evaporation of water from the solution allows crystals to grow large over a period of time.

101. Hypothesizing Look at the locations of potas-

sium and calcium on the periodic table. Form a hypothesis as to why the melting point of calcium is considerably higher than the melting point of potassium.
Calcium has two delocalized electrons for every one for potassium. Thus, calcium has a higher melting point.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 107. You are given a liquid of unknown density. The mass of a graduated cylinder containing 2.00 mL of the liquid is 34.68 g. The mass of the empty graduated cylinder is 30.00 g. What is the density of the liquid? (Chapter 2)
mass of the liquid 34.68 g 30.00 g 4.68 g 4.68 g 2.34g/mL 2.00 mL

102. Drawing a Conclusion Explain why the term

delocalized is an appropriate term for the electrons involved in metallic bonding.


They are free to move. The electrons are not held to any specific atom.

103. Applying Concepts All uncharged atoms

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

have valence electrons. Explain why elements such as iodine and sulfur dont have metallic bonds.
They gain electrons. Thus, their electrons are not delocalized.

108. A mercury atom drops from 1.413 1018 J

to 1.069 1018 J. (Chapter 5) a. What is the energy of the photon emitted by the mercury atom?
E 1.413 1018 J 1.069 1018 J 3.44 1019 J

104. Drawing a Conclusion Explain why lattice

energy is a negative quantity.


Energy given off when bonds form is considered negative.

b. What is the frequency of the photon

emitted by the mercury atom?


E h 3.44 1019 J 5.19 1014 s1 6.626 1034 Js

Writing in Chemistry 105. Many researchers believe that free radicals are responsible for the effects of aging and cancer. Research free radicals and write about the cause and what can be done to prevent free radicals.
Student answers will vary. Students should discuss reduction and oxidation (gain and loss of electrons) in forming free radicals as well as antioxidants, Vitamin E and Vitamin C.

c. What is the wavelength of the photon

emitted by the mercury atom?


3.00 108 m/s c 5.19 1014 s1 5.78 107 m or 578 nm

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109. Which element has the greater ionization

energy, chlorine or carbon? (Chapter 6)


chlorine

Standard Test Practice Chapter 8


page 239

110. Compare and contrast the way metals and

nonmetals form ions and explain why they are different. (Chapter 6)
Metals lose electrons to form cations; nonmetals gain electrons to form anions. Both form ions to gain stability.

111. What are transition elements? (Chapter 6)


the d block elements

112. Write the symbol and name of the element that

fits each description. (Chapter 6) a. the second-lightest of the halogens


Cl, chlorine

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Which of the following is NOT true of the Sc3 ion? a. It has the same electron configuration as Ar. b. It is a scandium ion with three positive charges. c. It is considered to be a different element than a neutral Sc atom. d. It was formed by the removal of the valence electrons of Sc.
c

2. Of the salts below, it would require the most

b. the metalloid with the lowest period

number
B, boron

c. the only group 6A element that is a gas at

energy to break the ionic bonds in _____ . a. BaCl2 b. LiF c. NaBr d. KI


a
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

room temperature
O, oxygen

3. What is the correct chemical formula for the

d. the heaviest of the noble gases


Rn, radon

e. the group 5A nonmetal that is a solid at

room temperature
P, phosphorus

ionic compound formed by the calcium ion (Ca2) and the acetate ion (C2H3O2)? a. CaC2H3O2 b. CaC4H6O8 c. (Ca)2C2H3O2 d. Ca(C2H3O2)2
d

113. Which group 4A element is (Chapter 7) a. a metalloid that occurs in sand?


Si

b. a nonmetal?
C

c. used in electrodes in car batteries?


Pb

d. a component in many alloys?


Sn

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4.

7. What is the correct name of the compound with

the formula RbClO4?


a. b. c. d.
c

The model above has been proposed to explain why _____ .


a. metals are shiny, reflective substances b. metals are excellent conductors of heat and

rubidium chlorine oxide rubidium chloride tetroxide rubidium perchlorate rubidium chlorate

8. Rank the compounds in order of increasing

melting point.
a. b. c. d.
b

electricity c. ionic compounds are malleable compounds d. ionic compounds are good conductors of electricity
b

Ag2Se, AlPO4, FeI2, RbClO4 RbClO4, FeI2, Ag2Se, AlPO4 AlPO4, Ag2Se, FeI2, RbClO4 RbClO4, AlPO4, Ag2Se, FeI2

5. Yttrium, a metallic element with atomic number

39, will form _____ . a. positive ions b. negative ions c. both positive and negative ions d. no ions at all
a
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

9. Which compound is expected to have the

strongest attraction between its ions?


a. b. c. d.
b

Ag2Se AlPO4 FeI2 RbClO4

6. The high strength of its ionic bonds results in all

of the following properties of NaCl EXCEPT _____ . a. hard crystals b. high boiling point c. high melting point d. low solubility
d

10. The anion in AlPO4 has a charge of _____ . a. b. c. d.


d

2 3 2 3

Interpreting Tables Use the table below to answer questions 710.


Properties of Some Ionic Compounds
Compound Ag2Se AlPO4 FeI2 RbClO4 Lattice Energy Melting Point (kJ/mol) (C) 2686 ? 2439 ? ? 1460 ? 281 Color gray white reddishpurple white

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Covalent Bonding
Section 9.1 The Covalent Bond
pages 241247

7. What is a single covalent bond? Why does it

form?
One pair of electrons is shared between two atoms so each atom can achieve an octet through sharing.

Practice Problems
page 244

Draw the Lewis structure for each of these molecules. 1. PH3


H H H H P 0 H P

8. Why do multiple bonds form?


More than one pair of electrons are shared between two atoms because each atom needs more than one electron to form an octet.

9. What is the difference between a sigma bond

and a pi bond?
A sigma bond is a single covalent bond formed from the direct overlap of orbitals. A pi bond is the parallel overlap of p orbitals.

2. H2S

H H S 0 H S

10. How is bond length related to bond dissociation

energy?
As bond length decreases, bond dissociation energy increases.

3. HCl
H Cl 0 H Cl
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. Thinking Critically From the following struc-

4. CCl4

Cl

tures, predict the relative bond energies needed to break all of the bonds present. a. HC CH Cl
CH: less energy than CC

Cl Cl Cl Cl C 0 Cl C

Cl

b. H

H H H H Si 0 H Si H H

H H CH: less energy than CC

12. Making Predictions Draw the electron-dot

Section 9.1 Assessment


page 247

6. What is a covalent bond? How does it differ

diagrams for the elements sulfur, carbon, bromine, oxygen, and hydrogen. Using Lewis structures, predict the number of covalent bonds formed when

from an ionic bond?


Two atoms share electrons. An ionic bond forms when electrons are transferred between atoms.

a. one atom of sulfur bonds with two atoms of

hydrogen.

HS
H

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 9

5. SiH4

CC

Br

two HS bonds

103

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b. one atom of carbon bonds with two atoms of

CS S

sulfur.

four; two CS double bonds

Name the following acids. Assume each compound is dissolved in water. 18. HI
hydroiodic acid

c. two atoms of bromine bond with one atom

d. one atom of carbon bonds with four atoms

BrS Br

of sulfur.
two SBr bonds

19. HClO3
chloric acid

20. HClO2
chlorous acid

of bromine

e. one atom of sulfur bonds with two atoms of

BrCBr Br

Br

21. H2SO4
four CBr bonds sulfuric acid

22. H2S
hydrosulfuric acid

S O O

oxygen.

one SO single bond; one SO double bond

Section 9.2 Assessment


page 251

23. What is a binary molecular compound?

Section 9.2 Naming Molecules


pages 248251

a molecule composed of only two elements

24. Using the system of rules for naming binary


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Practice Problems
pages 249, 250

molecular compounds, describe how you would name the molecule N2O4.
There are two atoms of nitrogen; use the prefix di with the name nitrogen. There are four atoms of oxygen, so use the prefix tetra the root of oxygen the ending ide. The name is dinitrogen tetroxide.

Name the following binary covalent compounds. 13. CCl4


carbon tetrachloride

14. As2O3
diarsenic trioxide

25. Compare and contrast naming binary acids and

naming other binary covalent molecules.


Acids are named using hydro the root of the nonmetal ic, but a binary covalent molecule is named using the name of the first element the root of the second element ide.

15. CO
carbon monoxide

16. SO2
sulfur dioxide

26. What is the difference between a binary acid

and an oxyacid?
17. NF3
nitrogen trifluoride A binary acid contains hydrogen and one other element. An oxyacid contains hydrogen, another element, and oxygen.

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27. Write the molecular formula for each of the

following compounds. a. disulfur trioxide


S2O3

Section 9.3 Molecular Structures


pages 252258

Practice Problems
pages 255, 256, 258

b. iodic acid
HIO3

Draw a Lewis structure for each of the following: 30. NF3


F FN F

c. dinitrogen monoxide
N2O

d. hydrofluoric acid
HF

e. phosphorus pentachloride
PCl5

31. CS2
SCS

28. Thinking Critically Write the molecular

32. BH3
H H B H

formula for each listed compound. a. dinitrogen trioxide and nitrogen monoxide
N2O3 and NO

b. hydrochloric acid and chloric acid


HCl and HClO3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

33. ClO4
O 1

c. sulfuric acid and sulfurous acid


H2SO4 and H2SO3

29. Making and Using Tables Complete the

following table.
Formulas and Names of Covalent Compounds
Formula PCl5 HBr H3PO4 OF2 SO2 Name phosphorus pentachloride hydrobromic acid phosphoric acid oxygen difluoride sulfur dioxide

34. NH4
H H N H H 1

Draw the Lewis resonance structures for the following. 35. SO 3


O S O O O S O O O S O O

O Cl O

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36. SO2
O S O O S O

44. List three exceptions to the octet rule.


The molecule has an odd number of valence electrons. The atoms have fewer than eight electrons around an atom. The central atom has more than eight valence electrons and has an expanded octet.

37. O3
O O

45. What is a coordinate covalent bond?


One atom donates a pair of electrons to be shared with an atom or ion that needs two electrons.

38. NO2

1 O N O O N O

46. What is an expanded octet?


More than eight electrons surround one atom. This involves the s orbital, three p orbitals, and one or two d orbitals.

Draw the correct Lewis structures for the following molecules, which contain expanded octets. 39. SF6
F F F S F F F

47. Thinking Critically Draw the resonance struc-

tures for the N2O molecule.

NN O or

NNO

48. Formulating Models Draw the Lewis struc-

tures for the following molecules and ions.


a. CN
[ CN ]

40. PCl5
Cl Cl P Cl Cl Cl

b. SiF4
F F Si F F

41. ClF3
F Cl F F

c. HCO3
O

Section 9.3 Assessment


page 258

C O

42. What is the role of the central atom when

drawing the Lewis structure for a molecule?


All terminal atoms are bonded to it.

d. AsF6
F F As F F F F

43. What is resonance?


when two or more correct Lewis structures can be written for a molecule

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Section 9.4 Molecular Shape


pages 259262

Section 9.4 Assessment


page 262

Minilab
page 261 CH4 H H C H H H NH3 N H H H H2O O H

54. What is the VSEPR model?


a theory based on the repulsive nature of electron pairs around a central atom that is used to determine molecular geometry

55. What are the bond angles in a molecule with a

tetrahedral shape?
109

56. What is hybridization?


a theory used to explain why all bonding orbitals around certain atoms are the same

Practice Problems
page 262

57. What are the hybrid orbitals in a molecule with

a tetrahedral shape?
sp3

Determine the molecular geometry, bond angle, and type of hybridization for the following. 49. BF3
F F
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

58. Thinking Critically Compare the molecules

PF3 and PF5. What is the molecular shape of each of the two molecules? What type of hybrid orbital is in each molecule? Why is the shape different?
PF3 is trigonal pyramidal with sp3 hybrid orbitals. PF5 is trigonal bipyramidal with sp3d hybrid orbitals. Shape is determined by the type of hybrid orbital.

50. NH4
H H N H H 1

51. OCl2
Cl O Cl

52. BeF2
F Be F

53. CF4
F F C F F

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59. Making and Using Tables Make a table that

62. CF4
CF4 is nonpolar because the molecule is symmetric (tertrahedryl). F F C F F

contains the Lewis structure, molecular shape, bond angle, and type of hybrid for the following molecules: CS2, CH2O, H2Se, CCl2F2, and NCl3.
S C S H H H Se H Cl Cl C F F tetrahedryl, 109, sp3 CO linear, 180, sp trigonal planar, 120, sp2 bent, 104.5, sp3

63. CS2
CS2 is nonpolar becasue the molecule is symmetric (linear). S C S

Problem-Solving Lab
page 267 Boiling Point vs. Molecular Mass
150

Cl Cl N Cl

trigonal pyramidal, 107, sp3 Boiling point (C)

100 50 0 50
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 9.5 Electronegativity and Polarity


pages 263267

100 150 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

Practice Problems
page 266

Decide whether each of the following molecules is polar or nonpolar. 60. SCl2
SCl2 is polar because the molecule is asymmetric (bent). Cl S Cl

Molecular mass (amu)

Section 9.5 Assessment


page 267

64. Define electronegativity.


the tendency of an atom to attract electrons to itself

61. H2S
H2S is polar because the molecule is asymmetric (bent). H S H

65. How is electronegativity difference used in

determining the type of bond that occurs between two atoms?


If the difference is zero, the bond is considered nonpolar covalent; if between zero and 1.7, polar covalent; if greater than 1.7, ionic.

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66. Describe a polar covalent bond.


A polar covalent bond has unequal sharing of electrons. The electrons are pulled toward one of the atoms, generating partial charges on the ends.

Chapter 9 Assessment pages 272274


Concept Mapping 71. Complete the concept map using the following terms: double bonds, one, pi, sigma, single bonds, three, triple bonds, two. Each term can be used more than once.
Covalent bonds can be

67. What is a polar molecule?


a molecule with a greater electron density on one side of the molecule

68. List three properties of a covalent compound.


The solid state of a molecule is crystalline. A molecular solid is a nonconductor, is soft, and has a low melting point. 1. that share 4. and are formed from 7. 5. 6. bonds. 2. 3. pairs of electrons

69. Thinking Critically Predict the type of bond

that will form between the following atoms. a. H and S


electronegativity S 2.58 electronegativity H 2.20 difference 0.38 polar covalent

8. and

9. 10. and

11.

b. C and H
electronegativity C 2.55 electronegativity H 2.20 difference 0.35 polar covalent

1. single bonds, 2. double bonds, 3. triple bonds, 4. one, 5. two, 6. three, 7. sigma, 8. sigma, 9. pi, 10. sigma, 11. pi

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. Na and S
electronegativity S 2.58 electronegativity Na 0.93 difference 1.65 ionic

Mastering Concepts 72. What is the octet rule, and how is it used in covalent bonding? (9.1)
Atoms lose, gain, or share electrons to end with a full outer energy level. Certain atoms share electrons to achieve an octet.

73. Describe the formation of a covalent bond. (9.1)


The nucleus of one atom attracts the electrons of the other atom, and they share one or more pairs of electrons.

70. Drawing Conclusions Draw the Lewis struc-

ture for the SF4 and SF6 molecules and determine if each molecule is polar or nonpolar.
F F S F polar F F F nonpolar F F S F F

74. Describe the bonding in molecules. (9.1)


Molecules bond covalently.

75. Describe the forces, both attractive and repul-

sive, that occur as two atoms come closer together. (9.1)


See Figure 9-1 on page 242.

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76. How could you predict the presence of a sigma

83. Explain the theory of hybridization and deter-

or pi bond in a molecule? (9.1)


single covalent bond: sigma bond; double bond: a sigma bond and a pi bond; triple bond: one sigma and two pi bonds

mine the number of hybrid orbitals present in the molecule PCl5. (9.4)
The theory of hybridization explains the shapes of molecules by the formation of identical hybrid orbitals from the atomic orbitals of the atoms in the molecule; five identical sp3d orbitals

77. Explain how molecular compounds are named.

(9.2)
Answers should agree with Figure 9-9 on page 251.

84. Describe the trends in electronegativity in the

periodic table. (9.5)


It increases left to right in a period and decreases top to bottom in a group.

78. When is a molecular compound named as an

acid? (9.2)
when it releases H in water solution

85. Explain the difference between nonpolar mole-

cules and polar molecules. (9.5)


A nonpolar molecule has a symmetric distribution of charge, while a polar molecule has a concentration of electrons on one side of the molecule.

79. What must be known in order to draw the Lewis

structure for a molecule? (9.3)


the number of valence electrons for each atom

80. On what is the VSEPR model based? (9.4)


the repulsive nature of electron pairs around a central atom

86. Compare the location of bonding electrons in a

polar covalent bond with those in a nonpolar covalent bond. Explain your answer. (9.5)
Electrons in a polar bond are closer to the more electronegative atom because of unequal sharing. Those in a nonpolar bond are shared equally.

81. What is the molecular shape of each of the

87. What is the difference between a covalent

linear, 180

b. ABA
linear, 180

molecular solid and a covalent network solid? Do their physical properties differ? Explain your answer. (9.5)
A covalent molecular solid is soft and has a low melting point because of weak intermolecular forces. A covalent network solid has a high melting point and is very hard because of the strength of the network of covalent bonds.

c. A B A

A
d.

trigonal planar, 120

ABA A

tetrahedral, 109

Mastering Problems Covalent Bonds (9.1) 88. Give the number of valence electrons in N, As, Br, and Se. Predict the number of covalent bonds needed for each of these elements to satisfy the octet rule.
N: 5, 3; As: 5, 3; Br: 7, 1; Se: 6, 2

82. What is the maximum number of hybrid orbitals

a carbon atom can form? (9.4)


four

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following molecules? Estimate the bond angle for each assuming no lone pair. (9.4) a. AB

CHAPTER

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

89. Locate the sigma and pi bonds in the following

b. H3PO4
phosphoric acid

molecule. O

H CH
single bonds: sigma bonds; double bond: one sigma bond and one pi bond

c. H2Se
hydroselenic acid

d. HClO3
chloric acid

90. Locate the sigma and pi bonds in the following

molecule. HC CH
single bonds: sigma bonds; triple bond: one sigma and two pi bonds

95. Name each of the following molecules. a. NF3


nitrogen trifluoride

b. NO
nitrogen monoxide

Bond Length (9.1) 91. Consider the molecules CO, CO2, and CH2O. Which CO bond is shorter? In which molecule is the CO bond stronger?
It is shortest and strongest in the triple bond in CO.

c. SO3
sulfur trioxide

d. SiF4
silicon tetrafluoride

92. Consider the carbon-nitrogen bonds in the

following:
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

96. Name each of the following molecules. a. SeO2


selenium dioxide

CN and

HC N H

b. SeO3
selenium trioxide

Which bond is shorter? Which is stronger?


The triple bond in CN is shorter and stronger.

c. N2F4
dinitrogen tetrafluoride

93. Rank each of the molecules below in order of

the shortest to the longest sulfur-oxygen bond length. a. SO2 b. SO32 c. SO42
a, b, c

d. S4N4
tetrasulfur tetranitride

Writing Formulas (9.2) 97. Write the formula for each of the following. a. sulfur difluoride
SF2

Naming Covalent Compounds (9.2) 94. Name each of the following solutions as an acid. a. HClO2
chlorous acid

b. silicon tetrachloride
SiCl4

c. carbon tetrafluoride
CF4

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d. sulfurous acid
H2SO3

100. Draw the Lewis structure for each of these

98. Write the formula for each of the following. a. silicon dioxide
SiO2

molecules or ions. a. SeF2


F Se F

b. bromous acid
HBrO2

b. ClO2
O Cl O

c. chlorine trifluoride
ClF3

d. hydrobromic acid
HBr

c. PO33
O P O O 3

Lewis Structures (9.3) 99. Draw the Lewis structure for each of these molecules or ions.
a. H2S
H S H

d. POCl3
Cl Cl P Cl O

b. BF4

F F B F F

e. GeF4
F F Ge F F

c. SO2
O S O

101. Which of the following elements are capable

d. SeCl2
Cl Se Cl

of forming molecules in which an atom has an expanded octet? Explain your answer. a. B b. C c. P d. O e. Se
P and Se because they are period 3 and higher and have a d sublevel available

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

102. Draw three resonance structures for the

polyatomic ion CO32.


OC O O CO O O C O 2 2 O 2

Molecular Shape (9.4) 105. Predict the molecular shape and bond angle, and identify the hybrid orbitals for each of the following. Drawing the Lewis structure may help you. a. SCl2
bent, 104.5, sp3

b. NH2Cl
trigonal pyramidal, 107, sp3

c. HOF
bent, 104.5, sp3

103. Draw two resonance structures for the poly-

atomic ion CHO2.


H CO O H C O

d. BF3
trigonal planar, 120, sp2

106. For each of the following, predict the molec-

ular shape. a. COS


linear

b. CF2Cl2
tetrahedral

104. Draw the Lewis structure for each of the


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

following molecules that have central atoms that do not obey the octet rule. a. PCl5
Cl Cl Cl P Cl Cl

107. Identify the expected hybrid on the central

atom for each of the following. Drawing the Lewis structure may help you. a. XeF4
sp3d2

b. TeF4
sp3d

b. BF3
F F B F

c. KrF2
sp3d

c. ClF5
F F Cl F F F

d. OF2
sp3

d. BeH2
HBeH

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Electronegativity and Polarity (9.5) 108. For each pair, indicate the more polar bond by circling the negative end of its dipole. a. CS, CO
O is circled because it has the greatest electronegativity. CO is the more polar bond. There is a greater electronegativity difference between C and O. electronegativity S 2.58 electronegativity C 2.55 difference 0.03 electronegativity O 3.44 electronegativity C 2.55 difference 0.89

110. Predict which of the following bonds is the

most polar. a. CO
electronegativity O = 3.44 electronegativity C = 2.55 difference 0.89

b. SiO
electronegativity O = 3.44 electronegativity Si = 1.90 difference 1.54

c. CCl
electronegativity Cl = 3.16 electronegativity C = 2.55 difference 0.61

b. CF, CN
F is circled because it has the greatest electronegativity. CF is the more polar bond. There is a greater electronegativity difference between C and F. electronegativity F = 3.98 electronegativity C = 2.55 difference 1.43 electronegativity N = 3.04 electronegativity C = 2.55 difference 0.49

d. CBr
electronegativity Br = 2.96 electronegativity C = 2.55 difference 0.41 SiO is the most polar because it has the greatest electronegativity difference.

111. Rank the following bonds according to


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. PH, PCl
Cl is circled because it has the greatest electronegativity. PCl is the more polar bond. There is a greater electronegativity difference between Cl and P. electronegativity H = 2.20 electronegativity P = 2.19 difference 0.01 electronegativity Cl = 3.16 electronegativity P = 2.19 difference 0.97

increasing polarity. a. CH
electronegativity C = 2.55 electronegativity H = 2.20 difference 0.35

b. NH
electronegativity N = 3.04 electronegativity H = 2.20 difference 0.84

c. SiH
electronegativity H = 2.20 electronegativity Si = 1.90 difference 0.30

109. For each of the bonds listed, tell which atom is

more negatively charged. a. CH b. CN c. CS d. CO


The most negatively charged atom has the greatest electronegativity. Use Figure 9-15. a. C b. N c. S d. O

d. OH
electronegativity O = 3.44 electronegativity H = 2.20 difference 1.24

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e. ClH
electronegativity Cl = 3.16 electronegativity H = 2.20 difference 0.96 c, a, b, e, d

116. Arrange the following bonds in order of least

to greatest polar character. a. CO


electronegativity O = 3.44 electronegativity C = 2.55 difference 0.89

112. Consider the following and determine if they

are polar. Explain your answers. a. H3O


polar, asymmetrical

b. SiO
electronegativity O = 3.44 electronegativity Si = 1.90 difference 1.54

b. PCl5
nonpolar, symmetrical

c. GeO
electronegativity O = 3.44 electronegativity Ge = 2.01 difference 1.43

c. H2S
polar, asymmetrical

d. CCl d. CF4
nonpolar, symmetrical electronegativity Cl = 3.16 electronegativity CP = 2.55 difference 0.61

113. Why is the CF4 molecule nonpolar even

though it contains polar bonds?


equal distribution of charge in a symmetrical molecule
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

e. CBr
electronegativity Br = 2.96 electronegativity C = 2.55 difference 0.41 e, d, a, c, b

114. Use Lewis structures to predict the molecular

polarities for sulfur difluoride, sulfur tetrafluoride, and sulfur hexafluoride.


SF2 and SF4 are polar. SF6 is nonpolar.

117. Draw the Lewis structure for ClF3 and identify

the hybrid orbitals.


F Cl F F

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem solving skills by answering the following. 115. Consider the following molecules and determine which of the molecules are polar. Explain your answer. a. CH3Cl b. ClF c. NCl3 d. BF3 e. CS2
The polar molecules are CH3Cl, ClF, and NCl3 because each molecule is asymmetric and the charge is not distributed evenly.

118. Use the Lewis structure for SF4, to predict the

molecular shape and identify the hybrid orbitals.


F F S F F sp3d

119. Write the formula for each of these molecules. a. chlorine monoxide
ClO

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b. arsenic acid
H3AsO4

123. Drawing Conclusions Consider each of

c. phosphorus pentachloride
PCl5

the following characteristics and determine whether the molecule is more likely to be polar or nonpolar. a. a solid at room temperature
polar

d. hydrosulfuric acid
H2S

b. a gas at room temperature


nonpolar

120. Name each of the following molecules. a. PCl3


phosphorus trichloride

c. attracted to an electric current


polar

b. Cl2O7
dichlorine heptoxide

c. P4O6
tetraphosphorus hexoxide

Writing in Chemistry 124. Research chromatography and write a paper discussing how it is used to separate mixtures.
Answers should include a reference to the attraction of polar solvents for polar molecules.

d. NO
nitrogen monoxide

125. Research laundry detergents. Write a paper to

explain why they are used to clean oil and grease out of fabrics.
Answers should include a discussion of the nonpolar end of a detergent molecule and the polar end of the same molecule allowing it to attract both water and oil.

Concept maps will vary.

122. Making and Using Tables Complete the table

using Chapters 8 and 9.

Table 9-4
Properties and Bonding
Solid Ionic Covalent molecular Metallic Covalent network Bond description the electrostatic attraction of a positive ion for a negative ion the sharing of electrons between two atoms the attraction of a positive ion for delocalized electrons atoms covalently bonded to many other atoms Characteristic of solid hard, rigid, brittle, crystalline, high melting point, nonconductor in the solid state soft, low melting point, nonconductor in the solid state a crystal that conducts heat and electricity, malleable, ductile, high melting point crystal is hard, rigid, brittle, nonconductor Example NaCl CO2 Ag diamond

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Thinking Critically 121. Concept Mapping Design a concept map that will link both the VSEPR model and the hybridization theory to molecular shape.

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Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 126. The mass of the same liquid is given in the table below for the following volumes. Graph the volume on the x-axis and the mass on the y-axis. Calculate the slope of the graph. What information will the slope give you? (Chapter 2)
Table 9-5
Volume vs. Mass
Volume 4.1 mL 6.0 mL 8.0 mL 10.0 mL Mass 9.36 g 14.04 g 18.72 g 23.40 g Density

128. Write the correct chemical formula or name

the following compounds. (Chapter 8) a. NaI


sodium iodide

b. calcium carbonate
CaCO3

c. Fe(NO3)3
iron(III) nitrate

d. Sr(OH)2
strontium hydroxide

e. potassium chlorate
KClO3

f. copper(II) sulfate
CuSO4

25 20 Mass (g) 15 10 5 0

g. CoCl2
cobalt(II) chloride

h. ammonium phosphate
(NH4)3PO4

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

i. silver acetate
AgC2H3O2

j. Mg(BrO3)2
0 2 4 6 8 Volume (mL) 10 12 magnesium bromate

23.40 g 14.04 g y slope 2.34 g/mL x 10.0 mL 6.0 mL The unit of the slope is g/mL, which is the unit of density. The slope gives you the density of the liquid.

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 9


page 275

127. Which group 3A element is expected to exhibit

properties that are significantly different from the remaining family members? (Chapter 7)
boron

Use the questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. The common name of SiI4 is tetraiodosilane. What is its molecular compound name?
a. b. c. d.
d

silane tetraiodide silane tetraiodine silicon iodide silicon tetraiodide

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2. Which of the following compounds contains at

4. The central selenium atom in selenium hexaflu-

least one pi bond?


a. CO2
OCO

oride forms an expanded octet. How many electron pairs surround the central Se atom?
a. b. c. d.
F Se F F c F

b. CHCl3
H

4 5 6 7
F F

c. AsI3
I As I I

Cl

Cl C Cl

5. Chloroform (CHCl3) was one of the first anes-

d. BeF2
F Be F CO2 is the only choice that contains a double bond, so it is the only one containing a pi bond. a

thetics used in medicine. The chloroform molecule contains 26 valence electrons in total. How many of these valence electrons take part in covalent bonds?
a. b. c. d.

26 13 8 4
H
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. The Lewis structure for silicon disulfide is

a. Si S b. c.

S Si S S Si S

6. Which is the strongest type of intermolecular

bond?
a. b. c. d.
d

d. S Si S
b

ionic bond dipole-dipole force dispersion force hydrogen bond

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Cl

_____.

Cl C Cl

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7. All of the following compounds have bent

molecular shapes EXCEPT _____________.


a. BeH2
HBeH

Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer the following questions.


Bond Dissociation Energies at 298 K
Bond ClCl CC kJ/mol 242 345 416 305 299 391 Bond NN OH CO CO OO kJ/mol 945 467 358 745 498

b. H2S
H S H

CH CN HI

c. H2O
H O H

HN

d. SeH2
H a Se H

9. Which of the following diatomic gases has the

8. Which of the following compounds is NOT

polar?
a. b. c. d.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

shortest bond between its two atoms? a. HI b. O2 c. Cl2 d. N2


d

H2S CCl4 SiH3Cl AsH3

10. Approximately how much energy will it take to

break all of the bonds present in the molecule below? H N H C O HC H C H H O


a. b. c. d.

CCl4 is symmetrical. b

5011 kJ/mol 3024 kJ/mol 4318 kJ/mol 4621 kJ/mol

1C O 1C O 1O H 2C C 4C H 1C N 2N H kJ kJ kJ kJ 745 358 467 2 345 mol mol mol mol kJ kJ kJ 4 416 305 2 391 5011 kJ/mol mol mol mol a

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Chemical Reactions
Section 10.1 Reactions and Equations
pages 277283

Section 10.1 Assessment


page 283

7. List three types of evidence that indicate a

chemical reaction has occurred.

Practice Problems
pages 279, 282

Write skeleton equations for the following word equations. 1. hydrogen(g) bromine(g) 0 hydrogen bromide(g)
H2(g) Br2(g) 0 HBr(g)

Answers may include release or absorption of energy, change in color, change in odor, formation of a gas, or formation of a solid.

8. Compare and contrast a skeleton equation and a

chemical equation.
The skeleton equation includes the formulas of reactants and products. The chemical equation gives the relative amounts of reactants and products.

2. carbon monoxide(g) oxygen(g) 0 carbon

dioxide(g)
CO(g) O2(g) 0 CO2(g)

9. Why is it important that a chemical equation be

balanced?
Because mass is neither created nor destroyed in chemical reactions, the numbers of atoms of all elements must be equal on both sides of the reaction arrow.

3. potassium chlorate(s) 0 potassium chloride(s)

oxygen(g)

KClO3(s) 0 KCl(s) O2(g)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Write chemical equations for each of the following reactions. 4. In water, iron(III) chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide, producing solid iron(III) hydroxide and sodium chloride.
FeCl3(aq) 3NaOH(aq) 0 Fe(OH)3(s) 3NaCl(aq)

10. When balancing a chemical equation, can you

adjust the number that is subscripted to a substance formula? Explain your answer.
No. Doing so changes the identity of the substance.

11. Why is it important to reduce coefficients in a

5. Liquid carbon disulfide reacts with oxygen gas,

producing carbon dioxide gas and sulfur dioxide gas.


CS2(l) 3O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 2SO2(g)

balanced equation to the lowest possible wholenumber ratio?


Coefficients in the lowest ratio most clearly indicate the relative amounts of substances in a reaction.

6. Solid zinc and aqueous hydrogen sulfate react to

produce hydrogen gas and aqueous zinc sulfate.


Zn(s) H2SO4(aq) 0 H2(g) ZnSO4(aq)

12. Thinking Critically Explain how an equation

can be balanced even if the number of reactant particles differs from the number of product particles.
The number of atoms of each element can be balanced, while numbers of reactant and product molecules or other particles are different. For example, 2C6H6 15O2 0 12CO2 6H2O is balanced, but 17 molecules react and 18 molecules are produced.

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13. Using Numbers Is the following equation

20. Heating sodium hydrogen carbonate(s) produces

balanced? If not, correct the coefficients. 2K2CrO4(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) 0 2KNO3(aq) PbCrO4(s)


No. The correct equation is K2CrO4(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) 0 2KNO3(aq) PbCrO4(s)

sodium carbonate(aq), carbon dioxide(g), and water.


2NaHCO3(s) 0 Na2CO3(aq) CO2(g) H2O(l)

Section 10.2 Classifying Chemical Reactions


pages 284291

Predict if the following single-replacement reactions will occur. If a reaction occurs, write a balanced equation for the reaction. 21. K(s) ZnCl2(aq) 0
Yes. K is above Zn in the metal activity series. 2K(s) ZnCl2(aq) 0 Zn(s) 2KCl(aq)

22. Cl2(g) HF(aq) 0


No. Cl is below F in the halogen activity series.

Practice Problems
pages 285, 286, 289, 291

Write chemical equations for the following reactions. Classify each reaction into as many categories as possible. 14. The solids aluminum and sulfur react to produce aluminum sulfide.
2Al(s) 3S(s) 0 Al2S3(s) synthesis

23. Fe(s) Na3PO4(aq) 0


No. Fe is below Na in the metal activity series.

15. Water and dinitrogen pentoxide gas react to

Write the balanced chemical equations for the following double-replacement reactions. 24. Aqueous lithium iodide and aqueous silver nitrate react to produce solid silver iodide and aqueous lithium nitrate.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

produce aqueous hydrogen nitrate.


H2O(l) N2O5(g) 0 2HNO3(aq) synthesis

LiI(aq) AgNO3(aq) 0 AgI(s) LiNO3(aq)

25. Aqueous barium chloride and aqueous potas-

16. The gases nitrogen dioxide and oxygen react to

produce dinitrogen pentoxide gas.


4NO2(g) O2(g) 0 2N2O5(g) synthesis and combustion

sium carbonate react to produce solid barium carbonate and aqueous potassium chloride.
BaCl2(aq) K2CO3(aq) 0 BaCO3(s) 2KCl(aq)

26. Aqueous sodium oxalate and aqueous lead(II)

17. Ethane gas (C2H6) burns in air, producing

carbon dioxide gas and water vapor.


2C2H6(g) 7O2(g) 0 4CO2(g) 6H2O(g) combustion

nitrate react to produce solid lead(II) oxalate and aqueous sodium nitrate.
Na2C2O4(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) 0 PbC2O4(s) 2NaNO3(aq)

Write chemical equations for the following decomposition reactions. 18. Aluminum oxide(s) decomposes when electricity is passed through it.
2Al2O3(s) 0 4Al(s) 3O2(g)

Section 10.2 Assessment


page 291

27. What are the five classes of chemical reactions?


synthesis, combustion, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement

19. Nickel(II) hydroxide(s) decomposes to produce

nickel(II) oxide(s) and water.


Ni(OH)2(s) 0 NiO(s) H2O(l)

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28. Identify two characteristics of combustion

33. Aqueous solutions of potassium iodide and

reactions.
In combustion reactions, oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of heat and light.

silver nitrate are mixed, forming the precipitate silver iodide.


chemical equation: KI(aq) AgNO3(aq) 0 KNO3(aq) AgI(s) complete ionic equation: K(aq) I(aq) Ag(aq) NO3(aq) 0 K(aq) NO3(aq) AgI(s) net ionic equation: I(aq) Ag(aq) 0 AgI(s)

29. Compare and contrast single-replacement reac-

tions and double-replacement reactions.


In a single-replacement reaction, atoms of one element replace atoms of another element in a compound. In a double-replacement reaction, two compounds dissolved in water exchange positive ions.

34. Aqueous solutions of ammonium phosphate and

sodium sulfate are mixed. No precipitate forms and no gas is produced.


chemical equation: 2(NH4)3PO4(aq) 3Na2SO4(aq) 0 3(NH4)2SO4(aq) 2Na3PO4(aq) complete ionic equation: 6NH4(aq) 2PO43(aq) 6Na(aq) 3SO42(aq) 0 6NH4(aq) 3SO42(aq) 6Na(aq) 2PO43(aq) No reaction occurs; therefore, there is no net ionic equation.

30. Describe the result of a double-replacement

reaction.
Double-replacement reactions produce two different compounds, one being a solid precipitate, water, or gas.

31. Thinking Critically Does the following reac-

tion occur? Explain your answer. 3Ni 2AuBr3 0 3NiBr2 2Au


The reaction does occur because nickel is more reactive than gold.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

35. Aqueous solutions of aluminum chloride and

sodium hydroxide are mixed, forming the precipitate aluminum hydroxide.


chemical equation: AlCl3(aq) 3NaOH(aq) 0 Al(OH)3(s) 3NaCl(aq) complete ionic equation: Al3(aq) 3Cl(aq) 3Na(aq) 3OH(aq) 0 Al(OH)3(s) 3Na(aq) 3Cl(aq) net ionic equation: Al3(aq) 3OH(aq) 0 Al(OH)3(s)

32. Classifying What type of reaction is most

likely to occur when barium reacts with fluorine? Write the chemical equation for the reaction.
A synthesis reaction will likely occur. Ba F2 0 BaF2

36. Aqueous solutions of lithium sulfate and

Section 10.3 Reactions in Aqueous Solutions


pages 292299

calcium nitrate are mixed, forming the precipitate calcium sulfate.


chemical equation: Li2SO4(aq) Ca(NO3)2(aq) 0 2LiNO3(aq) CaSO4(s) complete ionic equation: 2Li(aq) SO42(aq) Ca2(aq) 2NO3(aq) 0 2Li(aq) 2NO3(aq) CaSO4(s) net ionic equation: SO42(aq) Ca2(aq) 0 CaSO4(s)

Practice Problems
pages 294, 296, 299

Write chemical, complete ionic, and net ionic equations for the following reactions that may produce precipitates. Use NR to indicate if no reaction occurs.

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37. Aqueous solutions of sodium carbonate and

41. Hydrosulfuric acid (H2S) and aqueous calcium

manganese(V) chloride are mixed, forming the precipitate manganese(V) carbonate.


chemical equation: 5Na2CO3(aq) 2MnCl5(aq) 0 10NaCl(aq) Mn2(CO3)5(s) complete ionic equation: 10Na(aq) 5CO32(aq) 2Mn5(aq) 10Cl(aq) 0 10Na(aq) 10Cl(aq) Mn2(CO3)5(s) net ionic equation: Mn2(CO3)5(s) 5CO32(aq) 2Mn5(aq) 0

hydroxide
chemical equation: H2S(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) 0 2H2O(l) CaS(aq) complete ionic equation: 2H(aq) S2(aq) Ca2(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 2H2O(l) Ca2(aq) S2(aq) net ionic equation: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

42. Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and aqueous

magnesium hydroxide
chemical equation: 2H3PO4(aq) 3MgOH2(aq) 0 6H2O(l) Mg3(PO4)2(aq) complete ionic equation: 6H(aq) 2PO43(aq) 3Mg2(aq) 6OH(aq) 0 6H2O(l) 3Mg2(aq) 2PO43(aq) net ionic equation: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

Write chemical, complete ionic, and net ionic equations for the reactions between the following substances, which produce water. 38. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and aqueous potassium hydroxide
chemical equation: H2SO4(aq) 2KOH(aq) 0 2H2O(l) K2SO4(aq) complete ionic equation: 2H(aq) SO42(aq) 2K(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 2H2O(l) 2K(aq) SO42(aq) net ionic equation: 2H(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 2H2O(l) or H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

Write chemical, complete ionic, and net ionic equations for these reactions. 43. Perchloric acid (HClO4) reacts with aqueous potassium carbonate.
chemical equation: 2HClO4(aq) K2CO3(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g) 2KClO4(aq) complete ionic equation: 2H(aq) 2ClO4(aq) 2K(aq) CO32(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g) 2K(aq) 2ClO4(aq) net ionic equation: 2H(aq) CO32(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g)

39. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and aqueous calcium

hydroxide
chemical equation: 2HCl(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) 0 2H2O(l) CaCl2(aq) complete ionic equation: 2H(aq) 2Cl(aq) Ca2(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 2H2O(l) Ca2(aq) 2Cl(aq) net ionic equation: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

44. Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) reacts with aqueous

sodium cyanide.
chemical equation: H2SO4(aq) 2NaCN(aq) 0 2HCN(g) Na2SO4(aq) complete ionic equation: 2H(aq) SO42(aq) 2Na(aq) 2CN(aq) 0 2HCN(g) 2Na(aq) SO42(aq) net ionic equation: 2H(aq) 2CN(aq) 0 2HCN(g) or H(aq) CN(aq) 0 HCN(g)

40. Nitric acid (HNO3) and aqueous ammonium

hydroxide
chemical equation: HNO3(aq) NH4OH(aq) 0 H2O(l) NH4NO3(aq) complete ionic equation: H(aq) NO3(aq) NH4(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l) NH4(aq) NO3(aq) net ionic equation: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

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45. Hydrobromic acid (HBr) reacts with aqueous

51. Communicating Describe the reaction of

ammonium carbonate.
chemical equation: 2HBr(aq) (NH4)2CO3(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g) 2NH4Br(aq) complete ionic equation: 2H(aq) 2Br(aq) 2NH4(aq) CO32(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g) 2NH4(aq) 2Br(aq) net ionic equation: 2H(aq) CO32(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g)

aqueous solutions of sodium sulfide and copper(II) sulfate, producing the precipitate copper(II) sulfide.
Sodium sulfide and copper(II) sulfate dissociate in water to form sodium ions, sulfide ions, copper(II) ions, and sulfate ions. The copper(II) ions and sulfide ions form the precipitate copper sulfide. Sodium ions and sulfate ions are spectator ions that remain dissolved in the solution.

46. Nitric acid (HNO3) reacts with aqueous potas-

sium rubidium sulfide.


chemical equation: 2HNO3(aq) KRbS(aq) 0 H2S(g) KRb(NO3)2(aq) complete ionic equation: K(aq) Rb(aq) S2(aq) 0 Rb(aq) 2NO3(aq) 2H(aq) 2NO3(aq) H2S(g) K(aq)

Chapter 10 Assessment pages 304306


Concept Mapping 52. Use the following terms and phrases to complete the concept map: synthesis, net ionic equation, change in energy, change in physical state, single-replacement, word equation, decomposition, complete ionic equation, double-replacement, combustion, change in odor, chemical equation, change in color.
Chemical Reactions

net ionic equation: 2H(aq) S2(aq) 0 H2S(g)

Section 10.3 Assessment


page 299

47. Describe an aqueous solution.


one in which water is the solvent
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

48. Distinguish between a complete ionic equation

evidence of 1. 2. 3. 4.

classes of 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

described by 5. 6. 7. 8.

and a net ionic equation.


In a complete ionic equation, all dissolved ionic compounds and highly ionized molecular compounds are shown as free ions. A net ionic equation includes only the particles that take part in the reaction.

49. What are three common types of products

produced by reactions that occur in aqueous solutions?


precipitates, water, and gases

50. Thinking Critically Explain why net ionic

equations communicate more than chemical equations about reactions in aqueous solutions.
The net ionic equation shows only the particles that react.

1. change in energy, 2. change in physical state, 3. change in odor, 4.change in color, 5. word equation, 6. chemical equation, 7. net ionic equation, 8. complete ionic equation 9. synthesis, 10. decomposition, 11. single-replacement, 12. double-replacement, 13. combustion

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Mastering Concepts 53. Explain the difference between reactants and products. (10.1)
Reactants are the initial components and products are the resultant components.

60. What are five classes of chemical reactions?

(10.2)
synthesis, combustion, decomposition, single replacement, double replacement

61. How would you classify a chemical reaction

54. What do the arrows and coefficients used by

chemists in equations communicate? (10.1)


Arrows separate reactants from products and specify direction of reaction. Coefficients specify the relative amount of the components.

between two reactants that produces one product? (10.2)


It is a synthesis reaction.

62. Explain the difference between a single-

55. Write formulas for the following substances and

replacement reaction and a doublereplacement reaction. (10.2)


In a single-replacement reaction, the atoms of an element react with a compound, whereas in a double-replacement reaction, two compounds react.

designate their physical states. (10.1) a. nitrogen dioxide gas


NO2(g)

b. liquid gallium
Ga(l)

63. Under what conditions does a precipitate form

in a chemical reaction? (10.2)


when the reaction occurs in aqueous solution and the product of the reaction is insoluble

c. barium chloride dissolved in water


BaCl2(aq)

d. solid ammonium carbonate


(NH4)2CO3(s)

64. Classify the chemical reaction in question 58.

(10.2)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

single-replacement

56. Identify the reactants in the following reaction:

When potassium is dropped into aqueous zinc nitrate, zinc and aqueous potassium nitrate form. (10.1)
K and Zn(NO3)2(aq)

65. In each of the following pairs, which element

will replace the other in a reaction? (10.2) a. tin and sodium


Na replaces Sn

57. When gasoline is burned in an automobile

b. fluorine and iodine


F replaces I

engine, what evidence indicates that a chemical change has occurred? (10.1)
energy release and formation of gases

c. lead and silver


Pb replaces Ag

58. Write the word equation for this skeleton

equation. (10.1) Mg(s) FeCl3(aq) 0 Fe(s) MgCl2(aq)


magnesium(s) iron(III) chloride(aq) 0 iron(s) magnesium(II) chloride(aq)

d. copper and nickel


Ni replaces Cu

66. When reactions occur in aqueous solutions what

common types of products are produced? (10.3)


Solids, water, and gases

59. Balance the equation in question 58. (10.1)


3Mg(s) 2FeCl3(aq) 0 2Fe(s) 3MgCl2(aq)

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67. Compare and contrast chemical equations and

b. aluminum carbonate(s) 0 aluminum

ionic equations. (10.3)


A chemical equation gives formulas and relative amounts of all substances. A complete ionic equation shows the particles as they exist in solution.

oxide(s) carbon dioxide(g)

Al2(CO3)3(s) 0 Al2O3(s) CO2(g)

c. silver nitrate(aq) sodium sulfide(aq) 0

silver sulfide(s) sodium nitrate(aq)

68. What is a net ionic equation? How does it differ

AgNO3(aq) Na2S(aq) 0 Ag2S(s) NaNO3(aq)

from a complete ionic equation? (10.3)


A net ionic equation shows only the reactive particles. A complete ionic equation also shows ions that do not react (free ions from dissolved ionic compounds and highly ionized molecular compounds).

73. Write skeleton equations for these reactions. a. iron(s) fluorine(g) 0 iron(III) fluoride(s)
Fe(s) F2(g) 0 FeF3(s)

b. sulfur trioxide(g) water(l) 0 sulfuric

acid(aq)
SO3(g) H2O(l) 0 H2SO4(aq)

69. Define spectator ion. (10.3)


A spectator ion is an ion that is present in solution but does not participate in the reaction.

c. sodium(s) magnesium iodide(aq) 0

sodium iodide(aq) magnesium(s)


Na(s) MgI2(aq) 0 NaI(aq) Mg(s)

70. Write the net ionic equation for a chemical

reaction that occurs in an aqueous solution and produces water. (10.3)


H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

d. vanadium(s) oxygen(g) 0 vanadium(V)

oxide(s)
V(s) O2(g) 0 V2O5(s)

Mastering Problems
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

74. Write skeleton equations for these reactions. a. lithium(s) gold(III) chloride(aq) 0

Balancing Chemical Equations (10.1) 71. Write skeleton equations for these reactions. a. hydrogen iodide(g) 0 hydrogen(g) iodine(g)
HI(g) 0 H2(g) I2(g)

lithium chloride(aq) gold(s)

Li(s) AuCl3(aq) 0 LiCl(aq) Au(s)

b. iron(s) tin(IV) nitrate(aq) 0 iron(III)

nitrate(aq) tin(s)

b. aluminum(s) iodine(s) 0 aluminum

Fe(s) Sn(NO3)4(aq) 0 Fe(NO3)3(aq) Sn(s)

iodide(s)
Al(s) I2(s) 0 AlI3(s)

c. nickel(II) chloride(s) oxygen(g) 0


NiCl2(s) O2(g) 0 NiO(s) Cl2O5(g)

nickel(II) oxide(s) dichlorine pentoxide(g)

c. iron(II) oxide(s) oxygen(g) 0 iron(III)

oxide(s)
FeO(s) O2(g)

0 Fe2O3(s)

d. lithium chromate(aq) barium chloride(aq)

72. Write skeleton equations for these reactions. a. butane (C4H10)(l) oxygen(g) 0 carbon

0 lithium chloride(aq) barium chromate(s)

dioxide(g) water(l)

Li2CrO4(aq) BaCl2(aq) 0 LiCl(aq) BaCrO4(s)

C4H10(l) O2(g)

0 CO2(g) H2O(l)

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75. Balance the skeleton equations for the reactions

d. Heating oxygen difluoride gas yields oxygen

described in question 71.


a. 2HI(g) 0 H2(g) I2(g) b. 2Al(s) 3I2(s) 0 2AlI3(s) c. 4FeO(s) O2(g) 0 2Fe2O3(s)

gas and fluorine gas.


2OF2(g) 0 O2(g) 2F2(g)

76. Balance the skeleton equations for the reactions

described in question 72.


a. 2C4H10(l) 13O2(g) 0 8CO2(g) 10H2O(l) b. Al2(CO3)3(s) 0 Al2O3(s) 3CO2(g) c. 2AgNO3(aq) Na2S(aq) 0 Ag2S(s) 2NaNO3(aq)

Classifying Chemical Reactions (10.2) Level 1 80. Classify each of the reactions represented by the chemical equations in question 75.
a. decomposition; b. synthesis; c. synthesis

81. Classify each of the reactions represented by the

chemical equations in question 76.


a. combustion; b. decomposition; c. double-replacement

77. Balance the skeleton equations for the reactions

described in question 73.


a. 2Fe(s) 3F2(g) 0 2FeF3(s) b. SO3(g) H2O(l) 0 H2SO4(aq) c. 2Na(s) MgI2(aq) 0 2NaI(aq) Mg(s) d. 4V(s) 5O2(g) 0 2V2O5(s)

82. Classify each of the reactions represented by the

chemical equations in question 77.


a. synthesis; b. synthesis; c. single-replacement; d. combustion

83. Classify each of the reactions represented by the

chemical equations in question 78.


a. single-replacement; b. single-replacement; c. combustion; d. double-replacement
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

78. Balance the skeleton equations for the reactions

described in question 74.


a. 3Li(s) AuCl3(aq) 0 3LiCl(aq) Au(s) b. 4Fe(s) 3Sn(NO3)4(aq) 0 4Fe(NO3)3(aq) 3Sn(s) c. NiCl2(s) 3O2(g) 0 NiO(s) Cl2O5(g) d. Li2CrO4(aq) BaCl2(aq) 0 2LiCl(aq) BaCrO4(s)

84. Classify each of the reactions represented by the

chemical equations in question 79.


a. combustion; b. double-replacement; c. synthesis; d. decomposition

79. Write chemical equations for these reactions. a. When solid naphthalene (C10H8) burns in

air, the products are gaseous carbon dioxide and liquid water.
C10H8(s) 12O2(g) 0 10CO2(g) 4H2O(l)

Level 2 85. Write chemical equations for each of the following synthesis reactions. a. boron fluorine 0
2B(s) 3F2(g) 0 2BF3(g)

b. germanium sulfur 0
Ge(s) 2S(s) 0 GeS2(s)

b. Bubbling hydrogen sulfide gas through

manganese(II) chloride dissolved in water results in the formation of the precipitate manganese(II) sulfide and hydrochloric acid.
H2S(g) MnCl2(aq) 0 MnS(s) 2HCl(aq)

c. zirconium nitrogen 0
3Zr(s) 2N2(g) 0 Zr3N4(s)

d. tetraphosphorus decoxide water 0

phosphoric acid
c. Solid magnesium reacts with nitrogen gas to

produce solid magnesium nitride.


3Mg(s) N2(g) 0 Mg3N2(s)

P4O10(s) 6H2O(l) 0 4H3PO4(aq)

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86. Write a chemical equation for the combustion of

d. magnesium silver nitrate 0


Mg(s) 2AgNO3(aq) 0 2Ag(s) Mg(NO3)2(aq)

each of the following substances. If a compound contains the elements carbon and hydrogen, assume that carbon dioxide gas and liquid water are produced. a. solid barium
2Ba(s) O2(g) 0 2BaO(s)

89. Write chemical equations for each of the

following double-replacement reactions that occur in water. a. rubidium iodide silver nitrate 0
RbI(aq) AgNO3(aq) 0 RbNO3(aq) AgI(s)

b. solid boron
4B(s) 3O2(g) 0 2B2O3(s)

b. sodium phosphate

manganese(II) chloride 0
2Na3PO4(aq) 3MnCl2(aq)06NaCl(aq) Mn3(PO4)2(s)

c. liquid acetone (C3H6O)


C3H6O(l) 4O2(g) 0 3CO2(g) 3H2O(l)

d. liquid octane (C8H18)


2C8H18(l) 25O2(g) 0 16CO2(g) 18H2O(l)

c. lithium carbonate molybdenum(VI)

bromide 0
3Li2CO3(aq) MoBr6(aq) 0 6LiBr(aq) Mo(CO3)3(s)

87. Write chemical equations for each of the

following decomposition reactions. One or more products may be identified. a. magnesium bromide 0
MgBr2(s) 0 Mg(s) Br2(l)

d. calcium nitrate aluminum hydroxide 0


Ca(NO3)2(aq) 2Al(OH)3(aq) 0 3Ca(OH)2(s) 2Al(NO3)3(aq)

b. cobalt(II) oxide 0
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2CoO(s) 0 2Co(s) O2(g)

c. titanium(IV) hydroxide 0 titanium(IV)

oxide water

Ti(OH)4(s) 0 TiO2(s) 2H2O(l)

Reactions in Aqueous Solutions (10.3) Level 1 90. Write complete ionic and net ionic equations for each of the following reactions. a. K2S(aq) CoCl2(aq) 0 2KCl(aq) CoS(s)
Complete: 2K(aq) S2(aq) Co2(aq) 2Cl(aq) 0 2K(aq) 2Cl(aq) CoS(s) Net: S2(aq) Co2(aq) 0 CoS(s)

d. barium carbonate 0 barium oxide

carbon dioxide

BaCO3(s) 0 BaO(s) CO2(g)

88. Write chemical equations for the following

b. H2SO4(aq) CaCO3(s) 0 H2O(l)

single-replacement reactions that may occur in water. If no reaction occurs, write NR in place of the products. a. nickel magnesium chloride 0
Ni(s) MgCl2(aq) 0 NR

CO2(g) CaSO4(s)

Complete: 2H(aq) SO42(aq) CaCO3(s) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g) CaSO4(s) Net: 2H(aq) SO42(aq) CaCO3(s) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g) CaSO4(s)

c. 2HClO(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) 0 2H2O(l)

b. calcium copper(II) bromide 0


Ca(s) CuBr2(aq) 0 Cu(s) CaBr2(aq)

Ca(ClO)2(aq)
Complete: 2H(aq) 2ClO(aq) Ca2(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 2H2O(l) Ca2(aq) 2ClO(aq) Net: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

c. potassium aluminum nitrate 0


3K(s) Al(NO3)3(aq) 0 Al(s) 3KNO3(aq)

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Level 2 91. A reaction occurs when hydrosulfuric acid (H2S) is mixed with an aqueous solution of iron(III) bromide. Solid iron(III) sulfide is produced. Write the chemical and net ionic equations for the reaction.
Chemical: 3H2S(aq) 2FeBr3(aq) 0 6HBr(aq) Fe2S3(s) Net: 3S2(aq) 2Fe3(aq) 0 Fe2S3(s)

94. A reaction occurs when nitric acid (HNO3) is

mixed with an aqueous solution of potassium hydrogen carbonate. Aqueous potassium nitrate is produced. Write the chemical and net ionic equations for the reaction.
Chemical: HNO3(aq) KHCO3(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g) KNO3(aq) Net: H(aq) HCO3(aq) 0 H2O(l) CO2(g)

92. Write complete ionic and net ionic equations for

each of the following reactions. a. H3PO4(aq) 3RbOH(aq) 0 3H2O(l) Rb3PO4(aq)


Complete: 3H(aq) PO43(aq) 3Rb(aq) 3OH(aq) 0 3H2O(l) 3Rb(aq) PO43(aq) Net: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 95. Identify the products in the following reaction that occurs in plants: Carbon dioxide and water react to produce glucose and oxygen.
glucose and oxygen

b. HCl(aq) NH4OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

NH4Cl(aq)

96. How will aqueous solutions of sucrose and

Complete: H(aq) Cl(aq) NH4(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l) NH4(aq) Cl(aq) Net: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

hydrogen chloride differ?


An aqueous sucrose solution contains water molecules and sucrose molecules. An aqueous hydrogen chloride solution contains water molecules, hydrogen ions, and chloride ions.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. 2HI (NH4)2S(aq) 0 H2S(g) 2NH4I(aq)


Complete: 2H(aq) 2I(aq) 2NH4(aq) S2(aq) 0 H2S(g) 2NH4(aq) 2I(aq) Net: 2H(aq) S2(aq) 0 H2S(g)

97. Write the word equation for each of these

d. HNO3(aq) KCN(aq) 0 HCN(g)

KNO3(aq)
Complete: H(aq) NO3(aq) K(aq) CN(aq) 0 HCN(g) K(aq) NO3(aq) Net: H(aq) CN(aq) 0 HCN(g)

skeleton equations. C6H6 is formula for benzene. a. C6H6(l) O2(g) 0 CO2(g) H2O(l)
benzene(l) oxygen(g) 0 carbon dioxide(g) water (l)

b. CO(g) O2(g) 0 CO2(g)


carbon monoxide(g) oxygen(g) 0 carbon dioxide(g)

93. A reaction occurs when sulfurous acid (H2SO3)

is mixed with an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide. Aqueous sodium sulfite is produced. Write the chemical and net ionic equations for the reaction.
Chemical: H2SO3(aq) 2NaOH(aq) 0 2H2O(l) Na2SO3(aq) Net: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

98. Write skeleton equations for the following

reactions. a. ammonium phosphate(aq) chromium(III) bromide(aq) 0 ammonium bromide(aq) chromium(III) phosphate(s)


(NH4)3PO4(aq) CrBr3(aq) 0 NH4Br(aq) CrPO4(s)

b. chromium(VI) hydroxide(s) 0
Cr(OH)6(s) 0 CrO3(s) H2O(l)

chromium(VI) oxide(s) water(l)

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c. aluminum(s) copper(I) chloride(aq) 0

aluminum chloride(aq) copper(s)


Al(s) CuCl(aq) 0 AlCl3(aq) Cu(s)

d. potassium iodide(aq) mercury(I)

nitrate(aq) 0 potassium nitrate(aq) mercury(I) iodide(s)


KI(aq) HgNO3(aq) 0 KNO3(aq) HgI(s)

Thinking Critically 102. Predicting A piece of aluminum metal is placed in an aqueous KCl solution. Another piece of aluminum is placed in an aqueous AgNO3 solution. Explain why a chemical reaction does or does not occur in each instance.
No reaction occurs when Al is placed in aqueous KCl because Al does not replace K. However, Al reacts with an aqueous AgNO3 because Al is above Ag in the activity series.

99. Balance the skeleton equations for the reac-

tions described in question 98.


a. (NH4)3PO4(aq) CrBr3(aq) 0 3NH4Br(aq) CrPO4(s) b. Cr(OH)6(s) 0 CrO3(s) 3H2O(l) c.Al(s) 3CuCl(aq) 0 AlCl3(aq) 3Cu(s) d. KI(aq) HgNO3(aq) 0 KNO3(aq) HgI(s)

103. Designing an Experiment You suspect that

100. Classify each of the reactions represented by

the chemical equations in question 99.


a. double rep.; b. decomp.; c. single rep.; d. double rep.

the water in a lake close to your school may contain lead in the form of Pb2(aq) ions. Formulate your suspicion as a hypothesis and design an experiment to test your theory. Write the net ionic equations for the reactions of your experiment. (Hint: In aqueous solution, Pb2 forms compounds that are solids with Cl, Br, I, and SO42 ions.)
If lead is present, a reaction can be performed to precipitate a solid so it can be analyzed and confirmed as lead. Experiment: Allow a water sample to react with an excess amount of solution containing aqueous chloride, bromide, iodide, or sulfate ions. If the lead concentration is high, a lead-containing precipitate will form.

101. Predict whether each of the following reactions


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

will occur in aqueous solutions. If you predict that a reaction will not occur, explain your reasoning. Note: Barium sulfate and silver bromide precipitate in aqueous solutions. a. sodium hydroxide ammonium sulfate 0
No reaction; products are soluble and no water or gas is formed.

104. Applying Concepts Write the chemical equa-

b. niobium(V) sulfate barium nitrate 0


reaction occurs

tions and net ionic equations for each of the following reactions that may occur in aqueous solutions. If a reaction does not occur, write NR in place of the products. Magnesium phosphate precipitates in an aqueous solution. a. KNO3 CsCl 0
KNO3(aq) CsCl(aq) 0 KCl(aq) CsNO3(aq) K(aq) NO3(aq) Cs(aq) Cl(aq) 0 K(aq) Cl(aq) Cs(aq) NO3(aq) Ions remain in solution. No reaction occurs.

c. strontium bromide silver nitrate 0


reaction occurs

b. Ca(OH)2 KCN 0
Ca(OH)2(aq) 2KCN(aq) 0 Ca(CN)2(aq) 2KOH(aq) Ca2(aq) 2OH(aq) 2K(aq) 2CN(aq) 0 Ca2(aq) 2CN(aq) 2K(aq) 2OH(aq) Ions remain in solution. No reaction occurs.

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c. Li3PO4 MgSO4 0
Chemical: 2Li3PO4(aq) 3MgSO4(aq) 0 3Li2SO4(aq) Mg3(PO4)2(s) Net ionic: 2PO43(aq) 3Mg2(aq) 0 Mg3(PO4)2(s)

108. Write the formula for the compounds made

from each of the following pairs of ions. (Chapter 9) a. copper(I) and sulfite
Cu2SO3

d. HBrO NaOH 0
Chemical: HBrO(aq) NaOH(aq) 0 H2O(l) NaBrO(aq) Net ionic: H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

b. tin(IV) and fluoride


SnF4

c. gold(III) and cyanide

Writing in Chemistry 105. Prepare a poster describing types of chemical reactions that occur in the kitchen.
Answers will vary.

AuCN

d. lead(II) and sulfide


PbS

106. Write a report in which you compare and

contrast chemical and mathematical equations.


Student answers may include the following: chemical equations contain reaction arrows, while mathematical equations contain equal signs; chemical equations contain formulas for substances, while mathematical equations contain variables; because chemical equations contain formulas that represent kinds and numbers of atoms, they must be balanced; chemical equations may contain energy terms as well as formulas.

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 10


page 307

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 107. Distinguish among a mixture, a solution, and a compound? (Chapter 3)
A mixture is a physical blend of two or more pure substances in any proportion in which each substance retains its individual properties. A solution is a uniform mixture that may contain solids, liquids, or gases. A compound is a chemical combination of two or more different elements to form a substance with new properties. The components of mixtures and solutions can be separated by physical means. A compound can be broken down only by chemical means.

2. What type of reaction is described by the

following equation? Cs(s) H2O(l) 0 CsOH(aq) H2(g) a. synthesis b. combustion c. decomposition b. combustion d. replacement
d

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Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Potassium chromate and lead(II) acetate are both dissolved in a beaker of water, where they react to form solid lead(II) chromate. What is the balanced net ionic equation describing this reaction? a. Pb2(aq) C2H3O2(aq) 0 Pb(C2H3O2)2(s) b. Pb2(aq) 2CrO4(aq) 0 Pb(CrO4)2(s) c. Pb2(aq) CrO42(aq) 0 PbCrO4(s) d. Pb(aq) C2H3O2(aq) 0 PbC2H3O2(s)

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3. Which of the following reactions between halo-

6. Finely ground nickel(II) hydroxide is placed in

gens and halide salts will occur? a. F2(g) FeI2(aq) 0 FeF2(aq) I2(l) b. I2(s) MnBr2(aq) 0 MnI2(aq) Br2(g) c. Cl2(s) SrF2(aq) 0 SrCl2(aq) F2(g) d. Br2(l) CoCl2(aq) 0 CoBr2(aq) Cl2(g)
a

Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 46.


Physical Properties of Select Ionic Compounds
Compound NaClO3 Na2SO4 NiCl2 Ni(OH)2 AgNO3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Name sodium chlorate sodium sulfate nickel(II) chloride nickel(II) hydroxide silver nitrate

Physical state at room temp. solid solid solid solid solid

Soluble in water? yes yes yes no yes

Melting point (C) 248 884 1009 230 212

a beaker of water. It sinks to the bottom of the beaker and remains unchanged. An aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) is then added the beaker, and the Ni(OH)2 disappears. Which of the following equations best describes what occurred in the beaker? a. Ni(OH)2(s) HCl(aq) 0 NiO(aq) H2(g) HCl(aq) b. Ni(OH)2(s) 2HCl(aq) 0 NiCl2(aq) 2H2O(l) c. Ni(OH)2(s) 2H2O(l) 0 NiCl2(aq) 2H2O(l) d. Ni(OH)2(s) 2H2O(l) 0 NiCl2(aq) 3H2O(l) O2(g)
b

7. The combustion of ethanol, C2H6O, produces

carbon dioxide and water vapor. The equation that best describes this process is _____ . a. C2H6O(l) O2(g) 0 CO2(g) H2O(l) b. C2H6O(l) 0 2CO2(g) 3H2O(l) c. C2H6O(l) 3O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 3H2O(g) d. C2H6O(l) 0 3O2(l) 2CO2(g) 3H2O(l)
c

4. An aqueous solution of nickel(II) sulfate is

8. What is the product of this synthesis reaction?

mixed with aqueous sodium hydroxide. Will a visible reaction occur? a. No, solid nickel(II) hydroxide is soluble in water. b. No, solid sodium sulfate is soluble in water. c. Yes, solid sodium sulfate will precipitate out of solution. d. Yes, solid nickel(II) hydroxide will precipitate out of solution.
d

Cl2(g) 2NO(g) 0 ? a. NCl2 b. 2NOCl c. N2O2 d. 2ClO


b

5. When AgClO3(aq) and NaNO3(aq) are mixed,

_____ . a. no visible reaction occurs b. solid NaClO3 precipitates out of solution c. NO2 gas is released from the reaction d. solid Ag metal is produced
a

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The Mole
Section 11.1 Measuring Matter
pages 309312

Section 11.1 Assessment

page 312

5. How is a mole similar to a dozen?


The mole is a unit for counting 6.02 1023 representative particles. The dozen is used to count 12 items.

Practice Problems
pages 311, 312

1. Determine the number of atoms in 2.50 mol Zn.


6.02 1023 atoms 2.50 mol Zn 1 mol 1.51 1024 atoms of Zn

6. What is the relationship between Avogadros

number and one mole?


One mole contains Avogadros number (6.02 1023) of representative particles.

2. Given 3.25 mol AgNO3, determine the number

of formula units.
6.02 1023 formula units 3.25 mol AgNO3 1 mol 1.96 1024 formula units of AgNO3

7. Explain how you can convert from the number

of representative particles of a substance to moles of that substance.


Multiply the number of representative particles by 1 mol/6.02 1023 representative particles.

3. Calculate the number of molecules in 11.5 mol

H2O.
6.02 1023 molecules 11.5 mol H2O 1 mol 6.92 1024 molecules of H2O
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8. Explain why chemists use the mole.


Chemists use the mole because it is a convenient way of knowing how many representative particle are in a sample.

4. How many moles contain each of the following? a. 5.75

9. Thinking Critically Arrange the following

1024

atoms Al

1 mol 5.75 1024 atoms Al 6.02 1023 atoms 9.55 mol Al

from the smallest number of representative particles to the largest number of representative particles: 1.25 1025 atoms Zn; 3.56 mol Fe; 6.78 1022 molecules glucose (C6H12O6).
From smallest to largest: 6.78 1022 molecules glucose, 2.14 1024 atoms Fe, 1.25 1025 atoms Zn.

b. 3.75
3.75

1024

molecules CO2

1024

molecules CO2

1 mol 6.23 mol CO2 6.02 1023 molecules

10. Using Numbers Determine the number of

c. 3.58 1023 formula units ZnCl2


3.58 1023 formula units ZnCl2 1 mol 0.595 mol ZnCl2 6.02 1023 formula units

representative particles in each of the following and identify the representative particle: 11.5 mol Ag; 18.0 mol H2O; 0.150 mol NaCl.
6.02 1023 atoms Ag 11.5 mol Ag 1 mol Ag 6.92 1024 atoms Ag 6.02 1023 molecules H2O 18.0 mol H2O 1 mol H2O 1.08 1025 molecules H2O 6.02 1023 formula units NaCl 0.150 mol NaCl 1 mol NaCl 9.03 1022 formula units NaCl

d. 2.50 1020 atoms Fe


1 mol 2.50 1020 atoms Fe 6.02 1023 atoms 4.15 104 mol Fe

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Section 11.2 Mass and the Mole


pages 313319

13. How many atoms are in each of the following

samples? a. 55.2 g Li
6.02 1023 atoms 1 mol Li 55.2 g Li 6.94 g Li 1 mol 4.79 1024 atoms Li

Practice Problems
pages 316, 318

11. Determine the mass in grams of each of the

following. a. 3.57 mol Al


26.98 g Al 3.57 mol Al 96.3 g Al 1 mol Al

b. 0.230 g Pb
1 mol Pb 0.230 g Pb 207.2 g Pb 6.02 1023 atoms 6.68 1020 atoms Pb 1 mol

b. 42.6 mol Si
28.09 g Si 42.6 mol Si 1.20 103 g Si 1 mol Si

c. 11.5 g Hg
1 mol Hg 11.5 g Hg 200.6 g Hg 6.02 1023 atoms 3.45 1022 atoms Hg 1 mol

c. 3.45 mol Co
58.93 g Co 3.45 mol Co 203 g Co 1 mol Co

d. 2.45 mol Zn
65.38 g Zn 2.45 mol Zn 1.60 102 g Zn 1 mol Zn

d. 45.6 g Si
1 mol Si 45.6 g Si 28.09 g Si 6.02 1023 atoms 9.77 1023 atoms Si 1 mol

12. Determine the number of moles in each of the

e. 0.120 kg Ti
1000 g Ti 1 mol Ti 0.120 kg Ti 47.87 g Ti 1 kg Ti 6.02 1023 atoms 1.51 1024 atoms Ti 1 mol

1 mol Ag 25.5 g Ag 0.236 mol Ag 107.9 g Ag

b. 300.0 g S
1 mol S 300.0 g S 9.355 mol S 32.07 g S

14. What is the mass in grams of each of the

c. 125 g Zn
1 mol Zn 125 g Zn 1.91 mol Zn 65.38 g Zn

following? a. 6.02 1024 atoms Bi


1 mol Bi 6.02 1024 atoms Bi 6.02 1023 atoms 209.0 g Bi 2.09 103 g Bi 1 mol Bi

d. 1.00 kg Fe
1000 g Fe 1 mol Fe 1.00 kg Fe 55.85 g Fe 1 kg Fe 17.9 mol Fe

b. 1.00 1024 atoms Mn


1 mol Mn 1.00 1024 atoms Mn 6.02 1023 atoms 54.94 g Mn 91.3 g Mn 1 mol Mn

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following. a. 25.5 g Ag

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c. 3.40 1022 atoms He


3.40 1022 1 mol He atoms He 6.02 1023 atoms

19. Sequencing Arrange the following in order of

mass from the smallest mass to the largest: 1.0 mol Ar, 3.0 1024 atoms Ne, 20 g Kr.
39.95 g Ar 1.0 mol Ar 39.95 g Ar 1 mol Ar 1 mol Ne 3.0 1024 atoms Ne 6.02 1023 atoms Ne 20.18 g Ne 101 g Ne 1 mol Ne 20 g Kr, 1.0 mol Ar, 3.0 1024 atoms Ne

4.003 g He 0.226 g He 1 mol He

d. 1.50 1015 atoms N


1 mol N 1.50 1015 atoms N 6.02 1023 atoms 14.01 g N 3.49 108 g N 1 mol N

e. 1.50 1015 atoms U


1.50 1015 1 mol U atoms U 6.02 1023 atoms

Section 11.3 Moles of Compounds


pages 320327

238.0 g U 5.93 107 g U 1 mol U

Practice Problems
pages 321324, 326

Section 11.2 Assessment


page 319

20. Determine the number of moles of chloride ions

in 2.50 mol ZnCl2.


2 mol Cl 2.50 mol ZnCl2 5.00 mol Cl 1 mol ZnCl2

15. Explain what is meant by molar mass.


Molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

21. Calculate the number of moles of each element

16. What conversion factor should be used to

in 1.25 mol glucose (C6H12O6).


6 mol C 1.25 mol C6H12O6 7.50 mol C 1 mol C6H12O6 12 mol H 1.25 mol C6H12O6 15.0 mol H 1 mol C6H12O6 6 mol O 1.25 mol C6H12O6 7.50 mol O 1 mol C6H12O6

convert from mass to moles? Moles to mass?


Mass-to-mole conversions use the conversion factor 1 mol/number of grams. Moles-to-mass conversions use the conversion factor number of grams/1 mol.

17. Explain the steps needed to convert the mass

of an element to the number of atoms of the element.


Multiply the mass by the inverse of molar mass, and then multiply by Avogadros number.

22. Determine the number of moles of sulfate ions

present in 3.00 mol iron(III) sulfate (Fe2(SO4)3).


3 mol SO42 3.00 mol Fe2(SO4)3 1 mol Fe2(SO4)3 9.00 mol SO42

18. Thinking Critically The mass of a single atom

is usually given in the unit amu. Would it be possible to express the mass of a single atom in grams? Explain.
Because one mole is equal to 6.02 1023 atoms and the molar mass of an element is equal to one mole, the mass of a single atom can be calculated by dividing the mass of one mole by Avogadros number.

23. How many moles of oxygen atoms are present

in 5.00 mol diphosphorus pentoxide (P2O5)?


5 mol O 5.00 mol P2O5 25.0 mol O 1 mol P2O5

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24. Calculate the number of moles of hydrogen

atoms in 11.5 mol water.


2 mol H 11.5 mol H2O 23.0 mol H 1 mol H2O

14.01 g N 3 mol N 42.03 g 1 mol N 1.008 g H 12 mol H 12.096 g 1 mol H 30.97 g P 1 mol P 1 mol P 30.97 g

25. Determine the molar mass of each of the

following ionic compounds: NaOH, CaCl2, KC2H3O2, Sr(NO3)2, and (NH4)3PO4.


NaOH 22.99 g Na 1 mol Na 22.99 g 1 mol Na 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 1 mol H 1 mol H molar mass NaOH CaCl2 16.00 g 1.008 g 40.00 g/mol

16.00 g O 4 mol O 64.00 g 1 mol O molar mass (NH4)3PO4 149.10 g/mol

26. Calculate the molar mass of each of the

following molecular compounds: C2H5OH, C12H22O11, HCN, CCl4, and H2O.


C2H5OH 12.01 g C 2 mol C 24.02 g 1 mol C 1.008 g H 6 mol H 6.048 g 1 mol H 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g 1 mol O molar mass C2H5OH C12H22O11 12.01 g C 12 mol C 1 mol C 46.07 g/mol

40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 1 mol Ca 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass CaCl2

40.08 g 70.90 g 110.98 g/mol

39.10 g K 1 mol K 1 mol K 12.01 g C 2 mol C 1 mol C

39.10 g 24.02 g

1.008 g H 22 mol H 22.176 g 1 mol H 16.00 g O 11 mol O 176.00 g 1 mol O molar mass C12H22O11 HCN 1.008 g H 1 mol H 1.008 g 1 mol H 12.01 g C 1 mol C 1 mol C 12.01 g 342.30 g/mol

1.008 g H 3 mol H 3.024 g 1 mol H 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g 1 mol O molar mass KC2H3O2 Sr(NO3)2 98.14 g/mol

87.62 g Sr 1 mol Sr 87.62 g 1 mol Sr 14.01 g N 2 mol N 28.02 g 1 mol N 16.00 g O 6 mol O 96.00 g 1 mol O molar mass Sr(NO3)2 211.64 g/mol

14.01 g N 1 mol N 14.01 g 1 mol N molar mass HCN CCl4 27.03 g/mol

12.01 g C 1 mol C 1 mol C

12.01 g

(NH4)3PO4

35.45 g Cl 4 mol Cl 141.80 g 1 mol Cl molar mass CCl4 153.81 g/mol Solutions Manual

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KC2H3O2

144.12 g

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H2O

1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g 1 mol H 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g 1 mol O

16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass KMnO4

64.00 g 158.04 g/mol

Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 158.04 g KMnO4 2.55 mol KMnO4 1 mol KMnO4 403 g KMnO4

molar mass H2O

18.02 g/mol

27. What is the mass of 3.25 moles of sulfuric acid

(H2SO4)?
Step 1: Find the molar mass of H2SO4. 1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g 1 mol H 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 32.07 g

30. Determine the number of moles present in each

of the following. a. 22.6 g AgNO3


Step 1: Find the molar mass of AgNO3. 107.9 g Ag 1 mol Ag 107.9 g 1 mol Ag 14.01 g N 1 mol N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass AgNO3 14.01 g 48.00 g 169.9 g/mol

16.00 g O 4 mol O 64.00 g 1 mol O molar mass H2SO4 98.09 g/mol

Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 98.09 g H2SO4 3.25 mol H2SO4 1 mol H2SO4 319 g H2SO4

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol AgNO 22.6 g AgNO3 169.9 g AgNO3 0.133 mol AgNO3

28. What is the mass of 4.35


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

102

moles of zinc

chloride (ZnCl2)?
Step 1: Find the molar mass of ZnCl2. 65.38 g Zn 1 mol Zn 65.38 g 1 mol Zn 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass ZnCl2 70.90 g 136.28 g/mol

b. 6.50 g ZnSO4
Step 1: Find the molar mass of ZnSO4. 65.39 g Zn 1 mol Zn 65.39 g 1 mol Zn 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass ZnSO4 32.07 g 64.00 g 161.46 g/mol

Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 136.28 g ZnCl2 4.35 102 mol ZnCl2 1 mol ZnCl2 5.93 g ZnCl2

29. How many grams of potassium permanganate

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol ZnSO4 6.50 g ZnSO4 161.46 g ZnSO4 0.0403 mol ZnSO4

are in 2.55 moles?


Step 1: Find the molar mass of KMnO4. 39.10 g K 1 mol K 1 mol K 39.10 g

54.94 g Mn 1 mol Mn 54.94 g 1 mol Mn

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c. 35.0 g HCl
Step 1: Find the molar mass of HCl. 1.008 g H 1 mol H 1 mol H 1.008 g

52.00 g Cr 1 mol Cr 1 mol Cr 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Ag2CrO4

52.00 g 64.00 g 331.8 g/mol

35.45 g Cl 1 mol Cl 35.45 g 1 mol Cl molar mass HCl 36.46 g/mol

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol Ag2CrO4 25.8 g Ag2CrO4 331.8 g Ag2CrO4 0.0778 mol Ag2CrO4 Step 3: Make mole 0 formula unit conversion. 0.0778 mol Ag2CrO4 6.02 1023 formula units 1 mol 4.68 1022 formula units Ag2CrO4

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol HCl 35.0 g HCl 0.960 mol HCl 36.46 g HCl

d. 25.0 g Fe2O3
Step 1: Find the molar mass of Fe2O3. 55.85 g Fe 2 mol Fe 111.70 g 1 mol Fe 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Fe2O3 48.00 g 159.70 g/mol

a. How many Ag ions are present?


4.68 1022 formula units Ag2CrO4 2 Ag ions 1 formula unit Ag2CrO4 9.36 1022 Ag ions
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol Fe2O3 25.0 g Fe2O3 159.70 g Fe2O3 0.157 mol Fe2O3

b. How many CrO42 ions are present?


4.68 1022 formula units Ag2CrO4 1 CrO42 ion 1 formula unit Ag2CrO4 4.68 1022 CrO42 ions

e. 254 g PbCl4
Step 1: Find the molar mass of PbCl4. 207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 207.2 g 1 mol Pb 35.45 g Cl 4 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass PbCl4 141.80 g 349.0 g/mol

c. What is the mass in grams of one formula

unit of silver chromate?


331.8 g Ag2CrO4 1 mol Ag2CrO4 1 mol Ag2CrO4 6.02 1023 formula units 5.51 1022 g Ag2CrO4/formula unit

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol PbCl4 254 g PbCl4 349.0 g PbCl4 0.728 mol PbCl4

31. A sample of silver chromate (Ag2CrO4) has a

32. What mass of sodium chloride contains

mass of 25.8 g.
Step 1: Find the molar mass of Ag2CrO4. 107.9 g Ag 2 mol Ag 215.8 g 1 mol Ag

4.59 1024 formula units?


Step 1: Find the number of moles of NaCl. 4.59 1024 formula units NaCl 1 mol NaCl 7.62 mol NaCl 6.02 1023 formula units

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Step 2: Find the molar mass of NaCl. 22.99 g Na 1 mol Na 22.99 g 1 mol Na 35.45 g Cl 1 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass NaCl 35.45 g 58.44 g/mol

1 O atom 5.96 1023 O atoms 1 molecule C2H5OH

34. A sample of sodium sulfite (Na2SO3) has a

mass of 2.25 g.
Step 1: Find the molar mass of Na2SO3 22.99 g Na 2 mol Na 45.98 g 1 mol Na 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Na2SO3 32.07 g 48.00 g 126.05 g/mol

Step 3: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 58.44 g NaCl 7.62 mol NaCl 445 g NaCl 1 mol NaCl

33. A sample of ethanol (C2H5OH) has a mass of

45.6 g.
Step 1: Find the molar mass of C2H5OH. 12.01 g C 2 mol C 24.02 g 1 mol C 1.008 g H 6 mol H 6.048 g 1 mol H 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g 1 mol O molar mass C2H5OH 46.07 g/mol

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion 1 mol Na2SO3 2.25 g Na2SO3 126.05 g Na2SO3 0.0179 mol Na2SO3 Step 3: Make mole 0 formula unit conversion 0.0179 mol Na2SO3 6.02 1023 formula units 1 mol 1.08 1022 formula units Na2SO3

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 mol C2H5OH 45.6 g C2H5OH 46.07 g C2H5OH 0.990 mol C2H5OH Step 3: Make mole 0 molecule conversion. 6.02 1023 molecules 0.990 mol C2H5OH 1 mol 5.96 1023 molecules C2H5OH

a. How many Na ions are present?


1.08 1022 formula units Na2SO3 2 Na ions 1 formula unit Na2SO3 2.16 1022 Na ions

a. How many carbon atoms does the sample

b. How many SO32 ions are present?


1.08 1022 formula units Na2SO3 1 SO32 ions 1 formula unit Na2SO3 1.08 1022 SO32 ions

contain?
5.96 1023 molecules C2H5OH 2 C atoms 1.19 1024 C atoms 1 molecule C2H5OH

b. How many hydrogen atoms are present?


5.96 1023 molecules C2H5OH 6 H atoms 3.58 1024 H atoms 1 molecule C2H5OH

c. What is the mass in grams of one formula

unit of Na2SO3?
126.08 g Na2SO3 1 mol Na2SO3 1 mol Na2SO3 6.02 1023 formula units 2.09 1022 g Na2SO3/formula unit

c. How many oxygen atoms are present?


5.96 1023 molecules C2H5OH

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35. A sample of carbon dioxide has a mass of 52.0 g.


Step 1: Find the molar mass of CO2. 12.01 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g 1 mol C 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g 1 mol O molar mass CO2 44.01 g/mol

37. What three conversion factors are often used in

mole conversions?
number of grams , 1 mol 6.02 1023 representative particles , 1 mol number of atoms of element 1 mol compound

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol CO2 1.18 mol CO2 52.0 g CO2 44.01 g CO2 Step 3: Make mole 0 molecule conversion. 6.02 1023 molecules 1.18 mol CO2 1 mol 7.11 1023 molecules CO2

38. Explain how you can determine the number of

atoms or ions in a given mass of a compound.


Convert the mass to moles, multiply the number of moles by the ratio of the number of atoms or ions to one mole, multiply by Avogadros number.

39. If you know the mass in grams of a molecule of

a. How many carbon atoms are present?


7.11 1023 molecules CO2 1 C atom 7.11 1023 C atoms 1 molecule CO2

a substance, could you obtain the mass of a mole of that substance? Explain.
Yes, multiply the mass in grams of the molecule by Avogadros number.

40. Thinking Critically Design a bar graph that

b. How many oxygen atoms are present?


7.11 1023 molecules CO2 2 O atoms 1.42 1024 O atoms 1 molecule CO2

will show the number of moles of each element present in 500 g dioxin (C12H4Cl4O2), a powerful poison.
27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 0 Moles of Elements in 500 g Dioxin
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

of CO2?
44.01 g CO2 1 mol 6.02 1023 molecules 1 mol CO2 7.31 1023 g CO2/molecule

Section 11.3 Assessment


page 327

Number of moles

c. What is the mass in grams of one molecule

36. Describe how you can determine the molar

H Cl Element

mass of a compound.
Multiply the mass of one mole of each element by the ratio of that element to one mole of the compound. Add the resulting masses.

12.01 g C 12 mol C 144.12 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 4 mol H 1 mol H 4.032 g H

35.45 g Cl 4 mol Cl 141.80 g Cl 1 mol Cl 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 321.96 g/mol Solutions Manual

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1 mol C12H4Cl4O2 500 g C12H4Cl4O2 321.96 g C12H4Cl4O2 2 mol C12H4Cl4O2 12 mol C 2 mol C12H4Cl4O2 24 mol C 1 mol C12H4Cl4O2 4 mol H 2 mol C12H4Cl4O2 8 mol H 1 mol C12H4Cl4O2 4 mol Cl 2 mol C12H4Cl4O2 8 mol Cl 1 mol C12H4Cl4O2 2 mol O 2 mol C12H4Cl4O2 4 mol O 1 mol C12H4Cl4O2

Section 11.4 Empirical and Molecular Formulas


pages 328337

Practice Problems
pages 331, 333, 335, 337

42. Determine the percent by mass of each element

in calcium chloride.
Steps 1 and 2: Assume 1 mole; calculate molar mass of CaCl2. 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 1 mol Ca 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass CaCl2 40.08 g 70.90 g 110.98 g/mol

41. Applying Concepts The recommended daily

allowance of calcium is 1000 mg of Ca2 ions. Calcium carbonate is used to supply the calcium in vitamin tablets. How many moles of calcium ions does 1000 mg represent? How many moles of calcium carbonate are needed to supply the required amount of calcium ions? What mass of calcium carbonate must each tablet contain?
40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 12.01 g C 1 mol C 1 mol C 12.01 g C 48.00 g O 100.09 g/mol

Step 3: Determine percent by mass of each element. 40.08 g Ca percent Ca 100 110.98 g CaCl2 36.11% Ca 70.90 g Cl percent Cl 100 110.98 g CaCl2 63.89% Cl

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass

43. Calculate the percent composition of sodium

sulfate.
Steps 1 and 2: Assume 1 mole; calculate molar mass of Na2SO4. 22.99 g Na 2 mol Na 45.98 g 1 mol Na 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Na2SO4 32.07 g 64.00 g 142.05 g/mol

1 g Ca2 1 mol Ca2 1000 mg Ca2 3 2 10 mg Ca 40.08 g Ca2 0.02 mol Ca2 1 mol CaCO3 100.09 g CaCO3 0.02 mol Ca2 1 mol CaCO3 1 mol Ca2 2 g CaCO3

Step 3: Determine percent by mass of each element. 45.98 g Na percent Na 100 142.05 g Na2SO4 32.37% Na 32.07 g S percent S 100 142.05 g Na2SO4 22.58% S Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 11

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64.00 g O percent O 100 142.05 g Na2SO4 45.05% O

45. What is the percent composition of phosphoric

acid (H3PO4)?
Steps 1 and 2: Assume 1 mole; calculate molar mass of H3PO4. 1.008 g H 3 mol H 3.024 g 1 mol H 30.97 g P 1 mol P 1 mol P 30.97 g

44. Which has the larger percent by mass of sulfur,

H2SO3 or H2S2O8?
Steps 1 and 2: Assume 1 mole; calculate molar mass of H2SO3. 1.008 g H 2 mol H 1 mol H 32.06 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass H2SO3 2.016 g 32.06 g 48.00 g 82.08 g/mol

16.00 g O 4 mol O 64.00 g 1 mol O molar mass H3PO4 97.99 g/mol

Step 3: Determine percent by mass of each element. 3.024 g H percent H 100 3.08% H 97.99 g H3PO4 30.97 g P percent P 100 31.61% P 97.99 g H3PO4 64.00 g O percent O 100 65.31% O 97.99 g H3PO4

Step 3: Determine percent by mass of S. 32.06 g S percent S 100 39.06% S 82.08 g H2SO3 Repeat steps 1 and 2 for H2S2O8. Assume 1 mole; calculate molar mass of H2S2O8. 1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g 1 mol H 32.06 g S 2 mol S 1 mol S 64.12 g

46. A blue solid is found to contain 36.84%

nitrogen and 63.16% oxygen. What is the empirical formula for this solid?
Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol N 36.84 g N 2.630 mol N 14.01 g N 1 mol O 63.16 g O 3.948 mol O 16.00 g O Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 2.630 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N 2.630 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N 1.5 mol O 3.948 mol O 1.500 mol O 2.630 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N The simplest ratio is 1 mol N: 1.5 mol O. Step 3: Convert decimal fraction to whole number. In this case, multiply by 2 because 1.5 2 3. Therefore, the empirical formula is N2O3.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

16.00 g O 8 mol O 128.00 g 1 mol O molar mass H2S2O8 194.14 g/mol

Step 3: Determine percent by mass of S. 64.12 g S percent S 100 194.14 g H2S2O8 33.03% S H2SO3 has a larger percent by mass of S.

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47. Determine the empirical formula for a

49. The chemical analysis of aspirin indicates that

compound that contains 35.98% aluminum and 64.02% sulfur.


Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol Al 35.98 g Al 1.334 mol Al 26.98 g Al 1 mol S 64.02 g S 1.996 mol S 32.06 g S Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 1.334 mol Al 1.000 mol Al 1 mol Al 1.334 mol Al 1.000 mol Al 1 mol Al 1.5 mol S 1.996 mol S 1.500 mol S 1.334 mol Al 1.000 mol Al 1 mol Al The simplest ratio is 1 mol Al: 1.5 mol S. Step 3: Convert decimal fraction to whole number. In this case, multiply by 2 because 1.5 2 3. Therefore, the empirical formula is Al2S3.

the molecule is 60.00% carbon, 4.44% hydrogen, and 35.56% oxygen. Determine the empirical formula for aspirin.
Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol C 60.00 g C 5.00 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 4.44 g H 4.40 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 35.56 g O 2.22 mol O 16.00 g O Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 5.00 mol C 2.25 mol C 2.25 mol C 2.22 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O 4.40 mol H 1.98 mol H 2 mol H 2.22 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O 1 mol O 2.22 mol O 1.00 mol O 2.22 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O The simplest ratio is 2.25 mol C: 2 mol H: 1 mol O. Step 3: Convert decimal fraction to whole number. In this case, multiply by 4 because 2.25 4 9. Therefore, the empirical formula is C9H8O4.

48. Propane is a hydrocarbon, a compound

composed only of carbon and hydrogen. It is 81.82% carbon and 18.18% hydrogen. What is the empirical formula?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol C 81.82 g C 6.813 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 18.18 g H 18.04 mol H 1.008 g H Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 6.813 mol C 1.000 mol C 1 mol C 6.813 mol C 1.000 mol C 1 mol C 2.65 mol H 18.04 mol H 2.649 mol H 6.813 mol C 1.000 mol C 1 mol C The simplest ratio is 1 mol: 2.65 mol H. Step 3: Convert decimal fraction to whole number. In this case, multiply by 3 because 2.65 3 7.95 8. Therefore, the empirical formula is C3H8.

50. What is the empirical formula for a compound

that contains 10.89% magnesium, 31.77% chlorine, and 57.34% oxygen?


Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol Mg 10.89 g Mg 0.4480 mol Mg 24.31 g Mg 1 mol Cl 31.77 g Cl 0.8962 mol Cl 35.45 g Cl 1 mol O 57.34 g O 3.584 mol O 16.00 g O Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 0.4480 mol Mg 1.000 mol Mg 1 mol Mg 0.4480 mol Mg 1.000 mol Mg 1 mol Mg 0.8962 mol Cl 2.000 mol Cl 2 mol Cl 0.4480 mol Mg 1.000 mol Mg 1 mol Mg 8 mol O 3.584 mol O 7.999 mol O 0.4480 mol Mg 1.000 mol Mg 1 mol Mg

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The empirical formula is MgCl2O8 or Mg(ClO4)2. The simplest ratio is 1 mol Mg: 2 mol Cl: 8 mol O.

52. A compound was found to contain 49.98 g

51. Analysis of a chemical used in photographic

carbon and 10.47 g hydrogen. The molar mass of the compound is 58.12 g/mol. Determine the molecular formula.
Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol C 49.98 g C 4.162 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 10.47 g H 10.39 mol H 1.008 g H Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 4.162 mol C 1.000 mol C 1 mol C 4.162 mol C 1.000 mol C 1 mol C 10.39 mol H 2.50 mol H 2.5 mol H 4.162 mol C 1.000 mol C 1 mol C The simplest ratio is 1 mol C: 2.5 mol H. Because 2.5 2 5, the empirical formula is C2H5. Step 3: Calculate the molar mass of the empirical formula. 12.01 g C 2 mol C 24.02 g 1 mol C
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

developing fluid indicates a chemical composition of 65.45% C, 5.45% H, and 29.09% O. The molar mass is found to be 110.0 g/mol. Determine the molecular formula.
Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol C 65.45 g C 5.450 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 5.45 g H 5.41 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 29.09 g O 1.818 mol O 16.00 g O Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 5.450 mol C 3.000 mol C 3 mol C 1.818 mol O 1.000 mol O 1 mol O 5.41 mol H 2.97 mol H 3 mol H 1.818 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O 1 mol O 1.818 mol O 1.000 mol O 1.818 mol O 1.000 mol O 1 mol O The simplest ratio is 1 mol: 2.65 mol H. Therefore, the empirical formula is C3H3O. Step 3: Calculate the molar mass of the empirical formula. 12.01 g C 3 mol C 36.03 g 1 mol C 1.008 g H 3 mol H 3.024 g 1 mol H 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g 1 mol O molar mass C3H3O 55.05 g/mol

1.008 g H 5 mol H 5.040 g 1 mol H molar mass C2H5 29.06 g/mol

Step 4: Determine whole number multiplier. 58.12 g/mol 2.000 29.06 g/mol The molecular formula is C4H10.

53. A colorless liquid composed of 46.68% nitrogen

and 53.32% oxygen has a molar mass of 60.01 g/mol. What is the molecular formula?
Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each element. 1 mol N 46.68 g N 3.332 mol N 14.01 g N 1 mol O 53.32 g O 3.333 mol O 16.00 g O Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 3.332 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N 3.332 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N

Step 4: Determine whole number multiplier. 110.0 g/mol 1.998, or 2 55.05 g/mol The molecular formula is C6H6O2.

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1 mol O 3.333 mol O 1.000 mol O 3.332 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N The simplest ratio is 1 mol N: 1 mol O. The empirical formula is NO. Step 3: Calculate the molar mass of the empirical formula. 14.01 g N 1 mol N 14.01 g 1 mol N 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g 1 mol O molar mass NO 30.01 g/mol

Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 3.131 mol Fe 1.000 mol Fe 1 mol Fe 3.131 mol Fe 1.000 mol Fe 1 mol Fe 1.5 mol O 4.696 mol O 1.500 mol O 3.131 mol Fe 1.000 mol Fe 1 mol Fe The simplest ratio is 1 mol Fe: 1.5 mol O. Because 1.5 2 3, the empirical formula is Fe2O3.

56. The pain reliever morphine contains 17.900 g C,

1.680 g H, 4.225 g O, and 1.228 g N. Determine the empirical formula.


Step 1: Calculate moles of each element. 1 mol C 17.900 g C 1.490 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 1.680 g H 1.667 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 4.225 g O 0.2641 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol N 1.228 g N 0.087 65 mol N 14.01 g N Step 2: Calculate mole ratios.

Step 4: Determine whole number multiplier. 60.01 g/mol 2.000 30.01 g/mol The molecular formula is N2O2.

54. When an oxide of potassium is decomposed,

19.55 g K and 4.00 g O are obtained. What is the empirical formula for the compound?
Step 1: Calculate moles of each element. 1 mol K 19.55 g K 0.5000 mol K 39.10 g K 1 mol O 4.00 g O 0.250 mol O 16.00 g O Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 0.5000 mol K 2.00 mol K 2 mol K 0.250 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O 1 mol O 0.250 mol O 1.00 mol O 0.250 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O The simplest ratio is 2 mol K: 1 mol O. The empirical formula is K2O.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

0.08765 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N 0.08765 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N 1.490 mol C 17.00 mol C 17 mol C 0.08765 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N 1.667 mol H 19.02 mol H 19 mol H 0.08765 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N 0.2641 mol O 3.013 mol O 3 mol O 0.08765 mol N 1.000 mol N 1 mol N The simplest ratio is 17 mol C: 19 mol H: 3 mol O: 1 mol N. The empirical formula is C17H19O3N.

55. Analysis of a compound composed of iron and

oxygen yields 174.86 g Fe and 75.14 g O. What is the empirical formula for this compound?
Step 1: Calculate moles of each element 1 mol Fe 174.86 g Fe 3.131 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe 1 mol O 75.14 g O 4.696 mol O 16.00 g O

57. An oxide of aluminum contains 0.545 g Al and

0.485 g O. Find the empirical formula for the oxide.


Step 1: Calculate moles of each element. 1 mol Al 0.545 g Al 0.0202 mol Al 26.98 g Al 1 mol O 0.485 g O 0.0303 mol O 6.00 g O

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Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 0.0202 mol Al 1.00 mol Al 1 mol Al 0.0202 mol Al 1.00 mol Al 1 mol Al 1.5 mol O 0.0303 mol O 1.50 mol O 0.0202 mol Al 1.00 mol Al 1 mol Al The simplest ratio is 1 mol Al: 1.5 mol O. Because 1.5 2 3, the empirical formula is Al2O3.

62. Inferring Hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite

(Fe3O4) are two ores used as sources of iron. Which ore provides the greater percent of iron per kilogram?
55.85 g Fe 2 mol Fe 111.70 g Fe 1 mol Fe 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Fe2O3 48.00 g O 159.70 g/mol

Section 11.4 Assessment


page 337

55.85 g Fe 3 mol Fe 167.55 g Fe 1 mol Fe 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Fe3O4 64.00 g O 231.55 g/mol

58. Explain how percent composition data for a

compound are related to the masses of the elements in the compound.


Percent composition is numerically equal to the mass in grams of each element in a 100.0-g sample.

111.70 g Fe percent by mass 100 159.70 g Fe2O3 69.94% Fe in Fe2O3 167.55 g Fe percent by mass 100 231.55 g Fe3O4 72.36% Fe in Fe3O4 Hematite is 69.94% Fe, magnetite is 72.36% Fe. Magnetite contains a greater percentage of iron per kilogram than hematite.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

59. What is the difference between an empirical

formula and a molecular formula?


The empirical formula is the simplest wholenumber ratio of the atoms in a compound. The molecular formula is the actual ratio of atoms in the compound.

60. Explain how you can find the mole ratio in a

chemical compound.
The mole ratio is determined by calculating the moles of each element in the compound and dividing each number of moles by the smallest number of moles. It is sometimes necessary to multiply the ratio by an integer to obtain whole numbers.

Section 11.5 The Formula for a Hydrate


pages 338341

Practice Problems
page 340

63. A hydrate is found to have the following percent

61. Thinking Critically An analysis for copper was

performed on two pure solids. One solid was found to contain 43.0% copper; the other contained 32.0% copper. Could these solids be samples of the same copper-containing compound? Explain your answer.
No, a compound will always have the same chemical analysis. Therefore, if two solid have different percents of copper, they are different compounds.

composition: 48.8% MgSO4 and 51.2% H2O. What is the formula and name for this hydrate?
Step 1: Assume 100 g sample; calculate moles of each component. 1 mol MgSO4 48.8 g MgSO4 120.38 g MgSO4 0.405 mol MgSO4 1 mol H2O 51.2 g H2O 2.84 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O

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Step 2: Calculate mole ratios. 0.405 mol MgSO4 1.00 mol MgSO4 0.405 mol MgSO4 1.00 mol MgSO4 1 mol MgSO4 1 mol MgSO4 2.84 mol H2O 7.01 mol H2O 0.405 mol MgSO4 1.00 mol MgSO4 7 mol H2O 1 mol MgSO4 The formula of the hydrate is MgSO47H2O. Its name is magnesium sulfate heptahydrate.

Section 11.5 Assessment


page 341

65. What is a hydrate? What does its name indicate

about its composition?


A hydrate is a compound that has a specific number of water molecules associated with it. The name indicates the name of the compound and the number of water molecules associated with each formula unit of compound.

66. Describe the experimental procedure for deter-

mining the formula for a hydrate. Explain the reason for each step.
Mass an empty crucible. Add some hydrate and remass. Heat the crucible to drive out the water. Cool and remass. Determine the moles of the anhydrous compound. Subtract the mass of the crucible after heating from the mass of the crucible with the hydrate. The difference is the mass of the water lost. Determine the moles of water. Determine the simplest whole-number ratio of moles of water to moles of anhydrous compound, which will yield the formula of the hydrate.

64. Figure 11-13 shows a common hydrate of

cobalt(II) chloride. If 11.75 g of this hydrate is heated, 9.25 g of anhydrous cobalt chloride remains. What is the formula and name for this hydrate?
Step 1: Calculate the mass of water driven off. mass of hydrated compound mass of anhydrous compound remaining 11.75 g CoCl2xH2O 9.25 g CoCl2 2.50 g H2O Step 2: Calculate moles of each component.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

67. Name the compound having the formula

SrCl26H2O.

1 mol CoCl2 9.25 g CoCl2 129.83 g CoCl2 0.0712 mol CoCl2 1 mol H2O 2.50 g H2O 0.139 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O Step 3: Calculate mole ratios. 0.0712 mol CoCl2 1.00 mol CoCl2 0.0712 mol CoCl2 1.00 mol CoCl2 1 mol CoCl2 1 mol CoCl2 0.139 mol H2O 1.95 mol H2O 0.0712 mol CoCl2 1.00 mol CoCl2 2 mol H2O 1 mol CoCl2 The formula of the hydrate is CoCl22H2O. Its name is cobalt(II) chloride dihydrate.

strontium chloride hexahydrate

68. Thinking Critically Explain how the hydrate illus-

trated in Figure 11-13 might be used as a means of roughly determining the probability of rain.
The hydrate is pink in moist air.

69. Sequencing Arrange these hydrates in order of

increasing percent water content: MgSO47H2O, Ba(OH)28H2O, CoCl26H2O.


24.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 24.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 11 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 14 mol H 1 mol H 32.07 g S 176.00 g O 14.112 g H

molar mass MgSO47H2O 246.49 g

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137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 1 mol Ba 16.00 g O 10 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 18 mol H 1 mol H

137.33 g Ba 160.00 g O 18.144 g H

Chapter 11 Assessment pages 346350


Concept Mapping 70. Complete this concept map by placing in each box the conversion factor needed to convert from each measure of matter to the next.
Mass 1. 4.

molar mass Ba(OH)28H2O 315.47 g 58.93 g Co 1 mol Co 1 mol Co 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl 16.00 g O 6 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 12 mol H 1 mol H molar mass CoCl26H2O 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 1 mol H molar mass H2O 58.93 g Co

Moles 70.90 g Cl 96.00 g O 12.096 g H 237.93 g 16.00 g O 2.016 g H 18.02 g 2. Number of particles 1 mol 1. number of grams

Moles

3.

6.02 1023 representative particles 2. 1 mol 1 mol 3. 6.02 1023 representative particles number of grams 4. 1 mol
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

7(18.02 g H2O) 100 246.49 g MgSO47H2O 51.17% H2O in MgSO47H2O 8(18.02 g H2O) 100 315.47 g Ba(OH)28H2O 6(18.02 g H2O) 100 237.93 g CoCl26H2O

Mastering Concepts 71. Why is the mole an important unit to chemists? (11.1)
A mole allows a chemist to accurately measure the number of atoms, molecules, or formula units in a substance.

45.70% H2O in Ba(OH)28H2O

72. How is a mole similar to a dozen? (11.1)


A mole, like a dozen, contains a specific number of items.

45.44% H2O in CoCl26H2O CoCl26H2O; Ba(OH)28H2O; MgSO47H2O

73. What is the numerical value of Avogadros

number? (11.1)
6.02 1023

74. What is molar mass? (11.2)


Molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole of any element or compound.

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75. Which contains more atoms, a mole of silver

82. Which of the following molecules contains the

atoms or a mole of gold atoms? Explain your answer. (11.2)


They both contain the same number of atoms because a mole of anything contains 6.02 1023 representative particles.

most moles of carbon atoms per mole of the compound: ascorbic acid (C6H8O6), glycerin (C3H8O3), or vanillin (C8H8O3)? Explain. (11.3)
The formula for vanillin (C8H8O3) shows there are eight carbon atoms per molecule, more than ascorbic acid or glycerin.

76. Discuss the relationships that exist between the

mole, molar mass, and Avogadros number. (11.2)


Molar mass is the mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance. Avogadros number is the number of representative particles in one mole. The mass of 6.02 1023 representative particles of a substance is the molar mass of the substance.

83. Explain what is meant by percent composition.

(11.4)
Percent composition is the percent by mass of each element in a compound.

84. What is the difference between an empirical

77. Which has a greater mass, a mole of silver

formula and a molecular formula? Use an example to illustrate your answer. (11.4)
An empirical formula is the smallest wholenumber ratio of elements that make up a compound (CH). A molecular formula specifies the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule or formula unit of the substance (C6H6).

atoms or a mole of gold atoms? Explain your answer. (11.2)


The molar mass of Au is 197.0 g/mol; the molar mass of Ag is 107.9 g/mol. Thus, a mole of Au has a greater mass.

78. Explain the difference between atomic mass

85. Do all pure samples of a given compound have

(amu) and molar mass (gram). (11.2)


Atomic mass (amu) is the mass of an individual particle (atom, molecule). Molar mass (grams) is the mass of a mole of particles.

the same percent composition? Explain. (11.4)


Yes, for every pure substance, the percent by mass of each element is the same regardless of the size of the sample.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

79. If you divide the molar mass of an element by

86. What information must a chemist obtain in

Avogadros number, what is the meaning of the quotient? (11.2)


the mass of one atom of the element

order to determine the empirical formula of an unknown compound? (11.4)


the percent composition of the compound

80. List three conversion factors used in molar

87. What is a hydrated compound? Use an example

conversions. (11.3)
1 mol , number of grams 6.02 1023 representative particles , 1 mol 1 mol , 6.02 1023 representative particles number of grams 1 mol

to illustrate your answer. (11.5)


A hydrated compound is a compound that has a specific number of water molecules associated with its atoms, for example, Na2CO310H2O and CuSO45H2O.

88. Explain how hydrates are named. (11.5)


First, name the compound. Then, add a prefix (mono- di- tri-) that indicates how many water molecules are associated with one mole of compound.

81. What information is provided by the formula for

potassium chromate (K2CrO4)? (11.3)


One mole of K2CrO4 contains two moles of K ions and one mole of CrO42 ions. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 11

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Mastering Problems Mole-Particle Conversions (11.1) Level 1 89. Determine the number of representative particles in each of the following. a. 0.250 mol silver
6.02 atoms Ag 0.250 mol Ag 1 mol Ag 1023 1.51 1023 atoms Ag

c. 1.56 1023 formula units sodium hydroxide


1.56 1023 formula units NaOH 1 mol NaOH 6.02 1023 formula units NaOH 2.59 101 mol NaOH

d. 1.25 1025 copper(II) ions


1.25 1025 Cu2 ions 1 mol Cu2 ions 6.02 1023 Cu2 ions 2.08 101 mol Cu2 ions

b. 8.56 103 mol sodium chloride


8.56 103 mol NaCl 6.02 1023 formula units NaCl 1 mol NaCl 5.15 1021 formula units NaCl

91. Make the following conversions. a. 1.51 1015 atoms Si to mol Si


1 mol Si 1.51 1015 atoms Si 6.02 1023 atoms Si 2.51 109 mol Si

c. 35.3 mol carbon dioxide


6.02 molecules CO2 35.3 mol CO2 1 mol CO2 1023 2.13 1025 molecules CO2

b. 4.25 102 mol H2SO4 to molecules

H2SO4
4.25 102 mol H2SO4 6.02 1023 molecules H2SO4 1 mol H2SO4
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d. 0.425 mol nitrogen (N2)


molecules N2 6.02 0.425 mol N2 1 mol N2 1023 2.56 1023 molecules N2

2.56 1022 molecules H2SO4

90. Determine the number of moles in each of the

c. 8.95 1025 molecules CCl4 to mol CCl4


8.95 1025 molecules CCl4 1 mol CCl4 6.02 1023 molecules CCl4 1.49 102 mol CCl4

following. a. 3.25 1020 atoms lead


1 mol Pb 3.25 1020 atoms Pb 6.02 1023 atoms Pb 5.39 104 mol Pb

d. 5.90 mol Ca to atoms Ca


6.02 1023 atoms Ca 5.90 mol Ca 1 mol Ca 3.55 1024 atoms Ca

b. 4.96 1024 molecules glucose


4.96 1024 molecules glucose 1 mol glucose 6.02 1023 molecules glucose 8.24 mol of glucose

92. How many molecules are contained in each of

the following? a. 1.35 mol carbon disulfide (CS2)


6.02 1023 molecules CS2 1.35 mol CS2 1 mol CS2 8.13 1023 molecules CS2

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b. 0.254 mol diarsenic trioxide (As2O3)


0.254 mol As2O3 6.02 1023 molecules As2O3 1 mol As2O3 1.53 1023 molecules As2O3

95. A solution containing 0.250 mol Cu2 ions is

added to another solution containing 0.130 mol Ca2 ions. What is the total number of metal ions in the combined solution?
0.250 mol Ca2 ions 0.130 mol Ca2 ion 0.380 mol metal ions 0.380 mol metal ions

c. 1.25 mol water


6.02 molecules H2O 1.25 mol H2O 1 mol H2O 1023 7.53 1023 molecules H2O

6.02 1023 mol metal ions 1 mol metal ions 2.29 1023 Cu2 and Ca2 ions

d. 150.0 mol HCl


6.02 1023 molecules HCl 150.0 mol HCl 1 mol HCl 9.030 1025 molecules HCl

96. If a snowflake contains 1.9 1018 molecules

of water, how many moles of water does it contain?


1.9 1018 molecules H2O 1 mol H2O 6.02 1023 molecules H2O 3.2 106 mol H2O

93. How many moles contain each of the following? a. 1.25 1015 molecules carbon dioxide
1.25 1015 molecules CO2 1 mol CO2 6.02 1023 molecules CO2 2.08 109 mol CO2

97. If you could count two atoms every second,

b. 3.59 1021 formula units sodium nitrate


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.59 1021 formula units NaNO3 1 mol NaNO3 6.02 1023 formula units NaNO3 5.96 103 mol NaNO3

how long would it take you to count a mole of atoms? Assume that you counted continually 24 hours every day. How does the time you calculated compare with the age of Earth, which is estimated to be 4.5 109 years old?
1s 6.02 1023 particles 3.01 1023 s 2 particles 1y 1 day 1h 3.01 1023 s 3600 s 24 h 365 day 9.54 1015 y 2.1 106 4.5 109 y 9.5 1015 yr; about 2 million times longer

c. 2.89 1027 formula units calcium carbonate


2.89 1027 formula units CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 6.02 1023 formula units CaCO3 4.80 103 mol CaCO3

Level 2 94. A bracelet containing 0.200 mol of metal atoms is 75% gold. How many particles of gold atoms are in the bracelet?
0.200 mol Au 0.75 0.150 mol Au 6.02 atoms Au 0.150 mol Au 1 mol Au 1023 9.03 1022 atoms Au

Mole-Mass Conversions (11.2) Level 1 98. Calculate the mass of the following. a. 5.22 mol He
4.00 g He 5.22 mol He 20.9 g He 1 mol He

b. 0.0455 mol Ni
58.69 g Ni 0.0455 mol Ni 2.67 g Ni 1 mol Ni

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c. 2.22 mol Ti
47.87 g Ti 2.22 mol Ti 106 g Ti 1 mol Ti

d. 0.00566 mol Ge
72.61 g Ge 0.00566 mol Ge 0.411 g Ge 1 mol Ge

Particle-Mass Conversions (11.2) Level 1 101. Convert the following to mass in grams. a. 4.22 1015 atoms U
1 mol U 4.22 1015 atoms U 6.02 1023 atoms U 283.03 g U 1.67 106 g U 1 mol U

99. Make the following conversions. a. 3.50 mol Li to g Li


6.94 g Li 3.50 mol Li 24.3 g Li 1 mol Li

b. 8.65 1025 atoms H


8.65 1025 atoms H 1.008 g H 1 mol H 1 mol H 6.02 1023 atoms H 145 g H

b. 7.65 g Co to mol Co
1 mol Co 7.65 g Co 0.130 mol Co 58.93 g Co

c. l.25 1022 atoms O


1.25 1022 atoms O 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol O 6.02 1023 atoms O 0.332 g O

c. 5.62 g Kr to mol Kr
1 mol Kr 5.62 g Kr 0.0671 mol Kr 83.80 g Kr

d. 0.0550 mol As to g As
74.92 g As 0.0550 mol As 4.12 g As 1 mol As

d. 4.44 1023 atoms Pb


4.44 1023 atoms Pb
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Level 2 100. Determine the mass in grams of the following. a. 1.33 1022 mol Sb
121.76 g Sb 1.33 1022 mol Sb 1 mol Sb 1.62 1024 g Sb

207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 1 mol Pb 6.02 1023 atoms Pb 153 g Pb

102. A sensitive balance can detect masses of

1 108 g. How many atoms of silver would be in a sample having this mass?
1 mol Ag 1 108 g Ag 107.87 g Ag 6.02 1023 atoms Ag 5 1013 atoms Ag 1 mol Ag

b. 4.75 1014 mol Pt


195.08 g Pt 4.75 1014 mol Pt 1 mol Pt 9.27 1016 g Pt

c. 1.22 1023 mol Ag


1.22 1023 107.87 g Ag mol Ag 1 mol Ag

103. Calculate the number of atoms in each of the

following. a. 25.8 g Hg
1 mol Hg 25.8 g Hg 200.59 g Hg 6.02 1023 atoms Hg 1 mol Hg 7.74 1022 atoms Hg

1.32 1025 g Ag

d. 9.85 1024 mol Cr


52.00 g Cr 9.85 1024 mol Cr 1 mol Cr 5.12 1026 g Cr

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b. 0.0340 g Zn
1 mol Zn 0.0340 g Zn 63.59 g Zn 6.02 1023 atoms Zn 3.13 1020 atoms Zn 1 mol Zn

Level 2 106. A mixture contains 0.250 mol Fe and 1.20 g C. What is the total number of atoms in the mixture?
6.02 1023 atoms Fe 0.250 mol Fe 1 mol Fe 1.51 1023 atoms Fe 6.02 1023 atoms C 1 mol C 1.20 g C 12.01 g C 1 mol C 0.601 1023 atoms C 1.51 1023 atoms Fe 0.601 1023 atoms C 2.11 1023 total atoms

c. 150 g Ar
1 mol Ar 150 g Ar 39.95 g Ar 6.02 1023 atoms Ar 2.3 1024 atoms Ar 1 mol Ar

d. 0.124 g Mg
1 mol Mg 0.124 g Mg 24.31 g Mg 6.02 1023 atoms Mg 1 mol Mg 3.07 1021 atoms Mg

104. Which has more atoms, 10.0 g of carbon or

Chemical Formulas (11.3) Level 1 107. In the formula for sodium phosphate (Na3PO4), how many moles of sodium are represented? How many moles of phosphorus? How many moles of oxygen?
3 mol Na, 1 mol P, 4 mol O

10.0 g of calcium? How many atoms does each have?


1 mol C 6.02 1023 atoms C 10.0 g C 12.01 g C 1 mol C
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

108. How many moles of oxygen atoms are

5.01 1023 atoms C 1 mol Ca 6.02 1023 atoms Ca 10.0 g Ca 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 1.50 1023 atoms Ca 10.0 g C contains more atoms.

contained in the following? a. 2.50 mol KMnO4


4 mol O 2.50 mol KMnO4 1 mol KMnO4 10.0 mol O

b. 45.9 mol CO2


2 mol O 45.9 mol CO2 91.8 mol O 1 mol CO2

105. Which has more atoms, 10.0 moles of carbon

or 10.0 moles of calcium? How many does each have?


One mole of any substance contains 6.02 1023 representative particles. Thus, 10.0 moles of carbon and 10.0 moles of calcium contain the same number or atoms. 6.02 1023 atoms 10.0 mol 1 mol 6.02 1024 atoms

c. 1.25 102 mol CuSO45H2O


1.25 102 mol CuSO45H2O 9 mol O 0.113 mol O 1 mol CuSO45H2O

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Level 2 109. The graph shows the numbers of atoms of each element in a compound. What is its formula? What is its molar mass?
Atoms per formula unit

The Composition of a Compound


6 5 4 3 2 1 Ca C H Atoms O

Molar Mass (11.3) Level 1 111. Determine the molar mass of each of the following. a. nitric acid (HNO3)
1.008 g H 1 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol H 14.01 g N 1 mol N 14.01 g N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 3 mol O 48.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 63.02 g/mol HNO3

CaC4H6O4 (calcium acetate) 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 12.01 g C 4 mol C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 6 mol H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 48.04 g C 6.048 g H 64.00 g O 158.18 g/mol

b. ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3)


14.01 g N 2 mol N 28.02 g N 1 mol N 1.008 g H 4 mol H 4.032 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 3 mol O 48.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 80.05 g/mol NH4NO3

c. zinc oxide (ZnO)


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

110. How many carbon tetrachloride molecules are

65.39 g Zn 1 mol Zn 65.39 g Zn 1 mol Zn 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 16.00 g O 81.39 g/mol ZnO

in 3.00 mol carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)? How many carbon atoms? How many chlorine atoms? How many total atoms?
6.02 1023 molecules CCl4 3.00 mol CCl4 1 mol CCl4 1.81 1024 molecules CCl4 1 mol atoms C 1.81 1024 molecules CCl4 1 molecule CCl4 1.81 1024 atoms C 1.81 1024 4 mol atoms Cl molecules CCl4 1 molecule CCl4

d. cobalt chloride (CoCl2)


58.93 g Co 1 mol Co 58.93 g Co 1 mol Co 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 70.90 g Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass 129.83 g/mol CoCl2

7.24 1024 atoms Cl 1.81 1024 atoms C 7.24 1024 atoms Cl 9.05 1024 total atoms

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112. Calculate the molar mass of each of the

113. Determine the molar mass of allyl sulfide, the

following. a. ascorbic acid (C6H8O6)


12.01 g C 6 mol C 72.06 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 8 mol H 8.064 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 6 mol O 96.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 176.12 g/mol C6H8O6

compound responsible for the smell of garlic. The chemical formula of allyl sulfide is (C3H5)2S.
12.01 g C 6 mol C 1 mol C 72.06 g C

1.008 g H 10 mol H 10.080 g H 1 mol H 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S molar mass 32.07 g S 114.21 g/mol (C3H5)2S

b. sulfuric acid (H2SO4)


1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g H 1 mol H 32.07 g S 1 mol S 32.07 g S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 4 mol O 64.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 98.09 g/mol H2SO4

Mass-Mole Conversions (11.3) Level 1 114. How many moles are in 100.0 g of each of the following compounds? a. dinitrogen oxide (N2O)
14.01 g N 2 mol N 28.02 g N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 44.02 g/mol

c. silver nitrate (AgNO3)


107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag 107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

14.01 g N 1 mol N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass

14.01 g N 48.00 g O 169.88 g/mol AgNO3

1 mol N2O 2.27 mol N2O 100.0 g N2O 44.02 g N2O

b. methanol (CH3OH)
12.01 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 4 mol H 4.032 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 32.04 g/mol

d. saccharin (C7H5NO3S)
12.01 g C 7 mol C 84.07 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 5 mol H 5.040 g H 1 mol H 14.01 g N 1 mol N 14.01 g N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 3 mol O 48.00 g O 1 mol O 32.07 g S 1 mol S 32.07 g S 1 mol S molar mass 183.19 g/mol C7H5NO3S

1 mol CH3OH 100.0 g CH3OH 32.04 g CH3OH 3.12 mol CH3OH

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115. What is the mass of each of the following? a. 4.50

102

mol CuCl2

63.55 g Cu 1 mol Cu 63.55 g Cu 1 mol Cu 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass 70.90 g Cl 134.45 g/mol

Level 2 117. Benzoyl peroxide is a substance used as an acne medicine. What is the mass in grams of 3.50 102 moles of benzoyl peroxide (C14H10O4)?
12.01 g C 14 mol C 168.14 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 10 mol H 10.080 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 64.00 g O 242.22 g/mol

134.35 g CuCl2 4.50 102 mol CuCl2 1 mol CuCl2 6.05 g CuCl2

b. 1.25 102 mol Ca(OH)2


40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 1.008 g H 2 mol H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 2 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 1.25 102 2.016 g H 32.00 g O 74.10 g/mol

242.22 g 3.50 102 mol 1 mol 8.48 g benzoyl peroxide

118. Hydrofluoric acid is a substance used to etch

glass. Determine the mass of 4.95 1025 HF molecules.


1.008 g H 1 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol H 19.00 g F 1 mol F 1 mol F molar mass 19.00 g F
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

74.10 g Ca(OH)2 mol Ca(OH)2 1 mol Ca(OH)2

9.26 102 g Ca(OH)2

116. Determine the number of moles in each of the

20.01 g/mol

following. a. 1.25 102 g Na2S


22.99 g Na 2 mol Na 45.98 g Na 1 mol Na 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S molar mass 32.07 g S 78.05 g/mol

4.95 1025 molecules HF 20.01 g HF 1 mol HF 1 mol HF 6.02 1023 molecules HF 1650 g HF

119. How many moles of aluminum ions are in

45.0 g of aluminum oxide?


26.98 g Al 2 mol Al 53.96 g Al 1 mol Al 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 48.00 g O 101.96 g/mol

1 mol Na2S 1.25 102 g Na2S 78.05 g Na2S 1.60 mol Na2S

b. 0.145 g H2S
1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g H 1 mol H 32.07 g S 1 mol S 32.07 g S 1 mol S molar mass 34.09 g/mol

1 mol Al2O3 45.0 g Al2O3 101.96 g Al2O3 2 mol Al3 ions 0.883 mol Al3 ions 1 mol Al2O3

1 mol H2S 0.145 g H2S 34.09 g H2S 4.25 103 mol H2S

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120. How many moles of ions are in the following? a. 0.0200 g AgNO3
107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag 107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag 14.01 g N 1 mol N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 14.01 g N 48.00 g O 169.88 g/mol

Mass-Particle Conversions (11.3) Level 1 121. Calculate the values that will complete the table.
Table 11-2
Moles, Mass, and Representative Particles
Compound Silver acetate Ag(C2H3O2) Glucose C6H12O6 Benzene C6H6 Lead(II) sulfide PbS Number Mass(g) of moles 2.50 1.798 0.009 39 0.4178 417 324.0 0.733 100.0 Representative particles 1.51 1024 1.082 1024 5.65 1021 2.516 1023

1 mol AgNO3 0.0200 g AgNO3 169.88 g AgNO3 2 mol ions 2.35 104 mol ions 1 mol AgNO3

b. 0.100 mol K2CrO4


3 mol ions 0.100 mol K2CrO4 1 mol K2CrO4 0.300 mol ions

Silver acetate: 107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag 107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag 12.01 g C 2 mol C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 3 mol H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 2 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 24.02 g C 3.024 g H 32.00 g O 166.91 g/mol

c. 0.500 g Ba(OH)2
137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 16.00 g O 2 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 1 mol H molar mass 32.00 g O 2.016 g H 171.35 g/mol

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 mol Ba(OH)2 0.500 g Ba(OH)2 171.35 g Ba(OH)2 3 mol ions 8.75 103 mol ions 1 mol Ba(OH)2

166.91 g AgC2H3O2 2.50 mol AgC2H3O2 1 mol AgC2H3O2 417 g AgC2H3O2 6.02 1023 formula units 2.50 mol AgC2H3O2 1 mol AgC2H3O2 1.51 1024 formula units Glucose: 12.01 g C 6 mol C 1 mol C 72.06 g C

d. 1.00 109 mol Na2CO3


3 mol ions 1.00 109 mol Na2CO3 1 mol Na2CO3 3.00 109 mol ions

1.008 g H 12 mol H 12.10 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 6 mol O 96.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 180.16 g/mol

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1 mol glucose 324.0 g glucose 180.16 g glucose 1.798 mol glucose 6.02 1023 molecules 1.798 mol glucose 1 mol glucose 1.082 1024 molecules Benzene: 12.01 g C 6 mol C 72.06 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 6 mol H 6.048 g H 1 mol H molar mass 78.11 g/mol

123. Determine the number of atoms in 3.50 g gold.


1 mol Au 3.50 g Au 196.97 g Au 6.02 1023 atoms Au 1.07 1022 atoms Au 1 mol Au

124. Calculate the mass of 3.62 1024 molecules

of glucose (C6H12O6).
From solution #121, the molar mass of glucose equals 180.16 g/mol. 3.62 1024 molecules glucose 1 mol glucose 6.02 1023 molecules glucose 180.16 g glucose 1080 g glucose 1 mol glucose

5.65 1021 molecules benzene 1 mol benzene 6.02 1023 molecules benzene 9.39 103 mol benzene 78.11 g benzene mol benzene 9.39 1 mol benzene 0.733 g benzene 103 Lead(II) sulfide: 207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S molar mass 32.07 g S 239.3 g/mol

125. Determine the number of molecules of ethanol

(C2H5OH) in 47.0 g.
12.01 g C 2 mol C 24.02 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 6 mol H 6.048 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 46.07 g/mol
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 mol ethanol 47.0 g ethanol 46.07 g ethanol 6.02 1023 molecules ethanol 1 mol ethanol 6.14 1023 molecules ethanol

1 mol PbS 100.0 g PbS 0.4178 mol PbS 239.3 g PbS 6.02 1023 formula units 0.4178 mol PbS 1 mol PbS 2.516 1023 formula units

126. What mass of iron(III) chloride contains

122. How many formula units are present in 500.0 g

2.35 1023 chloride ions?


55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 35.45 g Cl 3 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass 106.35 g Cl 162.20 g/mol

lead(II) chloride?
207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass 70.90 g Cl 278.1 g/mol

2.35 1023 chloride ions 1 mol chloride ions 6.02 1023 chloride ions 1 mol FeCl3 162.20 g FeCl3 3 mol chloride ions 1 mol FeCl3 21.1 g FeCl3

1 mol PbCl2 1.798 mol PbCl2 500.0 g PbCl2 278.1 g PbCl2 6.02 1023 formula units 1.798 mol PbCl2 1 mol PbCl2 1.082 1024 formula units PbCl2

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127. How many moles of iron can be recovered

131. Calculate the moles of aluminum ions present

from 100.0 kg Fe3O4?


55.85 g Fe 3 mol Fe 167.55 g Fe 1 mol Fe 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 64.00 g O 231.55 g/mol

in 250.0 g aluminum oxide (Al2O3).


From solution # 119, the molar mass of aluminum oxide equals 101.96 g/mol. 1 mol Al2O3 2 mol Al3 250.0 g Al2O3 1 mol Al2O3 101.96 g Al2O3 4.90 mol Al3

103 g Fe3O4 100.0 kg Fe3O4 1 kg Fe3O4 1.000 105 g Fe3O4 1 mol Fe3O4 1.000 105 g Fe3O4 231.55 g Fe3O4 3 mol Fe 1296 mol Fe 1 mol Fe3O4

Level 2 132. Determine the number of chloride ions in 10.75 g of magnesium chloride.
24.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 24.31 g 1 mol Mg 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass 70.90 g 94.31 g/mol

128. The mass of an electron is 9.11 1028 g.

What is the mass of a mole of electrons?


9.11 1028 g 6.02 1023 electrons 1 mol electrons 1 electron 5.48 104 g/mol electrons

1 mol MgCl2 10.75 g MgCl2 94.31 g MgCl2 6.02 1023 ions MgCl2 2 mol Cl 1 mol MgCl2 1 mol Cl 1.37 1023 ions Cl

129. Vinegar is 5.0% acetic acid (CH3COOH). How

many molecules of acetic acid are present in 25.0 g vinegar?


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

133. Acetaminophen, a common aspirin substitute,

12.01 g C 2 mol C 24.02 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 4 mol H 4.032 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 60.05 g/mol

has the formula C8H9NO2. Determine the number of molecules of acetaminophen in a 500 mg tablet.
12.01 g C 8 mol C 96.08 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 9 mol H 9.072 g H 1 mol H 14.01 g N 1 mol N 14.01 g N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 151.16 g/mol

0.050 25.0 g vinegar 1.25 g CH3COOH 1 mol CH3COOH 1.25 g CH3COOH 60.05 g CH3COOH 6.02 1023 molecules CH3COOH 1 mol CH3COOH 1.25 1022 molecules CH3COOH

1 g C8H9NO2 500 mg C8H9NO2 103 mg C8H9NO2 1 mol C8H9NO2 0.003 mol C8H9NO2 151.16 g C8H9NO2 0.003 mol C8H9NO2 6.02 1023 molecules C8H9NO2 1 mol C8H9NO2 2 1021 molecules C8H9NO2

130. The density of lead is 11.3 g/cm3. Calculate

the volume of one mole lead.


207.2 g Pb 1 cm3 1 mol Pb 18.3 cm3 11.3 g Pb 1 mol Pb

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134. Calculate the number of sodium ions present in

25.0 g sodium chloride.


22.99 g Na 1 mol Na 22.99 g Na 1 mol Na 35.45 g Cl 1 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass 35.45 g Cl 58.44 g/mol

176.00 g percent by mass 100 342.30 g 51.42% O

b. magnetite (Fe3O4)
55.85 g Fe 3 mol Fe 167.55 g Fe 1 mol Fe 16.00 g O 4 mol O 64.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 231.55 g/mol

1 mol NaCl 25.0 g NaCl 58.44 g NaCl 6.02 1023 ions Na 2.58 1023 ions Na 1 mol NaCl

167.55 g percent by mass 100 231.55 g 72.360% Fe 64.00 g percent by mass 100 231.55 g 27.64% O

135. Determine the number of oxygen atoms

present in 25.0 g carbon dioxide.


12.01 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol C 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 44.01 g/mol

c. aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3)


26.98 g Al 2 mol Al 53.96 g Al 1 mol Al 32.07 g S 3 mol S 1 mol S 96.21 g S

1 mol CO2 0.568 mol CO2 25.0 g CO2 44.01 g CO2 2(6.02 atoms O) 0.568 mol CO2 1 mol CO2 1023 6.84 1023 atoms O

molar mass

342.17 g/mol

Percent Composition (11.4) 136. Express the composition of each of the following as the mass percent of its elements (percent composition). a. sucrose (C12H22O11)
12.01 g C 12 mol C 144.12 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 22 mol H 22.18 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 11 mol O 176.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 342.30 g/mol

53.96 g percent by mass 100 342.17 g 15.77% Al 96.21 g percent by mass 100 342.17 g 28.12% S 96.21 g percent by mass = 100 342.17 g 56.11% O

137. Which of the following iron compounds

contain the greatest percentage of iron: pyrite (FeS2), hematite (Fe2O3), or siderite (FeCO3)?
55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 32.07 g S 2 mol S 1 mol S molar mass FeS2 64.14 g S 119.99 g/mol

144.12 g percent by mass 100 342.30 g 42.10% C 22.18 g percent by mass 100 342.30 g 6.480% H

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16.00 g O 12 mol O 192.00 g O 1 mol O

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55.85 g Fe 2 mol Fe 111.70 g Fe 1 mol Fe 16.00 g O 3 mol O 48.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass Fe2O3 159.70 g/mol

139. Caffeine, a stimulant found in coffee, has the

chemical formula C8H10N4O2. a. Calculate the molar mass of caffeine.


12.01 g C 8 mol C 1 mol C 96.08 g C

55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 12.01 g C 1 mol C 1 mol C 12.01 g C

1.008 g H 10 mol H 10.080 g H 1 mol H 14.01 g N 4 mol N 56.04 g N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 194.20 g/mol

16.00 g O 3 mol O 96.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass FeCO3 152.95 g/mol

55.85 g percent mass 100 119.99 g 46.55% in FeS2 111.70 g percent mass 100 159.70 g 69.944% in Fe2O3 55.85 g percent mass 100 152.95 g 36.51% in FeCO3 Hematite, with 69.944% Fe, has the greatest percentage of iron.

b. Determine the percent composition of

caffeine.
96.08 g percent by mass 100 194.20 g 49.47% C 10.08 g percent by mass 100 194.20 g 5.191% H 56.04 g percent by mass 100 194.20 g 28.86% N 32.00 g percent by mass 100 194.20 g 16.48% O

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

138. Determine the empirical formula for each of

the following compounds. a. ethylene (C2H4)


Both subscripts can be divided by two. The empirical formula is CH2.

140. Which of the titanium-containing minerals

b. ascorbic acid (C6H8O6)


All subscripts can be divided by two. The empirical formula is C3H4O3.

rutile (TiO2) or ilmenite (FeTiO3) has the larger percent of titanium?


47.87 g Ti 1 mol Ti 47.87 g Ti 1 mol Ti 16.00 g O 2 mol O 1 mol O molar mass TiO2 32.00 g O 79.87 g/mol

c. naphthalene (C10H8)
Both subscripts can be divided by two. The empirical formula is C5H4.

55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe 1 mol Fe 47.87 g Ti 1 mol Ti 47.87 g Ti 1 mol Ti 16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass FeTiO3 48.00 g O 151.72 g/mol

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47.87 g percent by mass 100 79.87 g 59.93% Ti in TiO2 47.87 g percent by mass 100 151.72 g 31.55% Ti in FeTiO3 TiO2 has the greater percent by mass of titanium.

28.02 g percent by mass 100 9.521% N 294.30 g 80.00 g percent by mass 100 27.18% O 294.30 g

141. Vitamin E, found in many plants, is thought to

retard the aging process in humans. The formula for vitamin E is C29H50O2. What is the percent composition of vitamin E?
12.01 g C 29 mol C 348.29 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 50 mol H 50.400 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 430.69 g/mol

Empirical and Molecular Formulas (11.4) 143. The hydrocarbon used in the manufacture of foam plastics is called styrene. Analysis of styrene indicates the compound is 92.25% C and 7.75% H and has a molar mass of 104 g/mol. Determine the molecular formula for styrene.
1 mol C 92.25 g C 7.681 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 7.75 g H 7.69 mol H 1.008 g H 7.681 mol C 1.00 7.69 7.69 mol H 1.00 7.69 The empirical formula is CH. 12.01 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 1 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol H molar mass CH 13.02 g/mol
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

348.29 g percent by mass 100 80.87% C 430.69 g 50.40 g percent by mass 100 11.70% H 430.69 g 32.00 g percent by mass 100 7.430% O 430.69 g

142. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, has the

formula C14H18N2O5. Determine the percent composition of aspartame.


12.01 g C 14 mol C 168.14 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 18 mol H 18.144 g H 1 mol H 14.01 g N 2 mol N 28.02 g N 1 mol N 16.00 g O 5 mol O 80.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 294.30 g/mol

104 g/mol n 8.00 13.02 g/mol Multiply the subscripts in the empirical formula by 8 to obtain the molecular formula C8H8.

144. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is sometimes

added to food to enhance flavor. Analysis determined this compound to be 35.5% C, 4.77% H, 8.29% N, 13.6% Na, and 37.9% O. What is the empirical formula for MSG?
1 mol C 35.5 g C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 4.77 g H 1.008 g H 1 mol N 8.29 g N 14.01 g N 2.96 mol C 4.73 mol H 0.592 mol N

168.14 g percent by mass 100 57.13% C 294.30 g 18.144 g percent by mass 100 6.165% H 294.30 g

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1 mol Na 13.6 g Na 0.592 mol Na 22.99 g Na 1 mol O 37.9 g O 16.00 g O 2.37 mol O

12.01 g C 13 mol C 156.13 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 18 mol H 18.144 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass C13H18O2 206.27 g/mol The molar mass C13H18O2 equals the molar mass of ibuprofen. Thus, the molecular formula is the same as the empirical formula C13H18O2.

2.96 mol C 5.00 mol C 0.592 4.73 mol H 8.00 mol H 0.592 0.592 mol N 1.00 mol N 0.592 0.592 mol Na 1.00 mol Na 0.592 2.37 mol O 4.00 mol O 0.592 The simplest whole-number ratio is 5.00 mol C: 8.00 mol H: 1.00 mol N: 1.00 mol Na: 4.00 mol O. The empirical formula is C5H8NO4Na.

146. Vanadium oxide is used as an industrial cata-

lyst. The percent composition of this oxide is 56.0% vanadium and 44.0% oxygen. Determine the empirical formula for vanadium oxide.
1 mol V 56.0 g V 1.10 mol V 50.94 g V 1 mol O 44.0 g O 2.75 mol O 16.00 g O 1.10 mol V 1.00 mol V 1.10 2.75 mol O 2.50 mol O 1.10 The simplest ratio is 1.00 mol V: 2.50 mol O. Multiply the simplest ratio by two to obtain the simplest whole-number ratio. The empirical formula is V2O5.

145. Determine the molecular formula for

ibuprofen, a common headache remedy. Analysis of ibuprofen yields a molar mass of 206 g/mol and a percent composition of 75.7% C, 8.80% H and 15.5% O.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 mol C 75.7 g C 6.30 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 8.80 g H 8.73 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 15.5 g O 0.969 mol O 16.00 g O 6.30 mol C = 6.50 mol C 0.969 8.73 mol H = 9.01 mol H 0.969 0.969 mol O = 1.00 mol O 0.969 The simplest ratio is 6.50 mol C: 9.01 mol H: 1.00 mol O. Multiply the simplest ratio by two to obtain the simplest whole-number ratio. The empirical formula is C13H18O2.

147. What is the empirical formula of a compound

that contains 10.52 g Ni, 4.38 g C, and 5.10 g N?


1 mol Ni 10.52 g Ni 0.1792 mol Ni 58.69 g Ni 1 mol C 4.38 g C 0.3470 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol N 5.10 g N 0.3640 mol N 14.01 g N 0.1792 mol Ni 1.000 mol Ni 0.1792 0.3470 mol C 1.936 mol C 0.1792 0.3640 mol N 2.031 mol N 0.1792 The simplest ratio is 1.00 mol Ni: 1.936 mol C: 2.031 mol N. The empirical formula is Ni(CN)2.

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148. The Statue of Liberty turns green in air

because of the formation of two copper compounds, Cu3(OH)4SO4 and Cu4(OH)6SO4. Determine the mass percent of copper in these compounds.
Cu3(OH)4SO4 63.55 g Cu 3 mol Cu 190.65 g Cu 1 mol Cu 16.00 g O 8 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 4 mol H 1 mol H 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 128.00 g O 4.032 g H 32.07 g S

0.2865 mol Pb 1.000 mol Pb 0.2865 1.146 mol Cl 4.000 mol Cl 0.2865 The simplest ratio is 1.000 mol Pb: 4.000 mol Cl. The empirical formula is PbCl4. 207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 207.2 g Pb 1 mol Pb 35.45 g Cl 4 mol Cl 141.80 g Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass PbCl4 349.00 g/mol

The molar mass based on the empirical formula equals the molar mass of the compound. The molecular formula is PbCl4.

molar mass Cu3(OH)4SO4 354.75 g/mol 190.65 g percent by mass 100 53.74% 338.75 g Cu4(OH)6SO4 63.55 g Cu 4 mol Cu 254.20 g Cu 1 mol Cu 16.00 g O 10 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 6 mol H 1 mol H 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 160.00 g O 6.048 g H 32.07 g S

150. Glycerol is a thick, sweet liquid obtained as a

byproduct of the manufacture of soap. Its percent composition is 39.12% carbon, 8.75% hydrogen, and 52.12% oxygen. The molar mass is 92.11 g/mol. What is the molecular formula for glycerol?
1 mol C 39.12 g C 3.257 mol C 12.01 g C
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 mol H 8.75 g H 8.681 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 52.12 g O 3.258 mol O 16.00 g O 3.257 mol C 1.000 mol C 3.257 8.681 mol H 2.665 mol H 3.257 3.258 mol O 1.000 mol O 3.257 The simplest whole-number ratio is 1.000 mol C: 2.655 mol H: 1.000 mol O. To obtain the simplest whole-number ratio, multiply each number by three. The empirical formula is C3H8O3. 12.01 g C 3 mol C 36.03 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 8 mol H 8.064 g H 1 mol H 16.00 g O 3 mol O 48.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 92.094 g/mol

molar mass Cu4(OH)6SO4 452.32 g/mol 254.20 g percent by mass 100 56.20% 452.32 g

149. Analysis of a compound containing chlorine

and lead reveals that the compound is 59.37% lead. The molar mass of the compound is 349.0 g/mol. What is the empirical formula for the chloride? What is the molecular formula?
percent Pb percent Cl 100% percent Cl 100% percent Pb 100% 59.37% 40.63% 1 mol Pb 59.37 g Pb 0.2865 mol Pb 207.2 g Pb 1 mol Cl 40.63 g Cl 1.146 mol Cl 35.45 g Cl

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The molar mass based on the empirical formula equals the molar mass of the compound. The molecular formula is C3H8O3.

16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g H 1 mol H molar mass H2O 18.02 g/mol

The Formula for a Hydrate (11.5) Level 1 151. Determine the mass percent of anhydrous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and water in sodium carbonate decahydrate (Na2CO310H2O).
22.99 g Na 2 mol Na 1 mol Na 12.01 g C 1 mol C 1 mol C 16.00 g O 13 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 20 mol H 1 mol H 45.98 g Na 12.01 g C 208.00 g O 20.16 g H

1 mol BaCl2 0.410 mol BaCl2 85.3 g BaCl2 208.23 g BaCl2 1 mol H2O 14.7 g H2O 0.816 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 0.816 mol n 2.00 0.410 mol BaCl22H2O, barium chloride dihydrate

153. Gypsum is hydrated calcium sulfate. A 4.89-g

molar mass Na2CO310H2O 286.15 g/mol 22.99 g Na 2 mol Na 45.98 g Na 1 mol Na 12.01 g C 1 mol C 1 mol C
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

sample of this hydrate was heated, and after the water was driven off, 3.87 g anhydrous calcium sulfate remained. Determine the formula of this hydrate and name the compound.
mass of hydrated CaSO4 mass of CaSO4 mass of H2O mass of H2O mass of hydrated CaSO4 mass of H2O 4.89 g 3.87 g 1.02 g 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 40.08 g Ca 1 mol Ca 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass CaSO4 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 1 mol H molar mass H2O 32.07 g S 64.00 g O 136.15 g/mol 16.00 g O 2.016 g H 18.02 g/mol

12.01 g C 48.00 g O 105.99 g/mol 16.00 g O 2.016 g H 18.02 g/mol

16.00 g O 3 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Na2CO3 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 1 mol H molar mass H2O

105.99 g 100 37.03% Na2CO3 286.15 g 10(18.02 g) 100 62.97% H2O 286.15 g

152. What is the formula and name for a hydrate that

is 85.3% barium chloride and 14.7% water?


137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass BaCl2 70.90 g Cl 208.23 g/mol

1 mol CaSO4 3.87 g CaSO4 136.15 g CaSO4 0.0284 mol CaSO4 1 mol H2O 1.02 g H2O 0.0566 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 0.0566 mol n 2.00 0.0284 mol CaSO42H2O, calcium sulfate dihydrate

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154. The table shows data from an experiment to

155. A 1.628-g sample of a hydrate of magnesium

determine the formulas of hydrated barium chloride. Determine the formula for the hydrate and its name.
Table 11-3
Data for BaCl2xH20
Mass of empty crucible Mass of hydrate crucible Initial mass of hydrate Mass after heating 5 min Mass of anhydrous solid 21.30 g 31.35 g 10.05 g 29.87 g 8.57 g

iodide is heated until its mass is reduced to 1.072 g and all water has been removed. What is the formula of the hydrate?
mass of water mass of hydrate mass of anhydrous solid 1.628 g 1.072 g 0.556 g 24.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 24.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 126.90 g I 2 mol I 1 mol I molar mass MgI2 253.80 g I 278.11 g/mol

initial mass of hydrate ( mass of hydrate crucible) (mass of empty crucible) 31.35 g 21.30 g 10.05 g mass of anhydrous solid ( mass after heating 5 min) (mass of empty crucible) 29.87 g 21.30 g 8.57 g mass of water ( initial mass of hydrate) (mass of anhydrous solid) 10.05 g 8.57 g 1.48 g 137.33 g B 1 mol Ba 137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 70.90 g Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass BaCl2 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 1 mol H molar mass H2O 208.23 g/mol 16.00 g O 2.016 g H 18.02 g/mol

16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g H 1 mol H molar mass H2O 18.02 g/mol

1 mol MgI2 1.072 g MgI2 278.11 g MgI2 0.003855 mol MgI2 1 mol H2O 0.556 g H2O 0.0309 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 0.0309 mol n 8.02 0.003855 mol MgI28H2O
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156. Hydrated sodium tetraborate (Na2B4O7xH2O)

is commonly called borax. Chemical analysis indicates that this hydrate is 52.8% sodium tetraborate and 47.2% water. Determine the formula and name the hydrate.

22.99 g Na 2 mol Na 45.98 g Na 1 mol Na 12.01 g B 4 mol B 1 mol B 16.00 g O 7 mol O 1 mol O molar mass Na2B4O7 48.04 g B 112.00 g O 206.02 g/mol

1 mol BaCl2 8.57 g BaCl2 208.23 g BaCl2 0.0412 mol BaCl2 1 mol H2O 1.48 g H2O 0.0821 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 0.0821 mol n 2.00 0.0412 mol BaCl22H2O, barium chloride dihydrate

16.00 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O 1 mol O 1.008 g H 2 mol H 2.016 g H 1 mol H molar mass H2O 18.02 g/mol

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1 mol Na2B4O7 52.8 g Na2B4O7 206.02 g Na2B4O7 0.256 mol Na2B4O7 1 mol H2O 47.2 g H2O 2.61 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 2.61 mol n 10.2 0.256 mol Na2B4O710H2O, sodium tetraborate decahydrate

1 mol CO2 17.64 g CO2 0.4008 mol CO2 44.01 g CO2 2 mol O 0.4008 mol CO2 0.8016 mol O 1 mol CO2 6.02 1023 atoms O 0.8016 mol O 1 mol O 4.82 1023 atoms O

b. 3.21 1022 molecules CH3OH


3.21 1022 molecules CH3OH 1 atom O 3.21 1022 atoms O 1 molecule CH3OH

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 157. Determine the following: a. the number of representative particles in 3.75 g Zn
1 mol Zn 3.75 g Zn 65.39 g Zn 6.02 1023 atoms Zn 3.45 1022 atoms Zn 1 mol Zn

c. 0.250 mol C6H12O6


6 mol O 0.250 mol C6H12O6 1 mol C6H12O6 1.5 mol O 6.02 1023 atoms O 1.5 mol O 1 mol O 9.0 1023 atoms O

b. the mass of 4.32 1022 atoms Ag


4.32 1022 atoms Ag
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

159. Which of the following compounds has the

1 mol Ag 107.87 g Ag 1 mol Ag 6.02 1023 atoms Ag 7.74 g Ag

greatest percent of oxygen by mass: TiO2, Fe2O3, Al2O3?


47.87 g Ti 1 mol Ti 47.87 g Ti 1 mol Ti 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass TiO2 79.87 g/mol

c. the number of sodium ions is 25.0 g of

Na2O.
1 mol Na2O 25.0 g Na2O 61.98 g Na2O 6.02 1023 ions Na 2 mol Na 1 mol Na2O 1 mol Na 4.86 1023 ions Na

55.85 g Fe 2 mol Fe 111.70 g Fe 1 mol Fe 16.00 g O 3 mol O 48.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass Fe2O3 159.70 g/mol

158. Which of the following has the greatest

number of oxygen atoms? a. 17.63 g CO2


12.01 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol C 16.00 g O 2 mol O 32.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass 44.01 g/mol

26.98 g Al 2 mol Al 53.96 g Al 1 mol Al 16.00 g O 3 mol O 48.00 g O 1 mol O molar mass Al2O3 54.44 g/mol

32.00 g O percent by mass 100 79.87 g TiO2 40.07% O in TiO2

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48.00 g O percent by mass 100 159.70 g Fe2O3 30.06% O in Fe2O3 48.00 g O percent by mass 100 54.44 g Al2O3 87.99% O in Al2O3 Al2O3 has the greatest percent of oxygen by mass.

162. Calculate each of the following: a. the number of moles in 15.5 g Na2SO4
22.99 g Na 2 mol Na 45.98 g Na 1 mol Na 32.07 g S 1 mol S 1 mol S 16.00 g O 4 mol O 1 mol O molar mass 32.07 g S 64.00 g O 142.05 g/mol

160. Naphthalene, commonly known as moth

balls, is composed of 93.7% carbon and 6.3% hydrogen. The molar mass of napthalene is 128 g/mol. Determine the empirical and molecular formulas for naphthalene.
1 mol C 93.7 g C 7.80 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 6.3 g H 6.2 mol H 1.008 g H 7.80 mol C 1.25 mol C 6.2 6.2 mol H 1.0 mol H 6.2 The simplest ratio is 1.25 mol C : 1.0 mol H. Multiply both subscripts by four to obtain the simplest whole-number ratio. The empirical formula is C5H4. 12.01 g C 5 mol C 60.05 g C 1 mol C 1.008 g H 4 mol H 4.032 g H 1 mol H molar mass 64.09 g/mol

1 mol Na2SO4 15.5 g Na2SO4 142.05 g Na2SO4 0.109 mol Na2SO4

b. the number of formula units in 0.255 mol

NaCl
0.255 mol NaCl 6.02 1023 formula units NaCl 1 mol NaCl 1.54 1023 formula units NaCl

c. the mass in grams of 0.775 mol SF6


32.07 g S 1 mol S 32.07 g S 1 mol S
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

19.00 g F 6 mol F 114.00 g F 1 mol F molar mass 146.07 g/mol

146.07 g SF6 113 g SF6 0.775 mol SF6 1 mol SF6

d. the number of Cl ions in 14.5 g MgCl2.


24.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 24.31 g Mg 1 mol Mg 35.45 g Cl 2 mol Cl 1 mol Cl molar mass 70.90 g Cl 95.21 g/mol

128 g/mol n 2.00 64.09 g/mol Molecular formula is C10H8.

161. Which of the following molecular formulas are

also empirical formulas: ethyl ether (C4H10O), aspirin (C9H8O4), butyl dichloride (C4H8Cl2), glucose (C6H12O6).
The subscripts in C4H10O and C9H8O4 represent simplest whole-number ratios.

1 mol MgCl2 14.5 g MgCl2 95.21 g MgCl2 0.152 mol MgCl2 2(6.02 1023 ion Cl) 0.152 mol MgCl2 1 mol MgCl2 1.83 1023 ions Cl

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163. The graph shows the percent composition

of a compound containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. How many grams of each element are present in 100 g of the compound?
N 22.95% O 52.42% C 19.68%

12.01 g C 1 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol C 38.00 g F 2 mol F 38.00 g F 1 mol F molar mass CF2 50.01 g/mol

100.0 g/mol n 2.000 50.01 g/mol The molar mass of the compound is two times greater than the molar mass of the empirical formula. Multiply the subscripts in the empirical formula by two to obtain the molecular formula C2F4.

H 4.96% 52.42 g O, 22.95 g N, 19.68 g C, 4.96 g H

166. Calculate the mass in grams of one atom of

lead.
1 mol Pb 1 atom Pb 6.02 1023 atoms Pb 207.02 g Pb 3.44 1022 g Pb 1 mol Pb

164. A party balloon was filled with 9.80 1022

atoms of helium. After 24 hours, 45% of the helium had escaped. How many atoms of helium remained?
percent remaining 100% percent that escaped 100% 45% 55% 0.55 9.80 1022 atoms He 5.39 1022 atoms He
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

167. Diamond is a naturally occurring form of

carbon. If you have a 0.25-carat diamond, how many carbon atoms are present? (1 carat 0.200 g)
0.200 g C 0.25 carat 5 102 g C 1 carat 1 mol C 5 102 g C 12.01 g C 6.02 1023 atoms C 2.5 1021 atoms C 1 mol C

165. Tetrafluoroethylene, which is used in the

production of Teflon, is composed of 24.0% carbon and 76.0% fluorine and has a molar mass of 100.0 g/mol. Determine the empirical and molecular formulas of this compound.
1 mol C 24.0 g C 2.00 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol F 76.0 g F 4.00 mol F 19.00 g F 2.00 mol C 1.00 mol C 2.00 4.00 mol F 2.00 mol F 2.00 The simplest ratio is 1.00 mol C : 2.00 mol F. The empirical formula is CF2.

168. How many molecules of isooctane (C8H18)

are present in 1.00 L? (density of isooctane 0.680 g/mL)


12.01 g C 8 mol C 1 mol C 96.08 g C

1.008 g H 18 mol H 18.18 g H 1 mol H molar mass 114.22 g/mol

0.680 g isooctane 103 mL 1.00 L 1L 1 mL 6.80 102 g isooctane

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1 mol isooctane 6.80 102 g isooctane 114.26 g isooctane 5.95 mol isooctane 5.95 mol isooctane 6.02 1023 molecules isooctane 1 mol isooctane 3.58 1024 molecules isooctane

171. Designing an Experiment Design an experi-

ment that can be used to determine the amount of water in alum (KAl(SO4)2xH2O).
Determine and record the mass of an empty evaporating dish. Add about 2 g of the hydrate. Measure and record the mass. Heat the evaporating dish gently for 5 minutes, and strongly for another 5 minutes to evaporate all the water. Allow the dish to cool, and measure and record the mass. Determine the masses of the anhydrous solid and the water lost. Calculate the number of moles of anhydrous compound and water. Determine the ratio of moles of water to moles of anhydrous compound. Use the wholenumber ratio of the moles as the coefficient of H2O in the formula.

169. Calculate the number of molecules of water in

a swimming pool that is 40.0 m in length, 20.0 m in width, and 5.00 m in depth. Assume that the density of water is 1.00 g/cm3.
volume length width height volume 40.0 m 20.0 m 5.00 m 4.00 103 m3 1 g H2O (102 cm)3 4.00 103 m3 3 1m 1 cm3 4.00 109 g H2O 1 mol H2O 4.00 1032 g H2O 18.02 g H2O 6.02 1023 molecules H2O 1 mol H2O 1.34 1032 molecules H2O

172. Concept Mapping Design a concept map that

illustrates the mole concept. Include moles, Avogadros number, molar mass, number of particles, percent composition, empirical formula, and molecular formula.
Concept maps will vary.

173. Communicating If you use the expression


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Thinking Critically 170. Analyze and Conclude A mining company has two possible sources of copper: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and chalcocite (Cu2S). If the mining conditions and the extraction of copper from the ore were identical for each of the ores, which ore would yield the greater quantity of copper? Explain your answer.
Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) is 34.6% copper by mass (determined from percent composition) and chalcocite (Cu2S) is 79.9% copper by mass. Chalcocite would yield the greater quantity of copper because the ore has the greater percentage copper by mass.

a mole of nitrogen, is it perfectly clear what you mean, or is there more than one way to interpret the expression? Explain. How could you change the expression to make it more precise?
The phrase could be interpreted to mean a mole of nitrogen atoms or a mole of nitrogen molecules. Specify atoms or molecules.

Writing in Chemistry 174. Octane ratings are used to identify certain grades of gasoline. Research octane rating and prepare a pamphlet for consumers identifying the different types of gasoline, the advantages of each, and when each grade is used.
Student pamphlets will vary but should discuss how octane ratings are found. Octane rating of 100% means pure octane. Octane rating of 90% means 90% octane and 10% heptane.

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175. Research the life of the Italian chemist

c. Aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid and

Amedeo Avogadro (17761856) and how his work led scientists to the number of particles in a mole.
Students should mention Avogadros hypothesis. Avogadro formulated his hypothesis as an explanation for earlier works by Gay-Lussac and Ritter. His ideas were rejected by chemists of his day but were revived later by the Italian chemist Stanislao Cannizzaro. Avogadro died before seeing his ideas accepted.

potassium hydroxide undergo a double replacement reaction.


H2SO4(aq) 2KOH(aq) 0 K2SO4(aq) 2H2O(l)

179. How can you tell if a chemical equation is

balanced? (Chapter 10)


There are equal numbers of each kind of atom on both sides of the equation.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 176. Express the following answers with the correct number of significant figures. (Chapter 2) a. 18.23 456.7
438.5

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 11


page 351

Interpreting Graphs Use the graph to answer questions 14. Percent Composition of Some Organic Compounds
60 50 52.2 40 30 20 10
13.0 6.7 Ethanol 9.1 9.1

Percent by mass

b. 4.233 0.0131
323

%C %H %O
34.8

53.3 40.0

54.5

54.5

36.4

36.4

c. (82.44 4.92) 0.125


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

406

177. Distinguish between atomic number and mass

number. How do these two numbers compare for isotopes of an element? (Chapter 4)
Atomic number equals the number of protons. Mass number equals the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. Two isotopes of an element will have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Butanoic acid

Compound name

1. Acetaldehyde and butanoic acid must have the

178. Write balanced equations for the following

reactions. (Chapter 10) a. Magnesium metal and water combine to form solid magnesium hydroxide and hydrogen gas.
Mg(s) 2H2O(l) 0 Mg(OH)2(s) H2(g)

same _____ . a. molecular formula b. empirical formula c. molar mass d. chemical properties
Acetaldehyde and butanoic acid must have the same empirical formula because they have the same number of grams and therefore the same number of moles of each element in a 100.0 g sample. b

b. Dinitrogen tetroxide gas decomposes into

nitrogen dioxide gas.


N2O4(g) 0 2NO2(g)

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2. If the molar mass of butanoic acid is 88.1 g/mol,

Determine the mole ratios. 4.35 mol C 2.00 mol C 2 mol C 2.18 12.9 mol H 5.92 mol H 6 mol H 2.18 2.18 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O 2.18 The empirical formula for ethanol is C2H6O. c

then what is its molecular formula? a. CH2O b. C2H4O c. C6HO2 d. C4H8O2


Determine the empirical formula. Assume a 100.0 g sample. 1 mol C 54.5 g C 4.54 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 9.1 g H 9.03 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 36.4 g O 2.28 mol O 16.00 g O Determine the mole ratios. 4.54 mol C 1.99 2 mol C 2.28 9.03 mol H 3.96 4 mol H 2.28 2.28 mol O 1.00 1 mol O 2.28 The empirical formula for butanoic acid is C2H4O. The mass of the empirical formula is 44.06 g/mol. 88.1 g/mol 2.00 44.06 g/mol The molecular formula for butanoic acid ( C2H4O)2 C4H8O2. d

4. The empirical formula of formaldehyde is the

same as its molecular formula. How many grams are in 2.000 moles of formaldehyde? a. 30.00 g b. 60.06 g c. 182.0 g d. 200.0 g
Determine the empirical formula for formaldahyde. 1 mol C 40.0 g C 3.33 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 6.7 g H 6.65 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 53.3 g O 3.33 mol O 16.00 g O 3.33 mol C 1.00 mol C 1 mol C 3.33 6.65 mol H 2.00 mol H 2 mol H 3.33 3.33 mol O 1.00 mol O 1 mol O 3.33 The empirical formula for formaldahyde is CH2O. Molar mass of CH2O 30.03 g/mol 30.03 g 2.000 mol 60.06 g formaldahyde 1 mol b
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3. What is the empirical formula of ethanol? a. b. c. d.

C4HO3 C52H13O35 C2H6O C4H13O2

1 mol C 52.2 g C 4.35 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 13.0 g H 12.9 mol H 1.008 g H 1 mol O 34.8 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O

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5. A mole is all of the following EXCEPT _____ . a. the atomic or molar mass of an element or

7. The molar mass of fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F)

compound b. Avogadros number of molecules of a compound c. the number of atoms in exactly 12 g of pure 12C d. the SI measurement unit for the amount of a substance
A mole is not a mass so a is the answer. a

is _____ . a. 314 g/mol b. 344 g/mol c. 442 g/mol d. 504 g/mol


40.08 g Ca 5 mol Ca 200.40 g Ca 1 mol Ca 30.97 g P 3 mol P 1 mol P 92.91 g P

6. How many atoms are in 0.625 moles of Ge

16.00 g O 12 mol O 192.00 g O 1 mol O 19.00 g F 1 mol F 1 mol F 19.00 g F

(atomic mass 72.59 amu)? a. 2.73 1025 b. 6.99 1025 c. 3.76 1023 d. 9.63 1023
atoms Ge 6.02 0.625 mol Ge 1 mol Ge 1023 3.76 1023 atoms Ge c

molar mass 504.31 g/mol d

8. How many moles of cobalt(III) titanate

(Co2TiO4) are in 7.13 g of the compound? a. 2.39 101 mol b. 3.14 102 mol c. 3.22 101 mol d. 4.17 102 mol
Find the molar mass of Co2TiO4. 58.93 g Co 2 mol Co 117.86 g Co 1 mol Co 44.88 g Ti 1 mol Ti 44.88 g Ti 1 mol Ti 16.00 g O 4 mol O 64.00 g O 1 mol O Molar mass Co2TiO4 226.74 g/mol 1 mol Co2TiO4 7.13 g Co2TiO4 227 g Co2TiO4 3.14 102 mol b

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

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9. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is often added to

10. The mass of one molecule of barium hexafluo-

water-insoluble liquid products of chemical reactions to remove any unwanted water. MgSO4 readily absorbs water to form two different hydrates. One of these hydrates is found to contain 13.0% H2O and 87.0% MgSO4. What is the name of this hydrate? a. magnesium sulfate monohydrate b. magnesium sulfate dihydrate c. magnesium sulfate hexahydrate d. magnesium sulfate heptahydrate
Assume a 100.0 g sample of the hydrate. Then, the sample contains 87.0 g MgSO4 and 13.0 g H2O. Molar mass MgSO4 120.38 g/mol Molar mass H2O 18.02 g/mol 1 mol MgSO4 87.0 g MgSO4 120.38 g MgSO4 0.723 mol MgSO4 1 mol H2O 13.0 g H2O 0.721 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 0.721 mol H2O 0.997 1 1 1 0.723 mol MgSO4

rosilicate (BaSiF6) is _____ . a. 1.68 1026 g b. 2.16 1021 g c. 4.64 1022 g d. 6.02 1023 g
Determine the molar mass of BaSiF6. 137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 137.33 g Ba 1 mol Ba 28.09 g Si 1 mol Si 1 mol Si 19.00 g F 6 mol F 1 mol F Molar mass 28.09 g Si 114.00 g F 279.42 g/mol BaSiF6

279.42 g BaSiF6 1 mol BaSiF6 1 mol BaSiF6 6.02 1023 molecules BaSiF6 4.64 1022 g/molecule BaSiF6 c

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Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The hydrate is MgSO4H2O, magnesium sulfate monohydrate

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Stoichiometry
Section 12.1 What is stoichiometry?
pages 353357

d. 2Mg(s) O2(g) 0 2MgO(s)


2 atoms Mg 1 molecule O2 0 2 formula units MgO 2 moles Mg 1 mole O2 0 2 moles MgO 48.62 g Mg 32.00 g O2 0 80.60 g MgO

Practice Problems
page 356357

1. Interpret the following balanced chemical equa-

tions in terms of particles, moles, and mass. Show that the law of conservation of mass is observed. a. N2(g) 3H2(g) 0 2NH3(g)
1 molecule N2 3 molecules H2 0 2 molecules NH3 1 mole N2 3 moles H2 0 2 moles NH3 28.02 g N2 6.06 g H2 0 34.08 g NH3

e. 2Na(s) 2H2O(l) 0 2NaOH(aq) H2(g)


2 atoms Na 2 molecules H2O 0 2 formula units NaOH 1 molecule H2 2 moles Na 2 moles H2O 0 2 moles NaOH 1 mole H2 45.98 g Na 36.04 g H2O 0 80.00 g NaOH 2.02 g H2

2. Determine all possible mole ratios for the

b. HCl(aq) KOH(aq) 0 KCl(aq) H2O(l)


1 molecule HCl 1 formula unit KOH 0 1 formula unit KCl 1 molecule H2O 1 mole HCl 1 mole KOH 0 1 mole KCl 1 mole H2O 36.46 g HCl 56.11 g KOH 0 74.55 g KCl 18.02 g H2O

following balanced chemical equations. a. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s)


4 mol Al 3 mol O2 3 mol O2 4 mol Al 3 mol O2 2 mol Al2O3 2 mol Al2O3 3 mol O2 2 mol Al2O3 4 mol Al 4 mol Al 2 mol Al2O3

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. 3Fe(s) 4H2O(l) 0 Fe3O4(s) 4H2(g)


3 mol Fe 4 mol H2O 4 mol H2O 3 mol Fe 1 mol Fe3O4 4 mol H2 4 mol H2 1 mol Fe3O4 3 mol Fe 4 mol H2 4 mol H2 3 mol Fe 3 mol Fe 1 mol Fe3O4 1 mol Fe3O4 3 mol Fe 4 mol H2O 4 mol H2 4 mol H2 4 mol H2O

c. 4Zn(s) 10HNO3(aq) 0 4Zn(NO3)2(aq)

N2O(g) 5H2O(l)

4 atoms Zn 10 molecules HNO3 0 4 formula units Zn(NO3)2 1 molecule N2O 5 molecules H2O 4 moles Zn 10 moles HNO3 0 4 moles Zn(NO3)2 1 mole N2O 5 moles H2O 261.56 g Zn 630.20 g HNO3 0 757.56 g Zn(NO3)2 44.02 g N2O 90.10 g H2O

1 mol Fe3O4 4 mol H2O 4 mol H2O 1 mol Fe3O4

c. 2HgO(s) 0 2Hg(l) O2(g)


2 mol HgO 2 mol Hg 2 mol Hg 2 mol HgO 1 mol O2 2 mol Hg 2 mol Hg 1 mol O2 1 mol O2 2 mol HgO 2 mol HgO 1 mol O2

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3. Balance the following equations and determine

7. Thinking Critically Write a balanced chemical

the possible mole ratios. a. ZnO(s) HCl(aq) 0 ZnCl2(aq) H2O(l)


ZnO(s) 2HCl(aq) 0 ZnCl2(aq) H2O(l) 1 mol ZnO 2 mol HCl 2 mol HCl 1 mol ZnO 1 mol ZnCl2 1 mol ZnO 1 mol H2O 1 mol ZnO 1 mol ZnO 1 mol ZnCl2 2 mol HCl 1 mol ZnCl2 1 mol ZnCl2 2 mol HCl 1 mol H2O 2 mol HCl 1 mol ZnO 1 mol H2O 2 mol HCl 1 mol H2O 1 mol ZnCl2 1 mol H2O 1 mol H2O 1 mol ZnCl2

equation for each reaction and determine the possible mole ratios. a. Nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to produce ammonia.
N2(g) 3H2(g) 0 2NH3(g) 1 mol N2 1 mol N2 3 mol H2 , , , 3 mol H2 2 mol NH3 1 mol N2 3 mol H2 2 mol NH3 2 mol NH3 , , 2 mol NH3 1 mol N2 3 mol H2

b. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) decomposes to

produce water and oxygen.


2H2O2 0 2H2O O2 2 mol H2O2 2 mol H2O2 2 mol H2O , , 2 mol H2O 1 mol O2 2 mol H2O2 2 mol H2O 1 mol O2 1 mol O2 , , , 1 mol O2 2 mol H2O2 2 mol H2O2

b. butane (C4H10) oxygen 0 carbon

dioxide water
2 mol C4H10 13 mol O2 13 mol O2 2 mol C4H10 10 mol H2O 13 mol O2 13 mol O2 10 mol H2O

2C4H10(g) 13O2(g) 0 8CO2(g) 10H2O(l) 2 mol C4H10 8 mol CO2 8 mol CO2 2 mol C4H10 10 mol H2O 8 mol CO2 8 mol CO2 10 mol H2O 2 mol C4H10 10 mol H2O 10 mol H2O 2 mol C4H10 8 mol CO2 13 mol O2 13 mol O2 8 mol CO2

c. Pieces of zinc react with a phosphoric acid

solution to produce solid zinc phosphate and hydrogen gas.


3Zn(s) 2H3PO4(aq) 0 Zn3(PO4)2(aq) 3H2(g)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3 mol Zn 3 mol Zn 3 mol Zn , , , 2 mol H3PO4 1 mol Zn3(PO4)2 3 mol H2 2 mol H3PO4 2 mol H3PO4 2 mol H3PO4 , , , 3 mol Zn 1 mol Zn3PO4 3 mol H2 1 mol Zn3(PO4)2 1 mol Zn3(PO4)2 , , 3 mol Zn 2 mol H3PO4 1 mol Zn3(PO4)2 3 mol H2 , , 3 mol Zn 3 mol H2 3 mol H2 3 mol H2 , 2 mol H3PO4 1 mol Zn3(PO4)2

Section 12.1 Assessment


page 357

4. What is stoichiometry?
the study of quantitative relationships among amounts of reactants and products

5. List three ways in which a balanced chemical

equation can be interpreted.


particles (atoms, molecules, formula units), moles, and mass

6. What is a mole ratio?


a ratio between the moles of any two substances in a balanced chemical equation

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8. Formulating Models Use the balanced chem-

10. A reaction between methane and sulfur

ical equation to determine the mole ratios for the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen, 2H2(g) O2(g) 0 2H2O. Make a drawing showing six molecules of hydrogen reacting with the correct number of oxygen molecules. Show the number of molecules of water produced.

produces carbon disulfide (CS2), a liquid often used in the production of cellophane. ____ CH4(g) ____ S8(s) 0 ____ CS2(l) ____ H2S(g) a. Balance the equation.
2CH4(g) S8(s) 0 2CS2(l) 4H2S(g)

b. Calculate the mol CS2 produced when 1.50

mol S8 is used.
2 mol CS2 1.50 mol S8 3.00 mol CS2 1 mol S8

c. How many mol H2S is produced?


4 mol H2S 1.50 mol S8 6.00 mol H2S 1 mol S8

6H2 3O2

6H2O

Drawing should show six molecules of H2, three molecules of O2, and six molecules of H2O.

11. Titanium is a transition metal used in many

Section 12.2 Stoichiometric Calculations


pages 358363
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

alloys because it is extremely strong and lightweight. Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) is extracted from titanium oxide using chlorine and coke (carbon). TiO2(s) C(s) 2Cl2(g) 0 TiCl4(s) CO2(g) If you begin with 1.25 mol TiO2, what mass of Cl2 gas is needed?
TiO2(s) C(s) 2Cl2(g) 0 TiCl4(s) CO2(g) Step 1: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 2 mol Cl2 2.50 mol Cl2 1.25 mol TiO2 1 mol TiO2 Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 70.90 g Cl2 177 g Cl2 2.50 mol Cl2 1 mol Cl2

Practice Problems
pages 359, 360, 362

9. Sulfuric acid is formed when sulfur dioxide

reacts with oxygen and water. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. If 12.5 mol SO2 reacts, how many mol H2SO4 can be produced? How many mol O2 is needed?
2SO2(g) O2(g) 2H2O(l) 0 2H2SO4(aq) 2 mol H2SO4 12.5 mol SO2 2 mol SO2 12.5 mol H2SO4 produced 1 mol O2 6.25 mol O2 needed 12.5 mol SO2 2 mol SO2

12. Sodium chloride is decomposed into the

elements sodium and chlorine by means of electrical energy. How many grams of chlorine gas can be obtained from 2.50 mol NaCl?
Step 1: Balance the chemical equation. 2NaCl(s) 0 2Na(s) Cl2(g) Step 2: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 1 mol Cl2 2.50 mol NaCl 1.25 mol Cl2 2 mol NaCl

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Step 3: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 70.9 g Cl2 88.6 g Cl2 1.25 mol Cl2 1 mol Cl2

Section 12.2 Assessment


page 363

15. Why is a balanced chemical equation needed in

13. One in a series of reactions that inflate air bags

solving stoichiometric calculations?


The coefficients in the balanced equation indicate the molar relationship between each pair of reactants and products.

in automobiles is the decomposition of sodium azide (NaN3). 2NaN3(s) 0 2Na(s) 3N2(g) Determine the mass of N2 produced if 100.0 g NaN3 is decomposed.
2NaN3(s) 0 2Na(s) 3N2(g) Step 1: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol NaN3 1.538 mol NaN3 100.0 g NaN3 65.02 g NaN3 Step 2: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 3 mol N2 2.307 mol N2 1.538 mol NaN3 2 mol NaN3 Step 3: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 28.02 g N2 64.64 g N2 2.307 mol N2 1 mol N2

16. When solving stoichiometric problems, how is

the correct mole ratio expressed?


moles of unknown/moles of known

17. List the four steps used in solving

stoichiometric problems.
1. Balance the equation. 2. Convert the mass of the known substance to moles of known substance. 3. Use the mole ratio to convert from moles of the known to moles of the unknown. 4. Convert moles of unknown to mass of the unknown.

18. Thinking Critically In a certain industrial


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

14. In the formation of acid rain, sulfur dioxide

reacts with oxygen and water in the air to form sulfuric acid. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. If 2.50 g SO2 react with excess oxygen and water, how many grams of H2SO4 are produced?
Step 1: Balance the chemical equation. 2SO2(g) O2(g) 2H2O(l) 0 2H2SO4(aq) Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol SO2 0.0390 mol SO2 2.50 g SO2 64.07 g SO2 Step 3: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 2 mol H2SO4 0.0390 mol SO2 2 mol SO2 0.0390 mol H2SO4 Step 4: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 98.09 g H2SO4 0.0390 mol H2SO4 1 mol H2SO4 3.83 g H2SO4

process, magnesium reacts with liquid bromine. How would a chemical engineer determine the mass of bromine needed to react completely with a given mass of magnesium?
Write a balanced equation. Convert the given mass of magnesium to moles. Use the mole ratio from the balanced equation to convert moles of magnesium to moles of bromine. Convert from moles of bromine to mass of bromine.

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19. Concept Mapping Many cities use calcium

b. the reactant in excess


Sodium is the excess reactant.

chloride to prevent ice from forming on roadways. To produce calcium chloride, calcium carbonate (limestone) is reacted with hydrochloric acid according to this equation. CaCO3(s) 2HCl(aq) 0 CaCl2(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g) Create a concept map that describes how you can determine the mass of calcium chloride produced if the mass of hydrochloric acid is given.
Concept maps will vary, but all should show the use of these conversion factors: the inverse of molar mass, the mole ratio, the molar mass.

c. the mass of solid iron produced.


Step 1: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 2 mol Fe 0.6261 mol Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3 1.252 mol Fe Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 55.85 g Fe 1.252 mol Fe 69.92 g Fe 1 mol Fe

d. the mass of excess reactant that remains

after the reaction is complete.


Step 1: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 6 mol Na 0.6261 mol Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3 3.757 mol Na needed Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 22.99 g Na 3.757 mol Na 1 mol Na 86.37 g Na needed 100.0 g Na given 86.37 g Na needed 13.6 g Na in excess

Section 12.3 Limiting Reactants


pages 364369

Practice Problems
page 368

20. The reaction between solid sodium and iron(III)

oxide is one in a series of reactions that inflates an automobile airbag.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6Na(s) Fe2O3(s) 0 3Na2O(s) 2Fe(s) If 100.0 g Na and 100.0 g Fe2O3 are used in this reaction, determine
Step 1: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol Na 100.0 g Na 4.350 mol Na 22.99 g Na 1 mol Fe2O3 100.0 g Fe2O3 159.7 g Fe2O3 0.6261 mol Fe2O3 Step 2: Make mole ratio comparison. 0.6261 mol Fe2O3 1 mol Fe2O3 compared to 4.350 mol Na 6 mol Na 0.1439 compared to 0.1667

21. Photosynthesis reactions in green plants use

carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose (C6H12O6) and oxygen. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. If a plant has 88.0 g carbon dioxide and 64.0 g water available for photosynthesis, determine
Step 1: Write the balanced chemical equation. 6CO2(g) 6H2O(l) 0 C6H12O6(aq) 6O2(g) Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol CO2 2.00 mol CO2 88.0 g CO2 44.01 g CO2 1 mol H2O 64.0 g H2O 3.55 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O Step 3: Make mole ratio comparison. 2.00 mol CO2 6 mol CO2 compared to 3.55 mol H2O 6 mol H2O 0.563 compared to 1.00

a. the limiting reactant.


The actual ratio is less than the needed ratio, so iron(III) oxide is the limiting reactant.

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a. the limiting reactant.


The actual ratio is less than the needed ratio, so carbon dioxide is the limiting reactant.

24. Are limiting reactants present in all reactions?

Explain.
Reactions with two or more reactants will often have a limiting reactant

b. the excess reactant and the mass in excess.


Water is the excess reactant. Step 1: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 6 mol H2O 2.00 mol H2O 2.00 mol CO2 6 mol CO2 Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 18.02 g H2O 2.00 mol H2O 1 mol H2O 36.0 g H2O needed 64.0 g H2O given 36.0 g H2O needed 28.0 g H2O in excess

25. Thinking Critically For the following reac-

tions, identify the limiting reactant and the excess reactant. Give reasons for your choices. a. wood burning in a campfire
The wood limits. The fire will burn only while wood is present.

b. sulfur in the air reacting with silver flatware

to produce tarnish, or silver sulfide


Silver is the limiting reactant. When a layer of tarnish covers the silver surface, it prevents the sulfur in the air from reacting.

c. the mass of glucose produced.


Step 1: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 1 mol C6H12O6 2.00 mol CO2 6 mol CO2 0.333 mol C6H12O6 Step 2: Make mole 0 mass conversion.

c. baking powder in cake batter decomposing

to produce carbon dioxide, which makes the cake rise


A decomposition reaction usually has only one reactant. The reaction is limited by the amount of baking powder present.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

180.24 g C6H12O6 0.333 mol C6H12O6 1 mol C6H12O6 60.0 g C6H12O6

26. Analyze and Conclude The equation repre-

senting the production of tetraphosphorus trisulfide (P4S3), a substance used in some match heads, is 8P4 3S8 0 8P4S3 Determine if each of the following statements is correct. If the statement is incorrect, rewrite it to make it correct. a. To produce 4 mol P4S3, 4 mol P4 must react with 1.5 mol S8.
correct

Section 12.3 Assessment


page 369

22. What is meant by the limiting reactant? Why is

it necessary to identify the limiting reactant when you want to know how much product will form in a chemical reaction?
The reactant that is completely consumed during a chemical reaction; The limiting reactant determines the amount of product.

b. When 4 mol P4 reacts with 4 mol S8, sulfur

23. Describe how the mass of the product can be

is the limiting reactant.


Phosphorus is the limiting reactant.

calculated when one reactant is in excess.


Determine which reactant is limiting and base the calculation on the limiting reactant.

c. When 6 mol P4 and 6 mol S8 react, 1320 g

P4S3 is produced.
correct

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Section 12.4 Percent Yield


pages 370373

Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol Cu 20.0 g Cu 0.315 mol Cu 63.55 g Cu Step 3: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 2 mol Ag 0.315 mol Cu 0.630 mol Ag 1 mol Cu Step 4: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 107.9 g Ag 0.630 mol Ag 68.0 g Ag 1 mol Ag 68.0 g of Ag is the theoretical yield. 60.0 g Ag % yield 100 88.2% yield of Ag 68.0 g Ag

Practice Problems
page 372

27. Aluminum hydroxide is often present in

antacids to neutralize stomach acid (HCl). If 14.0 g aluminum hydroxide is present in an antacid tablet, determine the theoretical yield of aluminum chloride produced when the tablet reacts with stomach acid. If the actual yield of aluminum chloride from this tablet is 22.0 g, what is the percent yield? Al(OH)3(s) 3HCl(aq) 0 AlCl3(aq) 3H2O(l)
Al(OH)3(s) 3HCl(aq) 0 AlCl3(aq) 3H2O(l) Step 1: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol Al(OH)3 14.0 g Al(OH)3 78.0 g Al(OH)3 0.179 mol Al(OH)3 Step 2: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 1 mol AlCl3 0.179 mol Al(OH)3 1 mol Al(OH)3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

29. Zinc reacts with iodine in a synthesis reaction.

Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. Determine the theoretical yield if a 125.0-g sample of zinc was used. Determine the percent yield if 515.6 g product is recovered.
Step 1: Write the balanced chemical equation. Zn(s) I2(s) 0 ZnI2(s) Step 2: Make mass 0 mole conversion. 1 mol Zn 125.0 g Zn 1.912 mol Zn 65.38 g Zn Step 3: Make mole 0 mole conversion. 1 mol ZnI2 1.912 mol Zn 1.912 mol ZnI2 1 mol Zn Step 4: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 319.2 g ZnI2 610.3 g ZnI2 1.912 mol ZnI2 1 mol ZnI2 610.3 g of ZnI2 is the theoretical yield. 515.6 g ZnI2 % yield 100 610.3 g ZnI2 84.48% yield of ZnI2

0.179 mol AlCl3 Step 3: Make mole 0 mass conversion. 133.3 g AlCl3 23.9 g AlCl3 0.179 mol AlCl3 1 mol AlCl3 23.9 g of AlCl3 is the theoretical yield. 22.0 g AlCl3 % yield 100 23.9 g AlCl3 92.1% yield of AlCl3

28. When copper wire is placed into a silver nitrate

solution, silver crystals and copper(II) nitrate solution form. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. If a 20.0-g sample of copper is used, determine the theoretical yield of silver. If 60.0 g silver is actually recovered from the reaction, determine the percent yield of the reaction.
Step 1: Write the balanced chemical equation. Cu(s) 2AgNO3(aq) 0 2Ag(s) Cu(NO3)2(aq)

Section 12.4 Assessment


page 373

30. Distinguish between the theoretical yield and

the actual yield of a chemical reaction.


Theoretical yield is the maximum amount of product that can be produced from the available reactants. The actual yield is the amount of product actually produced from the same reactants.

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31. Give several reasons why the actual yield is not

usually equal to the theoretical yield.


Not all reactions go to completion. Some of the reactants or products stick to the surface of the container and are not massed or transferred. Other unexpected products form from competing reactions.

Chapter 12 Assessment pages 378382


Concept Mapping
Stoichiometry based on 1. requires 2. 4. compare with 5. 6. 3.

32. Explain how percent yield is calculated.


Percent yield equals the actual yield divided by the theoretical yield and the quotient multiplied by 100.

33. Thinking Critically In an experiment, you are

to combine iron with an excess of sulfur and heat the mixture to obtain iron(III) sulfide. 2Fe(s) 3S(s) 0 Fe2S3(s) What experimental information must you collect in order to calculate the percent yield of this reaction?
You must know the initial mass of iron and the final mass of iron(III) sulfide.

35. Fill in the ovals with the following terms to

create a concept map: actual yield, balanced chemical equation, molar mass, mole ratio, percent yield, and theoretical yield.
1. balanced chemical equation; 2. molar mass; 3. mole ratio; 4. theoretical yield; 5. actual yield; 6. percent yield

34. Interpreting Data Use the data to determine

Reaction Data
Mass of crucible Mass of crucible Mg Mass of Mg Mass of crucible MgO Mass of MgO 35.67 g 38.06 g 2.39 g 39.15 g 3.48 g

Mastering Concepts 36. What relationships can be determined from a balanced chemical equation? (12.1)
The relationships among particles, moles, and mass for all reactants and products.

37. Explain how the law of conservation of mass

mass of Mg 38.06 g 35.67 g 2.39 g mass of MgO 39.15 g 33.67 g 3.48 g 1 mol Mg Theoretical yield: 2.39 g Mg 24.31 g 0.0983 mol Mg 2 mol MgO 40.31 g MgO 0.983 mol Mg 2 mol Mg 1 mol MgO 3.96 g MgO 3.48 g MgO Percent yield: 100 87.9% 3.96 g MgO

allows you to interpret a balanced chemical equation in terms of mass. (12.1)


The mass of the reactants will always equal the mass of the products.

38. Explain why mole ratios are central to stoichio-

metric calculations. (12.1)


Mole ratios allow for the conversion from moles of one substance in a balanced chemical equation to moles of another substance in the same equation.

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the percent yield of the following reaction. 2Mg(s) O2(g) 0 2MgO(s) Oxygen is in excess.

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39. What is the mole ratio that can convert from

47. Can the percent yield of a chemical reaction be

moles of A to moles of B? (12.1)


number of moles B/number of moles A

more than 100%? Explain your answer. (12.4)


No, you cannot produce more product than the theoretical yield, which is determined from the starting reactants.

40. What is the first step in all stoichiometric

calculations? (12.2)
Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

48. What relationship is used to determine the

percent yield of a chemical reaction? (12.4)


(actual yield/theoretical yield) 100 percent yield

41. How is molar mass used in some stoichiometric

calculations? (12.2)
Molar mass is a conversion factor for converting moles of a given substance to mass or mass of a given substance to moles.

49. What experimental information do you need in

order to calculate both the theoretical and percent yield of any chemical reaction? (12.4)
the actual yield of the product

42. What information must you have in order to

calculate the mass of product formed in a chemical reaction? (12.2)


You must have the balanced chemical equation and know the quantity of one substance in the reaction other than the product you are to determine.

50. A metal oxide reacts with water to produce a

metal hydroxide. What additional information would you need to determine the percent yield of metal hydroxide from this reaction? (12.4)
the mass of one substance in the reaction and the actual mass of metal hydroxide produced

43. What is meant by limiting reactant? Excess

reactant? (12.3)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mastering Problems Interpreting Equations (12.1) Level 1 51. Interpret the following equation in terms of particles, moles, and mass. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s)
4 atoms Al 3 molecules O2 0 2 formula units Al2O3 4 mol Al 3 mol O2 0 2 mol Al2O3 107.92 g Al 96.00 g O2 0 203.92 g Al2O3

The limiting reactant is a reactant that is completely consumed during a chemical reaction. The excess reactant is a reactant that is not completely consumed.

44. How are mole ratios used in finding the limiting

reactant in a reaction? (12.3)


The actual mole ratio of reactants from the chemical equation is compared to the mole ratio determined from the given quantities.

45. What is the difference between actual yield and

theoretical yield? (12.4)


Actual yield is the amount of product actually obtained experimentally. Theoretical yield is the amount of product predicted by a stoichiometric calculation.

52. When tin(IV) oxide is heated with carbon in a

process called smelting, the element tin can be extracted. SnO2(s) 2C(s) 0 Sn(l) 2CO(g) Interpret the equation in terms of particles, moles, and mass.
1 formula unit SnO2 2 atoms C 0 1 atom Sn 2 molecules CO, 1 mol SnO2 2 mol C 0 1 mol Sn 2 mol CO, 150.71 g SnO2 24.02 g C 0 118.71 g Sn 56.01 g CO

46. How are actual yield and theoretical yield

determined? (12.4)
Actual yield is determined through experimentation. Theoretical yield is calculated from a given reactant or the limiting reactant.

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Level 2 53. When hydrochloric acid solution reacts with lead(II) nitrate solution, lead(II) chloride precipitates and a solution of nitric acid is produced. a. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
2HCl(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) 0 PbCl2(s) 2HNO3(aq)

56. Solid silicon dioxide, often called silica, reacts

with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution to produce the gas silicon tetrafluoride and water. a. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.
SiO2(s) 4HF(aq) 0 SiF4(g) 2H2O(l)

b. List three mole ratios and explain how you

b. Interpret the equation in terms of molecules

would use them in stoichiometric calculations.


Students may write any of 12 ratios. Examples might be the following: 4 mol HF/1 mol SiO2; used to find the amount of HF that will react with a known amount of SiO2. 1 mol SiF4/ 1 mol SiO2; used to find the amount of SiF4 that can be formed from a known amount of SiO2. 2 mol H2O/1 mol SiF4; used to find the amount of H2O that will be produced with the SiF2

and formula units, moles, and mass.


2 molecules HCl 1 formula unit Pb(NO3)2 0 1 formula unit PbCl2 2 molecules HNO3 2 mol HCl 1 mol Pb(NO3)2 0 1 mol PbCl2 2 mol HNO3 72.92 g HCl 331.2 g Pb(NO3)2 0 278.1 g PbCl2 126.04 g HNO3

Mole Ratios (12.1) Level 1 54. When solid copper is added to nitric acid, copper(II) nitrate, nitrogen dioxide, and water are produced. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. List six mole ratios for the reaction.
Cu(s) 4HNO3(aq) 0 Cu(NO3)2(aq) 2NO2(g) 2H2O(l); answers may include 1 mol Cu/4 mol HNO3, 1 mol Cu/1 mol Cu(NO3)2, 1 mol Cu/2 mol NO2, 1 mol Cu/2 mol H2O, 4 mol HNO3/1 mol Cu, 4 mol HNO3/1 mol Cu(NO3)2, 4 mol HNO3/2 mol NO2, 4 mol HNO3/ 2 mol H2O, 1 mol Cu(NO3)2/1 mol Cu, 1 mol Cu(NO3)2/4 mol HNO3, 1 mol Cu(NO3)2/2 mol NO2, 1 mol Cu(NO3)2/2 mol H2O, 2 mol NO2/ 1 mol Cu, 2 mol NO2/4 mol HNO3, 2 mol NO2/ 1 mol Cu(NO3)2, 2 mol NO2/2 mol H2O, 2 mol H2O/1 mol Cu, 2 mol H2O/4 mol HNO3, 2 mol H2O/1 mol Cu(NO3)2, 2 mol H2O/2 mol NO2

Level 2 57. Determine the mole ratio necessary to convert moles of aluminum to moles of aluminum chloride when aluminum reacts with chlorine.
2Al 3Cl2 0 2AlCl3 2 mol AlCl3/2 mol Al

58. Chromite (FeCr2O4) is the most important

commercial ore of chromium. One of the steps in the process used to extract chromium from the ore is the reaction of chromite with coke (carbon) to produce ferrochrome (FeCr2). 2C(s) FeCr2O4(s) 0 FeCr2(s) 2CO2(g) What mole ratio would you use to convert from moles of chromite to moles of ferrochrome?
1 mol FeCr2/1 mol FeCr2O4

55. When aluminum is mixed with iron(III) oxide,

iron metal and aluminum oxide are produced along with a large quantity of heat. What mole ratio would you use to determine mol Fe if mol Fe2O3 is known? Fe2O3(s) 2Al(s) 0 2Fe(s) Al2O3(s) heat
2 mol Fe/1 mol Fe2O3

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59. The air pollutant SO2 is removed from the air

62. When an antacid tablet dissolves in water, the

by means of a reaction among sulfur dioxide, calcium carbonate, and oxygen. The products of this reaction are calcium sulfate and carbon dioxide. Determine the mole ratio you would use to convert mol SO2 to mol CaSO4.
2SO2 2CaCO3 O2 0 2CaSO4 2CO2 2 mol CaSO4/2 mol SO2

fizz is due to a reaction between sodium hydrogen carbonate (sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3) and citric acid (H3C6H5O7). 3NaHCO3(aq) H3C6H5O7(aq) 0 3CO2(g) 3H2O(l) Na3C6H5O7(aq) How many moles of carbon dioxide can be produced if one tablet containing 0.0119 mol NaHCO3 is dissolved?
3 mol CO2 0.0119 mol NaHCO3 3 mol NaHCO3 0.0119 mol CO2

60. Two substances, W and X, react to form the

products Y and Z. The table shows the numbers of moles of the reactants and products involved when the reaction was carried out in one experiment. Use the data to determine the coefficients that will balance the equation W X 0 Y Z.
Reaction Data
Moles of reactants W 0.90 X 0.30 Moles of products Y 0.60 Z 1.20

Level 2
63. One of the main components of pearls is

calcium carbonate. If pearls are put in acidic solution, they dissolve. CaCO3(s) 2HCl(aq) 0 CaCl2(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g). How many mol CaCO3 can be dissolved in 0.0250 mol HCl?
1 mol CaCO3 0.0250 mol HCl 2 mol HCl 0.0125 mol CaCO3

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

To find the simplest whole number ratio of the reactants and product, which are the coefficients in the equation, divide each given number of moles by the smallest. 0.90 mol W 3 mol W 0.30 0.30 mol X 1 mol X 0.30 0.60 mol Y 2 mol Y 0.30 1.20 mol Z 4 mol Z 0.30 The balanced equation is 3W X 0 2Y 4Z

Stoichiometric Mole-to-Mass Conversions (12.2) Level 1 64. Citric acid (H3C6H5O7) is a product of the fermentation of sucrose (C12H22O11) in air. C12H22O11 (aq) 3O2(g) 0 2H3C6H5O7(aq) 3H2O(l) Determine the mass of citric acid produced when 2.50 mol C12H22O11 is used.
2 mol H3C6H5O7 2.50 mol C12H22O11 1 mol C12H22O11 5.00 mol H3C6H5O7 Molar mass H3C6H5O7 192.14 g/mol H3C6H5O7 192.14 g H3C6H5O7 5.00 mol H3C6H5O7 1 mol H3C6H5O7 961 g H3C6H5O7 produced

Stoichiometric Mole-to-Mole Conversions (12.2) Level 1 61. If 5.50 mol calcium carbide (CaC2) reacts with an excess of water, how many moles of acetylene (C2H2) will be produced? CaC2 (s) 2H2O(l) 0 Ca(OH)2(aq) C2H2 (g)
1 mol C2H2 5.50 mol CaC2 = 5.50 mol C2H2 1 mol CaC2

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65. Esterification is a reaction between an organic

68. The exothermic reaction between liquid

acid and an alcohol that forms as ester and water. The ester ethyl butanoate (C3H7COOC2H5), which is responsible for the fragrance of pineapples, is formed when the alcohol ethanol (C2H5OH) and butanoic acid (C3H7COOH) are heated in the presence of sulfuric acid. C2H5OH(l) C3H7COOH (l) 0 C3H7COOC2H5 (l) H2O(l) Determine the mass of ethyl butanoate produced if 4.50 mol ethanol is used.
1 mol C3H7COOC2H5 4.50 mol C2H5OH 1 mol C2H5OH 116.18 g C3H7COOC2H5 523 g C3H7COOC2H5 1 mol C3H7COOC2H5

hydrazine (N2H2) and liquid hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used to fuel rockets. The products of this reaction are nitrogen gas and water. a. Write the balanced chemical equation.
N2H2(l) H2O2(l) 0 N2(g) 2H2O(g)

b. How many grams of hydrazine are needed to

produce 10.0 mol nitrogen gas?


1 mol N2H2 10.0 mol N2 1 mol N2 30.03 g N2H2 3.00 102 g N2H2 1 mol N2H2

66. Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere

through the combustion of octane (C8H18) in gasoline. Write the balanced chemical equation for the combustion of octane and calculate the mass of octane needed to release 5.00 mol CO2.
2C8H18(l) 25O2(g) 0 16CO2(g) 18H2O(l) 2 mol C8H18 0.625 mol C8H18 5.00 mol CO2 16 mol CO2 0.625 mol C8H18 114.28 g C8H18 71.4 g CO2 1 mol C8H18

Stoichiometric Mass-to-Mass Conversions (12.2) Level 1 69. Chloroform (CHCl3), an important solvent, is produced by a reaction between methane and chlorine. CH4(g) 3Cl2(g) 0 CHCl3(g) 3HCl(g) How many g CH4 is needed to produce 50.0 g CHCl3?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1 mol CHCl3 1 mol CH4 50.0 g CHCl3 119.37 g CHCl3 1 mol CHCl3 16.04 g 6.72 g CH4 1 mol CH4

70. Gasohol is a mixture of ethanol and gasoline.

Level 2 67. A solution of potassium chromate reacts with a solution of lead(II) nitrate to produce a yellow precipitate of lead(II) chromate and a solution of potassium nitrate. a. Write the balanced chemical equation.
K2CrO4(aq) Pb(NO3)2(aq) 0 PbCrO4(s) 2KNO3(aq)

Balance the equation and determine the mass of CO2 produced from the combustion of 100.0 g ethanol. ____C2H5OH(l) ____O2(g) 0 ____CO2(g) ____H2O(g)
C2H5OH(l) 3O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 3H2O(g) 1 mol C2H5OH 100.0 g C2H5OH 46.08 g C2H5OH 2.170 mol C2H5OH 2 mol CO2 2.170 mol C2H5OH 1 mol C2H5OH 4.340 mol CO2 44.01 g CO2 4.340 mol CO2 1 mol CO2 191.0 g CO2 produced

b. Starting with 0.250 mol potassium chromate,

determine the mass of lead chromate that can be obtained.


1 mol PbCrO4 0.250 mol K2CrO4 1 mol K2CrO4 323.2 g PbCrO4 80.8 g PbCrO4 1 mol PbCrO4

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Level 2 71. When surface water dissolves carbon dioxide, carbonic acid (H2CO3) is formed. When the water moves underground through limestone formations, the limestone dissolves and caves are sometimes produced. CaCO3(s) H2CO3 (aq) 0 Ca(HCO3)2(aq) What mass of limestone must have dissolved if 3.05 1010 kg of calcium hydrogen carbonate was produced?
1000 g 3.05 1010 kg Ca(HCO3)2 1 kg 3.05 1013 g Ca(HCO3)2 1 mol Ca(HCO3)2 3.05 1013 g Ca(HCO3)2 162.12 g Ca(HCO3)2 1.88 1011 mol Ca(HCO3)2 1 mol CaCO3 1.88 1011 mol Ca(HCO3)2 1 mol Ca(HCO3)2 1.88 1011 mol CaCO3 100.09 g CaCO3 1.88 1011 mol CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3 1.88
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

73. The fuel methanol (CH3OH) is made by the

reaction of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. a. Write the balanced chemical equation.
CO(g) 2H2(s) 0 CH3OH(l)

b. How many grams of hydrogen are needed to

produce 45.0 grams of methanol?


1 mol CH3OH 45.0 g CH3OH 32.04 g CH3OH 2 mol H2 2.02 g 5.67 g H2 1 mol H2 1 mol CH3OH

74. To extract gold from its ore, the ore is treated

with sodium cyanide solution in the presence of oxygen and water. 4Au(s) 8NaCN(aq) O2(g) 2H2O(l) 0 4NaAu(CN)2(aq) 4NaOH(aq) a. Determine the mass of gold that can be extracted if 25.0 g sodium cyanide is used.
1 mol NaCN 25.0 g NaCN 49.01 g NaCN 196.97 g Au 4 mol Au = 50.2 g Au 8 mol NaCN 1 mol Au

1013

g CaCO3

72. Car batteries use solid lead and lead(IV) oxide

b. If the mass of the ore from which the gold

with sulfuric acid solution to produce an electric current. The products of this reaction are lead(II) sulfate in solution and water. a. Write the balanced chemical equation for this reaction.
Pb(s) PbO2(s) 2H2SO4(aq) 0 2PbSO4(aq) 2H2O(l)

was extracted is 150.0 g, what percentage of the ore is gold?


50.2 g Au 100 33.5% gold in ore 150.0 g ore

b. Determine the mass of lead(II) sulfate

produced when 25.0 g lead reacts with an excess of lead(IV) oxide and sulfuric acid.
2 mol PbSO4 25.0 g Pb 1 mol Pb 1 mol Pb 207.2 g Pb 303.23 g 73.2 g PbSO4 1 mol PbSO4

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75. Photographic film contains silver bromide in

77. This reaction takes place in a nickel-iron

gelatin. Once exposed, some of the silver bromide decomposes producing fine grains of silver. The unexposed silver bromide is removed by treating the film with sodium thiosulfate. Soluble sodium silver thiosulfate (Na3Ag(S2O3)2) is produced. AgBr(s) 2Na2S2O3(aq) 0 Na3Ag(S2O3)2(aq) NaBr(aq) Determine the mass of Na3Ag(S2O3)2 produced if 0.275 g AgBr is removed.
1 mol AgBr 0.275 g AgBr 187.77 g AgBr 1.46 103 mol AgBr 1 mol Na3Ag(S2O3)2 1.46 103 mol AgBr 1 mol AgBr 1.46 103 mol Na3Ag(S2O3)2 1.46 103 mol Na3Ag(S2O3)2 401.12 g Na3Ag(S2O3)2 0.587 g Na3Ag(S2O3)2 1 mol Na3Ag(S2O3)2

battery. Fe(s) 2NiO(OH)(s) 2H2O(l) 0 Fe(OH)2(s) 2Ni(OH)2(aq) Determine the number of moles of iron(II) hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) produced if 5.00 mol Fe and 8.00 mol NiO(OH) react.
According to the balanced equation, two moles of NiO(OH) react with one mole of Fe. So, 8.00 mol NiO(OH) reacts with only 4 mol Fe, so Fe is in excess by 1.00 mol.

78. How many moles of cesium xenon heptafluoride

(CsXeF7) can be produced from the reaction of 12.5 mol cesium fluoride with 10.0 mol xenon hexafluoride? CsF(s) XeF6(s) 0 CsXeF7(s).
According to the balanced equation, CsF and XeF6 react in a one-to-one ratio. XeF6 is the limiting reactant. 1 mol CsXeF7 10.0 mol XeF6 10.0 mol CsXeF7 1 mol XeF6
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Limiting Reactants (12.3)


Ethyne Hydrogen

79. Iron is obtained commercially by the reaction of

0
Ethane

Ethyne

hematite (Fe2O3) with carbon monoxide. How many grams of iron are produced if 25.0 moles of hematite react with 30.0 moles of carbon monoxide? Fe2O3(s) 3CO(g) 0 2Fe(s) 3CO2(g)
According to the balanced equation, CO reacts with Fe2O3 in a three-to-one ratio. In this reaction, the ratio is 30.0/25.0, thus CO is the limiting reactant. 55.85 g Fe 2 mol Fe 30.0 mol CO 3 mol CO 1 mol Fe 1120 g Fe

Level 1 76. The illustration shows the reaction between ethyne (acetylene, C2H2) and hydrogen. The product is ethane (C2H6). Which is the limiting reactant? Which is the excess reactant? Explain.
Hydrogen is limiting; ethyne is the excess reactant. One mol of ethyne is left over.

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80. Under certain conditions of temperature and

82. An alkaline battery produces electrical energy

pressure, hydrogen and nitrogen react to produce ammonia (NH3). Write the balanced chemical equation and determine the mass of ammonia produced if 3.50 mol H2 reacts with 5.00 mol N2.
According to the balanced equation, H2 reacts with N2 in a three-to-one ratio. In this reaction, the ratio is 3.50/5.00, thus H2 is the limiting reactant. 3H2(g) N2(g) 0 2NH3(g) 2 mol NH3 17.04 g NH3 3.50 mol H2 3 mol H2 1 mol NH3 39.8 g NH3

according to this equation. Zn(s) 2MnO2(s) H2O(l) 0 Zn(OH)2(s) Mn2O3(s) a. Determine the limiting reactant if 25.0 g Zn and 30.0 g MnO2 are used.
1 mol Zn 25.0 g Zn 0.380 mol Zn 65.3 g Zn 1 mol MnO2 30.0 g MnO2 86.92 g MnO2 0.345 mol MnO2 According to the balanced equation, MnO2 reacts with Zn in a two-to-one ratio. In the reaction, the ratio is 0.345/0.380 or 1:1.1. MnO2 is the limiting reactant.

Level 2 81. The reaction of chlorine gas with solid phosphorus (P4) produces solid phosphorus pentachloride. When 16.0 g chlorine reacts with 23.0 g P4, which reactant limits the amount of phosphorus pentachloride produced? Which reactant is in excess?
10Cl2(g) P4(s) 0 4PCl5(s)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. Determine the mass of Zn(OH)2 produced.


1 mol Zn(OH)2 0.345 mol MnO2 2 mol MnO2 99.39 g Zn(OH)2 17.1 g Zn(OH)2 1 mol Zn(OH)2

83. Lithium reacts spontaneously with bromine to

1 mol Cl2 0.226 mol Cl2 16.0 g Cl2 70.90 g Cl2 1 mol P4 23.0 g of P4 0.185 moles 123.88 g P4 According to the balanced equation, Cl2 reacts with P4 in a ten-to one ratio. 1 mol P4 0.226 mol Cl2 10 mol Cl2 0.00226 mol P4 needed Cl2 is limiting reactant; P4 is in excess.

produce lithium bromide. Write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. If 25.0 g of lithium and 25.0 g of bromine are present at the beginning of the reaction, determine
2Li(s) Br2(l) 0 2LiBr(s)

a. the limiting reactant.


1 mol Li 25.0 g Li 3.60 mol Li 6.94 g Li 1 mol Br2 25.0 g Br2 0.156 mol Br2 159.80 g Br2 Actual ratio of mol Li to mol Br2 is 3.60 mol Li/ 0.156 Br2 or 23:1. Only 2 mol Li are required for 1 mol Br2. Thus, Br2 is the limiting reactant.

b. the mass of lithium bromide produced.


2 mol LiBr 0.156 mol Br2 0.312 mol LiBr 1 mol Br2 86.84 g LiBr 0.312 mol LiBr 27.1 g LiBr 1 mol LiBr

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c. the excess reactant and the mass in excess.


Li is in excess. 2 mol Li 0.156 mol Br2 0.312 mol Li used 1 mol Br2 3.60 mol Li 0.312 mol Li used 3.29 mol Li remaining 6.94 g Li 3.29 mol Li 22.8 g Li remaining 1 mol Li

85. Lead(II) oxide is obtained by roasting galena,

lead(II) sulfide, in air. ____ PbS(s) ____ O2 (g) 0 ____ PbO(s) ____ SO2(g) a. Balance the equation and determine the theoretical yield of PbO if 200.0 g PbS is heated.
2PbS 3O2 0 2PbO 2SO2 Theoretical yield 200.0 g PbS 2 mol PbO 1 mol PbS 239.27 g PbS 2 mol PbS 223.19 g PbO 186.6 g PbO 1 mol PbO

Percent Yield (12.4) Level 1 84. Ethanol (C2H5OH) is produced from the fermentation of sucrose in the presence of enzymes. C12H22O11(aq) H2O(g) 0 4C2H5OH(l) 4CO2(g) Determine the theoretical and percent yields of ethanol if 684 g sucrose undergoes fermentation and 349 g ethanol is obtained.
theoretical yield 684 g C12H22O11 1 mol C12H22O11 4 mole C2H5OH 342.23 g C12H22O11 1 mol C12H22O11 46.07 g C2H5OH 369 g C2H5OH 1 mol C2H5OH actual yield percent yield for ethanol theoretical yield 349 g 100 100 94.6 % 369 g

b. What is the percent yield if 170.0 g PbO is

obtained?
percent yield ( 170.0 g/186.6 g) 100 91.10%

86. Upon heating, calcium carbonate decomposes to

produce calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. a. Determine the theoretical yield of CO2 if 235.0 g CaCO3 is heated.
1 mol CaCO3 235 g CaCO3 100.06 g CaCO3 43.99 g CO2 1 mol CO2 103 g CO2 1 mol CaCO3 1 mol CO2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CaCO3(s) 0 CaO(s) + CO2(g)

b. What is the percent yield of CO2 if 97.5 g

CO2 is collected?
actual yield percent yield 100 theoretical yield 97.5 g CO2 100 94.7% 103 g CO2

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Level 2 87. Hydrofluoric acid solutions cannot be stored in glass containers because HF reacts readily with silica in glass to produce hexafluorosilicic acid (H2SiF6). SiO2(s) 6HF(aq) 0 H2SiF6(aq) 2H2O(l). If 40.0 g SiO2 and 40.0 g of HF react a. determine the limiting reactant.
1 mol SiO2 40.0 g SiO2 0.666 mol SiO2 60.09 g SiO2 1 mol HF 40.0 g HF 2.00 mol HF 20.01 g HF Ratio of HF to SiO2 in the balanced equation is 6:1. Actual ratio of HF to SiO2 is 2.00 mol HF or 3.00:1. Thus, HF is the 0.666 mol SiO2 limiting reactant.

88. Pure zirconium is obtained using the two-step

Van Arkel process. In the first step, impure zirconium and iodine are heated to produce zirconium iodide (ZrI4). In the second step, ZrI4 is decomposed to produce pure zirconium. ZrI4(s) 0 Zr(s) 2I2(g) Determine the percent yield of zirconium if 45.0 g ZrI4 is decomposed and 5.00 g pure Zr is obtained.
1 mol ZrI4 theoretical yield 45.0 g ZrI4 598.84 g ZrI4 91.22 g Zr 1 mol Zr 6.85 g of Zr 1 mol ZrI4 1 mol Zr actual yield percent yield 100 theoretical yield 5.00 g Zr 100 73.0% 6.85 g Zr

b. determine the mass of the excess reactant.


1 mol SiO2 2.00 mol HF 0.333 mol SiO2 6 mol HF 0.666 mol SiO2 available 0.333 mol SiO2 used 0.333 mol SiO2 in excess 60.09 g SiO2 0.333 mol SiO2 1 mol SiO2 20.0 g SiO2 in excess

89. Phosphorus is commercially prepared by

heating a mixture of calcium phosphate, sand, and coke in an electric furnace. The process involves two reactions. 2Ca3(PO4)2(s) 6SiO2(s) 0 6CaSiO3(l) P4O10(g) P4O10(g) 10C(s) 0 P4 (g) 10CO(g) The P4O10 produced in the first reaction reacts with an excess of coke (C) in the second reaction. Determine the theoretical yield of P4 if 250.0 g Ca3(PO4)2 and 400.0 g SiO2 are heated. If the actual yield of P4 is 45.0 g, determine the percent yield of P4.
Step 1 is to determine the excess quantity in equation #1. 1 mol SiO2 400.0 g SiO2 6.657 mol of SiO2 60.08 g SiO2 1 mol Ca3(PO4)2 250.0 g Ca3(PO4)2 310.17 g Ca3(PO4)2 0.8060 mol According to the balanced equation, Ca3(PO4)2 reacts with SiO2 in a one-to-three ratio. In this reaction, SiO2 is in excess and 0.8060 mol of Ca3(PO4)2 react.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. determine the theoretical yield of H2SiF6.


1 mol H2SiF6 2.00 mol HF 0.333 mol H2SiF6 6 mol HF 144.11 g H2SiF6 0.333 mol H2SiF6 1 mol H2SiF6 48.0 g H2SiF6 48.0 g H2SiF6 is the theoretical yield.

d. determine the percent yield if the actual

yield is 45.8 g H2SiF6.


45.8 g H2SiF6 percent yield 100 48.0 g H2SiF6 95.4% yield

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Step 2 is to determine amount of P4O10 produced. 1 mol P4O10 0.8060 mol Ca3(PO4)2 2 mol Ca3(PO4)2 0.4030 mol P4O10. Step 3 is to determine amount of P4 produced in step 2 from 0.4030 mol P4O10. 1 mol P4 123.88 g P4 0.4030 mol P4O10 1 mol P4O10 1 mol P4 49.92 g of P4. Step 4 is to determine the percent yield, given actual yield is 49.92 g. actual yield percent yield 100 theoretical yield 45.0 g P4 100 90.1% 49.92 g P4

Step 4 is to determine percent yield, given that 20.0 g of Cl2 is actually formed. 20.0 g Cl2 100 82.3% 24.3 g Cl2

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 91. Ammonium sulfide reacts with copper(II) nitrate in a double replacement reaction. What mole ratio would you use to determine the moles of NH4NO3 produced if the moles of CuS are known.
(NH4)2S Cu(NO3)2 0 2NH4NO3 CuS 2 mol NH4NO3/1 mol CuS

90. Chlorine can be prepared by the reaction of

92. One method for producing nitrogen in the

manganese(IV) oxide with hydrochloric acid. ____ MnO2(s) ____ HCl(aq) 0 ____ MnCl2(aq) ____ Cl2(g) ____ H2O(l) Balance the equation and determine the theoretical and percent yields of chlorine if 86.0 g MnO2 and 50.0 g HCl react. The actual yield of chlorine is 20.0 g.
Step 1 is to balance the equation. MnO2 (s) 4HCl (aq) 0 MnCl2 (aq) Cl2 (g) 2H2O (l) Step 2 is to determine which is in excess. 1 mol MnO2 0.989 mol MnO2 86.0 g MnO2 86.94 g MnO2 1 mol HCl 50.0 g HCl 1.37 mol HCl 36.46 g HCl According to the balanced equation, MnO2 reacts with HCl in a one-to-four ratio. In this reaction, the ratio is 0.989 mol/1.37 mol or 1:1.38. Therefore MnO2 is in excess, and HCl is the limiting reactant. Step 3 is to determine the grams of Cl2 produced. 1 mol Cl2 70.90 g Cl2 1.37 mol HCl 4 mol HCl 1 mol Cl2 24.3 g Cl2.

laboratory is to react ammonia with copper(II) oxide. ____ NH3(g) ____ CuO(s) 0 ____ Cu(s) ____ H2O(l) ____ N2(g) a. Balance the equation.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2NH3(g) 3CuO(s) 0 3Cu(s) 3H2O(l) N2(g)

b. If 40.0 g NH3 is reacted with 80.0 g CuO,

determine the limiting reactant.


1 mol NH3 40.0 g NH3 2.35 mol NH3 17.03 g NH3 1 mol CuO 80.0 g CuO 1.01 mol CuO 79.55 g CuO According to the balanced equation, NH3 reacts with CuO in a two-to-three ratio. In this reaction, the ratio is 2.35/1.01 or 2.33:1. CuO is the limiting reactant.

c. Determine the mass of N2 produced by this

reaction.
1 mol N2 28.02 g N2 1.01 mol CuO 3 mol CuO 1 mol N2 9.43 g N2

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d. Which reactant is in excess? How much

b. What mole ratio would you use to convert

remains after the reaction?


NH3 is in excess. 2 mol NH3 1.01 mol CuO 3 mol CuO 0.673 mol NH3 used in the reaction 2.35 mol NH3 0.667 mol NH3 1.68 mol NH3 remaining 17.03 g NH3 28.6 g NH3 1.68 mol NH3 1 mol NH3

from moles of nitrogen oxide to moles of nitrogen dioxide?


2 mol NO2/2 mol NO

96. Determine the theoretical and percent yield

of hydrogen gas if 36.0 g water undergoes electrolysis to produce hydrogen and oxygen and 3.80 g hydrogen is collected.
2H2O(l) 0 H2(g) O2(g) 1 mol H2 theoretical yield 2 mol H2O 2 mol H2O 2.02 g H2 4.04 g H2 1 mol H2 3.80 g H2 percent yield 100 94.1% 4.04 g H2

93. The compound calcium cyanamide (CaNCN)

can be used as a fertilizer. To obtain this compound, calcium carbide is reacted with nitrogen at high temperatures. CaC2(s) N2(g) 0 CaNCN(s) C(s) What mass of CaNCN can be produced if 7.50 mol CaC2 reacts with 5.00 mol N2?
According to the balanced equation, CaC2 reacts with N2 in a one-to-one ratio. In this reaction, the ratio is 7.50:5.00. Thus, N2 is the limiting reactant in this reaction.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

97. The Swedish chemist Karl Wilhellm was first to

produce chlorine in the laboratory. 2NaCl(s) 2H2SO4(aq) MnO2(aq) 0 Na2SO4(aq) MnSO4(aq) 2H2O(l) Cl2(g) What mole ratio could be used to find the moles of chlorine produced from 4.85 moles of sodium chloride? Determine the moles of chlorine produced. Determine the mass of chlorine produced.
1 mol Cl2 The mole ratio is . 2 mol NaCl 1 mol Cl2 4.85 mol NaCl 2.43 mol Cl2 2 mol NaCl 70.90 g Cl2 2.43 mol Cl2 172 g Cl2 produced 1 mol Cl2

80.11 g CaNCN 1 mol CaNCN 5.00 mol N2 1 mol N2 1 mol CaNCN 401 g CaNCN

94. When copper(II) oxide is heated in the presence

of hydrogen gas, elemental copper and water are produced. What mass of copper can be obtained if 32.0 g copper(II) oxide is used?
CuO(s) H2(g) 0 Cu(s) H2O(l) 1 mol CuO 1 mol Cu 32.0 g CuO 79.55 g CuO 1 mol CuO 63.55 g Cu 25.6 g Cu 1 mol Cu

95. Nitrogen oxide is present in urban pollution but

it is immediately converted to nitrogen dioxide as it reacts with oxygen. a. Write the balanced chemical equation for the formation of nitrogen dioxide from nitrogen oxide.
2NO(g) O2(g) 0 2NO2(g)

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98. The solid booster rockets of the space shuttle

b. Silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid react to

contain ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) and powdered aluminum as the propellant. 8Al 3NH4ClO4 0 4Al2O3 3NH4Cl. Determine the percent yield if 6.00 105 kg NH4ClO4 produces 6.56 105 kg aluminum oxide.
1000 g NH4ClO4 6.00 105 kg NH4ClO4 1 kg NH4ClO4 1 mol NH4ClO4 5.11 106 mol NH4ClO4 117.50 g NH4ClO4 4 mol Al2O3 5.11 106 mol NH4ClO4 3 mol NH4ClO4 6.81 106 mol Al2O3 molar mass Al2O3 = 101.96 g/mol Al2O3 101.96 g Al2O3 6.81 106 mol Al2O3 1 mol Al2O3 = 6.94 108 g Al2O3 1 kg Al2O3 6.94 108 g Al2O3 1000 g Al2O3 = 6.94 105 kg Al2O3 6.56 105 kg Al2O3 100 = 94.4% yield Al2O3 6.94 105 kg Al2O3

produce silver chloride and nitric acid.


yes, because there are two reactants; Not enough information is given to identify which is the limiting reactant.

c. Propane (C3H8) burns in excess oxygen to

produce carbon dioxide and water.


yes, because there are two reactants; Oxygen is in excess, so the limiting reactant is propane.

101. Designing an Experiment Design an experi-

ment that can be used to determine the percent yield of anhydrous copper(II) sulfate when copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate is heated to remove water.
Obtain and record the mass of an empty evaporating dish. Add 2.00 g of copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate and obtain and record the mass of the hydrate and evaporating dish. Heat the dish gently for 5 minutes, then strongly for 5 minutes to drive off the water. Cool the dish and remass. Record. Determine the mass of the anhydrous copper sulfate. Using the equation CuSO4 5H2O 0 CuSO4 5H2O and the initial mass of the copper(II) sulfate pentahydrate, determine the theoretical yield of copper(II) sulfate. Determine the actual yield of copper(II) sulfate. Divide the actual yield by the theoretical yield and multiply by 100 to determine percent yield of copper(II) sulfate.

Thinking Critically 99. Analyze and Conclude In an experiment, you obtain a percent yield of product of 108%. Is such a percent yield possible? Explain. Assuming that your calculation is correct, what reasons might explain such a result?
No, percent yields cannot be greater than 100%. High results could mean the product was not completely dry, or it was contaminated.

102. Formulating Models Copper reacts with

100. Observing and Inferring Determine whether

chlorine to produce copper(II) chloride. Draw a diagram that represents eight atoms of copper reacting with six molecules of chlorine. Make sure you include the particles before the reaction and after the reaction. Include any excess reactants.

the following reactions depend upon a limiting reactant. Explain why or why not and identify the limiting reactant. a. Potassium chlorate decomposes to form potassium chloride and oxygen.
no, because there is only one reactant

8Cu

6Cl

6CuCl2

2Cu2

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103. Applying Concepts When your campfire

107. Write the electron configuration for each of the

begins to die down and smolder, it helps to fan it. Explain in terms of stoichiometry why the fire begins to flare up again.
When you fan the flame, additional oxygen is added and the remaining coals can burn.

following atoms. (Chapter 5) a. fluorine


[He]2s22p5

b. aluminum
[Ne]3s23p1

Writing in Chemistry 104. Research the air pollutants produced by using gasoline in internal combustion engines. Discuss the common pollutants and the reaction that produces them. Show, through the use of stoichiometry, how each pollutant could be reduced if more people used mass transit.
Answers will vary. Common pollutants are SO2, NO, NO2 and O3. Check the stoichiometry and be sure it accounts for a decrease in the pollutant.

c. titanium
[Ar]4s23d2

d. radon
[Xe]6s24f145d106p6

108. Explain why the gaseous nonmetals exist as

diatomic molecules, but other gaseous elements exist as single atoms. (Chapter 9)
Diatomic molecules achieve a noble gas electron configuration by forming covalent bonds. The monoatomic gases already have noble gas electron configurations.

105. The percent yield of ammonia produced when

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

hydrogen and nitrogen are combined under ordinary conditions is extremely small. However, the Haber Process combines the two gases under a set of conditions designed to maximize yield. Research the conditions used in the Haber Process and find out why the development of the process was of great importance.
Answers will vary. Make sure the equation, N2(g) 3H2(g) 3 2NH3(g) 92 kJ is included. The aim of the Haber process was to control a reaction so that a large amount of a useful product was yielded quickly. The process was of great importance because the Germans had to come up with a nitrogen compound that could be produced in large amounts.

109. Write a balanced equation for the reaction of

potassium with oxygen. (Chapter 10)


4K(s) O2(g) 0 2K2O(s)

110. What is the molecular mass of UF6? What is

the molar mass of UF6? (Chapter 11)


352.02 amu, 352.02 g/mol 283.03 6(18.998) 352.02

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 106. You observe that sugar dissolves more quickly in hot tea than in iced tea. You state that higher temperatures increase the rate at which sugar dissolves in water. Is this statement a hypothesis or theory and why? (Chapter 1)
a hypothesis, because it is based only on observation, not on data

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Standardized Test Practice Chapter 12


page 383

2. Na2CO3(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) 0 2NaOH(aq)

CaCO3(s) The LeBlanc process, shown above, is the traditional method of manufacturing sodium hydroxide. Using the amounts of chemicals available in Dr. Raitanos lab, the maximum number of moles of NaOH that can be produced is _____ . a. 4.05 mol b. 4.72 mol c. 8.097 mol d. 9.43 mol
Find the limiting reactant. 1 mol Na2CO3 500.0 g Na2CO3 106.00 g Na2CO3 4.717 mol Na2CO3 1 mol Ca(OH)2 300.0 g Ca(OH)2 74.10 g Ca(OH)2

Interpreting Graphs Use the graph below to answer questions 14.

Supply of Various Chemicals in Dr. Raitanos Laboratory

NaCl 700.0 g

Na2CO3 500.0 g

Ca(OH)2 300.0 g KClO3 200.0 g NaH2PO4 350.0 g

AgNO3 100.0 g

4.049 mol Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)2 is the limiting reactant.

1. Pure silver metal can be made using the reaction

shown below: Cu(s) 2AgNO3(aq) 0 2Ag(s) Cu(NO3)2(aq) How many grams of copper metal will be needed to use up all of the AgNO3 in Dr. Raitanos laboratory? a. 18.70 g b. 37.3 g c. 74.7 g d. 100 g
1 mol AgNO3 100.0 g AgNO3 169.88 g AgNO3 63.55 g Cu 1 mol Cu 18.70 g 2 mol AgNO3 1 mol Cu a

2 mol NaOH 4.049 mol Ca(OH)2 1 mol Ca(OH)2 c


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

8.097 mol NaOH

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3. Pure O2 gas can be generated from the decom-

5. Stoichiometry is based on the law of _____ . a. b. c. d.


d

position of potassium chlorate (KClO3): 2KClO3(s) 0 2KCl(s) 3O2(g) If half of the KClO3 in the lab is used and 12.8 g of oxygen gas are produced, the percent yield of this reaction is _____ . a. 12.8% b. 32.7% c. 65.6% d. 98.0%
1 (200.0 g KCIO3) 100.0 g KCIO3 2 theoretical yield 100.0 g KCIO3 32.00 g O2 1 mol KCIO3 3 mol O2 122.55 g KCIO3 2 mol KCIO3 1 mol O2 39.17 g O2 actual yield percent yield 100 theoretical yield 12.8 g 100 32.7% 39.17 g b

constant mole ratios Avogadros constant conservation of energy conservation of mass

6. Red mercury(II) oxide decomposes at high

temperatures to form mercury metal and oxygen gas: 2HgO(s) 0 2Hg(l) O2(g) If 3.55 moles of HgO decompose to form 1.54 moles of O2 and 618 g of Hg, what is the percent yield of this reaction? a. 13.2% b. 42.5% c. 56.6% d. 86.8%
theoretical yield O2 3.55 mol HgO 1 mol O2 1.775 mol O2 2 mol HgO 1.54 mol percent yield 100 86.8% 1.775 mol d

4. Sodium dihydrogen pyrophosphate


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

(Na2H2P2O7), more commonly known as baking powder, is manufactured by heating NaH2PO4 at high temperatures: 2NaH2PO4(s) 0 Na2H2P2O7(s) H2O(g) If 444.0 g of Na2H2P2O7 are needed, how much more NaH2PO4 will Dr. Raitano have to buy to make enough Na2H2P2O7? a. 94.0 g b. 130.0 g c. 480 g d. nonethe lab already has enough
1 mol Na2H2P2O7 444.0 g Na2H2P2O7 221.94 g Na2H2P2O7 2 mol NaH2PO4 119.98 g NaH2PO4 1 mol Na2H2P2O7 1 mol NaH2PO4 480.0 g NaH2PO4 480.0 g 350.0 g 130.0 g b

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7. Dimethyl hydrazine (CH3)2N2H2 ignites sponta-

neously upon contact with dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4): (CH3)2N2H2(l) 2N2O4(l) 0 3N2(g) 4H2O(g) 2CO2(g) Because this reaction produces an enormous amount of energy from a small amount of reactants, it was used to drive the rockets on the Lunar Excursion Modules (LEMs) of the Apollo space program. If 2.0 moles of dimethyl hydrazine are mixed with 4.0 moles of dinitrogen tetroxide, and the reaction achieves an 85% yield, how many moles of N2, H2O, and CO2 will be formed? a. 0.57 mol N2, 0.43 mol H2O, 0.85 mol CO2 b. 2.6 mol N2, 3.4 mol H2O, 1.7 mol CO2 c. 5.1 mol N2, 6.8 mol H2O, 3.4 mol CO2 d. 6.0 mol N2, 8.0 mol H2O, 4.0 mol CO2
actual yield percent yield 100 theoretical yield actual yield 0.85 theoretical yield Theroetical yield can be calculated using (CH3)2N2H2 or N2O4. 3 mol N2 6.0 mol N2 4.0 mol N2O4 2 mol N2O4 4 mol H2O 4.0 mol N2O4 8.0 mol H2O 2 mol N2O4 2 mol CO2 4.0 mol N2O4 4.0 mol CO2 2 mol N2O4 actual yield N2 0.85 6.0 mol N2 5.1 mol N2 actual yield H2O 0.85 8.0 mol H2O 6.8 mol H2O actual yield CO2 0.85 4.0 mol CO2 3.4 mol CO2 c
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States of Matter
Section 13.1 Gases
pages 385392

Problem-Solving Lab
page 390 8.0 7.0 6.0 Pressure (atm) 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0 0 0 10 20 30 40 Depth (m) 50 60 70 Pressure vs. Depth

Practice Problems
pages 388, 392

1. Calculate the ratio of effusion rates for nitrogen

(N2) and neon (Ne).


Ratenitrogen Rateneon

20.2 g/mol 0.721 0.849 28.0 g/mol

2. Calculate the ratio of diffusion rates for carbon

monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2).


Ratecarbon monoxide Ratecarbon dioxide 1.25

44.0 g/mol 1.57 28.0 g/mol

3. What is the rate of effusion for a gas that has a

4. What is the partial pressure of hydrogen gas in a

molar mass twice that of a gas that effuses at a rate of 3.6 mol/min?
Rearrange Grahams law to solve for RateA.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

mixture of hydrogen and helium if the total pressure is 600 mm Hg and the partial pressure of helium is 439 mm Hg?
Phydrogen Ptotal Phelium 600 mm Hg 439 mm Hg 161 mm Hg

RateA RateB

molar massB molar massA

RateB 3.6 mol/min molar massB 0.5 molar massA 0.5 RateA 3.6 mol/min 3.6 mol/min 0.71 2.5 mol/min

5. Find the total pressure for a mixture that

contains four gases with partial pressures of 5.00 kPa, 4.56 kPa, 3.02 kPa, and 1.20 kPa.
Ptotal 5.00 kPa 4.56 kPa 3.02 kPa 1.20 kPa 13.78 kPa

6. Find the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in a

gas mixture with a total pressure of 30.4 kPa if the partial pressures of the other two gases in the mixture are 16.5 kPa and 3.7 kPa.
Pcarbon dioxide 30.4 kPa (16.5 kPa 3.7 kPa) 30.4 kPa 20.2 kPa 10.2 kPa

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Section 13.1 Assessment


page 392

Section 13.2 Forces of Attraction


pages 393395

7. What assumption of the kinetic-molecular

theory explains why a gas can expand to fill a container?


the assumption that gas particles are in constant and random motion

Section 13.2 Assessment


page 395

13. Why are dipoledipole forces stronger than

dispersion forces for molecules of comparable mass?


Dipole-dipole forces exist between permanent dipoles; dispersion forces exist between temporary dipoles.

8. How does the mass of a gas particle affect its

rate of effusion?
The rate of effusion decreases as mass increases.

9. Suppose two gases in a container have a total

14. Which of the molecules listed below can form

pressure of 1.20 atm. What is the pressure of gas B if the partial pressure of gas A is 0.75 atm?
PB Ptotal PA 1.20 atm 0.75 atm 0.45 atm

10. Explain how changes in atmospheric pressure

affect the height of the column of mercury in a barometer.


An increase in atmospheric pressure increases the pressure on the surface of mercury and the column rises; a decrease in atmospheric pressure decreases the pressure on the surface of the mercury and the column drops.

hydrogen bonds? For which of the molecules would dispersion forces be the only intermolecular force? Give reasons for your answers. a. H2 b. NH3 c. HCl d. HF
hydrogen bonds: b, d; only dispersion forces: a; b and d are polar molecules with a highly electronegative atom bonded to hydrogen. a is nonpolar.

11. Recognizing Cause and Effect Explain why a

15. Predicting Make a prediction about the relative

tire or balloon expands when air is added.


When air is added, there are more collisions between air particles and the walls, exerting greater pressure inside the balloon or tire and expanding the walls.

boiling points of the noble gases. Give a reason for your answer.
The boiling points will increase from helium to xenon because larger noble gas atoms have more electrons, making the dispersion forces between those atoms stronger. It takes more energy to overcome those forces.

12. Thinking Critically Explain why the container

of water must be inverted when a gas is collected by displacement of water.


If the container is not inverted, the gas, which is less dense than water, will rise through the water and escape from the opening of the container.

16. Thinking Critically In a methane molecule

(CH4), there are 4 single covalent bonds. In an octane molecule (C8H18), there are 25 single covalent bonds. How does the number of bonds affect the dispersion forces in samples of methane and octane? Which compound is a gas at room temperature? Which is a liquid?
More bonds mean more electrons to form temporary dipoles, which means greater dispersion forces. Methane is a gas; octane is a liquid.

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Section 13.3 Liquids and Solids


pages 396403

Section 13.4 Phase Changes


pages 404409

Section 13.3 Assessment


page 403

Section 13.4 Assessment


page 409

17. Explain how hydrogen bonds affect the

24. What information does a phase diagram supply?


the combinations of temperature and pressure under which a given substance exists as a solid, liquid, and gas

viscosity of a liquid. How does a change in temperature affect viscosity?


Hydrogen bonds increase viscosity because they increase the liquids intermolecular forces, making it more resistant to flow. Viscosity decreases with temperature.

25. What is the major difference between the

processes of melting and freezing?


Freezing occurs when a liquid becomes a solid and energy is released. Melting requires an input of energy to convert a solid to a liquid.

18. What effect does soap have on the surface

tension of water?
Soaps and detergents decrease the surface tension of water.

26. Explain what the triple point and the critical

point on a phase diagram represent.


triple point: the temperature at which the three phases of a substance can coexist; critical point: the pressure and temperature above which a substance cannot exist as a liquid

19. How are a unit cell and a crystal lattice related?


Unit cells are the building blocks of the crystal lattice.

20. Explain why solids are not classified as fluids.


The particles in a solid only vibrate around fixed locations because they are held in place by strong attractive forces.

27. Comparing and Contrasting Compare what

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

21. What is the difference between a molecular

solid and a covalent network solid?


A molecular solid is formed from molecules held together by intermolecular forces that are weaker than covalent bonds; covalent network solids are formed from molecules held together by covalent bonds.

happens to the energy, order, and spacing of particles when a solid other than ice changes to a liquid with what happens to the energy, order, and spacing of particles when a gas changes to a liquid.
When a solid changes to a liquid, the particles gain kinetic energy, become less ordered, and are spaced farther apart. When a gas changes to a liquid, the particles lose kinetic energy, become more ordered, and are spaced closer together.

22. Explain why most solids are denser than most

28. Thinking Critically Aerosol cans contain

liquids at the same temperature.


Solids are usually denser than liquids because their particles are held more closely together by intermolecular attractions.

compressed gases that, when released, help propel the contents out of the can. Why is it important to keep aerosol cans from overheating?
The gas inside an aerosol can is compressed into a small space under pressure. Upon heating, the kinetic energy of the gas particles increases, raising the pressure. The can will explode.

23. Thinking Critically Hypothesize why the

surface of mercury in a thermometer is convex; that is, the surface is higher at the center.
The cohesion between mercury atoms is stronger than the adhesion between mercury and glass.

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CHEMLAB
page 411

7. Drawing a Conclusion How does the rate of

Analyze and Conclude 3. Interpreting Data Make a generalization about the shape of a liquid drop and the evaporation rate of the liquid.
The more spread out the liquid drop, the higher the evaporation rate; the more spherical or domeshaped the drop, the lower the rate.

evaporation of warm ethanol compare to ethanol at room temperature? Use kinetic-molecular theory to explain your observations.
Warm ethanol evaporates faster than ethanol at room temperature. The average kinetic energy of the ethanol molecules increases at the higher temperature. Thus, a larger number of ethanol molecules have the energy needed to escape the surface of the liquid and evaporate.

4. Recognizing Cause and Effect What is the

relationship between surface tension and the shape of a liquid drop? What are the attractive forces that increase surface tension?
The greater the surface tension, the more spherical or dome-shaped the drop. Intermolecular forces increase surface tension.

Real-World Chemistry 2. Suggest why a person who has a higher than normal temperature might be given a rubdown with rubbing alcohol (70% isopropyl alcohol).
Rubbing alcohol has a high evaporation rate. Since evaporation requires energy, applying it to the skin can cause absorption of heat energy and a lowering of body temperature.

5. Applying Concepts The isopropyl alcohol you

used is a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and water. Would pure isopropyl alcohol evaporate more quickly or more slowly compared to the alcohol and water mixture? Give a reason for your answer.
Because of less hydrogen bonding, pure alcohol would evaporate more quickly than a mixture of alcohol and water.

Chapter 13 Assessment pages 414416


Concept Mapping 29. Complete the concept map using the following terms: covalent network solid, molecular solid, metallic solid, ionic solid, solid.
Substances with definite shape and volume 1. Molecules held by intermolecular forces 2. Atoms held by covalent bonds 3. Atoms held by ionic bonds 4. Atoms held by a sea of electrons 5.

6. Thinking Critically Household ammonia is a

mixture of ammonia and water. Based on the data you collected, is there more ammonia or more water in the mixture? Use what you learned about the relative strengths of the attractive forces in ammonia and water to support your conclusion.
More water; the evaporation rate is more similar to that of water. (The hydrogen bonds in ammonia are weaker than those in water; thus, ammonia is a gas at room temperature.)

1. solid; 2. molecular solid; 3. covalent network solid; 4. ionic solid; 5. metallic solid

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Mastering Concepts 30. What is an elastic collision? (13.1)


one in which no kinetic energy is lost

37. Why are dispersion forces weaker than

dipoledipole forces? (13.2)


Dispersion forces exist between temporary dipoles; dipole-dipole forces exist between permanent dipoles.

31. How does the kinetic energy of particles vary as

a function of temperature? (13.1)


It is directly proportional to the temperature.

38. Explain why hydrogen bonds are stronger than

most dipoledipole forces. (13.2)


A hydrogen bond involves a large difference in electronegativity between the hydrogen atom and the atom it is attached to (O, N, or F), making the bond extremely polar.

32. Use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain the

compression and expansion of gases. (13.1)


Because of the space between gas particles, gases are easily compressed when pushed into a smaller volume. When the pressure is removed, their random motion enables gases to expand.

39. Use relative differences in electronegativity to

33. Compare diffusion and effusion. Explain the

relationship between the rates of these processes and the molar mass of a gas. (13.1)
Both involve the movement of particles. Diffusion is the movement of one substance through another; effusion occurs when a substance under pressure escapes through a tiny opening. Effusion and diffusion rates are inversely related to molecular mass of a gas.

label the ends of the polar molecules listed as partially positive or partially negative. (13.2) a. HF
HF

b. NO
NO

c. HBr 34. What happens to the density of gas particles in a


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cylinder as the piston is raised? (13.1)


Density decreases because the gas particles occupy more volume per unit mass.

HBr

d. CO
CO

35. Explain why the baking instructions on a box of

cake mix are different for high and low elevations. Would you expect to have a longer or shorter cooking time at a high elevation? (13.1)
because of the variation in air pressure with elevation; At high elevations, reduced air pressure results in a lower boiling point for water and cooking time is longer.

40. Draw the structure of the dipoledipole

interaction between two molecules of carbon monoxide. (13.2)


36. Explain the difference between a temporary

dipole and a permanent dipole. (13.2)


A temporary dipole forms when electrons move toward the near side of one nonpolar particle and the far side of another to avoid repelling each other. A permanent dipole is found only in polar molecules in which the difference in electronegativity between two atoms causes the electron orbits to shift toward the most electronegative atom. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 13

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41. Decide which of the substances listed can form

46. Use these drawings to compare the cubic,

hydrogen bonds. (13.2) a. H2O b. HF c. NaF d. NO e. H2O2 f. NH3 g. H2 h. CH4


a, b, e, f

monoclinic, and hexagonal crystal systems. (13.3)

c b

a b abc 90

a a

b c 90

ab c 90, 120

Cubic

Monoclinic

Hexagonal

42. Hypothesize why long, nonpolar molecules

would interact more strongly with one another than spherical nonpolar molecules of similar composition. (13.2)
Because long molecules have greater surface areas, more intermolecular forces can exist.

Cubic: equal sides and angles Monoclinic: unequal sides; two equal angles Hexagonal: two equal sides; two angles 90; one angle 120

47. What is the difference between a network solid

and an ionic solid? (13.3)


Network solid is held together by covalent bonds; ionic solid by ionic bonds.

43. What is surface tension and what conditions

must exist for it to occur? (13.3)


The energy needed to increase the surface area of a liquid by a given amount; between the liquid particles, strong intermolecular forces exist.

48. Explain why most metals bend when struck but

most ionic solids shatter. (13.3)


The sea of electrons that holds metal ions together can easily move to accommodate outside forces; in ionic solids a strong force can separate the solid along the plane bonding groups of atoms together.

44. Explain why the surface of water in a graduated

cylinder is curved. (13.3)


Adhesion between water and glass is greater than cohesion between water molecules.

49. What is an amorphous solid? Under what condi-

tions is such a solid likely to form? (13.3)


One that lacks a regularly repeating structure; it can form when a liquid solidifies too quickly for crystal formation to occur.

45. Which liquid is more viscous at room tempera-

ture, water or molasses? Explain. (13.3)


Molasses; stronger intermolecular forces the molasses from flowing easily.

50. List the types of crystalline solids that are

usually good conductors of heat and electricity. (13.3)


metallic solids; ionic solids when molten or dissolved in an aqueous solution

51. How does the strength of a liquids intermolec-

ular forces affect its viscosity? (13.3)


Stronger intermolecular forces result in higher viscosity because the forces hold the particles together too tightly for them to flow easily.

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52. Explain why water has a higher surface tension

58. Label the solid, liquid, and gas phases, triple

than benzene, whose molecules are nonpolar. (13.3)


Surface tension increases with strength of interparticle forces. Water molecules are held together by strong hydrogen bonds, resulting in higher surface tension; the weaker dispersion forces between benzene molecules result in lower surface tension.

point, and critical point on the phase diagram shown. (13.4) Phase Diagram
16 14 Pressure (atm) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 100 8060 40 20 0 20 40 60 Temperature (C ) Gas Solid Liquid

53. How does sublimation differs from deposition?

(13.4)
Sublimation occurs when a solid is converted to a gas; deposition occurs when a gas is converted to a solid.

54. Compare boiling and evaporation. (13.4)


Evaporation: conversion of a liquid to a gas at the liquids surface; boiling: when vapor pressure is equal to external atmospheric pressure; it occurs at and below the surface where bubbles form.

59. Why does it take more energy to boil 10 g of

55. Define melting point. (13.4)


the temperature at which the crystal lattice of a solid disintegrates and it becomes a liquid
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

liquid water than to melt an equivalent mass of ice? (13.4)


Melting does not require as much energy because the particles in a solid do not have to move far apart or gain much movement to form a liquid. Gas particles are much further apart and move much more rapidly than liquid particles.

56. Explain the relationships among vapor pressure,

atmospheric pressure, and boiling point. (13.4)


Boiling point is the temperature at which vapor pressure exerted by liquid molecules escaping from the surface of a sample equals the atmospheric pressure on the surface of the liquid.

60. Why does a pile of snow slowly shrink even on

days when the temperature never rises above the freezing point of water? (13.4)
Some of the snow sublimes.

57. Explain why dew forms on cool mornings.

(13.4)
When water vapor in the air comes in contact with a cool object such as a windshield, it condenses on the object.

61. Examine the phase diagram for carbon dioxide

in Figure 13-28. Notice that at 1 atm pressure, the solid sublimes to a gas. What happens to the solid at much higher pressures? (13.4)
At pressures much higher than 1 atm, solid CO2 melts.

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Mastering Problems Grahams Law of Effusion (13.1) Level 1 62. What is the molar mass of a gas that takes three times longer to effuse than helium?
Rategas Ratehelium

66. What is the total gas pressure in a sealed flask

that contains oxygen at a partial pressure of 0.41 atm and water vapor at a partial pressure of 0.58 atm?
Ptotal Poxygen Pwater vapor 0.41 atm 0.58 atm 0.99 atm

)2

masshelium mas sgas

67. Find the partial pressure of oxygen in a sealed

(Rategas/Ratehelium ( mheliummgas) mgas (Rategas/Ratehelium)2(mhelium)

( 3)2(4.00 g/mol) 36.0 g/mol

vessel that has a total pressure of 2.6 atm and also contains carbon dioxide at 1.3 atm and helium at 0.22 atm.
Ptotal Poxygen Pcarbon dioxide Phelium Poxygen Ptotal (Pcarbon dioxide Phelium) 2.6 atm (1.3 atm 0.22 atm) 1.1 atm

Level 2 63. What is the ratio of effusion rates of krypton and neon at the same temperature and pressure?
Ratekrypton Rateneon 0.4931


massneon massk rypton 20.18 g/mol 83.80 g/mol

Converting Pressure Units (13.1) Level 1 68. What is the total pressure in atmospheres of a mixture of three gases with partial pressures of 12.0 kPa, 35.6 kPa, and 22.2 kPa?
Ptotal 12.0 kPa 35.6 kPa 22.2 kPa 69.86 kPa

64. Calculate the molar mass of a gas that diffuses

three times faster than oxygen under similar conditions.


Rategas Rate
oxygen

69. The pressure atop the worlds highest mountain,


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

massoxygen mas sgas

(Rategas/Rateoxygen)2 = moxygen/mgas mgas ( Rategas/Rateoxygen)2(moxygen) ( 1/3)2(32.00 g/mol) 3.56 g/mol

Mount Everest, is usually about 33.6 kPa. Convert the pressure to atmospheres. How does the pressure compare with the pressure at sea level?
1 atm 86 kPa 0.689 atm 101.3 kPa 1 atm 33.6 kPa 0.332 atm 101.3 kPa about one-third sea-level atmospheric pressure

Daltons Law of Partial Pressures (13.1) Level 1 65. What is the partial pressure of water vapor in an air sample when the total pressure is 1.00 atm, the partial pressure of nitrogen is 0.79 atm, the partial pressure of oxygen is 0.20 atm, and the partial pressure of all other gases in air is 0.0044 atm?
Ptotal Pwater Pall
other gases

Level 2 70. The atmospheric pressure in Denver, Colorado, is usually about 84.0 kPa. What is this pressure in atm and torr units?
1 atm 84.0 kPa 0.829 atm 101.3 kPa 760 torr 0.829 atm 6.30 102 torr 1 atm

Pwater Ptotal Pall other gases 1.00 atm (0.20 atm 0.79 atm 0.0044 atm) 0.01 atm

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71. At an ocean depth of 250 feet, the pressure is

76. Two flasks of equal size are connected by a

about 8.4 atm. Convert the pressure to mm Hg and kPa units.


760 mm Hg 8.4 atm 6400 mm Hg 1 atm 8.4 atm 101.3 kPa/1 atm 850 kPa

narrow tube that is closed in the middle with a stopcock. One flask has no gas particles; the other flask contains 0.1 mol of hydrogen gas at a pressure of 2.0 atm. a. Describe what happens to the gas molecules after the stopcock is opened.
Gas will diffuse from the flask on the right into the evacuated flask until an equal number of molecules is in each flask.

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem solving skills by answering the following. 72. Use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain why both gases and liquids are fluids.
Because their particles are held together by fewer attractive forces than in solids, the particles can flow.

b. What will happen to the gas pressure after

the stopcock is opened?


It will decrease in the flask that contained H2 and increase in the empty flask until pressure is equalized at 1.0 atm.

73. Use intermolecular forces to explain why

oxygen is a gas at room temperature and water is a liquid.


Oxygen molecules are nonpolar and held together by dispersion forces, making them easy to separate. Water molecules are held together by stronger hydrogen bonds, making them harder to separate. As a result, water has a higher boiling point.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Thinking Critically 77. Interpreting Graphs Examine the graph below, which plots vapor pressure versus temperature for water and ethyl alcohol.
800 760 Water 600 Ethanol 400

74. Use the kinetic-molecular theory to explain why

gases are easier to compress than liquids or solids.


Because particles in gases are farther apart than particles in liquids or solids, there is more space for the particles to be compressed.

Vapor pressure (torr)

200

75. The density of mercury at 25C and a pressure

20

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Temperature (oC)

of 760 mm Hg is 13.5 g/mL; water at the same temperature and pressure has a density of 1.00 g/mL. Explain this difference in terms of intermolecular forces and the kinetic-molecular theory.
Metallic bonds holding mercury atoms together are stronger than the hydrogen bonds holding water molecules together, so the mercury atoms are more closely packed resulting in greater mass per unit volume.

a. What is the boiling point of water at 1 atm?


100C

b. What is the boiling point of ethyl alcohol at

1 atm?
78.5C

c. Describe the relationship between

temperature and vapor pressure for water and alcohol.


the higher the temperature, the higher the vapor pressure

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d. Estimate the temperature at which water

81. Communicating Which process is responsible

will boil when the atmospheric pressure is 0.80 atm.


94C

for your being able to smell perfume from an open bottle that is located across the room from you, effusion or diffusion? Explain.
diffusion; gas particles in the perfume are mixing with air particles

78. Applying Concepts A solid being heated stays

at a constant temperature until it is completely melted. What happens to the heat energy put into the system during that time?
The energy is used to break the intermolecular forces holding the particles of the solid together.

82. Inferring A laboratory demonstration involves

79. Comparing and Contrasting An air

compressor uses energy to squeeze air particles together. When the air is released, it expands, allowing the energy to be used for purposes such as gently cleaning surfaces without using a more abrasive liquid or solid. Hydraulic systems essentially work the same way, but involve compression of liquid water rather than air. What do you think are some advantages and disadvantages of these two types of technology?
Air compressors produce rapid outputs of a large amount of energy because gases can be greatly compressed. Hydraulic systems involve liquid water, which cannot be compressed as much, and are more useful for a slow, steady output of energy.

pouring bromine vapors, which are a deep red color, into a flask of air and then tightly sealing the top of the flask. The bromine is observed to first sink to the bottom of the beaker. After several hours have passed, the red color is distributed equally throughout the flask. a. Is bromine gas more or less dense than air?
more dense

b. Would liquid bromine diffuse more or less

quickly than gaseous bromine after you pour it into another liquid?
less quickly

80. Hypothesizing What type of crystalline solid

do you predict would best suit the following needs? a. a material that can be melted and reformed at a low temperature
molecular solid

Student answers may include the following advantages and disadvantages of storing and transporting propane as a gas rather than a liquid: Advantages Refrigeration and/or high pressure are unnecessaryas is the case with liquid propane gas (LPG). Refrigeration uses energy, and high pressure introduces danger. At higher temperatures, gaseous propane is unlikely to form the solid hydrate, which causes great inconvenience when a blockage occurs in a gas line.

b. a material that can be drawn into long, thin

wires
metallic solid

c. a material that conducts electricity when

molten
ionic solid

d. an extremely hard material that is non-

conductive
covalent network solid

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Writing in Chemistry 83. Propane gas is a commonly used heating fuel for gas grills and homes. It is not packaged as a gas, however. It is liquefied and referred to as liquid propane or LP gas. What advantages are there to storing and transporting propane as a liquid rather than a gas? Are there any disadvantages?

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Disadvantages Liquid propane is much denser than gaseous propane. Therefore, a much greater volume is necessary to store and transport an equivalent mass of gaseous propane.

g. water
compound

h. tin
element

84. Find out what your birthstone is if you dont

already know, and write a brief report about the chemistry of that gem. Find out its chemical composition, which category its unit cell is in, how hard and durable it is, and its approximate cost at the present time.
Student answers should include the name of their birthstone gem, its chemical structure, what unit cell its crystals form, its hardness rating and cost.

87. Use the periodic table to separate these ten

elements into five pairs of elements having similar properties. (Chapter 7) S, Ne, Li, O, Mg, Ag, Sr, Kr, Cu, Na
S and O, Ne and Kr, Li and Na, Mg and Sr, Ag and Cu

88. You are given two clear, colorless aqueous solu-

85. What would happen to life on Earth if ice were

denser than liquid water? Would life be possible? Write an essay on this topic.
Student answers should include the importance of aquatic life in the food chain and how it might be different if ice sinks rather than floats.

tions. You are told that one solution contains an ionic compound and one contains a covalent compound. How could you determine which is an ionic solution and which is a covalent solution? (Chapter 9)
They could be tested for conductivity. The ionic compound in solution should conduct electricity; the covalent compound should not.

Cumulative Review
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

89. Determine the number of atoms in 56.1 g Al.

Refresh your understanding of the previous chapters by answering the following. 86. Identify the following as an element, compound, homogeneous mixture, or heterogeneous mixture. (Chapter 3) a. air
homogeneous mixture;

(Chapter 11)
1 mol Al 6.02 1023 atoms 56.1 g Al 26.98 g Al 1 mol Al 1.25 1024 atoms Al

Standardized Test Practice


page 417

b. blood
heterogeneous mixture

c. antimony
element

d. brass
homogeneous mixture

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. Water has an extremely high boiling point compared to other compounds of similar molar mass because of ________ . a. hydrogen bonding b. adhesive forces c. covalent bonding d. dispersion forces
a

e. ammonia
compound

f. mustard
heterogeneous mixture

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2. The ratio of effusion rates for nitric oxide (NO)

6. A sealed flask contains neon, argon, and

and nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) is ________ . a. 0.326 b. 0.571 c. 1.751 d. 3.066


RateNO 92.01 9.592 1.751 RateN O 5.478 30.01
2 4

krypton gas. If the total pressure in the flask is 3.782 atm, the partial pressure of Ne is 0.435 atm, and the partial pressure of Kr is 1.613 atm, what is the partial pressure of Ar? a. 2.048 torr b. 1.734 torr c. 1556 torr d. 1318 torr
PAr 3.782 atm (0.435 atm 1.613 atm) 3.782 atm 2.048 atm 1.734 atm or 1.734 torr

3. Which of the following is NOT an assumption

of the kinetic-molecular theory? a. Collisions between gas particles are elastic. b. All the gas particles in a sample have the same velocity. c. A gas particle is not significantly attracted or repelled by other gas particles. d. All gases at a given temperature have the same average kinetic energy.
b

7. Which of the following does NOT affect the

viscosity of a liquid?
a. b. c. d.
d

intermolecular attractive forces size and shape of molecules temperature of the liquid capillary action

4. Which of the following statements does NOT

5. The solid phase of a compound has a definite

shape and volume because its particles ___________. a. are not in constant motion. b. are always packed more tightly than particles in the compounds liquid phase. c. can only vibrate around fixed points. d. are held together by strong intramolecular forces.
c

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describe what happens as a liquid boils? a. The temperature of the system rises. b. Energy is absorbed by the system. c. The vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to atmospheric pressure. d. The liquid is entering the gas phase.

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Interpreting Graphs Use the graph to answer the following questions.


Phase Diagram of Carbon
150 SOLID (diamond) 100

9. Find the point on the graph at which carbon

Pressure (Gpa)

exists in three phases: solid graphite, solid diamond, and liquid carbon. The temperature and pressure at that point are ________ . a. 4700 K and 15 GPa. b. 3000 K and 10 GPa. c. 5100 K and 50 GPa. d. 14500 K and 5 GPa.
a

10. In what form or forms does carbon exist at


50 SOLID (graphite) 0 0 2000 4000 Temperature (K) 6000 LIQUID

6000 K and 75 GPa? a. diamond only b. liquid carbon only c. diamond and liquid carbon d. liquid carbon and graphite
b

8. Diamond is most likely to form at ________ . a. temperatures > 5000 K and pressures

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

< 100 GPa. b. temperatures > 6000 K and pressures > 25 GPa. c. temperatures < 4000 K and pressures > 25 GPa. d. temperatures < 4500 K and pressures < 10 GPa.
c

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Gases
Section 14.1 The Gas Laws
pages 419427

6. A gas at 89C occupies a volume of 0.67 L.

At what Celsius temperature will the volume increase to 1.12 L?


T1 89C 273 362 K T1V2 (362 K)(1.12 L) 605 K T2 0.67 L V1 605 K 273 K 332C 330C

Practice Problems
pages 422, 425, 427

Assume that the temperature and the amount of gas present are constant in the following problems. 1. The volume of a gas at 99.0 kPa is 300.0 mL. If the pressure is increased to 188 kPa, what will be the new volume?
V1P1 (300.0 mL)(99.0 kPa) V2 158 mL 188 kPa P2

7. The Celsius temperature of a 3.00-L sample of

gas is lowered from 80.0C to 30.0C. What will be the resulting volume of this gas?
T1 80.0C 273 353 K T2 30.0C 273 303 K V1T2 (3.00 L)( 303 K) 2.58 L V2 353 K T1

2. The pressure of a sample of helium in a 1.00-L

container is 0.988 atm. What is the new pressure if the sample is placed in a 2.00-L container?
V1P1 (1.00 L)(0.988 atm) P2 0.494 atm 2.00 L V2

8. What is the volume of the air in a balloon that

occupies 0.620 L at 25C if the temperature is lowered to 0.00C?


T1 25C 273 298 K T2 0.00C 273 273 K V1T2 (0.620 L)(273 K) 0.57 L V2 298 K T1

3. Air trapped in a cylinder fitted with a piston


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

occupies 145.7 mL at 1.08 atm pressure. What is the new volume of air when the pressure is increased to 1.43 atm by applying force to the piston?
V1P1 (145.7 mL)(1.08 atm) V2 1.43 atm P2 1.10 102 mL

9. A gas in a sealed container has a pressure of

125 kPa at a temperature of 30.0C. If the pressure in the container is increased to 201 kPa, what is the new temperature?
T1 30.0C 273 303 K T1P2 (303 K)(201 kPa) 487 K T2 125 kPa P1 487 K 273 214C

4. If it takes 0.0500 L of oxygen gas kept in a

cylinder under pressure to fill an evacuated 4.00-L reaction vessel in which the pressure is 0.980 atm, what was the initial pressure of the gas in the cylinder?
V1P1 (4.00 L)(0.980 atm) P2 78.4 atm 0.0500 L V2

10. The pressure in an automobile tire is 1.88 atm at

5. A sample of neon gas occupies 0.220 L at

25.0C. What will be the pressure if the temperature warms up to 37.0C?


T1 25.0C 273 298 K T2 37.0C 273 3.10 102 K P1T2 (1.88 atm)(3.10 102 K) 1.96 atm P2 298 K T1

0.860 atm. What will be its volume at 29.2 kPa pressure?


1 atm 29.2 kPa 0.288 atm 101.3 kPa V1P1 (0.220 L)(0.860 atm) V2 0.657 L 0.288 atm P2

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11. Helium gas in a 2.00-L cylinder is under 1.12

15. A weather balloon of known initial volume is

atm pressure. At 36.5C, that same gas sample has a pressure of 2.56 atm. What was the initial temperature of the gas in the cylinder?
T2 36.5C 273 309.5 K T2P1 (309.5 K)(1.12 atm) 135 K T1 2.56 atm P2 135 K 273 138C

released. The air pressures at its initial and final altitudes are known. Why cant you find its new volume by using these known values and Boyles law?
Temperature also changes.

16. Which of the three variables that apply to equal

12. If a gas sample has a pressure of 30.7 kPa at

amounts of gases are directly proportional? Which are inversely proportional?


P and V are directly proportional to T, and P and V are inversely proportional to each other.

0.00C, by how much does the temperature have to decrease to lower the pressure to 28.4 kPa?
T1 0.00C 273 273 K T1P2 (273 K)(28.4 kPa) 252.5 K T2 30.7 kPa P1 252.5 K 273 20.5C 21C The temperature must be lowered by 21C.

17. Thinking Critically Explain why gases such

as the oxygen found in tanks used at hospitals are compressed. Why must care be taken to prevent compressed gases from reaching a high temperature?
A greater mass confined to a smaller volume makes transporting and storing of gases easier. Increasing temperature increases pressure, and the cylinders might explode.

13. A rigid plastic container holds 1.00 L methane

gas at 660 torr pressure when the temperature is 22.0C. How much more pressure will the gas exert if the temperature is raised to 44.6C?
T1 22.0C 273 295 K T2 44.6C 273 318 K P1T2 (660 torr)(318 K) 711 torr P2 295 K P1 711 torr 660 torr 51 torr more

18. Concept Mapping Draw a concept map that

The concept map should show how P, V, and T are proportional to one another. It should also label each pair of variables used in the gas laws.
Constant amount of gas

Section 14.1 Assessment


page 427

14. State Boyles, Charless, and Gay-Lussacs laws

using sentences, then equations.


Boyles law: At constant temperature, V of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to P, P1V1 P2V2; Charless law: At constant P, the V of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature, V1/T1 V2/T2; Gay-Lussacs law: At constant volume, the P of a given mass of gas varies directly with the Kelvin temperature, P1/T1 P2/T2.

Temperature held constant

Pressure held constant

Volume held constant

P1V1 P2V2 Boyles law

V1 V2 T1 T2 Charless law

P1 P2 T1 T2 Gay-Lussacs law

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shows the relationship among pressure, volume, and temperature variables for gases and Boyles, Charless, and Gay-Lussacs laws.

CHAPTER

14

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Section 14.2 The Combined Gas Law and Avogadros Principle


pages 428433

22. An unopened, cold 2.00-L bottle of soda

Practice Problems
pages 430, 432433

contains 46.0 mL of gas confined at a pressure of 1.30 atm at a temperature of 5.0C. If the bottle is dropped into a lake and sinks to a depth at which the pressure is 1.52 atm and the temperature is 2.09C, what will be the volume of gas in the bottle?
T1 5.0C 273 278 K T2 2.09C 273 275 K P1T2V1 (1.30 atm)(275 K)(46.0 mL) V2 (1.52 atm)(278 K) P2T1 39 mL

Assume that the amount of gas is constant in the following problems. 19. A helium-filled balloon at sea level has a volume of 2.1 L at 0.998 atm and 36C. If it is released and rises to an elevation at which the pressure is 0.900 atm and the temperature is 28C, what will be the new volume of the balloon?
T1 36C 273 309 K T2 28C 273 301 K P1T2V1 (0.998 atm)(301 K)(2.1 L) 2.3 L V2 (0.900 atm)(309 K) P2T1

23. A sample of gas of unknown pressure occupies

0.766 L at a temperature of 298 K. The same sample of gas is then tested under known conditions and has a pressure of 32.6 kPa and occupies 0.644 L at 303 K. What was the original pressure of the gas?
V2T1P2 (0.644 L)(298 K)(32.6 kPa) P1 (0.766 L)(303 K) V1T2 27.0 kPa

20. At 0.00C and 1.00 atm pressure, a sample of

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

gas occupies 30.0 mL. If the temperature is increased to 30.0C and the entire gas sample is transferred to a 20.0-mL container, what will be the gas pressure inside the container?
T1 0.00C 273 273 K T2 30.00C 273 303 K V1T2P1 (30.0 mL)(303 K)(1.00 atm) P2 (20.0 mL)(273 K) V2T1 1.66 atm

24. Determine the volume of a container that holds

2.4 mol of gas at STP.


22.4 L 2.4 mol 54 L mol

25. What size container do you need to hold

0.0459 mol N2 gas at STP?


22.4 L 0.0459 mol 1.03 L mol

21. A sample of air in a syringe exerts a pressure of

26. What volume will 1.02 mol of carbon monoxide

1.02 atm at a temperature of 22.0C. The syringe is placed in a boiling water bath at 100.0C. The pressure of the air is increased to 1.23 atm by pushing the plunger in, which reduces the volume to 0.224 mL. What was the original volume of the air?
T1 22.0C 273 295 K T2 100.0C 273 373 K V2T2P1 (0.224 mL)(295 K)(1.23 atm) V1 (373 K)(1.02 atm) T2P1 0.214 mL

gas occupy at STP?


22.4 L 1.02 mol 22.8 L mol

27. How many moles of nitrogen gas will be

contained in a 2.00-L flask at STP?


1 mol 2.00 L 0.0893 mol 22.4 L

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28. If a balloon will rise off the ground when it

Solve for V. (19.2 L)(0.655 g) V 14.6 L 0.860 g

contains 0.0226 mol of helium in a volume of 0.460 L, how many moles of helium are needed to make the balloon rise when its volume is 0.865 L? Assume that temperature and pressure stay constant.
Set up problem as a ratio. ? mol He 0.0226 mol He 0.865 L 0.460 L Solve for mol He. 0.0226 mol He ? mol He 0.865 L 0.460 L 0.0425 mol He

33. Calculate the volume that 4.5 kg of ethylene gas

(C2H4) will occupy at STP.


1000 g 22.4 L 1 mol 4.5 kg 1 kg 28.00 g 1 mol 3.6 103 L

Section 14.2 Assessment


page 433

34. State the combined gas law using a sentence

and then an equation.


The pressure of a fixed amount of a gas is inversely proportional to volume and directly proportional to Kelvin temperature, and its volume is directly proportional to Kelvin temperature. P1 V1/T1 P2 V2/T2

29. How many grams of carbon dioxide gas are in a

1.0-L balloon at STP?


1 mol 1.0 L 0.045 mol 22.4 L 44.0 g 0.045 mol 2.0 g mol

30. What volume in milliliters will 0.00922 g H2

35. What variable is assumed to be constant when

gas occupy at STP?


1 mol 0.00922 g 0.00457 mol 2.02 g 22.4 L 0.00457 mol 0.102 L or 102 mL mol

using the combined gas law?


number of moles of gas

36. What three laws are used to make the combined

gas law?
Boyles law, Charless law, and Gay-Lussacs law

31. What volume will 0.416 g of krypton gas

occupy at STP?
1 mol 0.416 g 0.00496 mol 83.80 g 22.4 L 0.00496 mol 0.111 L mol

37. Explain why Avogadros principle holds true for

gases that have large particles and also for gases that have small particles.
The size of any gas particle is so small compared to the volume of the gas, it is assumed that any particle has no volume of its own.

32. A flexible plastic container contains 0.860 g of

helium gas in a volume of 19.2 L. If 0.205 g of helium is removed without changing the pressure or temperature, what will be the new volume?
0.860 g 0.205 g 0.655 g He remaining Set up problem as a ratio. V 19.2 L 0.655 g 0.860 g

38. Why must conditions of temperature and pres-

sure be stated to do calculations involving molar volume?


Molar volume is accurate only for gases at STP. Any change from STP affects the volume.

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39. Thinking Critically Think about what happens

43. Calculate the volume that a 0.323-mol sample

when a bottle of carbonated soft drink is shaken before being opened. Use the gas laws to explain whether the effect will be greater when the liquid is warm or cold.
Shaking soft drink bottles increases the motion of the gas particles inside, raising the temperature and thus the pressure. Shaking a bottle before opening it results in the gas bubbles vigorously escaping. This effect will be greater when the liquid is warm because the pressure is higher than when it is cold.

of a gas will occupy at 265 K and a pressure of 0.900 atm.


L a tm (265 K) (0.323 mol) 0.0821 molk nRT V 0.900 atm P

7.81 L

44. What is the pressure in atmospheres of a

0.108-mol sample of helium gas at a temperature of 20.0C if its volume is 0.505 L?


T 20.0C 273 293 K La tm (293 K) (0.108 mol) 0.0821 molk nRT P 0.505 L V 5.14 atm

40. Applying Concepts Imagine that you are

going on an airplane trip in an unpressurized plane. You are bringing aboard an air-filled pillow that you have inflated fully. Predict what will happen when you try to use the pillow while the plane is at its cruising altitude.
If the air in the plane is not fully pressurized, the air inside the pillow will expand as the plane ascends because volume is inversely proportional to pressure.

45. Determine the kelvin temperature required for

0.0470 mol of gas to fill a balloon to 1.20 L under 0.988 atm pressure.
(0.988 atm)(1.20 L) PV T 307 K nR L a tm (0.0470 mol) 0.0821 molK

46. How many grams of gas are present in a sample


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 14.3 The Ideal Gas Law


pages 434439

that has a molar mass of 70.0 g/mol and occupies a 2.00-L container at 117 kPa and 35.1C?
1.00 atm 117 kPa 1.15 atm 101.3 kPa T 35.1C 273 308 K (1.15 atm)(70.0 g/mol)(2.00 L) PMV m RT L a tm (308 K) 0.0821 m olK 6.39 g

Practice Problems
page 437438

41. If the pressure exerted by a gas at 25C in a

volume of 0.044 L is 3.81 atm, how many moles of gas are present?
(3.81 atm)(0.44 L) PV n RT L a tm (298 K) 0.0821 molK

47. Calculate the grams of N2 gas present in a

6.9

103

mol

0.600-L sample kept at 1.00 atm pressure and a temperature of 22.0C.


T 22.0C 273 295 K (28.0 g/mol)(1.00 atm)(0.600 L) MPV m RT L a tm (295 K) 0.0821 molK 0.694 g

42. Determine the Celsius temperature of 2.49

moles of gas contained in a 1.00-L vessel at a pressure of 143 kPa.


1.00 atm 143 kPa 1.41 atm 101.3 kPa (1.41 atm)(1.00 L) PV T 6.90 K nR tm La (2.49 mol) 0.0821 molK

6.90 K 273 266C

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48. What is the density of a gas at STP that has a

55.

molar mass of 44.0 g/mol?


(1.00 atm)(44.0 g/mol) PM D 1.96 g/L RT tm (273 K) La 0.0821 molK

49. What is the molar mass of a sample of gas that

has a density of 1.09 g/L at 1.02 atm pressure and 25.0C?


T 25.0C 273 298 K tm (298 K) La (1.09 g/L) 0.0821 olK m DRT M 1.02 atm P 26.1 g/mol

Making and Using Graphs The accompanying data show the volume of hydrogen gas collected at a number of different temperatures. Illustrate these data with a graph and use them to determine the temperature at which the volume will reach a value of 0 mL. What is this temperature called? For more help, refer to Drawing Line Graphs in the Math Handbook on page 903 of this text.
Volume of H2 Collected at Different Temperatures

Trial T (C) V (mL)

1 300 48

2 175 37

3 110 32

4 0 22

100 150 15 11

50. Calculate the density a gas will have at STP if

its molar mass is 39.9 g/mol.


(39.9 g/mol)(1.00 atm) MP D 1.78 g/L RT tm (273 K) La 0.0821 molK

50 40 Volume (mL) 30 20 10

Volume vs. Temperature

Section 14.3 Assessment


page 439

51. Write the equation for the ideal gas law.


PV nRT

52. Use the kinetic-molecular theory to analyze and

evaluate the ideal gas laws applicability to real gases.


A real gas behaves most like an ideal gas under conditions that increase the distance and reduce the attractions among gas particles. The best conditions for that are high temperature and low pressure.

0 300 200 100 0 100 Temperature (C)

200

300

Extrapolating the graph to a volume of 0 mL intersects the temperature axis at approximately 273C, the temperature called absolute zero.

53. List common units for each variable in the ideal

gas law.
P: atm, mm Hg, torr, kPa; V: L, mL; T: K; n: mol

Section 14.4 Gas Stoichiometry


pages 440443

54. Thinking Critically Which of the following

Practice Problems
pages 441, 443

gases would you expect to behave most like an ideal gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure: water vapor, carbon dioxide, helium, or hydrogen? Explain.
Helium; the intermolecular forces between its atoms are weaker than the forces between the molecules making up the other gases.

56. What volume of oxygen is needed to react with

solid sulfur to form 3.5 L SO2?


S(s) O2(g) 0 SO2(g) 1 volume O2 3.5 L O2 3.5 L SO2 1 volume SO2

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CHAPTER

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

57. Determine the volume of hydrogen gas needed

61. Calcium carbonate forms limestone, one of the

to react completely with 5.00 L of oxygen gas to form water.


2H2(g) O2(g) 0 2H2O(g) 2 volumes H2 10.0 L H2 5.00 L O2 1 volume O2

most common rocks on Earth. It also forms stalactites, stalagmites, and many other types of formations found in caves. When calcium carbonate is heated, it decomposes to form solid calcium oxide and carbon dioxide gas. CaCO3(s) 0 CaO(s) CO2(g) How many liters of carbon dioxide will be produced at STP if 2.38 kg of calcium carbonate reacts completely?
1000 g 1 mol CaCO3 2.38 kg 1 kg 100.09 g 1 mol CO2 22.4 L 533 L CO2 1 mol 1 mol CaCO3

58. How many liters of propane gas (C3H8) will

undergo complete combustion with 34.0 L of oxygen gas?


C3H8(g) 5O2(g) 0 3CO 2(g) 4H2O(g) 1 volume C3H8 6.80 L C3H8 34.0 L O2 5 volumes O2

59. What volume of oxygen is needed to completely

combust 2.36 L of methane gas (CH4)?


CH4(g) 2O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 2H2O(g) 2 volumes O2 4.72 L O2 2.36 L CH4 1 volume CH4

62. Determine how many moles of water vapor will

be produced at 1.00 atm and 200C by the complete combustion of 10.5 L of methane gas (CH4).
CH4(g)

60. Ammonium nitrate is a common ingredient

2O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 2H2O(g)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

in chemical fertilizers. Use the reaction shown to calculate the mass of solid ammonium nitrate that must be used to obtain 0.100 L of dinitrogen oxide gas at STP. NH4NO3(s) 0 N2O(g) 2H2O(g)
1 mol 0.100 L N2O 0.00446 mol N2O 22.4 L 1 mol NH4NO3 0.00446 mol N2O 1 mol N2O 0.00446 mol NH4NO3 0.00446 mol NH4NO3 80.03 g/mol 0.357 g NH4NO3

(1.00 atm)(10.5 L) PV n tm (473 K) La RT 0.0821 molK

0.271 mol CH4 2 mol H2O 0.271 mol CH4 0.541 mol H2O 1 mol CH4

63. When iron rusts, it undergoes a reaction with

oxygen to form iron(III) oxide. 4 Fe(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Fe2O3(s) Calculate the volume of oxygen gas at STP that is required to completely react with 52.0 g of iron.
3 mol O2 1 mol Fe 22.4 L 52.0 g Fe 4 mol Fe 55.85 g Fe 1 mol 15.6 L O2

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64. Solid potassium metal will react with Cl2 gas to

69. Predicting Using what you have learned about

form ionic potassium chloride. How many liters of Cl2 gas are needed to completely react with 0.204 g of potassium at STP?
2K(s) Cl2(g) 0 2KCl(s) 1 mol CL2 1 mol K 22.4 L 0.204 g K 2 mol K 39.1 g K 1 mol 0.0584 L Cl2

gases, predict what will happen to the size of the reaction vessel you need to carry out a reaction involving gases if the temperature is doubled and the pressure is held constant.
When the temperature is doubled, the volume will also double. The size of the reaction vessel should be doubled.

Section 14.4 Assessment


page 443

Chapter 14 Assessment pages 448450


Concept Mapping 70. Complete the following concept map that shows how Boyles law, Charless law, and Gay-Lussacs law are derived from the combined gas law.
combined gas law

65. How do mole ratios compare to volume ratios

for gaseous reactants and products in a balanced chemical equation?


The molar and volume ratios are the same for reactants and products that are gases.

66. Is the volume of a gas directly or indirectly

proportional to the number of moles of a gas at constant temperature and pressure? Explain.
Directly proportional; as the amount of gas increases, so does volume. pressure

remains constant:

temperature

volume
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

67. Determine the volume ratio of ammonia to

nitrogen in the reaction shown. 3H2 N2 0 2NH3 Which will occupy a larger volume at a given temperature and pressure: one mole of H2 or one mole of NH3?
2 volumes NH3:1 volume N2; both will occupy the same volume. 1.

results in:

2.

3.

1. Charless law; 2. Boyles law; 3. Gay-Lussacs law

68. Thinking Critically One mole of a gas occu-

Mastering Concepts 71. State the laws of Boyle, Charles, and GayLussac as equations. (14.1)
Boyles Law: P1V1 P2V2; Charless Law: V1/T1 V2/T2; Gay-Lussacs Law: P1/T1 P2/T2

pies a volume of 22.4 L at STP. Calculate the temperature and pressure conditions needed to fit two moles of a gas into a volume of 22.4 L.
Student answers may vary. Temperature can be halved or pressure doubled or a combination of lowering temperature and increasing pressure.

72. What will happen to the pressure of a contained

gas if its temperature is lowered? (14.1)


Pressure decreases.

73. Why is it important not to puncture an aerosol

can? (14.1)
Aerosol cans contain gases under pressure that can expand explosively if allowed to escape too rapidly.

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74. Explain why an unopened bag of potato chips

79. What four variables are used to describe gases?

left in a hot car appears to become larger. (14.1)


The air trapped inside the bag expands as it gets hotter because volume is directly proportional to temperature.

(14.1)
volume, pressure, temperature, and number of moles

80. List the standard conditions for gas measure75. If two variables have an inverse relationship,

ments. (14.2)
T 0.00C (273K) and P 1.00 atm

what happens to the value of one as the value of the other increases? (14.1)
One variable always decreases as the other increases.

81. Write the equation for the combined gas law.

Identify the units most commonly used with each variable. (14.2)
P1V1/T1 P2V2/T2. Units commonly used for the variables are atm for pressure, Kelvin for temperature, and L for volume.

76. If two variables have a direct relationship, what

happens to the value of one as the value of the other is increased? (14.1)
One variable always increases as the other increases.

82. State Avogadros principle. (14.2)


At a fixed temperature and pressure, equal volumes of any ideal gas contain equal numbers of particles.

77. Label the following examples as being generally

representative of direct or inverse relationship. (14.1) a. popularity of a musical group versus how hard it is to get tickets for its concert
direct
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

83. What volume is occupied by one mole of a gas

at STP? What volume do two moles occupy at STP? (14.2)


22.4 L; 44.8 L

b. number of carats a diamond weighs versus

its cost
direct

84. What units must be used to express the tempera-

ture in the equation for the ideal gas law? Explain. (14.3)
Kelvin units; V is not directly proportional to Celsius temperature.

c. number of people helping versus how long it

takes to clean up after a party


inverse

85. List two conditions under which a gas is least

78. Label the following examples as being represen-

likely to behave ideally. (14.3)


high pressure and low temperature

tative of a direct or inverse relationship. (14.1) a. pressure versus volume of a gas


inverse

86. Write the value and units for the gas constant R

in two common forms. (14.3)


R 0.0821 atmL/(molK) and R 8.314 LkPa/(molK)

b. volume versus temperature of a gas


direct

c. pressure versus temperature of a gas


direct

87. What information is needed to solve a volume-

mass problem that involves gases? (14.4)


balanced equation, at least one mass or volume value for a reactant or product, and P and T conditions under which gas volumes have been measured

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Mastering Problems The Gas Laws (14.1) Level 1 88. Use Boyles, Charless, or Gay-Lussacs law to calculate the missing value in each of the following. a. V1 2.0 L, P1 0.82 atm, V2 1.0 L, P2 ?
P2 P1 V1/V2 ( 0.82 atm)(2.0 L)/(1.0 L) 1.6 atm

Level 2 90. A fixed amount of oxygen gas is held in a 1.00-L tank at a pressure of 3.50 atm. The tank is connected to an empty 2.00-L tank by a tube with a valve. After this valve has been opened and the oxygen is allowed to flow freely between the two tanks at a constant temperature, what is the final pressure in the system?
P2 P1 V1/V2 ( 3.50 atm)(1.00 L)/(3.00 L) 1.17 atm

b. V1 250 mL, T1 ?, V2 400 mL,

91. Hot-air balloons rise because the hot air inside the

T2 298 K

T1 T2 V1/V2 ( 298 K)(250 mL)/(400 mL) 186 K 200 K

c. V1 0.55 L, P1 740 mm Hg, V2

balloon is less dense than the cooler air outside. Calculate the volume an air sample will occupy inside a balloon at 43.0C if it occupies 2.50 L at the outside air temperature of 22.0C, assuming the pressure is the same at both locations.
T1 22.0C 273 295 K T2 43.0C 273 316 K V2 V1 T2/T1 ( 2.50 L)(316 K/295 K) 2.68 L

0.80 L, P2 ?

P2 P1 V1/V2 ( 740 mm Hg)(0.55 L)/(0.80 L) 510 mm Hg

d. T1 25C, P1 ?, T2 37C,

P2 1.0 atm

T1 25C 273 298C T2 37C 273 310C P1 P2 T1/T2 ( 1.0 atm)(298 K)/(310 K) 0.96 atm

89. What is the pressure of a fixed volume of a gas

at 30.0C if it has a pressure of 1.11 atm at 15.0C?


T1 15.0C 273 288 K T2 30.0C 273 303 K P2 P1 T2/T1 ( 1.11 atm)(303 K)/(288 K) 1.17 atm

T1 10.0C 273 283 K T2 21.0C 273 294 K P2 P1 V1T2/T1V2 ( 108 kPa)(500.0 mL)(294 K)/(283 K)(750.0 mL) 74.8 kPa

93. The air in a dry, sealed 2-L soda bottle has a

pressure of 0.998 atm at sea level at a temperature of 34.0C. What will be its pressure if it is brought to a higher altitude where the temperature is only 23.0C?
T1 34.0C 273 307 K T2 = 23.0C 273 296 K Volume is held constant. V1 V2 P2 P1T2/T1 ( 0.998 atm)(296 K)/(307 K) 0.962 atm

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The Combined Gas Law (14.2) Level 1 92. A sample of nitrogen gas is stored in a 500.0-mL flask at 108 kPa and 10.0C. The gas is transferred to a 750.0-mL flask at 21.0C. What is the pressure of nitrogen in the second flask?

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Level 2 94. A weather balloon is filled with helium that occupies a volume of 5.00 104 L at 0.995 atm and 32.0C. After it is released, it rises to a location where the pressure is 0.720 atm and the temperature is 12.0C. What is the volume of the balloon at that new location?
T1 32.0C 273 295 K T2 12C 273 261 K P2 P1V1T2/T1V2 ( 0.500 105 L)(0.995 atm) (261 K)/(305 K)(0.720 atm) 5.91 104 L

The Ideal Gas Law (14.3) Level 1 97. The lowest pressure achieved in a laboratory is about 1.0 1015 mm Hg. How many molecules of gas are present in a 1.00-L sample at that pressure and a temperature of 22.0C?
T 22.0C 273 295 K (1.0 1015 mm Hg)(1.00 L) n PV/RT (62.4 Lmm Hg/molK)(295K) 5.4 1020 mol 5.4 1020 mol (6.02 1023 molecules/1 mol) 3.3 104 molecules

Avogadros Principle (14.2) Level 1 95. Propane, C3H8, is a gas commonly used as a home fuel for cooking and heating. a. Calculate the volume that 0.540 mol of propane occupies at STP.
22.4 L 0.540 mol 12.1 L 1 mol

Level 2 98. Determine the density of chlorine gas at 22.0C and 1.00 atm pressure.
Assume 1 mol of Cl2(g). 70.90 g Cl2 70.90 g mass 1 mol Cl2 1 mol Cl2 T 22.0C 273 295 (1 mol)(0.0821 Latm/molK)(295 K) V nRT/P 1.00 atm 24.2 L density mass/volume ( 70.90 g)/(24.2 L) 2.93 g/L

b. Think about the size of this volume

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

compared to the amount of propane that it contains. Why do you think propane is usually liquefied before it is transported?
Propane occupies a much smaller volume when liquefied.

96. Carbon monoxide, CO, is a product of incom-

99. Geraniol is a compound found in rose oil that is

plete combustion of fuels. Find the volume that 42 g of carbon monoxide gas occupies at STP.
n 42 g CO (1 mol CO)/(28.01 g CO) 1.5 mol CO 22.4 L V 1.5 mol 34 L 1 mol

used in perfumes. What is the molar mass of geraniol if its vapor has a density of 0.480 g/L at a temperature of 260.0C and a pressure of 0.140 atm?
Assume 1 mol of geraniol. T 260.0C 273 533 K (1 mol)(0.0821 Latm/molK)(533 K) V nRT/P 0.140 atm 313 L/mol mass density volume ( 0.480 g/L)(313 L/mol) 1.50 102 g/mol

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100. A 2.00-L flask is filled with propane gas

103. When heated, solid potassium chlorate

(C3H8) at 1.00 atm and 15.0C. What is the mass of the propane in the flask?
T 15C 273 258 K (1.00 atm)(2.00 L) n PV/RT (0.0821 Latm/molK)(258 K) 0.0944 mol molar mass ( 3 12.01 g/mol) (8 1.008 g/mol) 44.09 g/mol mass n M ( 0.0944 mol)(44.09 g/mol) 4.16 g

(KClO3) decomposes to form solid potassium chloride and oxygen gas. If 20.8 g of potassium chlorate decomposes, how many liters of oxygen gas will form at STP?
2KClO3 0 2KCl 3O2 molar mass 39.10 g/mol 35.45 g/mol (3 16.00 g/mol) 122.55 g/mol nKClO 20.8 g KClO3 3 (1 mol KClO3/122.55 g KClO3) 0.170 mol KClO3 nO 0.170 mol KClO3 2 (3 mol O2)/(2 mol KClO3) 0.255 mol O2 V 0.255 mol (22.4 L/1 mol) 5.70 L O2

Gas Stoichiometry (14.4) Level 1 101. Ammonia is formed industrially by reacting nitrogen and hydrogen gases. How many liters of ammonia gas can be formed from 13.7 L of hydrogen gas at 93.0C and a pressure of 40.0 kPa?
N2 3H2 0 2NH3 13.7 L H2 (2 L NH3)/(3 L H2) 9.13 L NH3

104. Use the reaction shown below to answer these

questions. CO(g) NO(g) 0 N2(g) CO2(g) a. Balance the equation.


2CO(g) 2NO(g) 0 N2(g) 2CO2(g)

b. What is the volume ratio of carbon

1:1

c. If 42.7 g CO is reacted completely at STP,

what volume of N2 gas will be produced?


nCO 42.7 g CO (1 mol CO)/(28.01 g CO) 1.52 mol CO nN 1.52 mol CO (1 mol N2)/(2 mol CO) 0.762 mol N2 VN ( 0.762 mol) (22.4 L/mol) 17.1 L N2
2 2

2C3H8 10O2 0 6CO2 H2O 3.00 L C3H8 (8 L H2O)/(2 L C3H8) 12.0 L H2O T 350C 273 623 K (0.990 atm)(12.0 L) n PV/RT (0.0821 Latm/molK)(623 K) 0.232 mol H2O mass 0.232 mol H2O (18.02 g H2O)/ (1 mol H2O) 4.2 g H2O

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Level 2 102. When 3.00 L of propane gas is completely combusted to form water vapor and carbon dioxide at a temperature of 350C and a pressure of 0.990 atm, what mass of water vapor will result?

monoxide to carbon dioxide in the balanced equation?

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Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 105. Gaseous methane (CH4) undergoes complete combustion by reacting with oxygen gas to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. a. Write a balanced equation for this reaction.
CH4(g) 2O2(g) 0 CO2(g) 2H2O(g)

d. T1 37C, P1 5.0 atm, P2 2.5 atm,

T2 ?

T1 37C 273 310 K T2 T1P2/P1 ( 310 K)(2.5 atm)/(5.0 atm) 155 K T2 155 K 273 118 C

108. Determine the pressure inside a television

b. What is the volume ratio of methane to

water in this reaction?


1:2

picture tube with a volume of 3.50 L that contains 2.00 105 g of nitrogen gas at 22.0C.
n 2.00 105 g N2 (1 mol N2)/(28.02 g N2) 7.14 107 mol T 22.0C 273 295 K P nRT/V (7.14 107 mol)(0.0821 Latm/molK)(295 K) 3.50 L 4.94 106 atm

106. If 2.33 L of propane (C3H8) at 24C and

67.2 kPa is completely burned in excess oxygen, how many moles of carbon dioxide will be produced?
C3H8 5O2 0 3CO2 4H2O 2.33 L C3H8 (3 L CO2)/(1 L C3H8) 6.99 L CO2 T 24C 273 297 K (67.2 kPa)(6.99 L) n PV/RT (8.314 LkPa/molK)(297K)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

109. Determine how many liters 8.80 g of carbon

dioxide gas would occupy at:


n 8.80 g CO2 (1 mol CO2)/(44.01 g CO2) 0.200 mol CO2

0.190 mol CO2

107. Use Boyles, Charless, or Gay-Lussacs law to

a. STP
V 0.200 mol (22.4 L/1 mol) 4.48 L

calculate the missing value in each of the following. a. V1 1.4. L, P1 ?, V2 3.0 L, P2 1.2 atm
P1 P2V2/V1 ( 1.2 atm)(3.0 L)/(1.4 L) 2.6 atm

b. 160C and 3.00 atm


T 160C 273 433 K V nRT/P (0.200 mol)(0.0821 Latm/molK)(433 K) 3.00 atm 2.37 L

b. V1 705 mL, T1 273 K, V2 ?,

T2 323 K

V2 V1T2/T1 ( 705 mL)(323 K)/(273 K) 834 mL

c. 288 K and 118 kPa


V nRT/P (0.200 mol)(8.314 LkPa/molK)(288 K) 118 kPa 4.06 L

c. V1 0.540 L, P1 ?, V2 0.990 L,

P2 775 mm Hg

P1 P2V2/V1 ( 775 mm Hg)(0.990 L)/(0.540 L) 1420 mm Hg

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110. If 5.00 L of hydrogen gas, measured at 20.0C

and 80.1 kPa is burned in excess oxygen to form water, what mass of oxygen (measured at the same temperature and pressure) will be consumed?
2H2(g) O2(g) 0 2H2O(g) VO 5.00 L H2 (1 L O2)/(2 L H2) 2.50 L O2
2

T 20.0C + 273 293 K (80.1 kPa)(2.50 L) n PV/RT (8.314 LkPa/molK)(293 K) 0.0822 mol O2 mass 0.0822 mol O2 (32.00 g O2)/(1 mol O2) 2.63 g O2

Thinking Critically 111. Making and Using Graphs Automobile tires become underinflated as temperatures drop during the winter months if no additional air is added to the tires at the start of the cold season. For every 10F drop in temperature, the air pressure in a cars tires goes down by about 1 psi (14.7 psi equals 1.00 atm). Complete the following table. Then make a graph illustrating how the air pressure in a tire changes over the temperature range from 40F to 10F, assuming you start with a pressure of 30.0 psi at 40F.
Tire Inflation Based on Temperature
Temperature (F) 40 30 20 10 0 10 Pressure (psi) 30.0 29.0 28.0 27.0 26.0 25.0 Pressure vs. Temperature
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

30.0

Pressure (psi)

20.0

0 20 10

10 20 30 40 Temperature (F)

50

60

Graph should show air pressure vs. temperature; the resulting plot will be a straight line showing a direct relationship between the variables.

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112. Applying Concepts When nitroglycerin

(C3H5N3O9) explodes, it decomposes into the following gases: CO2, N2, NO, and H2O. If 239 g of nitroglycerin explodes, what volume will the mixture of gaseous products occupy at 1.00 atm pressure and 2678C?
molar mass C3H5N3O9 ( 3 12.01) (5 1.008) (3 14.01) (9 16.00) 227.10 g/mol n 239 g C3H5N3O9 (1 mol C3H5N3O9)/(227.10 g C3H5N3O9) 1.05 mol C3H5N3O9 4 C3H5N3O9(s) 0 12 CO2(g) 5N2(g) 2NO(g) 10H2O(g) 29 mol gas products 1.05 mol C3H5N3O9 4 mol C3H5N3O9 7.61 mol gas products V nRT/P (7.61 mol)(0.0821 Latm/molK)(2951 K) 1.00 atm 1850 L

Writing in Chemistry 115. It was the dream of many early balloonists to complete a trip around the world in a hot-air balloon, a goal not achieved until 1999. Write about what you imagine a trip in a balloon would be like, including a description of how manipulating air temperature would allow you to control altitude.
Student answers should include a description of how the difference in density of hot air and cold air is what allows hot-air balloons to stay aloft, and how manipulating the rate of heating of air allows a balloonist to ascend and descend.

116. Investigate and explain the function of the

regulators on the air tanks used by scuba divers.


Student answers should include the overall function of the air tank regulator, a device that changes air pressure levels and delivers air. The first stage regulator is the regulator attached to the scuba tank, and it lowers the tank pressure to ambient pressure plus a predetermined pressure (e.g., ambient 140 psi). The second stage regulator follows the first stage regulator in line, and it delivers compressed air to the diver.

113. Analyze and Conclude What is the numerical


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

R 8.314 LkPa/molK (1000 cm3)/(1 L) (1000 Pa)/(1 kPa) 8.314 106cm3Pa/(molK)

value of the ideal gas constant (R) in cm3Pa ? Kmol

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 117. Convert each of the following mass measurements to its equivalent in kilograms. (Chapter 2) a. 247 g
1 kg 247 g 0.247 kg 103 g

114. Applying Concepts Calculate the pressure of

a mixture of two gases that contains 4.67 1022 molecules CO and 2.87 1024 molecules of N2 in a 6.00-L container at 34.8C.
nCO 4.67 1022 molecules (1 mol)/(6.02 1023 molecules) 0.0776 mol CO nN 2.87 1024 molecules 2 (1 mol)/(6.02 1023 molecules) 4.77 mol N2 ntotal 0.0776 mol CO 4.77 mol N2 4.85 mol T 34.8C 273 307.8 K P nRT/V (4.85 mol)(0.0821 Latm/molK)(307.8 K) 6.00 L 20.4 atm

b. 53 Mg
1 kg 106 g 53 Mg 53 000 kg 1 Mg 103 g

c. 7.23 g
1 kg 1g 7.23 g 7.23 109 kg 106g 103 g

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d. 975 mg
1 kg 1g 9.75 mg 3 10 mg 103 g 9.75 104 kg

120. The particles of which of the following gases

118. How many atoms of each element are present

in five formula units of calcium permanganate? (Chapter 8)


5 mol Ca(MnO4)2 5Ca, 10Mn, 40 O

have the highest average speed? The lowest average speed? (Chapter 13) a. carbon monoxide at 90C b. nitrogen trifluoride at 30C c. methane at 90C d. carbon monoxide at 30C
c, b Average speed is greater at higher temperature and lower at greater molar mass.

119. Terephthalic acid is an organic compound used

in the formation of polyesters. It contains 57.8 percent C, 3.64 percent H, and 38.5 percent O. The molar mass is known to be approximately 166 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of terephthalic acid? (Chapter 11)
1 mol C 57.8 g C 4.81 mol C 12.01 g C 1 mol H 3.64 g H 3.60 mol H 1.01 g H 1 mol O 38.5 g O 2.41 mol O 16.00 g O 4.81 mol C 2.00 mol C 2.41 3.60 mol H 1.50 mol H 2.41 2.41 mol O 1.00 mol O 2.41 empirical formula: C4H3O2 molar mass C4H3O2 ( 4 12.01 g/mol) (3 1.01 g/mol) (2 16.00 g/mol) 83.07 g/mol 166 g/mol n 2.00 83.07 g/mol molecular formula: C8H6O4

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 14


page 451

2. Three 2.0-L containers are placed in a 50C

room. Samples of 0.5 mol N2, 0.5 mol Xe, and 0.5 mol ethene (C2H4) are pumped into Containers 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Inside which container will the pressure be greatest?
a. Container 2 b. Container 3 c. Containers 2 and 3 have the same, higher

pressure. d. Containers 1, 2, and 3 have equal pressures.


d

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Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. The kinetic-molecular theory describes the microscopic behavior of gases. One main point of the theory is that within a sample of gas, the frequency of collisions between individual gas particles and between the particles and the walls of their container increases if the sample is compressed. The gas law that states this relationship in mathematical terms is _____ . a. Gay-Lussacs Law b. Charless Law c. Boyles Law d. Avogadros Law

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Interpreting Graphs Use the graph to answer questions 35.


Pressures of Three Gases at Different Temperatures
1200 1000 Presure (kPa) 800 600 400 200 0 250 260 270 280 Temperature (K) 290 300 Gas A Gas B Gas C

7. While it is on the ground, a blimp is filled with

5.66 106 L of He gas. The pressure inside the grounded blimp, where the temperature is 25C, is 1.10 atm. Modern blimps are non-rigid, which means that their volume is changeable. If the pressure inside the blimp remains the same, what will be the volume of the blimp at a height of 2300 m, where the temperature is 12C?
a. b. c. d.

5.66 106 L 2.72 106 L 5.4 106 L 5.92 106 L

3. It can be seen from the graph that _____ . a. b. c. d.


d

V2 V1 T1 T2 T1 25C 273 298 K T2 12C 273 285 K (5.66 106 L)(285 K) V2 5.4 106 L 298 K c

as temperature increases, pressure decreases as pressure increases, volume decreases as temperature decreases, moles decrease as pressure decreases, temperature decreases

4. Which of these gases is an ideal gas? a. b. c. d.


d

8. The reaction that provides blowtorches with

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Gas A Gas B Gas C none of the above

their intense flame is the combustion of acetylene (C2H2) to form carbon dioxide and water vapor. Assuming that the pressure and temperature of the reactants are the same, what volume of oxygen gas is required to completely burn 5.60 L of acetylene?
a. b. c. d.

5. The predicted pressure of Gas B at 310 K is

_____ .
a. b. c. d.
b

260 kPa 620 kPa 1000 kPa 1200 kPa

2.24 L 5.60 L 11.2 L 14.0 L

2C2H2 5O2 0 4CO2 2H2O 5 L O2 14.0 L O2 5.60 L C2H2 2 L C2H2 d

6. What volume will 0.875 moles of SF4 occupy

at STP?
a. b. c. d.

19.6 L 21.4 L 22.4 L 32.7 L

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9. A sample of argon gas is compressed into a

volume of 0.712 L by a piston exerting 3.92 atm of pressure. The piston is slowly released until the pressure of the gas is 1.50 atm. The new volume of the gas is _____ .
a. b. c. d.

0.272 L 3.67 L 1.86 L 4.19L

P1V1 (3.92 atm)(0.712 L) V2 1.86 L 1.50 atm P2 c

10. Assuming ideal behavior, how much pressure

will 0.0468 g of ammonia (NH3) gas exert on the walls of a 4.00-L container at 35.0C?
a. b. c. d.

0.0174 atm 0.296 atm 0.00198 atm 0.278 atm

T 35.0C 273 308 K molar mass 14.01 g/mol (3 1.01 g/mol) 17.04 g/mol

P 0.0174 atm a

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Latm (0.0468 g) 0.0821 (308 K) m ol K mRT P MV g 17.04 (4.00 L) mol

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Solutions
Section 15.1 What are solutions?
pages 453461

6. Thinking Critically If a seed crystal was added

to a supersaturated solution, how would you characterize the resulting solution?


After the excess solute particles crystallize out of solution, the solution is saturated.

Practice Problems
page 461

1. If 0.55 g of a gas dissolves in 1.0 L of water at

20.0 kPa of pressure, how much will dissolve at 110.0 kPa of pressure?
0.55 g S1 0.55 g/L 1.0 L P2 110.0 kPa S2 S1 0.55 g/L 3.0 g/L 20.0 kPa P1

7.

Making and Using Graphs Use the information in Table 15-2 to graph the solubilities of aluminum sulfate, lithium sulfate, and potassium sulfate at 0C, 20C, 60C, and 100C. Which substances solubility is most affected by increasing temperature?
Solubility vs. Temperature 80 Solubility (g/100 g H2O)
Al2(SO4)3

2. A gas has a solubility of 0.66 g/L at 10.0 atm of

pressure. What is the pressure on a 1.0-L sample that contains 1.5 g of gas?
1.5 g S2 1.5 g/L 1.0 L 1.5 g/L S2 P2 P1 10.0 atm 23 atm 0.66 g/L S1
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

60

40

Li2SO4

20

Section 15.1 Assessment


page 461

K2SO4

3. Describe the characteristics of a solution and

20

identify the various types.


All solutions are homogeneous mixtures containing two or more substances. Solutions may be liquid, solid, or gas. Solution types are identified in Table 15-1.

40 60 80 Temperature (C)

100

Aluminum sulfate shows the greatest change in solubility over the temperature range.

4. How do intermolecular forces affect solvation?


The attractive forces between solute and solvent particles overcome the forces holding the solute particles together, thus, pulling the solute particles apart.

Section 15.2 Solution Concentration


pages 462470

Practice Problems
page 463466, 468470

5. What is solubility? Describe two factors that

8. What is the percent by mass of NaHCO3 in a

affect solubility.
Solubility refers to the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a particular temperature and pressure. Surface area, temperature, and pressure affect solubility.

solution containing 20 g NaHCO3 dissolved in 600 mL H2O?


600 mL H2O 1.0 g/mL 600 g H2O 20 g NaHCO3 100 3% 600 g H2O 20 g Na HCO3

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9. You have 1500.0 g of a bleach solution. The

15. What is the molarity of a bleach solution

percent by mass of the solute sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, is 3.62%. How many grams of NaOCl are in the solution?
mass NaOCl 3.62% 100 1500.0 g mass NaOCl 54.3 g

containing 9.5 g of NaOCl per liter of bleach?


1 mol mol NaOCl 9.5 g 0.128 mol 74.44 g 0.128 mol mol NaOCl molarity 1.00 L solution 1.00 L 0.128M

10. In question 9, how many grams of solvent are in

16. Calculate the molarity of 1.60 L of a solution

the solution?
1500.0 g 54.3 g 1445.7 g solvent

containing 1.55 g of dissolved KBr.


1 mol mol KBr 1.55 g 0.0130 mol KBr 119.0 g 0.0130 mol mol KBr molarity 1.60 L solution 01.60 L 8.13 103M

11. What is the percent by volume of ethanol in a

solution that contains 35 mL of ethanol dissolved in 115 mL of water?


35 mL 100 23% 115 mL 35 mL

17. How many grams of CaCl2 would be dissolved

12. If you have 100.0 mL of a 30.0% aqueous

in 1.0 L of a 0.10M solution of CaCl2?


mol CaCl2 ( 0.10M)(1.0 L) ( 0.10 mol/L)(1.0 L) 0.10 mol CaCl2 110.98 g mass CaCl2 0.10 mol CaCl2 1 mol 11 g CaCl2
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

solution of ethanol, what volumes of ethanol and water are in the solution?
volume ethanol 30.0% 100 volume solution volume ethanol 0.300 (volume solution) 0.300 100.0 mL volume ethanol 30.0 mL volume water 100.0 mL 30.0 mL 70.0 mL

18. A liter of 2M NaOH solution contains how

many grams of NaOH?


mol NaOH ( 2M)(1 L) ( 2 mol/L)(1 L) 2 mol 40.00 g mass NaOH 2 mol NaOH 1 mol 80 g NaOH

13. What is the percent by volume of isopropyl

alcohol in a solution that contains 24 mL of isopropyl alcohol in 1.1 L of water?


24 mL 100 2.1% 24 mL 1100 mL

19. How many grams of CaCl2 should be dissolved

14. What is the molarity of an aqueous solution

in 500.0 mL of water to make a 0.20M solution of CaCl2?


1L mol CaCl2 500.0 mL 0.20M 1000 mL 1L 0.20 mol 500.0 mL 1000 mL 1L 0.10 mol 110.98 g mass CaCl2 0.10 mol CaCl2 1 mol 11 g CaCl2

containing 40.0 g of glucose (C6H12O6) in 1.5 L of solution?


1 mol mol C6H12O6 40.0 g 0.222 mol 180.16 g mol C6H12O6 0.222 mol molarity 0.148M 1.5 L solution 1.5 L

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20. How many grams of NaOH are in 250 mL of a

25. What is the molality of a solution containing

3.0M NaOH solution?


1L mol NaOH 250 mL 3.0M 1000 mL 1L 3.0 mol 250 mL 1000 mL 1L 0.75 mol 40.00 g mass NaOH 0.75 mol NaOH 1 mol 3.0 101 g NaOH

30.0 g of naphthalene (C10H8) dissolved in 500.0 g of toluene?


1 mol mol C10H8 30.0 g C10H8 128.18 g 0.234 mol C10H8 0.234 mol C10H8 1000.0 g molality 500.0 g toluene 1.0000 kg 0.468m

26. What is the mole fraction of NaOH in an 21. What volume of a 3.00M KI stock solution

would you use to make 0.300 L of a 1.25M KI solution?


(3.00M)V1 ( 1.25M)(0.300 L) (1.25M)(0.300 L) V1 0.125 L 125 mL 3.00M

aqueous solution that contains 22.8% NaOH by mass?


mass NaOH 22.8% 100 mass NaOH mass H2O Assume 100.0 g sample. Then, mass NaOH 22.8 g mass H2O 100.0 g (mass NaOH) 77.2 g 1 mol mol NaOH 22.8 g 0.570 mol NaOH 40.00 g 1 mol mol H2O 77.2 g 4.28 mol H2O 18.02 g mol NaOH mol fraction NaOH mol NaOH mol H2O 0.570 0.570 mol NaOH 0.570 mol NaOH 4.28 mol H2O 4.85 0.118 The mole fraction of NaOH is 0.118.

22. How many milliliters of a 5.0M H2SO4 stock

solution would you need to prepare 100.0 mL of 0.25M H2SO4?


(5.0M)V1 ( 0.25M)(100.0 mL) (0.25M)(100.0 mL) V1 5.0 mL 5.0M
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

23. If you dilute 20.0 mL of a 3.5M solution to

make 100.0 mL of solution, what is the molarity of the dilute solution?


(3.5M)(20.0 mL) M2(100.0 mL) (3.5M)(20.0 mL) M2 0.70M 100.0 mL

27. An aqueous solution of NaCl has a mole frac-

24. What is the molality of a solution containing

tion of 0.21. What is the mass of NaCl dissolved in 100.0 mL of solution?


mol NaCl 0.21 mol NaCl mol H2O 0.21(mol NaCl) 0.21(mol H2O) mol NaCl 0.79(mol NaCl) 0.21(mol H2O) 1.0 g 1 mol mol H2O 100.0 mL 1 mL 18.02 g 5.55 mol H2O 0.21 5.55 mol Therefore, mol NaCl 0.79 1.48 mol mass NaCl 1.48 mol 58.44 g/mol 86.5 g The mass of dissolved NaCl is 86.5 g.

10.0 g Na2SO4 dissolved in 1000.0 g of water?


1 mol mol Na2SO4 10.0 g Na2SO4 142.04 g 0.0704 mol Na2SO4 0.0704 mol Na2SO4 molality 0.0704m 1.0000 kg H2O

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Section 15.2 Assessment


page 470

28. Distinguish between a dilute solution and a

Section 15.3 Colligative Properties of Solutions


pages 471475

concentrated solution.
concentrated: large amount of solute relative to its solubility; dilute: small amount of solute relative to its solubility.

Practice Problems
page 475

33. What is the boiling point and freezing point of

29. Compare and contrast five quantitative ways to

describe the composition of solutions.


molarity, molality, and mole fraction are based on moles of solute per some other quantity; percent by volume and molarity are defined on a per volume of solution basis; molality and mole fraction are based on a per quantity of solvent basis; percent by mass and percent by volume are the only ratios involving percentages

a 0.625m aqueous solution of any nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute?


Tb 0.512C/m 0.625m 0.320C Tb 100C 0.320C 100.320C Tf 1.86C/m 0.625m 1.16C Tf 0.0C 1.16C 1.16C

34. What is the boiling point and freezing point of a

0.40m solution of sucrose in ethanol?


30. Describe the laboratory procedure for preparing

a specific volume of a dilute solution from a concentrated stock solution.


Calculate the volume of stock solution needed and add it to a volumetric flask. Add water up to the flasks calibration line.

Tb 1.22C/m 0.40m 0.49C Tb 78.5C 0.49C 79.0C Tf 1.99C/m 0.40m 0.80C Tf 114.1C 0.80C 114.9C

31. Thinking Critically Explain the similarities and

35. A lab technician determines the boiling point


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

differences between a 1M solution of NaOH and a 1m solution of NaOH.


Both solutions contain NaOH (solute) dissolved in water (solvent). The 1m solution contains 1 mole of NaOH per kilogram of water; the 1M solution contains 1 mole of NaOH per liter of solution.

elevation of an aqueous solution of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte to be 1.12C. What is the solutions molality?
1.12C 0.512C/m m m 2.19m

36. A student dissolves 0.500 mol of a nonvolatile,

32. Using Numbers A can of chicken broth

contains 450 mg of sodium chloride in 240.0 g of broth. What is the percent by mass of sodium chloride in the broth?
1 g NaCl 450 mg NaCl 0.45 g NaCl 103 g NaCl 0.45 g percent by mass 100 0.19% 240.0 g

nonelectrolyte solute in one kilogram of benzene (C6H6). What is the boiling point elevation of the resulting solution?
0.500 mol/1.00 kg 0.500m Tb 2.53C/m 0.500m 1.26C

Section 15.3 Assessment


page 475

37. Explain the nature of colligative properties.


Colligative properties depend on the number of solute particles in a solution.

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38. Describe four colligative properties of solutions.


vapor pressure lowering: the decrease in vapor pressure with increasing solute particles in solution; boiling point elevation: the increase in boiling point with increasing solute particles in solution; freezing point depression: the decrease in freezing point with increasing solute particles in solution; osmotic pressure: the change in osmotic pressure with increasing solute particles in solution

Section 15.4 Heterogeneous Mixtures


pages 476479

Section 15.4 Assessment


page 479

42. Distinguish between suspensions and colloids.


Suspension particles are larger than colloidal particles. Suspension particles settle out of the mixture, whereas colloidal particles do not.

39. Explain why a solution has a lower boiling

point than the pure solvent.


Solute particles in solution decrease the vapor pressure above the solution. Because a solution boils when its vapor pressure equals the external pressure, this decrease in vapor results in the need for a higher temperature in order for the solution to boil.

43. Describe different types of colloids.


Student answers may vary. See Table 15-6 for descriptions of colloid types.

44. Why do dispersed colloid particles stay

dispersed?
The particles do not settle out because they have polar or charged layers surrounding them. These layers repel each other and prevent the particles from settling or separating.

40. Thinking Critically Explain why the colliga-

tive properties described in this section may not apply to solutions containing volatile solutes. Hint: Volatile solutes are able to leave the liquid phase and enter the gas phase.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

45. Thinking Critically Use the Tyndall effect to

Volatile solute particles leave the solution. Thus, they are no longer a factor in affecting colligative properties.

explain why it is more difficult to drive through fog using high beams than using low beams.
High beams are aimed farther down the road than low beams. Because the fog scatters light, there is less light from the high beams to illuminate the road than from the low beams. Also, because the high beams are aimed more directly into the fog, more of their light is reflected back toward the driver, making it more difficult to see.

41. Using Numbers Calculate the boiling point

elevation and freezing point depression of a solution containing 50.0 g of glucose (C6H12O6) dissolved in 500.0 g of water.
1 mol 50.0 g glucose 0.278 mol glucose 180.15 g 0.278 mol glucose molality 0.556m 0.5000 kg H2O Tb ( 0.512C/m)(0.556m) 0.285C Tb 100.000C 0.285C 100.285C Tf ( 1.86C/m)(0.556m) 1.03C Tf 0.00C 1.03C 1.03C

46. Comparing and Contrasting Make a table

that compares the properties of solutions, suspensions, and colloids.


Student tables will vary, but should include particle size, if the particles settle out, and if the particles display the Tyndall effect.

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CHEMLAB
page 481

Analyze and Conclude


0.4 0.3 Absorbance 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 Absorbance vs. Concentration

Mastering Concepts 48. What is the difference between solute and solvent? (15.1)
A solute is the substance being dissolved. The solvent is the substance in which the solute dissolves.

49. What determines whether a solute will be

soluble in a given solvent? (15.1)


the polarity of the solute and solvent, temperature, and pressure

50. Explain the difference between saturated and

unsaturated solutions. (15.1)


A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute under a given set of conditions. An unsaturated solution contains less than the maximum amount.

20

40 60 80 Concentration (%)

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Concept Mapping 47. Complete the following concept map using the following terms: molarity, mole fraction, molality, moles of solute.
1. Volume Total moles of solution in solution Kilograms of solvent 2. 4. 3. 1. moles of solute; 2. molarity; 3. molality; 4. mole fraction

51. What does it mean if two liquids are said to be

miscible? (15.1)
Two liquids are miscible when they are soluble in each other in any proportion.

52. What are three ways to increase the rate of


increase the temperature of the solvent, increase the surface area of the solute, agitation
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

solvation? (15.1)

53. Why are gases less soluble at higher tempera-

tures? (15.1)
An increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of the gas particles. More gas particles escape the surface of the solution.

54. What is the difference between percent by mass

and percent by volume? (15.2)


Percent by mass is a comparison between the mass of solute and the total mass of the solute. Percent by volume is a comparison between the volume of the solute and the total volume of the solution.

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55. What is the difference between molarity and

63. How can the Tyndall effect be used to distin-

molality? (15.2)
Molarity is solution concentration expressed as the moles of solute per volume of solution. Molality expresses concentration as moles of solute per kilogram of solvent. Molality does not depend upon the temperature of the solution.

guish between a colloid and a solution? Why? (15.4)


A beam of light is visible in a colloid but not in a solution. Dispersed colloid particles are large enough to scatter light (Tyndall effect).

56. Explain on a particle basis why the vapor pres-

Mastering Problems Henrys Law (15.1) Level 1 64. The solubility of a gas in water is 0.22 g/L at 20.0 kPa of pressure. What is the solubility when the pressure is increased to 115 kPa?
(0.22 g/L)(115 KPa) S 1.3 g/L 20.0 kPa

sure of a solution is lower than a pure solvent. (15.3)


When a solvent contains a solute, fewer solvent particles occupy the surface. Fewer particles escape into the gaseous state.

57. How does a solute affect the boiling point of a

solution? (15.3)
A liquid boils when its vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure. The vapor pressure of a solution is less than pure solvent. Thus, the boiling point is higher.

65. The solubility of a gas in water is 0.66 g/L at

15 kPa of pressure. What is the solubility when the pressure is increased to 40.0 kPa?
(0.66 g/L)(40.0 kPa) S 1.8 g/L 15 kPa

58. How does a solute affect the freezing point of a

solution? (15.3)
A solute interferes with the attractive forces between solvent particles. The freezing point is lowered.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

59. Describe osmosis. (15.4)


Osmosis is the diffusion of solvent particles across a semipermeable membrane.

Level 2 66. The solubility of a gas is 2.0 g/L at 50.0 kPa of pressure. How much gas will dissolve in 1 L at a pressure of 10.0 kPa?
(2.0 g/L)(10.0 kPa) 1.0 L 0.40 g 50.0 kPa

60. What is a colligative property? (15.4)


A colligative property is a property of a solution that depends on concentration and not the identity of the solute.

67. The solubility of a gas is 4.5 g/L at a pressure

of 1.0 atm. At what pressure will there be 45 g of gas in 1.0 L of solution?


(45 g/L)(1.0 atm) P 1.0 101 atm 4.5 g/L

61. What is a suspension and how does it differ

from a colloid? (15.4)


A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that settles out if left undisturbed. The particles dispersed in a colloid are much smaller than those in a suspension and do not settle out.

62. Name a colloid formed from a gas dispersed in

a liquid. (15.4)
Student answers may include whipped cream or beaten egg whites.

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68. The partial pressure of CO2 inside a bottle of

73. What mass of water must be added to 255.0 g

soft drink is 4.0 atm at 25C. The solubility of CO2 is 0.12 mol/L. When the bottle is opened, the partial pressure drops to 3.0 104 atm. What is the solubility of CO2 in the open drink? Express your answer in grams per liter.
(0.12 mol/L)(3.0 104 atm) S 4.0 atm 9.0 106 mol/L CO2 9.0 106 mol CO2 44.01 g CO2 1L 1 mol CO2 4.0 104 g/L CO2

NaCl to make a 15.00 percent by mass aqueous solution?


Let x the mass of water 255.0 g NaCl 15.00% 100 255.0 g NaCl x 255.0 g 0.1500 255.0 g x 255.0 g 255.0 g x 0.1500 255.0 g x 255.0 g 1445 g H2O 0.1500

Percent Solutions (15.2) Level 1 69. Calculate the percent by mass of 3.55 g NaCl dissolved in 88 g water.
3.55 g NaCl percent by mass 3.55 g NaCl 88 g NaCl 100 3.9%

74. The label on a 250-mL stock bottle reads

21.5% alcohol by volume. What volume of alcohol does it contain?


21.5 mL alcohol 250 mL solution 100 mL solution 54 mL alcohol

75. A 14.0 percent by mass solution of potassium 70. Calculate the percent by mass of benzene in a

solution containing 14.2 g of benzene in 28.0 g of carbon tetrachloride.


14.2 g benzene percent by mass 14.2 g benzene 28.0 g CCl4 100 33.6%

iodide dissolved in water has a density of 1.208 g/mL. How many grams of KI are in 25.0 mL of the solution?
1.208 g solution 25.0 mL solution 1 mL solution 30.2 g solution 14.0 g Kl mass of KI 30.2 g solution 100.0 g solution 4.23 g KI g
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

71. What is the percent by volume of 25 mL of

methanol in 75 mL of water?
percent by volume 25 mL methanol 100 25% 25 mL methanol 75 mL H2O

Level 2 72. A solution is made by adding 1.23 mol KCl to 1000.0 g of water. What is the percent by mass of KCl in this solution?
74.55 g KCl mass of KCl 1.23 mol KCl 1 mol KCl 91.7 g KCl 91.7 g KCl percent by mass 91.7 g KCl 1000.0 g H2O 100 8.40%

Molarity (15.2) Level 1 76. What is the molarity of the following solutions? a. 2.5 mol KCl in 1.0 L of solution
2.5 mol KCl 2.5M KCl 1.0 L

b. 1.35 mol H2SO4 in 245 mL of solution


1.35 mol H2SO4 1000 mL 245 mL 1L 5.51M H2SO4

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c. 0.875 mol of ammonia in 155 mL of

79. How many grams of solute are contained in the

solution
0.875 mol NH3 1000 mL 5.65M NH3 155 mL 1L

following solutions? a. 64.3 mL 0.0238M KOH


1L 0.0238 mol KOH 64.3 mL 1000 mL 1L 56.10 g KOH 0.0859 g KOH 1 mol KOH

Level 2 77. What is the molarity of the following solutions? a. 0.96 g MgCl2 in 500 mL of solution
0.96 g MgCl2 1 mol MgCl2 1000 mL 500 mL 1L 95.21 g MgCl2 0.02M MgCl2

b. 142 mL 1.40M K2SO4


1.40 mol K2SO4 1L 142 mL 1L 1000 mL 174.27 g K2SO4 34.6 g K2SO4 1 mol K2SO4

b. 9.33 g Na2S in 450 mL solution


9.33 g Na2S 1 mol Na2S 1000 mL 450 mL 1L 77.99 g Na2S 0.27M Na2S

c. 750.0 mL 0.225M NH4OH


0.225 mol NH4OH 1L 750.0 mL 1L 1000 mL 35.05 g NH4OH 5.91 g NH4OH 1 mol NH4OH

c. 2.48 g CaF2 in 375 mL of solution


2.48 g CaF2 1 mol CaF2 1000 mL 375 mL 1L 78.08 g CaF2 0.0847M CaF2

78. How many moles of solute are contained in the

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

following solutions? a. 15.25 mL 2.10M CaCl2


2.10 mol CaCl2 1L 15.25 mL 1L 1000 mL 0.0320 mol CaCl2

Molar Dilution (15.2) Level 1 80. How many milliliters of 2.55M NaOH is needed to make 125 mL 0.75M NaOH solution?
M1V1 M2V2 (125 mL)(0.75M) V2 37 mL (2.55M)

b. 125 mL 0.0500M Ba(OH)2


0.0500 mol Ba(OH)2 1L 125 mL 1L 1000 mL 0.00625 mol Ba(OH)2

81. How many milliliters of 0.400M HBr solution can

be made from 50.0 mL of 8.00M HBr solution?


M1V1 M2V2 (50.0 mL)(8.00M) V2 1.00 103 mL (0.400M)

c. 53.1 mL 12.2M HCl


1L 12.2 mol HCl 53.1 mL 1000 mL 1L 0.648 mol HCl

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Level 2 82. What is the molarity of each resulting solution when the following mixtures are prepared? a. 500.0 mL H2O is added to 20.0 mL 6.00M HNO3
(20.0 mL)(6.00M HNO3) 0.240M HNO3 500.0 mL 20.0 mL

2 b. 20.0 g CaCl2

1 mol CaCl 110.97 g CaCl2

0.180 mol CaCl2 1 mol H2O 700.0 g H2O 38.84 mol H2O 18.01 g H2O 0.180 mol mole fraction 0.180 mol 38.84 mol 0.00461 1 mol NaOH c. 3.76 g NaOH 40.00 g NaOH 0.0940 mol NaOH 1000 g H2O 1 mol H2O 0.850 L H2O 1 L H2O 18.02 g H2O 47.2 mol H2O 0.0940 mol mole fraction 0.0940 mol 47.2 mol 0.00199

b. 30.0 mL 1.75M HCl is added to 80.0 mL

0.450M HCl
(30.0 mL)(1.75M) (80.0 mL)(0.450M) 30.0 mL 80.0 mL 0.805M HCl

Molality and Mole Fraction (15.2) Level 1 83. Calculate the molality of the following solutions. a. 15.7 g NaCl in 100.0 g H2O
1000 g H2O 15.7 g NaCl 1 mol NaCl 100.0 g H2O 58.44 g NaCl 1 kg H2O 2.69m NaCl

b. 20.0 g CaCl2 in 700.0 g H2O


20.0 g CaCl2 1000 g H2O 700.0 g H2O 1 kg H2O 1 mol CaCl2 0.257m CaCl2 110.97 g CaCl2

Level 2 85. What are the molality and mole fraction of solute in a 35.5 percent by mass aqueous solution of formic acid (HCOOH)?
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

35.5 g HCOOH 35.5% means 100.0 g solution 1 mol HCOOH 35.5 g CH3OH 46.03 g HCOOH 0.771 mol HCOOH mass of water 100.0 g 35.5 g 64.5 g 6.45 102 kg 1 mol H2O moles of water 64.5 g 18.02 g H2O 3.58 mol H2O 0.771 mol HCOOH molality 12.0m 6.45 102 kg H2O 0.771 mol mole fraction 0.177 0.771 mol 3.58 mol

c. 3.76 g NaOH in 0.850 L H2O


3.76 g NaOH 1L 1 mol NaOH 1 kg 40.00 g NaOH 0.850 L H2O 0.111m

84. Calculate the mole fraction of NaCl, CaCl2,

and NaOH in the solutions listed in the previous problem.


1 mol NaCl 0.269 mol NaCl a. 15.7 g NaCl 58.44 g NaCl 1 mol H2O 100.0 g H2O 5.549 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 0.269 mol 1 mole fraction 0.269 mol 5.549 mol 0.0462

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Colligative Properties (15.3) Level 1 86. Using the information in Tables 15-4 and 15-5, calculate the freezing point and boiling point of 12.0 g of glucose (C6H12O6) in 50.0 g H2O.
molar mass of glucose 180.10 g/mol moles of glucose 12.0 g glucose 1 mol glucose 0.0666 mol glucose 180.15 g glucose 1 kg H2O mass of solvent 50.0 g H2O 1000 g H2O 5.00 102 kg H2O 0.0666 mol glucose molality 1.33m 5.00 102 kg H2O Tf ( 1.86C/m)(1.33m) 2.57C freezing point 0.0C 2.47C 2.47C Tb ( 0.512C/m)(1.33m) = 0.681C boiling point 100.0C 0.681C 100.681C

88. A rock salt (NaCl), ice, and water mixture is

used to cool milk and cream to make homemade ice cream. How many grams of rock salt must be added to water to lower the freezing point 10.0C?
Tf Kf m Tf 10.0C m 5.38m ions of Na 1.86C/m Kf and Cl moles of solute molality kilograms of solvent 2.69 mol NaCl 1 kg solvent 58.44 g NaCl 2.69 mol NaCl 1 kg H2O 1 mol NaCl 157 g NaCl per 1 kg H2O

89. Calculate the freezing point and boiling point of

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Level 2 87. Using the information in Tables 15-4 and 15-5, calculate the freezing point and boiling point of each of the following solutions. a. 2.75m NaOH in water
Tf ( 1.86C/m)(2.75m)(2) 10.2C freezing point 0.0C 10.2C 10.2C Tb ( 0.512C/m)(2.75m)(2) 2.82C boiling point 100.0C 2.82C 102.82C 102.8C

a solution that contains 55.4 g NaCl and 42.3 g KBr dissolved in 750.3 mL H2O.
1 mol NaCl moles of NaCl 55.4 g NaCl 58.44 g NaCl 0.948 mol NaCl 1 mol KBr moles of KBr 42.3 g KBr 119.00 g KBr 0.355 mol KBr total moles of solute 0.948 mol 0.355 mol 1.303 mol 1g 1 kg mass of water 750.3 mL 1 mL 1000 g 0.7053 kg 1.303 mol molality 1.737m 0.7503 kg Tf ( 1.86C/m)(1.737m)(2) 6.46C freezing point 0.00C 6.46C 6.46C Tb ( 0.521C/m)(1.737m)(2) 1.78C boiling point 100.00C 1.78C 101.81C

b. 0.586m of water in ethanol


Tf ( 1.99C/m)(0.586m) 1.17C freezing point 114.6C 1.17C 115.77C 115.8C Tb ( 1.22C/m)(0.586m) 0.715C boiling point 78.4C 0.715C 79.115C 79.1C

c. 1.26m of naphthalene (C10H8) in benzene


Tf ( 5.12C/m)(1.26m) 6.45C freezing point 5.5C 6.45C 0.95C 1.0C Tb ( 2.53C/m)(1.26m) 3.19C boiling point 80.1C 3.19C 83.29C 83.3C

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Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 90. If you prepared a saturated aqueous solution of potassium chloride at 25C and then heated it to 50C, would you describe the solution as unsaturated, saturated, or supersaturated? Explain.
unsaturated; the solubility of KCl in water increases with temperature. A solution at 50C holds more solute than one at 25C.

94. What would be the molality of the solution

described in the previous problem?


1 kg mass of solvent 3.00 L 3.00 kg 1L 0.500 mol Ca(NO3)2 moles of Ca(NO3)2 3.00 L 1L 1.50 mol Ca(NO3)2 1.50 mol Ca(NO3)2 molality 0.500m 3.00 kg H2O

91. Use the graph below to explain why a carbon-

ated beverage does not go flat as quickly when it contains ice.


8 7 Solubility (mol/L) 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Temperature (C )

Thinking Critically 95. Inferring Why not spread a nonelectrolyte on a road to help ice melt?
An electrolyte will dissociate and produce a greater freezing point depression.

Solubility of CO2 in Water at 1 atm

96. Using Scientific Diagrams Complete the

diagram below using the following phrases: solution, separated solvent solute, separated solvent separated solute, solvent solute. Is the process described exothermic or endothermic?
3. separated solvent separated solute

Ice keeps the drink at a temperature at which the carbon dioxide has greater solubility.

92. Which of the following substances will be

soluble in the nonpolar solvent carbon tetrachloride (CCl4): Br2, C6H14, NaNO3, HCl? Explain.
Br2, C6H14; They are nonpolar molecules. Like dissolves like; therefore, they are soluble in nonpolar solvents.

Energy

2. separated solvent solute

1. solvent solute 4. solution; exothermic

93. How many grams of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3)2)

would you need to prepare 3.00 L of a 0.500M solution?


0.500 mol Ca(NO3)2 164.09 g 3.00 L 1L 1 mol Ca(NO3)2 246 g Ca(NO3)2

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97. Designing an Experiment You are given a

99. Comparing Which of the following solutions

sample of a solid solute and three aqueous solutions containing that solute. How would you determine which solution is saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated?
Add a pinch of solute to each container. If the solution is supersaturated, crystallization will occur; saturated, no solute will dissolve; unsaturated, solute will dissolve.

has the highest concentration? Rank the solutions from the greatest to the smallest boiling point depression. Explain your answer. a. 0.10 mol NaBr in 100.0 mL solution
b. 2.1 mol KOH in 1.00 L solution c. 1.2 mol KMnO4 in 3.00 L solution
The molarities are 1.0M NaBr, 2.1M KOH, and 0.40M KMnO4. Because the KOH solution has the greatest concentration, it has the greatest boiling point elevation; KMnO4 has the lowest concentration and the smallest boiling point depression. Boiling point elevation depends only upon concentration.

98.

Using Graphs The following solubility data was collected in an experiment. Plot a graph of the molarity of KI versus temperature. What is the solubility of KI at 55C?

Table 15-7
Solubility of KI Data
Temperature (C) 20 40 60 80 100
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Grams of KI per 100.0 g solution 144 162 176 192 206 Solubility vs. Temperature

Writing in Chemistry 100. Investigate the total amount of salt used in the U.S. Construct a circle graph showing the different uses and amounts. Discuss each of these areas in detail. Salt was once used as a currency of high value. Find out why this was the case.
Student answers will vary.

13 12 Solubility (M) 11 10 9 8 0 0 20 40 60 Temperature (C) 80 100

101. Look up the various electrolytes in the human

blood stream and discuss the importance of each.


Electrolyte cations should include sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium; anions should include chloride, sulfate, phosphate, and bicarbonate

102. Research the contents of the tank scuba divers

typically use. How does its composition differ from the air that you breathe? What is the condition known as the bends? How is it treated?
Answers should include the following: Scuba tanks contain a mixture of primarily oxygen, nitrogen, and helium. If the diver ascends too quickly, dissolved N2 bubbles come out of solution and cause blockage of capillaries and damage to the nervous system. The bends is treated in a hyperbaric chamber in which pressure is slowly decreased.

Molarity equals 8.67M, 9.76M, 10.6M, 11.6M, and 12.4M at 20C, 40C, 60C, 80C, and 100C, respectively. The solubility of KI at 55C is about 10.4M.

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Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 103. The radius of an argon atom is 94 pm. Assuming the atom is spherical, what is the volume of an argon atom in nm3? V 4/3r3 (Chapter 2)
1 nm 94 pm 0.094 nm 1000 pm V 4/3(3.14)(0.094 nm)3 3.5 103 nm3

107. Pure bismuth can be produced by the reaction of

bismuth oxide with carbon at high temperatures. 2Bi2O3 3C 0 4Bi 3CO2 How many moles of Bi2O3 reacted to produce 12.6 moles of CO2? (Chapter 12)
2 mol Bi2O3 12.6 mol CO2 8.40 mol Bi2O3 3 mol CO2

108. A gaseous sample occupies 32.4 mL at 23C

and 0.75 atm. What volume will it occupy at STP? (Chapter 14)
T1 273 23 250 K T2 273 K P2V2 P1V1 T1 T2 (0.75 atm)(32.4 mL)(273 K) V2 26 mL (250 K)(1.0 atm)

104. Identify which of the following molecules is

polar. (Chapter 9) a. SiH4


nonpolar

b. NO2
polar

c. H2S
polar

d. NCl3
polar

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 15


page 487

105. Name the following compounds. (Chapter 8) a. NaBr


sodium bromide

b. Pb(CH3COO)2
lead acetate

0.050M stock solution to dilute it to 0.020M? a. 15 mL b. 9.0 mL c. 6.0 mL d. 2.4 mL


M1V1 M2V2 V2 M1V1/M2 ( 0.050M)(6.0 mL)/(0.020M) 15 mL Volume of water to add 15 mL 6 mL 9 mL The final volume must be 15 mL. Because the initial volume is 6 mL, 9 mL of water must be added to the original stock solution. b

c. (NH4)2CO3
ammonium carbonate

106. A 12.0-g sample of an element contains

5.94 atoms. What is the unknown element? (Chapter 11) 1022


1 mol 5.94 1022 atoms 6.02 1023 atoms = 0.0987 mol 12.0 g 122 g/mol 0.0987 mol The atomic mass is 122 amu. The element is antimony.

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1. How much water must be added to 6.0 mL of a

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2. At a pressure of 1.00 atm and a temperature of

4. If 1 mole of each of the solutes listed below is

20C, 1.72 g CO2 will dissolve in 1 L of water. How much CO2 will dissolve if the pressure is raised to 1.35 atm and the temperature stays the same? a. 2.32 g/L b. 1.27 g/L c. 0.785 g/L d. 0.431 g/L
S1/P1 = S2/P2 S2 = S1(P2/P1) = 1.72 g/L(1.35 atm/1.00 atm) = 2.32 g/L Because the volume is 1 L, 2.32 g will dissolve. a

dissolved in 1 L of water, which solute will have the greatest effect on the vapor pressure of its respective solution? a. KBr b. C6H12O6 c. MgCl2 d. CaSO4
c

5. What volume of a 0.125M NiCl2 solution

3. What is the molality of a solution containing

contains 3.25 g NiCl2? a. 406 mL b. 201 mL c. 38.5 mL d. 26.0 mL


molarity moles of solute/liter solution liter solution moles of solute/molarity moles of solute moles of NiCl2 1 mol NiCl2 moles of NiCl2 3.25 g NiCl2 129.62 g NiCl2 0.0251 mol liters solution 0.0251 mol NiCl2 1 L solution 0.125 mol NiCl2 liters solution 0.2008 L 201 mL b

0.25 g of dichlorobenzene (C6H4Cl2) dissolved in 10.0 g of cyclohexane (C6H12)? a. 0.17 mol/kg b. 0.014 mol/kg c. 0.025 mol/kg d. 0.00017 mol/kg
molality moles of solute/kilograms of solvent
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

molar mass of C6H4Cl2 146.91 g C6H4Cl2 /mol 1 kg kilograms C6H12 10.0 g 0.0100 kg 1000 g 1 mol C6H4Cl2 mol C6H4Cl2 0.25 g C6H4Cl2 146.91 g C6H4Cl2 0.0017 mol molality 0.0017 mol/0.0100 kg 0.17 mol/kg a

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Interpreting Graphs Use the graph to answer questions 68.


Bromine (Br2) Concentration of Four Aqueous Solutions
0.9000 0.7947 0.8000 0.7000 0.6000 Percent 0.4779 0.5000 0.4000 0.2575 0.1030 0.3000 0.2000 0.1000 0.0000 1 2 3 Solution number 4 0.3189 Percent by mass Percent by volume

8. Which of the following relationships is true? a. 2 Concentration of solution 2

Concentration of solution 3
b. 0.5 Concentration of solution 2

Concentration of solution 3
c. Concentration of solution 2

0.25 Concentration of solution 3


d. Concentration of solution 2

3 Concentration of solution 3
b

0.0515

9. All of the following are colligative properties

EXCEPT ______ . a. boiling point elevation b. freezing point depression c. vapor pressure increase d. osmotic pressure
c

0.1596

6. The volume of bromine (Br2) in 7.000 L of

Solution 1 is _____ .
a. b. c. d.

0.1545

Volume of Br2 ( 7 L)(0.2575%) Volume of Br2 ( 7 L)(0.002575) 0.0180 L 18.03 mL c

7. How many grams of Br2 are in 55.00 g of

Solution 4?
a. b. c. d.

3.560 g 0.084 98 g 1.151 g 0.2628 g

Mass of Br2 ( 55.0 g)(0.4779%) Mass of Br2 ( 55.00 g)(0.004779) 0.2628 g d

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Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

55.63 mL 8.808 mL 18.03 mL 27.18 mL

10. Colloids can be distinguished from solutions

because _____ . a. dilute colloids have particles that can be seen with the naked eye b. colloid particles are much smaller than solvated particles c. dispersed colloid particles will settle out of the mixture in time d. colloids will scatter light beams that are shone through them

CHAPTER

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Energy and Chemical Change


Section 16.1 Energy
pages 489495

6. A 155-g sample of an unknown substance was

Practice Problems
pages 492, 495

heated from 25.0C to 40.0C. In the process, the substance absorbed 5696 J of energy. What is the specific heat of the substance? Identify the substance among those listed in Table 16-2.
q c m T 5696 J c 155 g 15.0C c 2.45 J/(gC) The specific heat is very close to the value for ethanol.

1. A fruit and oatmeal bar contains 142 nutritional

Calories. Convert this energy to calories.


142 Calories 142 kcal 1000 cal 142 kcal 142 000 cal 1 kcal

2. An exothermic reaction releases 86.5 kJ. How

many kilocalories of energy are released?


1 kcal 86.5 kJ 20.7 kcal 4.184 kJ

Section 16.1 Assessment


page 495

7. Explain what is meant by energy and list two

3. If an endothermic process absorbs 256 J, how

units in which energy is measured.


Energy is the ability to do work or produce heat. Joules and calories are two common units of energy.

many kilocalories are absorbed?


1 kcal 1 cal 256 J 6.12 102 kcal 4.184 J 1000 cal

8. Distinguish between kinetic and potential 4. If the temperature of 34.4 g of ethanol increases
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

from 25.0C to 78.8C, how much heat has been absorbed by the ethanol?
q c m T q 2.44 J/(gC) 34.4 g 53.8C 4.52 103 J

energy in the following examples: two separated magnets; an avalanche of snow; books on library shelves; a mountain stream; a stock car race; separation of charge in a battery.
Two separated magnets illustrate potential energy. In a snow avalanche, positional potential energy is changing to kinetic energy. Books on a shelf illustrate positional potential energy. As water races down a mountain stream, positional potential energy is changing to kinetic energy. In a stock car race, chemical potential energy is being changed to kinetic energy. The separation of charge in a battery illustrates electrical potential energy.

5. A 4.50-g nugget of pure gold absorbed 276 J of

heat. What was the final temperature of the gold if the initial temperature was 25.0C? The specific heat of gold is 0.129 J/(gC).
q c m T 276 J 0.129 J/(gC) 4.50 g T T 475C T Tf Ti Because the gold gains heat, let T 475C 475C Tf 25.0C Tf 5.00 102C

9. What is the relationship between a calorie and a

joule?
4.184 joules one calorie

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10. Thinking Critically One lawn chair is made of

Section 16.2 Assessment


page 500

aluminum and another is made of iron. Both chairs are painted the same color. On a sunny day, which chair will be hottest to sit in? Explain why.
If the chairs are the same mass and absorb the same amount of heat, the iron chair will likely be hotter. Comparing the metals specific heats, for the same mass and the same increase in temperature, aluminum would require twice as much heat as iron.

14. Describe how you would calculate the amount

of heat absorbed or released by a substance when its temperature changes.


The heat absorbed or released equals the specific heat of the substance times its mass times its change in temperature.

15. Why does H for an exothermic reaction have a

negative value?
Hrxn Hproducts Hreactants and Hproducts < Hreactants.

11. Using Numbers What is the specific heat of an

unknown substance if a 2.50-g sample releases 12.0 cal as its temperature changes from 25.0C to 20.0C?
q c m T; solve for c, specific heat. q c m T 4.184 J 12.0 cal c 4.02 J/(gC) 2.50 g 5.0C 1 cal

16. Why is a measured volume of water an essential

part of a calorimeter?
The water absorbs the energy released. The heat released equals the mass of water times the change in temperature times the specific heat.

17. Explain the meaning of Hrxn. Why is Hrxn

sometimes positive and sometimes negative?

pages 496500

is negative.

Practice Problems
page 498

18. Thinking Critically Could another liquid be

12. If 335 g water at 65.5C loses 9750 J of heat,

used just as effectively as water in a calorimeter? Why or why not?


Yes, if its specific heat is known. However, most liquids have lower specific heats than water. Other liquids may be more volatile and/or more reactive.

what is the final temperature of the water?


q c m T 9750 J 4.184 J/(gC) 335 g T T 6.96C Because the water lost heat, let T 6.96C T 6.96C Tf 65.5C Tf 58.5C

19. Designing an Experiment Explain how you

would design an experiment to determine the specific heat of a 45-g piece of metal.
Put a known mass of water into a calorimeter and measure its temperature. Heat a 45-g metal sample to 100C in boiling water. Put the heated metal sample into the water in the calorimeter and wait until the temperature of the water is constant. Measure the final temperature of the water. Assume no heat is lost to the surroundings. Calculate the specific heat of the metal by equating the quantity of heat gained by the water to the quantity of heat lost by the metal. Solutions Manual

13. The temperature of a sample of water increases

from 20.0C to 46.6C as it absorbs 5650 J of heat. What is the mass of the sample?
q c m T 5650 J 4.184 J/(gC) m 26.6C m 50.8 g

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 16

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 16.2 Heat in Chemical Reactions and Processes

Hrxn Hproducts Hreactants. If Hproducts > Hreactants, Hrxn is positive. If Hproducts < Hreactants, Hrxn

CHAPTER

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Section 16.3 Thermochemical Equations


pages 501505

Section 16.3 Assessment


page 505

23. List the information contained in a

thermochemical equation.

Problem-Solving Lab
page 503 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 Water Heating Curve

A thermochemical equation is a balanced chemical equation that includes the enthalpy change and the physical states of the reactants and products.

24. Which of the following processes are

exothermic? Endothermic? a. C2H5OH(l) 0 C2H5OH(g) b. NH3(g) 0 NH3(l) c. Br2(l) 0 Br2(s) d. NaCl(s) 0 NaCl(l) e. C5H12(g) 8O2(g) 0 5CO2(g) 6H2O(l)
Reactions b, c, and e are exothermic. Reactions a and d are endothermic. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Time (min)

Temperature (C)

25. Explain how you could calculate the heat

released in freezing 0.250 mol water.


multiply 0.250 mol times the molar heat of fusion of water, 6.01 kJ/mol

Practice Problems
page 504

20. Calculate the heat required to melt 25.7 g of

solid methanol at its melting point.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

26. Thinking Critically The freezing of water at

1 mol CH3OH 3.22 kJ 25.7 g CH3OH 1 mol CH3OH 32.04 g CH3OH 2.58 kJ

0.0C is an exothermic process. Explain how the positions and thus, the chemical potential energy of the water molecules change as water goes from a liquid to a solid. Does the kinetic energy of the water molecules change?
Because energy is released, the total potential energy of the water molecules must decrease. The formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules causes the process to be exothermic even though the molecules are farther apart in the solid than in the liquid phase. The kinetic energy of the water molecules does not change.

21. How much heat is evolved when 275 g of

ammonia gas condenses to a liquid at its boiling point?


1 mol NH3 23.3 kJ 275 g NH3 376 kJ 1 mol NH3 17.03 g NH3

22. What mass of methane must be burned in order

to liberate 12 880 kJ of heat?


1 mol CH4 891 kJ 12 880 kJ m 1 mol CH4 16.04 g CH4 1 mol CH4 16.04 g CH4 m 12 880 kJ 891 kJ 1 mol CH4 m 232 g CH4

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27. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations The

29. Use reactions a and b to determine H for the

reaction A 0 C is shown in the enthalpy diagram. Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic? Explain your answer.
A

following reaction. 4Al(s) 3MnO2(s) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3Mn(s) H ? a. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) H 3352 kJ
b. Mn(s) O2(g) 0 MnO2(s)

Enthalpy

H 521 kJ

Add the first equation to the second equation reversed and tripled. C 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3MnO2(s) 0 3Mn(s) 3O2(g) H 3352 kJ H 1563 kJ

The reaction is exothermic because the product (C) has a lower energy than the reactant (A).

4Al(s) 3MnO2(s) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3Mn(s) H 1789 kJ

Section 16.4 Calculating Enthalpy Change


pages 506512

30. Show how the sum of enthalpy of formation

Practice Problems
page 508, 512

equations produces each of the following reactions. You need not look up and include H values. a. 2NO(g) O2(g) 0 2NO2(g)
One mole of O2(g) in the first equation cancels the O2(g) in the second equation.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

28. Use reactions a and b to determine H for the

following reaction. 2CO(g) 2NO(g) 0 2CO2(g) N2(g) H ? a. 2CO(g) O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) H 566.0 kJ
b. N2(g) O2(g) 0 2NO(g)

1 2[ N (g) O2(g) 0 NO2(g)] 2 2

2[NO(g) 0

1 2

O2(g) 1 N (g)] 2 2

2NO(g) O2(g) 0 2NO2(g)

b. SO3(g) H2O(l) 0 H2SO4(l)


H2(g) S(s) 2O2(g) 0 H2SO4(l) SO3(g) 0 S(s)
3 2

H 180.6 kJ

O2(g) O2(g)

Add the first equation to the second equation reversed. 2CO(g) O2(g) 0 2CO2(g) 2NO(g) 0 N2(g) O2(g) H 566.0 kJ H 180.6 kJ

H2O(l) 0 H2(g)

1 2

SO3(g) H2O(l) 0 H2SO4(l)

31. Use standard enthalpies of formation from

2CO(g) 2NO(g) 0 2CO2(g) N2(g) H 746.6 kJ

Table C-13 in Appendix C to calculate H rxn for each of the following reactions. a. CaCO3(s) 0 CaO(s) CO2(g)
H (products) Hf (reactants) rxn Hf H rxn ( 635.1 kJ 393.509 kJ) (1206.9 kJ) 178.3 kJ

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b. CH4(g) 2Cl2(g) 0 CCl4(l) 2H2(g)


H rxn ( 128.2 kJ) (74.81 kJ) 53.4 kJ

35. Low energy is associated with stability.

c. N2(g) 2O2(g) 0 2NO2(g)


H rxn 2(33.18 kJ) (0 kJ) 66.36 kJ

Examine the data in Table 16-7. What conclusion can you draw about the stabilities of the compounds listed relative to the elements in their standard states?
All compounds listed, except NO2, are more stable than their constituent elements.

d. 2H2O2(l) 0 2H2O(l) O2(g)


H rxn 2(285.830 kJ) 2(187.8 kJ) 196.1 kJ

36. Thinking Critically Could the absolute

e. 4NH3(g) 7O2 (g) 0 4NO2(g) 6H2O(l)


H rxn [ 4(33.18 kJ) 6(285.830 kJ)] 4(46.11) kJ 1397.82

enthalpy or heat content of the elements at 298C and one atmosphere pressure actually be 0.0 kJ? Explain why or why not.
No, the absolute enthalpy of an element consists of many types of energy, not all of which can be calculated.

Section 16.4 Assessment


page 512

37. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations Using

32. Explain what is meant by Hesss law and how it

is used.
Hesss law enables you to calculate H for a reaction by imagining that the reaction occurs through a series of reactions with known H values. If you add two or more thermochemical equations and produce an equation for a reaction, you can add the enthalpy changes for the individual reactions to determine the enthalpy change for the final reaction.

the data below, draw a diagram similar to Figure 16-14 and use the diagram to determine the heat of vaporization of water at 298 K. Liquid water: H f 285.8 kJ/mol Gaseous water: H f 241.8 kJ/mol
0 H f (kJ/mol)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

33. What formula can be applied to determining

H rxn when using Hesss law? Explain the formula in words.


H rxn H f (products) H f (reactants) The enthalpy reaction under standard conditions (1 atm and 298 K) equals the sum of the standard enthalpies of formation of the products minus the sum of the standard enthalpies of formation of the reactants.

241.8

H2O (g) Hvap 44 kJ/mol

285.8 44.0 kJ/mol

H2O (l)

34. On the scale of standard enthalpies of forma-

tions, how are the elements in their standard states defined?


Elements in their standard states are assigned enthalpies of formation of zero.

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Section 16.5 Reaction Spontaneity


pages 513519

c. Hsystem 365 kJ, T 388 K,

Ssystem 55.2 J/K


Gsystem Hsystem TSsystem Gsystem 365 000 J (388 K)(55.2 J/K) Gsystem 365 000 J 21 400 J 386 000 J nonspontaneous reaction

Practice Problems
pages 516, 519

38. Predict the sign of Ssystem for each of the

following changes. a. ClF(g) F2(g) 0 ClF3(g)


Ssystem is negative because the systems entropy decreases. There are more gaseous reactant particles than product particles.

Section 16.5 Assessment


page 519

40. In terms of energy, explain the difference

b. NH3(g) 0 NH3(aq)
Ssystem is negative because the systems entropy decreases. Aqueous particles have less freedom to move around.

between a spontaneous and a nonspontaneous reaction.


A reaction occurs spontaneously only when the temperature, entropy change within the system, and energy exchanged between the system and surroundings cause the entropy of the universe to increase.

c. CH3OH(l) 0 CH3OH(aq)
Ssystem is positive because the systems entropy increases. Entropy increases when a solid or liquid dissolves to form a solution.

41. If a system becomes more disordered during a

process, how does the systems entropy change?


The systems entropy increases.

d. C10H8(l) 0 C10H8(s)
Ssystem is negative because the systems entropy decreases. Solid particles have less freedom to move around than liquid particles.

42. When you dissolve a teaspoonful of sugar in a


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cup of tea, does the entropy of the system increase or decrease? Define the system and explain your answer.
The systems entropy increases. The system consists of the sugar and tea. Randomness or disorder increases as sugar molecules disperse throughout the tea.

39. Given Hsystem, T, and Ssystem, determine if

each of the following processes or reactions is spontaneous or nonspontaneous. a. Hsystem 75.9 kJ, T 273 K, Ssystem 138 J/K
Gsystem Hsystem TSsystem Gsystem 75 900 J (273 K)(138 J/K) Gsystem 75 900 J 37 700 J 113 600 J spontaneous reaction

43. Thinking Critically Evaluate the following

statement and explain why it is true or false: The law of disorder means that the entropy of a system can never decrease during a spontaneous reaction or process.
The statement is false. A systems entropy may decrease during a spontaneous process if the entropy of the surroundings increases more than the entropy of the system decreases.

b. Hsystem 27.6 kJ, T 535 K,

Ssystem 55.2 J/K


Gsystem Hsystem TSsystem Gsystem 27 600 J (535 K)(55.2 J/K) Gsystem 27 600 J 29 500 J 1900 J nonspontaneous reaction

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44. Predicting Predict the sign of Ssystem for the

50. Describe a situation that illustrates potential

following reaction. Explain the basis for your prediction. 2H2(g) O2(g) 0 2H2O(g)
Ssystem is probably negative. The smaller number of gaseous product particles (two mol H2O) have fewer random arrangements and thus less entropy than the larger number of gaseous reactant particles (two mol H2 and one mol O2).

energy changing to kinetic energy. (16.1)


Student answers will vary. A typical answer is: During an avalanche, the potential energy of snow at a higher altitude is converted to kinetic energy as the snow cascades down a mountain.

51. In describing a chemical reaction, what is meant

by the system? The surroundings? (16.2)


The system is the specific part of the universe that is the reaction or process being studied. The surroundings include everything in the universe other than the system.

Chapter 16 Assessment pages 524526


Concept Mapping 45. Fill in the boxes with the following terms: calorimeter, calorie, thermochemical equation, joule.
Heat of reaction units measured with 1. 2. 3. expressed by 4.

52. Under what condition is the heat (q) evolved or

absorbed in a chemical reaction equal to a change in enthalpy (H)? (16.2)


at constant pressure

53. The enthalpy change for a reaction, H, is

negative. What does this indicate about the chemical potential energy of the system before and after the reaction? (16.2)
The systems chemical potential energy is less after the reaction than before the reaction.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. joule; 2. calorie; 3. calorimeter; 4. thermochemical equation

54. How does the enthalpy of the products compare

Mastering Concepts 46. Differentiate between potential energy and kinetic energy. (16.1)
Potential energy is energy related to composition or position, and kinetic energy is energy related to motion.

with the enthalpy of the reactants in an exothermic reaction? An endothermic reaction? (16.2)
The enthalpy of the products is lower for an exothermic reaction and higher for an endothermic reaction.

55. What is the sign of H for an exothermic reac-

tion? An endothermic reaction? (16.2)


47. How does the chemical potential energy of a

system change during an endothermic reaction? (16.1)


It increases.

H is negative for an exothermic reaction and positive for an endothermic reaction.

56. Explain why you need to know the specific heat

48. How does the nutritional Calorie compare with

the calorie? (16.1)


One nutritional Calorie equals 1000 calories.

of a substance in order to calculate how much heat is gained or lost by the substance as a result of a temperature change. (16.2)
Heat is calculated using the equation q c m T, which includes the specific heat of the substance.

49. What quantity has the units J/(gC)? (16.1)


specific heat

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57. How is the quantity of heat lost by the system

64. What does the entropy of a substance measure?

related to the quantity of heat gained by the surroundings during an exothermic process? (16.2)
They are equal.

(16.5)
The entropy of a substance is a measure of the disorder of its particles.

65. What must happen to the entropy of the

58. How is a thermochemical equation different

from a balanced chemical equation? (16.3)


A thermochemical equation includes the physical states of the reactants and products, and the enthalpy change for the reaction.

universe during a spontaneous reaction or process? (16.5)


The entropy of the universe must increase.

66. From each pair, pick the one with the greater

59. Which has the higher heat content, a mole of

liquid water or a mole of ice? (16.3)


a mole of liquid water

entropy. (16.5) a. NH3(g) and NH3(l)


NH3(g)

60. Write the correct sign of Hsystem for each of

b. NH3(g) and NH3(aq)


NH3(g )

the following changes in physical state. (16.3) a. C2H5OH(s) 0 C2H5OH(l)


Hsystem is positive.

c. CO2(s) and CO2(g)


CO2(g)

b. H2O(g) 0 H2O(l)
Hsystem is negative.

d. KBr(s) and KBr(l)


KBr(l)

c. CH3OH(l) 0 CH3OH(g)
Hsystem is positive.

67. What is meant by the free energy of a system?


Free energya combined enthalpy-entropy functionis energy available to do work.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

(16.5)

d. NH3(l) 0 NH3(s)
Hsystem is negative.

68. What is the equation that defines free energy?

61. How are the chemical elements in their standard

(16.5)
G system H system TS system

states used as references for standard enthalpies of formation? (16.4)


Every free element in its standard state is assigned a H f of exactly zero.

69. How is the free energy change for a reaction

related to its spontaneity? (16.5)


The reaction is spontaneous if G system is negative and nonspontaneous if G system is positive.

62. Write the formula that can be used to calculate

the enthalpy of a reaction from the enthalpies of formation of the reactants and products. (16.4)
H rxn H f (products) H f (reactants)

70. Explain how an exothermic reaction changes the

63. Compare and contrast enthalpy and entropy.

(16.5)
Enthalpy is a measure of a systems heat content at constant pressure. Entropy is a measure of the disorder or randomness of the particles that make up the system.

entropy of the surroundings. Does the enthalpy change for such a reaction increase or decrease Gsystem? Explain your answer. (16.5)
The heat released by an exothermic reaction increases the entropy of the surroundings. Such a reaction decreases Gsystem because Hsystem is negative in the equation G system H system TS . system Solutions Manual

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71. Explain how an endothermic reaction changes

Mastering Problems Energy (16.1) Level 1 75. A fast-food item contains 544 nutritional Calories. Convert this energy to calories and to joules.
544 Calories 544 kcal 1000 cal 544 kcal 544 000 cal 1 kcal 4.184 J 544 000 cal 2.28 106 J 1 cal

the entropy of the surroundings. How does such a reaction affect Gsystem? (16.5)
The heat absorbed by an endothermic reaction decreases the entropy of the surroundings. Such a reaction increases G system because H system is positive in the equation G H system system TS . system

72. Under what circumstance might a nonsponta-

neous reaction become spontaneous when the temperature increases? Decreases? (16.5)
Temperature increases: an endothermic reaction for which the entropy of the system increases. Temperature decreases: an exothermic reaction for which the entropy of the system decreases.

76. An endothermic process absorbs 138 kJ. How

many calories of heat are absorbed?


1 kcal 1000 cal 138 kJ 3.30 104 cal 4.184 kJ 1 kcal

73. Explain why the gaseous state of a substance

has a greater entropy than the liquid state of the same substance. (16.5)
The particles of a gas are farther apart and able to move in a more random manner than the particles of a liquid.

77. An exothermic reaction releases 325 000

calories. Convert this energy to kJ.


4.184 J 1 kJ 325 000 cal 1360 kJ 1 cal 1000 J

74. Predict the sign of Ssystem for each of these


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

chemical reactions. Explain your predictions. (16.5) a. 2SO3(g) CO2(g) 0 CS2(g) 4O2(g)
Ssystem is positive. The products are made up of more gaseous particles than the reactants.

Measuring Heat (16.2) Level 1 78. How many joules of heat are lost by 3580 kg granite as it cools from 41.2C to 12.9C?
T 12.9C 41.2C 54.1C qgranite [ 0.803 J/(gC)](3.58 106 g)(54.1C) 1.56 108 J

b. PCl5(g) 0 PCl3(g) Cl2(g)


Ssystem is positive. The products are made up of more gaseous particles than the reactants.

79. How much heat is absorbed by a 2000 kg

c. 2CO(g) O2(g) 0 2CO2(g)


Ssystem is negative. The products are made up of fewer gaseous particles than the reactants.

granite boulder as energy from the sun causes its temperature to change from 10C to 29C?
T 29C 10C 19C qgranite [ 0.803 J/(gC)](2 106 g)(19C) 3 107 J 30 000 kJ

d. C6H12O6(s) 0 2C2H5OH(l) 2CO2(g)


Ssystem is positive. The products are made up of liquid and gaseous particles; the reactant is made up of solid particles.

e. H2SO4(l) 0 H2O(l) SO3(g)


Ssystem is positive. The products are made up of liquid and gaseous particles; the reactant is made up of liquid particles.

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Level 2 80. A sample of silver with a mass of 63.3 g is heated to a temperature of 384.4 K and placed in a container of water at 290.0 K. The final temperature of the silver and water is 292.4 K. Assuming no heat loss, what mass of water was in the container? The specific heat of water is 4.184 J/(gC) and of silver, 0.24 J/(gC).
Tsilver 384.4 K 292.4 K 92.0 K 92.0C qsilver [ 0.24 J/(gC)](63.3 g)(92.0C) 1400 J Let the heat lost by silver equal the heat gained by water. T 292.4 K 290.0 K 2.4 K 2.4C 1400 J 4.184 J/(gC) m 2.4C m 140 g

Calculating Energy Change (16.3) Level 1 82. How much heat is required to vaporize 343 g of liquid ethanol at its boiling point? Hvap 38.6 kJ/mol
1 mol C2H5OH 343 g C2H5OH 46.07 g C2H5OH 38.6 kJ = 287 kJ 1 mol C2H5OH

83. How much heat is evolved when 1255 g

of water condenses to a liquid at 100C? Hcond 40.7 kJ/mol


1 mol H2O 40.7 kJ 1255 g H2O 1 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O 2830 kJ

81. A swimming pool, 20.0 m 12.5 m, is filled

84. How much heat is liberated by the combustion

with water to a depth of 3.75 m. If the initial temperature of the water is 18.4C, how much heat must be added to the water to raise its temperature to 29.0C? Assume that the density of water is 1.000 g/mL.
Change the dimensions of the pools water from meters to centimeters. 20.0 m 2.00 103 cm; 12.5 m 1.25 103 cm; 3.75 m 3.75 102 cm volume of water ( 2.00 103 cm)(1.25 103 cm)(3.75 102 cm) 9.38 108 cm3 9.38 108 mL mass of water ( 9.38 108 mL)(1.000 g/mL) 9.38 108 g q c m T T ( 29.0C 18.4C) 10.6C q [ 4.184 J/(gC)](9.38 108 g)(10.6C) 4.16 1010 J

of 206 g of hydrogen? Hcomb 286 kJ/mol


1 mol H2 286 kJ 206 g H2 29 200 kJ 1 mol H2 2.02 g H2

85. A sample of ammonia liberates 5.66 kJ of heat

as it solidifies at its melting point. What is the mass of the sample? Hsolid 5.66 kJ/mol.
1 mol NH3 17.03 g NH3 5.66 kJ 17.0 g 5.66 kJ 1 mol NH3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Level 2 86. How much heat is required to warm 225 g of ice from 46.8C to 0.0C, melt the ice, warm the water from 0.0C to 100.0C, boil the water, and heat the steam to 173.0C?
qice [ 2.03 J/(gC)](225 g)(46.8C) 21 400 J 21.4 kJ q to melt the ice at 0C equals 1 mol H2O 6.01 kJ 225 g H2O 75.0 kJ 1 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O qwater [ 4.184 J/(gC)](225 g)(100.0C) 94 100 J 94.1 kJ q to boil the water at 100.0C equals 1 mol H2O 40.7 kJ 225 g H2O 508 kJ 1 mol H2O 18.02 g H2O qsteam [ 2.01 J/(gC)](225 g)(73.0C) 3.30 104 J 33.0 kJ qtotal 21.4 kJ 75.0 kJ 94.1 kJ 508 kJ 33.0 kJ 732 kJ

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87. How much energy is involved in the dissolving

of sodium hydroxide in water? The table shows data from an experiment in which a measured amount of NaOH is dissolved in water in a foam cup calorimeter. Calculate H for the process in kJ/mol. If the enthalpy change for the solution of NaOH is 44.51 kJ/mol, what is the percent error of the experiment?
Table 16-10
Data for the Dissolving of NaOH
Mass of NaOH weighing paper Mass of weighing paper Mass of NaOH Mass of foam cup water Mass of foam cup Mass of water Final temperature of water Initial temperature of water Change in temperature, T 4.71 g 0.70 g 4.01 g 109.85 g 10.25 g 99.60 g 35.9C 25.5C 10.4C

Using Hesss Law (16.4) Level 1 88. You are given these two equations. Sn(s) Cl2(g) 0 SnCl2(s) H 325 kJ

SnCl2(s) 2Cl2(g) 0 SnCl4(l) H 186 kJ Calculate H for this reaction. Sn(s) Cl2(g) 0 SnCl4(l)
Sn(s) Cl2(g) 0 SnCl2(s) H 325 kJ SnCl2(s) Cl2(g) 0 SnCl4(l) H 186 kJ Sn(s) 2Cl2(g) SnCl2(s) 0 SnCl4(l) SnCl2(s) H 511 kJ

Level 2 89. Use standard enthalpies of formation from Table C-13 in Appendix C to calculate H rxn for each of these reactions. a. 2NaHCO3(s) 0 Na2CO3(s) CO2(g) H2O(g)
H rxn H f (products) H f (reactants) H rxn ( 1130.7 kJ 393.509 kJ 241.818 kJ) 2(950.8 kJ) 135.6 kJ

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mass of water 109.85 g 10.25 g 99.60 g H2O T 35.9C 25.5C 10.4C q c m T q [ 4.184 J/(gC)](99.60 g)(10.4C) 4330 J 1 mol NaOH 4.01 g NaOH 0.100 mol NaOH 40.00 g NaOH 4330 J 1 kJ 43.3 kJ/mol NaOH 0.100 mol NaOH 1000 J 44.51 kJ 43.3 kJ 100 2.72% error 44.51 kJ

b. H2(g) O2(g) 0 H2O2(l)


H rxn ( 187.8 kJ) (0 kJ) 187.8 kJ

c. NH3(g) HCl(g) 0 NH4Cl(s)


H rxn ( 314.4 kJ) (46.11 kJ 92.307 kJ) 176.0 kJ

d. 2H2S(g) 3O2(g) 0 2H2O(g) 2SO2(g)


H rxn [ 2(241.818 kJ) 2(296.830 kJ)] [2(20.63 kJ) 0 kJ] 1036.04 kJ

e. 4FeS(s) 7O2(g) 0 2Fe2O3(s) 4SO2(g)


H rxn [ 2(824.2 kJ) 4(296.830 kJ)] [4(100.0 kJ 0 kJ] 2435.7 kJ

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Reaction Spontaneity (16.5) Level 1 90. Calculate Gsystem for each process and state if the process is spontaneous or nonspontaneous. a. Hsystem 145 kJ, T 293 K, Ssystem 195 J/K
G system H system T S system G system 145 000 J (293K)(195 J/K) 87 800 J nonspontaneous

92. Under certain conditions, iron ore (Fe3O4) can

be converted to iron by the following reaction. Fe3O4 (s) 4H2(g) 0 3Fe(s) 4H2O(g) Hsystem 149.8 kJ Ssystem 610.0 J/K Is the reaction spontaneous at 298 K? Explain why or why not based upon how the entropy of the system, surroundings, and universe change as a result of the reaction.
G system H system TS system G system 149 800 J (298 K)(610.0 J/K) 3.20 104 J G system is negative, which means that the entropy of the universe increases and the reaction is spontaneous. The increase in the entropy of the system is greater than the decrease in the entropy of the surroundings.

b. Hsystem 232 kJ, T 273 K,

Ssystem 138 J/K


G system 232 000 J (273K)(138 J/K) 2.70 105 J spontaneous

c. Hsystem 15.9 kJ, T 373 K,

Ssystem 268 J/K


G system 15 900 J (373K)(268 J/K) 84 100 J nonspontaneous

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 93. What mass of octane (C8H18) must be burned in order to liberate 5340 kJ of heat? Hcomb 5471 kJ/mol.
114.22 g octane 1 mol octane 5340 kJ 5471 kJ 1 mol octane 1112 g octane

G system H system TS system 34 700 J 28 800 J T(22.2 J/K) T 266 K

94. How much heat is released to the surroundings

when 200 g of water at 96.0C cools to 25.0C? The specific heat of water is 4.184 J/(gC).
q [ 4.184 J/(gC)](200 g)(71.0C) 60 000 J

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Level 2 91. Calculate the temperature at which Gsystem 34.7 kJ if Hsystem 28.8 kJ and Ssystem 22.2 J/K.

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95. What is the final temperature of 1280 g of

water, originally at 20.0C, if it absorbs 47.6 kJ of heat?


47.6 kJ 47 600 J 47 600 J 4.184 J/(gC) 1280 g T T 8.89C T Tf TI 8.89C 8.89C Tf 20.0C Tf 28.9C

Thinking Critically 98. Using Numbers A 133-g piece of granite rock is heated to 65.0C, then placed in 643 g ethanol at 12.7C. Assuming no heat loss, what is the final temperature of the granite and ethanol? See Table 16-2.
qgranite [ 0.803 J/(gC)](133 g)(65.0C Tf) qethanol [ 2.45 J/(gC)](643 g)(Tf 12.7C) The heat granite loses equals the heat ethanol gains. [0.803 J/(gC)](133 g)(65.0C Tf) 2.45 J/(gC)(643 g)(Tf 12.7C) 6942 J Tf (107 J/(C)) Tf (1580 J/(C)) 20007 J 26 949 J Tf (1687 J/(C)) 26949 J 16.0C Tf 1687 J(C)1

96. Is the following reaction spontaneous at 456 K?

If not, is it spontaneous at some other temperature? Explain your answer. N2(g) 2O2(g) 0 2NO2(g) Hsystem 68 kJ Ssystem 122 J/K
G system H system TS system G system 68 000 J (456K)(122 J/K) 124 000 J G system is positive, which means that the entropy of the universe would decrease if the reaction occurred. Therefore, the reaction is nonspontaneous. Because the entropy of both the system and the surroundings decreases, the reaction is not spontaneous at any temperature.

99. Applying Concepts Write the thermochemical

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

equation for the decomposition of liquid hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water vapor and oxygen gas. Calculate Hsystem for the reaction using standard enthalpies of formation. Analyze the reaction and explain why NASA found this reaction suitable for providing thrust in the control jets of some space vehicles.
2H2O2(l) 0 2H2O(g) O2(g) H rxn H f (products) H f (reactants) H rxn 2(241.818 kJ) 2(187.8 kJ) 108.0 kJ The reaction produces gases that provide thrust as they exit the control jets. The heat produced by the reaction causes the gases to expand and leave the control jets at higher velocities, increasing the thrust.

97. Use Hesss law to determine H for the reaction

NO(g) O(g) 0 NO2(g)

H ?

given the following reactions. Show your work. O2(g) 0 2O(g) 2O3(g) 0 3O2(g) H 495 kJ H 427 kJ

NO(g) O3(g) 0 NO2(g) O2(g) H 199 kJ


O(g) 0
1 O2(g) 2

H 248 kJ H 214 kJ

3/2O2(g) 0 O3(g) NO(g) O3(g) 0 NO2(g) O2(g) NO(g) O(g) 0 NO2(g)

H 199 kJ H 233 kJ

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100. Recognizing Cause and Effect Explain why

the equation Gsystem Hsystem TSsystem is especially valuable in recognizing how reactions and processes affect the entropy of the universe.
For reactions or processes that take place at constant pressure and temperature, Gsystem is related to Suniverse in the following way: If Gsystem is negative, the entropy of the universe increases (Suniverse is positive) and the reaction or process is spontaneous. If Gsystem is positive, the entropy of the universe decreases (Suniverse is negative) and the reaction or process is nonspontaneous.

Hydrogen burns cleanly. The only combustion product is water. Drawbacks Hydrogen is expensive to produce because of the high energy requirement of hydrogensynthesis reactions. Storage and transportation present problems because H2 molecules decompose into H atoms on metal surfaces. And H atoms can migrate into metals causing structural changes that make the metals brittle. Because of its low density, hydrogen gas provides a relatively small amount of energy per unit volumeabout one-third the amount of natural gas.

Writing in Chemistry 101. Research and explain how hydrogen might be produced, transported, and used as a fuel for automobiles. Summarize the benefits and drawbacks of using hydrogen as an alternative fuel for internal combustion engines.
Student answers will likely include some or all of the following: Production By the reaction between methane and steam, CH4(g) H2O(g) 0 3H2(g) CO(g) H 206 kJ By the electrolysis or thermal decomposition of water, H2O(l) 0 H2(g) O2(g) H 286 kJ

102. Research the use of wind as a source of elec-

trical power. Explain the possible benefits, disadvantages, and limitations of its use.
Students can find information on this topic from many sources, such as the DOE Wind Energy Program and the American Wind Energy Association. A few possible benefits, disadvantages, and limitations of the use of wind as a source of electrical power are listed below. Benefits Wind energy is a clean and renewable source of electrical power. Todays state-of-the-art wind power plants can generate electricity at costs as low as 4 cents/kWh, a price competitive with many conventional energy technologies. Wind energy can provide long-term income to ranchers and farmers who own the land on which windfarms are built. Disadvantages Because they have generally light winds, many areas with high power demands are not good candidates for wind power generation. In general, wind energy is not easily stored for later use.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

By the thermochemical decomposition of water by various methods As a by-product of gasoline production, in which hydrocarbons with high molar masses are broken down into smaller molecules more suitable for use as motor fuels. Benefits A virtually inexhaustible supply of hydrogen exists in the waters of Earths oceans. The enthalpy of combustion per gram of hydrogen is approximately 2.5 times that of natural gas. The internal combustion engines that power automobiles can be easily adapted to burn hydrogen rather than gasoline.

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Limitations In general, small grid-connected wind machines require winds exceeding 5 m/s (11 mph) for cost-effective power generation. And windfarms require wind speeds of at least 6 m/s (13 mph). In most locations, wind speedand therefore generating capacityis inherently intermittent.

107. Determine the molar mass for the following

compounds. (Chapter 11) a. Co(NO3)26H2O


molar mass ( 58.93 g/mol) 2(14.01 g/mol) 12(16.00 g/mol) 12(1.01 g/mol) 291.07 g/mol

b. Fe(OH)3
molar mass 55.85 g/mol 3(16.00 g/mol) 3(1.01 g/mol) 106.88 g/mol

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 103. Why is it necessary to perform repeated experiments in order to support a hypothesis? (Chapter 1)
Experiments must be repeated to be sure that they yield similar results each time.

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 16


page 527

104. Phosphorus has the atomic number 15 and an

atomic mass of 31 amu. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons are in a neutral phosphorus atom? (Chapter 4)
number of protons 15; number of electrons 15; number of neutrons mass number number of protons 16

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. The specific heat of ethanol is 2.44 J/gC. How many kilojoules of energy are required to heat 50.0 g of ethanol from 20.0C to 68.0C? a. 10.7 kJ b. 8.30 kJ c. 2.44 kJ d. 1.22 kJ
q c m T; T 68.0C (20.0C) 88.0C 1 kJ q 2.44 J/(gC) 50.0 g 88.0C 1000 J 10.7 kJ a

105. What element has the electron configuration

[Ar]4s13d5? (Chapter 5)
chromium

106. Name the following molecular compounds.

(Chapter 8) a. S2Cl2
disulfur dichloride

2. When a reaction takes place at constant pres-

b. CS2
carbon disulfide

sure, q for the reaction equals _____ . a. Srxn b. Hrxn c. Grxn d. crxn
b

c. SO3
sulfur trioxide

d. P4O10
tetraphosphorus decoxide

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3. Determine H for the reaction of aluminum and

sulfur dioxide. 4Al(s) 3SO2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3S(s) Use the following equations: 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) H 3352 kJ S(s) O2(s) 0 SO2(g) H 297 kJ a. 4243 kJ b. 3649 kJ c. 3055 kJ d. 2461 kJ
Use the first equation as is. Reverse the second equation and multiply the equation and its H by 3. Change the sign of H. 4Al(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3SO2(g) 0 3O2(g) 3S(s) H 3352 kJ H 891 kJ

Interpreting Graphs Use the graph to answer questions 46.


G for the Vaporization of Cyclohexane as a Function of Temperature
7.00 6.00 G (kJ/mol) 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0 290 300 310 320 330 Temperature (K) 340 350

4. In the range of temperatures shown, the

4Al(s) 3SO2(g) 0 2Al2O3(s) 3S(s) H 2461 kJ d

vaporization of cyclohexane _____ . a. does not occur at all b. will occur spontaneously c. is not spontaneous d. occurs only at high temperatures
The vaporization of cyclohexane is not spontaneous for the temperatures shown because G is positive. c
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. The standard free energy, enthalpy, and entropy

of vaporization are often written with the subscript vap to indicate that they are associated with a vaporization reaction. What is the G vap of cyclohexane at 300 K? a. 5.00 kJ/mol c. 3.00 kJ/mol b. 4.00 kJ/mol d. 2.00 kJ/mol
At 300 K, G vap 5.00 kJ/mol a

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6. When G vap is plotted as a function of temper-

ature, the slope of the line equals S vap and the y-intercept of the line equals H . The stanvap dard entropy of vaporization of cyclohexane is approximately _____ . a. 50.0 J/molK b. 10.0 J/molK c. 5.0 J/molK d. 100 J/molK
y 1.00 kJ/mol Slope S vap 10 K x 0.10 kJ/molK 1000 kJ 0.10 kJ/molK 100 J/molK 1J d

8. AB(s) C2(l) 0 AC(g) BC(g)

All of the following can be predicted about this reaction EXCEPT _____ . a. the entropy of the system decreases b. the entropy of the products is higher than that of the reactants c. the change in entropy for this reaction, Srxn, is positive d. the disorder of the system increases
The reactants are a solid and a liquid. The products are gases, so answer a is an incorrect prediction. a

9. Co(s) S(s) 2O2(g) 0 CoSO4(s)

7. 3.00 g of aluminum foil is placed in an oven

and heated from 20.0C to 662.0C. If it absorbs 1728 J of heat, what is the specific heat of aluminum? a. 0.131 J/gC b. 0.870 J/gC c. 0.897 J/gC d. 2.61 J/gC
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

H f 888.3 kJ/mol, S f 118.0 J/molK Given the above thermochemical data for the formation of cobalt(II) sulfate from its elements, what is G f for CoSO4 at 25C? a. 853.1 kJ/mol b. 885.4 kJ/mol c. 891.3 kJ/mol d. 923.5 kJ/mol
G f H f TS f; T 273 25 298 K

Use the equation q c m T. Solve for c. q c ; T 662.0C 20.0C 642.0C m T Substitute known values. 1728 J c 0.897 J/(gC) (3.00 g)(642.0C) c

G f 888.3 kJ/mol 1 kJ (298 K)(118.0 J/molK) 1000 J G f 923.5 kJ/mol d

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Reaction Rates
Section 17.1 A Model for Reaction Rates
pages 529535

3. Calculate the average reaction rate expressed in

moles HCl produced per liter per second.


Average reaction rate [HCl] at time t2 [HCl] at time t1 [HCL] t2 t1 t 0.020M 0.000M Average reaction rate 4.00 s 0.00 s 0.020M 0.0050 mol/(Ls) 4.00 s

Practice Problems
page 531

Use the data in the following table to calculate the average reaction rates.
Experimental Data for H2 Cl2 0 2HCl
Time (s) 0.00 4.00 [H2] (M) 0.030 0.020 [Cl2] (M) 0.050 0.040 [HCl] (M) 0.000 0.020

Section 17.1 Assessment


page 535

4. What does the reaction rate indicate about a

1. Calculate the average reaction rate expressed in

particular chemical reaction?


The reaction rate tells how fast or slowly the reaction occurs.

moles H2 consumed per liter per second.


H2 is consumed. Average reaction rate should be positive. Average reaction rate
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5. How is the rate of a chemical reaction usually

expressed?
The rate of a chemical reaction is usually expressed as change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time.

[H2] [H2] at time t2 [H2] at time t1 t t2 t1 0.020M 0.030M Average reaction rate 4.00 s 0.00 s 0.010M 0.0025 mol/(Ls) 4.00 s

6. What is the collision theory, and how does it

relate to reaction rates?


The collision theory states that atoms, ions, and molecules must collide in order to react. The theory explains why reactions occur and how reaction rates can be modified.

2. Calculate the average reaction rate expressed in

moles Cl2 consumed per liter per second.


Cl2 is consumed. Average reaction rate should be positive. Average reaction rate [Cl2] [Cl2] at time t2 [Cl2] at time t1 t t2 t1 0.040M 0.050M Average reaction rate 4.00 s 0.00 s 0.010M 0.0025 mol/(Ls) 4.00 s

7. According to the collision theory, what must

happen in order for two molecules to react?


The molecules must collide, collide with the correct orientation, and collide with sufficient energy to form the activated complex.

8. How is the speed of a chemical reaction related

to the spontaneity of the reaction?


The speed of a chemical reaction is unrelated to the spontaneity of the reaction.

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9. Thinking Critically How would the rate of the

15. Using the Internet Conduct Internet research

reaction 2H2(g) O2(g) 0 2H2O(g) stated as the consumption of hydrogen compare with the rate stated as the consumption of oxygen?
The rate stated as the consumption of hydrogen would be twice the rate stated as the consumption of oxygen.

on how catalysts are used in industry, in agriculture, or in the treatment of contaminated soil, waste, or water. Write a short report summarizing your findings about one use of catalysts.
Student answers will vary, but they should describe the process and the catalyst chemistry.

10. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations Based

on your analysis of Figures 17-4 and 17-5, how does Ea for the reaction CO NO2 9 CO2 NO (the reverse reaction) compare with that of the reaction CO NO2 0 CO2 NO (the forward reaction)?
Ea for the reverse reaction is greater than Ea for the forward reaction.

Section 17.3 Reaction Rate Laws


pages 542545

Practice Problems
page 545

16. Write the rate law for the reaction aA 0 bB if

the reaction is third order in A. [B] is not part of the rate law.
Rate k[A]3

Section 17.2 Factors Affecting Reaction Rates


pages 536541

17. Given the following experimental data, use the

Section 17.2 Assessment


page 541

method of initial rates to determine the rate law for the reaction aA bB 0 products. Hint: Any number to the zero power equals one. For example, (0.22)0 1 and (55.6)0 1.
Trial 1 2 Initial [A] (M) 0.100 0.200 0.200 Initial [B] (M) 0.100 0.100 0.200 Initial Rate (mol/(Ls)) 2.00 103 2.00 103 4.00 103
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

11. How do temperature, concentration, and surface

area affect the rate of a chemical reaction?


The rate of a chemical reaction increases with increasing temperature, increasing concentration, and increasing surface area.

Practice Problem 17 Experimental Data

12. How does the collision model explain the effect

of concentration on the reaction rate?


Increasing reactant concentration increases collision frequency between reactant particles.

13. How does the activation energy of an uncat-

alyzed reaction compare with that of the catalyzed reaction?


The uncatalyzed reaction has the greater activation energy.

Examining trials 1 and 2, doubling [A] has no effect on the rate; therefore, the reaction is zero order in A. Examining trials 2 and 3, doubling [B] doubles the rate; therefore, the reaction is first order in B. Rate k[A]0[B] k[B]

14. Thinking Critically For a reaction of A and B

that proceeds at a specific rate, x mol/(Ls), what is the effect of decreasing the amount of one of the reactants?

Decreasing the amount of one or more reactants will decrease the reaction rate.

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18. Given the following experimental data, use the

23. Designing an Experiment Explain how you

method of initial rates to determine the rate law for the reaction CH3CHO(g) 0 CH4(g) CO(g).
Practice Problem 18 Experimental Data
Trial 1 2 3 Initial [CH3CHO] (M) 2.00 103 4.00 103 8.00 103 Initial Rate (mol/(Ls)) 2.70 1011 10.8 1011 43.2 1011

would design an experiment to determine the rate law for the general reaction aA bB 0 products using the method of initial rates.
Determine the order of reactant A by measuring the reaction rate for several trials in which [A] is varied while [B] remains constant. Determine the order of reactant B by measuring the reaction rate for several trials in which [B] is varied while [A] remains constant.

Examining trials 1 and 2, doubling [CH3CHO] increases the rate by a factor of four. Examining trials 2 and 3, doubling [CH3CHO] again increases the rate by a factor of four. Therefore, the reaction is second order in CH3CHO. Rate k[CH3CHO]2

Section 17.4 Instantaneous Reaction Rates and Reaction Mechanisms


pages 546549

Practice Problems
page 547

Section 17.3 Assessment


page 545

19. What does the rate law for a chemical reaction

tell you about the reaction?


The rate law expresses the mathematical relationship between the reactions rate and the concentrations of reactants.

Use the rate law in Example Problem 17-2 and the concentrations given in each practice problem to calculate the instantaneous rate for the reaction between NO and H2. 24. [NO] 0.00500M and [H2] 0.00200M
[NO] 0.00500M [H2] 0.00200M k 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s) Rate k [NO]2[H2] [ 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s)](0.00500M)2(0.00200M) [ 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s)](0.00500 mol/k)2 (0.00200 mol/L) 1.45 105 mol/(Ls)

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

20. Use the rate law equations to show the differ-

ence between a first-order reaction having a single reactant and a second-order reaction having a single reactant.
First-order reaction: Rate k[A] Second-order reaction: Rate k[A]2.

21. What relationship is expressed by the specific

rate constant for a chemical reaction?


The specific rate constant, k, relates reaction rate and concentration at a specific temperature.

25. [NO] 0.0100M and [H2] 0.00125M


[NO] 0.0100M [H2] 0.00125M k 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s) Rate k [NO]2[H2] [ 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s)] (0.0100M)2(0.00125M) [ 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s)] (0.0100 mol/L)2 (0.00125 mol/L) 3.63 105 mol/(Ls) Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 17

22. Thinking Critically When giving the rate of a

chemical reaction, explain why it is significant to know that the reaction rate is an average reaction rate.
The rate of a reaction decreases over time as reactant concentrations decrease. Therefore, the rate is an average over time rather than the rate at a given instant.

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26. [NO] 0.00446M and [H2] 0.00282M


[NO] 0.00446M [H2] 0.00282M k 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s) Rate k [NO]2[H2] [ 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s)](0.00446M)2(0.00282M) [ 2.90 102 L2/(mol2s)] (0.00446 mol/L)2(0.00282mol/L) Rate 1.63 105 mol/(Ls)

Chapter 17 Assessment pages 554556


Concept Mapping 32. Complete the following concept map using the following terms: surface area, collision theory, temperature, reaction rates, concentration, reactivity, catalyst.
1. explained by 2. influenced by 7. 3. 6. 4. 5.

Section 17.4 Assessment


page 549

27. How can the rate law for a chemical reaction

be used to determine an instantaneous reaction rate?


Insert actual experimental rate constant and reactant concentrations into the rate law, then calculate.

1. reaction rates; 2. collision theory; 37. surface area, temperature, concentration, reactivity, catalyst

28. Compare and contrast an elementary chemical

reaction with a complex chemical reaction.


An elementary reaction occurs in a single step. A complex reaction consists of two or more elementary steps.

29. What is a reaction mechanism? An intermediate?


A reaction mechanism is the complete sequence of elementary steps that make up a complex reaction. An intermediate is a substance produced in one elementary step and consumed in a subsequent step.

Although this information tells you the reaction is spontaneous under the specified conditions, it tells you nothing about the reaction rate.

34. How would you express the rate of the chemical

30. Thinking Critically How can you determine

reaction A 0 B based on the concentration of reactant A? How would that rate compare with the reaction rate based on the product B? (17.1)
The rate may be expressed as the decrease in [A] [A] per unit time: Rate . t Numerically, the two rates would be equal; [A] however, would be negative t and
[B] t

whether a product of one of the elementary steps in a complex reaction is an intermediate?


The product is consumed in a subsequent elementary step.

31. Communicating How would you explain the

would be positive.

significance of the rate-determining step in a chemical reaction?


Answers will vary but may include a description of how the rate-determining step limits the reaction rate, an analogy such as the weakest link, and/or a real-world example.

35. What does the activation energy for a chemical

reaction represent? (17.1)


Activation energy represents the minimum amount of energy that reacting particles must have to form the activated complex.

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Mastering Concepts 33. For a specific chemical reaction, assume that the change in free energy (G) is negative. What does this information tell you about the rate of the reaction? (17.1)

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36. What is the role of the activated complex in a

43. What do you call a substance that increases the

chemical reaction? (17.1)


The activated complex is a transition state between reactants and products.

rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction? (17.2)


a catalyst

37. Suppose two molecules that can react collide.

44. In general, what is the relationship between

Under what circumstances do the colliding molecules not react? (17.1)


The molecules do not react if they collide with insufficient energy or lack favorable orientations at the instant of impact.

reaction rate and reactant concentration? (17.2)


Increasing the concentration increases the rate, and decreasing the concentration decreases the rate.

45. In general, what is the relationship between 38. How is the activation energy for a chemical

reaction rate and temperature? (17.2)


Increasing the temperature increases the rate, and decreasing the temperature decreases the rate.

reaction related to whether or not a collision between molecules initiates a reaction? (17.1)
The activation energy defines the minimum energy particles must have in order for collisions to result in the formation of the activated complex.

46. Distinguish between a homogeneous catalyst

and a heterogeneous catalyst. (17.2)


A homogeneous catalyst exists in the same physical state as the reaction it catalyzes; a heterogeneous catalyst exists in a different physical state from the reaction it catalyzes.

39. In the activated complex for a chemical reac-

tion, what bonds are broken and what bonds are formed? (17.1)
Reactant bonds are being broken and product bonds are being formed.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

47. Explain how a catalyst affects the activation

energy for a chemical reaction. (17.2)


A catalyst lowers the activation energy.

40. If A 0 B is exothermic, how does the activation

energy for the forward reaction compare with the activation energy for the reverse reaction (A 9 B)? (17.1)
The activation energy for the forward reaction is less than the activation energy for the reverse reaction.

48. Use the collision theory to explain why

increasing the concentration of a reactant usually increases the reaction rate. (17.2)
Increasing the concentration of a reactant increases the frequency of collisions between reacting particles.

41. What role does the reactivity of the reactants

49. Use the collision theory to explain why

play in determining the rate of a chemical reaction? (17.2)


Generally, the greater the reactivity of the reactants, the faster the reaction.

increasing the temperature usually increases the reaction rate. (17.2)


Increasing the temperature increases collision frequency and collision energy.

42. Explain why a crushed solid reacts with a gas

50. In a chemical reaction, what relationship does

more quickly than a large chunk of the same solid. (17.2)


The finely divided solid presents a larger surface area than the large chunk.

the rate law describe? (17.3)


The rate law defines the mathematical relationship between the reaction rate and the concentration of the reactants.

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51. What is the name of the proportionality constant

59. Distinguish between an elementary step, a

in the mathematical expression that relates reaction rate and reactant concentration? (17.3)
The specific rate constant

complex reaction, and a reaction mechanism. (17.4)


A simple reaction occurs in a single step; a complex reaction is made up of two or more elementary steps; a reaction mechanism consists of the complete sequence of elementary steps that make up a complex reaction.

52. What does the order of a reactant tell you about

the way the concentration of that reactant appears in the rate law? (17.3)
The reactants order defines the exponent to which the reactants concentration is raised in the rate law.

60. Under what circumstances is the rate law for the

reaction 2A 3B 0 products correctly written as Rate k[A]2[B]3? (17.3)


The rate law is correct if the reaction occurs in a single step. The rate law is possible, but unlikely, if the reaction occurs in multiple steps.

53. Why does the specific rate constant for a chem-

ical reaction often double for each increase of 10 K? (17.3)


For many reactions, an increase of 10 K approximately doubles the number of collisions having sufficient energy to initiate reaction.

61. How does the activation energy of the rate-

54. Explain why the rates of most chemical reac-

determining step in a complex reaction compare with the activation energies of the other elementary steps? (17.4)
The rate-determining step has the highest activation energy.

tions decrease over time. (17.3)


As reactants are consumed, their concentrations decrease over time.

55. In the method of initial rates used to determine

Mastering Problems
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

the rate law for a chemical reaction, what is the significance of the word initial? (17.3)
The initial rate is the instantaneous rate at the stated concentrations; however, the rate begins to decrease the instant the reaction starts.

56. If a reaction has three reactants and is first order

A Model for Reaction Rates (17.1) Level 1 62. In the gas-phase reaction I2 Cl2 0 2ICl, the [I2] changes from 0.400M at time 0 to 0.300M at time 4.00 min. Calculate the average reaction rate in moles I2 consumed per liter per minute.
[I2] is consumed. Average reaction rate must be positive. average reaction rate [I2] [I2] at time t2 [I2] at time t1 t t2 t1 [I2] 0.300M 0.400M 0.100M t 4.00 min 4.00 min 0.00 min 0.0250 mol/(Lmin) The average reaction rate is 0.0250 mole I2 consumed per liter per minute.

in one, second order in another, and third order in the third, what is the overall order of the reaction? (17.3)
sixth order

57. What do you call the slowest of the elementary

steps that make up a complex reaction? (17.4)


the rate-determining step or rate-limiting step

58. What is an intermediate in a complex reaction?

(17.4)
An intermediate is a substance produced in one elementary step and consumed in a subsequent elementary step.

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63. If a chemical reaction occurs at a rate of 2.25

65. Given the following data for the decomposition

moles per liter per second at 322 K, what is the rate expressed in moles per liter per minute?
60 sec rate 2.25 102 mol/(Ls) 1 min 1.35 mol/(Lmin)

102

of hydrogen peroxide, calculate the average reaction rate in moles H2O2 consumed per liter per minute for each time interval.
Decomposition of H2O2
Time (min) 0 2 5 10 20 [H2O2] (M) 2.50 2.12 1.82 1.48 1.00

Level 2 64. On the accompanying energy level diagram, match the appropriate number with the quantity it represents. 3

[H2O2] First interval: t

Energy

1 2

2.12 mol/L 2.50 mol/L 0.2 mol/(Lmin) 2 min 0 min [H2O2] Second interval: t 1.82 mol/L 2.12 mol/L 0.1 mol/(Lmin) 5 min 2 min

Reaction progress

a. reactants
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

[H2O2] Third interval: t 1.48 mol/L 1.82 mol/L 0.07 mol/(Lmin) 10 min 5 min [H2O2] Fourth interval: t 1.00 mol/L 1.48 mol/L 0.05 mol/(Lmin) 20 min 10 min

b. activated complex
3

c. products
4

66. At a given temperature and for a specific time d. activation energy


1

interval, the average rate of the following reaction is 1.88 104 moles N2 consumed per liter per second. N2 3H2 0 2NH3 Express the reaction rate in moles H2 consumed per liter per second and in moles NH3 produced per liter per second.
3 mol H2 1.88 104 mol N2/(Ls) 1 mol N2

5.64 104 mol H2/(Ls)

2 mol NH3 1.88 104 mol N2/(Ls) 1 mol N2 3.76 104 mol NH3/(Ls) Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 17

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Factors Affecting Reaction Rates (17.2) Level 1 67. Estimate the rate of the reaction described in problem 63 at 332 K. Express the rate in moles per liter per second.
The temperature has increased by 10 K, which should cause the reaction rate to increase by about a factor of two. Therefore, approximate rate at 332 K [ 2.25 102 mol/(Ls)] 2 4.50 102 mol/(Ls).

Level 2 70. Use the following data to determine the rate law and specific rate constant for the reaction 2ClO2(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 ClO3(aq) ClO2(aq) H2O(l).
2Cl02(aq) 2OH (aq) Reaction Data
Initial [ClO2] (M) 0.0500 0.100 0.100 Initial [OH] (M) 0.200 0.200 0.100 Initial Rate (mol/(Lmin)) 6.90 27.6 13.8

Level 2 68. Estimate the rate of the reaction described in problem 63 at 352 K and with [I2] doubled (assume the reaction is first order in I2).
The temperature has increased by 30 K, which should cause the reaction rate to increase by about a factor of 23, and the [I2] has doubled, which should increase the rate by a factor of 2. Therefore, approximate rate at 352 K [ 2.25 102 mol/(Ls)] 23 2 0.360 mol/(Ls).

Examining the first two trials, doubling [ClO2] increases the rate by a factor of four; therefore, the reaction is second order in ClO2. Examining the second and third trials, halving [OH] halves the rate; therefore, the reaction is first order in OH. Rate k[CIO2]2[OH] Rate k 1.38 104 L2/(mol2min) [ClO2]2[OH]

2NO Cl2 Reaction Data


Initial [NO] (M) 0.50 1.00 1.00 Initial [Cl2] (M) 0.50 0.50 1.00 Initial Rate (mol/(Lmin)) 1.90 102 7.60 102 15.20 102

HBr NO2 0 HOBr NO H 4.2 kJ (slow) HBr HOBr 0 H2O Br2 H 86.2 kJ (fast) Draw the energy diagram that depicts this reaction mechanism. On the diagram, show the energy of the reactants, energy of the products, and relative activation energies of the two elementary steps.
HOBr + NO + HBr

Energy

Examining the first two trials, doubling [NO] increases the rate by a factor of four; therefore, the reaction is second order in NO. Examining the second and third trials, doubling [Cl2] doubles the rate; therefore, the reaction is first order in Cl2. Rate k[NO]2[Cl2] Rate k 0.152 L2/(mol2min) [NO]2[Cl2]

2HBr + NO2 NO + H2O + Br2

Reaction Progress

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Reaction Rate Laws (17.3) Level 1 69. Nitrogen monoxide gas and chlorine gas react according to the equation 2NO Cl2 0 2NOCl. Use the following data to determine the rate law for the reaction by the method of initial rates. Also, calculate the value of the specific rate constant.

Instantaneous Reaction Rates and Reaction Mechanisms (17.4) Level 1 71. The gas-phase reaction 2HBr NO2 0 H2O NO Br2 is thought to occur by the following mechanism.

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Level 2 72. Are there any intermediates in the complex reaction described in problem 71? Explain why or why not. If any intermediates exist, what are their formulas?
Yes. HOBr is an intermediate because it is formed in the first reaction and consumed in the second reaction. The NO formed in the first reaction is a final product; therefore, HOBr is the only intermediate.

75. The concentration of reactant A decreases from

0.400 mol/L at time 0 to 0.384 mol/L at time 4.00 min. Calculate the average reaction rate during this time period. Express the rate in mol/(Lmin).
Reactant A is consumed. The average reaction rate must be positive. 0.384 mol/L 0.400 mol/L average rate 4.00 min 0.00 min ( 0.016 mol/L)/4.00 min 0.00400 mol/(L min)

73. Given the rate law Rate

for the generic reaction A B 0 products, the value for the specific rate constant (4.75 107 L2/(mol2s)), the concentration of A (0.355M), and the concentration of B (0.0122M), calculate the instantaneous reaction rate.
Rate k[A][B]2 4.75 107 L2/(mol2s)(0.355)(0.0122)2 2.51 1011

k[A][B]2

76. It is believed that the following two elementary

steps make up the mechanism for the reaction between nitrogen monoxide and chlorine: NO(g) Cl2(g) 0 NOCl2(g) NOCl2(g) NO(g) 0 2NOCl(g) Write the equation for the overall reaction and identify any intermediates in the reaction mechanism.
2NO(g) Cl2(g) 0 2NOCl NOCl2 is the reaction intermediate

Mixed Review
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 74. Use the method of initial rates and the following data to determine and express the rate law for the reaction A B 0 2C.
A B 0 2C Reaction Data
Initial [A] (M) 0.010 0.020 0.020 Initial [B] (M) 0.010 0.010 0.020 Initial Rate (mol C/(Ls)) 0.0060 0.0240 0.0960

77. One reaction that takes place in an automobiles

engine and exhaust system is described by the equation NO2(g) CO(g) 0 NO(g) CO2(g). This reactions rate law at a particular temperature is given by the relationship rate 0.50 L/(mols)[NO2]2. What is the reactions initial, instantaneous rate at [NO2] 0.0048 mol/L?
initial rate [ 0.50 L/(mols)](0.0048 mol/L)2 1.2 105 mol/(Ls)

78. At 232 K, the rate of a certain chemical reaction

is 3.20 102 mol/(Lmin). Predict the reactions approximate rate at 252 K.


For a temperature increase of 20 K, the rate should increase by about a factor of 22, so rate at 252 K ( 3.20 102 mol/(L min)] 22 0.128 mol/(L min)

Examining the first two trials, doubling [A] increases the rate by a factor of four; therefore, the reaction is second order in A. Examining the second and third trials, doubling [B] increases the rate by a factor of four; therefore, the reaction is second order in B. Rate k[A]2[B]2

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Thinking Critically 79. Using Numbers Draw a diagram that shows all of the possible collision combinations between two molecules of reactant A and two molecules of reactant B. Now, increase the number of molecules of A from two to four and sketch each possible AB collision combination. By what factor did the number of collision combinations increase? What does this imply about the reaction rate?
The number of AB collision combinations increased from four to eight, a factor of two. Because the reaction rate depends upon the number of molecular collisions, the rate probably doubles.

Writing in Chemistry 82. Research the way manufacturers in the United States produce nitric acid from ammonia. Write the reaction mechanism for the complex reaction. If catalysts are used in the process, explain how they are used and how they affect any of the elementary steps.
Nitric acid is produced using the Ostwald process. In this process, the first reaction is the oxidation of ammonia according to the equation 4NH3(g) 5O2(g) 0 4NO(g) 6H2O(g) However, this reaction has two serious drawbacks: it is very slow at room temperature; and an undesired reaction between ammonia and nitrogen monoxide can produce unreactive nitrogen. Usually, a platinumrhodium alloy heated to approximately 1200 K serves as a catalyst that speeds up the reaction and minimizes the unwanted reaction. In fact, under these conditions, the yield of NO is 97%. In the second step, nitrogen dioxide from the first reaction reacts with oxygen. 2NO(g) O2(g) 0 2NO2(g)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

A A A B B A A A B B

80. Applying Concepts Use the collision theory to

explain two reasons why increasing the temperature of a reaction by 10 K often doubles the reaction rate.
Increasing the temperature by 10 K increases the average speed of the reacting particles. Therefore, the collision frequency increases. In addition, the number of collisions possessing sufficient energy to form the activated complex increases, often by a factor of approximately two.

Because the rate of this reaction decreases with increasing temperature, the temperature is held near 300 K by cooling with liquid water. The third, and final, reaction in the Ostwald process is the absorption of nitrogen dioxide by water. 3NO2(g) H2O(l) 0 2HNO3(aq) NO(g) Both nitric acid (HNO3(aq)) and nitrogen monoxide (NO(g)) are produced in this reaction. The NO(g) is recycled back into the second reaction. Summarizing, the reaction mechanism is 4NH3(g) 5O2(g) 0 4NO(g) 6H2O(g) 2NO(g) O2(g) 0 2NO2(g) 3NO2(g) H2O(l) 0 2HNO3(aq) NO(g)

81. Formulating Models Create a table of concen-

trations, starting with 0.100M concentrations of all reactants, that you would propose in order to establish the rate law for the reaction aA bB cD 0 products using the method of initial rates.
The table should include sets of trials in which the concentrations of two reactants are held constant while that of the third reactant is varied.

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83. Write an advertisement that explains why

86. What mass of iron(III) chloride is needed to

Company As lawn care product (fertilizer or weed killer) works better than the competitions because of the smaller sized granules. Include applicable diagrams.
Student answers will vary, but they will emphasize that, for the same mass, Company As product presents a greater surface area and therefore reacts more quickly to kill weeds.

prepare 1.00 L of a 0.255M solution? (Chapter 15)


molar mass 55.85 g/mol 3(35.45 g/mol) 162.20 g/mol FeCl3 0.255 mol FeCl3 162.20 g FeCl3 1.00 L 1L 1 mol FeCl3 41.4 g FeCl3

87. H for a reaction is negative. Compare the energy

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 84. Classify each of the following elements as a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid. (Chapter 6) a. molybdenum
metal

of the products and the reactants. Is the reaction endothermic or exothermic? (Chapter 16)
When H for a reaction is negative, the energy of the products is less than the energy of the reactants, and the reaction is exothermic.

b. bromine
nonmetal

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 17


page 557

c. arsenic
metalloid
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d. neon
nonmetal

e. cerium
metal

85. Balance the following equations. (Chapter 10) a. Sn(s) NaOH(aq) 0 Na2SnO2 H2
Sn(s) 2NaOH(aq) 0 Na2SnO2 H2

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. The rate of a chemical reaction is all of the following EXCEPT _____ . a. the speed at which a reaction takes place b. the change in concentration of a reactant per unit time c. the change in concentration of a product per unit time d. the amount of product formed in a certain period of time
d

b. C8H18(l) O2(g) 0 CO2(g) H2O(l)


2C8H18 25O2 0 16CO2 18H2O

c. Al(s) H2SO4(aq) 0 Al2(SO4)3(aq) H2(g)


2Al 3H2SO4 0 Al2(SO4)3 3H2

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2. The complete dissociation of acid H3A takes

place in three steps: H3A(aq) 0 H2A(aq) H(aq) Rate k1[H3A] k1 3.2 102 s1 H2A(aq) 0 HA2(aq) H(aq) Rate k2[H2A] k2 1.5 102 s1 HA2(aq) 0 A3(aq) H(aq) Rate k3[HA2] k3 0.8 102 s1 overall reaction: H3A(aq) 0 A3(aq) 3H(aq) When the reactant concentrations are [H3A] 0.100M, [H2A] 0.500M, and [HA2] 0.200M, which reaction is the rate-determining step? a. H3A(aq) 0 H2A(aq) H(aq) b. H2A(aq) 0 HA2(aq) H(aq) c. HA2(aq) 0 A3(aq) H(aq) d. H3A(aq) 0 A3(aq) 3H(aq)
rate1 ( 3.2 102 s1)(0.100M) 32 mol/Ls rate2 ( 1.5 102 s1)(0.500M) 75 mol/Ls rate3 ( 0.8 102 s1)(0.200M) 16 mol/Ls

Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 46.

Reaction: SO2Cl2(g) 0 SO2(g) Cl2(g)


Experimental Data Collected for Reaction
Time (min) 0.0 100.0 200.0 [SO2Cl2] (M) 1.00 0.87 0.74 [SO2] (M) 0.00 0.13 ? [Cl2] (M) 0.00 0.13 ?

4. The average reaction rate for this reaction,

expressed in moles SO2Cl2 consumed per liter per minute, is _____ .


a. b. c. d.

1.30 103 mol/(Lmin) 2.60 101 mol/(Lmin) 7.40 103 mol/(Lmin) 8.70 103 mol/(Lmin)

[SO2Cl2] Avg rate t 0.74M 1.00M 1.30 103 M/min 200.0 min 0.0 min a
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

The rate for reaction 3 is slowest; therefore, reaction 3 is the rate-determining step. c

5. On the basis of the average reaction rate, the

3. Which of the following is NOT an acceptable

concentrations of SO2 and Cl2 at 200.0 min will be _____.


a. b. c. d.

unit for expressing a reaction rate? a. M/min b. L/s c. mol/(mLh) d. mol/(Lmin)


b

0.130M 0.260M 0.39M 0.52M

qty Avg rate t [SO2] 0.00 1.30 103 M/min 0.260M 200.0 min 0.00 [Cl2] 0.00 1.30 103 M/min 0.260M 200.0 min 0.00 b

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6. How long will it take for half of the original

9. The rate law for the reaction A B C 0

amount of SO2Cl2 to decompose at the average reaction rate?


a. b. c. d.

285 min 335 min 385 min 500 min

qty Avg rate t 0.50M 1.00M 1.30 103 M/min 385 min t 0.00 c

products is: Rate k[A]2[C] If k 6.92 105 L2/(mol2s), [A] 0.175M, [B] 0.230M, and [C] 0.315M, what is the instantaneous reaction rate? a. 6.68 107 mol/(Ls) b. 8.77 107 mol/(Ls) c. 1.20 106 mol/(Ls) d. 3.81 106 mol/(Ls)
Rate k[A]2[C] ( 6.92 105 L3/mol3s)(0.175M)2(0.315M) 6.68 107 mol/(Ls) a

7. Which of the following does NOT affect

reaction rate? a. catalysts b. surface area of reactants c. concentration of reactants d. reactivity of products
d

8. The reaction between persulfate (S2O82) and

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

iodide (I) ions is often studied in student laboratories because it occurs slowly enough for its rate to be measured: S2O82(aq) 2I(aq) 0 2SO42(aq) I2(aq) This reaction has been experimentally determined to be first order in S2O82 and first order in I. Therefore, the overall rate law for this reaction is a. Rate k[S2O82]2[I] b. Rate k[S2O82][I] c. Rate k[S2O82][I]2 d. Rate k[S2O82]2[I]2
b

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Chemical Equilibrium
Section 18.1 Equilibrium: A State of Dynamic Balance
pages 559568

3. Calculate Keq for the equilibrium in Practice

Problem 1a on page 565 using the data [N2O4] 0.0185 mol/L and [NO2] 0.0627 mol/L.
[NO2]2 (0.0627)2 Keq 0.213 (0.0185) [N2O4]

Practice Problems
pages 565, 567568

1. Write equilibrium constant expressions for these

4. Calculate Keq for the equilibrium in Practice

equilibria. a. N2O4(g) 3 2NO2(g)


[NO2]2 Keq [N2O4]

Problem 1b on page 565 using the data [CO] 0.0613 mol/L, [H2] 0.1839 mol/L, [CH4] 0.0387 mol/L, and [H2O] 0.0387 mol/L.
[CH4][O2H] (0.0387)(0.0387) Keq 3.93 (0.0613)(0.1839)3 [CO][H2]3

b. CO(g) 3H2(g) 3 CH4(g) H2O(g)


Keq [CH4][H2O] [CO][H2]3

Section 18.1 Assessment


page 568

5. How does the concept of reversibility explain

c. 2H2S(g) 3 2H2(g) S2(g)


[H2]2[S2] Keq [H2S]2

the establishment of equilibrium?


A reversible reaction leads to equilibrium because two opposing reactions may occur at equal rates.

2. Write equilibrium constant expressions for these


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

6. What characteristics define a system at

heterogeneous equilibria. a. C10H8(s) 3 C10H8(g)


Keq [ C10H8(g)]

equilibrium?
The concentrations of reactants and products remain constant and the forward and reverse reactions take place at equal rates.

b. CaCO3(s) 3 CaO(s) CO2(g)


Keq [ CO2(g)]

7. When you write an equilibrium constant expres-

c. H2O(l) 3 H2O(g)
Keq [ H2O(g)]

sion, how do you decide what goes in the numerator and in the denominator?
The concentrations of the products go in the numerator, and the concentrations of the reactants go in the denominator.

d. C(s) H2O(g) 3 CO(g) H2(g)


[CO(g)][H2(g)] Keq [H2O(g)]

8. Thinking Critically Determine whether the

e. FeO(s) CO(g) 3 Fe(s) CO2(g)


[CO2(g)] Keq [CO(g)]

following statement is correct: When chemical equilibrium exists, the reactant and product concentrations remain constant and the forward and reverse reactions cease. Explain your answer.
The reactant and product concentrations remain constant; however, the forward and reverse reactions do not cease. Rather, they occur at equal rates.

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9. Using Numbers Determine the value of Keq at

400 K for the decomposition of phosphorus pentachloride if [PCl5] 0.135 mol/L, [PCl3] 0.550 mol/L, and [Cl2] 0.550 mol/L. The equation for the reaction is: PCl5(g) 3 PCl3(g) Cl2(g)
[PCl3][Cl2] Keq [PCl5] (0.550)(0.550) Keq 2.24 (0.135)

c. 2NOBr(g) 3 2NO(g) Br2(g)


The equilibrium shifts to the left.

13. In the following equilibrium, would you raise or

lower the temperature to obtain these results? C2H2(g) H2O(g) 3 CH3CHO(g) H 151 kJ a. an increase in the amount of CH3CHO
Lower the temperature.

b. a decrease in the amount of C2H2

Section 18.2 Factors Affecting Chemical Equilibrium


pages 569574

Lower the temperature.

c. an increase in the amount of H2O


Raise the temperature.

Section 18.2 Assessment


page 574

14. Thinking Critically Why does changing the

10. How does a system at equilibrium respond to a

volume of the reaction vessel have no effect on this equilibrium? CO(g) Fe3O4(s) 3 CO2(g) 3FeO(s)
The number of gaseous particles reacting equals the number of gaseous particles produced.

stress? What factors are considered to be stresses on an equilibrium system?


If possible, the equilibrium shifts in the direction that relieves the stress. changes in concentration, pressure (volume), and temperature

15. Predicting Predict how this equilibrium would

11. Use Le Chteliers principle to predict how each

of these changes would affect the ammonia equilibrium system. N2(g) 3H2(g) 3 2NH3(g) a. removing hydrogen from the system
The equilibrium shifts to the left.

respond to a simultaneous increase in both temperature and pressure. CO(g) Cl2(g) 3 COCl2(g) H 220 kJ
Given only this information, the response cannot be predicted because an increase in temperature favors a shift to the left, while an increase in pressure favors a shift to the right.

b. adding ammonia to the system


The equilibrium shifts to the left.

c. adding hydrogen to the system


The equilibrium shifts to the right.

12. How would decreasing the volume of the reac-

tion vessel affect each of these equilibria? a. 2SO2(g) O2(g) 3 2SO3(g)


The equilibrium shifts to the right.

b. H2(g) Cl2(g) 3 2HCl(g)


The stress has no effect on the equilibrium.

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Section 18.3 Using Equilibrium Constants


pages 575585

17. Use the data in Table 18-3 to calculate the

solubility in mol/L of these ionic compounds at 298 K. a. PbCrO4


PbCrO4(s) s mol/L dissolves Ksp [Pb2][CrO42] 3 Pb2(aq) CrO42(aq) s mol/L s mol/L

Practice Problems
page 576, 580581, 583

16. At a certain temperature, Keq 10.5 for the

equilibrium CO(g) 2H2(g) 3 CH3OH(g) Calculate these concentrations: a. [CO] in an equilibrium mixture containing 0.933mol/L H2 and 1.32 mol/L CH3OH
Keq [CH3OH] [CO][H2]2

2.3 1013 ( s)(s) s2 s

2.3 1013 4.8 107M


AgCl(s) 3 Ag(aq) Cl(aq)

b. AgCl

s mol/L dissolves Ksp [Ag][Cl]

s mol/L

s mol/L

(1.32) 10.5 [CO](0.933)2 [CO] 0.144M

1.8 1010 ( s)(s) s2 s

1.8 1010 1.3 105M


3 Ca2(aq) CO32(aq) s mol/L s mol/L

b. [H2] in an equilibrium mixture containing

1.09 mol/L CO and 0.325 mol/L CH3OH


Keq [CH3OH] [CO][H2]2

c. CaCO3
CaCO3(s) s mol/L dissolves Ksp [Ca2][CO32]

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

(0.325) 10.5 (1.09)[H2]2 [H2] 0.169M

3.4 109 ( s)(s) s2 s

3.4 109 5.8 105M


3 Ca2(aq) SO42(aq) s mol/L s mol/L

c. [CH3OH] in an equilibrium mixture

containing 0.0661 mol/L H2 and 3.85 mol/L CO.


[CH3OH] Keq [CO][H2]2 [CH3OH] 10.5 (3.85)(0.0661)2 [CH3OH] 0.177M

d. CaSO4
CaSO4(s) s mol/L dissolves Ksp [Ca2][SO42]

4.9 105 ( s)(s) s2 s

4.9 105 7.0 103M

18. Use Ksp values from Table 18-3 to calculate the

following. a. [Ag] in a solution of AgBr at equilibrium


AgBr(s) 3 Ag(aq) Br(aq) s mol/L s mol/L s mol/L dissolves Ksp [ Ag][Br] 5.4 1013 ( s)(s) s2 s

5.4 1013 7.3 107M [ Ag]

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b. [F] in a saturated solution of CaF2


CaF2(s) 3 Ca2(aq) 2F(aq) s mol/L 2s mol/L s mol/L dissolves [CaF2]
1 2

19. Use Ksp values from Table 18-3 to predict

[F]

whether a precipitate will form when equal volumes of the following aqueous solutions are mixed. a. 0.10M Pb(NO3)2 and 0.030M NaF
PbF2(s) 3 Pb2(aq) 2F(aq) Qsp [ Pb2][F]2 ( 0.050M)(0.015M)2 1.12 105 Ksp 3.3 108 Qsp > Ksp so a precipitate of PbF2 will form.

Ksp [ Ca2][F]2 3.5 1011 ( s)(2s)2 4s3 s


1 2

3.5 10 2.1 10 4
3 11

4M

[F] 2.1 104M

[F] 4.2 104M

c.

in a solution of Ag2CrO4 at equilibrium


Ag2CrO4(s) s mol/L dissolves
1 [Ag2CrO4] [Ag] 2

[Ag]

b. 0.25M K2SO4 and 0.010M AgNO3


Ag2SO4(s) 3 2Ag(aq) SO42(aq) Qsp [ Ag]2[SO42] ( 0.0050M)2(0.125M) 3.1 106 Ksp 1.2 105 Qsp < Ksp so no precipitate will form.

2Ag(aq) 2s mol/L

CrO42(aq) s mol/L

Ksp [ Ag]2[CrO42] 1.1 1012 ( 2s)2(s) 4s3 s


1 2

c. 0.20M MgCl2 and 0.0025M NaOH


Mg(OH)2(s) 3 Mg2(aq) 2OH(aq)
5M

1.1 6.5 10 4
3

1012

Qsp [ Mg2][OH]2 ( 0.10M)(0.00125M)2 Ksp 5.6 1012 Qsp > Ksp so a precipitate of Mg(OH)2 will form.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

[Ag] 6.5 105M

1.56 107

[Ag] 1.3 104M

d. the solubility of PbI2


PbI2(s) 3 Pb2(aq) 2I(aq) s mol/L 2s mol/L s mol/L dissolves Ksp [ Pb2][I]2 9.8 109 ( s)(2s)2 4s3 s 9.8 10 1.3 10 4
3 9 3M

Section 18.3 Assessment


page 585

20. List the information you would need in order to

calculate the concentration of a product in a reaction mixture at equilibrium.


the concentrations of the reactants and all other products and Keq

21. How can you use the solubility product constant

to calculate the solubility of a sparingly soluble ionic compound?


Write the equation for the solubility equilibrium and the solubility product constant expression. Let s equal the compounds molar solubility. Substitute the appropriate multiples of s into the solubility constant expression and solve the expression for s.

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22. What is a common ion? Explain how a common

9. Error Analysis Did you observe the well plate

ion reduces the solubility of an ionic compound.


an ion that is common to two or more ionic compounds; the presence of a common ion reduces solubility by shifting the solubility equilibrium in the direction of the solid.

from the side as well as from the top? What did you notice?
After standing undisturbed for a time, the solid layers are on the bottom with the black on top of the white layer and a clear layer of solution above.

23. Thinking Critically When aqueous solutions of

two ionic compounds are mixed, how does Qsp relate to Ksp for a possible precipitate?
If Qsp > Ksp, a precipitate forms. If Qsp Ksp, no precipitate forms and the solution is saturated. If Qsp < Ksp, no precipitate forms and the solution is unsaturated.

10. Developing General Rules The solubility of

24. Designing an Experiment An aqueous solu-

tion is known to contain either Mg2 or Pb2. Design an experiment based on solubilities that would help you determine which of the two ions is present. The solubilities of many ionic compounds are given in Table C-10 in Appendix C.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Because magnesium chromate is soluble and lead(II) chromate is insoluble, add 10.0 mL of 0.10M aqueous potassium chromate solution to 100.0 mL of the unknown aqueous solution. If the unknown solution contains magnesium ion, no precipitate of MgCrO4 will be produced. However, if the unknown solution contains lead(II) ion, solid, yellow PbCrO4 will precipitate.

an ionic compound depends upon the nature of the cations and anions that make up the compound. The reactants you used in this CHEMLAB are all soluble ionic compounds, whereas the precipitates are insoluble. How does soluble Na2S differ from insoluble Ag2S? How does soluble NaCl differ from insoluble AgCl? Use this information and Ksp data from Table 18-3 and the Handbook of Chemistry and Physics to develop general rules for solubility. What group of metal ions is not found in sparingly soluble compounds? What polyatomic ions, positive and negative, form only soluble ionic compounds? How does Ksp relate to a compounds relative solubility?
By examining the ionic compounds used and formed in this activity, students can conclude that the Na ion forms soluble compounds. Students should find that all the compounds formed by the Group 1A metals are soluble. Compounds formed with the acetate, ammonium, and nitrate ions are soluble. If you compare compounds with the same number of ions, the smaller the value of Ksp, the lower the molar solubility of the ionic compound.

CHEMLAB
page 587

8. Thinking Critically What evidence from this

experiment supports your answer to question 7? Explain.


The concentration of Ag ions that could exist in equilibrium with solid AgCl was larger than the Ag concentration that could exist in equilibrium with solid Ag2S. If that was not the case, there would have been no precipitate of Ag2S.

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Chapter 18 Assessment pages 590592


Concept Mapping 25. Fill in the spaces on the concept map with the following phrases: equilibrium constant expressions, reversible reactions, heterogeneous equilibria, homogeneous equilibria, chemical equilibria.
1. lead to 2.

30. Explain the difference between a homogeneous

equilibrium and a heterogeneous equilibrium. (18.1)


homogeneous equilibrium: all reactants and products are in the same physical state; heterogeneous equilibrium system: reactants and products exist in more than one physical state.

31. What is an equilibrium position? (18.1)


a particular set of equilibrium concentrations

32. Explain how to use the law of chemical

equilibrium in writing an equilibrium constant expression. (18.1)


described by the ratio of product concentrations to reactant concentrations, with each concentration raised to the power corresponding to its coefficient in the balanced equation

can be 3. 4.

5.

33. Why does a numerically large Keq mean that the


1. reversible reactions; 2. chemical equilibria; 3. homogeneous equilibria; 4. heterogeneous equilibria; 5. equilibrium constant expressions

products are favored in an equilibrium system? (18.1)


A numerically large Keq means that product concentrations, which are in the numerator, are greater than reactant concentrations, which are in the denominator.

34. Why should you pay attention to the physical

situations such as vehicle traffic across a bridge

states of all reactants and products when writing equilibrium constant expressions? (18.1)
The concentrations of pure liquids or solids are omitted from the equilibrium constant expression.

27. Given the fact that the concentrations of reac-

tants and products are not changing, why is the word dynamic used for describing chemical equilibrium? (18.1)
Reactants are continuing to form products and products are continuing to form reactants.

35. How can an equilibrium system contain small

and unchanging amounts of products yet have large amounts of reactants? What can you say about the relative size of Keq for such an equilibrium? (18.1)
Such an equilibrium can exist if the small amounts of products react so quickly that the rate of the reverse reaction is quickly equal to the rate of the forward reaction. Keq must have a small numerical value.

28. How can you indicate in a chemical equation

that a reaction is reversible? (18.1)


Use double arrows.

29. Although the general equation for a chemical

reaction is reactants 0 products, explain why this equation is not complete for a system at equilibrium. (18.1)
The equation should have double arrows.

36. Describe the opposing processes in the physical

equilibrium that exists in a closed container half-filled with liquid ethanol. (18.1)
the evaporation and condensation of ethanol

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Mastering Concepts 26. Describe an equilibrium in everyday life that illustrates a state of balance between two opposing processes. (18.1)

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37. What is meant by a stress on a reaction at equi-

43. Changing the volume of the system alters the

librium? (18.2)
any change in concentration, volume (pressure), or temperature which causes the equilibrium to shift.

38. How does Le Chteliers principle describe an

equilibriums response to a stress? (18.2)


It will shift in the direction that relieves the stress.

equilibrium position of this equilibrium. N2(g) 3H2(g) 3 2NH3(g) But a similar change has no effect on this equilibrium. H2(g) Cl2(g) 3 2HCl(g) Explain. (18.2)
The number of gaseous particles reacting in the first equilibrium is different from the number of gaseous particles produced; therefore, the system can shift in response to a change in volume (pressure). The second equilibrium cannot shift in response to a change in volume because the number of gaseous particles reacting equals the number produced.

39. Why does removing a product cause an equilib-

rium to shift in the direction of the products? (18.2)


In order to restore the equilibrium amount of product, the equilibrium shifts to produce more product.

40. When an equilibrium shifts toward the reactants

44. How might the addition of a noble gas to the

in response to a stress, how is the equilibrium position changed? (18.2)


The equilibrium position shifts to the left.

reaction vessel affect this equilibrium? 2N2H4(g) 2NO2(g) 3 3N2(g) 4H2O(g) Assume that the volume of the reaction vessel does not change. (18.2)
Addition of a noble gas does not change the partial pressures or concentrations of the reactants or products, so the equilibrium is not affected.

41. Use Le Chteliers principle to explain how a

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

shift in the equilibrium H2CO3(aq) 3 H2O(l) CO2(g) causes a soft drink to go flat when its container is left open to the atmosphere. (18.2)
Because CO2(g) continually escapes from the open container, the equilibrium shifts to the right until H2CO3(aq) is depleted.

45. When an equilibrium shifts to the right, what

happens to the following? (18.2) a. the concentrations of the reactants


decrease

42. How is Keq changed when heat is added to an

equilibrium in which the forward reaction is exothermic? Explain using Le Chteliers principle. (18.2)
Keq is lowered. Adding heat increases the rate of the heat-absorbing reaction, which is the direction of the reactants.

b. the concentrations of the products


increase

46. How would each of the following changes affect

the equilibrium position of the system used to produce methanol from carbon monoxide and hydrogen? (18.2) CO(g) 2H2(g) 3 CH3OH(g) heat a. adding CO to the system
The equilibrium shifts to the right.

b. cooling the system


The equilibrium shifts to the right.

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c. adding a catalyst to the system


The equilibrium does not shift.

Mastering Problems The Equilibrium Constant Expression (18.1) Level 1 52. Write equilibrium constant expressions for these homogeneous equilibria. a. 2N2H4(g) 2NO2(g) 3 3N2(g) 4H2O(g)
[N2]3[H2O]4 Keq [N2H4]2[NO2]2

d. removing CH3OH from the system


The equilibrium shifts to the right.

e. decreasing the volume of the system


The equilibrium shifts to the right.

47. Why is the concentration of a solid not included

as part of the solubility product constant? (18.3)


The concentration of a solid is a constant value.

b. 2NbCl4(g) 3 NbCl3(g) NbCl5(g)


[NbCl3][NbCl5] Keq [NbCl4]2

48. What does it mean to say that two solutions

have a common ion? Give an example that supports your answer. (18.3)
They both contain the same ion. NaCl(aq) and KCl(aq) both contain Cl(aq).

c. I2(g) 3 2I(g)
[I]2 Keq [I2]

d. 2SO3(g) CO2(g) 3 CS2(g) 4O2(g)


[CS2][O2]4 Keq [SO3]2[CO2]

49. Explain the difference between Qsp and Ksp.

(18.3)
Ksp describes a saturated solution. Qsp describes a solution with any concentration of ions.

53. Write equilibrium constant expressions for these

50. Explain why a common ion lowers the

If the concentration of either ion produced by the dissolving compound is increased by a common ion present in the solution, the concentration of the compounds other ion must decrease.

Keq [ H2O][CO2]

b. C6H6(l) 3 C6H6(g)
Keq [ C6H6 (g)]

51. Describe the solution that results when two

solutions are mixed and Qsp is found to equal Ksp. Does a precipitate form?
The new solution is saturated. No precipitate will form.

c. Fe3O4(s) 4H2(g) 3 3Fe(s) 4H2O(g)


[H2O]4 Keq [H2]4

54. Pure water has a density of 1.00 g/mL at 297 K.

Calculate the molar concentration of pure water at this temperature.


1.00 g H2O 1 mol H2O 1000 mL 1 mL 1L 18.02 g H2O 55.5 mol/L

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solubility of an ionic compound. (18.3)

heterogeneous equilibria. a. 2NaHCO3(s) 3 Na2CO3(s) H2O(g) CO2(g)

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Level 2 55. Calculate Keq for the following equilibrium when [SO3] 0.0160 mol/L, [SO2] 0.00560 mol/L, and [O2] 0.00210 mol/L. 2SO3(g) 3 2SO2(g) O2(g)
Keq [SO2]2[O2] (0.00560)2(0.00210) [SO3]2 (0.0160)2 104

58. Suppose you have a cube of pure manganese

metal measuring 5.25 cm on each side. You find that the mass of the cube is 1076.6 g. What is the molar concentration of manganese in the cube?
Volume of the cube ( 5.25 cm)3 145 cm3 1L 145 cm3 0.145 L 1000 cm3 Molar mass of manganese 54.94 g/mol 1 mol Mn 1076.6 g Mn 19.596 mol Mn 54.94 g Mn 19.596 mol 135 mol/L Mn 0.145 L

2.57

56. Keq for this reaction is 3.63.

A 2B 3 C The data in the table show the concentrations of the reactants and product in two different reaction mixtures at the same temperature. Does the data provide evidence that both reactions are at equilibrium?
Concentrations of A, B, and C
A (mol/L) 0.500 0.250 B (mol/L) 0.621 0.525 C (mol/L) 0.700 0.250

Le Chteliers Principle (18.2) Level 1 59. Use Le Chteliers principle to predict how each of the following changes would affect this equilibrium. H2(g) CO2(g) 3 H2O(g) CO(g)
a. adding H2O(g) to the system
shift to the left

Calculate Keq using the two sets of data.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

[C] 3.63 Keq [A][B]2 (0.700) 3.63 (0.500)(0.621)2 (0.250) 3.63 (0.250)(0.525)2 Both reactions are at equilibrium.

b. removing CO(g) from the system


shift to the right

c. adding H2(g) to the system


shift to the right

d. adding something to the system to absorb

57. When solid ammonium chloride is put in a

CO2(g)
shift to the left

reaction vessel at 323 K, the equilibrium concentrations of both ammonia and hydrogen chloride are found to be 0.0660 mol/L. NH4Cl(s) 3 NH3(g) HCl(g). Calculate Keq.
Keq [ NH3][HCl] ( 0.0660)(0.0660) 4.36 103

60. How would increasing the volume of the

reaction vessel affect these equilibria? a. NH4Cl(s) 3 NH3(g) HCl(g)


shift to the right

b. N2(g) O2(g) 3 2NO(g)


no shift

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61. How would decreasing the volume of the reac-

tion vessel affect these equilibria? a. 2N2H4(g) 2NO2(g) 3 3N2(g) 4H2O(g)


shift to the left

b. 2H2O(g) 3 2H2(g) O2(g)


shift to the left

Calculations Using Keq (18.3) Level 1 65. Keq is 1.60 at 933 K for this reaction. H2(g) CO2(g) 3 H2O(g) CO(g) Calculate the equilibrium concentration of hydrogen when [CO2] 0.320 mol/L, [H2O] 0.240 mol/L, and [CO] 0.280 mol/L.
[H2O][CO] Keq [H2][CO2] (0.240)(0.280) 1.60 [H2](0.320) [H2] 0.131M

62. How would these equilibria be affected by

increasing the temperature? a. 4NH3(g) 5O2(g) 3 4NO(g) 6H2O(g) heat


shift to the left, decreasing Keq

b. heat NaCl(s) 3 Na(aq) Cl(aq)


shift to the right, increasing Keq

66. At 2273 K, Keq 6.2 104 for the reaction

Level 2 63. Ethylene (C2H4) reacts with hydrogen to form ethane (C2H6). C2H4(g) H2(g) 3 C2H6(g) heat How would you regulate the temperature of this equilibrium in order to do the following?
a. increase the yield of ethane
lower the temperature

N2(g) O2(g) 3 2NO(g) If [N2] 0.05200 mol/L and [O2] 0.00120 mol/L, what is the concentration of NO at equilibrium?
[NO]2 Keq [N2][O2] [NO]2 6.2 104 (0.05200)(0.00120) [NO]2 3.9 108 [NO] 3.9 108 2.0 104M
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. decrease the concentration of ethylene


lower the temperature

c. increase the amount of hydrogen in the

system
raise the temperature

Calculations Using Ksp (18.3) Level 1 67. Calculate the ion product to determine if a precipitate will form when 125 mL 0.00500M sodium chloride is mixed with 125 mL 0.00100M silver nitrate solution.
NaCl AgNO3 5 NaNO3 AgCl Because Ksp 1.8 1010, a precipitate of AgCl may form. AgCl(s) 5 Ag(aq) Cl(aq) Ions are diluted when one volume of NaCl solution is mixed with one volume of AgNO3 solution resulting in the following concentrations. [Na] in solution 0.00250M NaCl [Cl] in solution
1 2 1 2

64. How would simultaneously decreasing the

temperature and volume of the system affect these equilibria? a. heat CaCO3(s) 3 CaO(s) CO2(g)
shift to the left

b. 4NH3(g) 5O2(g) 3 4NO(g) 6H2O(g)

heat

Decreasing the temperature causes a shift to the right and decreasing the volume causes a shift to the left.

(0.00500M NaCl)

(0. 00500M) 0.00250M

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[Ag] in solution [NO3] in solution = 0.00050M

1 2 1 2

(0.00100M Ag 0.00050M (0.00100M NO3]

Qsp [ Fe2][OH]2 ( 0.0500)(0.0222)2 2.46 105 Ksp 4.9 1017 Because Qsp>Ksp, a precipitate forms.

Qsp [ Ag][Cl] ( 0.00050)(0.00250) 1.25 106 Ksp 1.8 1010

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 70. How many moles per liter of silver chloride will be in a saturated solution of AgCl? Ksp 1.8 1010
AgCl(s) 5 Ag(aq) Cl(aq) [AgCl] [ Ag] [ Cl] s [Ag][Cl] 1.8 1010 (s)(s) = 1.8 1010 s 1.8 1010 1.3 105 mol/L A saturated solution will contain 1.3 105 mol/L AgCl.

Because Qsp>Ksp, a precipitate forms.

68. Calculate the molar solubility of strontium chro-

mate in water at 298 K if Ksp 3.5 105.

SrCrO4(s) 5 Sr2(aq) CrO42(aq) s mol/L mol/L s mol/L Ksp [ Sr2][CrO42] 3.5 105 ( s)(s) s2 s 3.5 105 5.9 103 mol/L

Level 2 69. Will a precipitate form when 1.00 L of 0.150M iron(II) chloride solution is mixed with 2.00 L of 0.0333M sodium hydroxide solution? Explain your reasoning and show your calculations.
FeCl2 2NaOH 0 Fe(OH)2 2NaCl
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

71. A 6.00-L vessel contains an equilibrium mixture

Because Ksp 4.9 1017, a precipitate of Fe(OH)3 may form. Fe(OH)2(s) 5 Fe2(aq) 2OH(aq) Ions are diluted when one volume of FeCl2 solution is mixed with two volumes of NaOH solution resulting in the following ion dilutions. 1 [Fe2] in solution (0.150M Fe2) 3 0.0500M [Fe2] 1 [Cl] in solution (0.300M Cl) 0.100M [Cl] 3 2 [Na] in solution (0.0333M Na) 3 0.0222M Na 2 [OH] in solution (0.0333M OH) 3 0.0222M OH

of 0.0222 mol PCl3, 0.0189 mol PCl5, and 0.1044 mol Cl2. Calculate Keq for the following reaction. PCl5(g) 3 PCl3(g) Cl2(g)
0.0222 mol [PCl3] 0.00370 mol/L 6.00 L 0.1044 mol [Cl2] 0.0174 mol/L 6.00 L 0.0189 mol [PCl5] 0.00315 mol/L 6.00 L [PCl3][Cl2] (0.00370)(0.0174) Keq (0.00315) [PCl5] 2.04 102

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72. How would simultaneously increasing the

temperature and volume of the system affect these equilibria? a. 2O3(g) 3 3O2(g) heat
Increasing the temperature would tend to cause a shift to the left; increasing the volume would tend to cause a shift to the right.

b. heat N2(g) O2(g) 3 2NO(g)


Increasing temperature would tend to cause a shift to the right; increasing volume would cause no shift because there are equal numbers of reactant and product particles. The equilibrium would shift to the right.

Thinking Critically 75. Predicting Suppose youre thinking about using the following reaction to produce hydrogen from hydrogen sulfide. 2H2S(g) heat 3 2H2(g) S2(g) Given that Keq for the equilibrium is 2.27 104, would you expect a high yield of hydrogen? Explain how you could regulate the volume of the reaction vessel and the temperature to increase the yield.
You would not expect a high yield of hydrogen. You could increase the hydrogen yield by increasing the volume of the reaction vessel and by increasing the temperature.

73. The solubility product constant for lead(II)

arsenate (Pb3(AsO4)2), is 4.0 1036 at 298 K. Calculate the molar solubility of the compound at this temperature.
Pb3(AsO4)2(s) 5 3Pb2(aq) 2AsO43(aq) s mol/L 3s mol/L 2s mol/L Ksp [ Pb2]3[AsO43]2 4.0 1036 ( 3s)3(2s)2 4.0 1036 108s5 4.0 1036 s5 3.7 1038 108 s

76. Applying Concepts Smelling salts, sometimes

used to revive a groggy or unconscious person, are made of ammonium carbonate. The equation for the endothermic decomposition of ammonium carbonate is (NH4)2CO3(s) 3 2NH3(g) CO2(g) H2O(g) Would you expect smelling salts to work as well on a cold winter day as on a warm summer day? Explain your answer.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

3.7 1038 3.3 108


5

No, because the decomposition of ammonium carbonate is endothermic, the compound decomposes most readily at higher temperatures.

74. How would these equilibria be affected by

77. Comparing and Contrasting Which of the

decreasing the temperature? a. 2O3(g) 3 3O2(g) heat


shift to the right

b. heat H2(g) F2(g) 3 2HF(g)


shift to the left

two solids, calcium phosphate or iron(III) phosphate, has the greater molar solubility? Ksp (Ca3(PO4)2) 1.2 1029; Ksp (FePO4) 1.0 1022. Which compound has the greater solubility expressed in grams per liter?
s (Ca3(PO4)2) 1.1 107 mol/L, s (FePO4) 1.1 1011 mol/L; Ca3(PO4)2 has the greater molar solubility. Mass solubility of Ca3(PO4)2 3.4 105 g/L; mass solubility of FePO4 1.7 109 g/L; Ca3(PO4)2 has a greater mass solubility than FePO4.

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78. Recognizing Cause and Effect You have

12.56 g of a mixture made up of sodium chloride and barium chloride. Explain how you could use a precipitation reaction to determine how much of each compound the mixture contains.
1. Dissolve the mixture in distilled water. 2. Add an excess of a solution containing an anion such as carbonate, chromate, or sulfate that will precipitate essentially all the barium ions. 3. Filter, dry, and mass the precipitate. 4. Calculate the moles of barium compound formed, which equal the moles of barium chloride in the original mixture. 5. Calculate the mass of barium chloride in the original mixture. The remainder of the original mixture is sodium chloride.

Because CaSO4 is less soluble in hot water than in cold water, it tends to coat hot-water pipes and pipes in boilers. Magnesium and calcium ions react with soap to form insoluble compounds, rendering the soap less effective and causing the formation of soap scum in bathtubs and showers. Magnesium and calcium ions can be removed by softening, usually by ion-exchange or lime (Ca(OH)2)-soda (Na2CO3) methods. Boiler water may be treated with sodium carbonate, precipitating CaCO3 as a sludge and preventing the formation of CaSO4 scale in hot-water pipes and boilers.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 81. How are electrons shared differently in H2, O2, and N2? (Chapter 9)
In H2, one pair of electrons is shared; in O2, two pairs; in N2, three pairs.

Writing in Chemistry 79. Research the role that solubility plays in the formation of kidney stones. Find out what compounds are found in kidney stones and their Ksp values. Summarize your findings in a report.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

82. How can you tell if a chemical equation is

Student reports will vary, but may include the following: Most kidney stones are made up of calcium compounds. Ksp for calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaC2O4H2O) at 298 K is 2.34 109. Ksp for calcium phosphate (Ca3(PO4)2) at 298 K is 2.1 1033. Some kidney stones are made up of uric acid. Ka for uric acid (C5H4N4O3) at 285 K is 1.3 104. Less common are struvite stones, composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MgNH4PO4), Ksp 2.5 1013 at 298 K.

balanced? (Chapter 10)


The numbers and kinds of atoms are the same on both sides of the equations and the coefficients are in the smallest possible integer ratio.

83. What mass of carbon must burn to produce

4.56 L CO2 gas at STP? (Chapter 14) C(S) O2(g) 0 CO2(g)


1 mol CO2 1 mol C 4.56 L CO2 1 mol CO2 22.4 L 12.01 g C 2.44 g C 1 mol C

80. The presence of magnesium and calcium ions in

water makes the water hard. Explain in terms of solubility why the presence of these ions is often undesirable. Find out what measures can be taken to eliminate them.
Student answers will likely include the following information: The low solubilities of some magnesium and calcium compounds, such as CaSO4, cause them to coat plumbing and reduce its efficiency.

84. When you reverse a thermochemical equation,

why must you change the sign of H? (Chapter 16)


A reaction that is exothermic in one direction is endothermic in the opposite direction.

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Standardized Test Practice Chapter 18


page 593

4. The following system is in equilibrium:

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. A system reaches chemical equilibrium when _____ . a. no new product is formed by the forward reaction b. the reverse reaction no longer occurs in the system c. the concentration of reactants in the system is equal to the concentration of products d. the rate at which the forward reaction occurs equals the rate of the reverse reaction
d

2S(s) 5F2(g) 3 SF4(g) SF6(g) The equilibrium will shift to the right if _____ . a. the concentration of SF4 is increased b. the concentration of SF6 is increased c. the pressure on the system is increased d. the pressure on the system is decreased
c Concentration Data for the Equilibrium System MnCO3(s) 3 Mn2(aq) + CO32(aq) at 298 K Trial 1 2 3 [Mn2]0 [CO32]0 (M) (M) 0.0000 0.0100 0.0000 [Mn2]eq (M) [CO32]eq (M) 4.00 103 2.24 109 2.00 102

0.00400 5.60 109 0.0000 0.0200 1.00 102 1.12 109

2. A value of Keq greater than 1 means that _____ . a. more reactants than products exist at

MnCO3(s) 5 Mn2(aq) CO32 (aq) Ksp [ Mn2][CO32] ( 5.60 109)(4.00 103) 2.24 1011 a

3. The hydrogen sulfide produced as a byproduct

of petroleum refinement can be used to produce elemental sulfur: 2H2S(g) SO2(g) 0 3S(l) 2H2O(g) The equilibrium constant expression for this reaction is _____ . [H2O] a. Keq [H2S][SO2]
b. Keq c. Keq d. Keq
c

6. What is the molar solubility of MnCO3 at 298 K? a. b. c. d.

4.73 106M 6.32 102M 7.48 105M 3.35 105M

[H2S]2[SO2] [H2S]2 [H2O]2 [H2S]2[SO2] [S]3[H2O]2 [H2S]2[SO2]

MnCO3(s) 5 Mn2(aq) CO32 (aq) solubility s [ Mn2] [ CO32] (s)(s) s2 2.24 1011 s a

2.24 1011 4.73 106M

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equilibrium b. more products than reactants exist at equilibrium c. the rate of the forward reaction is high at equilibrium d. the rate of the reverse reaction is high at equilibrium

Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 57.


5. The Ksp for MnCO3 is _____ . a. 2.24 1011 b. 4.00 1011 c. 1.12 109 d. 5.60 109

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7. A 50.0-mL volume of 3.00 106M K2CO3 is

9. If the forward reaction of a system in equilib-

mixed with 50.0 mL of MnCl2. A precipitate of MnCO3 will form only when the concentration of the MnCl2 solution is greater than _____ . a. 7.47 106M b. 1.49 105M c. 2.99 105M d. 1.02 105M
Because the volume of solution is doubled, 3.00 106M [CO32] in the mixed solution 2 1.50 106M [Mn2][CO32] [ Mn2](1.50 106) 2.24 1011 [Mn2] 1.49 105M [ Mn2] in the mixed solution. To form a precipitate, the concentration of the original solution of MnCl2 2(x) 2(1.49 105M) 2.99 105M c

rium is endothermic, increasing the temperature of the system will _____ . a. shift the equilibrium to the left b. shift the equilibrium to the right c. decrease the rate of the forward reaction d. decrease the rate of the reverse reaction
b

10. Cl2(g) 3O2(g) F2(g) 3 2ClO3F(g)

The formation of perchloryl fluoride (ClO3F) from its elements has an equilibrium constant of 3.42 109 at 298 K. If [Cl2] 0.563M, [O2] 1.01M, and [ClO3F] 1.47 105M at equilibrium, what is the concentration of F2? a. 9.18 100M b. 3.73 1010M c. 1.09 101M d. 6.32 102M
[ClO3F]2 Keq [F2][O2]3[Cl2] Solve for [F2]. [ClO3F]2 [F2] Keq [O2]3[Cl2] Substitute known values. (1.47 105)2 1.09 101M [F2] (3.42 109)(1.01)3(0.563) c

8. Which of the following statements about the

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

common ion effect is NOT true? a. The effects of common ions on an equilibrium system can be explained by Le Chteliers principle. b. The decreased solubility of an ionic compound due to the presence of a common ion is called the common ion effect. c. The addition of NaCl to a saturated solution of AgCl will produce the common ion effect. d. The common ion effect is due to a shift in equilibrium towards the aqueous products of a system.
d

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Acids and Bases


Section 19.1 Acids and Bases: An Introduction
pages 595601

3. Write the steps in the complete ionization of the

following polyprotic acids. a. H2Se


H2Se(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) HSe(aq) HSe(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) Se2(aq)

Practice Problems
pages 596, 599, 601

1. Write a balanced formula equation for the reac-

b. H3AsO4
H3AsO4(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) H2AsO4(aq) H2AsO4(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) HAsO42(aq) HAsO42(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) AsO43(aq)

tion that occurs between each of the following pairs of reactants. a. magnesium and nitric acid
Mg(s) 2HNO3(aq) 0 Mg(NO3)2(aq) H2(g)

b. aluminum and sulfuric acid


2Al(s) 3H2SO4(aq) 0 Al2(SO4)3(aq) 3H2(g)

c. calcium carbonate and hydrobromic acid


CaCO3(s) 2HBr(aq) 0 CaBr2(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g)

c. H2SO3
H2SO3(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) HSO3(aq) HSO3(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) SO32(aq)

d. potassium hydrogen carbonate and

hydrochloric acid
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 19.1 Assessment


page 601

KHCO3(s) HCl(aq) 0 KCl(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g)

4. Compare the properties of acidic solutions and

basic solutions.
Acidic solutions taste sour, turn blue litmus red, produce solutions that conduct electricity, react with certain metals to produce hydrogen gas, and react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide. Basic solutions taste bitter and feel slippery, turn red litmus blue, and produce solutions that conduct electricity.

2. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the

following reactions. a. NH4(aq) OH(aq) 3 NH3(aq) H2O(l)


b. HBr(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) Br(aq) c. CO32(aq) H2O(l) 3 HCO3(aq)

OH(aq)

5. How do the concentrations of hydrogen ion and

d. HSO4(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq)

hydroxide ion determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral?


In an acidic solution, [H] > [OH]; in a neutral solution, [H] [ OH]; in a basic solution, [H] < [OH].

SO42(aq)

Acid a. NH4 b. HBr c. H2O d. HSO4

Conjugate base NH3 Br OH SO42

Base OH H2O CO32 H2O

Conjugate acid H2O H3O HCO3 H3O

6. Based on their formulas, which of the following

compounds may be Arrhenius acids: CH4, SO2, H2S, Ca3(PO4)2? Explain your reasoning.
Because they contain hydrogen, CH4 and H2S may be Arrhenius acids.

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7. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the

2. Do the following approximate percents ioniza-

following equation. HNO2 H2O 3 NO2 H3O


HNO2 (acid) and NO2 (conjugate base), H2O (base) and H3O (conjugate acid)

tion fit your laboratory results: glacial acetic acid, 0.1%; 6.0M acetic acid, 0.2%; 1.0M acetic acid, 0.4%; 0.1M acetic acid, 1.3%? Explain.
Yes. Comparing 6.0M and 1.0M solutions, the 1.0M solution has a higher percent of ionization. The larger fraction of ions results in increased conductivity. However, continued dilution reduces the overall concentration of ions enough so that the conductivity of the 0.1M solution decreases.

8. Thinking Critically Methylamine (CH3NH2)

forms hydroxide ions in aqueous solution. Why is methylamine a Brnsted-Lowry base but not an Arrhenius base?
The CH3NH2 molecule is a hydrogen-ion acceptor; however, the molecule does not contain an OH group.

3. State a hypothesis that will explain your observa-

tions and incorporate your answer to Question 2.


The more dilute the weak acid becomes, the better it conducts electricity because there is a higher degree of ionization. The water acts to increase the percent of ionization. Eventually, the acid is so dilute that the conductivity decreases because there is relatively little acetic acid present.

9. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations In the

accompanying structural formula, identify any hydrogen atoms that are likely to be ionizable.

O H

H C C H C

4. Based on your hypothesis, what can you

the two hydrogen atoms attached to oxygen atoms

conclude about the need to use large amounts of water for rinsing when acid spills on living tissue?
A small amount of water can actually increase the acids apparent strength and resulting tissue damage. For acid spills, large amounts of water should be used to quickly dilute the acid and flush it away.

Section 19.2 Strengths of Acids and Bases


pages 602607

MINILAB
page 604

Practice Problems
pages 605606

10. Write ionization equations and acid ionization

1. Write the equation for the ionization of acetic

acid in water and the equilibrium constant expression. (Keq 1.8 105) What does the size of Keq indicate about the degree of ionization of acetic acid?
CH3COOH(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) CH3COO(aq) [CH3COO][H] Ka [CH3COOH] 1.8 105; Very little acetic acid is ionized.

constant expressions for the following acids. a. HClO2


HClO2(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) ClO2(aq) [H3O][ClO2] Ka [HClO2]

b. HNO2
HNO2(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) NO2(aq) [H3O][NO2] Ka [HNO2]

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c. HIO
HIO(aq) H2O(I) 3 H3O(aq) IO(aq) [H3O][IO] Ka [HIO]

14. Identify the acid-base pairs in the following. a. HCOOH(aq) H2O(l) 3 HCOO(aq)

H3O(aq)

11. Write ionization equations and base ionization

acid: HCOOH; conjugate base: HCOO; base: H2O; conjugate acid: H3O;

constant expressions for the following bases. a. hexylamine (C6H13NH2)


C6H13NH2(aq) H2O(l) 3 C6H13NH3(aq) OH(aq) [C6H13NH3][OH] Kb [C6H13NH2]

b. NH3(aq) H2O(l) 3 NH4(aq)

OH(aq)

acid: H2O; conjugate base: OH; base: NH3; conjugate acid: NH4

15. Kb for aniline is 4.3 1010. Explain what this

tells you about aniline.


Aniline is a weak base.

b. propylamine (C3H7NH2)
C3H7NH2(aq) H2O(l) 3 C3H7NH3(aq) OH(aq) Kb [C3H7NH2] [C3H7NH3][OH]

16. Thinking Critically Why is a strong base such

as sodium hydroxide generally not considered to have a conjugate acid?


Strong bases dissociate completely in aqueous solution. There is no reaction in the reverse direction involving a conjugate acid.

c. carbonate ion (CO32)


CO32(aq) H2O(l) 3 HCO3(aq) OH(aq) [HCO3][OH] Kb [CO32]
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

17. Predicting Use Table 19-2 to predict which

d. hydrogen sulfite ion (HSO3)


HSO3(aq) H2O(l) 3 H2SO3(aq) OH(aq) [H2SO3][OH] Kb [HSO3]

aqueous solution would have the greater electrical conductivity: 0.1M HClO or 0.1M HF. Explain.
The 0.1M HF solution would have the greater electrical conductivity. The acid ionization constant for HF is greater than the acid ionization constant for HClO. Therefore, HF forms more ions in equimolar solutions of the two acids.

Section 19.2 Assessment


page 607

12. An acid is highly ionized in aqueous solution. Is

the acid strong or weak? Explain your reasoning.


The acid is strong. Strong acids ionize completely in dilute aqueous solution.

13. How is the strength of a weak acid related to the

strength of its conjugate base?


The stronger the acid, the weaker its conjugate base. The weaker the acid, the stronger its conjugate base.

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Section 19.3 What is pH?


pages 608616

19. Calculate the pH of solutions having the

Practice Problems
pages 609, 611612, 614, 616

following ion concentrations at 298 K. a. [H] 1.0 102M


pH log(1.0 102) (2.00) 2.00

18. The concentration of either the H ion or the

ion is given for three aqueous solutions at 298 K. For each solution, calculate [H] or [OH]. State whether the solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. a. [H] 1.0 1013M
[H] 1.0 1013M Kw [ H][OH] 1.0 1014 ( 1.0 1013)[OH] 1.0 (1.0 1.0 1013 1.0 1013 [OH] 1.0 101M [OH] > [H], the solution is basic. 1014 1013)[OH]

OH

b. [H] 3.0 106M


pH log(3.0 106) (5.52) 5.52

c. [OH] 8.2 106M


Kw [ H][OH] [ H](8.2 106) 1.0 1014 1.2 109 [H] 8.2 106 pH log(1.2 109) (8.92) 8.92

20. Calculate the pH and pOH of aqueous solutions

having the following ion concentrations. a. [OH] 1.0 106M


pOH log(1.0 106) (6.00) 6.00 pH 14.00 pOH 14.00 6.00 8.00

b.

[OH]

1.0

107M

b. [OH] 6.5 104M


pOH log(6.5 104) (3.19) 3.19 pH 14.00 pOH 14.00 3.19 10.81
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

[OH] 1.0 107M Kw [ H][OH] 1.0 1014 1014 [H](1.0 107) 107)

1.0 1.0 107 1.0 107 [H] 1.0 107M [OH] [ H], the solution is neutral.

[H](1.0

c. [H] 3.6 109M


pH log(3.6 109) (8.44) 8.44 pOH 14.00 pH 14.00 8.44 5.56

d. [H] 0.025M
pH log(0.025) (1.60) 1.60 pOH 14.00 pH 14.00 1.60 12.40

c. [OH] 1.0 103M


[OH] 1.0 103M Kw [ H][OH] 1.0 1014 [ H](1.0 103) 1.0 1014 [H](1.0 103) 3 1.0 10 1.0 103 [H] 1.0 1011M [OH] > [H], the solution is basic.

21. The pH is given for three solutions. Calculate

[H] and [OH] in each solution. a. pH 2.37

[H] antilog (2.37) 4.3 103M pOH 14.00 pH 14.00 2.37 11.63 [OH] antilog (11.63) 2.3 1012M

b. pH 11.05
[H] antilog (11.05) 8.9 1012M pOH 14.00 pH 14.00 11.05 2.95 [OH] antilog (2.95) 1.1 103M

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c. pH 6.50
[H] antilog (6.50) 3.2 107M pOH 14.00 pH 14.00 6.50 7.50 [OH] antilog (7.50) 3.2 108M

b. 0.0400M solution of HClO2, pH 1.80


[H][CIO2] Ka [HCIO2] [H] antilog (1.80) 1.6 102M [CIO2] [ H] 1.6 102M [HCIO2] 0.0400M 1.6 102M 0.024M (1.6 102)(1.6 102) Ka 1.1 102 0.024

22. Calculate the pH of the following solutions. a. 1.0M HI


1 mol H [H] [ HI] 1.0M 1 mol HI pH log(1.0) 0.00

b. 0.050M HNO3
[H] 1 mol H [ HNO3] 0.050M 1 mol HNO3

Section 19.3 Assessment


page 616

24. What is the relationship between the pH of a

pH log(0.050) 1.30

solution and the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution?


pH log[H]

c. 1.0M KOH
1 mol OH [OH] [ KOH] 1.0M 1 mol KOH pOH log(1.0) 0.00 pH 14.00 0.00 14.00

25. If you know the pOH of a solution, how can

you determine its pH?


Subtract the pOH from 14.00.

26. How does the ion product constant for water

d. 2.4
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

105M

Mg(OH)2

2 mol OH [OH] [ Mg(OH)2] 1 mol Mg(OH)2 4.8 105M pOH log(4.8 105) 4.32 pH 14.00 4.32 9.68

relate to the concentrations of H and OH in aqueous solutions?


At 298 K, the product of the H and OH concentrations equals 1.00 1014.

27. Thinking Critically Why is it logical to assume

23. Calculate the Ka for the following acids using

that the hydrogen ion concentration in an aqueous solution of a strong monoprotic acid equals the molarity of the acid?
Strong acids are virtually 100% ionized in dilute aqueous solution.

the given information. a. 0.220M solution of H3AsO4, pH 1.50


[H][H2AsO4] Ka [H3AsO4] [H] antilog (1.50) 3.2 102M

28. Applying Concepts Would it be possible to

[H3AsO4] [ H] 3.2 102M [H3AsO4] 0.220M 3.2 102M 0.188M (3.2 102)(3.2 102) Ka 5.4 103 0.188

calculate the pH of a weak acid solution if you knew the molarity of the solution and its Ka? Explain.
Yes, you can use the acids ionization constant expression and Ka to determine [H]. Then, use [H] to calculate pH.

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Section 19.4 Neutralization


pages 617625

32. What is the concentration of a household

Practice Problems
pages 617, 621622

ammonia cleaning solution if 49.90 mL 0.5900M HCl is required to neutralize 25.00 mL solution?
0.5900 mol HCI 1L 49.90 mL HCl 1000 mL 1 L HCI 2.944 102 mol HCl 1 mol NH3 2.944 102 mol HCl 1 mol HCl 2.944 102 mol NH3 2.944 102 mol NH3 MNH 1.178M 0.02500 L NH3 3

29. Write balanced formula equations for the

following acid-base neutralization reactions. a. nitric acid and cesium hydroxide


HNO3(aq) CsOH(aq) 0 CsNO3(aq) H2O(l)

b. hydrobromic acid and calcium hydroxide


2HBr(aq) Ca(OH)2(aq) 0 CaBr2(aq) 2H2O(l)

c. sulfuric acid and potassium hydroxide


H2SO4(aq) 2KOH(aq) 0 K2SO4(aq) 2H2O(l)

33. Write equations for the salt hydrolysis reactions

d. acetic acid and ammonium hydroxide


CH3COOH(aq) NH4OH(aq) 0 CH3COONH4(aq) H2O(l)

that occur when the following salts are dissolved in water. Classify each solution as acidic, basic, or neutral. a. ammonium nitrate
NH4(aq) H2O(l) 3 NH3(aq) H3O(aq) The solution is acidic.

30. What is the molarity of a CsOH solution if

30.0 mL of the solution is neutralized by 26.4 mL 0.250M HBr solution?


1L 0.250 mol HBr 26.4 mL HBr 1000 mL 1 L HBr 6.60 103 mol HBr 1 mol CsOH 6.60 103 mol HBr 1 mol HBr 6.60 103 mol CsOH 6.60 103 mol CsOH MCsOH 0.220M 0.0300 L CsOH

b. rubidium acetate
CH3COO(aq) H2O(l) 3 CH3COOH(aq) OH(aq) The solution is basic.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. potassium sulfate
SO42(aq) H2O(l) 3 HSO4(aq) OH(aq) The solution is neutral.

d. calcium carbonate
CO32(aq) H2O(l) 3 HCO3(aq) OH(aq) The solution is basic.

31. What is the molarity of a nitric acid solution if

43.33 mL 0.1000M KOH solution is needed to neutralize 20.00 mL of unknown solution?


0.1000 mol KOH 1L 43.33 mL KOH 1000 mL 1 L KOH 4.333 103 mol KOH 4.333 103 1 mol HNO3 mol KOH 1 mol KOH

Section 19.4 Assessment


page 625

34. Write the formula equation and the net ionic

4.333 103 mol HNO3 MHNO


3

equation for the neutralization reaction between hydroiodic acid and potassium hydroxide.
HI(aq) KOH(aq) 0 KI(aq) H2O(l) H(aq) OH(aq) 0 H2O(l)

4.333 103 mol HNO3 0.2167M 0.02000 L HNO3

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35. Explain the difference between the equivalence

point and the end point of a titration.


Equivalence point is the pH at which the moles of H ions from the acid equal the moles of OH ions from the base. The end point is the point at which the indicator used in a titration changes color.

Chapter 19 Assessment pages 630632


Concept Mapping 39. Use the following words and phrases to complete the concept map: acidic solutions, acids, bases, Arrhenius model, pH < 7, a salt plus water, Brnsted-Lowry model.
1. described by 2. 3. 4. have 5. produce neutralize 6. yield 7.

36. Predict the results of two experiments: A small

amount of base is added to an unbuffered solution with a pH of 7 and the same amount of base is added to a buffered solution with a pH of 7.
The pH of the unbuffered solution increases more than the pH of the buffered solution.

37. Thinking Critically When a salt is dissolved in

water, how can you predict whether or not a salt hydrolysis reaction occurs?
If the salt has a weak acid parent and/or a weak base parent, hydrolysis occurs.

1. acids; 2. Arrhenius model; 3. Brnsted-Lowry model; 4. acidic solutions; 5. pH < 7; 6. bases; 7. a salt plus water

38. Designing an Experiment Describe how you

would design and carry out a titration in which you use 0.250M HNO3 to determine the molarity of a cesium hydroxide solution.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Place a measured volume of CsOH solution into a flask. Add an indicator. Fill a buret with the 0.250M HNO3 solution. Record the initial buret reading. Add HNO3 solution slowly to the CsOH solution until the end point. Record the final buret reading. Calculate the volume of HNO3 added. Use the volume and molarity of HNO3 and the volume of CsOH to calculate the molarity of the CsOH solution.

Mastering Concepts 40. An aqueous solution tastes bitter and turns litmus blue. Is the solution acidic or basic? (19.1)
The solution is basic.

41. An acidic solution reacts with magnesium

carbonate to produce a gas. What is the formula for the gas? (19.1)
The formula is CO2.

42. In terms of ion concentrations, distinguish

between acidic, neutral, and basic solutions. (19.1)


acidic, [H] > [OH]; neutral, [H] [ OH]; basic, [H] < [OH]

43. Write a balanced chemical equation that repre-

sents the self-ionization of water. (19.1)


H2O(l) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) OH(aq)

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44. How did Arrhenius describe acids and bases?

50. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs in the

(19.1)
An acid contains hydrogen and ionizes to produce H in aqueous solution. A base contains an OH group and dissociates to produce OH in aqueous solution.

equilibrium equation HC2H3O2 H2O 3 H3O C2H3O2. (19.1)


acid: HC2H3O2; conjugate base: C2H3O2; base: H2O; conjugate acid: H3O

51. Gaseous HCl molecules interact with gaseous 45. Table sugar (C12H22O11) contains 22 hydrogen

atoms per molecule. Does this make table sugar an Arrhenius acid? Explain your answer. (19.1)
No, none of the hydrogens ionize to produce H.

NH3 molecules to form a white smoke made up of solid NH4Cl particles. Explain whether or not this is an acid-base reaction according to both the Arrhenius model and the Brnsted-Lowry model. (19.1)
It is a Brnsted-Lowry acid-base reaction because HCl donates a hydrogen ion to NH3. This reaction does not occur in water. Thus, it does not follow the Arrhenius model.

46. Classify each of the following compounds as an

Arrhenius acid or an Arrhenius base. (19.1) a. H2S


acid

b. RbOH
base

52. Explain the difference between a strong acid

and a weak acid. (19.2)


In dilute aqueous solution, a strong acid ionizes completely; a weak acid ionizes slightly.

c. Mg(OH)2
base

53. Why are strong acids and bases also strong elec-

d. H3PO4
acid

trolytes? (19.2)
Because strong acids and bases ionize completely, the large number of ions produced causes the solutions to have high electrical conductivity.

47. Explain the difference between a monoprotic

acid, a diprotic acid, and a triprotic acid. Give an example of each. (19.1)
a monoprotic acid: can donate one H (HCl); a diprotic acid: can donate two H (H2SO4); a triprotic acid: can donate three H (H3PO4)

54. State whether each of the following acids is

strong or weak. (19.2) a. acetic acid


weak

48. Why does acid rain dissolve statues made of

b. hydroiodic acid
strong

marble (CaCO3)? Write the formula equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate. (19.1)
Acidic solutions react with and dissolve carbonates. H2SO4(aq) CaCO3(s) 0 CaSO4(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g)

c. hydrofluoric acid
weak

d. phosphoric acid
weak

49. Ammonia contains three hydrogen atoms per

molecule. However, an aqueous ammonia solution is basic. Explain using the Brnsted-Lowry model of acids and bases. (19.1)
NH3 accepts a hydrogen ion to form the ammonium ion.

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55. State whether each of the following bases is

60. Explain why a weak base has a strong conjugate

strong or weak. (19.2) a. rubidium hydroxide


strong

acid. Give an equation that illustrates your answer. (19.2)


CH3NH2(aq) H2O(l) 3 CH3NH3(aq) OH(aq) CH3NH2 has little tendency to accept a H from H2O. Therefore, CH3NH3 has a strong tendency to donate a H to OH.

b. methylamine
weak

c. ammonia
weak

61. Explain how you can calculate Ka for a weak

acid if you know the concentration of the acid and its pH. (19.2)
Obtain [H] from the pH. [X] [ H]. [HX] the initial concentration minus [H]. Use the acids ionization constant expression to calculate Ka.

d. sodium hydroxide
strong

56. How would you compare the strengths of two

62. What is the relationship between the pOH and

weak acids (19.2) a. experimentally?


Compare the conductivities of equimolar solutions of the acids.

the hydroxide-ion concentration of a solution? (19.3)


pOH log [OH]

63. Solution A has a pH of 2.0. Solution B has a pH b. by looking up information in a table or a

handbook?
Compare acid ionization constants of the two acids.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

of 5.0. Which solution is more acidic? Based on the hydrogen-ion concentrations in the two solutions, how many times more acidic? (19.3)
Solution A is 103, or 1000 times more acidic than B.

57. Figure 19-7 shows the conductivity of two

64. If the concentration of hydrogen ions in an

acids. Explain how you could distinguish between solutions of two bases, one containing NaOH and the other NH3. (19.2)
The conductivity of the strong base NaOH is greater than the conductivity of the weak base NH3.

aqueous solution decreases, what must happen to the concentration of hydroxide ions? Why? (19.3)
[OH] increases. [H][OH] Kw

65. Explain why pure water has a very slight elec-

58. Explain why the base ionization constant (Kb)

trical conductivity. (19.3)


Pure water ionizes to a slight degree producing H3O and OH ions.

is a measure of the strength of a base. (19.2)


The greater the value of Kb, the greater the [OH].

66. Why is the pH of pure water 7.0 at 298 K?

59. Explain why a weak acid has a strong conjugate

(19.3)
pH log [H], and [H] in pure water at 298 K is 1.0 107M.

base. Give an equation that illustrates your answer. (19.2)


HF(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) F(aq) HF has little tendency to donate a H to H2O (weak acid). Therefore, F has a strong tendency to accept a H from H3O (strong base).

67. What is a standard solution in an acid-base titra-

tion? (19.4)
the solution of known concentration

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68. How do you recognize the end point in an

74. In the net ionic equation for the neutralization

acid-base titration? (19.4)


the color of the acid-base indicator changes

reaction between nitric acid and magnesium hydroxide, what ions are left out of the equation? (19.4)
2HNO3(aq) Mg(OH)2(aq) 0 Mg(NO3)2(aq) 2H2O(l) H(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 H2O(l) nitrate and magnesium ions

69. Give the name and formula of the acid and the

base from which each salt was formed. (19.4) a. NaCl


hydrochloric acid, HCl; sodium hydroxide, NaOH

75. Describe two ways you might detect the end

b. KClO3
chloric acid, HClO3; potassium hydroxide, KOH

point of an acid-base titration experimentally. (19.4)


Use a pH meter or an acid-base indicator.

c. NH4NO2
nitrous acid, HNO2; ammonium hydroxide, NH4OH

76. What is the approximate pH of the equivalence

point in the titration pH curve? (19.4)


Titration Curve for a Base
14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0

d. CaS
hydrosulfuric acid, H2S; calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2

70. How does buffering a solution change the solu-

tions behavior when a base is added? When an acid is added? (19.4)


Buffering minimizes the pH change in both instances.

pH

Volume of acid added


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

approximately pH 5

71. Why are some aqueous salt solutions acidic or

basic? (19.4)
Cations of some salts donate H to water, forming acidic solutions. Anions of other salts accept H from water, producing basic solutions.

77. Define both the equivalence point and the end

point of an acid-base titration. Why should you choose an indicator so that the two points are nearly the same pH? (19.4)
The equivalence point is the point at which mol H ions equals mol OH ions. The end point is the point at which the indicator changes color. An indicator detects the equivalence point, so the two should occur at the same pH.

72. How does knowing the equivalence point in an

acid-base titration help you choose an indicator for the titration? (19.4)
The color change should occur at a pH near the equivalence point.

78. Explain how you can predict whether an

73. An aqueous solution causes bromthymol blue to

turn blue and phenolphthalein to turn colorless. What is the approximate pH of the solution? (19.4)
between 7.6 and 8.5

aqueous salt solution is acidic, basic, or neutral by evaluating the strengths of the salts acid and base parents. (19.4)
An aqueous salt solution is acidic if the salts acid parent is strong and its base parent is weak, basic if the salts acid parent is weak and its base parent is strong, neutral if both the acid parent and base parent are strong.

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79. In a hypochlorous acid/hypochlorite-ion buffer,

what chemical species reacts when an acid is added to the solution? (19.4)
hypochlorite ion

Level 2 86. Write the equation for the ionization reaction and the acid ionization constant expression for the third ionization of phosphoric acid in water.
HPO42(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) PO43(aq) [H3O][PO43] Ka [HPO42]

80. Arrange the three buffers in order of increasing

pH values. In order of increasing buffer capacity. a. 1.0M HClO/1.0M NaClO


b. 0.10M HClO/0.10M NaClO c. 0.010M HClO/0.010M NaClO
All three solutions have the same pH. the buffer capacity: c, b, a

Kw, pH, and pOH (19.3) Level 1 87. Given the concentration of either hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion, use the ion product constant of water to calculate the concentration of the other ion at 298 K. a. [H] 1.0 104M
Kw [ H][OH] 1.0 1014 ( 1.0 104)[OH] 1.0 1014 (1.0 104)[OH] 1.0 104 1.0 104 [OH] 1.0 1010M

Mastering Problems Equations for Acid and Base Reactions (19.1) Level 1 81. Write a balanced formula equation for the reaction between sulfuric acid and calcium metal.
H2SO4(aq) Ca(s) 0 CaSO4(aq) H2(g)

82. Write a balanced formula equation for the reacCopyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. [OH] 1.3 102M


Kw [ H][OH] 1.0 1014 [ H](1.3 102) 1.0 1014 [H](1.3 102) 2 1.3 10 1.3 102 [H] 7.7 1013M

tion between potassium hydrogen carbonate and chlorous acid (HClO2).


KHCO3(s) HClO2(aq) 0 KClO2(aq) H2O(l) CO2(g)

83. Write the balanced chemical equation for the

ionization of perchloric acid (HClO4) in water.


HClO4(aq) H2O(l) 0 H3O(aq) ClO4(aq)

88. Calculate the pH at 298 K of solutions having

84. Write the balanced chemical equation for the

the following ion concentrations. a. [H] 1.0 104M


pH log[H] pH log(1.0 104) (4.00) 4.00

dissociation of solid magnesium hydroxide in water.


Mg(OH)2(s) 3 Mg2(aq) 2OH(aq)

b. [H] 5.8 1011M


pH log[H] pH log(5.8 1011) (10.24) 10.24

Weak Acids and Bases (19.2) Level 1 85. Write the equation for the ionization reaction and the acid ionization constant expression for the HS ion in water.
HS(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) S2(aq) [H3O][S2] Ka [HS]

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Level 2 89. Calculate the pOH and pH at 298 K of solutions having the following ion concentrations. a. [OH] 1.0 1012M
pOH log[OH] pOH log(1.0 1012) (12.00) 12.00 pH pOH 14.00 pH 12.00 14.00 pH 14.00 12.00 2.00

Calculations Using Ka (19.3) Level 1 91. A 8.6 103M solution of H3PO4 has a pH 2.30. What is Ka for H3PO4?
[H][H2PO4] Ka [H3PO4] [H] [ H2PO4] antilog(2.30) 5.0 103M [H3PO4] 8.6 103M 5.0 103M 3.6 103M (5.0 103)(5.0 103) 6.9 103 Ka 3.6 103

b. [OH] 1.3 102M


pOH log[OH] pOH log(1.3 102) (1.89) 1.89 pH pOH 14.00 pH 1.89 14.00 pH 14.00 1.89 12.11

92. What is Ka for a solution of chloroacetic acid

(C2H3ClO2) which has a concentration of 0.112M and a pH of 1.92?


[H][C2H2ClO2] Ka [C2H3ClO2] [H] [ C2H2ClO2] antilog(1.92) 1.2 102M [C2H3ClO2] 0.112M 1.2 102M 0.100M (1.2 102)(1.2 102) Ka 1.4 103 0.100

90. Calculate the pH of each of the following strong

acid or strong base solutions at 298 K. a. 2.6 102M HCl


pH log[H] log(2.6 102) 1.59

b. 0.28M HNO3
pH log[H] log(0.28) 0.55

c. 7.5 103M NaOH


pOH log[OH] log(7.5 103) 2.13 pH pOH 14.00 pH 2.13 14.00 pH 14.00 2.13 11.87

H2SO4(aq) 2NaOH(aq) 0 Na2SO4(aq) 2H2O(l)

b. methanoic acid potassium hydroxide


HCOOH(aq) KOH(aq) 0 KHCOO(aq) H2O(l)

d. 0.44M KOH
pOH log[OH] log(0.44) 0.36 pH pOH 14.00 pH 0.36 14.00 pH 14.00 0.36 13.64

94. Write formula equations and net ionic equations

for the hydrolysis of the following salts in water. a. sodium carbonate


Na2CO3(s) H2O(l) 0 NaHCO3(aq) NaOH(aq); CO32(aq) H2O(l) 0 HCO3(aq) OH(aq)

b. ammonium bromide
NH4Br(s) H2O(l) 0 HBr(aq) NH4OH(aq); NH4(aq) H2O(l) 0 NH3(aq) H3O(aq)

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Neutralization Reactions (19.4) Level 1 93. Write formula equations for the following acidbase neutralization reactions. a. sulfuric acid sodium hydroxide

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Level 2 95. In a titration, 33.21 mL 0.3020M rubidium hydroxide solution is required to exactly neutralize 20.00 mL hydrofluoric acid solution. What is the molarity of the hydrofluoric acid solution?
RbOH(aq) HF(aq) 0 RbF(aq) H2O(l) 1L 0.3020 mol KOH 33.21 mL RbOH 1000 mL L KOH 1.003 102 mol RbOH 1 mol HF 1.003 102 mol RbOH 1 mol RbOH 1.003 102 mol HF MHF 1000 mL 1.003 103 mol HF 20.00 mL HF 1L

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 97. Calculate [H] and [OH] in each of the following solutions at 298 K. a. pH 3.00
[H] antilog (pH) [H] antilog (3.00) 1.0 103M pH pOH 14.00 3.00 pOH 14.00 pOH 14.00 3.00 11.00 [OH] antilog (pOH) [OH] antilog (11.00) 1.0 1011M

0.5015M

b. pH 5.24
[H] antilog (pH) [H] antilog (5.24) 5.8 106M pH pOH 14.00 5.24 pOH 14.00 pOH 14.00 5.24 8.76 [OH] antilog (pOH) [OH] antilog (8.76) 1.7 109M

96. A 35.00 mL-sample of NaOH solution is

titrated to an endpoint by 14.76 mL 0.4122M HBr solution. What is the molarity of the NaOH solution?
HBr(aq) NaOH(aq) 0 NaBr(aq) H2O(l) 1L 0.4122 mol HBr 14.76 mL HBr 1000 mL 1 L HBr 6.084 103 mol HBr 6.084 103 6.084 1 mol NaOH mol HBr 1 mol HBr mol NaOH

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

98. Write the equation for the ionization reaction

103

6.084 103 mol NaOH 1000 mL MNaOH 35.00 mL NaOH 1L 0.1738M

and the base ionization constant expression for ethylamine (C2H5NH2) in water.
C2H5NH2(aq) H2O(l) 3 C2H5NH3(aq) OH(aq) [C2H5NH3][OH] Kb [C2H5NH2]

99. Write net ionic equations for the three ioniza-

tions of boric acid (H3BO3) in water. Include H2O in the three equations. Identify the conjugate acid-base pairs.
H3BO3(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) H2BO3(aq) Acid: H3BO3; Conjugate base: H2BO3; Base: H2O; Conjugate acid: H3O H2BO3(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) HBO32(aq) Acid: H2BO3; Conjugate base: HBO32; Base: H2O; Conjugate acid: H3O HBO32(aq) H2O(l) 3 H3O(aq) BO33(aq) Acid: HBO32; Conjugate base: BO33;Base: H2O; Conjugate acid: H3O

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100. How many milliliters of 0.225M HCl would be

104. Using Numbers The ion product constant of

required to titrate 6.00 g KOH?


1 mol KOH 6.00 g KOH 0.107 mol KOH 56.11 g KOH 1 mol HCl 0.107 mol KOH 1 mol KOH 1000 mL HCl 1L 475 mL HCl 0.225 mol HCl 1L

water rises with temperature. What is the pH of pure water at 313 K if Kw at that temperature is 2.917 1014?
Kw [ H][OH] 2.917 1014 [H] [ OH] x 2.917 1014 x2 x
14 1.708 107 2.917 10

101. What is the pH of a 0.200M solution of hypo-

bromous acid (HBrO), Ka 2.8 109.

pH log[H] (log 1.708 log 107) (0.2325 (7)) 6.7675

[BrO] [ H]; [HBrO] 0.200M [H] Assume that because Ka is small, [H] is insignificant compared to 0.200M. Thus, [HBrO] 0.200M. [H][BrO] Ka [HBrO] [H]2 2.8 109 0.200 [H]2 2.8 109 0.200

105.

Interpreting Scientific Illustrations Sketch the shape of the approximate pH vs. volume curve that would result from titrating a diprotic acid with a 0.10M NaOH solution.

pH log(2.4 105) 4.63

pH

[H] 2.4 105M

Thinking Critically 102. Analyzing and Concluding Is it possible that an acid according to the Arrhenius model is not a Brnsted-Lowry acid? Is it possible that an acid according to the Brnsted-Lowry model is not an Arrhenius acid? Explain and give examples.
All Arrhenius acids are Brnsted-Lowry acids and all Brnsted-Lowry acids are Arrhenius acids when in aqueous solution. Acids in both models produce H. Examples, HCl, H2SO4, H3PO4.

Volume of NaOH added

106. Recognizing Cause and Effect Illustrate how

103. Applying Concepts Use the ion product

a buffer works using the C2H5NH3/C2H5NH2 buffer system. Show with equations how the weak base/conjugate acid system is affected when small amounts of acid and base are added to a solution containing this buffer system.

constant of water at 298 K to explain why a solution with a pH of 3.0 must have a pOH of 11.0.
A solution having a pH of 3.0 has a hydrogen-ion concentration of 1.00 103M. Substitute 1.00 103M for [H] in the expression Kw [H][OH]. [OH] 1.00 1011M; pOH 11.

C2H5NH3(aq) 3 H(aq) C2H5NH2(aq) When an acid is added, the buffer equilibrium shifts to the left. When a base is added, the added OH ions react with H ions and the reaction shifts to the right.

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Writing in Chemistry 107. Examine the labels of at least two brands of shampoo and record any information regarding pH. Research the pH of skin, hair, and the pH ranges of various shampoos. Write a report summarizing your findings.
Student answers will vary. Typical answers will include some or all the following information: Human hair is made up of keratin, a protein molecule. As hair emerges from your scalp, it is coated with sebum, an oily substance. Shampoos clean hair by removing dirt and some of the oily sebum. Strands of human hair are strongest and most lustrous at slightly acidic pH values between 5 and 6. Most of todays shampoos are pH balanced. That is, they are formulated to have pH values between 5 and 6. Soaps and older shampoos, however, are basic. Their use in hard water leaves a dulling film of insoluble salts. Many shampoos contain the following: conditioners that replace some of the oil lost in the cleaning process; proteins that coat the hairmaking it thickerand repairs split ends. Many shampoos contain materials to contain dandruff. Coal tar, selenium sulfide, and pyrithione zinc are commonly used for this purpose.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 109. What factors determine whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar? (Chapter 9)
bond polarity and molecular shape

110. When 5.00 g of a compound was burned in a

calorimeter, the temperature of 2.00 kg of water increased from 24.5C to 40.5C. How much heat would be released by the combustion of 1.00 mol of the compound (molar mass 46.1 g/mol)? (Chapter 16)
q c m T T 40.5C 24.5C 16.0C 1 kg 1000 g 1 mol compound 5.00 g compound 46.1 g compound 0.108 mol compound q [ 4.184 J/(gC)](2.00 103 g)(16.0C) 1.34 105 J 1 kJ 335 J 1240 kJ/mol released 0.108 mol 1000 J

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 19


page 633

108. The twenty amino acids combine to form

proteins in living systems. Research the structures and Ka values for five amino acids. Compare the strengths of these acids with the weak acids in Table 19-2.
Student answers will vary. For example, Ka for valine, whose structure is found on page 776, is 2.51 104 at 298 K.

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. A carbonated soft drink has a pH of 2.5. What is the concentration of H ions in the soft drink? a. 3 1012M b. 3 103M c. 4.0 101M d. 1.1 101M
pH log [H] pH log [H] antilog(pH) [ H] antilog(2.5) [ H] 3 103M b

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2. At the equivalence point of a strong acid-strong

6. What is the acid dissociation constant of

base titration, what is the approximate pH? a. 3 b. 5 c. 7 d. 9


c

propanoic acid? a. 1.4 105 b. 2.43 100 c. 3.72 103 d. 7.3 104
[H][C3H5O2] Ka [HC3H5O2] [H] [ C3H5O2] antilog(2.43) 3.7 103M [HC3H5O2] 1.00M 3.7 103M 0.10M Substitute the values of the concentrations into the Ka expression. (3.7 103)2 Ka 1.4 105 (0.10) a

3. Hydrogen bromide (HBr) is a strong, highly

corrosive acid. What is the pOH of a 0.0375M HBr solution? a. 12.57 b. 12.27 c. 1.73 d. 1.43
pH log(0.0375) 1.426 pOH 14.00 1.426 12.57 a

7. What is the pH of a 0.400M solution of

4. A compound that accepts H ions is a. b. c. d.


d

an Arrhenius acid an Arrhenius base a Brnsted-Lowry acid a Brnsted-Lowry base

cyanoacetic acid? a. 2.059 b. 1.22 c. 2.45 d. 1.42


[H][C3H2NO2] Ka 3.55 103 [HC3H2NO2] Determine [H]. [H] [ C3H2NO2] x [HC3H2NO2] 0.400M [H] Assume [H] is negligibly small compared to 0.400M because HC3H2NO2 is a weak acid. Thus, [HC3H2NO2] 0.400M. x2 3.55 103 0.400 x2 ( 0.400)(3.55 103)
3) 3.77 102M [ H] x (0.400 )(3.55 10

Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 57.


5. Which of the following acids is the strongest? a. b. c. d.
c

formic acid cyanoacetic acid lutidinic acid barbituric acid

pH log 3.77 102 1.423 d

Ionization Constants and pH Data for Several Weak Organic Acids


Acid Formic Cyanoacetic Propanoic Lutidinic Barbituric Ionization equation HCHO2 3 H CHO2 pH of 1.000M solution 1.87 ? 2.43 1.09 2.01 Ka 1.78 104 3.55 103 ? 7.08 103 9.77 105 Solutions Manual

HC3H2NO2 3 H C3H2NO2 HC3H5O2 3 H C3H5O2 H2C7H3NO4 3 H C7H4NO4 HC4H3N2O3 3 H C4H3N2O3

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8. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic

10. A solution of 0.600M HCl is used to titrate

of a base? a. bitter taste b. ability to conduct electricity c. reactivity with some metals d. slippery feel
c

9. Diprotic succinic acid (H2C4H4O4) is an impor-

15.00 mL of KOH solution. The endpoint of the titration is reached after the addition of 27.13 mL of HCl. What is the concentration of the KOH solution? a. 9.00M b. 1.09M c. 0.332M d. 0.0163M
Calculate moles of HCl used. 1L 27.13 mL 0.02713 L HCl 1000 mL 0.600 mol 0.02713 L 0.0163 mol HCl 1L HCl(aq) KOH(aq) 0 H2O(l) KCl The ratio of mol HCl : mol KOH is 1 : 1. Thus, mol KOH 0.0163 mol 0.0163 mol KOH 1.09M 0.0150 L KOH b

tant part of the process that converts glucose to energy in the human body. What is the Ka expression for the second ionization of succinic acid? [H3O][HC4H4O4] a. Ka [H2C4H4O4] [H3O][C4H4O42] b. Ka [HC4H4O4] [H2C4H4O4] c. Ka [H3O][HC4H4O4] [H2C4H4O4] d. Ka [H3O][C4H4O42]
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

HC4H4O4(aq) H2O(l) 3 C4H4O42(aq) H3O(aq) [H3O][C4H4O42] Ka [HC4H4O4] b

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Redox Reactions
Section 20.1 Oxidation and Reduction
pages 635643

b. 2Na 2H 0 2Na H2
oxidizing agent: hydrogen ion reducing agent: sodium

Practice Problems
pages 640, 642

c. H2S Cl2 0 S 2HCl


oxidizing agent: chlorine reducing agent: hydrogen sulfide

1. Identify each of the following changes as either

oxidation or reduction. Recall that e is the symbol for an electron. a. I2 2e 0 2I


reduction

4. Determine the oxidation number of the

b. K 0 K e
oxidation

boldface element in the following formulas for compounds. a. NaClO4


7

c. Fe2 0 Fe3 e
oxidation

b. AlPO4
5

d. Ag e 0 Ag
reduction

c. HNO2
3

5. Determine the oxidation number of the boldface


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

2. Identify what is oxidized and what is reduced in

the following processes. a. 2Br Cl2 0 Br2 2Cl


oxidized: bromide ion reduced: chlorine

element in the following formulas for ions. a. NH4


3

b. AsO43
5

b. 2Ce 3Cu2 0 3Cu 2Ce3


oxidized: cerium reduced: copper(II) ion

c. CrO42
6

c. 2Zn O2 0 2ZnO
oxidized: zinc reduced: oxygen

Section 20.1 Assessment


page 643

6. Describe the processes of oxidation and

reduction.
The process in which an element loses electrons is called oxidation. The process in which an element gains electrons is reduction.

3. Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing

agent in each of the following reactions. a. Mg I2 0 MgI2


oxidizing agent: iodine reducing agent: magnesium

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7. Explain the roles of oxidizing agents and

11. Making Predictions Alkali metals are strong

reducing agents in a redox reaction. How is each changed in the reaction?


An oxidizing agent causes another species to be oxidized by gaining the electrons from it. A reducing agent causes another species to be reduced by losing electrons to that element.

reducing agents. Would you predict that their reducing ability would increase or decrease as you move down the family from sodium to francium? Give reasons for your prediction.
In general, as you move down the periodic table within a family, the tendency to lose electrons increases so the reducing ability increases. Note: lithium does not follow the pattern of increasing reducing power in the series.

8. Determine the oxidation number of the boldface

element in these compounds. a. Sb2O5


5

b. HNO3
5

Section 20.2 Balancing Redox Equations


pages 644649

c. Ca3N2
3

Practice Problems
pages 646, 649

d. CuWO4 (copper(II) tungstate)


6

Use the oxidation-number method to balance these redox equations. 12. HCl HNO3 0 HOCl NO H2O
3(2)
1 1 1 5 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2

9. Determine the oxidation number of the boldface

element in these ions. a. IO4


7

HCl HNO3 0 HOCl NO H2O


2(3)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. MnO4
7

3HCl 2HNO3 0 3HOCl 2NO H2O

13. SnCl4 Fe 0 SnCl2 FeCl3


2(3)
4 1 0 2 1 3 1

c. B4O72
3

SnCl4 Fe 0 SnCl2 FeCl3


3(2)

d. NH2
3

3SnCl4 2Fe 0 3SnCl2 2FeCl3

10. Thinking Critically Write the equation for the

reaction of iron metal with hydrobromic acid to form iron(III) bromide and hydrogen gas. Determine which element is reduced and which element is oxidized in this reaction.
2Fe 6HBr 0 2FeBr3 3H2 Fe is oxidized; H is reduced.

14. NH3(g) NO2(g) 0 N2(g) H2O(l)


4(3)(2)
3 1 4 2 1 2

NH3(g) NO2 (g) 0 N2(g) H2O(l)


3(4)(2)

8NH3(g) 6NO2(g) 0 7N2(g) 12H2O(l)

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Use the oxidation-number method to balance the following net ionic redox equations. 15. H2S(g) NO3(aq) 0 S(s) NO(g) (in acid solution)
3(2)
1 2 5 2 2 2

20. Balance these equations for redox reactions by

using the oxidation-number method. a. HClO3(aq) 0 ClO2(g) HClO4(aq) H2O(l)


1
5 4 6 2

H2S(g) NO3(aq) 0 S(s) NO(g)


2(3)

3HClO3 0 2ClO2 HClO4 H2O


1

3H2S(g) 2NO(g) 4H2O(l)

2H(aq)

2NO3(aq)

0 3S(s)

b. H2O2(aq) H2SO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) 0

16. Cr2O72(aq) I(aq) 0 Cr3(aq) I2(s)

(in acid solution)


3(1)(2)
6 2 1 3

Fe2(SO4)3(aq) H2O(l) (Hint: Review rule 5 to learn how to determine the oxidation numbers in H2O2.)
2
1 2 3 1 2

Cr2O72(aq) 2I(aq) 0 Cr3(aq) I2(s)


(3)(2)

H2O2 H2SO4 2FeSO4 0 Fe2(SO4)3 2H2O


2(1)

14H(aq) Cr2O72(aq) 6I(aq) 0 2Cr3(aq) 3I2(s) 7H2O(l)

c. H2SeO3(aq) HClO3(aq) 0 H2SeO4(aq)

Cl2(g) H2O(l)
4 5

17. I(aq) MnO4(aq) 0 I2(s) MnO2(s) (in

5(2)

basic solution) Hint: Hydroxide ions will appear on the right, and water molecules on the left.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

5H2SeO3 2HClO3 0 5H2SeO4 Cl2 H2O


2(5)

3(1)(2)

2I MnO4 0 I2 MnO2
(3)(2)

7 2

4 2

21. Balance these net ionic equations for redox

6I(aq)

2MnO4(aq) 4H2O(l) 0 3I2(s) 2MnO2(s) 8OH(aq)

reactions. a. Cr2O72(aq) Fe2(aq) 0 Cr3(aq) Fe3(aq) (in acid solution)


Cr2O72 6Fe2 14H 0 2Cr3 6Fe3 7H2O Oxidation number of Fe increases from 2 to 3. Oxidation number of Cr decreases from 6 to 3.

Section 20.2 Assessment


page 649

18. A reactant in an oxidationreduction reaction

loses four electrons when it is oxidized. How many electrons must be gained by the reactant that is reduced?
four

b. Zn(s) V2O5(aq) 0 Zn2(aq) V2O4(aq)

(in acid solution)


Zn 2H V2O5 0 Zn2 V2O4 H2O Oxidation number of Zn increases from 0 to 2. Oxidation number of V decreases from 5 to 4.

19. Why is it important to know the conditions

under which an aqueous redox reaction takes place in order to balance the ionic equation for the reaction?
It is important to know that H or OH are available to balance the equation.

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c. N2O(g) ClO(aq) 0 Cl(aq)

NO2(aq) (in basic solution)

Section 20.3 Half-Reactions


pages 650653

N2O 2ClO 2OH 0 2Cl 2NO2 H2O (basic) Oxidation number of N increases from 1 to 3. Oxidation number of Cl decreases from 1 to 1.

Practice Problems
page 653

22. Thinking Critically Explain how changes in

oxidation number are related to the electrons transferred in a redox reaction. How are the changes related to the processes of oxidation and reduction?
Because the nucleus (specifically, number of protons) never changes during this type of reaction, whenever there is a transfer of electrons from one atom to another atom, there is a change in the net charge of that species.

Use the half-reaction method to balance the following redox equations. Begin with step 2 of Example Problem 20-5, and leave the balanced equation in ionic form. 24. Cr2O72(aq) I(aq) 0 Cr3(aq) I2(s) (in acid solution)
2I(aq) 0 I2(s) 2e (oxidation) 14H(aq) 6e Cr2O72(aq) 0 2Cr3(aq) 7H2O(l) (reduction) Multiply oxidation half-reaction by 3 and add to reduction half-reaction 14H(aq) 6e Cr2O72(aq) 6I(aq) 0 3I2(s) 2Cr3(aq) 7H2O(l) 6e 14H(aq) Cr2O72(aq) 6I(aq) 0 3I2(s) 2Cr3(aq) 7H2O(l)

23. Applying Concepts The processes used to

skeleton equation: HgS CaO 0 CaS Hg CaSO4 net ionic equation: Hg2 S2 0 Hg SO42 Oxidation number of S increases from 2 to 6; oxidation number of Hg decreases from 2 to 0. balanced equation: 2Hg2 S2 0 2Hg SO42 balanced equation: 4HgS 4CaO 0 3CaS 4Hg CaSO4

BiO3(aq) 3e 6H(aq) 0 Bi2(aq) 3H2O(l) (reduction) Multiply oxidation half-reaction by 3. Multiply reduction half-reaction by 5 and add to oxidation half-reaction. 3Mn2(aq) 12H2O(l) 5BiO3(aq) 15e 30H(aq) 0 3MnO4(aq) 15e 24H(aq) 5Bi2(aq) 15H2O(l) 3Mn2(aq) 5BiO3(aq) 6H(aq) 0 3MnO4(aq) 5Bi2(aq) 3H2O(l)

26. N2O(g) ClO(aq) 0 NO2(aq) Cl(aq)

(in basic solution). Hint: Add O and H in the form of OH ions and H2O molecules.
6OH(aq) N2O(g) 0 2NO2(aq) 4e 3H2O(l) (oxidation) ClO(aq) 2e H2O(l) 0 Cl(aq) 2OH(aq)(reduction)

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remove metals from their ores usually involve a reduction process. For example, mercury may be obtained by roasting the ore mercury(II) sulfide with calcium oxide to produce mercury metal, calcium sulfide, and calcium sulfate. Write and balance the redox equation for this process.

25. Mn2(aq) BiO3(aq) 0 MnO4(aq)

Bi2(aq) (in acid solution)

Mn2(aq) 4H2O(l) 0 MnO4(aq) 5e 8H(aq) (oxidation)

CHAPTER

20

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

Multiply reduction half-reaction by 2 and add to oxidation half-reaction. 6OH(aq) N2O(g) 2ClO(aq) 4e 2H2O(l) 0 2NO2(aq) 4e 3H2O(l) 2Cl(aq) 4OH(aq) N2O(g) 2ClO(aq) 2OH(aq) 0 2NO2(aq) 2Cl(aq) H2O(l)

30. Thinking Critically The oxidation half-reaction

of a redox reaction is Sn2 0 Sn4 2e and the reduction half-reaction is Au3 3e 0 Au. What minimum numbers of tin(II) ions and gold(III) ions would have to react in order to have no electrons left over?
Sn2 0 Sn4 2e Au3 3e 0 Au

Section 20.3 Assessment


page 653

3Sn2 2Au3 6e 0 3Sn4 2Au 6e Three tin(II) ions and two gold(III) ions

27. Explain why an oxidation process must always

accompany a reduction process.


To lose an electron (oxidation), there must be another species willing to accept that electron (reduction). This is according to the laws of conservation of mass and charge.

31. Calculating The concentration of thallium(I)

28. Write the oxidation and reduction half-reactions

for this redox equation. Pb(s) Pd(NO3)2(aq) 0 Pb(NO3)2(aq) Pd(s)


oxidation: Pb 0 Pb2 2e reduction: Pd2 2e 0 Pd

29. Use the half-reaction method to balance this


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ions in solution may be determined by oxidizing to thallium(III) ions with an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) under acidic conditions. Suppose that a 100.00 mL sample of a solution of unknown Tl concentration is titrated to the endpoint with 28.23 mL of a 0.0560M solution of potassium permanganate. What is the concentration of Tl ions in the sample? You must first balance the redox equation for the reaction to determine its stoichiometry. Tl(aq) MnO4(aq) 0 Tl3(aq) Mn2(aq)
5Tl(aq) 2MnO4(aq) 0 5Tl3(aq) 2Mn2(aq) 1L 28.23 mL KMnO4 1000 mL 0.0560 mol KMnO4 5 mol Tl 2 mol KMnO4 1 L KMnO4 0.00395 mol Tl 1000 mL 0.00395 mol Tl M 0.0395M Tl 100.00 mL 1L

redox equation. Begin with step 2 of Example Problem 20-5, and leave the balanced equation in ionic form. AsO43(aq) Zn(s) 0 AsH3(g) Zn2(aq) (in acid solution)
Zn 0 Zn2 2e AsO43 8e 0 As3 Zn 0 Zn2 2e AsO43 8e 8H 0 As3 4H2O 4Zn 0 4Zn2 8e AsO43 8e 8H 0 As3 4H2O AsO43(aq) 4Zn(s) 11H(aq) 0 AsH3(g) 4Zn2(aq) 4H2O(l)
3 0 2

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Chapter 20 Assessment pages 658660


Concept Mapping 32. Complete the concept map using the following terms: decreases, half-reactions, gain electrons, reduction, lose electrons, redox reaction, oxidation, increases.
1. consists of two

36. How does the oxidation number change when

an element is oxidized? When it is reduced? (20.1)


Oxidation number increases; oxidation number decreases.

37. Explain why oxidation and reduction must

occur simultaneously. (20.1)


If an atom loses an electron, some other species must gain the electron.

38. Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing


2. called 3. 4.

agent in the following equation. Explain your answer. (20.2) Fe(s) Ag(aq) 0 Fe2(aq) Ag(s)
oxidizing agent, Ag; reducing agent, Fe; Ag is reduced; Fe is oxidized.

in which atoms 5. 6.

39. How can you tell that the redox equation in

question 38 is not balanced? (20.2)


and the oxidation number 7. 8. The total charge on the left-hand side does not equal the total charge on the right-hand side.

40. How does the change in oxidation number in an


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

1. redox reaction; 2. half-reactions; 3. oxidation; 4. reduction; 5. lose electrons; 6. gain electrons; 7. increases; 8. decreases

oxidation process relate to the number of electrons lost? How does the change in oxidation number in a reduction process relate to the number of electrons gained? (20.2)
The change in oxidation number equals the number of electrons lost in oxidation, gained in reduction.

Mastering Concepts 33. What is the main characteristic of oxidationreduction reactions? (20.1)
All oxidationreduction reactions involve the transfer of electrons.

41. Before you attempt to balance the equation for a

34. In terms of electrons, what happens when an

atom is oxidized? When an atom is reduced? (20.1)


Electrons are lost; electrons are gained.

redox reaction, why do you need to know whether the reaction takes place in acidic or basic solution? (20.3)
The type of solution provides the H and OH ions needed to balance the redox equation because they are readily available.

35. What is the oxidation number of alkaline earth

metals in their compounds? Of alkali metals? (20.1)


alkaline earth 2 alkali metals 1

42. Does the following equation represent a reduc-

tion or an oxidation process? Explain your answer. (20.3) Zn2 2e 0 Zn


reduction; Electrons are gained and the oxidation number for Zn decreases.

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43. What term is used for the type of reaction repre-

47. Determine the oxidation number of the bold

sented in question 42? (20.3)


half-reaction

element in these substances and ions. a. CaCrO4


6

Mastering Problems Oxidation and Reduction (20.1) Level 1 44. Identify the species oxidized and the species reduced in each of these redox equations. a. 3Br2 2Ga 0 2GaBr3
Ga is oxidized, Br2 is reduced.

b. NaHSO4
6

c. NO 2
3

d. BrO 3
5

b. HCl Zn 0 ZnCl2 H2
Zn is oxidized, HCl is reduced.

48. Determine the net change of oxidation number

c. Mg N2 0 Mg3N2
Mg is oxidized, N2 is reduced.

of each of the elements in these redox equations. a. C O2 0 CO2


C, 4; O, 2

45. Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing

b. Cl2 ZnI2 0 ZnCl2 I2


I, 1; Cl, 1; Zn, no change

agent in each of these redox equations. a. H2S Cl2 0 2HCl S


Cl2 is the oxidizing agent, H2S is the reducing agent.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. CdO CO 0 Cd CO2
C, 2; Cd, 2; O, no change

b. N2 3H2 0 2NH3
N2 is the oxidizing agent, H2 is the reducing agent.

49. Which of these equations does not represent a

redox reaction? Explain your answer. a. LiOH HNO3 0 LiNO3 H2O


b. Ag S 0 Ag2S c. MgI2 Br2 0 MgBr2 I2
Choice a is not redox because none of the atoms in the reaction undergo a change in oxidation number.

c. 2Na I2 0 2NaI
I2 is the oxidizing agent, Na is the reducing agent.

46. Identify each of these half-reactions as either

oxidation or reduction. a. Al 0 Al3 3e


oxidation
b. NO2 0 NO 3 e

50. Identify each of these half-reactions as either

oxidation or reduction. a. Fe3 0 Fe2


reduction

oxidation

c. Cu2 e 0 Cu
reduction

b. HPO32 0 HPO42
oxidation

c. BCl3 0 B2Cl4
reduction

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51. Determine the oxidation number of nitrogen in

each of these molecules or ions. a. NH3


3

b. KCN
3

Balancing Redox Equations (20.2) Level 1 54. Use the oxidation-number method to balance these redox equations. a. CO I2O5 0 I2 CO2
5(2)
22 52 0 42

c. N2H4
2

5CO I2O5 0 I2 5CO2


2(5)

d. NO3
5

b. Cl2 NaOH 0 NaCl HOCl


1
0 121 11 121

e. N2O
1

Cl2 NaOH 0 NaCl HOCl


1

f. NF3
3

c. SO2 Br2 H2O 0 HBr H2SO4


2
42 0 12 11 162

52. Determine the oxidation number of each

SO2 Br2 2H2O 0 2HBr H2SO4


2(1)

element in these compounds or ions. a. FeCr2O4 (iron(II) chromite)


Fe, 2; Cr, 3; O, 2

d. HBrO3 0 Br2 H2O O2


152 0 12 0

b. Au2(SeO4)3 (gold(III) selenate)


Au, 3; Se, 6; O, 2

4HBrO3 0 2Br2 2H2O 5O2


2(2)(5)

c. Ni(CN)2 (nickel(II) cyanide)


Ni, 2; C, 2; N, 3

55. Use the oxidation-number method to balance

53. Explain how the sulfite ion (SO32) differs from

sulfur trioxide (SO3).


SO32 is a polyatomic ion and the oxidation number of sulfur is 4. SO3 is a compound and the oxidation number of S in this compound is 6.

the following ionic redox equations. a. Al I2 0 Al3 I


2(3)

2Al 3I2 0 2Al3 6I


3(2)(1)

b. MnO2 Br 0 Mn2 Br2

(in acid solution)


(2)(1)
42 1 2 0

MnO2 2Br 4H 0 Mn2 Br2 2H20


(2)

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2(5)(2)

CHAPTER

20

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

c. Cu NO3 0 Cu2 NO

57. Use the oxidation-number method to balance

(in acid solution)


3(2)
52 2 22

these ionic redox equations. a. MoCl5 S2 0 MoS2 Cl S


(2)
51 2 42 1 0

3Cu 2NO3 8H 0 3Cu2 2NO 4H2O


(3)

2MoCl5 5S2 0 2MoS2 10Cl S


2(1)

d. Zn NO3 0 Zn2 NO2

(in acid solution)


2
0 52 2 42

2MoCl5 5S2 0 2MoS2 10Cl S

b. Al OH H2O 0 H2 AlO2
2
0 21 12 0 2

Zn 2NO3 4H 0 Zn2 2NO2 2H2O


(1)

2Al 2OH 2H2O 0 3H2 2AlO22


2(1)

56. Use the oxidation-number method to balance

these redox equations. a. PbS O2 0 PbO SO2


6
22 0 22 42

2Al

2OH

2H2O 0 3H2 2AlO22

c. TiCl62 Zn 0 Ti3 Cl Zn2


2
41 0 3 1 2

2PbS 3O2 2PbO 2SO2


3(2)

2TiCl62 Zn 0 2Ti3 12Cl Zn2


2(1)

2PbS 3O2 0 2PbO 2SO2


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. NaWO3 NaOH O2 0 Na2WO4 H2O


2(2)(1)
1 52 121 0 1 62 12

2TiCl62 Zn 0 2Ti3 12Cl Zn2

4NaWO3 4NaOH O2 0 4Na2WO4 2H2O


2(2)

4NaWO3 O2 4NaOH 0 4Na2WO4 2H2O

c. NH3 CuO 0 Cu N2 H2O


2(3)
31 22 0 0 12

Half-Reactions (20.3) 58. Write the oxidation and reduction half-reactions represented in each of these redox equations. Write the half-reactions in net ionic form if they occur in aqueous solution. a. PbO(s) NH3(g) 0 N2(g) H2O(l) Pb(s)
NH3(g) 0 N2(g) 3e oxidation PbO(s) 2e0 Pb(s) reduction

2NH3 3CuO 0 3Cu N2 3H2O


3(2)

b. I2(s) Na2S2O3(aq) 0 Na2S2O4(aq)

NaI(aq)
I2(s) 2e0 2I(aq) reduction 2S2O32(aq) 0 2S2O42(aq) 2eoxidation

2NH3 3CuO 0 3Cu N2 3H2O

d. Al2O3 C Cl2 0 AlCl3 CO


3(2)
32 0 0 31 22

c. Sn(s) 2HCl(aq) 0 SnCl2(aq) H2(g)


Sn(s) 0 Sn2(aq) 2e oxidation 2H(aq) 2e 0 H2(g) reduction

Al2O3 3C 3Cl2 0 2AlCl3 3CO


6(1)

Al2O3 3C 3Cl2

0 2AlCl3 3CO
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59. Use the half-reaction method to balance these

equations. Add water molecules and hydrogen ions (in acid solutions) or hydroxide ions (in basic solutions) as needed. Keep balanced equations in net ionic form. a. Cl(aq) NO3(aq) 0 ClO(aq) NO(g) (in acid solution)
Cl 0 ClO 2e
5 1 1 2

Level 2 60. Use the half-reaction method to balance these equations for redox reactions. Add water molecules and hydrogen ions (in acid solutions) or hydroxide ions (in basic solutions) as needed. a. NH3(g) NO2(g) 0 N2(g) H2O(l)
2NH3 0 N2 6e 2NO2 8e 0 N2
4 0 3

NO3 3e 0 NO 3(Cl H2O 0

ClO 3e

2H
2

2e)

4(2NH3 0 N2 6H 6e) 3(2NO2 8H 8e 0 N2 4H2O) 8NH3 6NO2 24H 24e 0 4N2 24H 3N2 12H2O 24e 8NH3 6NO2 0 7N2 12H2O

2(NO3 3Cl

4H

0 NO 2H2O)

3H2O 2NO3 6H
1

8H

6e 6e

3ClO

2NO 4H2O

3Cl 2NO3 2H 0 3ClO 2NO H2O

b. IO3
1

(in acid solution)


2Br 0 Br2 2e IO3 4e 0 IBr 2(2Br IO3 5Br

5 1 0

(aq)

Br(aq)

0 Br2(l) IBr(s)

b. Mn2(aq) BiO3(aq) 0 Bi2(aq)

MnO4(aq) (in acid solution)


Mn2 0 MnO4 5e BiO3 3e 0 Bi2
5 2 2 7

0 Br2 6H

2e) 0 IBr 3H2O 4e 0

3(Mn2 4H2O 0 MnO4 8H 5e) 5(BiO3 6H 3e 0 Bi2 3H2O)


6

IO3

6H

2Br2 IBr 3H2O 4e 6H 5Br IO3 0 2Br2 IBr 3H2O

3MnO4 24H 5Bi2 15H2O 15e


3

3Mn2 5BiO3 6H 0 5Bi2 3MnO4 3H2O

c. I2(s) Na2S2O3(aq) 0 Na2S2O4(aq)

NaI(aq) (in acid solution)


2

c. Br2 0 Br BrO3 (in basic solution)


Br2 0 2BrO3 10e Br2 2e 0 2Br Br2 12OH 0 2BrO3 6H2O 5e 5(Br2 1e 0 2Br)
1 2
0 0 5

S2O32 0 S2O42 2e I2 2e 0 2I

S2O32 H20 0 S2O42 2H 2e I2 2e 0 2I S2O32 H2O I2 2e 0 S2O42 2H 2I 2e S2O32(aq) H2O(l) I2(s) 0 S2O42(aq) 2H(aq) 2I(aq)

(6Br2 12OH 5e 0 2BrO3

6H2O 10Br 5e) 3Br2 6OH 0 5Br BrO3 3H2O

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4e

3Mn2 12H2O 5BiO3 30H 15e 0

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61. Balance the following redox chemical equation.

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 63. Determine the oxidation number of the bold element in each of the following examples. a. OF2
O, 2

Rewrite the equation in full ionic form, then derive the net ionic equation and balance by the half-reaction method. Give the final answer as it is shown below but with the balancing coefficients. KMnO4(aq) FeSO4(aq) H2SO4(aq) 0 Fe2(SO4)3(aq) MnSO4(aq) K2SO4(aq) H2O(l)
K(aq) MnO4(aq) Fe2(aq) SO42(aq) 2H(aq) SO42 0 2Fe3(aq) 3SO42(aq) Mn
2(aq)

b. UO22
U, 6

SO4

2(aq)

2K(aq)

SO4

2(aq)

MnO4(aq) Fe2(aq) H(aq) 0 2Fe3(aq) Mn2(aq)


2 3

c. RuO4
Ru, 8

Fe2 0 2Fe3 2e MnO4 5e 0 Mn2 5(Fe2 0 2Fe3 2e)


7 2

d. Fe2O3
Fe, 3

64. Identify the reducing agents in these equations. a. 4NH3 5O2 0 4NO 6H2O
O2 0 NO2 H2O (reduction) NH3
0

2(MnO4 8H 5e 0 Mn2 4H2O) 5Fe2 2MnO4 16H 10e 0 10Fe3 2Mn2 8H2O 20e 2KMnO4 10FeSO4 8H2SO4 0 5Fe2(SO4)3 2MnSO4 K2SO4 8H2O

b. Na2SO4 4C 0 Na2S 4CO


SO42 0 S2 (reduction) C
6 2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

62. Balance this equation in the same manner as in

question 61 above. HNO3(aq) K2Cr2O4(aq) Fe(NO3)2(aq) 0 KNO3(aq) Fe(NO3)3(aq) Cr(NO3)2(aq) H2O(l)


H(aq) NO3(aq) 2K(aq) Cr2O42(aq) Fe2(aq) 2NO3(aq) 0 K(aq) NO3(aq) Fe3(aq) 3NO3(aq) Cr3(aq) 3NO3(aq) Fe2 0 Fe3 1e Cr2O42 2e 0 2Cr2 2(Fe2 0 Fe3 1e) Cr2O4 2Fe
2
3 2 3

c. 4IrF5 Ir 0 5IrF4
5

IrF5 0 IrF4 (reduction)

Ir

65. Write a balanced ionic redox equation using the

following pairs of redox half-reactions. a. Fe 0 Fe2 2e Te2 2e 0 Te


Fe 0 Fe2 2e Te2 2e 0 Te Fe Te2 0 Fe2 Te

8H

2e

Cr2

4H2 O 0

Cr2O4

8H

2e

2Fe3 2Cr2 4H2O 2e 2Fe(NO3)2(aq) 8HNO3(aq) K2Cr2O4(aq) 0 2KNO3(aq) 2Fe(NO3)3(aq) 2Cr(NO3)2(aq) 4H2O(l)

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b. IO4 2e 0 IO3
7

Al 0 Al3 3e (in acid solution)


3(IO4 2H 2e 0 IO3 H2O) 2(AI 0 Al3 3e) 3IO4 2Al 6H 0 3IO3 2Al3 3H2O
0 3 5

b. N2O ClO 0 Cl NO2

(in basic solution)


N2O 3H2O 0 2NO2 6H 4e 2(ClO 2H 2e 0 Cl H2O) N2O 3H2O 2ClO 4H 4e 0 2NO2 6H 2Cl 2H2O 4e N2O H2O 2ClO 2OH 0 2NO2 2H 2OH 2Cl
2H2O
2 2

c. I2 2e 0 2I

N2O 0 NO3 4e (in acid solution)


4(I2 2e 0 2I)

N2O 5H2O 0 2NO3 10H 8e 4I2 N2O 5H2O 0 8I 2NO3 10H

N2O 2ClO 2OH 0 2NO2 2Cl H2O

68. Balance these ionic redox equations by any

66. Balance these redox equations by any method. a. P H2O HNO3 0 H3PO4 NO
3(5)
0 5 5 2

method. a. Mg Fe3 0 Mg2 Fe


3(2)

3P 2H2O 5HNO3 0 3H3 PO4 5NO


5(3)

Mg Fe3 0 Mg2 Fe
2(3)

3P 2H2O 5HNO3 0 3H3PO4 5NO

3Mg 2Fe3 0 3Mg2 2Fe

b. KClO3 HCl 0 Cl2 ClO2 H2O KCl


2(5)
5 4 1 0 4

b. ClO3 SO2 0 Cl SO42

(in acid solution)


3(SO2 2H2O 0 SO42 4H 2e) ClO3 6H 6e 0 Cl 3H2O ClO3 6H2O 3SO2 6H 6e 0 3SO42 12H Cl 3H2O 6e
6 3 5 1

2KClO3 2HCl 0 Cl2 2ClO2 2H2O 2KCl


10

2KClO3 4HCl 0 Cl2 2ClO2 2H2O 2KCl

67. Balance these ionic redox equations by any

3SO2 ClO3 3H2O 0 3SO42 Cl 6H

method. a. Sb3 MnO4 0 SbO43 Mn2 (in acid solution)


5(Sb3 4H2O 0 5bO43 8H 2e) 2(MnO4 8H 5e 0 Mn2 4H2O) 5Sb3 20H2O 2MnO4 16H 10e 0 5SbO43 4OH 2Mn2 2OH2O 10e 5Sb3 2MnO4 12H2O 0 5SbO43 2Mn2 24H
24 7 2 3 5

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Thinking Critically 69. Applying Concepts The following equations show redox reactions that are sometimes used in the laboratory to generate pure nitrogen gas and pure dinitrogen monoxide gas (nitrous oxide, N2O). NH4NO2(s) 0 N2(g) 2H2O(l) NH4NO3(s) 0 N2O(g) 2H2O(l) a. Determine the oxidation number of each element in the two equations and then make diagrams as in Example Problem 20-3 showing the changes in oxidation numbers that occur in each reaction.
3e 3 1 3 2 0 1 2

70. Comparing and Contrasting All redox reac-

tions involve a transfer of electrons, but this transfer can take place between different types of atoms as illustrated by the two equations below. How does electron transfer in the first reaction differ from electron transfer in the second reaction? 3Pb2(aq) 2Cr(s) 0 2Cr3(aq) 3Pb(s) ClO3(aq) NO2(aq) 0 ClO2(aq) NO3(aq)
The first reaction shows oxidation and reduction of a metal and a metal ion. The second shows oxidation and reduction of nonmetals within polyatomic ions.

NH4 NO2(s) 0 N2(g) 2H2O(l)


3e 4e

71. Using Numbers Examine the net ionic equa-

3 1 5 2

NH4 NO3(s) 0 N2O(g) 2H2O(l)


4e

1 2

1 2

b. Identify the atom that is oxidized and the

tion below for the reaction that occurs when the thiosulfate ion (S2O32) is oxidized to the tetrathionate ion (S4O62). Balance the equation using the half-reaction method. The structures of the two ions will help you to determine the oxidation numbers to use. S2O32 I2 0 I S4O62 (in acid solution)

Thiosulfate ion (S2O3 )
2
2

atom that is reduced in each of the two reactions.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

N3 N3 N3 N5

to to to to

N2 loses 3 e (oxidized); N2 gains 3 e (reduced) N1 loses 4 e (oxidized); N1 gains 4 e (reduced)

Tetrathionate ion (S4O6 )

c. Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in

each of the two reactions.


NO2 and NO3 (oxidizing agents); NH4 (reducing agent)
2

2S2O32 0 S4O62 2e I2 2e 0 2I
2

2.5

d. Write a sentence telling how the electron

transfer taking place in these two reactions differs from that taking place here. 2AgNO3 Zn 0 Zn(NO3)2 2Ag
In the first two reactions, nitrogen is oxidized and reduced. The third reaction involves redox between two different elements.

2S2O32 I2 0 2I S4O62 (in acid solution)

72. Predicting Consider the fact that all of the

following are stable compounds. What can you infer about the oxidation state of phosphorus in its compounds? PH3, PCl3, P2H4, PCl5, H3PO4, Na3PO3
Phosphorus has several oxidation states (3, 2, 3, 5) that make phosphorus very flexible when combining with nonmetals.

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Writing in Chemistry 73. Research the role of oxidationreduction reactions in the manufacture of steel. Write a summary of your findings, including appropriate diagrams and equations representing the reactions.
Student answers will likely include descriptions and diagrams of some or all of the following: 1. The chief ores of iron are its oxides, hematite (Fe2O3) and magnetite (Fe3O4), and its carbonate (FeCO3). 2. Most commonly, iron ores are reduced in a blast furnace. In the blast furnace, the important reactions are the oxidation of coke to carbon monoxide (2C(s) O2(g) 0 2CO(g)) and the reduction of iron ore by carbon monoxide, which usually occurs in steps. CO(g) 3Fe2O3(s) 0 2Fe3O4(s) CO2(g) Fe3O4(s) CO(g) 0 3FeO(s) CO2(g) FeO(s) CO(g) 0 Fe(l) CO2(g) The resulting impure product contains about 3% to 4% carbon and is called cast iron or pig iron. 3. Some cast iron is converted to steel using the open-hearth process or the Bessemer process. In the open-hearth process, cast iron is melted with scrap steel and some hematite in a dishlike furnace heated with gas or fuel oil. Carbon and other impurities in the molten iron are oxidized by the hematite and by excess air in the furnace gas. In the Bessemer process, air is blown up through molten pig iron to oxidize impurities such as silicon, manganese, and excess carbon. 4. Most modern steel is produced by the basicoxygen process. In this process, a high-pressure blast of oxygen is directed at the surface of molten iron in a furnace. The oxygen oxidizes impurities in the iron, which are primarily silicon, manganese, and carbon. A significant advantage of this process is that the exothermic oxidation reactions occur so rapidly that they raise the temperature almost to the boiling point of iron without an external heat source.

74. Practice your technical writing skills by writing

(in your own words) a procedure for cleaning tarnished silverware by a redox chemical process. Be sure to include background information describing the process as well as logical steps that would enable anyone to accomplish the task.
Answers will vary, but students should create a logical procedure based on the concepts learned in the miniLAB for this chapter.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 75. How do the following characteristics apply to the electron configurations of transition metals? (Chapter 7) a. Ions vary in charge.
Transition metals can lose ns2 outer electrons, forming 2 ions. They can also move inner d electrons to the outer energy level and form ions of 3 or higher.

b. Many elements have high melting points.


High melting points are due to unpaired electrons in the d sublevel.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

c. Many of their solids are colored.


Electrons in the d sublevel can absorb visible light of specific wavelengths as they move to an excited state.

d. Some elements are hard solids.


Hardness is a property determined by the number of unpaired d electrons. The more unpaired d electrons, the harder the solid.

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76. When iron(III) chloride reacts in an atmosphere

4. The net ionic reaction between iodine and

of pure oxygen the following occurs: 4FeCl3(s) 3O2(g) 0 2Fe2O3(s) 6Cl2(g) If 45.0 g of iron(III) chloride reacts and 20.5 g of iron(III) oxide is recovered, determine the percent yield. (Chapter 12)
1 mol FeCl3 45.0 g FeCl3 162.20 g FeCl3 2 mol Fe2O3 159.69 g Fe2O3 22.15 g Fe2O3 4 mol FeCl3 1 mol Fe2O3 20.5 g Fe2O3 100 92.5% yield 22.15 g Fe2O3

lead(IV) oxide is shown below: I2(s) PbO2(s) 0 IO3(aq) Pb2(aq) If the reaction takes place in acidic solution, the balanced equation is ______ . a. I2(s) 5PbO2(s) 4H2O(l) 0 2IO3(aq) 5Pb2(aq) 8OH(aq) b. I2(s) 5PbO2(s) H(aq) 0 2IO3(aq) 5Pb2(aq) H2O(l) c. I2(s) 5PbO2(s) 4H2O(l) 0 2IO3(aq) 5Pb2(aq) 8H(aq) d. I2(s) 5PbO2(s) 8H(aq) 0 2IO3(aq) 5Pb2(aq) 4H2O(l)
I2 6H2O 0 2IO3 12H 10e
0 5

Standardized Test Practice Chapter 20


page 661

5(PbO2 2e 4H 0 Pb2 2H2O)


I 6H O 5PbO 10e 0 2OH 2 2 2 8H

2IO3 12H 5Pb2 10e 10H2O


4

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. The reducing agent in a redox reaction is all of the following EXCEPT ______ . a. the substance oxidized b. the electron acceptor c. the reducer of another substance d. the electron donor
b

I2(aq) 5PbO2(aq) 8H(aq) 0 2IO3(aq) 5Pb2(aq) 4H2O(l) d

5. The reaction between sodium iodide and

2. The oxidation numbers of the elements in

CuSO4 are ______ . a. Cu 2, S 6, O 2 b. Cu 3, S 5, O 2 c. Cu 2, S 2, O 1 d. Cu 2, S 0, O 2


a

chlorine is shown below: 2NaI(aq) Cl2(aq) 0 2NaCl(aq) I2(aq) The oxidation state of Na remains unchanged because ______ . a. Na is a spectator ion b. Na cannot be reduced c. Na is an uncombined element d. Na is a monatomic ion
a

6. The reaction between nickel and copper(II)

3. For the reaction X Y 0 XY, the element that

will be reduced is the one that is ______ . a. more reactive b. more massive c. more electronegative d. more radioactive
c

chloride is shown below: Ni(s) CuCl2(aq) 0 Cu(s) NiCl2(aq) The half reactions for this redox reaction are ______ . a. Ni 0 Ni2 2e, Cl 0 2Cl 2e b. Ni 0 Ni e, Cu e 0 Cu c. Ni 0 Ni2 2e, Cu2 2e 0 Cu d. Ni 0 Ni2 2e, 2Cu 2e 0 Cu
c

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Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 79.


Data for Elements in the Redox Reaction Zn HNO3 0 Zn(NO3)2 NO2 H2O
Element Zn Zn in Zn(NO3)2 H in HNO3 H in H2O N in HNO3 N in NO2 N in Zn(NO3)2 O in HNO3 O in NO2 O in Zn(NO3)2 O in H2O Oxidation Number 0 2 1 ? ? 4 ? 2 ? ? 2 Complex ion of which element is a part none none none none NO3 none NO3 NO3 none NO3 none

7. Which of these elements forms a monatomic ion

that is a spectator in the redox reaction? a. Zn b. O c. N d. H


d

8. The oxidation number of N in Zn(NO3)2 is

______ . a. 3 b. 5 c. 1 d. 6
b

9. The element that is oxidized in this reaction is

_____ . a. Zn b. O c. N d. H
a

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Electrochemistry
Section 21.1 Voltaic Cells
pages 663672

Practice Problems
page 671, 672

For each of these pairs of half-reactions, write the balanced equation for the overall cell reaction and calculate the standard cell potential. Express the reaction using cell notation. You may wish to refer to Chapter 20 to review writing and balancing redox equations. 1. Pt2(aq) 2e 0 Pt(s) Sn2(aq) 2e 0 Sn(s)
Pt2(aq) Sn(s) 0 Pt(s) Sn2(aq) E0 cell 1.18 V (0.1375 V) E0 cell 1.32 V Sn|Sn2||Pt2|Pt

Calculate the cell potential to determine if each of the following balanced redox reactions is spontaneous as written. Examining the reactions in Table 21-1 can help you determine the correct half-reactions. 4. Sn(s) 2Cu(aq) 0 Sn2(aq) 2Cu(s)
E0 cell 0.521 V (0.1375 V) E0 cell 0.659 V E0 cell > 0 spontaneous

5. Mg(s) Pb2(aq) 0 Pb(s) Mg2(aq)


E0 cell 0.1262 V (2.372 V) E0 cell 2.246 V E0 cell > 0 spontaneous

6. 2Mn2(aq) 8H2O(l) 10Hg2(aq) 0

2MnO4(aq) 16H(aq) 5Hg22(aq)


E0 cell 0.920 V (1.507 V) E0 cell 0.587 V

2. Co2(aq) 2e 0 Co(s)
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cr3(aq) 3e 0 Cr(s)
3Co2(aq) 2Cr(s) 0 3Co(s) 2Cr3(aq) E0 cell 0.28 V (0.744 V) E0 cell 0.46 V Cr|Cr3||Co2|Co

E0 cell < 0 not spontaneous

7. 2SO42(aq) Co2(aq) 0 Co(s) S2O82(aq)


E0 cell 0.28 V 2.010 V E0 cell 2.29 V E0 cell < 0 not spontaneous

3. Hg2(aq) 2e 0 Hg(l)

Section 21.1 Assessment


page 672

Cr2(aq) 2e 0 Cr(s)
Hg2(aq) Cr(s) 0 Hg(l) Cr2(aq) E0 cell 0.851 V (0.913 V) E0 cell 1.764 V Cr Cr2 Hg2 Hg

8. Under what conditions can a redox reaction be

used to cause an electric current to flow through a wire?


An electrochemical cell in which an oxidation halfreaction and a reduction half-reaction are connected by a salt bridge results in a flow of electrons (electric current) through a conducting wire.

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9. What are the components of a voltaic cell?

12. Thinking Critically The reduction half-reaction

What is the role of each component in the operation of the cell?


A voltaic cell consists of an anode, a cathode, and a salt bridge. Oxidation takes place at the anode, reduction takes place at the cathode, and the salt bridge allows movement of ions from one solution to the other.

10. Write the balanced equation for the spontaneous

I2 2e 0 2I has a lower standard reduction potential than the reduction half-reaction Cl2 2e 0 2Cl. In terms of electron transfer, what is the significance of this difference in reduction potentials? Which of these reactions would produce the higher voltage in a cell in which the oxidation half-reaction is Zn 0 Zn2 2e? Explain your choice.

cell reaction that will occur in a cell with these reduction half-reactions. a. Ag(aq) e 0 Ag(s) Ni2 2e 0 Ni(s)
2Ag Ni 0 2Ag Ni2

The Cl2 2e 0 2Cl reaction has a greater tendency to gain electrons. The E 0 cell is greater with Cl2 2e 0 2Cl and therefore produces more voltage.

13. Predicting Suppose you have a half-cell of

b. Mg2(aq) 2e 0 Mg(s)

2H(aq) 2e 0 H2(g)
Mg 2H 0 Mg2 H2

c. Sn4(aq) 2e 0 Sn2(aq)

Cr3(aq) 3e 0 Cr(s)

unknown composition, but you know the cell is at standard conditions. You connect it to a coppercopper(II) sulfate half-cell, also at standard conditions, and the voltmeter in the circuit reads 0.869 V. Is it possible to predict the probable composition of the unknown half-cell? Explain your answer.
Yes. By substituting the known values of E 0 cell and the standard reduction potential value of the copper/copper(II) sulfate half-cell, you can solve for the standard reduction potential of the unknown half-cell and deduce its composition from a table of standard reduction potentials.

3Sn4 2Cr 0 2Cr3 3Sn2

11. These equations represent overall cell reactions.

E0 cell 1.662 V 0.3419 V 2.004 V nonspontaneous

Section 21.2 Types of Batteries


pages 673682

b. Hg2(aq) 2Cu(aq) 0 2Cu2(aq) Hg


E0 cell 0.851 V 0.153 V 0.698 V spontaneous

Section 21.2 Assessment


page 682

14. What is reduced and what is oxidized in the

c. Cd(s) 2NO3(aq) 4H(aq) 0

Cd2(aq)

2NO2(g) 2H2O(l)

E0 cell 0.775 V (0.4030 V) 1.178 V spontaneous

ordinary zinccarbon dry cell battery? What features make the alkaline dry cell an improvement over the earlier type of dry cell battery?
Zinc is oxidized; manganese oxide is reduced in the electrolytic paste. Alkaline cells use zinc in a powdered form, which provides more surface area for reaction, thus more power in the package. Alkaline cells also eliminate the inactive carbon rod cathode.

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Determine the standard potential for each cell and identify the reactions as spontaneous or nonspontaneous as written. a. 2Al3(aq) 3Cu(s) 0 3Cu2(aq) 2Al(s)

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15. Explain how primary and secondary batteries

21. What are the products of the electrolysis of

differ. Give an example of each type.


A primary battery (zinccarbon dry cell) cannot be recharged, and a secondary battery (nickelcadmium) can.

brine? Of the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride? Explain why the reaction products differ.
brine: hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide; molten NaCl: sodium metal and chlorine gas. Electrolysis of brine involves an aqueous solution, which affects the products.

16. Explain why a fuel cell does not run down like

other batteries.
A fuel cell is fueled by an outside source and can produce power without running down as long as the external fuel source exists.

22. Describe the process by which the copper that

results from smelting of ore is purified by electrolysis.


Electrolysis of the product of copper smelting involves copper atoms being oxidized to Cu2, which are subsequently reduced to pure Cu atoms, with the impurities falling away.

17. What is a sacrificial anode? How is one used?


A sacrificial anode is a piece of metal attached to another metal that will protect from corrosion. The sacrificial anode is more active than the metal it protects and corrodes instead of the protected metal.

23. Thinking Critically Suppose you want to plate

18. Thinking Critically Standard dry cell batteries

have a relatively short shelf life. Explain why older dry-cell batteries may not have the same power output as newer batteries. How can the shelf life of these batteries be extended?
The zinc anode reacts with NH4 ions in the electrolyte. Batteries can be stored in a cool place to slow the reaction rate.

an object with gold by electrolysis. What sort of substances would you need to have in the electrolyte solution? What would you use as the cathode and the anode of the cell?
The electrolyte should be a solution containing gold ions. The cathode should be the object to be plated, and the anode should be gold.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

24. Inferring Producing a kilogram of silver from

19. Calculating Use data from Table 21-1 to

calculate the standard cell potential of the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell described in this section.
E0 cell 1.229 V 0.000 V 1.229 V

its ions by electrolysis requires much less electrical energy than producing a kilogram of aluminum from its ions. Give a reason for this difference.
Aluminum is more active and has a tendency to lose electrons more readily; therefore, it would require more electricity to reverse that tendency.

Section 21.3 Electrolysis


pages 683687

Section 21.3 Assessment


page 687

20. Define electrolysis and relate the definition to

spontaneity of redox reactions.


Electrolysis is the process of using electrical energy to produce a chemical reaction. The chemical reactions in an electrolytic process are not spontaneous.

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Chapter 21 Assessment pages 692694


Concept Mapping 25. Complete the concept map using the following terms: reduction, electrodes, electrochemical cells, anode, oxidation, cathode, electrolyte.
1. consist of two 2. which include an 4. at which 5. occurs immersed in an and a 6. at which 7. occurs 3.

30. In a voltaic cell represented by

AlAl3Cu2Cu, what is oxidized and what is reduced as the cell delivers current? (21.1)
Al is oxidized and Cu is reduced.

31. Under what conditions are standard reduction

potentials measured? (21.1)


25C, 1 atm, 1M ion solution

32. What part of a zinccarbon dry cell is the

anode? Describe the reaction that takes place there. (21.2)


The anode is the zinc shell. Oxidation of Zn atoms to Zn2 ions takes place.

33. How do primary and secondary batteries differ?

(21.2)
Primary batteries are throw away; the reaction is not easily reversed. Secondary batteries are rechargeable; the redox reaction is reversible.

1. electrochemical cells; 2. electrodes; 3. electrolyte; 4. anode; 5. oxidation; 6. cathode; 7. reduction

34. What substance is reduced in a leadacid

35. List two ways that a fuel cell differs from an

the transfer of electrons between atoms

ordinary battery. (21.2)


In a fuel cell, the oxidation of a fuel is used to produce electricity. Batteries must be recharged or replaced. Current can be produced and sustained as long as a fuel source is present.

27. Describe the process that releases electrons in a

zinccopper voltaic cell. (21.1)


oxidation of Zn(s) to Zn2 2e

28. What is the function of a salt bridge in a voltaic

cell? (21.1)
to complete the electrical circuit and prevent the accumulation of excess or ions in one half-cell

36. What is galvanizing? How does galvanizing

protect iron from corrosion? (21.2)


Galvanizing is the coating of corrosion-susceptible metals with self-protecting metals to prevent corrosion.

29. What information do you need in order to deter-

mine the standard voltage of a voltaic cell? (21.1)


standard reduction potentials for each halfreaction

37. How can the spontaneous redox reaction of a

voltaic cell be reversed? (21.3)


by passing a current through it in the opposite direction

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Mastering Concepts 26. What feature of an oxidationreduction reaction allows it to be used to generate an electric current? (21.1)

storage battery? What substance is oxidized? What substance, other than water, is produced in each reaction? (21.2)
PbO2 reduced; Pb(s) oxidized; PbSO4 produced

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38. Why is an outside source of energy needed for

44. Determine the voltage of the cell formed by

electrolysis? (21.3)
Electrolysis requires outside energy to force a nonspontaneous reaction to occur.

pairing each of the following half-cells with the standard hydrogen electrode.
Because standard reduction potentials are measured relative to a standard hydrogen electrode, use the standard reduction potentials in Table 21-1.

39. Where does oxidation take place in an elec-

trolytic cell? (21.3)


anode

a. CrCr2
0.913 V

40. What reaction takes place at the cathode when

molten sodium chloride is electrolyzed? (21.3)


Na ions are reduced to Na atoms.

b. Br2Br
1.06 V

41. Explain why the electrolysis of brine is done on

a large scale at many sites around the world. (21.3)


The products of electrolysis of brine, hydrogen gas, chlorine gas, and sodium hydroxide, are important commercial products.

c. GaGa3
0.549 V

d. NO2NO3
0.775 V

42. Explain how recycling aluminum conserves

45. Determine whether each of the following redox

energy. (21.3)
The cost to produce aluminum from raw materials is much more expensive than the cost to heat and reuse existing aluminum.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

reactions is spontaneous or nonspontaneous as written. a. Mn2 2Br 0 Br2 Mn


E0 cell 1.185 V (1.066 V) 2.251 V nonspontaneous

Mastering Problems Voltaic Cells (21.1) Use data from Table 21-1 in the following problems. Assume that all half-cells are under standard conditions. 43. Write the standard cell notation for the following cells in which the half-cell listed is connected to the standard hydrogen electrode. An example is NaNaHH2. a. ZnZn2
Zn|Zn2

b. Fe2 Sn2 0 Fe3 Sn


E0 cell 0.1375 V 0.771 V 0.908 V nonspontaneous

c. Ni2 Mg 0 Mg2 Ni
E0 cell 0.257 (2.372 V) 2.115 V spontaneous

d. Pb2 Cu 0 Pb Cu2
E0 cell 0.1262 V (0.153 V) 0.279 V nonspontaneous

|| H|H2

46. Calculate the cell potential of voltaic cells that

b.

HgHg2
H2|H

|| Hg2|Hg ||
Cu2 Cu

contain the following pairs of half-cells. a. Chromium in a solution of Cr3 ions; copper in a solution of Cu2 ions
The reduction of chromium ions has the more negative standard reduction potential. Thus, it will be oxidized in the given cell. E0 cell 0.3419 V (0.744 V) 1.086 V

c. CuCu2
H2| H

d. AlAl3
A||Al3

|| H|H2
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b. Zinc in a solution of Zn2 ions; platinum in

50. Primary cells are cells like the ordinary dry cell

a solution of

Pt2

ions

The reduction of zinc ions has the more negative standard reduction potential. Thus, it will be oxidized in the given cell. E0 cell 1.18 V (0.7618 V) 1.94 V

that cannot be recharged. Storage cells are cells like the nickelcadmium cell or the lead-storage battery that can be recharged. Is the ZnCu2 cell shown below a primary cell or a storage cell?
e Zn anode Cu cathode NO3 Na e

c. A half-cell containing both HgCl2 and

Hg2Cl2; lead in a solution of Pb2 ions


The reduction of lead ions has the more negative standard reduction potential. Thus, it will be oxidized in the given cell. E0 cell 0.920 V (0.1262 V) 1.046 V

NO3

d. Tin in a solution of Sn2 ions; iodine in a

solution of I ions

The reduction of tin ions has the more negative standard reduction potential. Thus, it will be oxidized in the given cell. E0 cell 0.5355 V (0.1375 V) 0.6730 V

Zn2 NO3 Zn(s) 0 Zn (aq) 2e


2

NO3 Cu2 Cu2(aq) 2e 0 Cu(s)

storage (rechargeable)

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 47. Why do electrons flow from one electrode to the other in a voltaic cell?
In a voltaic cell, ions in solution at the cathode accept electrons more readily than the ions at the anode. When a salt bridge and wire are in place, redox occurs spontaneously and electrons flow from the anode to the cathode.

51. Determine the voltage of the cell in which each

E0 cell 0.7996 V (1.847 V) 2.647 V

b. SS2
E0 cell 0.7996 V (0.47627 V) 1.2759 V

c. AuAu
E0 cell 1.692 V (0.7996 V) 0.892 V

48. What substance is electrolyzed to produce

aluminum metal?
aluminum oxide

d. I2I
E0 cell 0.5355 V 0.7996 V 0.2641 V

49. Write the oxidation and reduction half-reactions

52. Explain why water is necessary for the

for a silver-chromium voltaic cell. Identify the anode, cathode, and electron flow.
oxidation: Cr(s) 0 Cr3(aq) 3e reduction: Ag(aq) e 0 Ag(s) Electrons flow from anode (Cr) to cathode (Ag).

corrosion of iron.
Fe atoms oxidize to aqueous Fe2 ions. These ions are then oxidized to Fe3 ions, which combine with reduced O2 to produce Fe2O3 (rust).

53. In the electrolytic refining of copper, what

factor determines which piece of copper is the anode and which is the cathode?
purity of copper

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of the following half-cells is connected to a AgAg half-cell. a. Be2Be

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54. Explain how the oxidation of hydrogen in a fuel

cell differs from the oxidation of hydrogen when it burns in air.


In a fuel cell, the oxidation of hydrogen is controlled so that most of the chemical energy is converted to electrical energy instead of heat.

the salt bridge (electric current) occurs only when a difference in electric potential energy exists between the two electrodes. The potential difference of a voltaic cell indicates the energy that is available to move the electrons from the anode to the cathode.

55. Leadacid batteries and other rechargeable

58. Predicting How would standard reduction

batteries are sometimes called storage batteries. Precisely what is being stored in these batteries?
chemical potential energy

56. Buried steel pipeline can be protected against

corrosion by cathodic protection. In this process, the steel pipe is connected to a more active metal, such as magnesium, that would corrode instead of the steel. Use the diagram to answer the following questions.
Moist soil

potentials be different if scientists had chosen the Cu2Cu half-cell as a standard instead of the HH2 half-cell? What would the potential of the hydrogen electrode be if the copper electrode were the standard? How would the relationships among the standard reduction potentials change?
Values in the standard reduction potential table would change by 0.342. Hydrogen electrode would be 0.342. Relationships would not change but voltage values would change.

59. Applying Concepts Suppose that you have a


O2 2H2O 4e 0 4OH Underground steel pipe

Magnesium rod
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

voltaic cell in which one half-cell is made up of a strip of tin immersed in a solution of tin(II) ions. a. How could you tell by measuring voltage whether the tin strip was acting as a cathode or an anode in the cell?
A voltimeter indicates the flow of electrons to or from the tin strip, which shows whether the strip acts as a cathode or an anode. If the voltage is positive, tin is being oxidized.

Mg 0 Mg cathode is steel; anode is Mg

2e

a. What is the cathode? What is the anode?

b. Describe briefly how the magnesium metal

b. How could you tell by simple observation

protects the steel.


Mg is more active and therefore more susceptible to redox and therefore corrodes before steel.

whether the tin strip was acting as a cathode or an anode?


A visible deposit at the cathode would indicate reduction of Sn2. As Sn is oxidized at the anode, the size of the strip would decrease.

Thinking Critically 57. Communicating Write two or three sentences describing the processes that take place in a voltaic cell and account for the direction of electron flow. Use the words cathode, anode, oxidation, reduction, and potential difference in your sentences.
Answers may vary but should include the following: Oxidation occurs at the anode and reduction at the cathode of a voltaic cell. The flow of electrons through the wire and ions through

60. Hypothesizing The potential of a half-cell

varies with concentration of reactants and products. For this reason, standard potentials are measured at 1M concentration. Maintaining a pressure of 1 atm is especially important in halfcells that involve gases as reactants or products. Suggest a reason that gas pressure is especially critical in these cells.
Pressure is an indication of concentration; therefore, pressure is a concentration factor in half-cells involving gases.

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61. Analyze and Conclude Zinccarbon, alkaline,

63. Hypothesizing The density of a sample of

mercury, lithium, and NiCad batteries all contain a separator between the anode and cathode that allows exchange of ions but keeps the anode and cathode reactants from mixing. No such separator is present (or needed) in a leadacid battery.

electrolyte from a leadacid battery is measured and found to be 1.09 g/mL. Do you think this density indicates a fully charged battery, partially discharged battery, or a dead battery? Give a reason for your choice.
The density of water is 1.000 g/mL so by comparison the battery is (nearly) dead.

64. Drawing a Conclusion The black tarnish that

Separator

appears on silver is silver sulfide (Ag2S). A way to get rid of silver tarnish is to place the silver object into a pan lined with wrinkled aluminum foil and water in which some salt or baking soda has been dissolved. As the silver sits in contact with the aluminum foil, the black tarnish disappears where the object is immersed in the solution. Using what you have learned about electrochemistry, propose an explanation for this observation.
Ag has a greater tendency to be reduced and Al the greater tendency to be oxidized.

Study the structures of this battery carefully and suggest a reason why no separator is required.
The reactants and products of both half-reactions are insoluble solid substances. Their ions do not mix, and no separator is needed.

65. Thinking Critically Leadacid storage batteries

62. Interpreting Graphs Various commercial

batteries were tested to determine how each would perform when operating a motorized toy. Use the graph below to determine which battery would be the best choice to operate the toy for a long period of time. Which battery goes dead abruptly?
1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.00 0.90 0

The cars alternator generates current to recharge the battery. The extra voltage is used to force the nonspontaneous recharge reaction.

66. Applying Concepts During electrolysis, an

Volts

Rechargeable Heavyduty Alkaline

electrolytic cell gives off bromine vapor and hydrogen gas. After electrolysis, the cell is found to contain a concentrated solution of potassium hydroxide. What was the composition of the cell before electrolysis began?
potassium bromide and water

3 4 Hours

alkaline for duration; rechargeable goes dead abruptly

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produce current with a voltage of about 12 volts. If you have a voltmeter in your car, you see that the meter reads about 14 V while the car is running normally. Suggest an explanation for this higher voltage reading.

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67. Hypothesizing Instead of galvanizing iron, it

can be plated with copper to protect it. What would happen when the copper coating became broken or cracked? Would the copper continue to protect the iron as zinc does? Explain fully.
If the copper cracked, sites for corrosion would be exposed. No, iron is more readily oxidized than copper, so protection is diminished.

Writing in Chemistry 68. Research the commercial process of electroplating silver in the costume jewelry industry. Write a summary of your findings, including a diagram.
Student answers should demonstrate an understanding of electroplating in a commercial application. Some pertinent information may include the following facts. The general workflow is to design the piece, make a mold for the object, fill the mold with molten metal (usually inexpensive, nonprecious), electroplate with silver, apply finishing touches. They should describe the commercial manufacturing setting, including mention of high-volume production line equipment. Students may repeat the silver electroplating chemistry described in the chapter. Diagrams may illustrate the chemistry on a small scale or depict the manufacturing process on a large scale. Students should mention the economic importance of electroplating as a process that allows elegant appearing jewelry to be purchased at a reasonable cost.

statue. As part of the restoration, the iron structure and the connecting rivets and hardware were replaced with stainless steel components. Student timelines should include the following important dates and events. (date) FrdricAuguste Bartholdi completes the statue design, inner structure designed by Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel; (October, 1881) statue assembly begins in France; (1885) Statue disassembled in France and shipped to U.S.; (October 28, 1886) Completed statue unveiled and dedicated in New York; (1901) First round of maintenance and repairs to the statue and island; (1903) Bronze tablet engraved with the poem The New Colossus attached; (October 15, 1924) Statue declared a national monument; (1984) Extensive restoration begins; (October 28, 1986) Centennial celebration.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 70. If the volume of a sample of chlorine gas is 8.2 L at 1.2 atm and 306 K, what volume will the gas occupy at STP? (Chapter 14)
P1V1 P2V2 T1 T2 P1V1T2 (1.2 atm)(8.2 L)(273 K) V2 8.8 L (306 K)(1.0 atm) T1P2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

71. According to the collision model of chemical

reactions, how is it possible that two molecules may collide but not react? (Chapter 17)
The molecules may not collide with the correct orientation, or the collision may lack the energy required to form the activated complex.

69. Several years ago, the supporting structure of

the Statue of Liberty became so corroded that it had to be replaced entirely. Find out what the structure was and why it corroded so badly. Write a report that discusses the chemical processes involved and include a timeline of the statue, starting before 1886 in France.
The most critical corrosion resulted from a naturally occurring electrochemical cell involving the iron inner structure that supports the outer copper skin. The electrolyte in the system was salt water, which was readily available considering the statues proximity to the Atlantic ocean. Students should mention that because the iron inner structure was all interconnected, once begun, corrosion proceeded to affect the entire

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Standardized Test Practice Chapter 21


Page 695

3. On the basis of the standard reduction potentials

Use these questions and the test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. A salt bridge is essential to a voltaic cell for all of the following reasons EXCEPT _____ . a. it allows ions to move from the solution of one cell to the other b. it causes electric current to flow between the two electrodes of a cell c. it relieves the buildup of positive charge on the anode side of the cell d. it allows electrons to move from the solution of one cell to the other
d

shown above, which of the following standard cell notations below correctly represents its voltaic cell? a. Ag Ag Al3 Al b. Mg Mg2 H H2 c. H2 H Pb2 Pb d. Pb Pb2 Al3 Al
b

4. A voltaic cell consists of a magnesium bar

dipping into a 1M Mg2 solution and a silver bar dipping into a 1M Ag solution. What is the standard potential of this cell? a. 1.572 V b. 3.172 V c. 0.773 V d. 3.971 V
b

Using Tables Use the table to answer questions 25.


Selected Standard Reduction Potentials at 25C, 1 atm, and 1M Ion Concentration
Half-Reaction Mg2 2e 0 Mg Al3 3e 0 Al Pb2 2e 0 Pb Ag e 0 Ag Hg2 2e 0 Hg E 0 (V) 2.372 1.662 0.1262 0.7996 0.851

5. Assuming standard conditions, which of the

6. Which of the following statements is NOT true

2. Which of the metal ions is most easily reduced? a. b. c. d.


b

Mg2 Hg2 Ag Al3

of batteries? a. Batteries are compact forms of voltaic cells. b. Secondary batteries also are known as storage batteries. c. Batteries can consist only of a single cell. d. The redox reaction in a rechargeable battery is reversible.
c

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following cells will produce a potential of 2.513 V? a. Al Al3 Hg2 Hg b. H2 H Hg2 Hg c. Mg Mg2 Al3 Al d. Pb Pb2 Ag Ag

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7. The corrosion, or rusting, of iron is an example

9. To electroplate an iron fork with silver, which of

of a naturally occurring voltaic cell. To prevent corrosion, sacrificial anodes are sometimes attached to rust-susceptible iron. Sacrificial anodes must _____ . a. be more likely to be reduced than iron b. have a higher reduction potential than iron c. be more porous and abraded than iron d. lose electrons more easily than iron
d

the following is true? a. The silver electrode must have more mass than the fork. b. The iron fork must act as the anode in the cell. c. Electrical current must be applied to the iron fork. d. Iron ions must be present in the cell solution.
c

8. A strip of metal X is immersed in a 1M solution

of X ions. When this half-cell is connected to a standard hydrogen electrode, a voltmeter reads a positive reduction potential. Which of the following is true of the X electrode? a. It accepts electrons more readily than H ions. b. It is undergoing oxidation. c. It is adding positive X ions to its solution. d. It acts as the anode in the cell.
a

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Hydrocarbons
Section 22.1 Alkanes
pages 697705

Section 22.1 Assessment


page 705

Practice Problems
page 705

3. Use IUPAC rules to name the following

structures.
a.

structures.
a.

CH3CHCH2CH2CH3 CH3
b.
2-methylpentane

CH3

CH3CHCH2CHCH2CH3
2,4-dimethylhexane

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH3CHCH2CH2CHCH2CHCH3
2,4,7-trimethylnonane

2,2-dimethylpropane

4. Write a condensed structural formula for each

c.

CH3CCH2CHCH3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

CH3 CH3

of the following. a. 3,4-diethylheptane


CH2 CH3 CH3CH2 CH CHCH2CH2CH3 CH2CH3

CH3
2,2,4-trimethylpentane

2. Draw the structures of the following branched-

b. 4-isopropyl-3-methyldecane
CH3 CH3CH2 CH CH(CH2)5CH3

chain alkanes. a. 2,3-dimethyl-5-propyldecane


CH3 C3H7

b.

CH3CCH3 CH3

1. Use IUPAC rules to name the following

CH3

CH3

CH3CHCH3

CH3CHCHCH2CH(CH2)4CH3 CH3

5. Name two types of carbon-containing

b. 3,4,5-triethyloctane

compounds that are considered inorganic rather than organic.


carbon oxides, carbides, and carbonates

C2H5 C2H5

CH3CH2CHCHCHCH2CH2CH3 C2H5

6. Write correct molecular formulas for

pentadecane, a 15-carbon alkane, and icosane, a 20-carbon alkane.


pentadecane, C15H32; icosane, C20H42

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7. Why is the name 3-butylpentane incorrect?

9.

Based on this name, write the structural formula for the compound. What is the correct IUPAC name for 3-butylpentane?
H H H H H C H H H C H C C C C C H H H H H H C H

Graphing Use data from Table 22-1 to graph boiling point versus the number of carbon atoms in the alkane chain for the first ten alkanes. Use the graph to predict boiling points for straight-chain alkanes with 11 and 12 carbon atoms. For more help, refer to Drawing and Using Line Graphs in the Math Handbook on pages 904907 of this textbook.
Est. bp of C12H26 214 to 217C

200 Boiling point (C) H C H H


Est. bp of C11H24 195 to 197C

100 0

The longest continuous carbon chain contains seven carbon atoms, not five carbon atoms. Parent chain has seven carbon atoms with an ethyl group on carbon 3. 3-ethylheptane

100 200

8. Thinking Critically Hexane is called a straight-

chain alkane. Yet, a molecule of hexane has a zig-zag rather than a linear geometry. Explain this apparent paradox. Explain what characteristic of carbon atoms causes the zig-zag geometry of straight-chain alkanes.
Normal alkanes such as n-hexane are called straight-chain alkanes because of the way their molecules usually are drawn on paper. However, their molecules have zig-zag geometries because carbon atoms form single bonds at tetrahedral angles.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Number of carbon atoms in alkane chain

Students should predict the boiling points for alkanes with 11 and 12 carbons to be about 195 to 197 and 214 to 217C, respectively. Actual boiling points are 196C and 216C.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Section 22.2 Cyclic Alkanes and Alkane Properties


pages 706710

Practice Problems
page 708

10. Use IUPAC rules to name the following

structures.
a.
CH3

methylcyclopentane

b.

CH3

CH3

CH2CH3

2-ethyl-1, 4-dimethylcyclohexane

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c.

CH2CH3

13. Write a condensed structural formula for each

of the following. a. 1-ethyl-4-methylcyclohexane


CH2 CH3CH2 1, 3-diethylcyclobutane CH2 CH CH CH2 CH3 CH2 CH2CH3

11. Draw the structures of the following

cycloalkanes. a. 1-ethyl-3-propylcyclopentane
C2H5

b. 1,2-dimethylcyclopropane
CH3 CH CH2
CH

CH3 C3H7

14. Describe the main structural characteristics of

b. 1,2,2,4-tetramethylcyclohexane
CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

alkane molecules. Give two examples of how these characteristics determine the physical properties of alkanes.
Alkanes are chain or ring hydrocarbons containing only single carbon-carbon covalent bonds. The C-C and C-H bonds are nonpolar, making alkanes insoluble in water, a polar solvent. The bonds are also strong and stable, making alkanes relatively unreactive.

Section 22.2 Assessment


page 710

15. What structural characteristic distinguishes satu-

12. Use IUPAC rules to name the following

rated from unsaturated hydrocarbons?


Saturated hydrocarbons have only single C-C bonds, whereas unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double or triple C-C bonds.

structures.
a. CH3 CH3 CH3 CH2CH3

16. Thinking Critically Some shortening is

1-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethylcyclohexane

b.

CH2CH2CH3 CH2CH2CH3
1,2-dipropylcyclopentane

described as hydrogenated vegetable oil. This means that the oils reacted with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. Make a hypothesis to explain why hydrogen reacted with the oils.
Student hypotheses may suggest that the original oils are unsaturated because their molecules contain double or triple bonds. The molecules therefore take up hydrogen to form saturated chains.

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17. Modeling Construct ball-and-stick molecular

21. Name the structures shown using IUPAC rules. a.

Models parent chain is a four-carbon ring with an isopropyl group on any carbon.

CH CCH2
1-butyne

b. 1,2,4-trimethylcyclopentane
Models parent chain is a five-carbon ring with methyl groups on carbons 1,2, and 4.

b.

CH3CHCH CHCH2CH3
5-methyl-3-heptene

pages 711716

CH3C CHCH CH2


4-methyl-1,3-pentadiene

Practice Problems
page 714

18. Use IUPAC rules to name the following

d. CH3

CH3

Section 22.3 Alkenes and Alkynes

c.

CH2CH3

CH3

structures.

C C

a. CH3CH CHCHCH3
CH3 4-methyl-2-pentene

2,3-dimethyl-2-butene

22. Thinking Critically Speculate on how the

b.

CH3 CH2 CH3

2,2,6-trimethyl-3-octene

CH3CHCH2CH CHCCH3 CH3

Because alkynes are slightly more polar, they generally have higher melting and boiling points than alkanes. Data support this hypothesis.

19. Draw the structure of 1,3-pentadiene.


CH2 CHC CHCH3

23. Making Predictions A carbon atom in an

Section 22.3 Assessment


page 716

20. In what major way do the chemical properties

of alkenes and alkynes differ from those of alkanes? What is responsible for this difference?
Alkenes and alkynes are much more reactive than alkanes. This is because they have regions of concentrated electron density that attract reactants of opposite charge.

alkane is bonded to four other atoms. In an alkene, a carbon in a double bond is bonded to three other atoms, and in an alkyne, a carbon in a triple bond is bonded to two other atoms. What geometric arrangement would you predict for the bonds surrounding the carbon atom in each of these cases? (Hint:) VSEPR theory can be used to predict shape.
VSEPR theory predicts the following geometric bond arrangements. alkane: tetrahedral shape; alkene: trigonal planar shape; alkyne: linear shape

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boiling and freezing points of alkynes compare with those of alkanes with the same number of carbon atoms. Explain your reasoning, then look up data to see if it supports your idea.

models of the following cyclic alkanes. a. isopropylcyclobutane

CH3

CH3

CH3

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Section 22.4 Assessment


page 721

isomers and stereoisomers.


Structural isomers differ from each other in the order in which their atoms are bonded to each other, whereas stereoisomers have their atoms bonded in the same order but they are arranged differently in space.

CCCCCCC C
isomers

d.

CH3 CH3
isomers

24. Explain the difference between structural

CCCCC CC

Section 22.4 Isomers

c.

CH3

CH3

25. Draw all of the structural isomers possible for

the alkane with a molecular formula of C6H14. Show only the carbon chains.
C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

C C

C C C C C

27. Draw the structures of cis-3-hexene and

trans-3-hexene.
H H C CH2 CH3 CH3 CH2 C

cis -3-hexene Answers will include 5 structural isomers: hexane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, and 2,2-dimethylbutane. H CH3 CH2 C C CH2 CH3

26. Decide whether the carbon chains shown in

H trans -3-hexene In cis-3-hexene, the hydrogen atoms attached to the doubly-bonded carbons are on the same side of the carbon chain. In the trans form, the hydrogen atoms are on opposite sides of the carbon chain.

each of the following pairs represent the same compound or pairs of isomers. C
a. C C C C

CCCC

C
same compound

28. Thinking Critically A certain reaction yields

b.

C
isomers

CCCC

CCCC

80% trans-2-pentene and 20% cis-2-pentene. Draw the structures of these two geometric isomers, and develop a hypothesis to explain why the isomers form in the proportions cited.
CH3 C H C H H CH2CH3 CH3 C C CH2CH3 H

cis -pentene

trans -pentene

More of the trans isomer forms because its structure allows the bulky methyl and ethyl groups to be farther apart than in the cis structure. Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 22

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29. Formulating Models Starting with a single

34. Thinking Critically In addition to adjusting

carbon atom, draw two different optical isomers by attaching the following atoms or groups to the carbon: H, CH3, CH2CH3, CH2CH2CH3
CH2CH3 H C CH3 CH2CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH3 C H CH2CH2CH3

octane rating, refiners also vary the volatility of gasoline, mainly by adding (or not adding) butane, C4H10. Where and when do you think refiners produce gasoline of higher volatility?
Refiners produce more volatile gasoline by adding more butane (bp 0.5C) during the winter months in regions that become cold. Also, fuel must be made less volatile when it is to be used at higher altitudes, where air pressure is reduced.

Structures should show the listed groups attached to a single carbon atom. They should differ in that two of the attached groups should be reversed in space.

35. Interpreting Data Look at the data in Table

22-6. What property of hydrocarbon molecules seems to correlate to the viscosity of a particular fraction when it is cooled to room temperature?
The length of the carbon chains in hydrocarbons shows a correlation with their viscosities. Longer chains result in greater viscosity.

Section 22.5 Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Petroleum


pages 722727

Section 22.5 Assessment


page 727

Chapter 22 Assessment pages 732734


Concept Mapping 36. Complete the following concept map that shows how the following isomer types are related: stereoisomers, structural isomers, optical isomers, all isomers, geometric isomers.
Isomers Isomers that differ in order of atoms 1.

30. What properties of benzene made chemists

think it was not an alkene with several double bonds?


Benzene is much less reactive than alkenes with multiple double bonds, which usually are very unstable.

31. What feature accounts for the difference

between aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons? Why should people avoid contact with aromatic hydrocarbons?
Aromatic hydrocarbons are cyclic, planar molecules with high stability and low reactivity. Many aromatic hydrocarbons are carcinogenic.

2. Isomers that differ in arrangement about a single atom 4.

Isomers that differ in arrangement about carbons in a double bond 3.

32. Explain how the physical properties of hydro-

carbons make fractional distillation possible.


Distillation works when hydrocarbons with higher boiling points condense low in the column. Those with lower boiling points condense farther up, where the temperature is lower.

1. structural isomers 2. stereoisomers 3. geometric isomers 4. optical isomers

33. What is the purpose of cracking hydrocarbons?


Cracking is done to convert large, heavy hydrocarbons in petroleum fractions into smaller, more useful substances.

Mastering Concepts 37. What is the main characteristic of an organic compound? (22.1)
Organic compounds contain the element carbon.

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38. What characteristic of carbon accounts for the

c. octane
octyl ((CH2)7CH3

huge variety of organic compounds? (22.1)


Carbon is able to form four strong covalent bonds, including bonds with other carbon atoms.

43. How does the structure of a cycloalkane differ

39. Describe the characteristics of a homologous

from that of a straight-chain or branched-chain alkane? (22.2)


A cycloalkane contains a ring of carbon atoms.

series of hydrocarbons. (22.1)


It is a series of compounds that differ from each other by a repeating unit and have a fixed numerical relationship among the numbers of atoms.

44. Explain the difference between saturated hydro-

carbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. (22.2)


Saturated hydrocarbons contain all single carboncarbon bonds. Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.

40. Draw the structural formula of each of the

following. (22.1)
a. ethane
H H

45. Explain how intermolecular attractions gener-

HCCH H H

ally affect substances boiling and freezing points. (22.2)


Stronger attractions between molecules make it harder to separate them. Such substances generally have higher boiling and freezing points.

b. butane
H H H H HCCC CH H
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

46. Explain how alkenes differ from alkanes. How

do alkynes differ from both alkenes and alkanes? (22.3)


Alkanes contain only single bonds between carbon atoms, alkenes contain a double bond between two carbon atoms, and alkynes contain a triple bond between two carbon atoms.

c. hexane
H H H H H H

H C C C C C C H

47. The names of hydrocarbons are based on the

41. Write the condensed structural formulas for the

alkanes in the previous question. (22.1)


a. CH3CH3 b. CH3(CH2)2CH3 c. CH3(CH2)4CH3

name of the parent chain. Explain how the determination of the parent chain when naming alkenes differs from the same determination when naming alkanes. (22.3)
When naming alkanes, the parent chain is the longest continuous carbon chain. When naming alkenes, the parent chain is the longest continuous carbon chain that includes the carbons linked by a double bond.

42. Write the name and draw the structure of the

alkyl group that corresponds to each of the following alkanes. (22.1)


a. methane
methyl (CH3)

48. Name the most common alkyne. How is this

substance used? (22.3)


Ethyne, or acetylene, is used as a fuel in welding torches.

b. butane
butyl ((CH2)3CH3)

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49. How are two isomers alike and how are they

57. What does fractional distillation of petroleum

different? (22.4)
Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structures. They may have very different chemical and physical properties.

accomplish? (22.5)
It separates petroleum into its different components.

58. What physical property determines the height at 50. Describe the difference between cis- and trans-

isomers in terms of geometrical arrangement. (22.4)


Cis isomers have the largest groups on the carbons in the double bond on the same side of the bond; in trans isomers they are on opposite sides.

which hydrocarbons condense in a fractionation tower? (22.5)


the compounds boiling points

59. What is the cracking process and why is it

necessary in petroleum processing? (22.5)


Cracking involves using heat and a catalyst in the absence of oxygen to convert heavier fractions of petroleum into smaller fractions, such as gasoline and starting materials for the synthesis of a variety of products. Cracking is necessary to increase the yield of medium-sized hydrocarbons useful in gasoline.

51. What characteristics does a chiral substance

have? (22.4)
A chiral substance has both right- and left-handed forms.

52. How does polarized light differ from ordinary

light, such as light from the Sun? (22.4)


The waves of polarized light all vibrate in one plane; in ordinary light, they vibrate in all possible planes.

Mastering Problems Alkanes (22.1) Level 1 60. Name the compound represented by each of the following structural formulas. a. CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3
pentane

53. How do optical isomers affect polarized light?

They rotate polarized light.

54. What structural characteristic do all aromatic

They contain one or more benzene rings.

55. Draw the structural formula of

3-methylpentane

1,2-dimethylbenzene. (22.5)
C H C H H H C H H

c. H

H C H H

hydrocarbons share? (22.5)

b. CH CH CHCH CH 3 2 2 3 CH3

H C

H C H

H C H H

H C

H C H H

C C

C C

C H

C H

The structure is benzene with methyl groups on any two adjacent carbons.

2,5-dimethylhexane

56. What are carcinogens? (22.5)


Carcinogens are substances that can cause cancer.

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(22.4)

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2,3-dimethylbutane

d. CH3 CHCH3 CHCH3 CH3

Cyclic Alkanes and Alkane Properties (22.2) Level 1 62. Draw condensed structural formulas for the following compounds. Use line structures for rings. a. 1,2-dimethylcyclopropane
CH3 CH CH
CH

Level 2 61. Draw full structural formulas for the following compounds. a. heptane
H H H H H H H H C C C C C C C H H H H H H H H

CH3

b. 1,1-diethyl-2-methylcyclopentane
CH CH CH C CH3 C CH2CH3 CH2CH3

b. 2-methylhexane
H H H H H H

H C C C C C C H HH C H H H H H H

Level 2 63. Name the compound represented by each of the following structural formulas.
a. CH3 CH3 CH3

c. 2,3-dimethylpentane
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

H HH C HH

1,2,4-trimethylcyclohexane

H C C C C C C H H HH C H H H H H

b. CH2CH2CH3

d. 2,2-dimethylpropane
H HH C HH HCCC H H H C HH H

CH3
1-ethyl-3-methylcyclopentane

c.

CH3

CH3CH2
1-methyl-3-propylcyclobutane

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d. CH3 CH3

CH3

b. 2,4-dimethyl-1-octene

CH2CH3

6-ethyl-1,2,3-trimethylcyclooctane

c. 2,2-dimethyl-3-hexyne

Alkenes and Alkynes (22.3) Level 1 64. Name the compound represented by each of the following condensed structural formulas.

CH3 C C C(CH2)2CH3 CH3

a. CH3 CH3
2-methyl-2-butene

CHCH3 C

66. Name the compound represented by each of the

following condensed structural formulas.

a.

CH3

CH3

CH2CH2CH3 CH2CH3

C C

b. CH3CH2 CH3CH2
2-ethyl-1-butene

CH3CH2

CH2 C b.

4-ethyl-3-methyl-3-heptene

CH2CH3 CH3 CH3

c.

CH3

6-ethyl-1,3-dimethylcyclohexene

CH2 C CH2 CH(CH2)3CH3 CH3

CH3

1-methylcyclopentene

d.

CH3

Isomers (22.4) Level 1 67. Identify the pair of structural isomers in the following group of condensed structural formulas.
a. CH3

3-methylcyclobutene

CH3CCH2CH2CH3 CH3 b. CH3

CH3CHCH2CH CH3 c. CH3 CH3

CH2CH3 C CH2 CH2 CH CH2CH3 CH CH2

CH3CHCHCH2CH3 CH3

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Level 2 65. Draw condensed structural formulas for the following compounds. Use line structures for rings. a. 1,4-diethylcyclohexene

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CH3

CH3

QCS T
a is an optical isomer of b, c, and d. a is not superimposable with b, c, or d.

Student answers may include any two structures except b and d, which are identical.

68. Identify the pair of geometric isomers among

the following structures. Explain your selections. Explain how the third structure is related to the other two.

70. Draw condensed structural formulas for four

different structural isomers with the molecular formula C4H8.


CH2 CHCH3 CH3 C CH3 CH2 CH3CH CH2 CH2 CH2 CHCH2CH3

CH3

CH2CH2CH3 CH3

b.

CH3

Student answers should show condensed structural formulas for cyclobutane, 1-butene, 2-butene, and 2-methylpropene.

C C

CH3CH2 c.

CH2CH3 CH2CH3 CH2

71. Draw and label the cis- and trans- isomers of

CH3

the molecule represented by the following condensed formula. CH3CHCHCH2CH3


H C CH3 C CH2CH3 H H C C CH2CH3

C C

CH3CH2

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b and c are geometric isomers. They represent a cis/trans pair of isomers. a is a structural isomer of both b and c.

cis -2-pentene

Level 2 69. Three of the following structures are exactly alike, but the fourth represents an optical isomer of the other three. Identify the optical isomer and explain how you made your choice.
a. SCR Q b. T T

The two hydrogen atoms bonded to the doublybonded carbons are on the same side of the carbon chain for the cis isomer and on opposite sides of the carbon chain for the trans isomer.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Petroleum (22.5) Level 1 72. Name the compound represented by each of the following structural formulas.
a. CH3
methylbenzene (toluene)

QCS R c. R b.

SCQ T
anthracene

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Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 22

C C

a. CH3

CH3

d. CH3CHCH2CHCH3

d.

CH2

H CH3 trans -2-pentene

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Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 73. Do the following structural formulas represent the same molecule? Explain your answer.

d.
5 6

4 3 2 1

CH3

CH2CH3
Yes

H H

CH3

C C

C C

76. Why do chemists use structural formulas for

CH3

CH3

CH3

No. They are structural isomers.

organic compounds rather than molecular formulas such as C5H12?


Molecular formulas cannot differentiate between isomers.

74. How many hydrogen atoms are in an alkane

molecule with nine carbon atoms? How many are in an alkene with nine carbon atoms and one double bond?
20 hydrogen atoms; 18 hydrogen atoms

77. The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n 2.


CnH2n

Determine the general formula for cycloalkanes.

75. Determine whether or not each of the following

78. Why are unsaturated hydrocarbons more useful

structures represents the correct numbering. If the numbering is incorrect, redraw the structure with the correct numbering.
a.

than saturated hydrocarbons as starting materials in chemical manufacturing?


Unsaturated hydrocarbons are much more reactive.

CH3

79. Is cyclopentane an isomer of pentane? Explain

your answer. 4
Yes

1
CH3

No. Cyclopentane (C5H10) and pentane (C5H12) have different molecular formulas.

b. 1

2 3 45 CH3CH2C CCH3
No, it should be numbered from the opposite end.

Thinking Critically 80. Thinking Critically Determine which two of the following names cannot be correct and draw the structures of the molecules. a. 2-ethyl-2-butene
CH2 CH3 CH3 C

c.

3 4 5
CH3
No. The ring should be numbered clockwise starting with the carbon shown as number 2.

2 CH3 1

CH2 CH3 Correct name is 3-methyl-2-pentene.

b. 1,4-dimethylcyclohexene
CH3

CH3 Name is correct.

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c. 1,5-dimethylbenzene
CH3

the direction of rotation of polarized light and in chemical reactions that distinguish between isomers.

CH3 Correct name is 1,3-dimethylbenzene.

81. Drawing a Conclusion The sugar glucose is

sometimes called dextrose because a solution of glucose is known to be dextrorotatory. Analyze the word dextrorotatory, and suggest what the word means.
The prefix dextro- means to the right, and the suffix rotatory means rotates. Therefore, the natural form of glucose is chiral and rotates the plane of polarized light to the right.

Writing in Chemistry 85. For many years, a principal antiknock ingredient in gasoline was the compound tetraethyllead. Do research to learn about the structure of this compound, the history of its development and use, and why its use was discontinued in the United States. Find out if it is still used as a gasoline additive elsewhere in the world.
Student answers should include a drawing of the structure of tetraethyllead (Pb(CH2CH3)4), a discussion of when it was used in the United States, what its health hazards are, and a listing of some areas in the world where it is still added to gasoline.

82. Interpreting Scientific Illustrations Draw

Kekuls structure of benzene and explain why it does not truly represent the actual structure.

Cumulative Review Refresh your understanding of previous chapters by answering the following. 86. What element has the following ground-state electron configuration: [Ar]4s23d6? (Chapter 5)
iron

The structure shows localized electrons in the double bonds rather than delocalized electrons.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

83. Recognizing Cause and Effect Explain why

alkanes such as hexane and cyclohexane are effective at dissolving grease, whereas water is not.
Grease and alkanes are both nonpolar. Water is polar. Like dissolves like.

87. What is the charge of an ion formed from the

following families? (Chapter 7) a. alkali metals


1

84. Hypothesizing Do you think that, on average,

b. alkaline earth metals


2

structural isomers or stereoisomers will have a larger difference in their physical properties? Explain your reasoning. Research this question by comparing physical properties of pairs of isomers as given in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics or The Merck Index to see if your hypothesis is correct.
Structural isomers may have vastly different physical properties because they have completely different arrangements of the carbon skeleton. Stereoisomers (geometric and optical isomers) have the same carbon skeleton but different orientations in space. Geometric isomers have different properties; optical isomers differ only in

c. halogens
1

88. Write the chemical equations for the complete

combustion of ethane, ethene, and ethyne into carbon dioxide and water. (Chapter 10)
ethane: 2C2H6 7O2 0 4CO2 6H2O; ethene: C2H4 3O2 0 2CO2 2H2O; ethyne: 2C2H2 5O2 0 4CO2 2H2O

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Standardized Test Practice Chapter 22


page 735

Interpreting Tables Use the table to answer questions 46.


Data for Various Hydrocarbons
Name Number of Number of Melting Boiling C atoms H atoms point (C) point (C)

Use these questions and test-taking tip to prepare for your standardized test. 1. The condensed structural formula of heptane is ____. a. (CH3)2(CH2)5 b. CH3(CH2)6 c. CH3(CH2)5CH3 d. CH3CH3(CH2)5
c

Heptane 1-Heptene 1-Heptyne Octane 1-Octene 1-Octyne

7 7 7 8 8 8

16 14 12 18 16 14

90.6 119.7 81 56.8 101.7 79.3

98.5 93.6 99.7 125.6 121.2 126.3

2.

C C C C

4. Based on the information in the table, the type

C C C C C C

3. All of the following are structural isomers of

CH2CHCH2CHCHCH3 EXCEPT ____. a. CH2CHCH2CH2CHCH2 b. CH3CHCHCH2CHCH2 c. CH3CHCHCHCHCH3 d. CH2CCHCH2CH2CH3


b

6. It can be predicted from the table that nonane

will have a melting point that is ____. a. greater than that of octane b. less than that of heptane c. greater than that of decane d. less than that of hexane
a

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The name of the compound whose skeletal formula is shown above is ____. a. 2,2,3-trimethyl-3-ethylpentane b. 3-ethyl-3,4,4-trimethylpentane c. 2-butyl-2-ethylbutane d. 3-ethyl-2,2,3-trimethylpentane

of hydrocarbon that becomes a gas at the lowest temperature is an ____. a. alkane b. alkene c. alkyne d. aromatic
b

5. If n is the number of carbon atoms in the hydro-

carbon, then the general formula for an alkyne with one triple bond is ____. a. CnHn 2 b. CnH2n 2 c. CnH2n d. CnH2n 2

CHAPTER

22

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

7. Which compound below is

8. Alanine, like all amino acids, exists in two

1,2-dimethylcyclohexane?
a.

forms: C C COOH H H COOH

CH3 H2N CH3

CH3 L-Alanine

NH2 CH3 D-Alanine

b.

CH3 CH3

c.

Almost all of the amino acids found in living organisms are in the L-form. L-Alanine and D-Alanine are ______ . a. structural isomers b. geometric isomers c. optical isomers d. stereoisotopes
c

CH3 CH3
d.

CH3

CH3
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Substituted Hydrocarbons and Their Reactions


Section 23.1 Functional Groups
pages 737742

5. Name the functional group present in each of

Practice Problems
page 740

the following structures. Name the type of organic compound each substance represents. a. CH3CH2CH2OH
hydroxyl group; alcohol

Name the alkyl or aryl halide whose structure is shown.


1.
H F F H HCCCCH H H H H

b. CH3CH2F
fluoro group; alkyl halide

c. CH3CH2NH2
amino group; amine

2.

Cl

Br

CH3C OH
carboxyl group; carboxylic acid

HCCCCCH H H H H H

6. How would you expect the boiling points of

1-bromo-5-chloropentane

propane and 1-chloropropane to compare? Explain your answer.


The boiling point of 1-chloropropane should be higher than that of propane. 1-chloropropane molecules should form more temporary dipoles than propane molecules.

3.
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Br Cl

Br 1,3-dibromo-2-chlorobenzene

7. Thinking Critically Examine the pair of struc-

Section 23.1 Assessment


page 742

tures shown below and decide whether it represents a pair of optical isomers. Explain your answer.

4. Draw structures for the following molecules. a. b. c. d.

2-chlorobutane 1,3-difluorohexane 1,1,1-trichloroethane 4-bromo-1-chlorobenzene


H Cl H H Cl H They are optical isomers. They are not superimposable; however, their structures have chiral carbons and are mirror images of each other.

H H H H F H F H H H

Cl H Cl d. Br

H H H H H H

b. HCCCCCCH

a. HCCCCH

c. ClCCH

2,3-difluorobutane

d.

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8. Applying Concepts Place the following

c. 1,2-propanediamine
NH2 CH2 NH2 CH CH3

substances in order of increasing boiling point. Do not look up boiling points, but use what you learned in this section to suggest the correct order. 2-chloropentane 2-iodopentane 1-bromohexane butane 3-methylpentane

d. cyclobutylamine
NH2

butane, 3-methylpentane, 2-chloropentane, 2-iodopentane, 1-bromohexane

11. Identify the functional group present in each of

the following structures. Name the substance represented by each structure.

Section 23.2 Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines


pages 743746

a.

CH3CHCH3
NH2 represents the amino functional group; isopropylamine, 2-propylamine, or 2-aminopropane.

Section 23.2 Assessment


page 746

9. Draw structures for the following alcohols: a. 1-propanol


OH

b.

NH2

OH

CH3CH2CH2

OH represents the hydroxyl functional group; cyclohexanol.


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. 2-propanol
OH

c. CH O CH CH CH 3 2 2 3
O represents an oxygen atom in a carbon chain; methylpropyl ether.

CH3CHCH3

c. 2-methyl-2-butanol
CH3

12. Thinking Critically Which of the following

CH3CCH2CH3 OH

compounds would you expect to be more soluble in water? Explain your reasoning. CH3 O CH3 CH3CH2

OH

d. 1,3-cyclopentanediol
OH

OH

Ethanol (on the right) is more soluble than methyl ether. Because of their molecules greater polarities, alcohols are usually more water-soluble than ethers.

10. Draw structures for the following molecules: a. propyl ether


CH3 CH2 CH2 O CH2 CH2 CH3

b. ethylpropyl ether
CH3 CH2 O CH2 CH2 CH3

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13. Applying Concepts Alcohols and amines are

d.

used as starting materials in reactions that produce useful substances such as pharmaceuticals, plastics, and synthetic fibers, as well as other industrial chemicals. What properties of these compounds make them more useful than hydrocarbons for this purpose?
Alcohols and amines are more polar than hydrocarbons, which makes them more likely to provide reactive sites for reagents.

CH3CH2 O C CH3
ester

e.

CH3CH2CH2C NH2
amide

f.

Section 23.3 Carbonyl Compounds


pages 747753

ketone

16. What are the products of a condensation reac-

Minilab
page 751

tion between a carboxylic acid and an alcohol?


The products are an ester and water.

Analysis
H H H H
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

17. What features of the substances discussed in


O

1.

COH

this section make many of them useful solvents? Explain how these features affect the properties of the molecules.
Generally, a useful solvent must exist as a liquid in the temperature range where it will be used, dissolve the solute substances, and evaporate readily so that it can be removed when desired. Therefore, most solvent molecules have fairly low molecular masses, which give the solvents low boiling points.

OH

Section 23.3 Assessment


page 753

14. Draw the structure for a carbonyl group.


CO

15. Classify each of the following structures as one

18. Thinking Critically Suggest a reason for the

of the types of organic substances you have studied in this section.


a.

CH3CH2CH2CH
aldehyde

observation that water-soluble organic compounds with carboxyl groups exhibit acidic properties in solutions, whereas similar compounds with aldehyde structures do not.
The carboxyl group can readily ionize, donating an H ion. However, the hydrogen atom bonded to an aldehydes carbonyl group does not readily ionize.

b.

CH3CH2CCH3
ketone

c.

CH3CH2CH2C OH
carboxylic acid Solutions Manual Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 23

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19. Formulating Models You learned that the

22. Complete each of the following equations by

Aldehyde: CnH2nO; ketone: CnH2nO; carboxylic acid: CnH2nO2. No. A molecular formula can be used to distinguish between a carboxylic acid and an aldehyde or ketone, but not between an aldehyde and a ketone because both have the same general formula.

CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2CH3

c. CH3CH2CCCH3 2H2 0
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

d.

molecular formulas for alkanes follow the pattern CnH2n 2. Derive a general formula to represent an aldehyde, a ketone, and a carboxylic acid. Could you examine a molecular formula for one of these three types of compounds and determine which type the formula represents? Explain.

writing the condensed structural formula for the product that is most likely to form. a. CH3CHCHCH2CH3 H2 0
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

b. CH CH CHCH CH OH 0 3 2 2 3

Cl

Dehydration

Section 23. 4 Other Reactions of Organic Compounds


pages 754760

CH3CHCHCH2CH3

Section 23.4 Assessment


page 760

23. Thinking Critically Explain why the hydration

20. Classify each of the following reactions as

addition

b.

CH3CH2CH2CHCH3 0 OH CH3CH2CH CHCH3 H2O


elimination

24. Comparing and Contrasting Explain the

difference between an elimination reaction and a condensation reaction. Which type is best represented by the following equation? HO CH2CH2CH2CH2 OH 0 H2O O
Elimination reaction: one organic molecule loses atoms or groups of atoms to form smaller molecules. Condensation reaction: two organic molecules combine to form a larger one. elimination

21. Identify the type of organic reaction that

would best accomplish each of the following conversions. a. alkyl halide 0 alkene
elimination

b. alkene 0 alcohol
addition

c. alcohol carboxylic acid 0 ester


condensation

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either substitution, elimination, addition, or condensation. a. CH3CHCHCH2CH3 H2 0 CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3

reaction involving 1-butene may yield two distinct products whereas the hydration of 2-butene yields but one product.
Hydrating 1-butene may yield 1-butanol and/or 2-butanol because hydroxyl groups may bond to carbons 1 and/or 2 of the 4-carbon chain. Hydrating 2-butene, however, yields only 2-butanol because the hydroxyl group must be on carbon 2.

CH3CH2CHCH2CH3 OH

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Section 23.5 Polymers


pages 761765

27. Compare the properties of thermosetting and

thermoplastic polymers.
Thermosetting polymers can be molded when first prepared, but cannot be remelted when cooled. Thermoplastic polymers can be melted and molded repeatedly into shapes that are retained when the polymer is cooled.

Section 23.5 Assessment


page 765

25. Draw the structure for the polymer that could be

produced from each of the following monomers by the method stated. a. Addition CH CH Cl
CH CI

28. Thinking Critically A chemical process called

Cl
CH CI n

crosslinking forms covalent bonds between separate polymer chains. How do you think a polymers properties will change as the number of crosslinks increases? What effect might additional crosslinking have on a thermoplastic polymer?
Generally, as the number of cross-links increases, the polymer becomes more rigid and has a higher melting temperature range. Additional crosslinking can make a thermoplastic polymer become thermosetting if melting cannot easily disrupt the cross-links.

b. Condensation

NH2 CH2CH2 C OH
O CH2 CH2 C NH n

29. Predicting Predict the physical properties of

26. Label each of the following polymerization


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

a.

HO C C OH HO C H C O O H

C OH 0 H

CO CCO H
n

The polymer will have a waxy feel, low water solubility, low electrical conductivity, and low reactivity. It will be thermoplastic. It is a longchain alkane similar to polyethylene.

condensation; H2O

b.

N C

addition

CH2 CH

0 CH2 CH N C n

reactions as addition or condensation. Write the formulas of the secondary product of the condensation reaction.

the polymer that is made from the following monomer. Mention solubility in water, electrical conductivity, texture, and chemical reactivity. Do you think it will be thermoplastic or thermosetting? Give reasons for your predictions. CH2 CH CH3

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Chapter 23 Assessment pages 770772


Concept Mapping 30. Identify the types of reactions used to convert alcohols into alkyl halides, esters, and alkenes. R OH

b. CH3(CH2)5CH2NH2
1-aminoheptane

c. CH3(CH2)2CH(NH2)CH3
2-aminopentane

d. CH3(CH2)8CH2NH2
1-aminodecane

HX

35. How is ethanol denatured? (23.2)


Ethanol is denatured by the addition of small amounts of toxic substances, which make it unsafe to drink.

* C OH
1. 2. 3.

36. Name one alcohol, amine, or ether that is used

RX

O *COR

R R

for each of the following purposes. (23.2) a. antiseptic


ethanol

1. substitution; 2. condensation; 3. dehydration or elimination

b. solvent in paint strippers


methanol

c. antifreeze

Mastering Concepts 31. What is a functional group? (23.1)


A functional group is an atom or group of atoms in an organic molecule that always reacts in a certain way.

ethylene glycol or propylene glycol


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

d. anesthetic
ethyl ether

e. dye production 32. Describe and compare the structures of alkyl

halides and aryl halides. (23.1)


Alkyl halides have a halogen atom present on an aliphatic chain or ring of carbons, while aryl halides have a halogen atom directly bonded to a carbon on a benzene molecule or other aromatic ring.

aniline

37. Explain why an alcohol molecule will always

have a higher solubility in water than an ether molecule having an identical molecular mass. (23.2)
Alcohols are always polar due to the assymetrical distribution of charge around the oxygen in the OH group. Polarity of an ether depends on its overall geometry. Alcohols are generally more soluble than corresponding ethers in water, which is a polar solvent.

33. What reactant would you use to convert

methane to bromomethane? (23.1)


bromine

34. Name the amines represented by the condensed

formulas below. (23.2) a. CH3(CH2)3CH2NH2


1-aminopentane

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38. Explain why ethanol has a much higher boiling

d. flavoring in foods and beverages


ethyl butanoate, 2-methylbutylacetate, pentyl pentanoate, or other ester

point than aminoethane even though their molecular masses are nearly equal. (23.2)
Because O-H bonds are more polar than N-H bonds, the hydrogen bonds that form between two ethanol molecules are stronger than those that form between two aminoethane molecules. Stronger intermolecular forces result in higher boiling points.

41. What type of reaction is used to produce aspirin

from salicylic acid and acetic acid? (23.3)


condensation

42. What is the starting material for making most

39. Draw the general structure for each of the

synthetic organic compounds? (23.4)


fossil fuels such as petroleum

following classes of organic compounds. (23.3) a. aldehyde


O *CH

43. Explain the importance of classifying reactions.

(23.4)
Because chemical reactions are so numerous, classifying them helps students and chemists better understand them, remember them, and predict the products of new reactions.

b. ketone
RCR O

44. List the type of organic reaction needed to carry

c. carboxylic acid
O

*COH

out each of the following transformations. (23.4) a. alkene 0 alkane


addition

d. ester
Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. alkyl halide 0 alcohol


substitution

*COR

e. amide
O H

c. alkyl halide 0 alkene


elimination

*CNR

d. amine carboxylic acid 0 amide


condensation

40. Name an aldehyde, ketone, carboxylic acid,

ester, or amide used for each of the following purposes. (23.3) a. preserving biological specimens
formaldehyde

e. alcohol 0 alkyl halide


substitution

f. alkene 0 alcohol
addition and hydration

b. solvent in fingernail polish


acetone

45. Explain the difference between addition poly-

c. acid in vinegar
acetic acid

merization and condensation polymerization. (23.5)


In addition polymerization, all the atoms in the monomers are retained in the polymer product. In condensation polymerization, monomers with at least two functional groups form the polymer, losing a small by-product such as water. Chemistry: Matter and Change Chapter 23

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46. Which type of polymer is easier to recycle, ther-

c. If the compound has optical isomers,

mosetting or thermoplastic? Explain your answer. (23.5)


Thermoplastic polymers are easier to recycle because products made from them can be remelted and molded repeatedly.

identify the chiral carbon atom.


The middle carbon is chiral.

Mastering Problems Functional Groups (23.1) Level 1 47. Draw structures for these alkyl and aryl halides. a. chlorobenzene
Cl

Level 2 49. Name one structural isomer created by changing the position of one or more halogen atoms in each alkyl halide. a. 2-chloropentane
1-chloropentane; 3-chloropentane

b. 1,1-difluropropane
1,2-difluoropropane; 1,3-difluoropropane; 2,2-difluoropropane

c. 1,3-dibromocyclopentane b. 1-bromo-4-chlorohexane
BrCH2CH2CH2CHCH2CH3 Cl 1,2- or 1,1-dibromocyclopentane

d. 1-bromo-2-chloroethane
1-bromo-1-chloroethane

c. 1,2-difluoro-3-iodocyclohexane
F F I

d. 1, 3-dibromobenzene
Br

ethyl ether; methyl propyl ether

b. 2-hexanol
Br

e. 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane
F H C F F C F H

propyl ether; isopropyl ether; butyl ethyl ether; methyl pentyl ether

48. For 1-bromo-2-chloropropane: a. Draw the structure.


Br Cl

Level 2 51. Draw structures for the following alcohol, amine, and ether molecules. a. 1,2-butanediol
CH2CHCH2CH3 OH OH

b. 5-aminohexane
NH2

CH2CHCH3

b. Does the compound have optical isomers?


Yes; one carbon is attached to four different atoms or groups.

CH3CHCH2CH2CH2CH3

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Alcohols, Ethers, and Amines (23.2) Level 1 50. Name one ether that is a structural isomer of each alcohol. a. 1-butanol

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c. isopropyl ether
CH3 CH 3 CHOCH CH3

d. octanoamide
O

CH3CH ( )6 2CNH 2

CH3

e. 3-fluoro-2-methylbutanoic acid
F O

d. 2-methyl-1-butanol
OH CH2CHCH2CH3 CH3

CH3CHCHCOH CH3

f. cyclopentanal
O CH

e. butyl pentyl ether


( CH2 )3 0 ( CH2 )4 CH3 CH3

f. cyclobutyl methyl ether


OCH3

g. hexyl methanoate
O

g. 1,3-diaminobutane
NH2 NH2

( )5 HCOCH 2CH 3

CH2CH2CHCH3

h. cyclopentanol
OH

Level 2 53. Name each of the following carbonyl compounds.


a.

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Carbonyl Compounds (23.3) Level 1 52. Draw structures for each of the following carbonyl compounds. a. 2,2-dichloro-3-pentanone
Cl O CH3CCCH2CH3 Cl

cyclobutanone

b.

CH3 CH2 CH2 C H


butanal

c.

b. 4-methylpentanal
CH3 O

CH3 ( CH2 ) 4 C OH
hexanoic acid

CH3CHCH2CH2CH

d.

c. isopropyl hexanoate
O

CH3 ( CH2 ) 4 C NH2


CH3 CH3 hexanoamide

CH3 ( CH2COCH )4

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addition

CH3CH2COCH2CH3 H2O

b. propane fluorine 0 2-fluoropropane

hydrogen fluoride
substitution

c. 2-propanol 0 propene water


elimination

Polymers (23.5) Level 1 58. What monomers react to make each polymer? a. polyethylene
ethylene

d. cyclobutene water 0 cyclobutanol


addition

b. Dacron
ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid

55. Use structural formulas to write equations for

c. Teflon
tetrafluoroethylene

the following reactions. a. the substitution reaction between 2-chloropropane and water yielding 2-propanol and hydrogen chloride
CH3CHCH3 H2O 0 CH3CHCH3 HCl Cl OH

d. Nylon 6,6
adipic acid and 1,6-diaminohexane

59. Name the polymers made from the following


Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

b. the addition reaction between 3-hexene and

monomers. a. CF2CF2
Teflon

chlorine yielding 3,4-dichlorohexane


CH3CH2CHCHCH2CH3 Cl2 0 Cl Cl CH3CH2CHCHCH2CH3

b. CH2CCl2
Saran

Level 2 56. What type of reaction converts an alcohol into each of the following types of compounds? a. ester
condensation

Level 2 60. Choose the polymer of each pair that you expect to have the higher water solubility.
a.
CH2 CH2
n

Other Reactions of Organic Compounds (23.4) Level 1 54. Classify each of the following organic reactions as substitution, addition, elimination, oxidationreduction or condensation. a. 2-butene hydrogen 0 butane

57. Use structural formulas to write the equation for

the condensation reaction between ethanol and propanoic acid.


CH3CH2OH CH3CH2COH 0 O O

CH2 CH

OH I II
II

b. alkyl halide
substitution

c. alkene
elimination

d. aldehyde
oxidation

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b. CH3
CH CH2
n

OH CO
CH2 C CH2
n

65. Draw structures of the following compounds.

(23.3) a. butanone
CH3CCH2CH3 O

I
II

II

b. propanal
O O O O

61. Examine the structures of the following poly-

condensation polymerization

CH3CH ( )4 2COH

b. polyacrylonitrile
addition polymerization

d. heptanoamide

c. polyurethane
condensation polymerization

CH3CH ( )5 2CNH 2

e. ethyl pentanoate

d. polypropylene
addition polymerization

CH3CH ( )3 2COCH 2CH3

f. benzoic acid
alkene alcohol alcohol O COH

Copyright Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, a division of the McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Mixed Review Sharpen your problem-solving skills by answering the following. 62. Which halogen is found in hormones made by a normal human thyroid gland?
iodine

66. Name the organic compound formed by each of

the following reactions. a. elimination from an alcohol

63. Describe the properties of carboxylic acids.


Carboxylic acids are weakly acidic, taste sour, and consist of polar molecules.

b. addition of hydrogen chloride to an alkene


alkyl halide

64. List two uses of esters.


Esters are used as flavorings in foods and beverages and as fragrances in candles and perfumes.

c. addition of water to an alkene

d. substitution of a hydroxyl group for a

halogen atom

mers in Table 23-4. Decide whether each is made by addition or condensation polymerization. a. nylon

CH3CH2CH

c. hexanoic acid

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67. List two uses for each of the following polymers. a. b. c. d.

b.

polypropylene polyurethane polytetrafluoroethylene polyvinvyl chloride


O

CH3 C CH3
CH3

See Table 23-4 for answers.