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Chng 2:

Tng quan v en led trong chiu sng I.LED l g?


Led (light Emitting Diode) l thit b bn dn c th chuyn i trc tip in nng thnh nh sng. Tri tim ca Led l mt chp bn dn, c gn ln trn mt ci cng chnh l cc m ca ngun in vo, mt kia ca chp c ni vi mt si dy dn v ri c ni vi cc dng ca ngun. y l phn quan trng nht ca mt led v tt c n c bc trong mt v nha epoxy. Mt chip bn dn bao gm 2 phn, mt c gi l bn dn kiu P, m ch yu l vng l hng, mt c gi l bn dn kiu N, ch yu l cc ht in t. Khi hai lp bn dn ny tip xc vi nhau, s hnh thnh mt vng m PN gia. V khi mt in p c t ln chip thng qua cc in cc chn th cc electron c y xuyn qua vng m i vo vng bn dn P, , nhng electron v l hng s gp nhau v lin kt li, ng thi gii phng ra nng lng di dng photon nh sng. l l do ti sao led c th pht sng. Tng ng vi cc bc sng nh sng khc nhau ta s nhn c cc mu sc khc nhau. Ty thuc vo vt liu lm chip led, ta s c cc bc sng nh sng khc nhau c pht ra. Ni chung, LED chip c lm t Gallium thch anh m trong c th thm cc loi vt liu khc to ra nhng mu khc nhau.

II.Cu to n LED
n LED trong cng ngh chiu sng hin i hin l ch ang c quan tm trong bi cnh thiu ht nng lng ang din ra, c tnh tit kim nng lng ca n LED c cp nhiu trong cc ti liu, trong bi ny ch yu cp n cu to ca mt b n LED hon chnh. Mt b n LED thng thng bao gm cc b phn chnh l: phn t pht sng LED, b ngun, mch in ta nhit, v. Phn t pht sng LED: LED (Light-emitting diode i-t bc x nh sng) Bn cht ca LED l mt i-t, n cha mt chp bn dn c pha cc tp cht to ra mt tip gip P-N, knh P cha l trng, knh N cha in t, dng in truyn t A-nt( knh P) n K-tt (knh N), khi in t lp y ch trng n sinh ra bc x nh sng, cc bc sng pht ra c mu khc

nhau ty thuc vo tp cht trong chp bn dn. LED phn thnh ba loi chnh theo di cng sut: c nh, c trung bnh, c ln - LED c nh tiu th dng in t 2 mA n 20 mA in p t trn chp t 1.5V n 3V, chng c thit k n chic phc v cho mc ch hin th trng thi ca my, chiu sng cc b. - n LED c trung: c thit k c chn cm hn vo mch in hoc thnh chp 4 chn gip tn nhit tt, chng c ghp thnh bng mch vi nhiu LED ni tip hoc song song. Loi n LED ny thng s dng lm cc bin bo, n chiu hu -t, n chiu sng khn cp, chng tiu th dng in c 100 mA. - LED cng sut ln hay HPLED tiu th dng in vi trm mA n vi Ampe, do tiu th dng in ln nn loi ny nht thit phi gn vi mt b ta nhit tt, nu khng HPLED s hng sau vi giy. Hiu sut ca HPLED rt cao c th ln ti 105 lm/W. ng dng ca HPLED l thay loi n chiu sng trong nh, ngoi tri. Bn thn cng ngh LED cho php n pht sng n 100.000 h nhng c cc yu t nh hng n tui th b n nh: Mch in ca b n: Cht lng mch in, cht lng mi hn gia LED vi mch in nh hng n ln n bn ca n, trong iu kin kh hu nhit i nh Vit nam, nu cht lng ca mch in v mi hn khng tt d gy oxi-ha t mch in, khng tip xc lm cho n khng th pht sng sau mt thi gian s dng. Trong thc t ngi ta c th s dng mch in thng, hoc bng nhm, gm cho php tn nhit nhanh cho loi LED cng sut trung bnh v ln. Loi mch in gn lin vi tn nhit B phn tn nhit: Phn tn nhit cho n LED c thit k nhm a phn tinh th pht sng xung nhit thp nhanh nht, b phn ny c bit quan trng khi thit k n LED cng sut ln, nu b phn tn nhit ny c kt cu khng ph hp th phn t LED s nhanh b gi, hiu sut pht sng gim ng k. B ngun cung cp: B ngun cp in cho n LED phi m bo cung cp dng in v in p n nh ph hp li loi LED ang s dng cc linh kin ch to b ngun phi c tui th s dng tng ng vi tui th ca LED. Vi loi n cng sut nh b ngun n gin ch l mt ngun p kt vi mt in tr hn dng cho LED nhng i vi vi LED cng sut trung bnh v ln cn to mt ngun dng cho LED. V n: m bo cho n hot ng n nh v bn, v n c ch to c

chng thm nc cao, ng thi m bo kh nng ta nhit nhanh chng. Do vy khi s dng n LED chng ta cn c vo cc yu t chnh trn y c th a quyt nh ng khi mua hang.

III.Cc loi n LED

n LED tup

Bng n LED trn

Bng n led qu nht 3W

IV.ng dng ca n LED


1.Mt s hiu qu x hi khc m n led mang li: _ n led ta nhit t hn so vi cc thit b n chiu sng khc do n led c cu trc tng t nh bng n trn nhng khng c dy tc gia, n led c nhit lm vic thp hn n hunh quang t 13 - 250 C. n led cng to ra nhiu nh sng hn so vi cc loi n khc. _ n led khng cha cc cht c hi, n led gip gim 80% lng pht thi kh CO2, do nhng u im m n led va c li cho sc khe ngi tiu dng va thn thin vi mi trng. _ Do c nhng u im vt tri v nguyn l pht sng nh vy m n LED mang li nhng li ch thit thc cho ngi s dng v cng ng nh: thn thin vi mi trng do n led gim lng kh thi CO2,n led khng s dng thu ngn v ti thiu ho lng rc thi ra mi trng; gim p lc ngun cho ngnh in do n led tit kim in nng. Bn cnh , n LED rt an ton cho ngi s dng, gim nguy c chy n v khng gy nhc mi mt do c ti thiu ho tia cc tm v bc x hng ngoi, khng nhp nhy 2.Mt s hiu qu kinh t khc m n led mang li: _ Khi s dng bng n LED, mc d u t ban u ca n led tng i ln so vi cc loi khc nhng tng dng chi ph quy ra so snh hin ti ca bng n LED nu l 471.000 ng, th bng n compact l 697.000 ng, trong khi bng n si t l 1.905.000 ng. Nh vy, bng n LED c tng chi ph thp nht nn c li nht cho ngi dng v lu di. _ n LED c tui th ln hn so vi cc loi n khc v khng b nh hng bi s ln tt bt n nh cc loi n khc.