This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

KUMAR DINKAR ANAND 3rd YEAR, MECHANICAL ENGG. IIT-KHARAGPUR GUIDANCE : PROF. S CHAKRABORTY INDO-GERMAN WINTER ACADEMY-DECEMBER 2006

: THE OUTLINE :

■ Hydraulically developing flow through pipes and channels and evaluation of hydraulic entrance length. ■ Hydraulically fully developed flows through pipes and channels . ■ Hydraulically fully developed flow through non-circular ducts. ■ Definition of Thermally fully developed flow and analysis of thermally fully developed flow through pipe and channels. ■ Analysis of the problem of Thermal Entrance: The Graetz Problem.

Fully Developed Flows

• There are two types of fully developed flows : 1.) Hydraulically Fully Developed Flow 2.) Thermally Fully Developed Flow

Contd…

flow is said to be Fully Developed. After this distance velocity profile doesn't change. Analysis of fluid flow before it is fully developed: •Velocity in the core of the flow outside the boundary layer increases with increasing distance from entrance. boundary layers keep on growing till they meet after some distance downstream from the entrance region. This is due to the fact that through any cross section same amount of fluid flows. dU dx > 0 This means dp dx < 0 hence Where U=Free stream velocity in the core before flow is fully developed p= Free stream pressure Contd… .Hydraulically Fully Developed Flow •Definition: As fluid enters any pipe or channel . and boundary layer is growing.

u ( y ) = a + by + cy 2 1.) At 2.) At 3.) At Using the boundary conditions : We get the velocity profile as : u( y) = 2( y δ ) − ( y δ ) U Contd… 2 y=0 y =δ y =δ u=0 u =U du dy = 0 .Schematic picture of internal flow through a pipe : Velocity Profile .

Where U= U∞ = Free stream velocity of entering fluid Free stream core velocity inside the tube Radius of pipe R= U e = Core velocity of fully developed flow y = R−r R R −δ Now from the principle of conservation of mass : U ∞ * πR 2 = ∴ Hence . R− ∫δ 2πurdr + ∫ 2πUrdr 0 U 1 = 2 U ∞ 1 − 2 / 3(δ / R) + 1 / 6(δ / R) u 2( y / δ ) − ( y / δ ) 2 = 2 U ∞ 1 − 2 / 3(δ / R) + 1 / 6(δ / R ) Contd… .

δ δ ∂u τw = μ ∂y y =0 From Bernoulli's Equation for free stream flow through core: dU 1 ∂p U =− dx ρ ∂x Using Navier-Stokes equation at the wall ∂p ∂ 2u =μ 2 ∂x ∂y y =0 Contd… .Boundary Layer momentum integral equation: d dU 2 τ w = {U ∫ ρu / U (1 − u / U )dy + U ρ (1 − u / U )dy} ∫ dx dx 0 0 Where. Shear stress at wall.

Solving for boundary layer thickness Using the boundary condition (δ ) at : Integrate momentum Integral Equation δ =0 x=0 For determination of Entrance Length ( Le ) : putting x = Le at δ =R We get the expression for Entrance Length ( Le ) as: Le = 0.03 Re D D Contd… .

) We have assumed parabolic velocity profile in the boundary layer U 1 u 2 = = 2( y / δ ) − ( y / δ ) 2 U 1 − 2 / 3 ( δ / R ) + 1 / 6 ( δ / R ) U ∞ 2.06 Re D D Hence it can be observed that our expression for Entrance Length differs from the analytical expression due to the following reasons: 1.Analytical expression for Entrance Length( Le ) : Le = 0.)We have not used the Navier-Stokes boundary equation at wall for velocity profile determination ∂p ∂ 2u =μ 2 ∂x ∂y y =0 3.) We are doing boundary layer analysis which gives approximate results Contd… .

) At 3.) At Using the boundary conditions : y=0 y =δ y =δ u=0 u =U du dy = 0 2 u y ( ) We get the velocity profile as : = 2( y δ ) − ( y δ ) Contd… U .) At 2.Schematic picture of internal flow through a channel: Velocity Profile u ( y ) = a + by + cy 2 1.

D= W= Distance between the parallel plates of channel Width of the Channel U ∞ = Free stream velocity of entering fluid U = Free stream velocity inside channel U e = Core velocity of fully developed flow Le = Entrance Length Diameter DH = Hydraulic AH 4WD =4 = = 2D P 2W Contd… .Here .

From the principle of conservation of mass: U ∞ * D = 2 ∫ udy + 2 0 δ ( D / 2 ) −δ ∫ Udy 0 ∴ ∴ U 1 = U ∞ 1 − 2 / 3(δ / D) u 2( y / δ ) − ( y / δ ) 2 = U∞ 1 − 2 / 3(δ / D) = D / 2) Contd… Hence when flow is fully developed (δ U e = 1.5U ∞ .

Shear stress at wall.From Boundary layer momentum integral equation : d dU 2 τ w = {U ∫ ρu / U (1 − u / U )dy + U ρ (1 − u / U )dy} ∫ dx dx 0 0 Where. δ δ ∂u τw = μ ∂y y =0 From Bernoulli's Equation for free stream flow through core: 1 ∂p dU U =− dx ρ ∂x Using Navier-Stokes equation at the wall ∂ 2u ∂p =μ 2 ∂y y =0 ∂x Contd… .

00625 Re DH DH Contd… .025 Re D D OR Le = 0.Solving for boundary layer thickness Using the boundary condition (δ ) : at Integrate momentum Integral Equation δ =0 x=0 For determination of Entrance Length ( Le ) : putting x = Le at δ =R We get the expression for Entrance Length ( Le ) as: Le = 0.

Analytical expression for Entrance Length ( Le ): Le = 0.) We are doing boundary layer analysis which gives approximate results.05 Re D D Hence it can be observed that our expression for Entrance Length differs from the analytical expression due to the following reasons: 1. Contd… .) We have not used the Navier-Stokes boundary equation at wall for velocity profile determination ∂p ∂ 2u ∂x =μ ∂y 2 y =0 3.) We have assumed parabolic velocity profile in the boundary layer u = 2( y / δ ) − ( y / δ ) 2 U U 1 = U ∞ 1 − 2 / 3(δ / D) 2.

Analysis of fully developed fluid flow: • Fully Developed Flow Through a Pipe: From Equation of continuity in cylindrical coordinates: for an incompressible fluid flowing through a pipe Contd… ∂u 1 ∂ (rur ) + =0 r ∂r ∂x .

ur = u= a= radial velocity axial velocity radius of pipe No fluid property varies with .Here. ur = 0 .at wall of the pipe hence it is zero everywhere. ⇒ p = p ( x) ∂r Contd… . θ Hence Equation of continuity reduces to : Momentum Equation in radial coordinate: ∂u = 0. ⇒ u = u ( r ) ∂x ∂p = 0.

We get the fully developed velocity profile: 2 ⎡ a ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ⎛r⎞ ⎤ u=− ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ 4 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎢ ⎣ ⎝a⎠ ⎥ ⎦ 2 Contd… .Momentum Equation in axial direction : dp μ d du = (r ) dx r dr dr Solving above differential equation in (r) using the boundary conditions: 1.) Axial velocity (u) is zero at wall of pipe (r =R) 2.) Velocity is finite at the pipe centerline (r=0).

a ⎛ ∂p ⎞ τ0 = ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ∂x ⎠ Hence it can be observed that Shear stress decreases from maximum to zero at pipe centerline and then increases to maximum again at wall. ⎛ du ⎞ τ rx = μ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ dr ⎠ r ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ∂x ⎠ Maximum shear stress at wall .Shear Stress Distribution : Shear stress . Contd… .

πa 4 ⎛ ∂p ⎞ Q = ∫ 2πurdr = − ⎜ ⎟ 8μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ 0 a Now in a fully developed flow pressure gradient is constant . ∂p ( pexit − pent ) Δp = =− ∂x L L ∴ πΔpa Q= 8μL 4 Contd… .Volume Flow Rate : volume flow rate . Hence .

V Maximum Velocity : Q Q a ⎛ ∂p ⎞ = = 2 =− ⎜ ⎟ 8μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ A πa 2 At the point of maximum velocity . du =0 dr r=0 2 Hence umax = ur =0 a ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ˆ =U = − ⎜ ⎟ = 2V 4 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ Contd… . This corresponds to core of pipe .Average Velocity : ˆ Average velocity .

• Fully Developed Flow through Channel : a ∂u ∂v + =0 ∂x ∂y From equation of continuity within the entrance length : In entrance length boundary layers growing . (•) ∂u ≠0 ∂x ⇒ v≠0 Contd… It means flow is not parallel to walls in entrance region .

Equation of Continuity for an incompressible fluid in fully developed region : ∂u = 0 ⇒ u = u( y) ∂x Momentum equation in y-direction (transverse direction) : ∂p =0 ⇒ ∂y ⎛ ∂ 2u ⎞ ∂p ⎟ = μ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎜ ∂x ⎝ ∂y ⎠ p = p( x) Momentum equation in x-direction (along length of channel) : Solving above differential equation in y using boundary conditions : u(y)=0 at y=0 and y=a Contd… .

τ yx ∂u ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ⎡⎛ y ⎞ 1 ⎤ =μ = a⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎥ ∂y ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎣⎝ a ⎠ 2 ⎦ Maximum Shear Stress at walls . a ⎛ ∂p ⎞ τ0 = − ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ ∂x ⎠ Contd… .We get the velocity profile : 2 ⎡ a ⎛ ∂p ⎞ ⎛ y ⎞ ⎛ y ⎞⎤ u= ⎜ ⎟ ⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎜ ⎟⎥ 2 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣⎝ a ⎠ ⎝ a ⎠⎥ 2 Shear Stress Distribution : Shear Stress .

Volume Flow Rate : 1 ⎛ ∂p ⎞ 3 Volume flow rate per unit width of channel.Hence it can be observed that Shear stress decreases from maximum to zero at centre of the channel and increases to maximum again at wall. Q = ∫ udy = − ⎜ ⎟a 12 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ 0 a Contd… .

Hence . u = umax 1 ⎛ ∂p ⎞ 2 3 ˆ =− ⎜ ⎟a = V 8μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ 2 Contd… a y= 2 . This corresponds to centre of channel . Q 1 ⎛ ∂p ⎞ 2 ˆ V = =− ⎜ ⎟a a 12 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂u =0 ∂y Maximum Velocity: At the point of maximum velocity .Average Velocity : Average Velocity .

⇒ =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x Contd… .Fully Developed Flow Through Non-Circular Ducts : (•) Elliptical Cross Section : ⎛ y2 ⎞ ⎛ z2 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ =1 ⎜ b2 ⎟ ⎟+⎜ ⎜ a2 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ As flow is fully developed in the elliptical section pipe : From equation of continuity for incompressible flow : u y = uz = 0 ∴ u x = u x ( y. z ) ∂u x ∂u x ∂u y ∂u z + + = 0.

z ) = 0 u x ( y. z ) ′ c1 and c2 to be determined using : is constant on the wall .) 2.Momentum Equation in x-direction : Boundary condition : ⎛ ∂ 2u x ∂ 2u x ⎞ ∂p + 2 ⎟ = μ⎜ 2 ⎜ ⎟ ∂ ∂ ∂x y z ⎝ ⎠ 2 2 ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ y z u x = 0 on ⎜ 2 ⎟ + ⎜ 2 ⎞ ⎟ =1 ⎜ a ⎟ ⎜b ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ′ 2 2 Solution Procedure : Use . z ) + c1 y + c2 z 1. u x ( y. Contd… .) Such that non zero constants ′ ∇ 2u x ( y . z ) = u x ( y.

z ) = −c1a 2 = const.Using the assumed velocity profile and solving the momentum equation using two stated conditions: ′ u x ( y. along the wall Using Laplace maximum criteria ( Maximum and minimum of a function satisfying Laplace equation lies on the boundary) : ′ u x ( y. z ) = −c1a 2 . z ) = ⎜− ⎟ 2 2 ⎜ 2 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ a + b ⎝ a b ⎟ ⎠ Contd… . over entire domain We get our velocity profile as : 1 ⎛ ∂p ⎞ a 2b 2 ⎛ y 2 z 2 ⎞ ⎜1 − 2 − 2 ⎟ u x ( y.

z )dA = ∫ ⎢ ⎜ − ⎟ 2 ⎥dA 2 ⎜ ⎟ 2 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ a + b ⎝ a b ⎠⎦ sec tion sec tion ⎣ ∴ π ⎛ ∂p ⎞ a b Q= ⎜− ⎟ 2 4 μ ⎝ ∂x ⎠ a + b 2 3 3 Contd… .Volumetric Flow Rate : Volume flow rate . ⎡ 1 ⎛ ∂p ⎞ a 2b 2 ⎛ y 2 z 2 ⎞⎤ ⎜1 − 2 − 2 ⎟ Q = ∫ u x ( y.

Thermally Fully Developed Flows : (•) Thermally fully developed flow through a pipe : Contd… .

thermal boundary layer starts growing. ∂x for hydraulic fully developed flow ∂T ≠ 0.• When fluid enters the tube with tube walls at a different temperature from the fluid temperature . Contd… . ∂u = 0. at any radial location for thermally fully developed ∂x flow as convection heat transfer is occurring. • After some distance downstream (thermal entry length) thermally fully developed condition is eventually reached : Thermally fully developed condition is different from Hydraulic fully developed condition .

Condition for fully developed thermal flow is defined as : ∂ ⎡ Ts ( x) − T (r .Condition for Thermally Fully Developed Flow : Because of convective heat transfer . T ( r ) continuously changes with axial coordinate x . Contd… . x) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥=0 ∂x ⎣ Ts ( x) − Tm ( x) ⎦ This means although temperature profile T ( r ) changes with x But the relative temperature profile does not change with x.

& = ρuc TdA = m E t ∫ v c & cvTm Ac From Newton’s Law of Cooling : qs = h(Ts − Tm ) ″ dTm ≠0 Since there is continuous heat transfer between fluid and walls : dx Contd… . Ts ( x) = Surface Temperature of the pipe Tm ( x) = Mean Temperature Mean Temperature ( Tm ( x) ) is defined as: Tm = Ac ∫ ρuc TdA v c & cv m Thermal Energy transported by the fluid as it moves past any cross section .Here .

x) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥=0 ∂x ⎣ Ts ( x) − Tm ( x) ⎦ ∂ ⎡ Ts ( x) − T (r .From the definition of thermally fully developed flow : ∂ ⎡ Ts ( x) − T (r . x) ⎤ Hence . ⎢ ⎥ ∂r ⎣ Ts ( x) − Tm ( x) ⎦ r = r Here (r0 ) is radius of the pipe . From Fourier’s heat conduction law at the wall and Newton's law of cooling: 0 ∂T ∂r r = r0 = ≠ f ( x) Ts ( x) − Tm ( x) − ⎡ ∂T ⎤ ⎡ ∂T ⎤ qs = − k ⎢ ⎥ = k⎢ ⎥ = h[Ts ( x) − Tm ( x)] ⎣ ∂r ⎦ r = r0 ⎣ ∂y ⎦ y = y0 ″ .

Here . h fd x fd . h is infinite in the Beginning (boundary layers h just building up).t Contd… x . then decays exponentially to a constant value when flow is fully developed (thermally )and thereafter remains constant.Hence . h ≠ f ( x) k h = Local convection heat transfer coefficient k = Coefficient of thermal conduction (fluid) Hence.

δ = Velocity boundary layer thickness δ ≈ Pr n δt n = Positive exponent δ t = Thermal boundary layer thickness Contd… . Where .Competition between Thermal and Velocity boundary Layers : This competition is judged by a dimensionless number . called ν⎞ Prandtl number ⎛ Pr = ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ μ Where . ν = = Kinematic friction coefficient (momentum diffusivity) ρ k = Thermal diffusivity α= ρc p α⎠ .

If . Similarly if. Pr 〈1 It means Thermal Boundary Layer grows faster than Velocity boundary layer. . If . Pr 〉1 It means Velocity Boundary Layer grows faster than Thermal boundary layer. Pr 〈1 and flow is said to be hydraulically developed it Contd… Means flow is already thermally developed. Hence flow first hydraulically developed and then thermally developed. Pr 〉1 and flow is said to be thermally developed it means Flow is already hydraulically developed. Hence flow first thermally developed and then hydraulically developed. (•) (•) Hence if.

(•)

Usually surface conditions of pipe fixed by imposing conditions :

1.) Surface temperature of pipe is made constant , Ts = const. 2.) Uniform surface heat flux ,

qs = const.

″

**Constant Surface Heat Flux :
**

From the definition of fully developed thermal flow:

∂ ⎡ Ts ( x) − T (r , x) ⎤ ⎥=0 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ Ts ( x) − Tm ( x) ⎦

**∂T dTs Ts − T dTs Ts − T dTm ⇒ = − + ∂x dx Ts − Tm dx Ts − Tm dx
**

Contd…

From Newton’s Law of cooling : As,

qs = h(Ts − Tm )

hence,

″

qs = const.

″

dTs dTm = dx dx

Ts

Hence using definition of thermally fully developed flow and Newton’s Law:

qs

″

Tm

∂T dTs dTm = = = const. ∂x dx dx

qs = const.

Contd…

″

Neglecting viscous dissipation, energy equation :

∂T ∂T α ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ +v = u ⎜ ⎟ ∂r r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ∂x

Assuming the flow to be both hydraulically and thermally developed :

∂u = 0, ∂x

v = 0,

∂T dTm = ∂x dx

⎛ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎞ ⎟, ⎟ u = 2u m ⎜1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ r 0 ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠

ˆ, um = V

**Hence energy equation reduces to :
**

2 ⎡ ⎛r⎞ ⎤ 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ 2um ⎛ dTm ⎞ ⎟ ⎥ ⎜ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎟ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ α ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎢ ⎝ r0 ⎠ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

Contd…

x) is finite at centre . r = 0 2. x) = Ts ( x) − 2u m r 0 2 α 4 2 ⎡ r ⎞ 1⎛ r ⎞ ⎤ ⎛ dTm ⎞ 3 1 ⎛ ⎟ ⎟ ⎥ − ⎜ ⎜ ⎟⎢ + ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ 16 16 ⎝ r0 ⎠ 4 ⎝ r0 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ From definition of mean temperature . T (r . We get Temperature profile : Tr = r0 = Ts ( x) T (r .) Temperature .) Temperature . 2 Tm = Ac ∫ ρuc TdA v c & cv m Tm ( x) = Ts ( x) − 11 um r0 ⎛ dTm ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ 48 α ⎝ dx ⎠ Contd… .Integrating energy equation using boundary conditions : 1.

dqconv = qs Pdx Tm + dTm ″ 1 ρ & m D Tm & = ρum ⎜ ⎟ m ⎜ 4 ⎟ ⎠ ⎝ For an ideal gas. dx c p = cv + R & d (cvTm + pv) dqconv = m ∴ ∴ & c p dTm = qs ″ Pdx dqconv = m ″ dTm qs P Ph (Ts − Tm ) = = & cp m & cp dx m Contd… .From the principle of energy conservation : specific volume. v = Perimeter. P = πD ⎛ πD 2 ⎞ ( pv) ( pv) + d ( pv) x pv = RTm .

36 11 k ∴ (•)Hence Nusselt number for fully developed flow through a circular pipe Contd… exposed to uniform heat flux on its surface is a constant .Reynold’s number and Prandtl number . .Hence combining the equations obtained by integration of energy equation in boundary layer and conservation of energy equation : 2 ″ 11 um r0 ⎛ dTm ⎞ 11 qs D Tm ( x) − Ts ( x) = − ⎜ ⎟=− 48 α ⎝ dx ⎠ 48 k ∴ 11 hD (Tm ( x) − Ts ( x) ) Tm ( x) − Ts ( x) = 48 k ∴ hD 48 Nu D = = = 4.independent of axial location .

dTs =0 dx ∴ ∂T Ts − T ⎛ dTm ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ∂x Ts − Tm ⎝ dx ⎠ Contd… .Constant Surface Temperature : From the definition of fully developed thermal flow : ∂ ⎡ Ts ( x) − T (r . x) ⎤ ⎥=0 ⎢ ∂x ⎣ Ts ( x) − Tm ( x) ⎦ ∂T dTs Ts − T dTs Ts − T dTm ⇒ = − + dx Ts − Tm dx Ts − Tm dx ∂x Constant surface temperature .

∂T ∂x depends on radial coordinate. Tm qs ″ Contd… . Ts = const. • Fully developed temperature profile for constant wall temperature hence differs from constant surface heat flux condition.• Hence it can be seen that .

⎟ u = 2u m ⎜1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ r 0 ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠ ˆ. ∂x v = 0. um = V ∂T Ts − T ⎛ dTm ⎞ = ⎜ ⎟ ∂x Ts − Tm ⎝ dx ⎠ Contd… . ⎛ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎞ ⎟. energy equation : ∂T ∂T α ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ +v = u ⎜ ⎟ ∂r r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ∂x Assuming the flow to be both hydraulically and thermally developed : ∂u = 0.Neglecting viscous dissipation.

Hence boundary layer energy equation becomes : 2 ⎡ ⎛ r ⎞ ⎤ Ts − T 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ 2um ⎛ dTm ⎞ ⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎢1 − ⎜ ⎜ ⎟= ⎜ ⎜ ⎟ r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ α ⎝ dx ⎠ ⎢ ⎝ r0 ⎠ ⎥ Ts − Tm ⎣ ⎦ Above equation is solved using iterative procedure : Nu D = 3.66 Contd… .

x) = Ts = Temperature at the wall Tm = Mean Temperature or Bulk Temperature Contd… . W = Width of channel Heat flux at the walls Temperature of fluid flowing through channel T (r .Fully developed thermal flow through a channel : (•) Channel walls subjected to constant heat flux : Here we consider a channel with : ″ qs = a = Depth of channel .

P = 2W = perimeter 4 A 4aW DH = = = 2a = Hydraulic diameter P 2W Neglecting viscous dissipation . ∂x dx ∂x 2 2 ⎡ ⎤ ⎡ a ∂p ⎛ y ⎞ y y⎤ ⎛ y⎞ u= ⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎥ = −6u m ⎢⎜ ⎟ − ⎥ 2 μ ∂x ⎢ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣⎝ a ⎠ a ⎥ ⎦ ⎣⎝ a ⎠ a ⎥ 2 Contd… . energy equation : ∂T ∂T ∂ 2T u +v =α 2 ∂x ∂y ∂y Assuming the flow to be both Hydraulically and thermally developed : ∂T dTm ∂u = = const. v = 0. = 0.

Here.) a dT = 0. um = Mean velocity um = Ac . at y = 2 dy ( as temperature profile is symmetric hence has extreme value at centre.) Contd… . is defined as : ∫ ρudA ρAc c a ∂p =− 12 μ ∂x 2 Now solving for boundary layer energy equation : 4 3 ⎡ um dTm y y ⎤ T = −6 − ⎥ + c1 y + c 2 ⎢ 2 α dx ⎣12a 6a ⎦ Constants of integration obtained using : 1.

2 Ac ∫ ρuc TdA v c & cv m 17 um a ⎛ dTm ⎞ Tm − Ts = − ⎟ ⎜ 140 α ⎝ dx ⎠ Contd… . y = 0& y = a ⇒ c2 = Ts T = Ts Hence we obtain the temperature profile : u m dTm T − Ts = −6 α dx ⎡ y4 y 3 ay ⎤ − + ⎥ ⎢ 2 6a 12 ⎦ ⎣12a Tm = From the definition of mean temperature.) at the wall .2.

& DH = 2a m ρc p Nu DH h(2a ) 140 = = k 17 Contd… . P = 2W . α = k . & = ρum (aW ).From conservation of energy method ( similar to case of pipe): dTm qs P Ph (Ts − Tm ) = = & cp m & cp dx m Hence combining temperature profile and conservation of energy : 2 u a Ph 17 m (Tm − Ts ) Tm − Ts = & cp 140 α m ″ Using .

Thermal Entrance : The Graetz Problem T0 Tw r0 r 0 u 0 T0 T Tw x Problem Statement: Fluid initially at a uniform temperature enters into a pipe at a surface temperature different than the fluid... Flow assumed to be Hydraulically developed . . Contd.

T0 = Uniform temperature of fluid before thermal entrance Tw = Uniform surface temperature of walls T ( x.• Prandtl number of fluid is high . boundary layer energy equation : ∂T α ∂ ⎛ ∂T ⎞ u = ⎜ ⎟ ∂x r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ Contd… . Here . hence thermal entrance starts far downstream. r ) = Fluid temperature in thermal entrance region ⎛ ⎛ r ⎞2 ⎞ As the flow is hydraulically fully developed : u = 2u ⎜1 − ⎜ ⎟ ⎟. • Flow already hydraulically developed. m ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ r ⎝ ⎝ 0⎠ ⎠ Neglecting viscous dissipation.

r = .Boundary Conditions : 1.) at Solution : x ≤ 0. x〉 0. Re = d 0u m ν ν νρ c p . x = Tw − T0 d 0 Re Pr r0 * Here . x) = Tw Solution done with the help of non dimensional variables.) at 2. Pr = = α k Hence energy equation reduces to : ∂T * ∂ ⎛ * ∂T * ⎞ 2 ⎜r ⎟ = 2 * * ⎜ * ⎟ * * ∂x r 1 − r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ ( ) Contd… . T = T0 T (r0 . Tw − T x r * * T = .

T (1. * g = C exp − 2λ x r f ′′ + f ′ + λ r 1 − r 2 * ( ) 2 * *2 ( )f = 0 Contd… ) .Boundary condition in terms of non-dimensional variables : T (r . x ) = 0 * * * * Solving the energy equation using variable separation method : Using . x* ) = f (r * ) g ( x* ) g′ r * f ′′ + f ′ 2 λ = = − = const.the particular solution in energy equation We obtain : T (r * . 2 * * g r 1− r f ( Hence .0) = 1.

x ) = ∑n =0 Cn exp(−2λn x ) f n (r ) * * * n =∞ 2 * * f n (0) = 1 .0) = 1 = ∑n = 0 C n f n ( r * ) n =∞ Cn . using the boundary condition T * (1. Contd… . x ) = Cn exp(−2λn x ) f n (r ) * * * 2 * * From the principle of linearity and superposition : T (r .Hence the particular solution will be : Tn (r . x* ) = 0 Using the other condition . for simplicity f n (1) = 0 . T * ( r * . To be determined using theory of orthogonal functions.

Using theory of orthogonal functions : * r ( 1 − r ) f dr n ∫ * *2 * *2 2 1 Cn = * r ( 1 − r ) f dr n ∫ 0 0 1 Now the rest of the problem is numerically solved for Nusselt Number : Nu x C f ∑ = 2∑ C λ n n (1) exp − 2λn x ′ −2 2 * f n (1) exp − 2λn x n 2 * n ′ ( ( ) ) contd… .

: KEY QUESTIONS : ☻ IF FLOW THROUGH A PIPE OR CHANNEL IS SAID TO BE HYDRAULICALLY FULLY DEVELOPED DOES THIS IMPLY THERMALLY FULLY DEVELOPED AND VICE-VERSA ???? ☻ IF TWO PLATES IN THE CHANNEL ARE MAINTAINED AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES THEN WHAT WILL BE THE CRITEREA FOR THERMALLY FULLY DEVELOPED FLOW ???? .

THANK YOU FOR YOUR COOPERATION THE END .

- Problem Set 1
- HW
- Demand Kwh
- Supply
- Bird Model Gandhinagar Gujarat
- ECM+II
- MG GaussianBeams
- Ht 2
- BCP97
- 0110
- Lex Manual
- hw3Cover
- ch11+fa10
- Probability Tables
- Assignment+No+3
- BSEMS Program Plan
- Hw 9
- cien4111_hm2
- Annotated Bib Draft1 (1)
- Individual+Preparation+for+BARS+Group+Work
- GIS+for+Sustainable+Development+Lecture+Lab+Fall+2013
- Group+Case+Analysis+Form
- 4312 Assignment 1
- E3129_syllabus_F13 (2)

heat transfer

heat transfer

- 10.1007_s002310100215dj
- Potential Flow
- Final Project for Advanced Fluid Mechanics
- Anna Univ Model
- fanno flow
- Key Aerodynamic Technologies for Aircraft Engine Nacelles
- Irrotational Flows
- John B. Bdzil, Tariq D.Aslam and Mark Short- DSD Front Models
- Vortical Flows Research Program of the Fluid Dynamics Research Branch (August 1, 1986)
- Puentes Hec Ras Us Armypdf
- Tutorial 1
- Determining Optical Flow Horn Schunck
- Flow Configurations in a Lid Driven Cavity With Throughflow -- A Dragomirescu
- Air Vent Heads Test-DNV-1997
- Darcy - Weisbach_equation
- 19990116700
- Inverse Fluidization
- Solar Grain Dryer Dr. George Owino
- Heat-Mass Transfer Analogy
- Ramjet engine
- Experimental sensitivity analysis of the global properties of a 2D turbulent wake
- Cur Geri
- DWO11
- Assignment 1 2014
- Exp 3 Hydraulics
- An Inexpensive Flow-Bench for Mechanical Engineering Labs
- Flow Induced Vibration
- Finite Difference Overview Gridding
- Blow Down
- Influence of Turbulence Closure Models on the Vortical

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd