Chapter 2 Simple Concepts of Atoms and Molecules

Everything around us is made of molecules, bits of matter so small that you can’t see them. This highly magnified photo shows individual sugar crystals, which are made of even smaller sugar molecules.

Wa ter dro plet s ar e mad e of wa ter mo lecu le s that bo nd toget her .

Matter is Made up of Atoms

An element is made up of small particles called atoms.

Atoms are so tiny that they can’t be seen with the naked eye. However, they can be viewed and photographed with a special microscope. This picture shows atoms of the element silicon.

What Makes up an Atom?

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An atom comprises three types of fundamental sub-atomic articles: electron, proton and neutron. An atom is mostly empty space. It has a nucleus in the centre which contains protons and neutrons. Electrons move around the nucleus in fixed paths or orbits.

Data on Fundamental Sub-Atomic Particles

Comparing the Size of Atoms

The Formation of Ions

The Formation of Ions

The Formation of Ions

Some Ions Formed by Atoms

What are Molecules?

A molecule is usually made up of two or more atoms chemically combined together.

Representations of some Molecules of Common Elements

Representations of some Molecules of Common Elements

Chemical Formulae


Carbon monoxide


Chemical Formulae
 Ammonia gas

 Ethanol

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