You are on page 1of 33

Topic Outline

Topic Outline  What research is not  What research is  Distinct characteristics of research

What research is not What research is Distinct characteristics of research The research cycle Checklist in evaluating research Tools of research

What is not research

Research is not mere information gathering.

Research is not mere transformation of facts from one location to another.

Research is not merely rummaging for information.

What is not research  Research is not mere information gathering.  Research is not mere

What is research?

Research is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data in order to increase our understanding of a phenomenon we are interested or concerned

What is research?  Research is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting data in
Distinct characteristics  Research originates with a question or  Research requires clear articulation of a

Distinct characteristics

Research originates with a question or

Research requires clear articulation of a goal.

Research requires a specific plan for proceeding.

Research usually divides a principal problem into more manageable sub- problems.

What is research (cont)  Research is guided by the specific research problem, question or hypothesis.
What is research (cont)  Research is guided by the specific research problem, question or hypothesis.
What is research (cont)  Research is guided by the specific research problem, question or hypothesis.

What is research (cont)

Research is guided by the specific research problem, question or hypothesis.

Research accepts certain critical assumptions

Research requires the collection and interpretation of data in an attempt to resolve the problem that initiated the research.

Research originates with a question

Examples:

Are Filipinos well nourished?

What do streetchildren eat in a day?

Why are there thin and fat students?

How does diabetes develop in overweight children?

….requires clear articulation of a goal

….requires clear articulation of a goal  What problem do you want to solve?  Malnutrition?

What problem do you want to solve? Malnutrition? i.e., micronutrient deficiency, PEM, overnutrition Improve food quality? Change behavior? Practice breastfeeding, Improve nutrition compliance to diet?

…requires a specific plan

Not groping in the dark to find a solution

A planned discovery with outlined steps for attacking the problem

…requires a specific plan  Not groping in the dark to find a solution  A

design of study specific to get relevant data

…divides problem into sub- problems

Main problem divided to into more manageable problems that will answer the main problem Example:

Main problem : “How do you go to Manila?” Sub-problems :

What are the ways to go there? What is the most convenient transportation?

How much will it cost to travel by these routes?

… guided by specific research problems, questions and hypothesis

… guided by specific research problems, questions and hypothesis  A hypothesis is a logical supposition

A hypothesis is a logical supposition , a

reasonable

guess, an educated

conjecture that provides a tentative explanation for the phenomenon under investigation. It can also provide information in resolving the specific problem and in the process, the main research problem.

Ex. If you switch on the lamp and it does light what is your guess as to the reason why it does not light?

… accepts certain critical assumptions

Assumptions are similar to axioms in geometry – self –evident truths -the sine non qua of research. They must be valid for the research to be meaningful.

For example, if a research wants to evaluate the knowledge gained from a nutrition education class, one assumption would be regular attendance to the class of participants.

… requires collection and interpretation of data to resolve problem initiated

Data collected based on objectives or research questions

Data collected becomes meaningful when it is interpreted correctly

Methodology of the project controls how data are to be collected, arranged, synthesized and interpreted

… requires collection and interpretation of data to resolve problem initiated  Data collected based on

… research by nature is

cyclical,

or

helical

Follows logical developmental steps:

Questioning mind asks “why?” One question becomes the problem Problem divided into simpler sub-problems Preliminary data gathered Data seem to point to alternative solution Data collected more systematically Data are processed Discovery is made Hypothesis supported or not

the research process

the research process
Checklist Questions to consider when evaluating research  In what source did you find the article?

Checklist

Questions to consider when evaluating research

In what source did you find the article? Was it reviewed by experts in the field before publication?

Does the article have a stated research question or problem? Or, can you determine the focus of the work?

Does the article describe the collection of data, or does it synthesize other studies in which data were collected?

Checklist Questions to consider when evaluating research  Is the article logically organized and easy to

Checklist

Questions to consider when evaluating research

Is the article logically organized and easy to follow?

Does the article contain that outlines and reviews previous studies? In what way is this relevant to the research problem?

Are the procedures clear enough that you could repeat the work and get similar results?

Checklist  How were the data collected and how were they analyzed? Do you agree with

Checklist

Checklist  How were the data collected and how were they analyzed? Do you agree with

How were the data collected and how were they analyzed? Do you agree with what was done?

Do you agree with the interpretation of results?

Reflect on the entire article. What, for you is most important? What are interesting? What are the strengths and weaknesses? Will you remember the article in the future?

Tools of research

A tool is a specific mechanism or strategy that researchers use to collect, manipulate or interpret data

Not to equate tools of research with methodology

Tools of research  A tool is a specific mechanism or strategy that researchers use to

A methodology is the general approach that a researcher takes in carrying out the research process

Tools of research  A tool is a specific mechanism or strategy that researchers use to

Six general tools of research

Library and its resources Computer and software Techniques of measurement Statistics The human mind Language

Six general tools of research  Library and its resources  Computer and software  Techniques

The library

Card catalog Indexes and abstracts Reference librarian Browsing the shelves

The library  Card catalog  Indexes and abstracts  Reference librarian  Browsing the shelves

The computer and its software

The internet and World Wide Web

Electronic mail

Measurement as a tool of research

Measurement as a tool of research  Measurement is limiting the data of any phenomenon- substantial

Measurement is limiting the data of any phenomenon- substantial or insubstantial – so that those data maybe interpreted and compared to acceptable qualitative or quantitative standard.

Four scales of measurement of data Nominal, ordinal, interval , ratio

Summary of measurement scales

Measureme

Characteristic of the

Statistical possibilities

nt scale

scale

of the scale

Nominal

Measures names or

Determines mode,

scale

designation of discrete

percentage value, or the

Ordinal scale

units Measures or categories ranking, values

Determines chi-square the median,

of more or

less , larger or

percentile rank and rank

smaller, but without

correlation

specifying the size of the

Interval scale

Measures intervals equal interval or

Determines the mean,

degrees of difference but

standard deviation and

the zero point is arbitrarily

product moment

established

correlation, allows

conduct of inferential

Ratio scale

Measures in terms of

Enables statistical determination analysis of

equal intervals and with

the geometric mean and

absolute zero

percentage variation;

allows one to conduct any

statistical analysis

Validity and reliability of measurement instrument

Validity and reliability of measurement instrument  Validity – extent to which the instrument measures what

Validity – extent to which the instrument measures what it is supposed to measure

Reliability – the consistency with which a measuring instrument yields a certain result when the entity being measured has not changed.

Both validity and reliability reflect the degree to which we may have error in

Statistics

Statistics  Function of statistics in research:  Describe the data (descriptive statistics)  Draw inferences

Function of statistics in research:

Describe the data (descriptive statistics)

Draw inferences from the data (inferential statistics)

The human mind

Strategies used by the human mind to discover the unknown

Deductive logic - reasoning that begins with a premise (assumptions, widely accepted “truths” then to the conclusion; useful for generating hypothesis and testing theories.

Inductive reasoning – begins with an observation from where conclusions are drawn ; observe sample and draw generalization to the population

The human mind (cont)

Scientific method – method where insight into the unknown is made by 1) identifying a problem that defines the goal , 2) states the hypothesis that when confirmed, resolves the problem , 3) gathering data relevant to the hypothesis, 4) analyzing and interpreting data to see if data supported the hypothesis nor not; also uses both deductive and inductive reasoning

The human mind (cont)

Critical thinking - involves evaluating information or argument in terms of accuracy and worth; it may involve:

Verbal reasoning Argument analysis Decision making Critical analysis of prior research

The human mind (cont)  Critical thinking - involves evaluating information or argument in terms of

Collaboration with others

Language

Language  Enables us not only to communicate but also to think more effectively  Use

Enables us not only to communicate but also to think more effectively

Use of language in writing is important in research.

Advantage of writing down ideas

Identifies specific ideas known and not known about the topic

Clarifies and organizes thoughts sufficiently to communicate to readers Detect gaps and logical flaws in thinking

Writing to communicate  Say what you mean to say  Keep primary objective in writing

Writing to communicate

Say what you mean to say Keep primary objective in writing and focus discussion accordingly Provide overview of what will be discussed Organize ideas from general to specific using headings and subheadings Provide transitional phrase, sentences or paragraphs to help readers follow your train of thought.

Writing to communicate (cont)

Use concrete examples to make abstract ideas understandable

Use appropriate punctuation

Writing to communicate (cont)  Use concrete examples to make abstract ideas understandable  Use appropriate

Use tables and figures to organize ideas and findings.,

Summarize what was said at the conclusion of the paper

Anticipate revision of draft of report.

Summary

What research is and is not Check list in the conduct of research Research uses different tools

Summary  What research is and is not  Check list in the conduct of research
Summary  What research is and is not  Check list in the conduct of research