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6.

PERCENTAGES

INTRODUCTION: The term “percent” means per hundred or for every hundred. H is the abbreviation of the
latin phrase percentum. The term percent is sometimes abbreviated as P.C. the symbol % is often used for
the term percent.

SOME BASIC FORMULAE


1) To convert a fraction into a percent: To convert any fraction l/m into rate percent, multiply it by 100 and
put % sign i.e. l/mx100%
Ex: 6.2 can be expressed in terms of percentage as
Sol: 6.2 × 100 =620%
2) To convert a percent into a fraction: To convert a percent into a fraction, drop the percent sign and
divide the number by 100.
3)To find a percentage of a given number
X% of given number(N) = x/100 xN
Ex: What is 15 percentage of Rs34.
15
Sol: × 34 = Rs 5.10
100

1) Fractional equivalents of Important percents:

1 1 1 2 16 16 24
1%= 2% = 4%= 8%= 16%= 64%= 96%=
100 50 25 25 25 25 25
1 1 1 2 3 2 6
5%= 10%= 20%= 40%= 60%= 120%=
20 10 5 5 5 80%= 4 5
5
5
1 1 1 3 1 7
6 14 % = 12 12 % = 25%= 37 12 % = 50%= 87 12 % = 100%=1
16 8 4 8 2 8
1 1 1 2 5 4
8 13 % = 16 23 % = 33 13 % = 66 23 % = 83 13 % = 133 13 % =
12 6 3 3 6 3

 x 
5) a) if A is x% more than that of B, then B is less than A by  × 100 %
 (100 + x ) 
Ex: If A’s salary is 25% more that B, then how much percentage is B’s salary less that of A ?
100
Sol: B’s salary is less by = × 100 %=20%
100 + 25
 x 
b) If A is x% less than that of B, then B is more than that of A by  × 100
 (100 − x ) 
Ex: If A’s salary is 30% less that B, then how much percentage is B’s salary more that of A ?
100
Sol: B’s salary is less by = × 100 = 42 67 %
100 − 30
x
6) If A is x% of C and B is y% of C, then A is × 100 % of B.
y
Ex: Two number are respectively 20% and 25% of third number . What percentage is the first of the
Second ?
20
Sol: first is of second by × 100 =80%
25
7)a) If two numbers are respectively x% and y% more than a third number, then the first number is
100 + x  100 + y 
100 + y × 100 % of the second and the second is 100 + x × 100 % of the first.
 
Ex: A Ram got 20% marks and Rahul got 50% marks more that Raj then by what percentage is Ram is
of the Rahul and Rahul is of what percentage of Ram?
100 + 20
Sol: Ram is × 100 =80% of Rahul and
100 + 50
100 + 50
Rahul is × 100 =125% of Ram.
100 + 20
b) If two numbers are respectively x% and y% less than a third number, then the first number is
100 − x  100 − y 
100 − y × 100 % of the second and the second is 100 − x × 100 % of the first.
   
Ex: Two worker get 30% and 40% less than the third person, by what percentage is first person less
by second and second is less of first by what percentage?
100 − 40
Sol: first person is × 100 = 85 75 % less by second and
100 − 30
100 − 30
second person is × 100 = 11 60
40
less of first by what percentage
100 − 40
8) x% of a Quantity is taken by the first y% of the remaining is taken by the second and z% of the remaining
A × 100 × 100 × 100
is taken by third person now if A is left in the quantity, then there was
(100 − x )(100 − y )(100 − z ) the
beginning.
Ex: From a tank 10% of wine is taken out, 20% of remaining wine is taken out next time volume of
wine remaining is 144liters. What was the amount of wine in the beginning.
144 × 100 × 100
Sol: Amount of wine in the starting was
(100 − 10)(100 − 20) =200liters
9) x% of a Quantity is added, again, y% of the increased Quantity is added, again z% of the increased
A × 100 × 100 × 100
Quantity is added, now it becomes A, then the initial amount is given by
(100 + x )(100 + y )(100 + z )
Ex: A man deposited 20% of the amount in his locker in the first year. In the second year, he deposited
25% of increased amount in his locker, he raise it to Rs4880. What was initial amount deposited by the man.
Sol: The man has Rs4800 at the end of second year
4800 × 100 × 100
He deposit’s
(100 + 20)(100 + 25) =Rs 3200 initially in his bank.
10) Population formula:
1) If the present population of a town (or value of an item) be P and the population (or value of item)
changes at r% per annum then
n
 r 
a) Population (or value of item) n years after = P1 + 
 100 
P
n
b) Population (or value of item) n years ago =  r 
1 − 
 100 
Ex: If the annual increase in the population of a 4% and the present number of people is 15,625, what
will the population in 3years and 3 years ago?
3
 4  26 25 25
Sol: The population after 3 year will be 15625 1 +  = 15625 × × × =17576
 100  25 26 26
15625
3 25 25 25
The population before 3 year is  4  = 15625 × × × =17660
1 −  24 24 24
 100 
where r is +ve or –ve according as the population (or values of item) increases or decreases.

2) When the rate of growth different for different yrs:

a) The population of a town [or value of an item] is P. If increases by x% during the first year, increases by
y% during the second year and again increases by Z% during the third year. Population(or value of item)
after 3 yrs will be
P(100 + x )(100 + y )(100 + z )
100 × 100 × 100
Ex: The population of the town is 8000. It increased by 10% during the first year and 20% during
second year. What is the population at the end of second year?
8000(100 + 10 )(100 + 20 )
Sol: Population after 2years would be =10,560
100 × 100

b) The population of a town (or value of an item) is P, if increases x% during the first year, decreases by y%
during the second year, and again decreases by z% during the third year the population (or value of item)
after 3 yrs.
P(100 + x )(100 − y )(100 − z )
100 × 100 × 100
Ex: The population of a town is 10,000. It is increased by 10% during the first year. During the second
year, it decrease by 20% and increase by 30% during third year. What is the population ?
10000(100 + 10 )(100 − 20 )(100 + 30)
Sol: The required population is =11440
100 × 100 × 100
11) Reduction in consumption :
expenditure = consumption X rate of item for keeping the expenditure fixed, it is essential that if the rate of
the item increases, the consumption will be reduced or if the rate of the item decreases, then consumption
will increase.

1) If price of a commodity increases by r%, then the reduction in consumption so as not to increase the

 100 
expenditure, is 100 + r × 100 %

Ex: If the price petrol is increased by 30%, by how much percentage a car owner must reduce his
consumption in order to maintain the same budget?
Sol: In order to maintain same budget the consumer have to reduce his consumption by
100
× 100 = 23 131 %
100 + 30

2) If the price of a commodity decreases by r% then increase in consumption, so as not to decrease


 100 
expenditure on this item is 100 − r × 100 %
Ex: The price of wheat falls by 16%. By what percentage a person can increase, the consumption of
wheat so that his overall budget doesn’t change?
100
Sol: Consumption of wheat = × 100 =19%
100 − 16
x
12) x as a percentage of y = × 100 %
y
Ex: What rate per cent is 6P of Re1?
6P 6
Solo: = × 100 =6%
Re 1 100

13) If the value of a number is first increased by x% and later decreased by x% the net change is always
x2
decrease which is equal to x% of x or
100
Ex: A shop keeper marks the price of his goods 12% higher than its orginal price. After that, he allows
a discount of 12%. What is his percentage profit are loss ?

In this case, there is always a loss. And the % value of loss is


(12) 2 =1.44% loss
100
14) If a number is changed(increased/decreased) successively by x% and y% then net% change is given by
 xy 
 x + y + 100  % which represents increase or decrease in value according as the sign is +ve or –ve.
If x or y indicates decrease in percentage then put –ve sign before x or y otherwise +ve sign.
Ex: The salary of a person is increased by 10% and then decreased by 20%. What is the net change in
the salary?
Sol: increased % is taken as +10% and decreased % as -20% from above formula
10 × −20
10 − 20 + = -12% , -ve sine indicate decrease in salary
100
15) If two parameters A and B are multiplied to get a product and if A is changed (increased/decreased) by
x% and another parameter B is changed(increased/decreased) by y% then the net% change in the
 xy 
product(AxB) is given by  x + y + 100  which represents increase or decrease in value according as the sign is
+ve or –ve, if x or y indicates decrease in percentage, then put –ve sign before x or y , otherwise +ve sign.

16) Effect on revenue :


(i) If the price of commodity is diminished by x% and its consumption is increased by y%

(ii) Or if the price of a commodity is increased by x% and consumption is decreased by y% then the effect m
revenue = inc% value-Dec% value – Inc% valuexDec% of value/100.
Ex: The number of seats in the cinema hall is increased by 25% and price on a ticket is also increased
by 10%. What is the effect on the revenue collected?
Sol: Since there is an increase in the seats as well as in the price, we use
Decrease= -(increase)
25 × ( − 10)
Thus formula becomes %effect=25-(-10) − =35+2.5=37.5
100
Thus there is 37.5% increase in the revenue.

17) The pass marks in an examination is x%. If a candidate who secures y marks fails by Z marks then the
100( y + z )
maximum marks. M=
x
Ex: Passing marks in an examination is 55%. If a candidate who secures 100 marks fails by 10 marks
then the maximum marks.
100(100 + 10 )
Sol: Maximum of the exam is = 200 marks
55

18) A candidate scoring x% in an examination fails by ‘a’ marks, while another candidate who scores y%
marks get ‘b’ marks more than the minimum marks then the maximum marks for that examination are M=
100( a + b ) 
 y−x 
 
Ex: A candidate scores 25% and fails by 30 marks, while another candidate who scores 50% marks,
more than minimum required marks to pass the examination. Find the maximum marks for the examination.
100( 30 + 20 )
Sol: Maximum marks= =200
50 − 25

19) In measuring the sides of a rectangle or side is taken x% is excess and the other y% in deficit. The error
 xy 
percent in area calculated form  x − y − 100  the measurement is in excess or deficit according to the +ver or
–ve sign.
Ex: If the length of a rectangle is decresed by 40% and the breadth is increased by 30%, then find the
% change in the area of the rectangle.
Sol: Here, both the length and breadth is changed.
Where length=-40, breadth=+30
30 × 40
Net change % in areas of rectangle is -40+30 − =-22, -ve sine signifies decrese in area by
100
22%

20) If the sides of a triangle, rectangle, square, circle, rhombus (or any 2 dimensional figure) are increased
 x( x + 200 )  x2
by x%. Its area is increased by  100  % or 2 x +
100
Ex: The radius of the circle is so increased that its circumference increased by 5%. The area of the
circle is increased by?
Sol: Here x=5, from above formula
52
We get 2×5 + =10.25%
100

21) If the radices of a circle increased or decreases by x% circumference in order x%.

22) In an examination, x% failed in English and y% is failed in maths. If z% of students failed in both the
subjects the percentage of students who passed in both the subjects is 100-(x+y-z).
Ex: In an examination, 40% of the students failed in Maths, 30% failed in English and 10% in both.
Find the percentage of student who passed in the both the subjects.
Sol: The required %of student passed in both subject = 100-(40+30-10) = 40%

 x+ y 
23) P1% of a number is x and p2% of a number is y then the number is  × 100 or
 p1 + p 2 
 x− y 
 × 100
 p1 − p 2 
Ex: