PROJECT REPORT ON CAPITAL BUDGETING

The Partial Fulfillment of the Degree Course of

Master of business administrative !"#$%#&'

INDIA GL(COL) LIMITED

)ubmitted to
MR)+ AN),UL (MBA Dept)

)ubmitted b*
NEELAM

PRE-ACE

This project is submitted in partial fulfillment of the M+B+A /IC,,A'. t is the out come of !or". GLCOL) LIMITED+

of the

)URAJMAL AGAR.AL GRIL) COLLEGE O- MANAGEMENT ha#e undergone at INDAI

AC/NO.LEDGEMENT
feel m$self pri#ileged at ha#ing an opp. to than" the people !ho me at all stages of m$ Training. t is !ith a deep since of gratitude that ac"no!ledge #aluable guidance and timel$ suggestion offered to me b$ project %uide&
Mr. A.'. () (*D A (r. MA+A%,- .)- /T-A + +%.

*n the completion of this project& #er$ gladl$ ta"e this opp. of repressing m$ grateful than" to )- Manager of .%.0. 1ho ga#e a sound platform to shape our career in a better !a$ and help us understand features of .%.0. am highl$ grateful to the staff of the .%.0. and than" them for their guidance co2operation and support to ma"e this project a success.

)TUDENT DECLARATION

This project has been under ta"en as a partial fulfillment of the re3uirements for the a!ard of 0MA)TER IN BU)INE)) ADMINI)TRATION1 OU+T+U+ UTTRA/,AND). The project !as e4ecuted during rd semester of MBA programme under the super#ision of M-( A+()50 . declare that project is m$ original !or" and the anal$sis and finding are for academic purpose onl$. ((tudent (ignature)

E2e3utive )ummar*

(ur$a ncandescent lamps are made on !orld<s most sophisticated& 6779 ($nchroni=ed ncandescent lamp lines from FA0MA (Montena (. The$ emit a continuous spectrum of appro4imatel$ 8:77' and a colour2rendering inde4 approaching to . INTRODUCTION . The coiled 2 coil filament increases luminous efficienc$ b$ o#er 679 and heat loss b$ con#ection or conduction is thus reduced. The %lass en#elops for lamps are being manufactured on latest -ibbon %lass Plant from D.A) (!it=erland& tested in accordance !ith the international standards in force and conform to the . The$ come in #arious shapes and !attages ranging from 671 to 8771.(ur$a incandescent lamps commonl$ called as 0ight Bulbs are in use for o#er t!o decades and still continue to be the most !idel$ used lamps in the !orld.7.+ >7?@8262(afet$ and interchangeabilit$ re3uirement of tungsten filament incandescent lamps for general lighting ser#ice and ndian (tandard ( ?6:.C >77>? 2 Tungsten Filament 0amps for Domestic / similar %eneral 0ighting Purposes . Depending upon the application area& the$ are a#ailable in Clear& Frost Finished and Colour #ersions !ith (ingle coil or Coiled coil (as the case ma$ be) tungsten filament as per international standards and fitted !ith t!o integral micro2fuses for greater safet$.MA .ngineering 2 5' (formerl$ "no!n as %B %lass 2 5') resulting to glare2free light output.

The importance of customer satisfaction diminishes !hen a firm has increased bargaining po!er. n a competiti#e mar"etplace !here businesses compete for customers& customer satisfaction is seen as a "e$ differentiator and increasingl$ has become a "e$ element of business strateg$. The$ focus emplo$ees on the importance of fulfilling customersC e4pectations. For e4ample& cell phone plan pro#iders& such as AT/T and Geri=on& participate in an . Furthermore& !hen these ratings dip& the$ !arn of problems that can affect sales and profitabilit$.Customer satisfa3tion Customer satisfa3tion& A term fre3uentl$ used in mar"eting& is a measure of ho! products and ser#ices supplied b$ a compan$ meet or surpass customer e4pectation.A n a sur#e$ of nearl$ 877 senior mar"eting managers& B6 percent responded that the$ found a customer satisfaction metric #er$ useful in managing and monitoring their businesses. n researching satisfaction& firms generall$ as" customers !hether their product or ser#ice has met or e4ceeded e4pectations. Customer satisfaction is defined as Athe number of customers& or percentage of total customers& !hose reported e4perience !ith a firm& its products& or its ser#ices (ratings) e4ceeds specified satisfaction goals. Therefore& it is essential for businesses to effecti#el$ manage customer satisfaction. For this reason& a lu4ur$ resort& for e4ample& might recei#e a lo!er satisfaction rating than a budget motelDe#en though its facilities and ser#ice !ould be deemed superior in EabsoluteF terms. 1hen customers ha#e high e4pectations and the realit$ falls short& the$ !ill be disappointed and !ill li"el$ rate their e4perience as less than satisf$ing. 1ithin organi=ations& customer satisfaction ratings can ha#e po!erful effects. To be able do this& firms need reliable and representati#e measures of satisfaction. These metrics 3uantif$ an important d$namic. Thus& e4pectations are a "e$ factor behind satisfaction. 1hen a brand has lo$al customers& it gains positi#e !ord2of2mouth mar"eting& !hich is both free and highl$ effecti#e. t is seen as a "e$ performance indicator !ithin business and is often part of a Balanced (corecard.

CF 1hile $ou can argue !hether or . There is a substantial bod$ of empirical literature that establishes the benefits of customer satisfaction for firms. not including ‘private label. As such& man$ cell phone plan contracts ha#e a lot of fine print !ith pro#isions that the$ !ould ne#er get a!a$ if there !ere& sa$& a hundred cell phone plan pro#iders& because customer satisfaction !ould be !a$ too lo!& and customers !ould easil$ ha#e the option of lea#ing for a better contract offer.industr$ that is an oligopol$& !here onl$ a fe! suppliers of a certain product or ser#ice e4ist. Also the anal$sis defines lo$alt$ as& EGreater than 50% of buyer’s total purchasing is of a single brand. )3o4e of stud* The scope of the report is limited to consumer pac"aged goods& so the findings ma$ not appl$ to all categories.

F But #alue isnCt about price alone. t suggests that consumers accept some price increases .es+ 1hile mar"eters ma$ "no! this intuiti#el$& ($mphon$ . $n blades and dish detergent. (hoppers also factor in re3uests of household members& product labels& in2store displa$s& and much more into their bu$ing decisions. !+ As brand 6o*a6t* in3reases: 3onsumers are 6ess sensitive to 4ri3e 35an. where loyalty is pretty low. Further t!ice as man$ people agree !ith the statement& E$ tend to buy the items that give me the best value for the moneyF as those agreeing& E$ tend to buy the lowest price item. brands that provide value are critical.F (o& bottom line& brands 3an9t bribe 3ustomers into 6o*a6t* 7it5 4ri3e.enera6: it9s not stu3=+ The research sho!s that brands can still build lo$alt$ during inflationar$ times.or* ma* not ins4ire 5i. Chocolate cand$ is an e4ample of a categor$ !ith relati#el$ lo! a#erage lo$alt$ (6>9) that has seen an increase in lo$alt$ bet!een 877: and 8766. And <ust be3ause a 3ate. 6o*a6t* is 6evera. substantial price hi%es have led to sharp drops in loyalty during the past three years. in the conte!t of the new.F This should be good ne!s to the man$ companies !hose categories ha#e been hit !ith rising ra! material and manufacturing costs. on the other hand. The report e4plains& E…even when times are tight. . more conservative world of "#G. The researchers found that !hen it comes to brand decisions& B.reports categor$ data to pro#e the pointH E$n sugar and butter. owever.e. brands are important.9 of consumers consider price and B>9 consider past usage and trust of the brand. relatively high brand loyalty has continued to grow despite rather sharp price increases.not this is an accurate definition of lo$alt$& the report points to a fe! trut5s about brand 6o*a6t* 75i35 stand on t5eir o7n and 75i35 stand t5e test of time+ #+ Pri3e does not e8ua6 va6ue+ Percei#ed #alue dri#es lo$al purchase beha#ior.5 6o*a6t* in .

-ebatesH Consumers are offered mone$ bac" if the receipt and barcode are mailed to the producer. Consumers sho! the offer on a mobile phone to a salesperson for redemption. • • • . *nline interacti#e promotion gameH Consumers pla$ an interacti#e game associated !ith the promoted product. Mobile couponingH Coupons are a#ailable on a mobile phone. (ee an e4ample of the nteracti#e nternet Ad for tomato "etchup. Consumers print them out and ta"e them to the store.Limitations of stud* • *n2line couponingH Coupons are a#ailable online.

-ather he recommends trac"ing each attribute separatel$ . Resear35 Met5odo6o. These include Differentiation& (atisfaction or 0o$alt$& Percei#ed Jualit$& 0eadership or Popularit$& Percei#ed Galue& Brand Personalit$& *rgani=ational Associations& Brand A!areness& Mar"et (hare& and Mar"et Price and Distribution Co#erage.• ContestsIs!eepsta"esIgamesH The consumer is automaticall$ entered into the e#ent b$ purchasing the product. Aa"er doesn<t !eight the attributes or combine them in an o#erall score& as he belie#es an$ !eighting !ould be arbitrar$ and !ould #ar$ among brands and categories.* Brand E8uit* Ten Aa=er'> Da#id Aa"er& a mar"eting professor and brand consultant& highlights ten attributes of a brand that can be used to assess its strength.

nowledge+ Consumers< a!areness of the brand and understanding of !hat it represents. T. • • • • • )elative #rice is a ratio.Brand E8uit* Inde2 Moran'> Mar"eting e4ecuti#e Bill Moran has deri#ed an inde4 of brand e3uit$ as the product of three factorsH • &ffective 'ar%et (hare is a !eighted a#erage. .OR/ Pur4ose . t represents the sum of a brand<s mar"et shares in all segments in !hich it competes& !eighted b$ each segment<s proportion of that brand<s total sales.E CONCEPTUAL -RAME. &steem+ Consumers< respect for and attraction to the brand. t represents the price of goods sold under a gi#en brand& di#ided b$ the a#erage price of comparable goods in the mar"et. )elevance+ The appropriateness and connection of the brand to a gi#en consumer. *ifferentiation+ The defining characteristics of the brand and its distincti#eness relati#e to competitors.

Customer satisfaction data are among the most fre3uentl$ collected indicators of mar"et perceptions. (A second important metric related to satisfaction is !illingness to recommend.A 1hen a customer is satisfied !ith a product& he or she might recommend it to friends& relati#es and colleagues. The e#en e#angeli=e for the firm. Much research has focused on the relationship bet!een customer satisfaction and retention.A business ideall$ is continuall$ see"ing feedbac" to impro#e customer satisfaction. Customer satisfaction pro#ides a leading indicator of consumer purchase intentions and lo$alt$. Further& the$ can hurt the firm b$ ma"ing . (tudies indicate that the ramifications of satisfaction are most strongl$ reali=ed at the e4tremes. *n a fi#e2point scale& indi#iduals !ho rate their satisfaction le#el as EKF are li"el$ to become return customers and might. Their principal use is t!ofoldH 6. This metric is defined as AThe percentage of sur#e$ed customers !ho indicate that the$ !ould recommend a brand to friends.) ndi#iduals !ho rate their satisfaction le#el as E6&F b$ contrast& are unli"el$ to return. 1ithin organi=ations& the collection& anal$sis and dissemination of these data send a message about the importance of tending to customers and ensuring that the$ ha#e a positi#e e4perience !ith the compan$Cs goods and ser#ices 8. Although sales or mar"et share can indicate ho! !ell a firm is performing currentl$& satisfaction is an indicator of ho! li"el$ it is that the firmCs customers !ill ma"e further purchases in the future. This can be a po!erful mar"eting ad#antage. 8.

:: pro#ides the basis for the measurement of customer satisfaction !ith a ser#ice b$ using the gap bet!een the customer<s e4pectation of performance and their percei#ed e4perience of performance. Additionall$& in a holistic sense& the hotel might as" about o#erall satisfaction E!ith $our sta$. Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual manifestation of the state of satisfaction !ill #ar$ from person to person and productIser#ice to productIser#ice. 3ustomer satisfa3tion' *rgani=ations need to retain e4isting customers !hile targeting non2customers. A hotel& for e4ample& might as" customers to rate their e4perience !ith its front des" and chec"2in ser#ice& !ith the room& !ith the amenities in the room& !ith the restaurants& and so on. 1illingness to recommend is a "e$ metric relating to customer satisfaction. t can be& and often is& measured along #arious dimensions. This pro#ides the measurer !ith a satisfaction AgapA !hich is objecti#e and 3uantitati#e in nature.7). 5tilitarian benefits of a product are associated !ith the more instrumental and functional attributes of the product (Batra and Athola 6.. The state of satisfaction depends on a number of both ps$chological and ph$sical #ariables !hich correlate !ith satisfaction beha#iors such as return and recommend rate. The le#el of satisfaction can also #ar$ depending on other options the customer ma$ ha#e and other products against !hich the customer can compare the organi=ation<s products. Measuring customer satisfaction pro#ides an indication of ho! successful the organi=ation is at pro#iding products andIor ser#ices to the mar"etplace.:K and 6. 1or" done b$ Parasuraman& Leithaml and Berr$ (0eonard 0) bet!een 6. Customer satisfaction is measured at the indi#idual le#el& but it is almost al!a$s reported at an aggregate le#el. )edonic benefits are associated !ith the sensor$ and e4periential attributes of the product.F As research on consumption e4periences gro!s& e#idence suggests that consumers purchase goods and ser#ices for a combination of t!o t$pes of benefitsH hedonic and utilitarian.negati#e comments about it to prospecti#e customers. 1or" done b$ Cronin and Ta$lor propose the AconfirmationIdisconfirmationA theor$ of combining the AgapA described b$ Parasuraman& Lenithal and Berr$ as t!o different measures . $+ Constru3tion Measurin.

:@)& !hich is a si42item B2point bipolar scale& that consistentl$ performed best across both hedonic and utilitarian ser#ices. The customer is as"ed to e#aluate each statement and in term of their perception and e4pectation of performance of the organi=ation being measured.(perception and e4pectation of performance) into a single measurement of performance according to e4pectation. n an empirical stud$ comparing commonl$ used satisfaction measures it !as found that t!o multi2item semantic differential scales performed best across both hedonic and utilitarian ser#ice consumption conte4ts. %ood 3ualit$ measures need to ha#e high satisfaction loadings& good reliabilit$& and lo! error #ariances. t loaded most highl$ on satisfaction& had the highest item reliabilit$& and had b$ far the lo!est error #ariance across both studies. The usual measures of customer satisfaction in#ol#e a sur#e$ !ith a set of statements using a 0i"ert Techni3ue or scale. A semantic differential (? items) scale (e.. -egardless of the scale used& the objecti#e is to measure customersC percei#ed satisfaction !ith their e4perience of a firmCs offerings. To be able do this& !e need accurate measurement of satisfaction.g.g. t is essential for firms to effecti#el$ manage customer satisfaction. n the stud$& the si4 items as"ed respondentsC e#aluation of their most recent e4perience !ith ATM ser#ices and ice cream restaurant& along se#en points !ithin these si4 itemsH Eplease me to displeased meF& Econtented with to disgusted withF& Every satisfied with to very dissatisfied withF& Edid a good -ob for me to did a poor -ob for meF& Ewise choice to poor choiceF and Ehappy with to unhappy withF. Customer satisfaction data can also be collected on a 672point scale.7) !hich is a four2item B2point bipolar scale& !as the second best performing measure& !hich !as again . According to studies b$ 1irt= / 0ee (877@)& the$ identified a si42item B2point semantic differential scale (e.& .& *li#er and (!an 6. Their satisfaction is generall$ measured on a fi#e2point scale.roglu and Machleit 6.

consistent across both conte4ts.ies American Customer (atisfaction nde4 (AC( ) is a scientific standard of customer satisfaction. n the stud$& respondents !ere as"ed to e#aluate their e4perience !ith both products& along se#en points !ithin these four itemsH Esatisfied to dissatisfiedF& Efavorable to unfavorableF& Epleasant to unpleasantF and E$ li%e it very much to $ didn’t li%e it at allF. Met5odo6o. t seems that dependent on a trade2off bet!een length of the 3uestionnaire and 3ualit$ of satisfaction measure& these scales seem to be good options for measuring customer satisfaction in academic and applied studies research ali"e. Academic research has sho!n that the national AC( score is a strong predictor of %ross . These results suggest that more careful pretesting !ould be prudent should these measures be used. Again& the respondents !ere as"ed to e#aluate their e4perience on both ATM ser#ices and ice cream restaurants& along se#en points !ithin Edelighted to terribleF.& 1estbroo" 6. *n the other hand& cogniti#e element is defined as an appraisal or conclusion on ho! the productCs performance compared against e4pectations (or e4ceeded or fell short of e4pectations)& !as useful (or not useful)& fit the situation (or did not fit)& e4ceeded the re3uirements of the situation (or did not e4ceed).g.:7). All other measures tested consistentl$ performed !orse than the top three measures& andIor their performance #aried significantl$ across the t!o ser#ice conte4ts in their stud$. The third best scale !as single2item percentage measure& a one2item B2point bipolar scale (e. Finall$& all measures captured both affecti#e and cogniti#e aspects of satisfaction& independent of their scale anchors. Affecti#e measures capture a consumerCs attitude (li"ingIdisli"ing) to!ards a product& !hich can result from an$ product information or e4perience.

The 'ano model offers some insight into the product attributes !hich are percei#ed to be important to customers.T. These include A. n addition to 3uarterl$ reports& the AC( methodolog$ can be applied to pri#ate sector companies and go#ernment agencies in order to impro#e lo$alt$ and purchase intent.D.D. nstead of e#aluating satisfaction !ith a proposition& P*(. Po!er and Associates pro#ides another measure of customer satisfaction& "no!n for its top2 bo4 approach and automoti#e industr$ ran"ings. The 'ano model is a theor$ of product de#elopment and customer satisfaction de#eloped in the 6.-GJ5A0 or -AT.is a ser#ice23ualit$ frame!or" that has been incorporated into customer2satisfaction sur#e$s (e. ncreasing AC( scores has been sho!n to predict lo$alt$& !ord2of2mouth recommendations& and purchase beha#ior. P*(.) gro!th.:7s b$ Professor +oria"i 'ano that classifies customer preferences into fi#e categoriesH Attracti#e& *ne2Dimensional& Must2Be& ndifferent& -e#erse. P*(.4penditure (PC. Po!er and Associates< mar"eting research consists primaril$ of consumer sur#e$s and is publicl$ "no!n for the #alue of its product a!ards. M.)& cash flo!& cash flo! #olatilit$& human capital performance& portfolio returns& debt financing& ris"& and consumer spending.. Anal$sis offers an alternati#e to customer satisfaction. *n the microeconomic le#el& academic studies ha#e sho!n that AC( data is related to a firm<s financial performance in terms of return on in#estment (-* )& sales& long2term firm #alue (Tobin<s .& the re#ised +or!egian Customer (atisfaction Barometer to indicate the gap bet!een customer e4pectations and e4perience. T!o companies ha#e been licensed to appl$ the methodolog$ of the AC( for both the pri#ate and public sectorH CF %roup& nc. *ther research and consulting firms ha#e customer satisfaction solutions as !ell. A(C scores ha#e also been calculated b$ independent researchers& for e4ample& for the mobile phones sector& higher education& and electronic mail. Anal$sis thus offers a competiti#e perspecti#e to customer satisfaction.Domestic Product (%DP) gro!th& and an e#en stronger predictor of Personal Consumption . Anal$sis determines both the positioning and strength of a proposition. 'earne$<s Customer (atisfaction Audit process& !hich incorporates the (tages of .g. (. The AC( measures customer satisfaction annuall$ for more than 877 companies in ?@ industries and 67 economic sectors. M. and Foresee -esults appl$ the AC( to !ebsites and other online initiati#es.

.B?9.4cellence frame!or" and !hich helps define a compan$Cs status against eight criticall$ identified dimensions.uropean 5nion member states& man$ methods for measuring impact and satisfaction of e2go#ernment ser#ices are in use& !hich the e%o#Mo+et project sought to compare and harmoni=e. on more than 667&777 sur#e$s (+o# <7. These customer satisfaction methodologies ha#e not been independentl$ audited b$ the Mar"eting Accountabilit$ (tandards Board (MA(B) according to MMAP (Mar"eting Metric Audit Protocol).) !ith an a#erage response rate of B8.:. n the . Customer satisfaction is the most common of all mar"eting sur#e$s and is part of the Abig threeA research studies in mar"eting that include mar"et segmentation and concept testing. For Business to Business (B8B) sur#e$s there is the nfoJuest bo4. . How to Measure Customer Satisfaction: Satisfaction Measurement and Theory Measuring satisfaction and building a satisfaction sur#e$ re3uires at least a basic "no!ledge of the satisfaction measurement literature& combined !ith $our o!n customer satisfaction e4periences. This brief tutorial pro#ides such an introduction to the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of satisfaction research. The bo4 is targeted at Athe most importantA customers and a#oids the need for a blan"et sur#e$. This has been used internationall$ since 6.

Customer satisfaction usuall$ leads to customer lo$alt$ and product repurchase.5* is Customer )atisfa3tion )o Im4ortant? . 8. An o#erall satisfaction measure (emotional)H *#erall& ho! satisfied are $ou !ith ANoni fresh $ogurtAO (atisfaction is a result of a product related e4perience and this 3uestion reflects the o#erall opinion of a consumer<s e4perience !ith the product<s performance. But measuring satisfaction is not the same as measuring lo$alt$. Customer satisfaction measures are critical to an$ product or ser#ice compan$ because customer satisfaction is a strong predictor of customer retention& customer lo$alt$ and product repurchase. These e4pectations often reflect man$ aspects of the compan$<s business acti#ities including the actual product& ser#ice& compan$& and ho! the compan$ operates in the global en#ironment. A .5at Is Customer )atisfa3tion? Customer satisfaction measures ho! !ell a compan$<s products or ser#ices meet or e4ceed customer e4pectations.. (atisfaction measurement 3uestions t$picall$ include items li"eH 6. )atisfa3tion Measurement> Overa66 Measures of )atisfa3tion (atisfaction measures in#ol#e three ps$chological elements for e#aluation of the product or ser#ice e4perienceH cogniti#e (thin"ingIe#aluation)& affecti#e (emotional2feelingIli"e2disli"e) and beha#ioral (currentIfuture actions). Customer satisfaction measures are an o#erall ps$chological e#aluation that is based on the customer<s lifetime of product and ser#ice e4perience. +ote that it is meaningful to measure attitudes to!ards a product that a consumer has ne#er used& but not satisfaction for a product or brand that has ne#er been used. A lo$alt$ measure (affecti#e& beha#ioral)H 1ould $ou recommend ANoniA to $our famil$ and friendsO .ffecti#e mar"eting focuses on t!o acti#itiesH retaining e4isting customers and adding ne! customers.

ntentions to repurchase (beha#ioral measures)H Do $ou intend to repurchase Noni fresh $ogurtO (atisfaction can influence post2purchaseIpost2e4perience actions other than usage (such as !ord of mouth communications and repeat purchase beha#ior). . The distinction is that satisfaction is a Apost e4perienceA e#aluation of the satisfaction produced b$ the product<s 3ualit$ or #alue.ach of these constructs that influence customer satisfaction need to be defined b$ the researcher. ?. A series of attribute satisfaction measures (affecti#e and cogniti#e)H )o! satisfied are $ou !ith the AtasteA of Noni fresh $ogurtO )o! important is AtasteA to $ou in selecting Noni fresh $ogurtO (atisfaction and attitude are closel$ related concepts. As sho!n in Figure 6& customer satisfaction is influenced b$ percei#ed 3ualit$ of product and ser#ice attributes& features and benefits& and is moderated b$ customer e4pectations regarding the product or ser#ice. Additional post2 e4perience actions might include product or information search acti#it$& changes in shopping beha#ior and trial of associated products.@. The ps$chological concepts of attitude and satisfaction ma$ both be defined as the e#aluation of an object and the indi#idual<s relationship to it. .

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.A 1hen phrased in beha#ioral response terms& consumers indicate that Apurchasing this product !ould be a good choiceA or A !ould be glad to purchase this product.nitive Measures of Customer atisfa3tion A cogniti#e element is defined as an appraisal or conclusion that the product !as useful (or not useful)& fit the situation (or did not fit)& e4ceeded the re3uirements of the problemIsituation (or did not e4ceed). Cogniti#e responses are specific to the situation for !hich the product !as purchased and specific to the consumer<s intended use of the product& regardless if that use is correct or incorrect.A *ften& beha#ioral measures reflect the consumer<s e4perience indi#iduals associated !ith the product (i. )atisfa3tion Measurement> Be5aviora6 Measures of Customer tisfa3tion t is sometimes belie#ed that dissatisfaction is s$non$mous !ith regret or disappointment !hile satisfaction is lin"ed to ideas such as& Ait !as a good choiceA or A am glad that bought it. customer ser#ice representati#es) and the intention to repeat that e4perience.)atisfa3tion Measurement> Affe3tive Measures of Customer )atisfa3tion A consumer<s attitude (li"ingIdisli"ing) to!ards a product can result from an$ product information or e4perience !hether percei#ed or real.e. )atisfa3tion Measurement> Co. Again& it is meaningful to measure attitudes to!ards a product or ser#ice that a consumer has ne#er used& but not satisfaction.

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This Asatisfaction gapA in#ol#es measuring both perception of performance and e4pectation of performance along specific product or ser#ice attributes dimensions.)atisfa3tion Measurement> E24e3tations Measures Man$ different approaches to measuring satisfaction e4ist in the consumer beha#ior literature.fficienc$& .n#ironment& nter2 departmental Team!or"& Front line (er#ice Beha#iors& Commitment to the Customer and nno#ation. This information influences our e4pectations and abilit$ to e#aluate 3ualit$& #alue& and the abilit$ of the product or ser#ice to meet our needs. 0eonard Berr$ in 8778 e4panded pre#ious research to refine ten dimensions of satisfaction& includingH Jualit$& Galue& Timeliness& . E24e3tations t5at Inf6uen3e )atisfa3tion T*4es of Customer Customer performance e4pectations for attributes& features and benefits of products and ser#ices ma$ be identified as both e4plicit and implicit e4pectation 3uestions. For e4ample& if e4pectations for a color printer !ere for 66 pages per minute and high 3ualit$ color printing& but the product actuall$ deli#ered @ pages per minute and good 3ualit$ color printing& then the cogniti#e e#aluation comparing product performance and e4pectations !ould be 66 PPM D @ PPM P )igh D %ood& !ith each item !eighted b$ their associated importance. 1hen !e ma"e major purchases& !e research the product or ser#ice and gain information from the ad#ertising& salespersons& and !ord2of2mouth from friends and associates. Berr$<s dimensions are often used to de#elop an e#aluati#e set of satisfaction measurement 3uestions that focus on each of the dimensions of customer satisfaction in a ser#ice en#ironment.ase of Access& . A diagnostic approach to satisfaction measurement is to e4amine the gap bet!een the customer<s e4pectation of performance and their percei#ed e4perience of performance. Customer satisfaction is largel$ a reflection of the e4pectations and e4periences that the customer has !ith a product or ser#ice. E246i3it e24e3tations are mental targets for product performance& such as !ell identified performance standards. . )o!e#er e4pectations also reflect that influences the e#aluation of the product or ser#ice.

D$namic performance e4pectations ma$ help to AstaticA performance e4pectations as ne! uses& integrations& or s$stem re3uirements de#elop. These highl$ in#ol#ing products enhance perceptions of status& ego& self2image& and can e#en in#o"e fear !hen the product is not a#ailable. . .ach s$stem<s performance measures are uni3ue& though general e4pectations relate to 3ualit$ of outcome and ma$ include those researched b$ Berr$& or others such asH accessibilit$& customi=ation& dependabilit$& timeliness& and accurac$& tangible cues !hich augment the application& options& cutting edge technolog$& fle4ibilit$& and user friendl$ interfaces. Person to person relationships are increasingl$ important& especiall$ !here products re3uire support for proper use and functioning. The a#ailabilit$ of lo! profile phones !ith email& camera& MP@& email& and blue tooth technolog$ changes technolog$ e4pectations as !ell as the static and d$namic performance e4pectations of the product.Im46i3it e24e3tations represent the norms of performance that reflect accepted standards established b$ business in general& other companies& industries& and e#en cultures.4pectations for interpersonal support include technical "no!ledge and abilit$ to sol#e the problem& abilit$ to communicate& time to problem resolution& courtes$& patience& enthusiasm& helpfulness& understood m$ situation and problem& communication s"ills& and customer perceptions regarding professionalism of conduct& often including image& appearance. . (tatic performance e4pectations are the #isible part of the icebergQ the$ are the performance !e see and D often erroneousl$ D assume are all that e4ist.i3a6 e24e3tations focus on the e#ol#ing state of the product categor$. For e4ample& mobile phones are continuall$ e#ol#ing. Inter4ersona6 e24e3tations in#ol#e the relationship bet!een the customer and the product or ser#ice pro#ider. Mobile ser#ice pro#iders& in an effort to deal !ith the desire to s!itch to ne! technolog$ phones& mar"et rate plans !ith high cancellation penalties. )tati3 4erforman3e e24e3tations address ho! performance and 3ualit$ for a specific application are defined. For each of these t$pes of e4pectations that !hen fulfilled result in customer satisfaction (or !hen not deli#ered& result in dissatisfaction and complaining beha#ior)& the percei#ed 3ualit$ and #alue are critical and directl$ influence intention to repurchase and lo$alt$. D*nami3 4erforman3e e24e3tations are about ho! the product or ser#ice e#ol#es o#er time and includes the changes in support and product or ser#ice enhancement needed to meet future business or use en#ironments. Te35no6o.

)atisfa3tion Measurement> Customer Lo*a6t* Measures Customer lo$alt$ reflects the li"elihood of repurchasing products or ser#ices. )atisfa3tion Measurement> Per3eived Aa6ue Measures Percei#ed #alue ma$ conceptuall$ refer to the o#erall price di#ided b$ 3ualit$ or the o#erall 3ualit$ di#ided b$ price. The consumer beha#ior literature sho!s that price is a primar$ indicator of 3ualit$ !hen other attributes and benefits are relati#el$ un"no!n.4pectationsH The (li"ingIdisli"ing) of the productIser#iceQ @. Customer satisfaction is a major predictor of repurchase& but is strongl$ influenced b$ e4plicit performance e#aluations of product performance& 3ualit$& and #alue.4pectations are seen as related to satisfaction and can be measured in the follo!ing !a$sH 6. Fulfillment of . Percei#ed #alue is measured in man$ !a$s including o#erall e#aluation of #alue& e4pectations of price that !ould be paid& and more rigorous methodologies including the Gan 1estendorp pricing anal$sis& and conjoint anal$sis (other Jualtrics !hite papers and tutorials are a#ailable on these topics). .4pectationsH the e4pected le#el of performance #s. These e4pectations are based on pre#ious affecti#e& cogniti#e and beha#ioral e4periences. Customer perceptions of 3ualit$ are the single greatest predictor of customer satisfaction. the desired e4pectations. )o!e#er !hen repeat purchases are made in some product categories& price ma$ be reduced in importance. mportance2Galue of the productIser#ice fulfilling the e4pectationQ 8. This is APredicti#e FulfillmentA and is a respondent specific inde4 of the performance le#el necessar$ to satisf$. . *#erall Affect2(atisfaction .4pectations are beliefs (li"elihood or probabilit$) t5at a product or ser#ice (!ith certain attributes& features or characteristics) !ill produce certain outcomes (benefits2#alues). Mode6s of E24e3tations and Customer )atisfa3tion .)atisfa3tion Measurement> Per3eived @ua6it* Measures Percei#ed 3ualit$ is often measured through three measuresH o#erall 3ualit$& percei#ed reliabilit$& and the e4tent to !hich a product or ser#ice meets the customer<s needs.

f a productIser#ice is not used as often as e4pected& the result ma$ not be as satisf$ing as anticipated. The . E24e3tan3* Aa6ue Measures of Be5aviora6 Intention BI': Attitude A' and )atisfa3tion )AT' . For e4ample a )arle$ Da#idson motorc$cle that sits in the garage& an unused $ear subscription to the local fitness centerIg$m or a little used season pass to the local s"i resort or amusement par" ma$ produce more dissatisfaction !ith the decision to purchase than !ith the actual productIser#ice.?.4pectanc$ #alue model using attitudes and beliefs readsH .4pectanc$ #alue models ha#e been found to perform !ell in predicting both satisfactionIdissatisfaction and beha#ioral intention (intention to tr$& purchase& recommend& or re2purchase a product or ser#ice). .4pected Galue from 5seH (atisfaction is often determined b$ the fre3uenc$ of use.

As an e4ample& A*#erall& ho! satisfied are $ou !ith (par"le toothpasteOA could be measured !ith a AGer$ (atisfied& (ome!hat (atisfied& +either (atisfied +or Dissatisfied& (ome!hat Dissatisfied& Ger$ DissatisfiedA scale. The sum is ta"en o#er the % attributes that are defined as salient in the purchase decision. R The o#erall normati#e component of the decision process. This is computed as the multiplicati#e product of nbi (the norms go#erning attitude i)& and mci (the moti#ation of the respondent to compl$ !ith those norms). )atisfa3tion *#erall satisfaction or dissatisfaction !ith an object is often measured using a fi#e2point satisfaction scale. . The o#erall attitude is formed b$ the multiplicati#e product of ai (the person<s affecti#e e#aluation of attribute i)& and bi (here defined as the importance of attribute i in the purchase decision). The li"e2disli"e measure is used as an o#erall measure of respondent satisfaction !ith a product or ser#ice (after purchase). (atisfaction leads to fa#orable feelings and dissatisfaction leads to unfa#orable feelings. • • • Be5aviora6 Intention BI' Beha#ioral intention is measured using a 3uestion such as A ndicate the li"elihood of $ou bu$ing sometime during the ne4t $earA !ith a fi#e or se#en2point 0i"ert or semantic differential scale labeled Adefinitel$ !ill purchaseA and Adefinitel$ !ill not purchaseA at the endpoints. More e4amples are pro#ided belo!.!hereH • !6& !8 R !eights that indicate the relati#e influence of the o#erall attitude to!ard the object and the normati#e influence to purchase the product Ao R Attitude to!ard the object (brand& product& ser#ice or compan$) R the o#erall attitude to!ard the object.

n building a customer satisfaction sur#e$& it is also helpful to consider reasons !h$ pre2 purchase e4pectations or post2purchase satisfaction ma$ or ma$ not be fulfilled or e#en measurable.The e#aluati#e dimension ma$ be measured in terms of li"e2disli"e& fa#orable2unfa#orableQ appro#e2disappro#eQ good2badQ and delight2failure scales.4pectation and product performance e#aluations ma$ be sensor$ and not cogniti#e& as in taste& st$le or imageQ ?. There ma$ ha#e been unanticipated benefits or conse3uences of purchasing or using the product (such as a use or feature not anticipated !ith purchase)Q >.4cellentA and APoorA at the endpoints. Attitude aiBbi' bi 2 the probabilit$ that attribute i is associated !ith performing beha#ior B. A representati#e measure of ai !ould be A n terms of bu$ing Crest toothpaste& deca$ pre#ention is SA !ith a fi#e or se#en point scale !ith AgoodA and AbadAQ or A. The concept ACrest toothpaste pre#ents deca$A could be rated on a se#en point scale !ith endpoints labeled AGer$ 0i"el$A and AGer$ 5nli"el$A.4pectations ma$ be 3uite #ague& creating !ide latitudes of acceptabilit$ in performance and e4pected satisfactionQ @. . ai 2 the e#aluation of belief i.4pectations ma$ not reflect unanticipated ser#ice attributesQ 8. . .5en to Condu3t Customer )atisfa3tion )urve*s The best timing for measuring customer satisfaction and building customer satisfaction sur#e$s depends on the "ind of product or ser#ice pro#ided& the "inds of customers ser#ed& ho! man$ . The product purchaser& influencer and user ma$ ha#e been different indi#iduals& each ha#ing different e4pectations. The original e4pectations ma$ ha#e been unrealisticall$ high or lo!Q B. The product use ma$ attract so little attention as to produce no conscious affect or cognition (e#aluation)& and result in meaningless satisfaction or dissatisfaction measuresQ K. . 6.

Bui6din. D (atisfaction feedbac" is obtained from the indi#idual customer at the time of product or ser#ice deli#er$ (or shortl$ after!ards). This t$pe of satisfaction sur#e$ is t$picall$ used as part of a C-M (Customer -elationship Management ($stem) and focuses on ha#ing a long term relationship !ith the indi#idual customer • Periodi3 )atisfa3tion )urve*s D (atisfaction feedbac" from groups of customers at periodic inter#als to pro#ide an occasional snapshot of customer e4periences and e4pectations. Three #er$ different approaches both produce meaningful and useful findingsH • Post Pur35ase Eva6uation D (atisfaction feedbac" is obtained from the indi#idual customer at the time of product or ser#ice deli#er$ (or shortl$ after!ards). All three methods of conducting satisfaction sur#e$s are helpful methods to obtain customer feedbac" for assessing o#erall accomplishments& degree of success& and areas for impro#ement. (atisfaction sur#e$s t$picall$ re3uire multiple 3uestions that address different dimensions of the satisfaction concept. • Continuous )atisfa3tion Tra3=in. a Customer )atisfa3tion )urve* Customer satisfaction sur#e$s often include multiple measures of satisfaction& includingH • • • *#erall measures of customer satisfaction Affecti#e measures of customer satisfaction Cogniti#e measures of customer satisfaction . (atisfaction trac"ing sur#e$s are often part of a management initiati#e to assure 3ualit$ is at high le#els o#er time. (atisfaction sur#e$s are de#eloped to pro#ide an understanding of customers< e4pectations and satisfaction. (atisfaction measurement includes measures of o#erall satisfaction& satisfaction !ith indi#idual product and ser#ice attributes& and satisfaction !ith the benefits of purchase.customers are ser#ed& the longe#it$ and fre3uenc$ of customerIsupplier interactions& and !hat $ou intend to do !ith the results. (atisfaction measurement is li"e peeling a!a$ la$ers of an onion2each la$er re#eals $et another deeper la$er& closer to the core.

• • Beha#ioral measures of customer satisfaction .4pectanc$ #alue measures of customer satisfaction %eneral Measures that are part of a customer satisfaction anal$sis usuall$ in#ol#e product fulfillment and !ill often include product use scenarios !here and ho! is the product usedO Common In.redients of a Customer )atisfa3tion )urve* Product Use • • • • Fre3uenc$ of product use Primar$ use location Primar$ precipitating e#ents or situations for product use or need 5sage rates and trends Product Familiarity • • • • • • Degree of actual product use familiarit$ 'no!ledge (read product information& read product label& etc.) 'no!ledge and n#ol#ement !ith product and the purchase process A!areness of other brands -easons for original product purchase (selection reasons) Primar$ benefits sought from the product Product Evaluation • • • • • • Attribute e#aluation matri4H (3ualit$& price& trust& importance& performance& #alue) Percei#ed benefit associations matri4 mportance& performance dentification of primar$ benefits sought Comparison to other brands (better& !orse) 1hat is the best thing about the brand& !hat could be done better Message and Package Evaluation • • Pac"aging si=e& design Ad#ertising Promise& message fulfillment e#aluation .

4pectation of price .4pectation of relati#e price (full price& on sale) Current price paid Satisfaction Measurements • • • • • • • *#erall (atisfaction -easons for (atisfaction .mplo$ees a festi#al season filled !ith happiness and prosperit$. At Bhuj& !e !ill roll out T B7 AP specification (1 Pipes in the range of 6>F to 677F. Machines for this . t gi#es me great satisfaction to inform readers of the substantial in#estments !e ha#e made in our business acti#ities. 1e ha#e set up a (piral 1eld ((1) (teel Pipe Plant of 8 la"h MT capacit$ at Bhuj in %ujarat and a %al#ani=ed (teel )igh Mast plant at Malanpur& %!alior.4pected and deal (atisfaction2Performance Measures 0i"elihood of recommending 0i"elihood of repurchasing ABOUT T.alue !nalysis • • • .#aluation (atisfaction !ith attributes& features& benefits (atisfaction !ith use .E COMPAN( t gi#es me great pleasure in !ishing our belo#ed Customers& Business Associates& (ta"eholders and .

Toda$& !e are manufacturing %o#ernment rated KU T: (@>1) slim fluorescent tube lights !hich& in comparison to other similar con#entional products& ha#e a life of 6K&777 hoursV Benefits are lo! po!er bills !ith better and higher 0u4 le#els. These plants !ill generate emplo$ment for 8777 locals in the area.4ecuti#es at #arious le#els has ta"en place.fficientF products. (ur$a<s benchmar"s concentrate on E. The %!alior Plant !ill soon be doubling its production capacit$ of CF0 from 8K to K7 la"hs b$ $ear end !ith arri#al of machines from China.nerg$ . To ensure a continuous and a high enthusiastic approach& training is imparted to the e4ecuti#es at (ur$a<s Management Training nstitute (MT ). Both these s$stems complement each other and can be used for lighting large open spaces& airports& e4press!a$s& stadiums etc. As part of our long term goals& (ur$a is e4ploring feasibilit$ of establishing plants for Ductile iron pipes& (eamless pipes and 5PGC pipes. This is being discharged b$ (ur$a Foundation through the medium of its Thin" Tan"s& )ealth promoting s$stems& Personalit$ and Nouth De#elopment Programmes and deal Gillage Projects co#ering o#er 8777 #illages Code of Condu3t Introdu3tion This Code of Conduct (WCodeC) for the Board Members and (enior Management ensures compliance ..plant ha#e been imported from Mala$sia and %erman$. Focus on energ$ conser#ation continues unabated. Morale of our emplo$ees is #er$ high. Beside manufacturing high 3ualit$ energ$ sa#ing products and promoting en#ironmental protection& Corporate (ocial -esponsibilit$ is an important aspect of our acti#ities. To maintain our leadership and reputation as trendsetters& !e ha#e entered the field of 0uminaires and )igh Masts. 1e ha#e also set up an .-1 (teel Pipe Plant to produce pipes in the range of 6F to :F diameter. To strengthen management s"ills& lateral induction of (enior . The plant !as inaugurated b$ the )on<able Chief Minister of %ujarat on Dec.78& 877. 1e ha#e deplo$ed large manpo!er countr$!ide to educate retailers on ad#antages of energ$ efficient lamps. 1ith the <(tate of The Art< technolog$ that !e ha#e& !e are leaders in the lighting industr$ manufacturing high 3ualit$ energ$ sa#ing products. for !hich& there is a #ast potential. n addition to the TK #ariet$ of 8 feet length& 6?1 and ? feet 8?1 tube lights& (ur$a !ill soon be the onl$ compan$ producing TK lamps.

onest* and Inte. #+ . Directors and senior management should a#oid conducting Compan$ business !ith a relati#e& or !ith a firmIor compan$ in !hich a relati#e is associated in an$ significant role.rit* To4 All directors and senior management shall conduct their acti#ities in accordance !ith the highest standards of personal and professional integrit$& honest$ and fairness. All Directors and (enior Management must act !ithin the pur#ie! of the authorit$ conferred upon them and !ith a dut$ to ma"e and enact informed decisions and policies in the best interests of the Compan$ and its shareholders Ista"eholders. All directors and senior management !ill act in good faith& responsibl$& competence and diligence& !hich are free from fraud and deception& in the best interests of the Compan$ !ithout indulging their personal interest. f an$ director or senior management officer is considering in#esting in customer& supplier& de#eloper or competitor of the Compan$& he or she must first ta"e care to ensure that these in#estments do not compromise on their responsibilities to the Compan$. The follo!ing code of conduct helps the Board Members and (enior Management to maintain the high standards that the Compan$ re3uires. (et forth& are some of the circumstances that ma$ lead to a conflict of interest& actual or potentialH X Directors and senior management should not engage in an$ business or acti#it$ that conflicts or prejudicial to the interest of the Compan$ and !hich creates conflict in discharging their respecti#e dut$ to!ards the Compan$. The Compan$ appoints the Compan$ (ecretar$ as a compliance officer& !ho !ill be a#ailable to directors and senior management to ans!er 3uestions and to held them compl$ !ith the Code. Their dut$ to the Compan$ demands that the$ a#oid and discloses actual and apparent conflicts of interest. f such related X X . The purpose of the Code is to deter !rongdoing and promote ethical conduct.!ith legal re3uirements and helps to maintain the standards of business conduct. Conflict can arise in man$ situations and it is not possible to define the e#er$ possible conflict situation. !+ Conf6i3ts of Interest To4 All Directors and (enior Management of the Compan$ shall not engage in an$ business& relationship or acti#it$& !hich might detrimentall$ conflict !ith the interest of the Compan$.

And therefore& all directors must report I disclose such relationships to the Board on an annual basis. All directors and senior management officers !ill compl$ !ith the pre#ention of insider trading guidelines as issued b$ (. n order to assist the Compan$ in promoting la!ful and ethical beha#iour& directors and senior management must report an$ possible #iolation of la!& rules& regulation or the code of conduct to the Compan$ (ecretar$. &+ Ot5er Dire3tors5i4s To4 t is a conflict of interest to ser#e as a director of an$ compan$ that competes !ith the Compan$. . C+ Confidentia6it* of Information To4 The Compan$Cs confidential information is a #aluable asset. $+ Com46ian3e To4 Directors and senior management must compl$ !ith all applicable la!s& rules& regulations and regulator$ orders& both in letter and spirit.B . +o director or senior management officer shall pro#ide an$ information either formall$ or informall$& to the press or an$ other publicit$ media& unless speciall$ authorised. D+ Prevention of Insider Tradin. An$ information concerning the Compan$Cs business& its customers& suppliers etc. To4 Directors and senior management officers shall not deri#e an$ benefit or assist others to deri#e an$ benefit from the access to and possession of information about Compan$& !hich is not in the public domain and thus constitutes insider information.& !hich is not in the public domain and to !hich the directors and senior management ha#e access or possesses such information& must be considered confidential and held in confidence& unless authorised to do so and !hen disclosure is re3uired as a matter of la!.part$ transaction is una#oidable& it must be full$ disclosed to the Board or to the Managing Director of the Compan$.

+e! Directors !ill sign such a deed at the time !hen their directorship begins TEAM )UR(A BOARD O.DIRECTOR)> . Directors and senior management officers must protect the Compan$Cs assets and information and ma$ not use these for personal use& unless appro#ed b$ the Board. )o!e#er& nominal gifts& !hich are customaril$ gi#en and are of commemorati#e nature& for special e#ents ma$ be accepted and reported to the Board. F+ Gifts and Donations To4 +o director and senior management shall recei#e& offer or ma"e& directl$ or indirectl$& an$ illegal pa$ments& remuneration& gifts& donations or comparable benefits !hich are intended to or percei#ed to obtain business or uncompetiti#e fa#ours for the conduct of its business. G+ Periodi3 Revie7 To4 *nce in e#er$ $ear or upon re#ision of this Code& e#er$ director must ac"no!ledge and e4ecute understanding of the Code and an agreement to compl$.E+ Prote3tion of Assets To4 The assets of the Compan$ should not be misused but emplo$ed for the purpose of conducting the business for !hich the$ are dul$ authorised.

Gice President2*utsourcing /ris5na Raman 2 (r..ar7a6 Managing Director (Clic" here to #ie! <From CMD<s Des") AUDIT COMMITTEE> /+/+Naru6a B+B+C5ad5a G+)+Gu4ta MANAGEMENT TEAM> )+N+Bansa6 2 Director Finance/ Corporate Management Arvind Bansa6 2 Director *perations / Corporate Management Aineet Gar.i 2 Chief %eneral Manager2Malanpur AUDITOR)> )astr* / Anandam H Com4an* . 2 Director Projects / Corporate Management )an<a* Goe6 2 (r. Gice President 2 (ales / Mar"eting 2 0uminaires )+C5a=rabort* 2 Gice President 2 Technolog$ )+/+B5asin 2 Gice President21or"s2Pipes A+N+Baner<ee 2 Gice President21or"s2CAni6 Bansa6 2 Gice President2Commercial P+/+Pande* 2 Chief %eneral Manager2'ashipur R+/+Ja.J+P+A.& Director (Projects / Corporate Management) )5ri Chairman / J+P+A.ar7a6: Director )+N+Bansa6& Director (Finance / Corporate Management) Arvind Bansa6& Director (*perations / Corporate Management) Aineet Gar.ar7a6& Chairman / Managing Director M+G+Ba=re: DB +ominee /+/+Naru6a& Director B+B+C5ad5a& Director G+)+Gu4ta& Director Ra<endr Ar*a& Director Urmi6 A.

s Ana6*sis> A product !ith a successful consumer #alue proposition is directl$ lin"ed to a products actual and sustained performance #ersus competition. (imilarl$& if a compan$ is able to produce a superior 3ualit$ product for the same or a slightl$ higher but acceptable price& the #alue to the consumer is added through the 3ualit$ of the product. The t!o main attributes that allo! consumers to differentiate among products are price and 3ualit$. f a compan$ is able to produce the same 3ualit$ product as its direct competition but sell it for less& this pro#ides a price #alue to the consumer. A product must offer #alue through price andIor 3ualit$ in order to be successful.BAN/ER)> )tate Ban= of India Pun<ab Nationa6 Ban= )tate Ban= of Patia6a Ana6*sis and findin. Finding the correct balance bet!een these t!o attributes usuall$ leads to a successful product. .

t is specificall$ targeted to!ards potential customers rather than other constituent groups such as emplo$ees& partners or suppliers.A customer #alue proposition is a business or mar"eting statement that describes !h$ a customer should bu$ a product or use a ser#ice.> • (alesIre#enue and customer satisfactionIlo$alt$ are the most fre3uentl$ used tools in measuring brand strength • Both ad#ertisers and mar"eters most commonl$ define Ebrand buildingF as either a process of increasing brand imageIreputation or building a!areness • 1hile ad#ertisers most commonl$ define Edemand generationF as lead generation (6B9)& understanding the mar"et (6>9)& and increasing purchase consideration (6@9) and demand for products (6@9)& mar"eters most fre3uentl$ define the phrase as connecting branding !ith sales (6>9) and increasing purchase consideration (6K9) . -indin. t is a clearl$ defined statement that is designed to con#ince customers that one particular product or ser#ice !ill add more #alue or better sol#e a problem than others in its competiti#e set.

This leads to increased brand lo$alt$ and satisfaction. product& place price and promotionIdistribution. n doing so& it achie#es to de#elop a brand personalit$ and distinguish itself from competition& !hile offering consumers a clear #ie! of its brand #alues.Con36usion n conclusion& (ur$a Bulbs is a successful product& not onl$ because it has built a recogni=able logo and brand name& but mostl$ because it has managed to position its brand in a !a$ that ta"es ad#antage of all the elements of mar"eting mi4& i.e. .

*ne of the biggest benefits of using CF0 lamps is the substantial sa#ings in po!er consumption and electricit$ charges. This !as inaugurated on 8.th Mul$ 877: b$ Madh$a Pradesh )onourable Chief Minister& (hri (hi#raj (ingh Chauhan. Considered the !orldCs best CF0 project& Malanpur is the proud o!ner of the !orld class %.The CM e4pressed his happiness at the in#estment made b$ (ur$a -oshni and loo"ed for!ard to greater in#estment in the industr$ friendl$ state.Re3ommendation (ur$a -oshni& the lighting industr$ major& has launched an ambitious e4pansion plan to increase its manufacturing capacit$ of CF0 lamps b$ setting up a ne! and modern plant at Malanpur& %!alior. plant from . Consuming onl$ about 879 of po!er for the .urope. The CF0 lamps to be produced here !ould be the !orldCs pro#en product meeting the -*)( (!orldCs latest standard of health and safet$Ien#ironment friendl$) re3uirements.

netmba.brandloalit$sanimation.com K.inImar"etingIimportance2of2mar"eting.tc. Boo=s>% 2 %ar$ Armstrong& Philip 'otler((i4th edition) .dr$pen. The compan$ has plans to enter into the luminaires and project lighting in a big !a$. !!!. !!!. 1i"ipedia Brand and Consumers 8.comIMar"eting @.brandloalit$. This in#estment in the state is e4pected to generate greater emplo$ment opportunities to the people in the region besides increasing business opportunities to the feeder and ancillar$ units nearb$.ra45* 6. !!!. As a 3ualit$ producer bringing !orldCs best technolog$ into its products& (ur$a is creating a great impact in the lighting industr$ and the mar"et. >2 Business Boo"s& ?Ps . Bib6io.comImar"eting ?. !!!.same light gi#en b$ ordinar$ bulbs& the sa#ings in cost in a $ear !ould be about -s @77 to -s K77 per bulb depending upon the !att used.

Anne2ure (ample (atisfaction Measures from the Jualtrics Juestion 0ibrar$H .

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.th& 877B at KH6B pm and is filed under Tutorials& Customer (atisfaction. Po!ered b$ 1ordPress. Galid T)TM0 and C((. Comments are closed. Y Cop$right 877>28766 Jualtrics& nc. All rights reser#ed. in Mar"eting and Juantitati#e Methods from Penns$l#ania (tate 5ni#ersit$.D. .ntries and comments feeds.(cott (mith is the founder of Jualtrics.com. This entr$ !as posted b$ admin on 1ednesda$& Ma$ . )e is the Mames Passe$ Professor of Mar"eting and Director of the nstitute of Mar"eting at Brigham Noung 5ni#ersit$. )e recei#ed his Ph.

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