BASELINE ENERGY AUDITFERTILISER INDUSTRY
A.V. DINESH –Director DEVKI ENERGY CONSULTANCY PVT. LTD., VADODARA www.devkienergy.com
BASELINE ENERGY AUDIT- PAT
• Review of fuel, feed and production data • Identify & define boundary of energy consuming subsystems in the plant • Perform energy balance of important subsystems • Identify energy management opportunities and analyse savings and investments Note: – Energy auditor will be using available plant instrumentation to the maximum extent. Portable instruments such as Power analysers, flue gas analysers, temperature & pressure measurement devices etc. will be used – Ensure calibration and availability of in-situ instruments, provision for measurements etc.
) – Compressed air system Find out major energy consuming equipments in each sub-system – Investigate the technology – List out critical parameters which affect the efficiency and energy consumption – Operating vs. Designed value [ Measurements may be required at this stage. make up water etc. past energy audit reports. WHB) – CO2 removal system – Synthesis loop – Refrigeration system
– – – – Urea synthesis reactor (incl. However.) MP & LP decomposers Concentrators Granulation
– Water supply system ( from raw water to DM water.Methodology & Scope of Baseline Audit
• Subsystems in Fertiliser Plant – Primary Reformer ( radiation & convection sections) – Secondary reformer ( incl. CO2 compressors etc. Ammonia pumps. performance assessment reports may be referred to ]
Methodology & Scope of Baseline Audit
• Investigate All options related to – Waste Heat Recovery – Co-Generation – Fuel Switch – Use of EE equipment / System [ Detail discussion with management required at this stage ] • Review the Past Energy efficiency Measures • Review the Future Energy Efficiency Approach/Strategy – Detail discussion with plant management required • Preparation of Audit Report – Potential evaluation with tentative cost-benefit analysis
0 1. Heavy Oil & Coal based Ammonia Plant
Parameter Energy consumption Investment Natural Gas 1. In India about 67% Urea capacity is based on Natural Gas and balance 33% on Naphtha and Fuel Oil. Following are the relative consumption figures of NG.2010
. Plants installed after 1990 is almost all based on NG/Naphtha.1 1.4 2. INVESTMENT & PRODUCTION COSTS
Natural gas reforming with steam & air is the simplest & most efficient way of ammonia synthesis gas production.6 Coal 1.0 Naphtha 1.0
Source: Handbook of Fertiliser Technology –FAI .15 Fuel Oil 1. Plants installed during 1970-80s was mostly Naphtha & Fuel Oil.15 1.COMPARISON OF ENERGY.
163 -2.006 -0.00
1) Figures include the losses in GV section 2) By balance.6 Gcal/Ton Modern NG/Naphtha based plants have figures between 6.53
7.15 -5.982 5.85 -71.49 -0.881 -0.227 53.0 Gcal/Ton
Energy Inflow & Outflow (Gcal/ton) from different steps
Item Primary reformer including steam superheater & convection zone Secondary Reformer RG WHB HTS LTS GV System (CO2 removal) Methanator Synthesis reactor Total Cooling Water Air Coolers Unaccounted for vent losses & others2 Total Losses Energy Inflow 2559 Energy Outflow 2336 Loss (-) /Gain (+) -0.35 -100.135 -4.337
7.219 6.7 to 8.005 -0.4241 -0.66 -10.210 -1.0 Ton of NH3 is 4.274 1.20 -15.831 0.642 -0.723 24.ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
• • • Thermodynamic energy requirement to produce 1.237 5.437 54.823 0.340 5.176
-0.52 -3.009 -0.050 -0.246 5.12 -0.214 6.008 -0.22 -0.
.21 -28.729 24.334 1.46 Gcal Plants designed in 1970s had figures of 9.030
-1.93 -0.223 % Loss of Total -5.
. Total saving of 0.3 Gcal/ton of ammonia. in place of steam turbine. which have a cooling load of ~1.9 Gcal/ton of energy loss is through the surface condensers of three major compressors. The major contributor to this 2.3 Gcal/ton from process air compressor on gas turbine.
The use of gas turbine.Loss distribution
The very first reason of ~71% of total energy loss going to the cooling water is that the low-level heat can not be recovered efficiently in absence of cooler streams. for process air compressor in the new plants is an effective way to reduce these losses to some extent.
Energy and material consumption summary for a few technologies are given below.
Item Ammonia CO2 *Steam Power
Unit Kg Kg Kg kWh
Toyo-ACES 568 735 570 121
Snamprogetti 566 733 620 120
Stamicarbon 568 733 855 110
*depending on location and available utilities
Major energy consuming systems-Urea
8 70.Specific energy consumption
AMMONIA Feed stock % capacity Utilisation Gas Naphtha Fuel oil 104 53.63 (ZIL.82 11.09 8. Mangalore) 8. Bharuch)
.32 9. Goa) 11.88 7.78
Best figures achieved in 2009-10
8.5 100.14 (NFL-Bhatinda)
UREA Feed stock Gas Naphtha Fuel oil % capacity Utilisation 102.66 (IFFCO-Aonla-II) 9.1 (GNFC.17 ( TCL.81 (MCFL.4 Average Gcal/Ton 5. Barbala) 6.97 Best figures achieved in 2009-10 5.
• More efficient combustion by reducing excess air. combustion air heaters in convection zone can be done.
. This can save about 0.ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES
• Reduce Primary Reformer duty by reforming at lower temperature in Pre-Reformer. Additional BFW coils. • Insulation / refractory for Furnaces.15 Gcal/T with a payback period of 2-3 years. • More Heat recovery from flue gases. equipments and piping. by additional coils and increasing size of existing coils.
• Hydraulic Turbine for utilizing pressure energy wasted during let down. • Use of Vapor Absorption for cooling GT / Compressor suction. Gain from more efficient power availability for compression.ENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES
• Supply Compression Energy directly by Gas Turbine and exhaust to HRSG or Reformer Furnace. Turbo expanders can reduce Fuel NG pressure from 40 bar to 10 bar and recover mechanical power.
. • Power Recovery Unit for High pressure gases letdown. about 400 kW can be generated. For 10000 Nm3/h NG consumption. Payback period of more than 6 years.
• Energy Saving = = 243600 kWh/year • Cost saving = Rs. 4.5 lakhs/year
. The team has identified leakages of 30 m3/h at Bagging house and SPG & offsites area. • The pump input power during this isolated condition was about 89 kW. with a pump efficiency of 18% only.Case Study: Reduce water leakage in the fire water system
• The fire water pump was delivering a flow of 60 m3/h. Thus reduction of 30 m3/h in leakage was arrested during the audit itself. • We had taken trials with the help of safety & fire dept and technical services dept to identify the source of this 60 m3/h leakage of fire water.
resulting in prolonged stripper operation and about 5 to 6 tons per hour of LP steam • Stop ammonia mixing in intercooler and provide separate ammoniacal effluent stream from non ammoniacal effluent. • Separate ammoniacal effluent collection pits are made and intercooler tubes have been replaced to arrest ammoniacal effluent.0 Lakhs/year
. Significant amount of ammoniacal effluent from ammonia-1 from Syngas compressor intercooler mixes with other effluent.Case Study: Reduction in steam for effluent stripping
• Presently the ammoniacal and non-ammoniacal effluent is mixed. • Annual cost saving potential of Rs 72.
.Case Study: DM Water Pumping
• DM water from DM Water Plant is sent to tanks in Ammonia-1 & II and then pumped from the tank to deaerator by separate pumps. with an investment of Rs 5.0 lakhs. a pump bypass line already exists as per original design (this arrangement is already operational in Power Plant) • Annual cost saving potential is about Rs 25. • DM water can be sent directly from DM water header to deaerator through control valve. Total power consumption of 2 nos pumps is 170 kW.
System efficiency (including fan + damper losses) is only 14.Case Study: Boiler FD fan speed control
• Input power to motor driven FD fan was 260 kW.3% • Reduce steam turbine speed and increase damper opening & automate control to move damper to preset position in case of changeover to electric motor drive
• Saving potential 69.7 lakhs/year
• Operating pressure (observed during energy audit for few days) was 150 kg/cm2g while the drum pressure is 120 kg/cm2g • Reduce the discharge pressure to 130 kg/cm2g by reducing speed of turbine and reducing stages of motor driven pump.0 lakhs
.Case Study: Boiler Feed Pump of Power Plant
• Boiler feed pump driven by 1220 kW motor and standby pump of steam turbine driven.85 lakhs/year with an investment of Rs 60.
• Cost saving potential of 34.
with an investment of Rs 7.1 m3/h of CBD is taken out from service boiler & HRSGs. by using this condensate. i.0 lakhs
. The condensate is cooled and discharged • Install NG preheater from 30 C to above 80 C. which is flashed in drum.1 lakhs. while reducing its temperature from 150 C to 60 C.e.8 m3/h of NG saving realised.Case Study: Heat recovery from CBD
• Presently about 2. Rs 5. • About 10.
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