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An Encyclopedia of Japanese History

compiled by Chris Spackman

Copyright Notice
Copyright 2002-2004 Chris Spackman and contributors Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the G ! "ree #ocumentation $icense, %ersion &'& or any (ater )ersion pub(ished by the "ree Soft*are "oundation+ *ith no ,n)ariant Sections, *ith no "ront-Co)er -e.ts, and *ith no /ack-Co)er -e.ts' 0 copy of the (icense is inc(uded in the section entit(ed 1G ! "ree #ocumentation $icense'2

Table of Contents
Frontmatter........................................................... ......................................5 Abe Family (Mikawa) Azukizaka, attle o! ("5#$).................................."" aba Family uzen %ro&ince............................................... ..................'( Chang )*o+lin Currency............................................... ..........................$5 ,ai-o Ma*a*hige ,utch .earning..................................... .....................(5 /chigo %ro&ince /t0 1hinpei................................................................ ..(2 Femini*m Fuwa Mit*uharu................................................... ..................2' 3am0 4i-eyuki 3yoki................................................. ...........................22 4abu 5o*hiharu 4y6ga %ro&ince............................................... ............77 8baraki Ca*tle 8zu %ro&ince..................................................................""2 9apan Communi*t %arty 9urakutei Ca*tle............................................"'5 :aei :y6*h6 Campaign........................................ ..............................."'7 .an*ing, ;obert .ytton.......................................................... ..............."(2 MacArthur, ,ougla* Mut*u %ro&ince................................................... ."(2 Nabeyama 1a-achika Nunobeyama, attle o!................................. ....<=5 >an ?zu 5a*u@iro............................................. ....................................<<< %aci!ic Aar %ri&y Council.................................................... .................<'# (BC No /ntrie*).................................................................... ....................<'2 ;angaku ;y6ky6 %ro&ince........................................................ ...........<'2 1a-o %ro&ince 1uzuki Denk0.................................................. .............<$< )achibana Mune*hige )wenty+?ne ,eman-*.....................................<(" Echi-a ;yohei Ezen %ro&ince.............................................................<72 (FC No entrie*)................................................................................. ........'=< Aa-o %ro&ince Aitte, 1ergei................................. ..............................'=< (GC No entrie*)................................................................................. ........'=5 5amagata Aritomo 56ryaku+tenn0.................................................. .....'=5 Daibat*u Deami.................................................... ................................'"" Chronological .i*t o! /mperor*............................................ ...................'"' %rime Mini*ter*, "225 to %re*ent........................................ ....................'"( Alphabetical .i*t o! the %re!ecture*........................................................ .'<= %ro&ince* an- Corre*pon-ing %re!ecture*...................................... ........'<< Chronological .i*t o! Neng0.......................................................... ..........'<5 .i*t o! the 1h0gun....................................................................... ............''' 3NE Free ,ocumentation .icen*e.........................................................''5

Frontmatter

Frontmatter
Credits
-he fo((o*ing peop(e ha)e contributed to this encyc(opedia3

Car( "' 4e((ey


Seige of 4o5uki entry

6' G' Shefta(( 7shefta(( at ia'inf'shi5uoka'ac'8p9


,mperia( 6ay "action entry "ebruary 2:th ;e)o(t entry

6ikipedia 7***'*ikipedia'org9
Se)era( pages are inc(uded 7and possib(y modified9 from the content a)ai(ab(e at ***'*ikipedia'org' -hese inc(ude3 4ofun, 4otoamatsukami, <ei8i, agasaki, /ombing of, agasaki City, Sengoku Period, Sino-=apanese 6ar 7&>?4-&>?@9, -okuga*a ,eyasu, , engo,

History
-his encyc(opedia started as a *eb site back in &??>' 0s , added more and more pages, the (imitations of htm( for a (arge pro8ect began to sho*, so in (ate 2000 , s*itched e)erything o)er to $a-eA' 6ith the 0'B'B re(ease, the format has again changed C this time to the DpenDffice'org A<$-based format' -his *ork *as origina((y pub(ished under the Dpen Content $icense but , repub(ished it under the G ! "ree #ocumentation $icense in <arch 200&' P(ease see the copyright section and the G ! $icense at the back of the book for more detai(s'

0.3.2
-his encyc(opedia no* has three entries, pro)ided by t*o ne* contributors' EeahF -remendous thanks to Car( "' 4e((ey and 6' G' Shefta((' See the Credits section for more info' ,G)e added basic info on a(( of the o(d pro)inces and dates for a (ot of entries, especia((y many of the emperors' $ots of other good stuff' See the section Changes for a comp(ete (ist of a(( the fi(es that ha)e changed bet*een 0'B'& and 0'B'2'

About
P(ease direct Huestions, bug reports 7factua( mistakes in the te.t, for e.amp(e9, or suggestions concerning this *ork to Chris Spackman 7spackmanIopenhistory'org9' P(ease specify *hich )ersion of the *ork you are using' -he ne*est )ersion *i(( a(*ays be a)ai(ab(e at ***'openhistory'org' -his encyc(opedia is continua((y under de)e(opment and anyone is *e(come to contribute'

4i*tory

Note on Dates (Important! lease !"AD THI#!!$


Some of the sources from *hich this encyc(opedia is compi(ed are =apanese and use =apanese dates for e)ents' !nfortunate(y, the =apanese used a (ess-than-perfect (unar ca(endar unti( the &>J0s' 0s a resu(t, the dates (isted for e)ents from more than about &B0 years ago can seem mis(eading *hen compared *ith dates for the same e)ent from an 0merican or other K6esternG source' So, for e.amp(e, /ryant 7and probab(y e)eryone e(se in 0merica9 (ists the /att(e of Sekigahara as taking p(ace in Dctober *hi(e =apanese sources say that it took p(ace in September' ,n time , hope to ha)e both dates (isted, but that is not going to happen soon' 0s a con)enience, , ha)e con)erted phrases (ike 1fifth day of the second month2 to 1@ "ebruaryGG'

#our%es
Current(y, , ha)e compi(ed this encyc(opedia most(y from3 =anet LunterGs Encyclopedia of Modern History MhunterN&?>4O for peop(e and e)ents from modern history' Stephen -urnbu((Gs Samurai Sourcebook Mturnbu((N&??>O for the Sengoku Period and samurai in genera(' -he Samurai 0rchi)es homepage at3 http3//***'ange(fire'com/rea(m/kitsuno0&/inde.'htm( 0 great site *ith (ots of information about samurai and the Sengoku Period' P' PapinotGs Historical and Geographical Dictionary of Japan MpapinotN&?J2O is a bit dated but has *onderfu((y detai(ed information on topics that tend to get ignored these days' 6ikipedia3 <ost if not a(( of the data for prefecture entries is from oritaka EagasakiGs =apan3 Geographica( Perspecti)es on an ,s(and ation MyagasakiN&??JO' -here are se)era( )ery he(pfu( tab(es at the back of New Nelson's Kan i Encyclopedia, *hich , ha)e used to doub(e and trip(e check a (ot of the data about nengo and emperors' -his is not meant to be a comprehensi)e (ist'

C&an'es 0.3.2 to 0.3.3


0side from changing the *ho(e thing to DpenDffice'org / Star MDffice Q SuiteO format and adding a *ho(e (ot of hyper(inks, the fo((o*ing entries *ere added or modified'

C&an'ed(
0be ,so, 0be obuyuki, 0dachi 4en5o, 0narchism, 0rahata 4anson, 0raki Sadao, 0sano Shoichiro, 0shida Litoshi, 0shikaga -akau8i Constitution of &?4:, Currency #e8ima Gomi5uno-tenno, Goto Shinpei, Goto Sho8iro

4i*tory
Lamaguchi Dsachi, Lara 4ei, Latoyama ,chiro, Layashi Sen8uro, Layashi -adasu, Liranuma 4iichiro, Lirota 4oki, Losoka*a 0kiu8i, Losoka*a =o5en, Losoka*a 4atsumoto, Lotta <asatoshi ,hara Saikaku, ,noue =unnosuke, ,noue 4aoru, ,noue 4o*ashi, ,nukai -suyoshi, ,shida <itsunari, ,shiyama Longan-8i, ,tagaki -aisuke, ,to Lirobumi, ,*akura -omomi 4ataoka 4enkichi, 4atayama Sen, 4atayama -etsu, 4ato Liroyuki, 4ato -akaaki, 4ato -omosaburo, 4atsura -aro, 4enrokuen, 4ido 4oichi, 4ido 4oin, 4iyoura 4eigo, 4obayaka*a -akakage, 4odama Gentaro, 4oiso 4uniaki, 4okaku-tenno, 4oken-tenno, 4omei-tenno, 4omura =utaro, 4onoe "umimaro, 4onoe-tenno, 4otoku-tenno, 4uroda 4iyotaka <achida Chu8i, <akino obuaki, <atsudaira Sadanobu, <atsuda <asahisa, <atsukata <asayoshi, <atsukura Cast(e, <eisho-tenno, <ori Eoshiro, <urakami-tenno, <utsu <unemitsu agasaki /ombing of, agasaki City, aito "ami(y <ika*a, aito "ami(y -amba, aito Gen5aemon, aito <asanaga, aito obunari, aito -adakatsu, aito Eukiyasu, i8o-tenno, inko-tenno, innan, inna, ishio Suehiro, oda Cast(e, ogi <aresuke Dbuchi 4ei5o, Dgata -aketora, Dgyu Sorai, Dhara <agosaburo, Dkada 4eisuke, Dkina*a prefecture, Dki -akato, Dkudaira Sadamasa, Dkuma Shigenobu, Dyama ,*ao ;eigen-tenno, ;ei5ei-tenno, ;ennyo, ;oku8o-tenno Saigo -sugumichi, Saion8i 4inmochi, Saito <akoto, Sato Pisaku, Shidehara 4i8uro, Shigemitsu <amoru, Shotoku-tenno, Su5uki 4antaro -akahashi 4orekiyo, -anaka Giichi, -erauchi <asatake, -okuga*a ,emitsu, -okuga*a ,emoto, -okuga*a ,enobu, -okuga*a ,eshige, -okuga*a ,etsugu, -okuga*a ,etsuna, -okuga*a ,eyasu, -okuga*a 4eiki

Ne)(
0be Genki, 0be Eoshishige, 0bo 4iyoka5u, 0ika*a 4atsuroku, 0kita 4iyoshi, 0mano -eiyu, 0materasu, 0nami 4orechika, 0ndo 4isaburo, 0oki 4a5uo, 0oki Shu5o, 0oki -akayoshi, 0rai 4entaro, 0rimatsu Liroshi, 0rima Eoriyasu, 0rita Lachiro /aba Piichi #aito Gitetsu, #en 4en8iro Pgi -asuku, Pndo ;yusaku, Pnomoto -akeaki, "i)e Charter Dath, "u8ihara Gin8iro, "u8ii Sanenobu, "u8imura Eoshiro, "u8inuma Shohei, "u8isa*a ikunosuke, "unada 4yo8i, "unada aka, "uruhata -okuya Godo -akuo, Goto "umio, Lashida 4unihiko, Latta Eoshiaki, Layami Sei8i, Layashi =o8i, Lirata -osuke, Liroka*a 4o5en, Lirose Lisatada, Litotsubashi 4eiki, Litotsubashi Eoshinobu, Litotsumatsu Sadayoshi, Lorikiri Ren8iro, Loshino aoki ,chiki 4itokuro, ishi*ata Sotaro, i5umiyama Sanroku 4abayama Sukenori, 4ataoka aoharu, 4atsuta 4a5ue, 4a*asaki -akukichi, 4imi Ga Eo, 4imura 4o5aemon, 4imura -okutaro, 4obiyama aoto, 4odama Lideo, 4ofun, 4omuchi 7

4i*tory
-omotsune, 4otoamatsukami, 4urusu -akeo, <aeda Eone5o, <atsumoto =o8i, <atsumura 4en5o <ei8i Pra, <inami Liroshi, <itsuchi Chu5o, <i5uno ;entaro, <ochi5uke 4eisuke, <otoda La8ime, <urase aokai, <urata Sho5o agai ;yutaro, akahashi -okugoro, aka8ima Chikuhei, so, isshin Senso, oda uichi, oda utaro Dhara take arahashi 6ataru, ichiro Sen-

aoshi, Dkada ;yohei, Dkano 4ei8iro, Dki Pnkichi, Dkuda Eoshindo, Dura 4ane-

;eischauer Pd*in D Saito -akao, Sakurauchi Eukio, Sasamori =un5o, Sengoku <itsugu, Sengoku period, Shibata 4amon, Shimada -oshio, Shiono Suehiko, Sino-=apanese 6ar &>?4-&>?@, Sone 0rasuke, Suematsu 4encho, Sugiyama Gen, Su5uki 4isaburo, Su5uki -eiichi, Su5uki Eoshio -akano Choei, -akarabe -akeshi, -akashima -omonosuke, -akayanagi ;yunosuke, -akeda Giichi, -aketomi -okitoshi, -anabe Larumichi, -okuga*a Eoshinobu, -reaty of Shimonoseki

Also(
modified -rip(e ,nter)ention added Eard(ey, Lerbert D', his book !he"#merican"$lack"%hamber, and 0merican /(ack Chamber' added 6ashington a)a( Conference and the re(ated "our-Po*ers -reaty, "i)e-Po*ers -reaty, and ine-Po*ers -reaty added Crypto(ogy added 4o*a(e*ski, =an added Shiko added /akumatsu modified 0be "ami(y 7<ika*a9 modified se)era( of the appendi. tab(es to be more consistent *ith each other s(ight(y modified Sengoku Period and Snin 6ar added GodT -akuo modified #aimyT modified -okuga*a ,eyasu added an entry for engT

4i*tory
7this page intentiona((y (eft b(ank9

Abe Family (Mikawa) Azukizaka, attle o! ("5#$)

Abe Family (*i+a)a$ , A-u+i-a+a. /attle of (0123$


Abe Family (*i+a)a$
#escended from Shiko 7pg 22@9, a son of 4Tgen-tennT 7pg &:09' 0be <asakatsu U 0be <asatsugu

Abe Family (*utsu$ Abe Family (#uru'a$ Abe Hirafu


0be Lirafu *as a go)ernor of 4oshi' Le fought against the aborigina( inhabitants of =apan 7ca((ed, at that time, ebisu, *hich basica((y 8ust means GbarbarianG9' -his *as in :@>' -hree years (ater, in ::&, he (ed an e.pedition into 4orea to he(p 4udara, a =apanese co(ony / protectorate / a((y on the 4orean peninsu(a' ote that the ear(y dates on this info means that e)erything is suspect 7more than usua(9 and shou(d be doub(e and trip(e checked' 0be Lirafu might be the anscestor of one or more of the 0be c(ans, as *e(( as the 0ndo and 0kita c(ans'

Abe Iso
$i)ed &>:@ to &?4? Christian Socia(ist from "ukuoka Prefecture' Studied at #oshisha !ni)ersity and abroad' /ecame a !nitarian preacher' -aught at -okyo Co((ege from &>??' 0cti)e in the socia(ist mo)ement' &?00 --- became president of the Socia(ist Society &?0& --- one of the founders of Shakaiminshuto &?24 --- became president of the =apan "abian Society &?2> --- e(ected to the #iet &?B2 --- chairman of Shakaitaishuto 6ithdre* from po(itics in &?40

Abe+a)a !i4er
0 ri)er *hich starts in Suruga and *hose mouth is near Shi5uoka'

Abe *asa+atsu
$i)ed &@4& to &:00
!!

Abe Ma*akat*u

<asakatsu *as an important member of the 0be c(an of <ika*a' Le ser)ed -okuga*a ,eyasu unti( his 7<asakatsuGs9 death in &:00 78ust coincidence, or did he die at SekigaharaV9' ,n &@?0, ,eyasu ga)e him ,chihara 7in ,5u9, *orth @,000 koku'

Abe *asatsu'u
$i)ed &@:? to &:4J 0be <asatsugu *as the e(dest son of <asakatsu' 0fter Sekigahara, -okuga*a ,eyasu promoted him to daimyT status'

Abe *uneto Abe Na+amaro


$i)ed J0& to JJ0

Abe Nobuyu+i
$i)ed &>J@ to &?@B So(dier and Po(itician from ,shika*a Prefecture' Put on reser)e (ist *ith rank of genera( in &?B:' Prime <inister from B0 0ug' &?B?' -ook o)er from Liranuma 4iichirT 7pg' &0J9 and *as rep(aced by Eonai <itsumasa 7pg' B0?9 in =anuary of &?40' =oined the Louse of Peers in &?42' President of the ,mperia( ;u(e 0ssistance Po(itica( 0ssociation 7pg' &2&9' Go)ernor of 4orea from =u(y &?44'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Lamaguchi Lamaguchi 0be 0be 6ar "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister Position Lanretsu From =un &:, &?B0 =un &:, &?B0 0ug B0, &?B? VV 0ug B0, &?B? =an &:, &?40 To #ec &0, &?B0 #ec &0, &?B0

Table 1Cabinet Positions Held by Abe Nobuyuki

Cabinet
Name GodT -akuo Sakai -adamasa Position 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0gricu(ture W "orestry From 0ug B0, &?B? Dct &:, &?B? To Dct &:, &?B? =an &:, &?40

!"

Abe Nobuyuki
Name PndT ;yXsaku 4arasa*a -oshiki 4anemitsu -suneo GodT -akuo agai ;yXtarT 4a*arada 4akichi 0oki 4a5uo 0be obuyuki omura 4ichisaburT Dhara aoshi <iyagi ChTgorT Eoshida Rengo 0be obuyuki agai ;yXtarT agata Lide8irT Lata Shunroku Dhara aoshi 0kita 4iyoshi Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y Prime <inister ;ai(*ays ;ai(*ays 6ar 6e(fare 6e(fare From 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? AAA 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? o) 2?, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? o) 2?, &?B? To =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 o) 2?, &?B? =an &:, &?40 =an &:, &?40 o) 2?, &?B? =an &:, &?40

0ug B0, &?B? AAA

Table 2Abe Nobuyuki's Cabinet

Abeno lain
0 p(ain in Settsu' 0beno *as the scene of se)era( batt(es during the 6arring States period'

Abe #adato
$i)ed &0&? to &0:2

Abe #eimei
#ied &00@' 0be Seimei *as a famous astronomer'

Abe 5orito+i Abu+uma'a)a !i4er


aka 0kuriga*a' 0 ri)er *ith source at 0sahi-san and mouth near ,*anuma'
!3

Abut*u

Abutsu
aka 0butsu-ni, aka Lokurin-5enni

A%&i no 6mi Ada%&i Family


0 fami(y of samurai *ho *ere descended from "u8i*ara Eamakage 7pg AAA9' -hey are presented here because of their successes during the <inamoto----aira *ars and their subseHuent affi(iation *ith the LT8T "ami(y 7pg AAA9'

Ada%&i 7a'emori
#ied &24>, 0 *arrior of the 0dachi fami(y, 4agemori *as the son of <orinaga' Le ser)ed *ith <inamoto Eoriie but became a monk *hen <inamoto Sanetomo died' -his did not stop him from 8oining the LT8T "ami(y for the ShTkyX 6ar, ho*e)er' LT8T -sunetoki and LT8T -okiyori *ere his grandsons' see a(so3 <inamoto Sanetomo 7pg AAA9, <inamoto Eoriie 7pg AAA9, LT8T "ami(y 7pg AAA9, ShTkyX 6ar 7pg AAA9, LT8T -sunetoki 7pg AAA9, LT8T -okiyori 7pg AAA9

Ada%&i 7en-8
$i)ed &>:4 to &?4>' Po(itician from 4umamoto' ,n)o()ed in the murder of the 4orean Hueen in &>?@' "ounding member of the 4umamoto ationa( Party' P(ected to the Louse of ;epresentati)es in &?02' 0cti)e in the ;ikken #oshikai, 4enseikai, and <inseito' "ormed and *as president of the 4okumin #omei in &?B2'
Cabinet osts
Cabinet &st 4atT 2 4atT
nd

Position Communications Communications Communications Lome 0ffairs

From <ay B&, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ =an B0, &?2: #ec &:, &?2:

To 0ug 2, &?2@ =an B0, &?2: 0pr 20, &?2J <ar &@, &?2J

&st 6akatsuki &st 6akatsuki

!4

A-achi :enz0
Cabinet Lamaguchi 2nd 6akatsuki Position Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs From =u( 2, &?2? 0pr &4, &?B& To 0pr &4, &?B& #ec &B, &?B&

Table 3Cabinet Positions Held by Adachi Kenz

see a(so3 4umamoto ationa( Party 7pg AAA9, ;ikken #oshikai 7pg AAA9, 4enseikai 7pg AAA9, <inseito 7pg AAA9, 4okumin #omei 7pg AAA9'

Ada%&i *orina'a
#ied &200 0dachi <orinaga *as a *arrior *ho fought for <inamoto Eoritomo 7pg AAA9 against the -aira 7pg AAA9' 0fter the *ars, he became a monk and took the name ;ensai'

Ada%&i 5asumori
#ied &2>@

Ada%&i 5os&i+a'e
#ied &2@@'

Ai%&i refe%ture
0rea3 @,&@0 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 agoya Popu(ation3 :,JJ0,000 7&??:9

Ai+o+u 78t8 Ai-a)a #eis&i


$i)ed &J>2 to &>:B

Ai-u9&an A:i+i A+abas&i *orito+i


#ied &BBB

!5

Akagawa Fu*anobu

A+a'a)a Fusanobu A+a'a)a *otoyasu


Son of 0kaga*a "usanobu' <Tri retainer'

A+ai Naomasa A+amatsu Family A+amatsu *itsusu+e


$i)ed &B>& to &44&

A+amatsu Norifusa A+amatsu Norimura


$i)ed &2JJ to &B@0

A+amatsu Norisu+e
$i)ed &B&2 to &BJ&

A+amatsu #os&u
$i)ed &J2& to &>0&

A+amatsu #uefusa A+amatsu 5os&inori


$i)ed &B@> to &42J

A+amatsu 5os&isu+e A+as&i *oris&i'e


#ied &:&>' /aptised a Christian in &@?:' 6as a )assa( of !kita Lideie, the daimyT of Dkayama' <orishige fought against -okuga*a ,eyasu at Sekigahara' Le surrendered to 4uroda agamasa' $ater, he fought for the -oyotomi at Ssaka Cast(e' Someho* managed to escape the fa(( of the cast(e'
!6

Aka*hi Mori*hige

see a(so3 !kita Lideie, Sekigahara, /att(e of, 4uroda ka, Siege of agamasa, -oyotomi "ami(y, Ssa-

A+a-a Naoyasu
aka 0ka5a 4yXbei' #ied &:0:' Dne of -oyotomi LideyoshiGs retainers' 0ka5a aoyasu fought at Sekigahara under Stani Eoshitsugu, but s*itched to the Pastern side during the batt(e' $ater aoyasa became a retainer of <aeda -oshinaga'

A+a-ome "mon A+e%&i Castle A+e%&i Family A+e%&i *itsu&aru


aka <itsutoshi 0kechi <itsuhideGs cousin' <itsuharu *as present for his cousinGs coup, but missed the /att(e of Eama5aki' Le batt(ed Lori Lidemasa at !chidehama, (ost and f(ed' Le committed hari-kiri and supposed(y *rote a poem *ith his o*n b(ood before dieing' see a(so3 0kechi <itsuhide, Eama5aki, /att(e of, Lori Lidemasa, !chidehama, /att(e of

A+e%&i *itsu&ide
$i)ed &@2: to &@>2 0kechi <itsuhide *as a genera( under, and the assassin of, Dda obunada' 6hen they found out about the assassination, both Lideyoshi and -okuga*a ,eyasu rushed to be the first to a)enge obunaga and take his p(ace' Lideyoshi got to <itsuhide first' <itsuhide began ser)ing Dda Smi, &00,000 koku9 in &@J&' obunaga in &@:: and recie)ed Sakamoto 7in

,n &@J?, he captured Eakami Cast(e from Latano Lideharu by taking LideharuGs mother hostage' -his accomp(ished <itsuhideGs goa( but unfortunate(y,
!7

Akechi Mit*uhi-e

obunaga had the *oman e.ecuted 7crucifiedV9' atura((y this did not make the Latano fami(y happy and a short *hi(e (ater se)era( of LideharuGs 7e.-V9 retainers murdered 0kechi <itsuhideGs motherF <itsuhide b(amed obunaga for his motherGs death and the attack at LonnT8i in &@>2 *as his re)enge' <itsuhide sur)i)ed for &B days, unti( he *as defeated by Lideyoshi at the /att(e of Eama5aki' see a(so3 Dda obunaga, LonnT8i, Seige of, -oyotomi Lideyoshi, -okuga*a ,eyasu, Latano Lideharu, 0kechi <itsuharu, Eama5aki, /att(e of, !chidehama, /att(e of

A+e%&i *itsu+uni A+imoto Family A+imoto Na'atomo


#ied &:2>

A+imoto Ta+atomo
$i)ed &:4J to &J&4'

A+imoto 5asutomo
$i)ed &@>0 to &:42'

A+i ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the 6estern part of LonshX 7pg' 9, part of *hat is today Liroshima Prefecture 7pg' 9'

A+ita Castle A+ita City


-he capita( of 0kita Prefecture 7pg &?9'

A+ita Family A+ita 7iyos&i


6e(fare <inister in 0be obuyukiGs cabinet, from 2? o)ember &?B? to &: =anuary &?40

!8

Akita %re!ecture

A+ita refe%ture
0rea3 Capita(3 Popu(ation3 &&,:&2 km2 7&??@9 0kita City 7pg' &>9 &,220,000 7&??:9

Table 4Data on Akita P e!ectu e

-he o(d !go Pro)ince 7pg' B0&9 is today 0kita Prefecture'

A+ita #anesue
died &:@? Sanesue ser)ed -okuga*a ,eyasu and recei)ed Shishido 7in Litachi, @0,000 koku9 in &:02'

A+ita Tos&isue
dates current(y unkno*n -oshisue *as the son of Sanesue' Le a(so ser)ed the -okuga*a and recei)ed <iharu 7in <itsu, @0,000 koku9 in &:4@'

A+iyama Nobutomo
dates current(y unkno*n obutomo *as a famous genera( in ser)ice of the -akeda fami(y'

A+i-u+i Castle
0ki5uki -anenaga -anenaga ser)ed under 4uroda agamasa during the 4orean campaign' Le sided *ith ,shida <itsunari at the batt(e of Sekigahara but managed to keep his fief 7*hich *asV9 after the batt(e' see a(so3 4uroda agamasa, 4orea, ,n)asion of ,shida <itsunari, Sekigahara, /att(e of

A+i-u+i Tane-ane
-ane5ane (ost to the Stomo 7the *ho, *hat, *hen, *here, and *hy is sti(( to be researched9' Sometime after that he 8oined the Shima5u 7as an a((y or a )assa(V9 and fought *ith them against Lideyoshi in 4yXshX' 0fter Sekigahara, he *as transfered to -akanabe 7in LyXga, 20,000 koku9'

Amakazu :agemochi

Ama+a-u 7a'emo%&i
4agemochi *as a famous genera( for the !esugi fami(y' 0mong other things, he fought at the "ourth /att(e of 4a*anaka8ima 7&@:&9'

Ama+o Family
0 samurai fami(y that fought the <Tri fami(y' -hey most(y (ost' -he <Tri had been one of their )assa(s' see a(so3 <Tri "ami(y

Ama+o Haru&isa
$i)ed &@&4 to &@:2' "ought against Suchi Eoshitaka' "ought against <Tri <otonari' <ost(y a fai(ure 7he (ost a (ot of batt(es and a (ot of territory9 but regained some of ground after Sue Larukata ki((ed Suchi Eoshitaka' see a(so3 Suchi Eoshitaka, <Tri <otonari, Sue Larukata

Ama+o 7atsu&isa
dates current(y unkno*n $ost to someone at unobeyama 7*hich is *hereV9 in &@J0' $ost to <Tri -erumoto in &@J& 7*hereV *hat batt(eV9 and f(ed to the is(and of Dki' $ater returned from Dki and captured -a8ima and ,naba pro)inces' #efended 4o5uki cast(e for Lideyoshi against the <Tri' 4atsuhisa *as attacked by 4obayaka*a -akakage and 4ikka*a <otoharu 7at 4o5uki cast(eV9, *as defeated and committed suicide' see a(so3 unobeyama, /att(e of <Tri -erumoto, -a8ima Pro)ince, ,naba Pro)ince, 4T5uki, Seige of, 4obayaka*a -akakage, 4ikka*a <otoharu

Ama+o 7uni&isa
$i)ed &4?2 to &@@4
"#

Amako :unihi*a

4unihisa *as the son of -sunehisa'

Ama+o 6+i&isa
#ied &@B4 Dkihisa *as the son of -sunehisa'

Ama+o Tsune&isa
$i)ed &4@> to &@4& "ought against Suchi Eoshioka <Tri <otonari *as one of his retainers

Ama+o 5os&i&isa
Eoshihisa *as the son of 0mako 4atsuhisa 7pg AAA9' Le continued the fami(y fight against the <Tri' 6hi(e besieged in -oda Cast(e, Eoshihisa had a retainer, <oriyama Lisakane e.ecuted' -his caused most of his remaining men to desert' 6ith no hope of ho(ding the cast(e, Eoshihisa f(ed and became a monk'

Ama+usa #&ir8
aka <asuda -okisada' 0 (eader of the Shimabara ;ebe((ion, ShirT (ed the defence of Lara Cast(e and died *hen it fe((' see a(so3 Shimabara ;ebe((ion, Lara Cast(e, Lara, Seige of

Amano Ta+as&i'e
$i)ed &@0B to &@>4'

Amano 5asu+a'e
$i)ed &@BJ to &:BJ'

Amari Nobuyasu Amari Toriyasu


#ied &@4>

"!

Ama 1hogun

Ama #&o'un
10ma Shogun2 refers to LT8T <asako, *ho *as the *ife of <inamoto Eoritomo, and the po*er behind the 4amakura shTgunate after his death' She became a nun in &&??' 0ma Shogun rough(y means the 1 un Shogun'2 see a(so3 LT8T <asako 7pg' A9, <inamoto Eoritomo 7pg' A9, 4amakura ShTgunate 7pg' A9,

Ama
0ma is a term used to refer to nuns' ,n Png(ish it *ou(d be something (ike 1nun2 or 1sister'2

Ameri%an /la%+ C&amber


1/(ack Chamber2 *as the name used in Purope for the go)ernment section in)o()ed in codebreaking and i((icit reading of pri)ate 7especia((y dip(omatic9 communications' -he 0merican go)enment did not set up itGs o*n b(ack chamber unti( after 6or(d 6ar ,' -he 0merican /(ack Chamber 7actua((y the Cipher /ureau9 *as a group of codebreakers *orking for the !nited States go)ernment 7*ith funding from the 0rmy and the State #epartment9 bet*een =u(y &?&J and Dctober &?2?, headed by Lerbert D' Eard(ey 7pg B0J9' Cracking =apanese codes *as a priority' 4ahn 7MkahnN2004O, pg :29 states3
-he most important target *as =apan' ,ts be((igerence to*ard China 8eopardi5ed 0mericaGs Dpen #oor po(icy' ,ts emigrants e.acerbated 0merican racism' ,ts na)a( gro*th menaced 0merican po*er in the *estern Pacific' ,ts commercia( e.pansion threatened 0merican dominance of "ar Pastern markets'

0fter c(ose to a year, Eard(ey and his staff fina((y managed to break the =apanese codes and *ere sti(( reading =apanese dip(omatic traffic *hen 6ashington hosted the 6ashington a)a( Conference in &?2&' -he information the the Cipher /ureau pro)ided the 0merican de(egation *as instrumenta( in getting the =apanese side to agree to a &03: ratio instead of the &03J ratio the =apanese *anted' -his *as the hight of Eard(eyGs cryptana(ytic career' -he =apanese a)y *as not happy *ith the treaty and *hen se)era( years (ater Eard(ey described the *ho(e incident in his book !he"#merican"$lack"%hamber 7pg' 2B9, the =apanese *ere not amused'

""

American lack Chamber

#espite their success at the 6ashington Conference, the truth of the matter is that Eard(ey and his codebreakers *ere not as good as Eard(ey be(ie)ed them to be' =apanese go)ernment codes *ere redicu(ous(y *eak in the ear(y &?20s' -he rea( difficu(ty probab(y (ay in the =apanese (anguage, not the =apanese codes C for se)era( months after its founding, the 0merican /(ack Chamber had no one *ith a good command of =apanese' /ritish codebreakers at the time considered =apanese codes hard(y *orth the name' !nfortunate(y, for the men and *omen of the Cipher /ureau the f(o* of dip(omatic te(egrams dried up as companies became (ess *i((ing to break the (a* to he(p the go)ernment' ,n 6ashington, 6i((iam "riedman *as acti)e(y e.p(oring cryptographic frontiers for the 0rmy C the Cipher /ureau *as becoming irre(e)ant' Lo*e)er, it *as mora( indignation that fina((y doomed the bureau' Lenry $' Stimpson *as Secretary of State under President Loo)er' 6hen he found out about the Cipher /ureau, he *as furious and *ithdre* funding, summing up his argument *ith 1Gent(emen do not read each otherGs mai('2 -he Cipher /ureau c(osed its doors for good on B& Dctober &?2? C 8ust t*o days after the stock market crashed and the Great #epression began'
#our%es and #u''ested !eadin'

!he"#merican"$lack"%hamber by Lerbert D' Eard(ey, Myard(eyN&?B&O !he"%odebreakers by #a)id 4ahn MkahnN&??:O #ng&"Kaidoku"Ny'mon by -oshio -akaga*a, Mtakaga*aN200BO !he"(eader"of"Gentlemen's"Mail by #a)id 4ahn, MkahnN2004O
#ee also(

0merican /(ack Chamber, -he 7pg 2B9, "i)e-Po*ers -reaty 7pg >B9, 6ashington a)a( Conference 7pg B049, Eard(ey, Lerbert D' 7pg B0J9,

American Black Chamber, The


0 book by Lerbert D' Eard(ey 7pg B0J9, pub(ished in &?B&, dea(ing *ith 0merican efforts to read the communications of other countries' 0 (arge part of it is de)oted to describing ho* Eard(ey and his codebreakers managed to read =apanese go)ernment codes and the ad)antage this ga)e to the 0merican side at the 6ashington a)a( Conference'
#our%es and #u''ested !eadin'

!he"#merican"$lack"%hamber by Lerbert D' Eard(ey, Myard(eyN&?B&O !he"%odebreakers by #a)id 4ahn MkahnN&??:O #ng&"Kaidoku"Ny'mon by -oshio -akaga*a, Mtakaga*aN200BO !he"(eader"of"Gentlemen's"Mail by #a)id 4ahn, MkahnN2004O

"3

American lack Chamber, )he

#ee Also

0merican /(ack Chamber 7pg 229, 4o*a(e*ski, =an 7pg &J&9, Eard(ey, Lerbert D' 7pg B0J9, 6ashington a)a( Conference 7pg B049

Anar%&ism
4Ttoku ShXsui (ed the anarchist mo)ement unti( his death in &?&&' ,t continued under Ssugi Sakae unti( his murder in &?2B' /oth men *ere anarcho-syndica(ists and ad)ocated direct action by *orkers' 0narchists *ere at odds *ith other socia(ist groups' 6ith the success of the ;ussian ;e)o(ution and the death of Ssugi, communist groups took contro( of the (abor unions a*ay from the anarcho-syndica(ists'
#ee Also

Ssugi Sakae 7pg 2B49, 4Ttoku ShXsui 7pg' &J09, ;ed "(ag ,ncident 7pg' 2B>9,

Anayama Nobu+imi
$i)ed &@4& to &@>2' aka /aisetsu obukimi'

Ando C&i+asue Ando *orinari Ando #&i'ena'a Ando #&i'enobu


$i)ed &@@> to &:22

Ane'a+o:i Family Ane'a+o:i 7oretsuna


$i)ed &@40 to &@>J 0negako8i Eoshiyori #ied &@J&

Ane'a)a. /attle of
-ook p(ace in &@J0' Dda obunaga, *ith -okuga*a ,eyasu and ,naba ,ttetsu, fought the combined forces of 0sai agamasa and 0sakura Eoshikage' -okuga*a forces engaged the 0sakura *hi(e Dda forces dea(t *ith the 0sai'
"4

Anegawa, attle o!

-he -okuga*a forces finished off the 0sakura and then turned and hit the 0saiGs right f(ank' ,naba had been he(d in reser)e, came for*ard and hit the 0sai (eft f(ank' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, ,naba ,ttetsu 7pg' A9, 0sai agamasa 7pg' A9, 0sakura Eoshikage 7pg' A9

An;ei
engT3 &JJ2--&J>0

An'en
engT3 &&J@--&&J:

An+an9tenn8
-he 2Jth Pmperor of =apan' ;eigned @B& to @B@'

An+o+u:i "+ei
#ied &:00'

An+89tenn8
-he 20th Pmperor of =apan' ;eigned from 4@B to 4@:'

Anna
engT3 ?:>--?:?'

Annei9tenn8
-he Brd Pmperor of =apan' ;eigned @4? to @&& /'C'

Ansei ur'e
0 purge, in &>@>--&>@?, of o)er &00 peop(e from the bakufu, )arious han, and the ,mperia( court' Pight of those KpurgedG *ere a(so e.ecuted' ,t *as carried out by ,i aosuke in an effort to Huiet opposition to his hand(ing of the Huestion of shTguna( succession and the signing of the !'S'-=apan -reaty of 0mity and Commerce' 7-odo3 0dd more detai(s on the succession dispute and the peop(e *ho *ere purged'9
"5

An*ei %urge

see a(so3 ,i aosuke 7pg' A9, !'S'-=apan -reaty of 0mity and Commerce 7pg' A9,

Ansei
engT3 &>@4--&>@?

Ansei Treaties
See !'S'-=apan -reaty of 0mity and Commerce on page A;P"

Antei
engT3 &22J--&22>

Anto+u9tenn8
-he >&st emperor of =apan' ;eigned from &&>0 to &&>B' -here *ere t*o nengT during his reign, ET*a 7pg A;P"9 *hich (asted from &&>& to &&>2 and =uei 7pg A;P"9, from &&>2 to &&>B'

An)a
engT3 ?:>--?:?

Ao+i 7a-uo
"inance <inister in 0be &?40' obuyukiGs cabinet, from B0 0ugust &?B? to &:=anuary

Ao+i #&i'e+ane Aomori City


-he capita( of 0omori Prefecture'

Aomori refe%ture
0rea3 ?,:0@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 0omori Popu(ation3 &,@&0,000 7&??:9

"6

Aoyama )a-anari

Aoyama Tadanari Aoyama 5u+inari Ara&ata 7anson


$i)ed &>>J to &?>& aka 0rahata 4atsu5o <r' 0rahata participated in many of the socia(ist mo)ements in his career' Le started as a socia(ist, became an syndico-anarchist and e)entua((y a communist and ended up ser)ing in the #iet as a representati)e of the post*ar =apan Socia(ist Party' 0rahata *as from Eokohama' Le 8oined the Leiminsha in &?04 and *as among those arrested for the ;ed "(ag ,ncident of &?0>' 0rahata pub(ished 4indai Shiso *ith Dsugi Sakae' Le *as member of the first Centra( Committee of the =apan Communist Party' /e(onged to the ;ono "action' Le *as on the Centra( P.ecuti)e Committee of the =apan Socia(ist Party from &?4: to &?4>' Ser)ed in the #iet from &?4: to &?4? and spent his time after that *riting' see a(so3 Leiminsha 7pg' A9, ;ed "(ag ,ncident 7pg' A9, 4indai Shiso 7pg' A9, Ssugi Sakae 7pg' A9, =apan Communist Party 7pg' A9, ;ono "action 7pg' A9, =apan Socia(ist Party 7pg' A9, Socia(ism 7pg' A9, 0narchism 7pg' A9,

Ara+i *uras&i'e Ara+i #adao


/orn 2: <ay &>JJ to 2 o)' &?::' So(dier' Drigina((y from -okyo' Sadao *as a (eading member of the 1,mperia( 6ay "action2 74odoha9' Le *as put on the reser)e (ist as a resu(t of the "ebruary 2: !prising' <inister of Pducation from &?B> to &?B?' Le *as tried as a 1C(ass 02 *ar crimina( and sentenced to (ife'
"7

Araki 1a-ao

;e(eased from prison in &?@@ for hea(th reasons'


Cabinet ositions
Cabinet ,nukai SaitT &st 4onoe Liranuma 6ar 6ar Pducation Pducation Position From #ec &B, &?B& <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B> =an @, &?B? To <ay 2:, &?B2 =an 2B, &?B4 =an @, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B?

Table "Cabinet Positions Held by A aki #adao

see a(so3 "ebruary 2: ;e)o(t 7pg' A9, ,mperia( 6ay "action 7pg' A9, 6ar Crimes, C(ass 0 7pg' A9,

Arima Harunobu
Possib(y born in &@:&' #ied on : <ay &:&2'

Arima Nao-umi Arima Tadayori Arima Toyou:i


$i)ed &@J0 to &:42'

Arima 5os&isada
$i)ed &@2& to &@J:'

Ar<uebus Asa&ina 5asutomo Asai Family


0sai Sukemasa --Y Lisamasa --Y agamasa

Asai Hisamasa
$i)ed &@24 to &:JB' -he son of 0sai Sukemasa' $ost to the Sasaki and retired in fa)or of his son agamasa'

"8

A*ai Nagama*a

Asai Na'amasa
$i)ed &@4@ to 2> 0ug' &@JB' Son of 0sai Lisamasa, from *hom he took o)er in 7yearVV9' fu((y batt(ed both ;okkaku Eoshitaka and SaitT -atsuoki' agamasa success-

<arried Dda obunagaGs sister but (ater 8oined the 0sakura fami(y and the monks of <t' Liei against obunaga' agamasa *as defeated by Dda and -okuga*a ,eyasu at the batt(e of 0nega*a in &@J0' ,n &@JB, Dda (aid siege to agamasaGs cast(e at Ddani' !nfortunate(y for agamasa, he *as there at the time' Le committed suicide and in e.change, Dda spared agamasaGs fami(y 7*hich of course inc(uded his--- obunagaGs---o*n sister9' -hree of agamasaGs daughters are famous for marrying famous men' see a(so3 0sai Lisamasa 7pg' A9, ;okkaku Eoshitaka 7pg' A9, SaitT -atsuoki 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, Ddani, Seige of 7pg' A9, 0sakura "ami(y 7pg' A9, 0nega*a, /att(e of 7pg' A9,

Asai #u+emasa
$i)ed &4?@ to &@4:' "ather of 0sai Lisamasa' /ui(t Ddani Cast(e' "ought the Sasaki fami(y'

Asa+ura Family Asa+ura Hiro+a'e Asa+ura 7a'ea+ira


$i)ed &@2? to &@J4'

Asa+ura 7a'eta+e Asa+ura Nobumasa


$i)ed &@>B to &:BJ'

Asa+ura Nori+a'e
$i)ed &4J4 to &@@2'

Asa+ura #ada+a'e
$i)ed &4JB to &@&2'

"

A*akura )akakage

Asa+ura Ta+a+a'e
$i)ed &4?B to &@4:'

Asa+ura Tos&i+a'e
#ied &4J@V $i)ed &42> to &4>&V

Asa+ura 5os&i+a'e
$i)ed 24 Sept' &@BB to 20 0ug' &@JB'

Asano Family Asano Na'aa+ira


$i)ed &@>: to &:B2'

Asano Na'amasa
$i)ed &@4: to &:&0'

Asano Na'anori
$i)ed &::J to &J0&'

Asano Na'atsune
#ied &J&?'

Asano #&oi%&ir8
$i)ed &>4> to &?B0 /usinessman' "rom a samurai fami(y in the -oyama region' Purchased "ukaga*a Cement 6orks from the go)ernment in &>>4, *ith he(p from Shibusa*a Piichi' #i)ersified his business interests, *hich e)entua((y became a minor 5aibatsu' 6ithout a bank, it remained minor' see a(so3 "ukaga*a Cement 6orks 7pg' A9, Shibusa*a Piichi 7pg' A9, Raibatsu 7pg' A9

Asano 5u+ina'a
$i)ed &@J: to &:&B'

3#

A*ari Emano*uke

Asari =manosu+e As&ida Hitos&i


$i)ed &>>J to &?@?' 6as Prime <inister from &0 <arch &?4> to &@ Dctober &?4>' Le rep(aced 4atayama -etsu and *as rep(aced by Eoshida Shigeru'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Shidehara 4atayama 0shida 0shida Litoshi Position 6e(fare "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister From Dct ?, &?4@ =un &, &?4J <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> To <ay 22, &?4: <ar &0, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4>

Table $Cabinet Positions Held by Ashida Hitoshi

Cabinet
Name 0shida Litoshi agae 4a5uo Su5uki Eoshio -omabechi Gi5T <i5utani ChT5aburT -omoyoshi Pi8i Litotsumatsu Sadayoshi <orito -atsuo 7spV9 4itamura -okutarT 0shida Litoshi 4atT 4an8X omi5o <asaru "unada 4yT8i 4urusu -akeo 4urusu -akeo Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0ttorney Genera( Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Construction =u( &0, &?4> Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs $abor State3 Chairman of the $oca( "inance Committee State3 #irector of 0dministrati)e <anagement 0gency State3 #irector of Centra( Pconomic ,n)estigation 0gency State3 #irector of Pconomic Stabi(i5ation /oard W #irector of Price /oard <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> 0ug &, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> From <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> To Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4>

<ar &0, &?4>

Dct &@, &?4>

3!

A*hi-a 4ito*hi
Name "unada 4yT8i Litotsumatsu Sadayoshi ishio Suehiro -omabechi Gi5T Dkada Seiichi -akeda Giichi Position State3 #irector of ;eparations 0gency State3 President of Construction /oard State3 6ithout Portfo(io State3 6ithout Portfo(io -ransport 6e(fare From <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> <ar &0, &?4> To Dct &@, &?4> =u( ?, &?4> =u( :, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4>

Table %Ashida Hitoshi's Cabinet

see a(so3 4atayama -etsu 7pg' A9, Eoshida Shigeru 7pg' A9

As&i'aru As&i+a'a C&a%&amaru


#ied &4?0'

As&i+a'a *asatomo
$i)ed &2 =u(y &4B@ to @ 0pri( &4?&'

As&i+a'a #&8'unate
-he 0shikaga ShTgunate *as founded by 0shikaga -akau8i in &BB>' ,t (asted in theory unti( &@JB a(though in rea(ity the ShTgun had (ost contro( of most of the country (ong before that' see a(so3 0shikaga -akau8i 7pg' A9, 0shikaga Eoshiaki 7pg' A9, Dda $ist of 0shigaka ShTgun 7pg' A9, obunaga 7pg' A9,

As&i+a'a Tadayos&i
$i)ed &B0: to 2: "eb' &B@2'

As&i+a'a Ta+au:i
-he &st 0shikaga shTgun' $i)ed &B0@ to B0 0pri( &B@>' ;u(ed && 0ug' &BB> to B0 0pri( &B@>' Son of 0shikaga Sadau8i'
3"

A*hikaga )akau@i

"ought in the GenkT 6ar 7&BB&--&BBB9' -urned against the LT8T and took ;okuhara 7*ho, *hat, and *hereV9' "or *hich he *as granted <usashi, ShimTsa, Litachi' #efeated LT8T -okiyuki and took 4amakura' #ec(ared himse(f shTgun' $ost to itta Eoshisada in <ika*a and Suruga' /eat someone in the mountains in Lakone *hich he(ped him ra((y other daimyT to his cause' $ater took 4yoto' $ost 4yoto to 4itabatake 0kiie, itta Eoshisada, and 4usunoki <asashige 7among others9' $ost again near LyTgo and f(ed to 4yXshX' #efeated 4ikuchi -aketoshi at -atara-hama in Chiku5en' ;eturned to LonshX and defeated itta and 4usunoki at <inato-ga*a' Pntered 4yoto, deposed Go-#aigo and insta((ed 4TmyT as Pmperor' Go-#aigo f(ed and estab(ished the southern court' -akau8i spent the rest of his (ife fighting against samurai (oya( to the southern emperor' 0shikaga -akau8i estab(ished the 0shigaka Shogunate, *hich (asted, in theory, unti( &@JB' ,n practice, the 0shikaga Shogun (ost much of their po*er (ong before then' -he period of 0shikaga ru(e is a(so kno*n as the <uromachi period'

As&i+a'a 5os&ia+ira
$i)ed &> =une &BB0 to J #ec' &B:J' ;u(ed > #ec' &B@> to J #ec' &B:J' -he 2nd 0shikaga shTgun'

As&i+a'a 5os&ia+i
$i)ed B o)' &@BJ to 2> 0ug' &@?J' ;u(ed &> Dct' &@:> to &> =u(y &@JB' &@th 0shikaga Shogun Eoshiaki *as insta((ed in &@:J as the &@th 0shikaga ShTgun by Dda obunaga' Eoshiaki *as not Huite as tame as obunaga thought ho*e)er C Eoshiaki conspired *ith -akeda Shingen to free himse(f from DdaGs contro(' obunaga deposed Eoshiaki in &:JB and didnGt bother rep(acing him, *hich is a pretty good indication of 8ust ho* po*er(ess / meaning(ess the ShTgunate had become'

As&i+a'a 5os&i&aru
$i)ed @ <arch &@&& to 4 <ay &@@0' ;u(ed 2@ #ec' &@2& to 20 #ec' &@4@'
33

A*hikaga 5o*hiharu

&2th 0shikaga Shogun' "irst son of 0shikaga Eoshi5umi' Po*er(ess' Contro((ed by the daimyo' P)entua((y forced to f(ee' 76hyV "rom *homV -o *hereV9

As&i+a'a 5os&i&ide
$i)ed &@:4 to &@:> ;u(ed &@:>--&@:> &4th 0shikaga Shogun Chosen 7by *homV9 as a t*o year o(d to rep(ace Eoshiteru, but did not get Dda obunagaGs support' 6ith such a po*erfu( daimyo against him, Eoshihide had no hope of e)er getting to ru(e 7ne)er mind his age9' Lis hand(ers f(ed, taking him *ith them of course, and Eoshihide died at the tender age of four' 6ho *as behind him, pu((ing the strings in his nameV Serious(y, there is no *ay a t*o year o(d *as deciding anything' 6as it his mother or a grandparentV 0 cousin or some faction at courtV Db)ious(y he had to ha)e had some support from a fe* daimyo, but *hich ones and *hyV

As&i+a'a 5os&i&isa
$i)ed 2B o)' &4:@ to 2: <arch &4>?' ;u(ed &? #ec' &4J4 to 2: <arch &4>?' -he ?th 0shikaga shTgun' -he first son of 0shikaga Eoshimasa'

As&i+a'a 5os&i+atsu
$i)ed ? "eb' &4B4 to 2& =u(y &44B' ;u(ed J o)' &442 to 2& =u(y &44B' -he Jth 0shikaga shTgun' -he first son of 0shikaga Eoshinori'

As&i+a'a 5os&i+a-u
$i)ed 24 =u(y &40J to 2J "eb' &42@' ;u(ed &> <arch &42B to 2J "eb' &42@' -he @th 0shikaga shTgun' Son of 0shikaga Eoshimochi'

As&i+a'a 5os&imasa
$i)ed 2 =an' &4B: to J =an' &4?0' ;u(ed 2? 0pri( &44? to &? #ec' &4JB'

34

A*hikaga 5o*hima*a

-he >th 0shikaga Shogun' Son of 0shikaga Eoshinori, *ho *as the :th 0shikaga Shogun' Eoshimasa *as a(so kno*n as Eoshishige' Eoshimasa *as shTgun during the Snin 6ar *hich ra)aged 4yoto' Le bui(d the Ginkaku8i'

As&i+a'a 5os&imitsu
$i)ed 22 0ug' &B@> to : <ay &40>' ;u(ed B0 #ec' &B:> to &J #ec' &B?4' -he Brd 0shikaga Shogun' Son of Eoshiakira, the second shTgun' Pnded the ambokuchT 6ar' /ui(d the 4inkaku8i'

As&i+a'a 5os&imo%&i
$i)ed &2 "eb' &B>: to &> =an' &42>' ;u(ed &J #ec' &B?4 to &> <arch &42B' -he 4th 0shikaga shTgun' Son of Eoshimitsu, the third shTgun'

As&i+a'a 5os&inori
$i)ed &B =une &B?4 to 24 =une &44&' ;u(ed &@ <arch &42? to 24 =une &44&' -he :th 0shikaga shTgun' Son of Eoshimitsu, the third shTgun'

As&i+a'a 5os&itane
$i)ed B0 =u(y &4:: to ? 0pri( &@2B' ;u(ed @ =u(y &4?0 to 2? =une &4?B' 0nd again from & =u(y &@0> to 2@ #ec' &@2&' Eoshitane *as the &0th and &2th 0shikaga ShTgun' 0(so kno*n as Eoshiki or Eoshitada' Eoshitane (ost 7to *homV9 at ShTgaku8i in &4?& 7V9' Le f(ed and *as rep(aced by 0shikaga Eoshi5umi 7page AAA9'

As&i+a'a 5os&iteru
$i)ed &0 <arch &@B: to &? <ay &@:@' ;u(ed 20 #ec' &@4: to &? <ay &@:@'
35

A*hikaga 5o*hiteru

-he &Bth 0shikaga Shogun' "irst son of Eoshiharu, the t*e(fth shTgun' Eoshiteru a((ied *ith Losoka*a Larumoto' 6as attacked by <iyoshi ChTkei and <atsunaga Lisahide, (ost and committed suicide'

As&i+a'a 5os&i-umi
$i)ed &@ #ec' &4>0 to &4 0ug' &@&&' ;u(ed 2J #ec' &4?4 to &: 0pri( &@0>' &&th 0shikaga Shogun' ;ep(aced Eoshitane in &4?& but (ater Eoshitane rep(aced him'

As&ina Family As&ina *ori+iyo


$i)ed &4?0 to &@@B'

As&ina *oris&i'e As&ina *orita+a


$i)ed &@:0 to &@>B

As&ina *oriu:i
$i)ed &@2& to &@>0'

Aso Family Aso Hisas&i


$i)ed &>?& to &?40'

Aso 7oretoyo
$i)ed &@4B to &@>4'

Ata'i Fuyuyasu
#ied &@:4'

Ata'i Nobuyasu Atobe 7atsusu+e


$i)ed &@2? to &@>2'
36

At*u@i 1a-ahi*e

Atsu:i #ada&ise A)a:i ro4in%e


-he is(and of 0*a8i, bet*een LonshX and Shikoku' -oday it is part of LyTgo Prefecture' see a(so3 LyTgo 7pg' A9,

Ayu+a)a 7iyona'a Ayu+a)a 5os&isu+e


$i)ed : o)' &>>0 to &B "eb' &?:J' 0(so kno*n as 0ika*a Eoshisuke' 0 businessman 7check that9 and po(itician origina((y from Eamaguchi Prefecture'

A-u+i-a+a. /attle of (0132$


-ook p(ace in &@42' Dda obuhide defeated ,maga*a Eoshimoto' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, ,maga*a Eoshimoto 7pg' A9, 05uki5a*a, /att(e of 7&@:49 7pg' A9,

A-u+i-a+a. /attle of (0123$


-ook p(ace in &@:4' -okuga*a ,eyasu fought the ,kkT-ikki 7pg' A9'

/aba Family , /u-en ro4in%e


/aba Family /aba Nobufusa /aba Nobu&aru
#ied &@>2
37

aba Nobukat*u

/aba Nobu+atsu
$i)ed &@&4 to &@J@

/aba Nobus&i'e /aba Tatsui


$i)ed &@ <ay &>@0 to & o)' &>>>'

/aba Torasada /a+in


aka 4yokutei /akin $i)ed &J:J to &>4>

/a+umatsu
=apanese3 -he name gi)en to the (ast years of the -okuga*a ShTgunate'

/an 7o+ei
$i)ed &JBB to &>0:

/an Nobutomo
$i)ed &JJ@ to &>4>

/attles
;ather than (ist e)ery sing(e batt(e in the history of =apan *ith a redirect to another page, there is 8ust this one' /att(es are (isted in K7 ame9, /att(e ofG form so (ook under KnameG instead' -hus the /att(e of Sekigahara is found under KSekigahara, /att(e ofG in the SGs' -he inde. a(so has a (isting of a(( the batt(es under their entry names as *e(( as a (ong (ist under K/att(esG'

/e++i #&o-aemon
aka /etsuki Sho5aemonVV #ied 2& Sep &:@2'

/en "n
#ied &2J?

38

engyoku

/en'yo+u
aka 4ei-a Shonin $i)ed &>&> to &>>0

/en+ei
aka <usashi-bo #ied &&>? 6arrior and retainer of <inamoto Eoshitsune' "amous for his martia( e.p(oits' see a(so3 <inamoto Eoshitsune 7pg' A9,

/en no Nais&i /enten


aka /en5aiten

/ess&o Family /ess&o Harusada /ess&o Na'a&aru


$i)ed &@@> to &@>0

/ess&o Toyo&aru /ifu+u *on9in


aka "u8i*ara -oku-ko $i)ed &&&J to &&:0

/in'o ro4in%e
0 pro)ince on the ,n(and Sea side of *estern LonshX, in *hat is today Liroshima Prefecture' /ingo bordered on /itchX, LTki, ,5umo, ,*ami, and 0ki Pro)inces' see a(so3 Liroshima Prefecture 7pg' A9, 0ki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, /itchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LTki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*aki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,5umo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <imasaka Pro)ince 7pg' A9

ingo no 1aburo

/in'o no #aburo
aka 4o8ima -akanori

/is&amon /itatsu9tenn8
aka Dsada, aka unakurafutotama-shiki ;eigned @J2 to @>@' -he B0th Pmperor of =apan'

/it%&> ro4in%e
0 pro)ince on the ,n(and Sea side of *estern LonshX, in *hat is today Dkayama Prefecture' /itchX bordered on LTki, <imasaki, /i5en, and /ingo Pro)inces'
#ee Also

Dkayama Prefecture 7pg' A9, /ingo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, /i5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LTki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <imasaka Pro)ince 7pg' A9

/it8 Family /it8 Nis&u


$i)ed &J4@ to &>&B

/i-en ro4in%e
0 pro)ince on the ,n(and Sea side of LonshX, in *hat is today Dkayama Prefecture' /i5en borders on <imasaki, Larima, and /itchX Pro)inces' see a(so3 Dkayama Prefecture 7pg' A9, /itchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Larima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <imasaka Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

/o:o Family
0 kuge fami(y descended from "u8i*ara <orosuke' see a(so3 "u8i*ara "ami(y 7pg' A9,
4#

o@o Family

"u8i*ara <orosuke 7pg' A9,

/omon 7iyotada
#ied &BB>' 0 member of the kuge c(ass' Son of "u8i*ara -oshisuke, 4iyotada *orked against 0shikaga -akau8i at the court'

/on
-he festi)a( of the dead' Some parts of =apan ce(ebrate /on 7a(so Dbon9 in mid=u(y, others in mid-0ugust' -he spirits of the dead are be(ie)ed to return to earth at /on' #uring this ho(iday, *hich genera((y (asts about three days, many peop(e return to their hometo*ns to )isit their fami(ies and say he((o to their ancestors'

/udd&ism
/ukkyo in =apanese' Dne of the t*o main re(igious inf(uences on =apanese cu(ture 7ShintT is the other9' -he man kno*n as the /uddha (i)ed around @@0 /'C' in ,ndia and before he died he started a re(igion *hose impact on 0sia cannot be measured' 0(though it e)entua((y died out in its nati)e ,ndia, /uddhism spread to epa(, -ibet, China, 4orea, and =apan, as *e(( as the countries of South Past 0sia' /uddhism *as a(ready o)er a thousand years o(d *hen it reached =apan and had changed considerab(y in those years' -he /uddha *as concerned *ith 8ust one thing --- ho* to end suffering' ,ndians back then, (ike many today, be(ie)ed that a(( (i)ing things are reborn in a constant cyc(e of birth and death' -he /uddha a(so be(ie)ed this and conc(uded that if *e cou(d break free from this cyc(e, *e cou(d end the suffering that goes *ith (i)ing' Lis "our ob(e -ruths sum it up better than , can3 &' 0(( e.istence is suffering' 2' Suffering is caused by desire' B' ,f you end desire then you end suffering' 4' "o((o*ing the Pight "o(d Path *i(( enab(e you to end desire' -he Pight "o(d Path describes the proper *ay to (i)e to achie)e en(ightenment' ,t is not an easy path, and in theory it cou(d take you se)era( (ifetimes to fina((y transcend the cyc(e of birth and death' -he path demands great sacrifice and discip(ine' Db)ious(y such a seeming(y pessimistic and difficu(t re(igion is going to ha)e some pub(ic re(ations prob(ems' =oe 7and =ane9 $ayman doesnGt ha)e enough spare time to spend hours sitting on his butt meditating' either are most peop(e rea( interested in gi)ing up married (ife' So *hy has /uddhism been so popu(arV -he ans*er is simp(e3 in -ibet and China it mi.ed *ith (oca( shamanis4!

u--hi*m

tic ideas and practices to become a 1/ig %ehic(e2 offering ritua(s and prayers to comfort the common peop(e and offer them some hope of sa()ation in this (ifetime' -he /uddha himse(f *as deified' P)entua((y there *ere a mu(titude of schoo(s 7sects9 in Past 0sia each stressing some e(ement of the /uddhaGs teachings or those of popu(ar priests after him' ,n Southeast 0sia /uddhism *as not e.posed to -ibetan or Chinese practices and so has remained much c(oser to origina( /uddhism' -he /uddhism *hich cameinto =apan *as of the 1/ig %ehic(e2 sort' Pach c(ass found a schoo( of /uddhism that suited its out(ook and station' -hus, the imperia( court *as dra*n to sects hea)y in ritua( and phi(osophy' Commoners genera((y *ent for the simp(er sects *hich promised them sa()ation' -he samurai found Ren /uddhism perfect(y suited to their needs --- the need to die at anytime *ithout any hesitation' 0dd info on the introduction of /uddhism to =apan and the )arious schoo(s'

/u+eyas&i+i
aka 1Samurai #istrictGG, the /ukeyashiki is an area in 4ana5a*a *ith o(d samurai houses from the -okuga*a Period' see a(so3 4ana5a*a City 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ShTgunate 7pg' A9,

/u++o 7o+us&i
aka Sogen $i)ed &22: to &2>:

/u++yo
see /uddhism on page AAA'

/ummei
engT3 &4:?--&4>:

/ump8
engT3 &B&J--&B&>'

/un;an
engT3 &444--&44>

/un;ei
engT3 &2:4--&2J4
4"

ungo %ro&ince

/un'o ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in eastern 4yXshX, *hich bordered on /u5en, LyXga, Ligo, Chikugo, and Chiku5en Pro)inces' -oday the area is Sita Prefecture' see a(so3 /u5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chikugo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chiku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Ligo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LyXga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Sita Prefecture 7pg' A9,

/un:i
engT3 &&>@--&&>?

/un+an
#ied &B@J

/un+a
engT3 &>04--&>&J

/un+i
engT3 &@0&--&@0B

/un+y>
engT3 &>:&--&>:B'

/unnan
engT3 &444--&44>' aka /unGan'

/un;8
engT3 &2:0'

/unre+i
engT3 &2B4 aka /unryaku'
43

unroku

/unro+u
engT3 &@?2--&@?@

/unrya+u
engT3 &2B4 aka /unreki'

/unsei
engT3 &>&>--&>2?

/uns&8
engT3 &4::'

/unto+u9tenn8
see <ontoku-tennT on page AAA'

/un)a
engT of the orthern dynasty3 &B@2--&B@@

/unya Family
aka "umiya "ami(y

/uretsu9tenn8
aka Dhatsuse-*aka-sasagi' -he 2@th Pmperor of =apan' ;eigned 4?? to @0:'

/uson
aka -aniguchi /uson aka Eosa

/utsu #orai
aka Dgui Sorai $i)ed &::: to &J2>

44

uzen %ro&ince

/u-en ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in northern 4yXshX, *hich bordered on /ungo and Chiku5en Pro)inces' -oday the area is a part of "ukuoka Prefecture' #omains 7feifs9 inc(ude akatsu, *orth &20,000 koku and he(d by 4uroda agamasa prior to the /att(e of Sekigahara 7he *as mo)ed to a bigger domain after that batt(e9' see a(so3 /ungo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chiku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, "ukuoka Prefecture 7pg' A9, 4uroda agamasa 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9

C&an' Tso9lin , Curren%y


C&an' Tso9lin
#ied 4 =une &?2> Chang *as a *ar(ord in orthern China' Le *as assassinated by officers of the =apanese 4*antung army'

C&ian C&iba City


-he capita( of Chiba Prefecture'

C&iba Family C&iba 7anetane C&iba refe%ture


0rea3 @,&@: km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Chiba Popu(ation3 @,J>0,000 7&??:9

C&iba #adatane
$i)ed &2?& to &B@&

45

Chiba 1anetane

C&iba #anetane C&iba #&i'etane C&iba Ta+atane C&iba Tanenao C&iba Tos&itane
$i)ed &@2> to &@@?

C&iba Tsunetane
/orn on the 24th day of the @th month of &&&>' #ied on the 24th day of the Brd month of &20&'

C&i+amatsu *on-aemon
aka Sugimori obumori $i)ed &:@B to &J24

C&i+u'o ro4in%e
0n o(d pro)ince in the area that is today part of "ukuoka Prefecture, on 4yXshX' Chikugo bordered on Li5en, Chiku5en, /ungo, and Ligo Pro)inces' see a(so3 /ungo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chiku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, "ukuoka 7pg' A9, Ligo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Li5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4yXshX 7pg' A9,

46

Chiku*a Family (-aimyo)

C&i+usa Family (daimyo$ C&i+usa Family (+u'e$ C&i+usa Tada&aru C&i+usa Tadamoto C&i+usa Ta+ami%&i C&i+u-en ro4in%e
Pro)ince in the area that is today part of "ukuoka Prefecture on 4yXshX' Chiku5en bordered on /u5en, /ungo, Chikugo, and Li5en' #omains 7feifs9 inc(ude a8ima, *orth @20,000 koku and granted to 4uroda agamasa after the /att(e of Sekigahara' see a(so3 /ungo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, /u5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chikugo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, "ukuoka 7pg' A9, Li5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4uroda agamasa 7pg' A9, 4yXshX 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9,

C&irya+u C&itsu C&o Densu


aka <incho $i)ed &B@2 to &4B&'

C&8'en
engT3 &02>--&0B:'

47

Ch0h0

C&8&8
engT3 ???--&00B'

C&8:i
engT3 &&04--&&0@'

C&8:8
engT3 &&B2--&&B4' aka ChTshT'

C&8+an
engT3 &&:B--&&:4'

C&8+ei9tenn8
-he ?>th Pmperor of =apan' ;eigned &B:> to &B>B'

C&8+y8
engT3 &4>J--&4>>'

C&8+y>
engo3 &040--&04B'

C&8re+i
engT3 &0BJ--&0B?' aka ChTryaku'

C&8ro+u
engT3 &4@J--&4@?'

C&8rya+u
engT3 &0BJ--&0B?' aka ChTreki'

C&8s&8
engT3 &&B2--&&B4' aka ChT8T'
48

Ch0*okabe Family

C&8so+abe Family C&8so+abe 7uni%&i+a


$i)ed &@04 to &@:0'

C&8so+abe *ori%&i+a
$i)ed &@J@ to &:&@' 6as on the (osing side at Sekigahara' Le (ater 8oined the defenders at Dsaka Cast(e, for *hich he *as beheaded after the cast(e fe(('

C&8so+abe *oto%&i+a
$i)ed &@B> to &? <ay &@??'

C&8so+abe Nobu%&i+a
$i)ed &@:@ to &@>J'

C&8to+u
engT3 ??@--??>'

C&o Tsu'utsura
$i)ed &@22 to &@JJ'

C&o Tsuratatsu C&8)a


engT3 &0&2--&0&:'

C&>ai9tenn8
-he &4th Pmperor of =apan'

C&>+y89tenn8
-he >@th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &0 Dct' &2&> to 20 <ay &2B4' ;eigned 20 0pri( &22& to ? =u(y &22&'

Class ?A; @ar Crimes


See 6ar Crimes, C(ass 0 on page AAA

Con*titution o! "227

Constitution of 0AAB
-his is a trans(ation of the first constitution of =apan, promu(gated in &>>?'
C6N#TIT=TI6N 6F TH" "* I!" 6F CA AN. 0AAB

,mperia( Dath S*orn in the Sanctuary in the ,mperia( Pa(ace 7-suge-bumi9 6e, the Successor to the prosperous -hrone of Dur Predecessors, do humb(y and so(emn(y s*ear to the ,mperia( "ounder of Dur Louse and to Dur other ,mperia( 0ncestors that, in pursuance of a great po(icy co-e.tensi)e *ith the Lea)ens and *ith the Parth, 6e sha(( maintain and secure from dec(ine the ancient form of go)ernment' ,n consideration of the progressi)e tendency of the course of human affairs and in para((e( *ith the ad)ance of ci)i(i5ation, 6e deem it e.pedient, in order to gi)e c(earness and distinctness to the instructions beHueathed by the ,mperia( "ounder of Dur Louse and by Dur other ,mperia( 0ncestors, to estab(ish fundamenta( (a*s formu(ated into e.press pro)isions of (a*, so that, on the one hand, Dur ,mperia( posterity may possess an e.press guide for the course they are to fo((o*, and that, on the other, Dur sub8ects sha(( thereby be enab(ed to en8oy a *ider range of action in gi)ing !s their support, and that the obser)ance of Dur (a*s sha(( continue to the remotest ages of time' 6e *i(( thereby to gi)e greater firmness to the stabi(ity of Dur country and to promote the *e(fare of a(( the peop(e *ithin the boundaries of Dur dominions+ and 6e no* estab(ish the ,mperia( Louse $a* and the Constitution' -hese $a*s come to on(y an e.position of grand precepts for the conduct of the go)ernment, beHueathed by the ,mperia( "ounder of Dur Louse and by Dur other ,mperia( 0ncestors' -hat *e ha)e been so fortunate in Dur reign, in keeping *ith the tendency of the times, as to accomp(ish this *ork, 6e o*e to the g(orious Spirits of the ,mperia( "ounder of Dur Louse and of Dur other ,mperia( 0ncestors' 6e no* re)erent(y make Dur prayer to -hem and to Dur ,((ustrious "ather, and imp(ore the he(p of -heir Sacred Spirits, and make to -hem so(emn oath ne)er at this time nor in the future to fai( to be an e.amp(e to our sub8ects in the obser)ance of the $a*s hereby estab(ished' <ay the hea)en(y Spirits *itness this Dur so(emn Dath'
Imperial !es%ript on t&e romul'ation of t&e Constitution

6hereas 6e make it the 8oy and g(ory of Dur heart to beho(d the prosperity of Dur country, and the *e(fare of Dur sub8ects, 6e do hereby, in )irtue of the Supreme po*er 6e inherit from Dur ,mperia( 0ncestors, promu(gate the present immutab(e fundamenta( (a*, for the sake of Dur present sub8ects and their descendants' -he ,mperia( "ounder of Dur Louse and Dur other ,mperia( ancestors, by the he(p and support of the forefathers of Dur sub8ects, (aid the foundation of Dur Pmpire upon a basis, *hich is to (ast fore)er' -hat this bri((iant achie)ement embe((ishes the anna(s of Dur country, is due to the g(orious )irtues of Dur Sacred
5#

Con*titution o! "227

,mperia( ancestors, and to the (oya(ty and bra)ery of Dur sub8ects, their (o)e of their country and their pub(ic spirit' Considering that Dur sub8ects are the descendants of the (oya( and good sub8ects of Dur ,mperia( 0ncestors, 6e doubt not but that Dur sub8ects *i(( be guided by Dur )ie*s, and *i(( sympathi5e *ith a(( Dur endea)ors, and that, harmonious(y cooperating together, they *i(( share *ith !s Dur hope of making manifest the g(ory of Dur country, both at home and abroad, and of securing fore)er the stabi(ity of the *ork beHueathed to !s by Dur ,mperia( 0ncestors'
reamble (or "di%t$ (Coyu$

La)ing, by )irtue of the g(ories of Dur 0ncestors, ascended the throne of a (inea( succession unbroken for ages eterna(+ desiring to promote the *e(fare of, and to gi)e de)e(opment to the mora( and inte((ectua( facu(ties of Dur be(o)ed sub8ects, the )ery same that ha)e been fa)ored *ith the bene)o(ent care and affectionate )igi(ance of Dur 0ncestors+ and hoping to maintain the prosperity of the State, in concert *ith Dur peop(e and *ith their support, 6e hereby promu(gate, in pursuance of Dur ,mperia( ;escript of the &2th day of the &0th month of the &4th year of <ei8i, a fundamenta( (a* of the State, to e.hibit the princip(es, by *hich 6e are guided in Dur conduct, and to point out to *hat Dur descendants and Dur sub8ects and their descendants are fore)er to conform' -he right of so)ereignty of the State, 6e ha)e inherited from Dur 0ncestors, and 6e sha(( beHueath them to Dur descendants' either 6e nor they sha(( in the future fai( to *ie(d them, in accordance *ith the pro)isions of the Constitution hereby granted' 6e no* dec(are to respect and protect the security of the rights and of the property of Dur peop(e, and to secure to them the comp(ete en8oyment of the same, *ithin the e.tent of the pro)isions of the present Constitution and of the (a*' -he ,mperia( #iet sha(( first be con)oked for the 2Brd year of <ei8i and the time of its opening sha(( be the date, *hen the present Constitution comes into force' 6hen in the future it may become necessary to amend any of the pro)isions of the present Constitution, 6e or Dur successors sha(( assume the initiati)e right, and submit a pro8ect for the same to the ,mperia( #iet' -he ,mperia( #iet sha(( pass its )ote upon it, according to the conditions imposed by the present Constitution, and in no other*ise sha(( Dur descendants or Dur sub8ects be permitted to attempt any a(teration thereof' Dur <inisters of State, on Dur beha(f, sha(( be he(d responsib(e for the carrying out of the present Constitution, and Dur present and future sub8ects sha(( fore)er assume the duty of a((egiance to the present Constitution'
I. TH" "* "!6!

0rtic(e &' -he Pmpire of =apan sha(( be reigned o)er and go)erned by a (ine of Pmperors unbroken for ages eterna('

5!

Con*titution o! "227

0rtic(e 2' -he ,mperia( -hrone sha(( be succeeded to by ,mperia( ma(e descendants, according to the pro)isions of the ,mperia( Louse $a*' 0rtic(e B' -he Pmperor is sacred and in)io(ab(e' 0rtic(e 4' -he Pmperor is the head of the Pmpire, combining in Limse(f the rights of so)ereignty, and e.ercises them, according to the pro)isions of the present Constitution' 0rtic(e @' -he Pmperor e.ercises the (egis(ati)e po*er *ith the consent of the ,mperia( #iet' 0rtic(e :' -he Pmperor gi)es sanction to (a*s, and orders them to be promu(gated and e.ecuted' 0rtic(e J' -he Pmperor con)okes the ,mperia( #iet, opens, c(oses, and prorogues it, and disso()es the Louse of ;epresentati)es' 0rtic(e >' -he Pmperor, in conseHuence of an urgent necessity to maintain pub(ic safety or to a)ert pub(ic ca(amities, issues, *hen the ,mperia( #iet is not sitting, ,mperia( ordinances in the p(ace of (a*' 729 Such ,mperia( Drdinances are to be (aid before the ,mperia( #iet at its ne.t session, and *hen the #iet does not appro)e the said Drdinances, the Go)ernment sha(( dec(are them to be in)a(id for the future' 0rtic(e ?' -he Pmperor issues or causes to be issued, the Drdinances necessary for the carrying out of the (a*s, or for the maintenance of the pub(ic peace and order, and for the promotion of the *e(fare of the sub8ects' /ut no Drdinance sha(( in any *ay a(ter any of the e.isting (a*s' 0rtic(e &0' -he Pmperor determines the organi5ation of the different branches of the administration, and sa(aries of a(( ci)i( and mi(itary officers, and appoints and dismisses the same' P.ceptions especia((y pro)ided for in the present Constitution or in other (a*s, sha(( be in accordance *ith the respecti)e pro)isions 7bearing thereon9' 0rtic(e &&' -he Pmperor has the supreme command of the 0rmy and a)y' 0rtic(e &2' -he Pmperor determines the organi5ation and peace standing of the 0rmy and a)y' 0rtic(e &B' -he Pmperor dec(ares *ar, makes peace, and conc(udes treaties' 0rtic(e &4' -he Pmperor dec(ares a state of siege' 729 -he conditions and effects of a state of siege sha(( be determined by (a*' 0rtic(e &@' -he Pmperor confers tit(es of nobi(ity, rank, orders and other marks of honor' 0rtic(e &:' -he Pmperor orders amnesty, pardon, commutation of punishments and rehabi(itation'
5"

Con*titution o! "227

0rtic(e &J' 0 ;egency sha(( be instituted in conformity *ith the pro)isions of the ,mperia( Louse $a*' 729 -he ;egent sha(( e.ercise the po*ers appertaining to the Pmperor in Lis name'
II. !IDHT# AND D=TI"# 6F #=/C"CT#

0rtic(e &>' -he conditions necessary for being a =apanese sub8ect sha(( be determined by (a*' 0rtic(e &?' =apanese sub8ects may, according to Hua(ifications determined in (a*s or ordinances, be appointed to ci)i( or mi(itary or any other pub(ic offices eHua((y' 0rtic(e 20' =apanese sub8ects are amenab(e to ser)ice in the 0rmy or cording to the pro)isions of (a*' a)y, ac-

0rtic(e 2&' =apanese sub8ects are amenab(e to the duty of paying ta.es, according to the pro)isions of (a*' 0rtic(e 22' =apanese sub8ects sha(( ha)e the (iberty of abode and of changing the same *ithin the (imits of the (a*' 0rtic(e 2B' o =apanese sub8ect sha(( be arrested, detained, tried or punished, un(ess according to (a*' 0rtic(e 24' o =apanese sub8ect sha(( be depri)ed of his right of being tried by the 8udges determined by (a*' 0rtic(e 2@' P.cept in the cases pro)ided for in the (a*, the house of no =apanese sub8ect sha(( be entered or searched *ithout his consent' 0rtic(e 2:' P.cept in the cases mentioned in the (a*, the secrecy of the (etters of e)ery =apanese sub8ect sha(( remain in)io(ate' 0rtic(e 2J' -he right of property of e)ery =apanese sub8ect sha(( remain in)io(ate' 729 <easures necessary to be taken for the pub(ic benefit sha(( be any pro)ided for by (a*' 0rtic(e 2>' =apanese sub8ects sha((, *ithin (imits not pre8udicia( to peace and order, and not antagonistic to theirduties as sub8ects, en8oy freedom of re(igious be(ief' 0rtic(e 2?' =apanese sub8ects sha((, *ithin the (imits of (a*, en8oy the (iberty of speech, *riting, pub(ication, pub(ic meetings and associations' 0rtic(e B0' =apanese sub8ects may present petitions, by obser)ing the proper forms of respect, and by comp(ying *ith the ru(es specia((y pro)ided for the same'

53

Con*titution o! "227

0rtic(e B&' -he pro)isions contained in the present Chapter sha(( not affect the e.ercises of the po*ers appertaining to the Pmperor, in times of *ar or in cases of a nationa( emergency' 0rtic(e B2' Pach and e)ery one of the pro)isions contained in the preceding 0rtic(es of the present Chapter, that are not inconf(ict *ith the (a*s or the ru(es and discip(ine of the 0rmy and a)y, sha(( app(y to the officers and men of the 0rmy and of the a)y'
III. TH" I* "!IAE DI"T

0rtic(e BB' -he ,mperia( #iet sha(( consist of t*o Louses, a Louse of Peers and a Louse of ;epresentati)es' 0rtic(e B4' -he Louse of Peers sha((, in accordance *ith the ordinance concerning the Louse of Peers, be composed of the members of the ,mperia( "ami(y, of the orders of nobi(ity, and of those *ho ha)e been nominated thereto by the Pmperor' 0rtic(e B@' -he Louse of ;epresentati)es sha(( be composed of members e(ected by the peop(e, according to the pro)isions of the (a* of P(ection' 0rtic(e B:' o one can at one and the same time be a <ember of both Louses' 0rtic(e BJ' P)ery (a* reHuires the consent of the ,mperia( #iet' 0rtic(e B>' /oth Louses sha(( )ote upon pro8ects of (a* submitted to it by the Go)ernment, and may respecti)e(y initiate pro8ects of (a*' 0rtic(e B?' 0 /i((, *hich has been re8ected by either the one or the other of the t*o Louses, sha(( not be brought in again during the same session' 0rtic(e 40' /oth Louses can make representations to the Go)ernment, as to (a*s or upon any other sub8ect' 6hen, ho*e)er, such representations are not accepted, they cannot be made a second time during the same session' 0rtic(e 4&' -he ,mperia( #iet sha(( be con)oked e)ery year' 0rtic(e 42' 0 session of the ,mperia( #iet sha(( (ast during three months' ,n case of necessity, the duration of a session may be pro(onged by the ,mperia( Drder' 0rtic(e 4B' 6hen urgent necessity arises, an e.traordinary session may be con)oked in addition to the ordinary one' 729 -he duration of an e.traordinary session sha(( be determined by ,mperia( Drder' 0rtic(e 44' -he opening, c(osing, pro(ongation of session and prorogation of the ,mperia( #iet, sha(( be effected simu(taneous(y for both Louses' 729 ,n case the Louse of ;epresentati)es has been ordered to disso()e, the Louse of Peers sha(( at the same time be prorogued'

54

Con*titution o! "227

0rtic(e 4@' 6hen the Louse of ;epresentati)es has been ordered to disso()e, <embers sha(( be caused by ,mperia( Drder to be ne*(y e(ected, and the ne* Louse sha(( be con)oked *ithin fi)e months from the day of disso(ution' 0rtic(e 4:' o debate can be opened and no )ote can be taken in either Louse of the ,mperia( #iet, un(ess not (ess than one-third of the *ho(e number of <embers thereof is present' 0rtic(e 4J' %otes sha(( be taken in both Louses by abso(ute ma8ority' ,n the case of a tie )ote, the President sha(( ha)e the casting )ote' 0rtic(e 4>' -he de(iberations of both Louses sha(( be he(d in pub(ic' -he de(iberations may, ho*e)er, upon demand of the Go)ernment or by reso(ution of the Louse, be he(d in secret sitting' 0rtic(e 4?' /oth Louses of the ,mperia( #iet may respecti)e(y present addresses to the Pmperor' 0rtic(e @0' /oth Louses may recei)e petitions presented by sub8ects' 0rtic(e @&' /oth Louses may enact, besides *hat is pro)ided for in the present Constitution and in the $a* of the Louses, ru(es necessary for the management of their interna( affairs' 0rtic(e @2' o <ember of either Louse sha(( be he(d responsib(e outside the respecti)e Louses, for any opinion uttered or for any )ote gi)en in the Louse' 6hen, ho*e)er, a <ember himse(f has gi)en pub(icity to his opinions by pub(ic speech, by documents in print or in *riting, or by any other simi(ar means, he sha((, in the matter, be amenab(e to the genera( (a*' 0rtic(e @B' -he <embers of both Louses sha((, during the session, be free from arrest, un(ess *ith the consent of the Louse, e.cept in cases of f(agrant de(icts, or of offenses connected *ith a state of interna( commotion or *ith a foreign troub(e' 0rtic(e @4' -he <inisters of State and the #e(egates of the Go)ernment may, at any time, take seats and speak in either Louse'
IF. TH" *INI#T"!# 6F #TAT" AND TH" !IF5 C6=NCIE

0rtic(e @@' -he respecti)e <inisters of State sha(( gi)e their ad)ice to the Pmperor, and be responsib(e for it' 729 0(( $a*s, ,mperia( Drdinances, and ,mperia( ;escripts of *hate)er kind, that re(ate to the affairs of the state, reHuire the countersignature of a <inister of State' 0rtic(e @:' -he Pri)y Counci((ors sha((, in accordance *ith the pro)isions for the organi5ation of the Pri)y Counci(, de(iberate upon important matters of State *hen they ha)e been consu(ted by the Pmperor'
F. TH" C=DICAT=!"
55

Con*titution o! "227

0rtic(e @J' -he =udicature sha(( be e.ercised by the Courts of $a* according to (a*, in the name of the Pmperor' 729 -he organi5ation of the Courts of $a* sha(( be determined by (a*' 0rtic(e @>' -he 8udges sha(( be appointed from among those, *ho possess proper Hua(ifications according to (a*' 729 o 8udge sha(( be depri)ed of his position, un(ess by *ay of crimina( sentence or discip(inary punishment' 7B9 ;u(es for discip(inary punishment sha(( be determined by (a*' 0rtic(e @?' -ria(s and 8udgments of a Court sha(( be conducted pub(ic(y' 6hen, ho*e)er, there e.ists any fear, that such pub(icity may be pre8udicia( to peace and order, or to the maintenance of pub(ic mora(ity, the pub(ic tria( may be suspended by pro)isions of (a* or by the decision of the Court of $a*' 0rtic(e :0' 0(( matters that fa(( *ithin the competency of a specia( Court, sha(( be specia((y pro)ided for by (a*' 0rtic(e :&' o suit at (a*, *hich re(ates to rights a((eged to ha)e been infringed by the i((ega( measures of the administrati)e authorities, and *hich sha(( come *ithin the competency of the Court of 0dministrati)e $itigation specia((y estab(ished by (a*, sha(( be taken cogni5ance of by Court of $a*'
FI. FINANC"

0rtic(e :2' -he imposition of a ne* ta. or the modification of the rates 7of an e.isting one9 sha(( be determined by (a*' 729 Lo*e)er, a(( such administrati)e fees or other re)enue ha)ing the nature of compensation sha(( not fa(( *ithin the category of the abo)e c(ause' 7B9 -he raising of nationa( (oans and the contracting of other (iabi(ities to the charge of the ationa( -reasury, e.cept those that are pro)ided in the /udget, sha(( reHuire the consent of the ,mperia( #iet' 0rtic(e :B' -he ta.es (e)ied at present sha((, in so far as they are not remode((ed by a ne* (a*, be co((ected according to the o(d system' 0rtic(e :4' -he e.penditure and re)enue of the State reHuire the consent of the ,mperia( #iet by means of an annua( /udget' 729 0ny and a(( e.penditures o)erpassing the appropriations set forth in the -it(es and Paragraphs of the /udget, or that are not pro)ided for in the /udget, sha(( subseHuent(y reHuire the approbation of the ,mperia( #iet' 0rtic(e :@' -he /udget sha(( be first (aid before the Louse of ;epresentati)es' 0rtic(e ::' -he e.penditures of the ,mperia( Louse sha(( be defrayed e)ery year out of the ationa( -reasury, according to the present fi.ed amount for the same,

56

Con*titution o! "227

and sha(( not reHuire the consent thereto of the ,mperia( #iet, e.cept in case an increase thereof is found necessary' 0rtic(e :J' -hose a(ready fi.ed e.penditures based by the Constitution upon the po*ers appertaining to the Pmperor, and such e.penditures as may ha)e arisen by the effect of (a*, or that appertain to the (ega( ob(igations of the Go)ernment, sha(( be neither re8ected nor reduced by the ,mperia( #iet, *ithout the concurrence of the Go)ernment' 0rtic(e :>' ,n order to meet specia( reHuirements, the Go)ernment may ask the consent of the ,mperia( #iet to a certain amount as a Continuing P.penditure "und, for a pre)ious(y fi.ed number of years' 0rtic(e :?' ,n order to supp(y deficiencies, *hich are una)oidab(e, in the /udget, and to meet reHuirements unpro)ided for in the same, a ;eser)e "und sha(( be pro)ided in the /udget' 0rtic(e J0' 6hen the ,mperia( #iet cannot be con)oked, o*ing to the e.terna( or interna( condition of the country, in case of urgent need for the maintenance of pub(ic safety, the Go)ernment may take a(( necessary financia( measures, by means of an ,mperia( Drdinance' 729 ,n the case mentioned in the preceding c(ause, the matter sha(( be submitted to the ,mperia( #iet at its ne.t session, and its approbation sha(( be obtained thereto' 0rtic(e J&' 6hen the ,mperia( #iet has not )oted on the /udget, or *hen the /udget has not been brought into actua( e.istence, the Go)ernment sha(( carry out the /udget of the preceding year' 0rtic(e J2' -he fina( account of the e.penditures and re)enues of the State sha(( be )erified and confirmed by the /oard of 0udit, and it sha(( be submitted by the Go)ernment to the ,mperia( #iet, together *ith the report of )erification of the said board' 729 -he organi5ation and competency of the /oard of 0udit sha(( of determined by (a* separate(y'
FII. #= E"*"NTA!5 !=E"#

0rtic(e JB' 6hen it has become necessary in future to amend the pro)isions of the present Constitution, a pro8ect to the effect sha(( be submitted to the ,mperia( #iet by ,mperia( Drder' 729 ,n the abo)e case, neither Louse can open the debate, un(ess not (ess than t*o-thirds of the *ho(e number of <embers are present, and no amendment can be passed, un(ess a ma8ority of not (ess than t*o-thirds of the <embers present is obtained' 0rtic(e J4' o modification of the ,mperia( Louse $a* sha(( be reHuired to be submitted to the de(iberation of the ,mperia( #iet'
57

Con*titution o! "227

729 o pro)ision of the present Constitution can be modified by the ,mperia( Louse $a*' 0rtic(e J@' o modification can be introduced into the Constitution, or into the ,mperia( Louse $a*, during the time of a ;egency' 0rtic(e J:' P.isting (ega( enactments, such as (a*s, regu(ations, Drdinances, or by *hate)er names they may be ca((ed, sha((, so far as they do not conf(ict *ith the present Constitution, continue in force' 729 0(( e.isting contracts or orders, that entai( ob(igations upon the Go)ernment, and that are connected *ith e.penditure, sha(( come *ithin the scope of 0rtic(e :J'

Constitution of 0B32
=apan is a constitutiona( monarchy' -he current constitution *as (arge(y *ritten by the Dccupation authorities in &?4@--&?4:' ,t rep(aced =apanGs origina( constitution, *hich many peop(e fee( had f(a*s that made it unsuitab(e for a modern democracy' -he origina( constitution *as promu(gated in &>>? 7see page A'
TH" C6N#TIT=TI6N 6F CA AN. 0B32

Promu(gated on o)ember B, &?4:+ Put into effect on <ay B, &?4J' 6e, the =apanese peop(e, acting through our du(y e(ected representati)es in the ationa( #iet, determined that *e sha(( secure for ourse()es and our posterity the fruits of peacefu( cooperation *ith a(( nations and the b(essings of (iberty throughout this (and, and reso()ed that ne)er again sha(( *e be )isited *ith the horrors of *ar through the action of go)ernment, do proc(aim that so)ereign po*er resides *ith the peop(e and do firm(y estab(ish this Constitution' Go)ernment is a sacred trust of the peop(e, the authority for *hich is deri)ed from the peop(e, the po*ers of *hich are e.ercised by the representati)es of the peop(e, and the benefits of *hich are en8oyed by the peop(e' -his is a uni)ersa( princip(e of mankind upon *hich this Constitution is founded' 6e re8ect and re)oke a(( constitutions, (a*s, ordinances, and rescripts in conf(ict here*ith' 6e, the =apanese peop(e, desire peace for a(( time and are deep(y conscious of the high idea(s contro((ing human re(ationship, and *e ha)e determined to preser)e our security and e.istence, trusting in the 8ustice and faith of the peace-(o)ing peop(es of the *or(d' 6e desire to occupy an honored p(ace in an internationa( society stri)ing for the preser)ation of peace, and the banishment of tyranny and s(a)ery, oppression and into(erance for a(( time from the earth' 6e recogni5e that a(( peop(es of the *or(d ha)e the right to (i)e in peace, free from fear and *ant' 6e be(ie)e that no nation is responsib(e to itse(f a(one, but that (a*s of po(itica( mora(ity are uni)ersa(+ and that obedience to such (a*s is incumbent upon a(( nations *ho *ou(d sustain their o*n so)ereignty and 8ustify their so)ereign re(ationship *ith other nations'
58

Con*titution o! "7$#

6e, the =apanese peop(e, p(edge our nationa( honor to accomp(ish these high idea(s and purposes *ith a(( our resources'
I. TH" "* "!6!

0rtic(e &' -he Pmperor sha(( be the symbo( of the State and of the unity of the peop(e, deri)ing his position from the *i(( of the peop(e *ith *hom resides so)ereign po*er' 0rtic(e 2' -he ,mperia( -hrone sha(( be dynastic and succeeded to in accordance *ith the ,mperia( Louse (a* passed by the #iet' 0rtic(e B' -he ad)ice and appro)a( of the Cabinet sha(( be reHuired for a(( acts of the Pmperor in matters of state, and the Cabinet sha(( be responsib(e therefor' 0rtic(e 4' -he Pmperor sha(( perform on(y such acts in matters of state as are pro)ided for in this Constitution and he sha(( not ha)e po*ers re(ated to go)ernment' 729 -he Pmperor may de(egate the performance of his acts in matters of state as may be pro)ided by (a*' 0rtic(e @' 6hen, in accordance *ith the ,mperia( Louse (a*, a ;egency is estab(ished, the ;egent sha(( perform his acts in matter of state in the PmperorGs name' ,n this case, paragraph one of the artic(e *i(( be app(icab(e' 0rtic(e :' -he Pmperor sha(( appoint the Prime <inister as designated by the #iet' 729 -he Pmperor sha(( appoint the Chief =udge of the Supreme Court as designated by the Cabinet' 0rtic(e J' -he Pmperor, *ith the ad)ice and appro)a( of the Cabinet, sha(( perform the fo((o*ing acts in makers of state on beha(f of the peop(e3 7i9 Promu(gation of amendments of the constitution, (a*s, cabinet orders and treaties+ 7ii9 Con)ocation of the #iet+ 7iii9#isso(ution of the Louse of ;epresentati)es+ 7i)9 Proc(amation of genera( e(ection of members of the #iet+ 7)9 0ttestation of the appointment and dismissa( of <inisters of State and other officia(s as pro)ided for by (a*, and of fu(( po*ers and credentia(s of 0mbassadors and <inisters+ 7)i9 0ttestation of genera( and specia( amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprie)e, and restoration of rights+ 7)ii90*arding of honors+

Con*titution o! "7$#

7)iii9 0ttestation of instruments of ratification and other dip(omatic documents as pro)ided for by (a*+ 7i.9 ;ecei)ing foreign ambassadors and ministers+ 7.9 Performance of ceremonia( functions' 0rtic(e >' o property can be gi)en to, or recei)ed by, the ,mperia( Louse, nor can any gifts be made therefrom, *ithout the authori5ation of the #iet'
II. !"N=NCIATI6N 6F @A!

0rtic(e ?' 0spiring sincere(y to an internationa( peace based on 8ustice and order, the =apanese peop(e fore)er renounce *ar as a so)ereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as a mean of sett(ing internationa( disputes' 729 ,n order to accomp(ish the aim of the preceding paragraph, (and, sea, and air forces, as *e(( as other *ar potentia(, *i(( ne)er be maintained' -he right of be((igerency of the state *i(( not be recogni5ed'
CHA T"! III. !IDHT# AN6 D=TI"# 6F TH" "6 E"

0rtic(e &0' -he conditions necessary for being a =apanese nationa( sha(( be determined by (a*' 0rtic(e &&' -he peop(e sha(( not be pre)ented from en8oying any of the fundamenta( human rights' -hese fundamenta( human rights guaranteed to the peop(e by this Constitution sha(( be conferred upon the peop(e of this and future generations as eterna( and in)io(ate rights' 0rtic(e &2' -he freedoms and rights guaranteed to the peop(e by this Constitution sha(( be maintained by the constant endea)or of the peop(e, *ho sha(( refrain from any abuse of these freedoms and rights and sha(( a(*ays be responsib(e for uti(i5ing them for the pub(ic *e(fare' 0rtic(e &B' 0(( of the peop(e sha(( be respected as indi)idua(s' -heir right to (ife, (iberty, and the pursuit of happiness sha((, to the e.tent that it does not interfere *ith the pub(ic *e(fare, be the supreme consideration in (egis(ation and in other go)ernmenta( affairs' 0rtic(e &4' 0(( of the peop(e are eHua( under the (a* and there sha(( be no discrimination in po(itica(, economic or socia( re(ations because of race, creed, se., socia( status or fami(y origin' 729 Peers and peerage sha(( not be recogni5ed' 7B9 o pri)i(ege sha(( accompany any a*ard of honor, decoration or any distinction, nor sha(( any such a*ard be )a(id beyond the (ifetime of the indi)idua( *ho no* ho(ds or hereafter may recei)e it' 0rtic(e &@' -he peop(e ha)e the ina(ienab(e right to choose their pub(ic officia(s and to dismiss them'

6#

Con*titution o! "7$#

729 0(( pub(ic officia(s are ser)ants of the *ho(e community and not of any group thereof' 7B9 !ni)ersa( adu(t suffrage is guaranteed *ith regard to the e(ection of pub(ic officia(s' 749 ,n a(( e(ections, secrecy of the ba((ot sha(( not be )io(ated' 0 )oter sha(( not be ans*erab(e, pub(ic(y or pri)ate(y, for the choice he has made' 0rtic(e &:' P)ery person sha(( ha)e the right of peacefu( petition for the redress of damage, for the remo)a( of pub(ic officia(s, for the enactment, repea( or amendment of (a*, ordinances or regu(ations and for other matters, nor sha(( any person be in any *ay discriminated against sponsoring such a petition' 0rtic(e &J' P)ery person may sue for redress as pro)ided by (a* from the State or a pub(ic entity, in case he has suffered damage through i((ega( act of any pub(ic officia(' 0rtic(e &>' o person sha(( be he(d in bondage of any kind' ,n)o(untary ser)itude, e.cept as punishment for crime, is prohibited 0rtic(e &?' "reedom of thought and conscience sha(( not be )io(ated' 0rtic(e 20' "reedom of re(igion is guaranteed to a((' o re(igious organi5ation sha(( recei)e any pri)i(eges from the State nor e.ercise any po(itica( authority' 729 o person sha(( be compe((ed to take part in any re(igious acts, ce(ebration, rite or practice' 7B9 -he state and its organs sha(( refrain from re(igious education or any other re(igious acti)ity' 0rtic(e 2&' "reedom of assemb(y and association as *e(( as speech, press and a(( other forms of e.pression are guaranteed' 729 o censorship sha(( be maintained, nor sha(( the secrecy of any means of communication be )io(ated' 0rtic(e 22' P)ery person sha(( ha)e freedom to choose and change his residence and to choose his occupation to the e.tent that it does not interfere *ith the pub(ic *e(fare' 729 "reedom of a(( persons to mo)e to a foreign country and to di)est themse()es of their nationa(ity sha(( be in)io(ate' 0rtic(e 2B' 0cademic freedom is guaranteed' 0rtic(e 24' <arriage sha(( be based on(y on the mutua( consent of both se.es and it sha(( be maintained through mutua( cooperation *ith the eHua( rights of husband and *ife as a basis' 729 6ith regard to choice of spouse, property rights, inheritance, choice of domici(e, di)orce and other matters pertaining to marriage and the fami(y, (a*s sha((
6!

Con*titution o! "7$#

be enacted from the standpoint of indi)idua( dignity and the essentia( eHua(ity of the se.es' 0rtic(e 2@' 0(( peop(e sha(( ha)e the right to maintain the minimum standards of *ho(esome and cu(tured (i)ing' 729 ,n a(( spheres of (ife, the State sha(( use its endea)ors for the promotion and e.tension of socia( *e(fare and security, and of pub(ic hea(th' 0rtic(e 2:' 0(( peop(e sha(( ha)e the right to recei)e an eHua( education correspondent to their abi(ity, as pro)ided by (a*' 729 0(( peop(e sha(( be ob(igated to ha)e a(( boys and gir(s under their protection recei)e ordinary educations as pro)ided for by (a*' Such compu(sory education sha(( be free' 0rtic(e 2J' 0(( peop(e sha(( ha)e the right and the ob(igation to *ork' 729 Standards for *ages, hours, rest and other *orking conditions sha(( be fi.ed by (a*' 7B9 Chi(dren sha(( not be e.p(oited' 0rtic(e 2>' -he right of *orkers to organi5e and to bargain and act co((ecti)e(y is guaranteed' 0rtic(e 2?' -he right to o*n or to ho(d property is in)io(ab(e' 729 Property rights sha(( be defined by (a*, in conformity *ith the pub(ic *e(fare' 7B9 Pri)ate property may be taken for pub(ic use upon 8ust compensation therefor' 0rtic(e B0' -he peop(e sha(( be (iab(e to ta.ations as pro)ided by (a*' 0rtic(e B&' o person sha(( be depri)ed of (ife or (iberty, nor sha(( any other crimina( pena(ty be imposed, e.cept according to procedure estab(ished by (a*' 0rtic(e B2' o person sha(( be denied the right of access to the courts' 0rtic(e BB' o person sha(( be apprehended e.cept upon *arrant issued by a competent 8udicia( officer *hich specifies the offense *ith *hich the person is charged, un(ess he is apprehended, the offense being committed' 0rtic(e B4' o person sha(( be arrested or detained *ithout being at once informed of the charges against him or *ithout the immediate pri)i(ege of counse(+ nor sha(( he be detained *ithout adeHuate cause+ and upon demand of any person such cause must be immediate(y sho*n in open court in his presence and the presence of his counse(' 0rtic(e B@' -he right of a(( persons to be secure in their homes, papers and effects against entries, searches and sei5ures sha(( not be impaired e.cept upon *arrant
6"

Con*titution o! "7$#

issued for adeHuate cause and particu(ar(y describing the p(ace to be searched and things to be sei5ed, or e.cept as pro)ided by 0rtic(e BB' 729 Pach search or sei5ure sha(( be made upon separate *arrant ,ssued by a competent 8udicia( officer' 0rtic(e B:' -he inf(iction of torture by any pub(ic officer and crue( punishments are abso(ute(y forbidden' 0rtic(e B?' ,n a(( crimina( cases the accused sha(( en8oy the right to a speedy and pub(ic tria( by an impartia( tribuna(' 729 Le sha(( be permitted fu(( opportunity to e.amine a(( *itnesses, and he sha(( ha)e the right of compu(sory process for obtaining *itnesses on his beha(f at pub(ic e.pense' 7B9 0t a(( times the accused sha(( ha)e the assistance of competent counse( *ho sha((, if the accused is unab(e to secure the same by his o*n efforts, be assigned to his use by the State' 0rtic(e B>' o person sha(( be compe((ed to testify against himse(f' 729 Confession made under compu(sion, torture or threat, or after pro(onged arrest or detention sha(( not be admitted in e)idence' 7B9 o person sha(( be con)icted or punished in cases *here the on(y proof against him is his o*n confession' 0rtic(e B?' o person sha(( be he(d crimina((y (iab(e for an act *hich *as (a*fu( at the time it *as committed, or of *hich he has been acHuitted, nor sha(( he be p(aced in doub(e 8eopardy' 0rtic(e 40' 0ny person, in case he is acHuitted after he has been arrested or detained, may sue the State for redress as pro)ided by (a*'
IF. TH" DI"T

0rtic(e 4&' -he #iet sha(( be the highest organ of state po*er, and sha(( be the so(e (a*-making organ of the State' 0rtic(e 42' -he #iet sha(( consist of t*o Louses, name(y the Louse of ;epresentati)es and the Louse of Counci((ors' 0rtic(e 4B' /oth Louses sha(( consist of e(ected members, representati)e of a(( the peop(e' 729 -he number of the members of each Louse sha(( be fi.ed by (a*' 0rtic(e 44' -he Hua(ifications of members of both Louses and their e(ectors sha(( be fi.ed by (a*' Lo*e)er, there sha(( be no discrimination because of race, creed, se., socia( status, fami(y origin, education, property or income'

63

Con*titution o! "7$#

0rtic(e 4@' -he term of office of members of the Louse of ;epresentati)es sha(( be four years' Lo*e)er, the term sha(( be terminated before the fu(( term is up in case the Louse of ;epresentati)es is disso()ed' 0rtic(e 4:' -he term of office of members of the Louse of Counci((ors sha(( be si. years, and e(ection for ha(f the members sha(( take p(ace e)ery three years' 0rtic(e 4J' P(ectora( districts, method of )oting and other matters pertaining to the method of e(ection of members of both Louses sha(( be fi.ed by (a*' 0rtic(e 4>' o person sha(( be permitted to be a member of both Louses simu(taneous(y' 0rtic(e 4?' <embers of both Louses sha(( recei)e appropriate annua( payment from the nationa( treasury in accordance *ith (a*' 0rtic(e @0' P.cept in cases pro)ided by (a*, members of both Louses sha(( be e.empt from apprehension *hi(e the #iet is in session, and any members apprehended before the opening of the session sha(( be freed during the term of the session upon demand of the Louse' 0rtic(e @&' <embers of both Louses sha(( not be he(d (iab(e outside the Louse for speeches, debates or )otes cast inside the Louse' 0rtic(e @2' 0n ordinary session of the #iet sha(( be con)oked once per year' 0rtic(e @B' -he Cabinet may determine to con)oke e.traordinary sessions of the #iet' 6hen a Huarter or more of the tota( members of either house makes the demand, the Cabinet must determine on such con)ocation' 0rtic(e @4' 6hen the Louse of ;epresentati)es is disso()ed, there must be a genera( e(ection of members of the Louse of ;epresentati)es *ithin forty 7409 days from the date of disso(ution, and the #iet must be con)oked *ithin thirty 7B09 days from the date of the e(ection' 729 6hen the Louse of ;epresentati)es is disso()ed, the Louse of Counci((ors is c(osed at the same time' Lo*e)er, the Cabinet may in time of nationa( emergency con)oke the Louse of Counci((ors in emergency session' 7B9 <easures taken at such session as mentioned in the pro)iso of the preceding paragraph sha(( be pro)isiona( and sha(( become nu(( and )oid un(ess agreed to by the Louse of ;epresentati)es *ithin a period of ten 7&09 days after the opening of the ne.t session of the #iet' 0rtic(e @@' Pach Louse sha(( 8udge disputes re(ated to Hua(ifications of its members' Lo*e)er, in order to deny a seat to any member, it is necessary to pass a reso(ution by a ma8ority of t*o-thirds or more of the members present' 0rtic(e @:' /usiness cannot be transacted in either Louse un(ess one third or more of tota( membership is present'

64

Con*titution o! "7$#

729 0(( matters sha(( be decided, in each Louse, by a ma8ority of those present, e.cept as e(se*here pro)ided in the Constitution, and in case of a tie, the presiding officer sha(( decide the issue' 0rtic(e @J' #e(iberation in each Louse sha(( be pub(ic' Lo*e)er, a secret meeting may be he(d *here a ma8ority of t*o-thirds or more of those members present passes a reso(ution therefor' 729 Pach Louse sha(( keep a record of proceedings' -his record sha(( be pub(ished and gi)en genera( circu(ation, e.cepting such parts of proceedings of secret session as may be deemed to reHuire secrecy' 7B9 !pon demand of one-fifth or more of the members present, )otes of the members on any matter sha(( be recorded in the minutes' 0rtic(e @>' Pach house sha(( se(ect its o*n president and other officia(s' 729 Pach Louse sha(( estab(ish its ru(es pertaining to meetings, proceedings and interna( discip(ine, and may punish members for disorder(y conduct' Lo*e)er, in order to e.pe( a member, a ma8ority of t*o-thirds or more of those members present must pass a reso(ution thereon' 0rtic(e @?' 0 bi(( becomes a (a* on passage by both Louses, e.cept as other*ise pro)ided by the Constitution' 729 0 bi(( *hich is passed by the Louse of ;epresentati)es, and upon *hich the Louse of Counci((ors makes a decision different from that of the Louse of ;epresentati)es, becomes a (a* *hen passed a second time by the Louse of ;epresentati)es by a ma8ority of t*o-thirds or more of the members present' 7B9 -he pro)ision of the preceding paragraph does not prec(ude the Louse of ;epresentati)es from ca((ing for the meeting of a 8oint committee of both Louses, pro)ided for by (a*' 749 "ai(ure by the Louse of Counci((ors to take fina( action *ithin si.ty 7:09 days after receipt of a bi(( passed by the Louse of ;epresentati)es, time in recess e.cepted, may be determined by the Louse of ;epresentati)es to constitute a re8ection of the said bi(( by the Louse of Counci((ors' 0rtic(e :0' -he /udget must first be submitted to the Louse of ;epresentati)es' 729 !pon consideration of the budget, *hen the Louse of Counci((ors makes a decision different from that of the Louse of ;epresentati)es, and *hen no agreement can be reached e)en through a 8oint committee of both Louses, pro)ided for by (a*, or in the case of fai(ure by the Louse of Counci((ors to take fina( action *ithin thirty 7B09 days, the period of recess e.c(uded, after the receipt of the budget passed by the Louse of ;epresentati)es, the decision of the Louse of ;epresentati)es sha(( be the decision of the #iet' 0rtic(e :&' -he second paragraph of the preceding artic(e app(ies a(so to the #iet appro)a( reHuired for the conc(usion of treaties'
65

Con*titution o! "7$#

0rtic(e :2' Pach Louse may conduct in)estigations in re(ation to go)ernment, and may demand the presence and testimony of *itnesses, and the production of records' 0rtic(e :B' -he Prime <inister and other <inisters of State may, at any time, appear in either Louse for the purpose of speaking on bi((s, regard(ess of *hether they are members of the Louse or not' -hey must appear *hen their presence is reHuired in order to gi)e ans*ers or e.p(anations' 0rtic(e :4' -he #iet sha(( set up an impeachment court from among the members of both Louses for the purpose of trying 8udges against *hom remo)a( proceedings ha)e been instituted' 729 <atters re(ating to impeachment sha(( be pro)ided by (a*'
F. TH" CA/IN"T

0rtic(e :@' P.ecuti)e po*er sha(( be )ested in the Cabinet' 0rtic(e ::' -he Cabinet sha(( consist of the Prime <inister, *ho sha(( be its head, and other <inisters of State, as pro)ided for by (a*' 729 -he Prime <inister and other <inister of State must be ci)i(ians' 7B9 -he Cabinet, in the e.ercise of e.ecuti)e po*er, sha(( be co((ecti)e(y responsib(e to the #iet' 0rtic(e :J' -he Prime <inister sha(( be designated from among the members of the #iet by a reso(ution of the #iet' -his designation sha(( precede a(( other business' 729 ,f the Louse of ;epresentati)es and the Louse of Counci((ors disagrees and if no agreement can be reached e)en through a 8oint committee of both Louses, pro)ided for by (a*, or the Louse of Counci((ors fai(s to make designation *ithin ten 7&09 days, e.c(usi)e of the period of recess, after the Louse of ;epresentati)es has made designation, the decision of the Louse of ;epresentati)es sha(( be the decision of the #iet' 0rtic(e :>' -he Prime <inister sha(( appoint the <inisters of State' Lo*e)er, a ma8ority of their number must be chosen from among the members of the #iet' 729 -he Prime <inister may remo)e the <inisters of State as he chooses' 0rtic(e :?' ,f the Louse of ;epresentati)es passes a non-confidence reso(ution, or re8ects a confidence reso(ution, the Cabinet sha(( resign en masse, un(ess the Louse of ;epresentati)es is disso()ed *ith ten 7&09 days' 0rtic(e J0' 6hen there is a )acancy in the post of Prime <inister, or upon the first con)ocation of the #iet after a genera( e(ection of members of the Louse of ;epresentati)es, the Cabinet sha(( resign en masse' 0rtic(e J&' ,n the cases mentioned in the t*o preceding artic(es, the Cabinet sha(( continue its functions unti( the time *hen a ne* Prime <inister is appointed'
66

Con*titution o! "7$#

0rtic(e J2' -he Prime <inister, representing the Cabinet, submits bi((s, reports on genera( nationa( affairs and foreign re(ations to the #iet and e.ercises contro( and super)ision o)er )arious administrati)e branches' 0rtic(e JB' -he Cabinet, in addition to other genera( administrati)e functions, sha(( perform the fo((o*ing functions3 7i9 0dminister the (a* faithfu((y+ conduct affairs of state+ 7ii9 <anage foreign affairs+ 7iii9Conc(ude treaties' Lo*e)er, it sha(( obtain prior or, depending on circumstances, subseHuent appro)a( of the #iet+ 7i)9 0dminister the ci)i( ser)ice, in accordance *ith standards estab(ished by (a*+ 7)9 Prepare the budget, and present it to the #iet+ 7)i9 Pnact cabinet orders in order to e.ecute the pro)isions of this Constitution and of the (a*' Lo*e)er, it cannot inc(ude pena( pro)isions in such cabinet orders un(ess authori5ed by such (a*' 7)ii9#ecide on genera( amnesty, specia( amnesty, commutation of punishment, reprie)e, and restoration of rights' 0rtic(e J4' 0(( (a*s and cabinet orders sha(( be signed by the competent <inister of state and countersigned by the Prime <inister' 0rtic(e J@' -he <inisters of state, during their tenure of office, sha(( not be sub8ect to (ega( action *ithout the consent of the Prime <inister' Lo*e)er, the right to take that action is not impaired hereby'
FI. C=DICIA!5

0rtic(e J:' -he *ho(e 8udicia( po*er is )ested in a Supreme Court and in such inferior courts as are estab(ished by (a*' 729 o e.traordinary tribuna( sha(( be estab(ished, nor sha(( any organ or agency of the P.ecuti)e be gi)en fina( 8udicia( po*er' 7B9 0(( 8udges sha(( be independent in the e.ercise of their conscience and sha(( be bound on(y by this Constitution and the (a*s' 0rtic(e JJ' -he Supreme Court is )ested *ith the ru(e-making po*er under *hich it determines the ru(es of procedure and of practice, and of matters re(ating to attorneys, the interna( discip(ine of the courts and the administration of 8udicia( affairs' 729 Pub(ic procurators sha(( be sub8ect to the ru(e-making po*er of the Supreme Court'

67

Con*titution o! "7$#

7B9 -he Supreme Court may de(egate the po*er to make ru(es for inferior courts to such courts' 0rtic(e J>' =udges sha(( not be remo)ed e.cept by pub(ic impeachment un(ess 8udicia((y dec(ared menta((y or physica((y incompetent to perform officia( duties' o discip(inary action against 8udges sha(( be administered by any e.ecuti)e organ or agency' 0rtic(e J?' -he Supreme Court sha(( consist of a Chief =udge and such number of 8udges as may be determined by (a*+ a(( such 8udges e.cepting the Chief =udge sha(( be appointed by the Cabinet' 729 -he appointment of the 8udges of the Supreme Court sha(( be re)ie*ed by the peop(e at the first genera( e(ection of members of the Louse of ;epresentati)es fo((o*ing their appointment, and sha(( be re)ie*ed again at the first genera( e(ection of members of the Louse of ;epresentati)es after a (apse of ten 7&09 years, and in the same manner thereafter' 7B9 ,n cases mentioned in the foregoing paragraph, *hen the ma8ority of the )oters fa)ors the dismissa( of a 8udge, he sha(( be dismissed' 749 <atters pertaining to re)ie* sha(( be prescribed by (a*' 7@9 -he 8udges of the Supreme Court sha(( of retired upon the attainment of the age as fi.ed by (a*' 7:9 0(( such 8udges sha(( recei)e, at regu(ar stated inter)a(s, adeHuate compensation *hich sha(( not be decreased during their terms of office' 0rtic(e >0' -he 8udges of the inferior courts sha(( be appointed by the Cabinet from a (ist of persons nominated by the Supreme Court' 0(( such 8udges sha(( ho(d office for a term of ten 7&09 years *ith pri)i(ege of reappointment, pro)ided that they sha(( be retired upon the attainment of the age as fi.ed by (a*' 729 -he 8udges of the inferior courts sha(( recei)e, at regu(ar stated inter)a(s, adeHuate compensation *hich sha(( not be decreased during their terms of office' 0rtic(e >&' -he Supreme Court is the court of (ast resort *ith po*er to determine the constitutiona(ity of any (a*, order, regu(ation or officia( act' 0rtic(e >2' -ria(s sha(( be conducted and 8udgment dec(ared pub(ic(y' 729 6here a court unanimous(y determines pub(icity to be dangerous to pub(ic order or mora(s, a tria( may be conducted pri)ate(y, but tria(s of po(itica( offenses, offenses in)o()ing the press or cases *herein the rights of peop(e as guaranteed in Chapter ,,, of this Constitution are in Huestion sha(( a(*ays be conducted pub(ic(y'
FII. FINANC"

0rtic(e >B' -he po*er to administer nationa( finances sha(( be e.ercised as the #iet sha(( determine'
68

Con*titution o! "7$#

0rtic(e >4' o ne* ta.es sha(( be imposed or e.isting ones modified e.cept by (a* or under such conditions as (a* may prescribe' 0rtic(e >@' o money sha(( be e.pended, nor sha(( the State ob(igate itse(f, e.cept as authori5ed by the #iet' 0rtic(e >:' Cabinet sha(( prepare and submit to the #iet for its consideration and decision a budget for each fisca( year' 0rtic(e >J' ,n order to pro)ide for unforeseen deficiencies in the budget, a reser)e fund may be authori5ed by the #iet to be e.pended upon the responsibi(ity of the Cabinet' 729 -he Cabinet must get subseHuent appro)a( of the #iet for a(( payments from the reser)e fund' 0rtic(e >>' 0(( property of the ,mperia( Louseho(d sha(( be(ong to the State' 0(( e.penses of the ,mperia( Louseho(d sha(( be appropriated by the #iet in the budget' 0rtic(e >?' o pub(ic money or other property sha(( be e.pended or appropriated for the use, benefit or maintenance of any re(igious institution or association or for any charitab(e, educationa( bene)o(ent enterprises not under the contro( of pub(ic authority' 0rtic(e ?0' "ina( accounts of the e.penditures and re)enues of State sha(( be audited annua((y by a /oard of 0udit and submitted by the Cabinet to the #iet, together *ith the statement of audit, during the fisca( year immediate(y fo((o*ing the period co)ered' 729 -he organi5ation and competency of the /oard of 0udit sha(( determined by (a*' 0rtic(e ?&' 0t regu(ar inter)a(s and at (east annua((y the Cabinet sha(( report to the #iet and the peop(e on the state of nationa( finances'
FIII. E6CAE #"EF9D6F"!N*"NT

0rtic(e ?2' ;egu(ations concerning organi5ation and operations of (oca( pub(ic entities sha(( be fi.ed by (a* in accordance *ith the princip(e of (oca( autonomy' 0rtic(e ?B' -he (oca( pub(ic entities sha(( estab(ish assemb(ies as their de(iberati)e organs, in accordance *ith (a*' 729 -he chief e.ecuti)e officers of a(( (oca( pub(ic entities, the members of their assemb(ies, and such other (oca( officia(s as may be determined by (a* sha(( be e(ected by direct popu(ar )ote *ithin their se)era( communities' 0rtic(e ?4' $oca( entities sha(( ha)e the right to manage their property, affairs and administration and to enact their o*n regu(ations *ithin (a*'

Con*titution o! "7$#

0rtic(e ?@' 0 specia( (a*, app(icab(e to one (oca( pub(ic entity, cannot be enacted by the #iet *ithout the consent of the ma8ority of the )oters of the (oca( pub(ic entity concerned, obtained in accordance *ith (a*'
IG. A*"ND*"NT#

0rtic(e ?:' 0mendment to this Constitution sha(( be initiated by the #iet, through a concurring )ote of t*o-thirds or more of a(( the members of each Louse and sha(( thereupon be submitted to the peop(e for ratification *hich sha(( reHuire the affirmati)e )ote of a ma8ority of a(( )otes cast thereon, at specia( referendum or at such e(ection as the #iet sha(( specify' 729 0mendments *hen so ratified sha(( immediate(y be promu(gated by the Pmperor in the name of the peop(e, as an integra( part of this Constitution'
G. #= !"*" EA@

0rtic(e ?J' -he fundamenta( human rights by this Constitution guaranteed to the peop(e of =apan are fruits of the age-o(d strugg(e of man to be free+ they ha)e sur)i)ed the many e.acting tests for durabi(ity and are conferred upon this and future generations in trust, to be he(d for a(( time in)io(ate' 0rtic(e ?>' -his Constitution sha(( be the supreme (a* of the nation and no (a*, ordinance, imperia( rescript or other act of go)ernment, or part thereof, contrary to the pro)isions hereof, sha(( ha)e (ega( force or )a(idity' 729 -he treaties conc(uded by =apan and estab(ished (a*s of nations sha(( be faithfu((y obser)ed' 0rtic(e ??' -he Pmperor or the ;egent as *e(( as <inisters of State, members of the #iet, 8udges, and a(( other pub(ic officia(s ha)e the ob(igation to respect and upho(d this Constitution'
GI. #= E"*"NTA!5 !6FI#I6N#

0rtic(e &00' -his Constitution sha(( be enforced as from the day *hen the period of si. months *i(( ha)e e(apsed counting from the day of its promu(gation' 729 -he enactment of (a*s necessary for the enforcement of this Constitution the e(ection of members of the Louse of Counci((ors and the procedure for the con)ocation of the #iet and other preparatory procedures for the enforcement of this Constitution may be e.ecuted before the day prescribed in the preceding paragraph' 0rtic(e &0&' ,f the Louse of Counci(ors is not constituted before the effecti)e date of this Constitution, the Louse of ;epresentati)es sha(( function as the #iet unti( such time as the Louse of Counci(ors sha(( be constituted' 0rtic(e &02' -he term of office for ha(f the members of the Louse of Counci((ors ser)ing in the first term under this Constitution sha(( be three years' <embers fa((ing under this category sha(( be determined in accordance *ith (a*'

7#

Con*titution o! "7$#

0rtic(e &0B' -he <inisters of State, members of the Louse of ;epresentati)es, and 8udges in office on the effecti)e date of this Constitution, and a(( other pub(ic officia(s, *ho occupy positions corresponding to such positions as are recogni5ed by this Constitution sha(( not forfeit their positions automatica((y on account of the enforcement of this Constitution un(ess other*ise specified by (a*' 6hen, ho*e)er, successors are e(ected or appointed under the pro)isions of this Constitution, they sha(( forfeit their positions as a matter of course' see a(so3 Constitution of &>>? 7pg' A9,

Cryptolo'y
-he combined science of making and breaking codes, ciphers, and other methods of secret communication 7hereafter refered to genera((y as codes, un(ess other*ise stated9' -he science of making codes is ca((ed 1cryptography2 and that of breaking them is ca((ed 1cryptana(ysis2' -here is not much crypto(ogica( history in =apan C prior to the t*entieth century, on(y a fe* simp(e codes *ere used and there seems to ha)e been no practice of cryptana(ysis at a((' -here seems to be a(most no crypto(ogy in =apan before the 6arring States Period 7senkoku8idai9, during *hich !esugi 4enshin and Dda obunaga are be(ie)ed to ha)e used simp(e substitution ciphers' ,n the conte.t of *or(d crypto(ogica( history, this is )ery (ate' =u(ius Caesar reported(y used a substition cipher and e)en before that the Spartans of Greek *ere using a transposition cipher *ith a *ooden stick as the key' -hus peop(e in the <editerranean had used both ma8or ciphers systems 7transposition and substitution9 o)er &,@00 years before !esugi *as born' $itt(e is kno*n about *hat steps the <ei8i go)ernment took to secure their communications' "rom the -aishT Period, ho*e)er, there is more information' ,t is not unti( the ShT*a Period, that the ,mperia( =apanese 0rmy decides to acti)e(y impro)e its crypto(ogica( abi(ities' Superficia((y, they *ere successfu(' ,n rea(ity, they *ere impro)ing their abi(ities in the o(d-fashioned, pre-"irst 6or(d 6ar, traditiona( crypto(ogy' !nfortunate(y, the enemy they *ere fighting in China from the mid-&?B0s *as a(so using traditiona( crypto(ogica( systems' -his (ike(y ga)e the 0rmy the impression that their training *as *orth*hi(e' !nfortunate(y, the ski((s the 0rmy honed in China *ou(d be of (imited assistance in the Second 6or(d 6ar, *hen =apan faced se)era( enemies, a(( of *hom *ere soon at the forefront of modern crypto(ogy'
Capanese Cryptolo'y From t&e 0100s to 0B00s Senkokujidai Daimy8

-he cipher system that !esugi used is basica((y a simp(e substitution usua((y kno*n in Png(ish as a Po(ybius sHuare or 1checkerboard'2 -he i-ro-ha a(phabet
7!

Cryptology

contains forty-eight (etters, so a se)en-by-se)en sHuare is used, *ith one of the ce((s (eft b(ank' -he ro*s and co(umns are (abe(ed *ith a number or a (etter' ,n -ab(e >, the numbers start in the top (eft, as does the i-ro-ha a(phabet' ,n practice these cou(d start in any corner' & & 2 B 4 @ : J
i chi yo ra ya a e

2
ro ri ta mu ma sa hi

B
ha nu re u ke ki mo

4
ni ru so i
&

@
ho *o tsu no ko me su

:
he *a ne o e mi n

J
to ka na ku te shi

fu yu se

Table & i' o'ha Al(habet) 1'% Checke boa d Ci(he

-o encipher, find the p(ainte.t (etter in the sHuare and rep(ace it *ith the number of that ro* and co(umn' So using the sHuare abo)e, kougeki becomes @@ 4B @B :B or @@ B4 B@ B: if the correspondents decided ahead of time on co(umn-ro* order' -he prob(em of *hat to do in the case of (etters such as 1ga,2 1de,2 and 1pe2 that do not appear in the i)ro)ha a(phabet is a)oided by using the base form of the (etter instead C as abo)e *here 1kougeki2 becomes 1koukeki'GG2 -echnica((y, this is a serious f(a* because some messages may ha)e t*o or more eHua((y )a(id decipherments' -o a)oid this the encipherer may ha)e had to rephrase messages' -he co(umn and ro* headers do not ha)e to be numbers' Dne common )ariation is to use (etters' -his *as common in Puropean cryptography and is found in the !esugi cipher as *e((' Lo*e)er, the =apanese cipher had a t*ist that ne)er seems to ha)e been used in the 6est+ using a the (ast &4 (etters of a waka poem to fi(( in the ro* and co(umn headers' -ab(e ? is from page &:2 of Mtakaga*aN200BO and gi)es an e.amp(e of this, using 1tsurenakumieshiakinoyufukure'GG -his system of using a 1checkerboard2 to con)ert an a(phabet into numbers or (etters *as described by Po(ybius o)er 2000 years ago' -here are three main ad)antages to this system' "irst, con)erting (etters into numbers a((o*s for )arious mathematica( transformations *hich are not possib(e or not as easy *ith (etters C super-enciphering for e.amp(e' Second, the checkerboard system reduces the tota( number of characters' 6hether con)erting to numbers or (etters, the Po(ybius sHuare reduces 2@ Png(ish (ettersB to fi)e characters' !esugiGs sHuare reduces to se)en' -his reduction makes crytana(ysis s(ight(y more difficu(t than simp(e oneto-one substitution' 0nother benefit of the reduction in the number of (etters is
& different, o(der form of i in && 2 Mtakaga*aN200BO pg &:& B -o fit the Png(ish a(phabet into a fi)e-by-fi)e sHuare, the encoder either drops one (etter or puts t*o in one sHuare'

7"

Cryptology

that it reduces the chance of error in communicating the message' -he (etters of the German 0#G"A system in 6or(d 6ar , *ere chosen because in morse code they are Huite distinct and thus it *as un(ike(y that an error in the morse code transmission *ou(d accident(y turn one (etter into another' -his *ou(d ha)e been important for a sengoku daimyT, for instance, if he e.perimented *ith sending coded messages o)er (ong distances by torches, f(ags, po(es, or simi(ar system'
re e hi mo se su n ku a sa ki yu me mi shi fu ya ma ke fu ko e te yu ra mu u i no o ku no yo ta re so tsu ne na ki chi ri nu ru *o *a ka a i ro ha ni ho he to tsu re na ku mi e shi

Table * Checke boa d Ci(he +sin, -aka Poe. / 0taka,a1a223334) (, 1$25

"ina((y, a(though the checkerboard system doub(es the (ength of messages, breaking each p(ainte.t (etter into t*o cipherte.t (etters a((o*s for separate transformations on each of the ha()es' Lo*e)er, this does not seem to ha)e been used much in 0merican or Puropean crypto(ogy and =apanese crypto(ogists apparent(y did not use it at a((' ,t is not kno*n ho* or e)en if !esugi actua((y used the se)en-by-se)en checkerboard system' -he scarcity of e)idence makes it impossib(e to dra* any firm conc(usions but tentati)e(y it seems that senkoku period daimyT did not ha)e much use for crypto(ogy' Df course it is possib(e that they did ha)e their 1b(ack chambers2 and that those chambers *ere shrouded in such secrecy that no hint of their e.istence escaped' -his seems un(ike(y ho*e)er' Se)era( daimyT compi(ed codes of conduct or books of ad)ice on go)erning for their offspring' Lad crypto(ogy been an important factor in the success of such men, they might be e.pected to pass that ad)antage a(ong to their successor' -he fact that they did not do so, in *riting at (east, does not pro)e anything but, in (ight of the other e)idence C and (ack of it C does make the e.istence of b(ack chambers of the Puropean sort seem un(ike(y' 7#id messengers carry the p(ainte.t on paper or did they memori5e itV9 -he history of crypto(ogy in =apan sho*s t*o things' "irst, the fact that substitution ciphers e.isted makes the fai(ure of the =apanese to impro)e on the substitution cipher or to in)ent the transposition cipher much harder to e.p(ain' Second, the (ack of a strong cryptographic tradition suggests C a(most reHuires C a corresponding(y *eak cryptana(ytic tradition' ,n fact there seems to be no cryptana(ysis in =apanese history before the (ate &>00s'

73

Cryptology

T&e Bakumatsu and "arly *ei:i eriods

Curren%y
/ills
Yen &0000 &0000 &0000 @000 @000 @000 2000 &000 &000 &000 &000 &000 &000 &000 @00 Graphic (page #) "uku5a*a Eukichi 79 "uku5a*a Eukichi 79 ShTtoku-tennT 79 itobe ,na5o 79 itobe ,na5o 79 ShTtoku-tennT 79 Shurei-mon 79 atsume Soseki 79 atsume Soseki 79 atsume Soseki 79 atsume Soseki 79 ,tT Lirobumi 79 ,tT Lirobumi 79 ShTtoku-tennT 79 ,*akura -omomi 79 Size (mm) J:.&:0 J:.&:0 >4.&J4 J:.&@@ J:.&@@ >0.&:? J:.&@4 J:.&@0 J:.&@0 J:.&@0 J:.&@0 J:.&:4 J:.&:4 J:.&:4 J2.&@?

Table 13 Po t aits on 6a(anese 7ills

Yen &0000 &0000 &0000 @000 @000 @000 2000 &000 &000 &000 &000 &000 74

From

To

Seria No! /(ack /ro*n /(ack /ro*n

o) &, &?>4 present #ec &, &??B present #ec &, &?@> =an 4, &?>: o) &, &?>4 present #ec &, &??B present Dct &, &?@J =an 4, &?>4 =u( &?, 2000 present o) &, &?>4 present o) &, &??0 present #ec &, &??B present 0pr B, 2000 present o) &, &?:B

/(ack /(ue /ro*n #ark Green

=an 4, &?>: /(ack

Currency
Yen &000 &000 @00 From =u( &, &?J: =an J, &?@0 o) &, &?:? To =an 4, &?:@ 0pr &, &??4 Seria No!

=an 4, &?>: /(ue

Table 11 Dates o! +se !o 6a(anese 7ills

Coins

Daido *asas&i'e , Dut%& Eearnin'


Daido:i *asas&i'e Daid8
engT3 >0:-->0?

Daiei
engT3 &@2&--&@2J' aka -eiei'

Dai'o9tenn8
-he :0th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &> =an' >>@ to 2? Sept' ?B0' ;eigned B =u(y >?J to 22 Sept' ?B0'

Dai:i
engT3 &&2:--&&B0' aka -ai8i'

Daimy8
=apanese3 -it(e gi)en to po*erfu( (ords' $itera((y means Kbig namesG in Png(ish' #uring the -okuga*a shogunate, any (ord *ho contro((ed (ands that produced more than &0,000 koku *as considered a daimyo' see a(so3 -okuga*a ShTgunate 7pg' A9, 4oku 7pg' A9,

75

,ait*u@i+yama

Daitsu:i9yama Dan Ta+uma


$i)ed & 0ug' &>@> to @ <arch &?B2 7assassinated9 6as a member of the ,*akura <ission' Studied mining in the !'S' and taught at -okyo !ni)ersity after his return' $ater *orked at the go)ernment-o*ned <iike coa( mine+ 8oined <itsui *hen they bought the mine from the go)ernment' Le rose in the <itsui ranks and e)entua((y *as in charge of a(( of their mining operations' /ecame a *e((-kno*n and inf(uentia( businessman' 0ssassinated by Lishinuma 7EonumaV9 Goro, a member of the /(ood $eague 7doub(e check that9, on @ <arch &?B2' see a(so3 /(ood $eague 7pg' A9, Lishinuma Goro 7pg' A9, ,*akura <ission 7pg' A9, <iike Coa( <ine 7pg' A9, <ining 7pg' A9, <itsui 7pg' A9, -okyo !ni)ersity 7pg' A9,

Date Family
#aimyT fami(y from <utsu 7pg AAA9' #escended from the "u8i*ara 7pg AAA9'

Date Harumune
$i)ed &@&? to &@JJ'

Date *asamune
$i)ed B 0ug' &@:J to 24 0ug' &:B:'

Date *unenari
aka #ate <uneki $i)ed & 0ug' &>&> to 20 #ec' &>?2

76

,ate Munenari

0 to5ama daimyT *ho he(d !*a8ima 7&00,000 koku, pg AAA9' Le *as a reformer *ho imp(imented se)era( Puropean ideas in his mi(itary and han administration' Drigina((y inf(uentia( in the <ei8i go)ernment, #ate faded a*ay after the abo(ition of the han'

Date #&i'e-ane
$i)ed &@:> to &:4:'

Date Tadamune
#ied &:@>' -adamune *as the son of #ate <asamune'

Date Terumune
$i)ed &@4B to &@>@'

Diet
=apanGs $egis(ati)e /ody 7he(pfu(, ainGt it9

Dodo Family Doi&ara 7en:i Doi 7iyona'a Doi #ane&ira Doi Tos&i+atsu
$i)ed &@JB to &:44' -he son of <i5uno obumoto 7pg AAA9' 0dopted by #oi -oshimasa' -oshikatsu *as an important ad)isor to -okuga*a ,emitsu 7pg AAA9'

Doi Tos&imasa Doolittle !aid


Dn the morning of &> 0pri( &?42, &: /-2@ bombers took off from the !nited States aircraft carrier Lornet' -heir target3 =apan' -hirteen of them dropped their (oads on -okyo *hi(e the remaining three attacked agoya' Physica( damage *as s(ight but the attacks did shock many =apanese, *ho had assumed their *as no *ay the enemy cou(d get to them'

77

,oolittle ;ai-

Dn the surface the #oo(itt(e raid *as a suicide mission C there *as abso(ute(y no *ay the p(anes cou(d get back to the Lornet and e)en if they cou(d, the /-2@ *as not rea((y a carrier-based p(ane' -aking off pro)ed possib(e but (anding on a carrier *as not an option' ,n )ie* of this, the officia( p(an ca((ed for the pi(ots to head for friend(y bases in China after attacking =apan' 0 coup(e of p(anes e)en made it' 70dd the detai(s on *hat happened ne.tFF9

Dos&is&a =ni4ersity Dut%& Eearnin'


aka ;angaku #utch (earning is a genera( term for 6estern science and medicine that fi(tered into =apan through the #utch during the -okuga*a period' #uring the period of sakoku, 16estern2 *as c(ose(y associated *ith 1Christian2 and since Christianity *as banned the effect *as that most e)erything 6estern *as banned' 0s time *ent on, the =apanese fe(( techno(ogica((y further and further behind the 6est' -he #utch at #e8ima tried to make the /akufu a*are of this' ,n genera( the /akufu *asnGt interested---a(though ShTgun Eoshimune did (oosen restrictions on foreign books in &J20' Se)era( samurai took an interest in (earning some of the more ob)ious(y practica( arts from the #utch' ,n medicine, for e.amp(e, it *as an easy thing to compare a rea( corpse *ith the dra*ings in 6estern medica( books and those in Chinese / =apanese medica( books' -he 6estern ones *ere more accurate and the cures contained in them cou(d soon be seen to be more effecti)e' <ore abstract pursuits a(so had some fo((o*ers'

"%&i'o ro4in%e , "t8 #&inpei


"%&i'o ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in north-centra( =apan, on the Sea of =apan side' ,t bordered on !5en, ,*ashiro, 4Ttsuke, Shinano, and PtchX' -oday the area is kno*n as iigata Prefecture' 7,,;C, this9 see a(so3 PtchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*ashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4T5uke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, iigata Prefecture 7pg' A9, Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, iigata inc(udes Sado ,s(and but Pchigo did not --- must doub(e check

"%&i-en ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in centra( LonshX, on the Sea of =apan side' ,t borders on 4aga, Lida, <ino, Smi, and 6akasa' -he area is today part of "ukui Prefecture'
78

/chizen %ro&ince

see a(so3 "ukui Prefecture 7pg' A9, Lida Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4aga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ino Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 6akasa Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

"do
-he -okuga*a Shogunate *as centered in Pdo' 0s a resu(t, *hat had been a sma(( )i((age e)entua((y became, during the -okuga*a period, one of the biggest cities in the *or(d' 0fter the <ei8i ;estoration 7pg AAA9, the (eaders of the ne* imperia( go)ernment mo)ed the Pmperor into -okuga*a cast(e in Pdo and renamed the city -okyo, the KPastern Capita(G'

"&ime refe%ture
0rea3 @,:J@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 <atsuyama Popu(ation3 &,@20,000 7&??:9

"i%&8
engT3 &0?:--&0?:'

"ien
engT3 ?>J--?>>'

"i&8
engT3 &0>&--&0>B'

"i:i
engT3 &&4&Z&&4&'

"i+an
engT3 ?>BZ?>4'

"i+y8
engT3 &42?Z&440'

"i+y>
engT3 &&&B--&&&J'

/iman

"iman
engT3 &&:@--&&:@'

"inin
engT3 &2?B--&2?>'

"iro+u
engT3 &@@>--&@:?'

"irya+u
engT3 &&:0--&&:0'

"isai
$i)ed 20 0pri( &&4& to &2&@' Pisai *as a monk *ho *ent to China more than once and is credited *ith introducing tea to =apan' Le *as a(so responsib(e for bui(ding and directing se)era( /uddhist temp(es of the Ren schoo('

"is&8
engT3 &04:--&0@2' aka Pi8T'

"iso
engT3 ?>?--?>?'

"ito+u
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B>&--&B>B'

"i)a
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &BJ@--&BJ>'

":iri Castle "mbun


engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B@:--&B:0'

8#

/mperor*

"mperors
<any of the emperors prior to about @00 0'#' are mytho(ogica(' !he"Historical and"Geographical"Dictionary"of"Japan entry for the K ihon-kiG 7pg 44>9 has a good summary of ho* unre(iab(e the info on ear(y emperors is' -he tab(e of emperors is no* on page 7A;P"9'

"mp8
engT3 &:JB--&:>0'

"n%&8
engT3 ?2B--?B0'

"ndo *otonobu "n'en


engT3 &BB:--&BB?'

"n'i
engT3 ?0&--?22'

"n:o:i Nobutane
#ied &@>4' Samurai *ho fought and died at the /att(e of Dkina*ate 7pg AAA9'

"n+ei
engT3 &B0>Z&B&0' 0(so kno*n as PnkyT' See that entry on page AAA for more information' 7but there isnGt much there at the moment9

"n+y8
engT3 &B0>--&B&0'

"n+y8
engT3 &J44--&J4J'

"n+y>
engT3 &0:?--&0JB'

8!

/nH0

"n;8
engT3 &2B?--&2B?'

"nrya+u
engT3 J>2-->0@'

"nto+u
engT3 &4>?--&4?&'

"n;y>9tenn8
-he :4th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2 <arch ?@? to &2 "eb' ??& ;eigned &B 0ug' ?:? to 2J 0ug' ?>4' "ifth son of Pmperor <urakami'

"t%&> ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in centra( LonshX, on the Sea of =apan side' ,t bordered Pchigo, Shinano, Lida, 4aga, and oto' -he area is today -oyama Prefecture' see a(so3 Pchigo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Lida Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4aga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, oto Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -oyama Prefecture 7pg' A9,

"t8 #&inpei
$i)ed ? "eb' &>B4 to &B 0pri( &>J4' 0 samurai from Saga 7pg AAA9, Shinpei he(d posts in the <ei8i go)ernment' Le resigned o)er the in)asion of 4orea' ,n &>J4, Shinpei (ed Saga samurai against the go)ernment in the Saga ;ebe((ion 7pg AAA9'

8"

Femini*m Fuwa Mit*uharu

Feminism , Fu)a *itsu&aru


Feminism Fi4e9 o)ers Treaty
-reaty negotiated by "rance, Great /ritain, ,ta(y, =apan, and the !nited States at the 6ashington a)a( Conference of &?2&-&?22' -he "i)e-Po*ers -reaty dea(t *ith na)a( arms (imitations' -here *ere to be no ne* capita( ships constructed for ten years C *ith the e.ception that each po*er cou(d con)ert t*o batt(e cruisers under construction into aircraft carriers' 0ircraft carriers cou(d be no bigger than 2J,000 tons' 7-he t*o con)erted-batt(e-cruiser aircraft carriers cou(d be up to BB,000 tons'9 -he si5e of na)ies *as (imited' -he ratio for capita( ships *as &03&03:3:3: for Great /ritain, -he !nited States, "rance, =apan, and ,ta(y'
#ee Also

6ashington a)a( Conference 7pg B049

Formosa "Hpedition Four9 o)ers Treaty


-reaty negotiated by "rance, Great /ritain, =apan, and the !nited States at the 6ashington a)a( Conference of &?2&-&?22' -he "our-Po*ers -reaty confirmed the status-Huo in the Pacific *ith respect to each countries possessions'
#ee Also

6ashington a)a( Conference 7pg B049

Fu:ita Den-aburo
$i)ed &>4& to &?&2

Fu:i)ara Family Fu:i)ara Hidesato


#ates unkno*n' Lidesato *as a Leian era (eader of *arriors'

Fu:i)ara no 7aneie
$i)ed ?2? to 2 =u(y ??0'
83

Fu@iwara no :aneie

"ather of "u8i*ara <ichinaga

Fu:i)ara no *i%&ina'a
$i)ed ?:: to 4 #ec' &02>

Court Dfficia( / Po*er /ehind the -hrone Son of "u8i*ara no 4aneie' ??@ 0# - appointed as minister of the right 7udai8in9 and a(so e.aminer of imperia( documents 7nairan9' 0((ied his fami(y *ith Sei*a Gen8i branch of the <inamoto "ami(y' &0&J - /ecame grand minister of state 7*hich is V in 8apanese9' &0&? - ;etired and became a buddhist monk' &022 - /ui(d the Lo8o8i'

Fu:i)ara *orosu+e
$i)ed ?0> to 4 <ay ?:0'

Fu:i)ara no #adaie
$i)ed &&:2 to &24&

Fu:i)ara =ona Fu:i)ara 5ama+a'e Fu:i)ara 5oritsu'u


-he @th 4amakura shTgun' $i)ed 2& o)' &2B? to 2@ Sept' &2@:' ;u(ed 2> 0pri( &244 to #ec' &2@&' Son of Eoritsune'

Fu:i)ara 5oritsune
$i)ed &: =an' &2&> to && 0ug' &2@:' ;u(ed 2J =an' &22: to 2> 0pri( &244' -he 4th 4amakura shTgun' "ather of Eoritsugu'

84

Fu@iwara 5o*hika-o

Fu:i)ara 5os&i+ado Fu+a'a)a Cement @or+s Fu+a&ara Hirotos&i


$i)ed &@&2 to &@?B'

Fu+a&ori #umi+ata Fu+u%&i Den;i%&iro


$i)ed &>4& to &?0:

Fu+uda Hide+o
aka 4ageyama Lideko $i)ed &>:@ to &?2J

Fu+uda Ta+eo
/orn &?0@' Graduated from -okyo !ni)ersity' 6orked for the "inance <inistry' P(ected to the #iet in &?@2' Ser)ed in )arious cabinets and became prime minister on 24 #ecember &?J:' Lis cabinet (asted unti( J #ecember &?J>'

Fu+ui City
-he capita( of "ukui Prefecture'

Fu+ui refe%ture
0rea3 4,&>> km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 "ukui Popu(ation3 >B0,000 7&??:9

Fu+umoto 7a-uo
0 <ar.ist inte((ectua( *ho *as inf(uentia( in the =apanese communist mo)ement in the mid-&?20Gs'

Fu+uo+a City
-he capita( of "ukuoka Prefecture'

85

Fukuoka %re!ecture

Fu+uo+a refe%ture
0rea3 4,?:> km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 "ukuoka Popu(ation3 4,?00,000 7&??:9

Fu+us&ima City
-he capita( of "ukushima Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

Fu+us&ima *asanobu Fu+us&ima *asanori


$i)ed &@:& to &B =u(y &:B4 7&:&4V9'

Fu+us&ima *asas&i'e
#ied &@2&'

Fu+us&ima *asayori Fu+us&ima refe%ture


0rea3 &B,J>2 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 "ukushima Popu(ation3 2,&40,000 7&??:9

Fu+u-a)a 5u+i%&i
$i)ed &2 #ec' &>B4 to B "eb' &?0&' Studied 6estern science in agasaki' Studied in Ssaka under Dgata 4Tan from &>@4' $ater taught in -okyo---his schoo( e)entua((y became 4eiT !ni)ersity' 6ent abroad se)era( times' 6rote Seiy&"Ji & 7%onditions"in"the"*est9 *hich *as huge(y popu(ar' 0(so *rote !he"Encouragement"of"+earning, #n",utline"of"a !heory"of"%i-ili.ation, 7=apanese tit(esV9 among many books and artic(es' "ounded Ji i"Shinp& in &>>2' Lis portrait is on the current &0,000 yen bi((' see a(so3 Dgata 4Tan 7pg' A9,
86

Fukuzawa 5ukichi

=i8i ShinpT 7pg' A9, Currency 7pg' A9,

Fuma 7otaro
aka 4a5ama 4otaro'

Furu+a)a I%&ibei
$i)ed &>B2 to &?0B /usinessman' /ought the 0shio copper mine from the go)ernment in &>JJ' P)entua((y he *as in contro( of a minor 5aibatsu'

Furuta #&i'e+atsu
$i)ed &@:& to &:00' Sur)i)ed the /att(e of Sekigahara but died (ater the same year' ;ecei)ed <atsu5aka 7BJ,000 koku9 in ,se from Lideyoshi 7*henV9' ,n &:00, ,eyasu a*arded him somep(ace *orth :0,000 koku' see a(so3 ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

Furuta #&i'enari
$i)ed &@4@ to &:&@' 0 minor daimyT in charge of &0,000 koku *hich he recei)ed sometime after &:00' Le (ost his domain because he communicated *ith the -oyotomi during the Seige of Ssaka Cast(e' see a(so3 Ssaka, Siege of 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, -oyotomi "ami(y 7pg' A9, "ushimi Cast(e 7pg' A9,

Fus&imi. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &:00' -orii <ototada 7pg AAA9 defended the cast(e for -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg AAA9'
87

Fu*himi+tenn0

Fus&imi9tenn8
-he ?2nd Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2B 0pri( &2:@ to B Sept' &B&J' ;eigned 2& Dct' &2>J to 22 =u(y &2?>'

Futamata. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &@J2' -he cast(e is on a c(iff abo)e the -enryXga*a' -he defenders got *ater from the ri)er by (o*ering buckets into the ri)er from a protected to*er' -he cast(e *as o*ned by the -okuga*a and beseiged by -akeda 4atsuyori 7pg AAA9' 4atsuyori f(oated (arge, unmanned rafts do*n the ri)er and into the to*er' -hese *eakened the to*er enough that it e)entua((y co((apsed, depri)ing the defenders of their *ater supp(y' -he defenders surrendered soon after'

Futo. /attle of Fu)a 7atsumitsu Fu)a *itsu&aru


#ied &@>&'

Dam8 Hideyu+i , Dyo+i


Dam8 Hideyu+i
$i)ed &@>B to &:&2' -he son of GamT !8isato' Christian' 6as mo)ed to !tsunomiya 7&>0,000 koku9 in Shimotsuke after his father died in &@?@' ,n &:00, he *as gi)en 6akamatsu, *orth :00,000 koku' -his had been part of his fatherGs fief' see a(so3 GamT !8isato 7pg' A9, Shimotsuke 7pg' A9, !tsunomiya-han 7pg' A9, 6akamatsu-han 7pg' A9,

Dam8 7ata&ide
$i)ed &@B4 to &@>4'
88

3am0 :atahi-e

-he father of GamT !8isato' Ser)ed the Sasaki fami(y and (ater Dda obunaga' see a(so3 GamT !8isato 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, Sasaki "ami(y 7pg' A9,

Dam8 =:isato
$i)ed &@@: to J "eb' &@?@' Son of GamT 4atahide and father of GamT Lideyuki' Lis *ife *as a daughter of Dda obunaga' Christian' "ought at SkTchi cast(e in &@J0' 6as daimyT of <atsusaka 7&20,000 koku9 in ,se Pro)ince but *as ordered to 0i5u 7420,000 koku9 in <utsu as part of a p(an to bring the northeastern daimyT under LideyoshiGs contro(' -o this end, !8isato and 0sano agamasa defeated and ki((ed 4unohe <asa5ane 7*henV *hereV9' 0s a re*ard for his successfu( ser)ice, !8isato *as granted e.tra (ands and *as e)entua((y in contro( of more than one mi((ion koku' ,n &@>4, he *as baptised and took the name $eo' see a(so3 0i5u-han 7pg' A9, 0sano agamasa 7pg' A9, GamT Lideyuki 7pg' A9, GamT 4atahide 7pg' A9, ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4unohe <asa5ane 7pg' A9, SkTchi Cast(e 7pg' A9, <atsusaka-han 7pg' A9, <utsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

Dembun
engT3 &JB:--&J40'
8

3emmei+tenn0

Demmei9tenn8
Pmpress' -he 4Bth ru(er of =apan' ;eigned J0J to J&@'

Den%&>
engT3 &B>0--&B>2'

Den;ei
engT3 &&&>--&&&?' aka GanGei'

Den:i
engT3 &>:4--&>:4' aka Gan8i'

Den+ei
engT3 >JJ-->>4'

Den+i
engT3 &@J0--&@J2'

Den+8
engT3 &B2&--&B2B' aka GenkyT'

Den+8
engT3 &BB&--&BBB'

Den+y8
engT3 &B2&--&B2B' !sua((y kno*n as GenkT' See that entry on page AAA'

Den+y>
engT3 &204--&20@'

Denna
engT3 &:&@--&:2B'
#

3enna

aka Gen*a'

Dennin
engT3 &224--&224'

Den;8
engT3 &B&?--&B20'

Denre+i
engT3 &&>4--&&>4' !sua((y kno*n as Genryaku' See that entry on page AAA'

Denro+u
engT3 &:>>--&J0B'

Denro
KKP(der StatesmenGG' 0 term app(ied to the (eaders of the <ei8i go)ernment' ,nc(udes men such as ,to Lirobumi and VVV' Saon8i 4inmochi is considered the (ast Genro'

Denrya+u
engT3 &&>4--&&>4' aka Ganryaku' aka Genreki'

Dens&89tenn8
Pmpress' -he 44th ru(er of =apan' ;eigned J&@ to J24'

Dento+u
engT3 &B2?--&BB0'

Den)a
engT3 &:&@--&:2B' !sua((y kno*n as Genna' See that entry on page AAA'

Difu City
0 city in, and the capita( of, Gifu Prefecture'

3i!u %re!ecture

Difu refe%ture
0rea3 &0,@?> km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Gifu Popu(ation3 2,&00,000 7&??:9

Din+a+u:i Dodai'o9tenn8
-he ?:th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2 o)' &2>> to &: 0ug' &BB?' ;eigned 2: "eb' &B&> to &@ 0ug &BB?'

Dodai Tomoatsu
$i)ed &>B: to &>>@' /usinessman' Studied in the 6est &>:@ to &>::' =oined the <ei8i go)ernment but soon (eft and *ent into business' Godai *as acti)e in meta(s, mining, and rai(*ays, among other interests'

Dod8 Ta+uo
0gricu(ture W "orestry <inister from 0ug B0, &?B? to Dct &:, &?B? in 0be obuyukiGs cabinet'

Dofu+a+usa9tenn8
-he >?th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &0 =une &24B to &: =u(y &B04' ;eigned 2? =an' &24: to 2: o)' &2@?'

Dofus&imi9tenn8
-he ?Brd Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed B <arch &2>> to : 0pri( &BB:' ;eigned 22 =u(y &2?> to 2& =an' &B0&'

Do&ana-ono9tenn8
-he &02nd Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &> =une &4&? to 2J #ec' &4J0'
"

3ohanazono+tenn0

;eigned 2> =u(y &42> to &? =u(y &4:4'

Do&ori+a)a9tenn8
-he >:th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &> "eb' &2&2 to : 0ug' &2B4' ;eigned ? =u(y &22& to 4 Dct' &2B2'

Doi%&i:89tenn8
-he :>th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed && Sept' &00> to &J 0pri( &0B:' ;eigned 2? =an &0&: to &J 0pri( &0B:' -he second son of the Pmperor ,chi8T' 7doub(e check that9

Do+ameyama9tenn8
-he ??th Pmperor of =apan' #ied &2 0pri( &424 ;eigned &B>B to &B?2'

Do+as&i)abara9tenn8
-he &04th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 20 Dct' &4:4 to J 0pri( &@2:' ;eigned 2@ Dct' &@00 to J 0pri( &@2:' -he coronation ceremony *as not he(d unti( &@2&'

Do+omatsu9tenn8
-he &00th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2J =une &BJJ to 20 Dct' &4BB' ;eigned && 0pri( &B>2 to &B?2 as the emperor of the orthern Court and continued as emperor *hen the courts reunited unti( abdicating on 2? 0ug' &4&2'

Do+8my89tenn8
-he &&0th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &2 <arch &:BB to 20 Sept' &:@4' ;eigned B Dct' &:4B to 20 Sept' &:@4'

3omizun0+tenn0

Domi-un89tenn8
-he &0>th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 4 =une &@?: to &? 0ug' &:>0' ;eigned 2J <arch &:&& to > o)' &:2?' "ather of ;eigen-tennT 7pg' A9'

Domomo-ono9tenn8
-he &&>th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2 =u(y &J@> to 2? Dct' &JJ?' ;eigned 24 o)' &JJ0 to 2? Dct' &JJ?'

Domura+ami9tenn8
-he ?Jth Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &B2> to && <arch &B:>' ;eigned &@ 0ug' &BB? to && <arch &B:>'

Donara9tenn8
-he &0@th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2B #ec' &4?: to @ Sept' &@@J ;eigned 2? 0pri( &@2: to @ Sept' &@@J'

Doni:89tenn8
-he ?4th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2 "eb' &2>@ to 2@ 0ug' &B0> ;eigned 2& =an' &B0& to 2@ 0ug' &B0>'

Dorei-ei9tenn8
-he J0th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed B 0ug' &02@ to &? 0pri( &0:>' ;eigned &: =an' &04@ to &? 0pri( &0:>'

Dosa'a9tenn8
-he >>th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2: "eb' &220 to &J "eb' &2J2'
4

3o*aga+tenn0

;eigned 20 =an' &242 to 2? =an' &24:'

Dosai9tenn8
-he &&&st Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &: o)' &:BJ to 22 "eb' &:>@' ;eigned 2> o)' &:@47V9 to 2: =an' &::B'

Dosa+urama%&i9tenn8
-he &&Jth Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed B 0ug' &J40 to &>&B' ;eigned 2J =u(y &J:2 to 24 o)' &JJ0'

Dosan:89tenn8
-he J&st Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &> =u(y &0B4 to J <ay &0JB' ;eigned &? 0pri( &0:> to > #ec' &0J2'

Dos&ira+a)a9tenn8
-he JJth Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed && Sept' &&2J to &B <arch &&?2' ;eigned 24 =u(y &&@@ to && 0ug' &&@>'

Dosu-a+u9tenn8
-he :?th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2@ o)' &00? to &> =an' &04@' ;eigned &J 0pri( &0B: to &: =an' &04@'

Dotoba9tenn8
-he >2nd Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &4 =u(y &&>0 to 22 "eb' &2B?' ;eigned 20 0ug' &&>B to && =an' &&?>'

3oto Family (4aruma)

Doto Family (Haruma$ Dot8 Family (Hi-en$


#aimyT fami(y from Li5en Pro)ince, re(ated to the Sei*a-Gen8i'

Doto *ori&aru
#ied &@J>'

Doto *oto+uni
#ied &@>0'

Dot8 *ototsu'u
$i)ed &@JB to &:&@' 0ka GotT <atabei' Son of GotT <otokuni and father of GotT !8ifusa'

Dot8 #&inpei
$i)ed 4 =une &>@J to &B 0pri( &?2?' #octor and /ureaucrat Lead of Sanitation /ureau 7part of the Lome <inistry9 from &>?0 to &>?2 and again from &>?@ to &>?>' 6as the head of ci)i(ian administration of -ai*an from &>?> to &?0:' /ecame the first president of the <anchurian ;ai(*ay in &?0:'
Cabinet 2 4atsura
nd rd

Position Communications Communications Lome 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs

From =u( &4, 200> #ec 2&, &?&2 Dct ?, &?&: 0pr 2B, &?&> Sep 2, &?2B

To 0ug B0, &?&& "eb 20, &?&B 0pr 2B, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&> =an J, &?24

B 4atsura -erauchi -erauchi 2nd Eamamoto

Table 12 Cabinet Positions Held by 8ot #hin(ei

see a(so3 -ai*an 7pg' A9, <anchurian ;ai(*ay Company 7pg' A9,

3ot0 1h0@ir0

Dot8 #&8:ir8
$i)ed &? <arch &>B> to 4 0ug' &>?J' Samurai and Po(itician Samurai from -osa' GotT studied at 4aiseitT and *as inf(uenced by Sakamoto ;yTma' Le *as acti)e in the <ei8i go)ernment but Huit in &>JB o)er disagreements about *hether or not to in)ade 4orea'
Cabinet 4uroda & Eamaguchi
st

Position Communications Communications Communications 0gricu(ture and Commerce

From 0B/22/>? &2/24/>? 0@/0:/?& 0>/0>/?2 &2/24/>? 0@/0:/?& 0>/0>/?2 0&/22/?4

To

&st <atsukata 2 ,tT


nd

Table 13 Cabinet Positions Held by 8ot #h9i

see a(so3 ,tT Lirobumi 7pg' A9, 4aiseitT 7pg' A9, 4orea, ,n)asion of 7pg' A9, <atsukata <asayoshi 7pg' A9, -osa-han 7pg' A9, Eamagato 0ritomo 7pg' A9,

Doto #umi+uro Doto Ta+aa+i Dot8 =:ifusa


$i)ed &@J0 to &:&@' -he son of GotT <ototsugu' Ser)ed 4uroda Lideyori and died at Ssaka Cast(e' see a(so3 GotT <ototsugu 7pg' A9, 4uroda agamasa 7pg' A9, Ssaka, Seige of 7pg' A9, agamasa' 6as (oya( to -oyotomi

3ot0 E@i!u*a

-oyotomi Lideyori 7pg' A9,

Dotsu%&imi+ado9tenn8
-he &0Brd Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 2@ <ay &442 to 2> Sept' &@00' ;eigned &? =u(y &4:4 to 2> Sept' &@00'

Douda9tenn8
-he ?&st Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed & #ec' &2:J to 2@ =une &B24' ;eigned 2: =an' &2J4 to 2& Dct' &2>J'

Doy8-ei9tenn8
-he &0Jth Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed &@ #ec' &@J& to 2: 0ug' &:&J' ;eigned J o)' &@>: to 2J <arch &:&&'

Dreat 7ansai "art&<ua+e


Dccurred &J =anuary &??@ -*o great earthHuakes shook =apan in the 20th century3 the Great 4anto ParthHuake 7pg ?>9 in &?2B and the Great 4ansai ParthHuake in &??@' -he (atter occurred on &J =anuary &??@'

Dreat 7anto "art&<ua+e


Dccurred & September &?2B -*o great earthHuakes shook =apan in the 20th century3 the Great 4anto ParthHuake in &?2B and the Great 4ansai ParthHuake 7pg ?>9 in &??@' -he former occurred on & September and started 7as is not unusua( *ith earthHuakes9 fires that ki((ed more peop(e than did the Huake itse(f' 0n estimated &00,000 peop(e died and as many as t*o mi((ion *ere (eft home(ess' ;umours spread that )arious unpopu(ar groups *ere taking ad)antage of the chaos to start fires and other*ise increase the genera( misery' -he rumours *ere 8ust that C rumours, but many peop(e, inc(uding the authorities, used them as an e.cuse to crack do*n on the groups' Lundreds of 4oreans, Socia(ists, 0narchists, and some others *ere murdered C either by mobs or by the po(ice'

Dunma refe%ture
0rea3 :,B:Bkm2 7&??@9
8

3unma %re!ecture

Capita(3 <aebashi Popu(ation3 2,000,000 7&??:9

Dyo+i
$i)ed ::> to J4?'

Habu 5os&i&aru , Hy>'a ro4in%e


Habu 5os&i&aru Ha+u%&i
engT3 :@0--:@4'

Ha+u%&8
engT3 :JB--:>@'

Ha+u&8
engT3 :J2--:>@'

Hamada Hi+o-o
see Leco, =oseph on page &04'

Hama'u%&i 6sa%&i
aka Lamaguchi Euko $i)ed &>J0 to &?B&
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & 4atT 2nd 4atT & 6akatsuki & 6akatsuki
st st st

Position "inance "inance "inance Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Prime <inister

From =un &&, &?24 0ug 2, &?2@ =an B0, &?2: =un B, &?2: <ar &@, &?2J =u( 2, &?2?

To 0ug 2, &?2@ =an B0, &?2: =un B, &?2: #ec &:, &?2: 0pr 20, &?2J 0pr &4, &?B&

&st 6akatsuki Lamaguchi

Table 14 Cabinet Positions Held by Ha.a,uchi :sachi

4amaguchi ?*achi

Cabinet
Name Lamaguchi Dsachi <achida ChX8i Su5uki "u8iya <atsuda Gen8i -a*ara <agoichi 4oi5umi <ata8irT 4obashi ,chita -anaka ;yX5T ,noue =unnosuke Shidehara 4i8urT 0be obuyuki 0dachi 4en5T 6atanabe Chifuyu -akarabe -akeshi 0bo 4iyoka5u Pgi -asuku !gaki 4a5ushige 0be obuyuki !gaki 4a5ushige Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lanretsu Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar 6ar 6ar From =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? o) 2?, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =un &:, &?B0 =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? Dct B, &?B0 =u( 2, &?2? =u( 2, &?2? =un &:, &?B0 #ec &0, &?B0 To 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& o) 2?, &?2? 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& #ec &0, &?B0 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& Dct B, &?B0 0pr &4, &?B& 0pr &4, &?B& =un &:, &?B0 #ec &0, &?B0 0pr &4, &?B&

4a*asaki -akukichi Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau

Table 1" Ha.a,uchi :sachi's Cabinet

Hana-ono9tenn8
-he ?@th emperor of =apan' $i)ed 2@ =u(y &2?J to && o)' &B4>' ;eigned 2: 0ug' &B0> to 2: "eb' &B&>' Son of Pmperor "ushimi'

Han-ei9tenn8
-he &>th emperor of =apan' #ates unkno*n' ;eigned 40: to 4&0' Son of Pmperor intoku'
!##

4ara Ca*tle

Hara Castle
0 cast(e in Li5en Pro)ence' #uring the Shimabara ;ebe((ion, 7*ho-*as-itagainV9 besieged the rebe((ious peasants there' see a(so3 Lara, Seige of 7pg' A9, Li5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimabara ;ebe((ion 7pg' A9,

Hara 7ei
0ka Lara Satoshi and Lara -akashi $i)ed ? "eb' &>@: to 4 o)' &?2& 6e(( kno*n as the first KcommonerG prime minister' Cabinet Positions Le(d by Lara 4ei
Cabinet 4 ,tT
th

Position Communications Lome 0ffairs Communications Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Prime <inister =ustice

From #ec 22, &?00 =an J, &?0: =an &4, &?0> 0ug B0, &?&& "eb 20, &?&B Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&>

To =un 2, &?0& =u( &4, &?0> <ar 2@, &?0> #ec 2&, &?&2 0pr &:, &?&4 o) &B, &?&2 <ay &@, &?20

&st Saion8i & Saion8i


st

2 Saion8i &st Eamamoto Lara Lara

nd

Table 1$ Cabinet Positions Held by Ha a Kei

Name Lara 4ei Eamamoto -atsuo -akahashi <itsutake Eokota Sennosuke oda !tarT akahashi -okugorT -akahashi 4orekiyo !chida 4Tsai -okonami -ake8irT Lara 4ei

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture 0 # Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation

From Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&>

To o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& <ay &@, &?20 !#!

"inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice

Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&> Sep 2?, &?&>

4ara :ei
Name Ski Pnkichi 4atT -omosaburT <otoda La8ime -anaka Giichi Eamanashi Lan5T a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar 6ar Position =ustice From <ay &@, &?20 Sep 2?, &?&> <ay &@, &?20 Sep 2?, &?&> =un ?, &?2& To o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& o) &B, &?2& =un ?, &?2& o) &B, &?2&

Table 1% Ha a Kei's Cabinet

Hara. #ei'e of
$asted from &:BJZ&:B>' -he main batt(e of the Shimabara ;ebe((ion' -he defenders he(d out against incredib(e odds but e)entua((y the food runs out and grass *i(( not sustain an army'

Harbin Harima ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today LyTgo Prefecture' Larima bordered on -a8ima, -amba, Settsu, /i5en, and <imasaka' see a(so3 /i5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LyTgo Prefecture 7pg' A9, <imasaka Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Settsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -a8ima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -amba Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Harris. To)nsend
$i)ed 4 Dct' &>04 to 2@ "eb' &>J>' KKP(enipotentiary <inister and Consu(2 of the !nited States, Larris arri)ed in =apan in 0ugust of &>@:' -*o years (ater, in &>@>, he signed a treaty 7the ansei treaties, yesV9'

Has&imoto 7in'oro
$i)ed &>?0 to &?@J

Has&imoto !y>tar8
Prime <inister from && =anuary &??: to J ber &??: to B0 =u(y &??>' ;ep(aced by Dbuchi 4ei5T 7pg AAA9' o)ember &??: and from J o)em-

Hata+eyama Family
0 daimyT fami(y origina((y descended from -aira -akamochi'
!#"

4atano 4i-eharu

Hatano Hide&aru Hata Tsutomu


Prime <inister from 2> 0pri( &??4 to B0 =une &??4' ;ep(aced by <urayama -omiichi 7pg AAA9'

Hatoyama I%&ir8
$i)ed &>>B to &?@?
Cabinet -anaka ,nukai SaitT & Latoyama
st

Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Pducation Pducation Prime <inister Prime <inister Prime <inister

From 0pr 20, &?2J #ec &B, &?B& <ay 2:, &?B2 #ec &0, &?@4 <ar &?, &?@@ o) 22, &?@@

To =u( 2, &?2? <ay 2:, &?B2 <ar B, &?B4 <ar &?, &?@@ o) 22, &?@@ #ec 2B, &?@:

2nd Latoyama B Latoyama


rd

Table 1& Cabinet Positions Held by Hatoya.a ;chi

7Coming Soon - his cabinetsF9

Hayas&i #en:>r8
$i)ed &>J: to &?4B'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet SaitT Dkada Layashi Layashi Layashi 6ar 6ar "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister Pducation Position From =an 2B, &?B4 =u( >, &?B4 "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ To =u( >, &?B4 Sep @, &?B@ <ar B, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ

Table 1* Cabinet Positions Held by Hayashi #en9<

Cabinet
Name Layashi Sen8XrT Eama5aki -atsunosuke Shashi LachirT 4a*agoe -akeo Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau From "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ To =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ

!#3

4aya*hi 1en@6r0
Name EXki -oyotarT GodT -akuo Eama5aki -atsunosuke 4odama Lideo Layashi Sen8XrT EXki -oyotarT Layashi Sen8XrT SatT aotake 4a*arada 4akichi Shiono Suehiko Eonai <itsumasa GodT -akuo akamura 4TtarT Sugiyama Gen Position Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar 6ar From "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb &0, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ <ar B, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb ?, &?BJ To =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ "eb &0, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ <ar B, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ "eb ?, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ

Table 23 Hayashi #en9< 's Cabinet

Hayas&i Tadasu
$i)ed &>@0 to &?&B
Cabinet &st Saion8i & Saion8i
st

Position "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Communications

From <ay &?, &?0: Sep &>, &?0: 0ug B0, &?&&

To 0ug B0, &?0: =u( &4, &?0> #ec 2&, &?&2

2nd Saion8i

Table 21 Cabinet Positions Held by Hayashi Tadasu

Hayas&i 5u-o
$i)ed &>42 to &?2&

He%o. Cosep&
aka Lamada Liko5o $i)ed &>BJ to &>?J

Hei:i
engT3 &&@?--&&@?'

!#4

4eimin*ha

Heimins&a Heisei9tenn8
-he &2@th emperor of =apan' 0(so the current emperor' ;eign3 &?>? to present'

Heisei
engT3 &?>?--present

Hei-ei9tenn8
-he @&st emperor of =apan' $i)ed &@ 0ug' JJ4 to J =u(y >24' ;eigned &J <arch >0: to & 0pri( >0?'

Hepburn. Cames
$i)ed &>&@ to &?&&

Heus+en. Henry
$i)ed &>B2 to &>:& Ser)ed the !'S' go)ernment' 6as murdered in Pdo on &4 =an' &>:&'

Hibuya !iots Hida ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today part of Gifu Prefecture' Lida bordered on 4aga, PtchX, Shinano, <ino, and Pchi5en' see a(so3 Pchi5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, PtchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Gifu Prefecture 7pg' A9, Lida Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4aga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ino Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Ligashikuni aruhiko
!#5

4i-a %ro&ince

$i)ed B #ecember &>>J to 20 =an' &??0' Prime <inister from &J 0ugust &?4@ to ? Dctober &?4@' 70dd cabinet9

Hi'as&iyama9tenn8
-he &&Brd emperor of =apan' $i)ed B Sept' &:J@ to &J #ec' &J0?' ;eigned 2& <arch &:>J to 2& =une &J0?'

Hi'o ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4umamoto Prefecture on the is(and of 4yXshX' Ligo bordered on Chikugo, /ungo, LyXga, Ssumi, and Satsuma' see a(so3 /ungo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chikugo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LyXga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4umamoto Prefecture 7pg' A9, 4yXshX 7pg' A9, Ssumi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Satsuma Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Hime:i Castle
Cast(e in LyTgo Prefecture 7Larima Pro)ince9' Drigina((y bui(d around &B@0 by 0kamatsu Sadanori' D)er the years it changed hands many times' -oyotomi Lideyoshi took Lime8i cast(e for Dda obunaga in &@JJ' #uring the -okuga*a Period, a succession of daimyT *ere mo)ed in and out of the cast(e' see a(so3 0kamatsu Sadanori 7pg' A9, Larima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

!#6

4imiko

Himi+o
aka Pimiko ,n ancient Chinese te.ts, Limiko is mentioned as the Hueen of =apan, but 8ust *ho she *as and *here she ru(ed is sti(( a bit of a mystery'

Hinin
Dutcastes' -he (o*est c(ass in pre-<ei8i =apanese society' -he c(ass officia((y ceased to e.ist in &>J&, but unoffica( discrimination did not end o)ernight'

Hiranuma 7ii%&ir8
$i)ed 2> Sept' &>:J to 22 0ug' &?@2' Prime <inister from @ =anuary &?B? to B0 0ugust &?B?'
Cabinet osts
Cabinet 2 Eamamoto
nd

Position =ustice Prime <inister <inister of State Lome 0ffairs <inister of State

From Sep :, &?2B =an @, &?B? #ec :, &?40 #ec 2&, &?40 =u( &>, &?4&

To =an J, &?24 0ug B0, &?B? #ec 2&, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4&

Liranuma 2 4onoe
nd nd

2 4onoe Brd 4onoe

Table 22 Cabinet Positions Held by Hi anu.a Kiichi

Cabinet
Name Liranuma 4iichirT Sakurauchi Eukio -anabe Larumichi 4urosaki -ei5T Sta 4T5T 4oiso 4uniaki Latta Eoshiaki Latta Eoshiaki Shiono Suehiko -anabe Larumichi 0raki Sadao ,shi*ata STtarT 0rita LachirT Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Co(oni5ation Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs From =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? 0pr J, &?B? 0pr J, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? 0pr J, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? To 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0pr J, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0pr J, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0pr J, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? !#7

4iranuma :iichir0
Name 4onoe "umimaro 4ido 4Tichi Shiono Suehiko Eonai <itsumasa <aeda Eone5T ,tagaki SeishirT Lirose Lisatada Lanretsu Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar 6e(fare Position From =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? To 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B?

Table 23Hi anu.a Kiichi 's Cabinet

Hiratsu+a !ai%&o
$i)ed &>>: to &?J&

Hiro&ito
see Sho*a-tennT 7page AAA9

Hirose #ai&ei
$i)ed &>2> to &?&4

Hiros&ima. /ombin' 6f
-he !nited States mi(itary dropped an atomic bomb on the city of Liroshima in Liroshima Prefecture, =apan, on : 0ugust &?4@'

Hiros&ima City
-he capita( of Liroshima Prefecture' Liroshima *as the first city --- =apanese or other*ise --- to suffer a nuc(ear bombing' -he on(y other city to ha)e a nuc(ear *eapon used on it is agasaki, in agasaki Prefecture' see a(so3 Liroshima, /ombing ofWpg AAA agasaki, /ombing ofWpg AAA agasaki CityWpg AAA

Hiros&ima refe%ture
0rea3 >,4J@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Liroshima

!#8

4iro*hima %re!ecture

Popu(ation3 2,>J0,000 7&??:9

Hirota 78+i
$i)ed &4 "eb' &>J> to 2B #ec' &?4> P.ecuted as a c(ass K0G *ar crimina('
Cabinet SaitT Dkada Lirota Lirota &st 4onoe Position "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister "oreign 0ffairs From Sep &4, &?BB =u( >, &?B4 <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: =un 4, &?BJ To =u( >, &?B4 <ar ?, &?B: 0pr 2, &?B: "eb 2, &?BJ <ay 2:, &?B>

Table 24 Cabinet Positions Held by Hi ota Kki

Name Lirota 4Tki Shimada -oshio "u8inuma ShThei -sugita #ai5aburT agata Lide8irT Dga*a GTtarT -anomogi 4eikichi !shio 4einosuke Lirao LachisaburT /aba Piichi Lirota 4Tki 0rita LachirT !shio 4einosuke Layashi ;ai5aburT agano Dsami <aeda Eone5T -erauchi Lisaichi

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar

From <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar 2>, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar 2@, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: 0pr 2, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B:

To "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ <ar 2J, &?B: "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ <ar 2@, &?B: "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ 0pr 2, &?B: "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ "eb 2, &?BJ

4a*asaki -akukichi Commerce W ,ndustry

Table 2" Hi ota Kki's Cabinet

Hisaa+ira
$i)ed &2J:--&B2>'
!#

4i*aakira

70## ru(e dates9 -he se)enth son of the Pmperor Gofukakusa' Le *as made shTgun by LT8T Sadatoki, rep(acing 4oreyasu' see a(so3 Gofukakusa-tennT 7pg' A9, LT8T Sadatoki 7pg' A9, 4oreyasu 7pg' A9, -ab(e of ShTgunWAAA

Hita%&i ro4in%e
0 pro)ince *hich bordered on ,*ashiro, ,*aki, ShimTsa, and Shimotsuku Pro)inces' -oday the area is ,baraki Prefecture' see a(so3 ,baraki Prefecture 7pg' A9, ,*aki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*ashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ShimTsa Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimotsuku Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Hiyama Castle Hi-en ro4in%e


0 pro)ince *hich bordered on Chiku5en and Chikugo' -oday the area is part of agasaki Prefecture' Lideyoshi directed the in)asion of 4orea from the city of agoya, in Li5en' -he Shimabara ;ebe((ion took p(ace in Li5en Pro)ince' see a(so3 Chikugo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chiku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4orea, ,n)asion of 7pg' A9, Shimabara ;ebe((ion 7pg' A9,

!!#

40an

H8an
engT3 &&20--&&2B'

H8ei
engT3 &J04--&J&0'

H8en
engT3 &&B@--&&40'

H8'en
engT3 &&@:--&&@>'

H8:i
engT3 &24J--&24>'

H8:8 Family
#escended from -aira Sadamori' -here are t*o main branches3

-he 4amakura LT8T contro((ed the <inamoto ShTgun 7and thus the 4amakura ShTgunate9 by acting as regents for them' -he Dda*ara LT8T branch descended from ,se ShinkurT, *hose son, !8itsuna, married into the LT8T fami(y in the &4?0s' 7ShinkurT (ater took the name LT8T agau8i and (ater LT8T STun, by *hich he is *e(( kno*n'9

see a(so3 LT8T STun 7pg' A9, LT8T !8itsuna 7pg' A9, 4amakura ShTgunate 7pg' A9,

Ho:o:i
0 temp(e in 4yTto'

H8:8 *asa+o
$i)ed &&@J to &22@ aka 0ma Shogun 7 un Shogun9 LT8T <asako married <inamoto Eoritomo' She became a nun after he died but remained the po*er behind the shTgun unti( her death in &22@'

!!!

40@0 )okiyori

H8:8 To+iyori
$i)ed &22: to &2:B' @th 4amakura ;egent' Le(d office from &24: to &2@:'

H8:8 Tsuneto+i
$i)ed &224 to &24:' 4th 4amakura ;egent' Le(d office from &242 to &24:' Son of LT8T -okiu8i'

H8:8 =:i+uni
Son of LT8T !8iyasu'

H8:8 =:iteru
Son of LT8T !8iyasu'

H8:8 =:iyasu
$i)ed &@&@ to &@J0' Son of LT8T !8itsuna' "ather of LT8T !8ikuni and LT8T !8iteru' "ought many batt(es against the !esugi, ,maga*a, the -akeda, the Dta, the <ogami, and the 0shikaga "ami(ies' ot a(( at once of course' Lis Jth son *as adopted by !esugi 4enshin and became !esugi 4agetora' see a(so3 LT8T 7pg' A9, LT8T 7pg' A9, !esugi 4agetora 7pg' A9, !esugi 4enshin 7pg' A9,

H8:8 5asuto+i
$i)ed &&>B to &242' -he Brd 4amakura ;egent' Le(d office from &224 to &242'

H8+i ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today -ottori Prefecture' Loki bordered on ,naba, <amasaka, /itchX, /ingo, and ,5umo Pro)inces' see a(so3
!!"

40ki %ro&ince

/ingo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, /itchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,naba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,5umo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <imasaka Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -ottori Prefecture pg' AAA

H8+i
engT3 JJ0--J>0'

Ho++aid8 refe%ture
-echnica((y, not a ken but a dT' -he (argest prefecture in =apan and a(so the most norther(y' 4no*n in -okuga*a times as P5o' 0rea3 >B,4@2 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Sapporo Popu(ation3 @,:?0,000 7&??:9

Honda #8i%&ir8
$i)ed &?0: to &??&

Honn8:i. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &@>2' 0kechi <itsuhide attacked Dda obunaga at the LonnT8i, a temp(e in 4yTto' <itsuhide *as one of obunagaGs genera(s and surprise *as comp(ete' obunaga on(y had his bodyguards *ith him and committed suicide' See the entry for 0kechi <itsuhide for information on his moti)es' see a(so3 0kechi <itsuhide 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, Eama5aki, /att(e of 7pg' A9,

Hons&>
Dne of the four main is(ands of =apan' LonshX is the main is(and in that most of the popu(ation of the country (i)es there and most of the most important cities are (ocated in LonshX' see a(so3 LokkaidT Prefecture pg' A, 4yXshX 7pg' A9, Shikoku 7pg' A9

!!3

40reki

H8re+i
engT3 &J@&--&J:B'

Hori C&i+amasa
Son of Lori Chikayoshi'

Hori C&i+asada
Son of Lori Chikamasa' 7doub(e check this9

Hori C&i+ayos&i
$i)ed &@>0 to &:BJ' Son of Lori Lidemasa' #aimyT of RTT 7Pchigo, 40,000 koku9' #ispossessed in &:&0 but t*o years (ater he *as gi)en <Tka in Shimotsuke' ,n &:2J he recei)ed 4arasuyama, a(so in Shimotsuke'

Hori Family
0 daimyT fami(y from <ino' #escended from "u8i*ara !ona 7pg AAA9'

Hori Hide&aru
$i)ed &@J@ to &:0:' Son of Lori Lidemasa' /ecame daimyT of 4asugayama 7*hereV ho* many kokuV9 on &@?0' ,n &@?>, recei)ed -akata 7B@0,000 koku9 in Pchigo' see a(so3 Pchigo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Lori Lidemasa 7pg' A9, 4asugayama-han 7pg' A9, -akata-han 7pg' A9,

Hori Hidemasa
$i)ed &@@B-&@?0' "ought for Sda obunaga' Sided *ith Lideyoshi at the /att(e of Eama5aki'

Hori+a)a9tenn8
-he JBrd emperor of =apan'
!!4

4orikawa+tenn0

$i)ed ? =u(y &0J? to &? =u(y &&0J' ;eigned 2: o)' &0>: to &? =u(y &&0J' Second son of Shiraka*a-tennT' Put on the throne at age nine' see a(so3 Shiraka*a-tennT 7pg' A9,

Horio Family
0 daimyT fami(y from D*ari'

Horio Tada&aru
$i)ed &@?? to &:BB' Son of Lorio -adau8i' -adaharu died chi(d(ess and his (ands re)erted to the Shogunate'

Horio Tadau:i
$i)ed &@J@ to &:04' Son of Lorio Eoshiharu'

Horio 5os&i&aru
$i)ed &@4B to &:&&'

Hori Tadatos&i
Son of Lori Lideharu' #ispossessed in &:&0 for ma(administration'

Hori Tos&is&i'e
Son of Lori Lidemasa'

Hos&i Toru
$i)ed &>@0 to &?0&

Hoso+a)a A+iu:i
#ied &B@2' Son of Eorisada'

Hoso+a)a Family
0 daimyT fami(y descended from <inamoto Eoshisue'

!!5

4o*okawa 4arumoto

Hoso+a)a Harumoto
$i)ed &@&? to &@:B'

Hoso+a)a C8-en
/rother of 0kiu8i'

Hoso+a)a 7atsumoto
$i)ed &4B0 to && <ay &4JB'

Hoso+a)a 7iyou:i
#ied &B:2'

Hoso+a)a *asamoto
$i)ed &4:: to &@0J'

Hoso+a)a *itsumoto
$i)ed &B@> to &42:'

Hoso+a)a *o%&iyu+i
$i)ed &400 to &442'

Hoso+a)a *ori&iro
Prime <inister from ? 0ugust &??B to 2> 0pri( &??4' ;ep(aced by Lata -sutomu 7pg AAA9'

Hoso+a)a #umimoto
$i)ed &4?: to &@20'

Hoso+a)a =:i&ara
#ied &B>J'

Hoso+a)a 5ori&aru
$i)ed &2?? to &B@2'

Hoso+a)a 5orimoto
$i)ed &B4B to &B?J' Son of Losoka*a Eoriharu'

!!6

4o*okawa 5oriyuki

Hoso+a)a 5oriyu+i
$i)ed &B2? to &B?2' Son of Losoka*a Eoriharu'

H8to+u
engT3 &44?--&4@&'

Hotta Family
#aimyT fami(y from D*ara' #escended from -akeshiuchi no Sukune'

Hotta *asa&aru
Son of Lotta <asatora'

Hotta *asamine
Son of <asataka'

Hotta *asamori
$i)ed &:0> to 20 0pri( &:@&' "ather of Lotta <asatoshi'

Hotta *asamutsu
$i)ed &>&0 to &>:4'

Hotta *asana'a
Son of <asamine'

Hotta *asana+a
$i)ed &::0 to &:?4'

Hotta *asanobu
$i)ed &:2? to &:JJ' Son of Lotta <asamori'

Hotta *asanobu
Son of Lotta <asatomo'

Hotta *asata+a
Son of Lotta <asatoshi'
!!7

4otta Ma*atomo

Hotta *asatomo
Son of Lotta <asayasu'

Hotta *asatora
$i)ed &::2 to &J2?'

Hotta *asatos&i
$i)ed &:B& to 2> 0ug' &:>4'

Hotta *asayasu
Son of Lotta <asanobu'

House of eers Ho-umi Nobus&i'e


$i)ed &>@: to &?2:

Hy8'o refe%ture
0rea3 >,B>J km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 4Tbe Popu(ation3 @,420,000 7&??:9

Hy>'a ro4in%e
0 pro)ince on the east coast of 4yXshX' -oday <iya5aki Prefecture' LyXga bordered on /ungo, Ligo, Ssumi, and Satsuma Pro)inces' see a(so3 /ungo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Ligo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4yXshX 7pg' A9, <iya5aki Prefecture 7pg' A9, Ssumi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Satsuma Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Ibara+i Castle , I-u ro4in%e


Ibara+i Castle Ibara+i refe%ture
0rea3 :,0?4 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 <itT Popu(ation3 2,?J0,000 7&??:9
!!8

8bara 1aikaku

Ibara #ai+a+u
see ,hara Saikaku 7page AAA9

I%&i:8 Fusaie
$i)ed &44@ to &@&&'

I%&i:8 7anesada
$i)ed &@42 to &@>@'

I%&i:8 Nobutatsu
#ied &@>2'

I%&i:89tenn8
-he ::th emperor of =apan' $i)ed & =une ?>0 to 22 =une &0&&' ;eigned 2B =une ?>: to &B =une &0&&'

I%&i:8 =%&imasa
$i)ed &@:? to &@>0'

I%&i+a)a Dan:>ro
-he hereditary name of the head of a group 7fami(yV9 of kabuki actors' -here ha)e been at (east &2 generations of them' -he first *as Pbi5T, a(so kno*n as SaigyX'

I%&i+a)a Fusae
$i)ed &>?B to &?>&'

I'a ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today <ie Prefecture' ,ga bordered on ,se, Smi, Eamato, and Eamashiro Pro)inces' see a(so3 ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ie Prefecture 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamato Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9,
!!

8hara 1aikaku

I&ara #ai+a+u
aka ,bara Saikaku $i)ed &:42 to &0 0ug' &:?B' /orn in Ssaka' Pro(ific and popu(ar author during the -okuga*a period' 0mong other *orks, he penned3 /i-e"*omen"*ho"+o-ed"+o-e, !he"+ife"of"an"#morous"Man, !he"+ife"of an"#morous"*oman, and !his"Scheming"*orld'

Ii Naosu+e
$i)ed 2? Dct' &>&@ to B <arch &>:0' /orn in Ssaka' Son of ,i aotaka' 0 high ranking officia( in the -okuga*a go)ernment' aosuke *as responsib(e for the go)ernmentGs signing of treaties *ith the !nited States, /ritain, "rance, and (ater other counties' Supported the t*e()e year o(d ,emochi for shTgun, opposing Litotsubashi 4eiki' $ed the 0nsei Purge' aosukeGs actions caused great resentment and *on him many enemies' Le *as assassinated on B <arch &>:0 by &J <itT rTnin'

I+eda Hayato
$i)ed &>?? to &?:@' Prime <inister from &? =u(y &?:0 to > #ecember &?:0, > #ecember &?:0 to ? #ecember &?:B, and ? #ecember &?:B to ? o)ember &?:4'

I+eda Nobuteru
$i)ed &@B: to &@>4' Ser)ed Dda obuhide, Dda obunaga and then -oyotomi Lideyoshi' ;ecei)ed a fief in Settsu and 0magasaki Cast(e from obunaga in &@J?' 4i((ed at the /att(e of agakute' see a(so3 0magasaki Cast(e 7pg' A9, agakute, /att(e of 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, Settsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

!"#

8ki %ro&ince

I+i ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today agasaki Prefecture' ,ki is an is(and bet*een Li5en Pro)ince and the is(and of -sushima' ,ki *as in)aded and o)errun by the <ongo(s in &2J4 and &2>&' see a(so3 Li5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ongo( ,n)asions 7pg' A9, agasaki Prefecture 7pg' A9, -sushima Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

I++89I++i Ima'a)a Family


0 daimyT fami(y of Sei*a Gen8i decent'

Ima'a)a 5os&imoto
#ied &@:0' $ost -erabe cast(e in &@@> *hen Su5uki Shigeteru (eft him for Dda obunaga and EoshimotoGs )assa( -okuga*a ,eyasu *as unab(e to retake the cast(e' Eoshimoto *as ki((ed in &@:0 at the batt(e of Dkeha5ama, by the forces of Dda obunaga' see a(so3 -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, -erabe, Seige of 7pg' A9, Su5uki Shigeru 7pg' A9, Dkeha5ama, /att(e of 7pg' A9,

Ima&ama Castle Imperial !ule Assistan%e oliti%al Asso%iation Imperial @ay Fa%tion
-he 4odoha or 1,mperia( 6ay "action2 *as an informa((y organi5ed right *ing association of most(y 8unior and fie(d grade ,mperia( 0rmy officers *ho sought
!"!

8mperial Aay Faction

to dismant(e party inf(uence in =apanese po(itics and 1restore2 the Pmperor as an abso(ute ru(er *ith the army as his main instrument of po(icy' Lea)i(y inf(uenced by such 10sia for the 0sians2 po(itica( phi(osophers as Gondo Seikei 7&>:>&?BJ9, 4ita ,kki 7&>>B-&?BJ9, Dka*a Shumei 7&>>:-&?@J9 and the ideo(ogy of the 4okyrukai 70mur ;i)er or 1/(ack #ragon2 Society9 po(itica( and crimina( organi5ation, the 4odoha officers, o)er >0[ of *hom *ere from rura( farming and fishing communities, )ie*ed the democratic process and 6estern-inf(uenced materia(ism of urban =apanese society at the time as an emascu(ation and apostasy of traditiona( )a(ues, and they *ere prepared to use )io(ence to rectify this situation' -he 4odoha *as effecti)e(y cripp(ed as a serious p(ayer in the =apanese po(itica( po*er game after a fai(ed coup dGetat attempt by 4odoha officers in "ebruary &?B:, but not before the theories of its spiritua( (eader Genera( Sadao 0raki had poisoned =apanese educationa( po(icy *ith fanatica( mi(itarism, and e)en more disastrous(y, not before many of its (ess-conspicuous members *ere a(ready *e(( ensconced in fast-track e(ite course niches that *ou(d put them in inf(uentia( po(icy-making positions during the crucia( Pacific 6ar years'
by M.3. 1he!tall Contribute- ,ecember <==<

#our%es and #u''ested !eadin'

Hirohito by Lerbert /i. Hirohito0"$ehind"the"Myth by Pd*ard /ehr Soldier"of"the"Sun by <eirion and Susan Larries !he"*ay"of"the"Hea-enly"Sword by $eonard 0' Lumphreys

Inaba Ittetsu Inaba ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today -ottori Prefecture' ,naba bordered on Larima, LTki, <imasaka, and -a8ima Pro)inces' see a(so3 Larima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LTki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <imasaka Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -a8ima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -ottori Pro)ince pg' AAA

In'y89tenn8
-he &?th emperor of =apan' ;eigned 4&2 to 4@B'

Ino Tadata+a
$i)ed &J4@ to &>&>'

!""

8noue Akira

Inoue A+ira
see ,noue issho 7page AAA9

Inoue /unda
see ,noue 4aoru 7page AAA9

Inoue Cunnosu+e
$i)ed &>:? to &?B2'
Cabinet 2 Eamamoto Lamaguchi 2 6akatsuki
nd nd

Position "inance "inance "inance

From Sep 2, &?2B =u( 2, &?2? 0pr &4, &?B&

To =an J, &?24 0pr &4, &?B& #ec &B, &?B&

Table 2$ Cabinet Positions Held by ;noue 6unnosuke

Inoue 7aoru
aka ,noue /unda $i)ed &>B@ to &?&@'
Cabinet & ,tT
st

Position "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Prime <inister 70cting9 "inance

From #ec 22, &>>@ 0ug >, &>?2 o) 2>, &>?2 =an &2, &>?>

To Sep &:, &>>J Dct &@, &>?4 "eb :, &>?B =un B0, &>?>

2nd ,tT 2 ,tT


nd rd

B ,tT

Table 2% Cabinet Positions Held by ;noue Kao u

Inoue 7o)as&i
$i)ed &>4B to &>?@'
Cabinet & ,tT 4uroda &st Eamagata 2 ,tT
nd st

Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Pducation

From "eb J, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> #ec 24, &>>? <ar J, &>?B

To 0pr B0, &>>> #ec 24, &>>? <ay :, &>?& 0ug 2?, &>?4

Table 2& Cabinet Positions Held by ;noue Ko1ashi

Inoue Niss&o
aka ,noue 0kira
!"3

8noue Ni**ho

$i)ed &>>: to &?:J'

Inoue Tetsu:iro
$i)ed &>@: to &?44'

Inu+ai Tsuyos&i
$i)ed 20 0pri( &>@@ to &@ <ay &?B2' Prime <inister from &B #ecember &?B& to &@ <ay &?B2' Lis cabinet (asted unti( 2: <ay &?B2'
Cabinet &st Skuma 2 Eamamoto
nd nd

Position Pducation Pducation Communications Communications "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister Lome 0ffairs

From Dct 2J, &>?> Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B =un &&, &?24 #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& <ar &:, &?B2

To o) >, &>?> Sep :, &?2B =an J, &?24 <ay B0, &?2@ =an &4, &?B2 <ay &@, &?B2 <ar 2@, &?B2

2 Eamamoto &st 4atT ,nukai ,nukai ,nukai

Table 2* Cabinet Positions Held by ;nukai Tsuyoshi

!"4

8nukai )*uyo*hi
Name ,nukai -suyoshi Eamamoto -ei8irT <ori 4aku Shimada -oshio Lata -oyosuke <aeda Eone5T <itsuchi ChX5T Latoyama ,chirT -akahashi 4orekiyo ,nukai -suyoshi Eoshi5a*a 4enkichi akahashi -okugorT ,nukai -suyoshi Su5uki 4isaburT Su5uki 4isaburT 4a*amura -ake8i Ssumi <ineo -okonami -ake8irT 0raki Sadao Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar From #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& =an &4, &?B2 #ec &B, &?B& <ar &:, &?B2 <ar 2@, &?B2 #ec &B, &?B& <ar 2@, &?B2 #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& To <ay &@, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 =an &4, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ar &:, &?B2 <ar 2@, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ar 2@, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2 <ay 2:, &?B2

Table 33 ;nukai Tsuyoshi's Cabinet

Io:i Io:i9yama
0 mountain in <ika*a Pro)ince' ,n &@J@, -akeda 4atsuyori and Dda obunaga fought part of the /att(e of agashino on ,o8i-yama' see a(so3 <ika*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, agashino, /att(e of 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, -akeda 4atsuyori 7pg' A9,

Ise ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today <ie Prefecture' ,se bordered on ,ga, 4ii, <ino, Smi, D*ari, Shima, and Eamato Pro)inces'
!"5

8*e %ro&ince

Domains
Fief <atsu5aka "oku BJ000 Contro e# by$ "uruta Shigekatsu &:00 From To

Table 31Do.ains in ;se P o=ince

see a(so3 "uruta Shigekatsu 7pg' A9, ,ga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4ii Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <atsu5aka-han 7pg' A9, <ie Prefecture 7pg' A9, <ino Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamato Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Is&ibas&i Tan-an
$i)ed &>>4 to &?JB' Prime <inister from 2B #ecember &?@: to 2@ "ebruary &?@J'

Is&ida /ai'an
$i)ed &:>@ to &J44'

Is&ida *itsunari
$i)ed &@:0 to &:00 -he prime mo)er behind the anti--okuga*a coa(ition that (ost the /att(e of Sekigahara' <itsunari *as a better schemer than genera( or dip(omat and this caused some friction in the coa(ition' 0t the )ery (east <itsunariGs persona(ity hurt mora(e among the commanders of the 6estern army and concei)ab(y contributed to their defeat'
#ee Also

Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg 2@29

Is&i&ara 7an:i
see ,shi*ara 4an8i on page AA'
!"6

8*hii :iku@iro

Is&ii 7i+u:iro
$i)ed &>:: to &?4@'

Is&i+a)a refe%ture
0rea3 4,&>@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 4ana5a*a Popu(ation3 &,&J0,000 7&??:9 Dne of the 4J ma8or administrati)e units in modern =apan' ,shika*a is (ocated a(ong the Sea of =apan side, right about in the midd(e' -he oto Peninsu(a 7page AAA9, *hich is part of ,shika*a, 8uts out into the Sea of =apan and makes it )ery easy to find ,shika*a on a map'

Is&i+a)a #ans&iro
$i)ed &>J: to &?@:'

Is&i)ara 7an:i
aka ,shihara 4an8i $i)ed &>?B to &?>&

Is&iyama Hon'an9:i
Seat of the ,kkT sect after the Longan8i in 4yotT *as destroyed' ,t took Dda obunaga ten years to fina((y reduce this strongho(d'

Is&i-a)a Tai-o
$i)ed &>>: to &?J@'

Ita'a+i #eis&ir8
$i)ed 2& =an' &>>@ to 2B #ec' &?4> So(dier' -ried as a c(ass K0G *ar crimina( and e.ecuted'

Ita'a+i Taisu+e
$i)ed &>BJ to &?&?'

!"7

8tagaki )ai*uke

Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2 ,tT
nd

Position Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs

From 0pr &4, &>?: Sep &>, &>?:

To Sep &>, &>?: Sep 20, &>?: o) >, &>?>

2nd <atsukata
st

& Skuma Lome 0ffairs =un B0, &>?> Table 32 Cabinet Positions Held by ;ta,aki Taisuke

Itai9Itai9/y8
0 <itsui 7chemica(V9 p(ant in Gifu Prefecture re(eased cadmium into a ri)er and said cadmium e)entua((y made peop(e in -oyama sick' #octors understood cadmium to be the cause of the i((ness in &?@J' 0 mo)ement for redress *as started in &?:B and e)entua((y &>B peop(e *ere recogni5ed by the go)ernment as suffering from the disease' 7this entry needs to be doub(e checked as *e(( as a (ot more detai(9

Itami Castle It8 Hirobumi


$i)ed 2 Sept' &>4& to 2: Dct' &?0? /orn into a (o* ranking ChTshX samurai fami(y in &>4&' Drigina((y he(d antiforeign )ie*s but (ater became anti to bakufu' Secret(y )isited Png(and &>:B to &>:4' Le(d a )ariety of posts in the <ei8i go)ernment' 6as a member of the ,*akura <ission' /y &>>& he *as one of the most po*erfu( men in the go)ernment and the &>>& po(itica( crisis further cemented his po*er' %isited Purope in &>>2 1to study 6estern Constitutions2 7many peop(e be(ie)e he had a(ready decided on the German mode(9' !pon his return, he (ead the creation of the peerage system and the cabinet system' 6as =apanGs first prime minister' President of the Pri)y Counci(3 &>>> to &>?0 and &?0B to &?0@ ;esident-Genera( of the Protectorate of 4orea from &?0@ to &?0?' 0ssassinated by a 4orean nationa(ist at Larbin in &?0?'

!"8

8t0 4irobumi

Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & ,tT
st

Position Prime <inister "oreign 0ffairs Lanretsu Prime <inister Prime <inister Prime <inister

From #ec 22, &>>@ Sep &:, &>>J 0pr B0, &>>> 0ug >, &>?2 =an &2, &>?> Dct &?, &?00

To 0pr B0, &>>> "eb &, &>>> #ec 24, &>>? Sep &>, &>?: =un B0, &>?> =un 2, &?0&

&st ,tT 4uroda 2 ,tT Brd ,tT 4 ,tT


th nd

Table 33 Cabinet Positions Held by ;t Hi obu.i

First Cabinet
Name ,tT Lirobumi -ani 4an8T Li8ikata Lisamoto 4urota 4iyotaka -anaka <itsuaki Pnomoto -akeaki ,noue 4o*ashi Eamao ET5T <ori 0rinori <atsukata <asayoshi ,noue 4aoru ,tT Lirobumi Skuma Shigenobu Eamagata 0ritomo Eamada 0kiyoshi SaigT -sugumichi Syama ,*ao SaigT -sugumichi Syama ,*ao Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Communications Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau #irector of $egis(ati)e /ureau Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y a)y a)y 6ar From #ec 22, &>>@ #ec 22, &>>@ =u( 2:, &>>J Sep &:, &>>J #ec 22, &>>@ #ec 22, &>>@ "eb J, &>>> #ec 2B, &>>@ #ec 22, &>>@ #ec 22, &>>@ #ec 22, &>>@ Sep &:, &>>J "eb &, &>>> #ec 22, &>>@ #ec 22, &>>@ #ec 22, &>>@ =u( &0, &>>: =u( &, &>>J #ec 22, &>>@ To 0pr B0, &>>> =u( 2:, &>>J Sep &:, &>>J 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> "eb J, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> Sep &:, &>>J "eb &, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> =u( &0, &>>: =u( &, &>>J 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>>

Table 34 ;t Hi obu.i's >i st Cabinet

!"

8t0 4irobumi

#e%ond Cabinet
Name ,tT Lirobumi ,noue 4aoru GotT ShT8irT Pnomoto -akeaki ,tT <iyo8i Suematsu 4enchT -akashima -omonosuke 6atanabe 4unitake Shirane SenGichi 4Tno -ogama ,noue 4o*ashi Saion8i 4inmochi 6atanabe 4uniaki <atsukata <asayoshi 6atanabe 4uniaki <utsu <unemitsu Saion8i 4inmochi <utsu <unemitsu Saion8i 4inmochi 4urota 4iyotaka ,noue 4aoru omura Easushi Eoshika*a 0kimasa ,tagaki -aisuke Eamagata 0ritomo Eoshika*a 0kimasa ire 4agenori SaigT -sugumichi Syama ,*ao SaigT -sugumichi Eamagata 0ritomo SaigT -sugumichi Eamagata 0ritomo !3# Position Prime <inister Prime <inister 70cting9 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Communications Communications Pducation Pducation Pducation "inance "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lanretsu Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice a)y a)y 6ar 6ar 6ar 6ar 6ar From 0ug >, &>?2 o) 2>, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 =an 22, &>?4 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 <ar &J, &>?@ Dct ?, &>?@ 0ug >, &>?2 <ar J, &>?B Dct B, &>?4 0ug >, &>?2 <ar &J, &>?@ 0ug 2J, &>?@ 0ug >, &>?2 =un @, &>?@ 0pr B, &>?: <ay B0, &>?: <ar &J, &>?@ 0ug >, &>?2 Dct &@, &>?4 "eb B, &>?: 0pr &4, &>?: 0ug >, &>?2 <ar &:, &>?B 0ug >, &>?2 <ar &&, &>?B 0ug >, &>?2 Dct ?, &>?4 <ar J, &>?@ 0pr 2>, &>?@ <ay >, &>?@ To Sep &>, &>?: "eb :, &>?B =an 22, &>?4 Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Dct ?, &>?@ Sep &>, &>?: <ar J, &>?B 0ug 2?, &>?4 Sep &>, &>?: <ar &J, &>?@ 0ug 2J, &>?@ Sep &>, &>?: =un @, &>?@ 0pr B, &>?: <ay B0, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Dct &@, &>?4 "eb B, &>?: 0pr &4, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: <ar &&, &>?B Dct B, &>?4 <ar &&, &>?B Sep &>, &>?: Dct ?, &>?4 <ar J, &>?@ 0pr 2>, &>?@ <ay >, &>?@ <ay 2:, &>?@

8t0 4irobumi
Name Syama ,*ao 6ar Position From <ay 2:, &>?@ To Sep &>, &>?:

Table 3" ;t Hi obu.i's #econd Cabinet

T&ird Cabinet
Name ,tT Lirobumi ,tT <iyo8i 4aneko 4entarT !me 4en8irT Suematsu 4enchT Saion8i 4inmochi -oyama ShTichi ,noue 4aoru ishi -oku8irT Eoshika*a 0kimasa Sone 0rasuke SaigT -sugumichi 4atsura -arT Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y 6ar From =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> 0pr 2:, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> 0pr B0, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> To =un B0, &>?> 0pr 2:, &>?> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?> 0pr B0, &>?> =un B0, &?>> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?> =un B0, &>?>

Same8ima -akenosuke Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

Table 3$ ;t Hi obu.i's Thi d Cabinet

Fourt& Cabinet
Name ,tT Lirobumi Layashi EX5T Same8ima -akenosuke Dkuda Eoshindo Loshi -Tru Lara 4ei <atsuda <asahisa 6atanabe 4unitake Saion8i 4inmochi 4atT -akaaki Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Communications Pducation "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs From Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 #ec 22, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 <ay &4, &?0& Dct &?, &?00 To =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& #ec 22, &?00 =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& <ay &4, &?0& =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0&

!3!

8t0 4irobumi
Name Saion8i 4inmochi Suematsu 4enchT 4aneko 4entarT Eamamoto GonnohyTe 4atsura -arT 4odama GentarT Position Lanretsu Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y 6ar 6ar From Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 Dct &?, &?00 #ec 2B, &?00 To =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& #ec 2B, &?00 =un 2, &?0&

Table 3%;t Hi obu.i's >ou th Cabinet

#ee Also

ChTshX-han 7pg' A9, ,*akura <ission 7pg' A9, Po(itica( Crisis of &>>& 7pg' A9, -ab(e of Prime <inisters 7pg' A9, 4orea, Protectorate of 7pg' A9, Larbin 7pg' A9,

Ito+u9tenn8
-he 4th emperor of =apan' ;eigned @&0 to 4JJ /'C'

It8 *iyo:i
$i)ed J <ay &>@J to &? "eb' &?B4' Po(itician'

It8 Noe
$i)ed 2& =an' &>?@ to &: Sept' &?2B "rom "ukuoka' ,tT oe *as acti)e in the ear(y &?00Gs as a feminist and an anarchist'

=oined the Seitosha in &?&B' $i)ed and *orked *ith the anarchist Ssugi Sakae from &?&:' $ess emphasis on feminism and more on anarchism' 0rrested, a(ong *ith a nephe* and Ssugi, after the Great 4anto ParthHuake of &?2B' 0(( three *ere murdered by the po(ice short(y after*ards'
#ee Also

0narchism 7pg' A9, "eminism 7pg' A9, Great 4anto ParthHuake 7pg' ?>9, Ssugi Sakae 7pg' 2B49, Seitosha 7pg' A9,

!3"

8waki %ro&ince

I)a+i ro4in%e
-oday part of "ukushima and <iyagi Prefectures' ,*aki bordered on Litachi, ,*ashiro, ;iku5en, Shimotsuke, and !5en Pro)inces'
#ee Also

"ukushima Prefecture 7pg' A9, Litachi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*ashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <iyagi Prefecture 7pg' A9, ;iku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimotsuke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

I)a+ura *ission
$asted from &>J& to &>JB

I)a+ura Tomomi
$i)ed &@ Sept' &>2@ to 20 =u(y &>>B'

I)ami ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today part of Shimane Prefecture' ,*ami bordered on 0ki, /ingo, ,5umo, agato, and SuT Pro)inces' see a(so3 0ki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, /ingo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,5umi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, agato Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimane Prefecture 7pg' A9, SuT Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

I)amura. #ei'e of
0kiyama obutomo took the cast(e from the *ido* of -Tyama 4agetT' see a(so3 0kiyama obutomo 7pg' A9, -Tyama 4agetT 7pg' A9, \\LB

I)asa+i 5ataro
$i)ed &>B@ to &>>@'

!33

8wa*hiro %ro&ince

I)as&iro ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today "ukushima Prefecture' ,*ashiro bordered on Pchigo, ,*aki, 4T5uke, Shimotsuke, and !5en Pro)inces' see a(so3 Pchigo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, "ukushima Prefecture 7pg' A9, ,*aki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4T5uke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimotsuke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

I)ate refe%ture
0rea3 &@,2J> km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 <oriaki Popu(ation3 &,4B0,000 7&??:9

Iyo ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Phime Prefecture on Shikoku' ,yo bordered on 0*a, Sanuki, and -osa Pro)inces' see a(so3 0*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Phime Prefecture 7pg' A9, Sanuki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shikoku 7pg' A9, -osa Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

I-umi ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today part of Ssaka Prefecture' ,5umi bordered on 4a*achi, 4ii, and Settsu Pro)inces' see a(so3 4a*achi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4ii Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Ssaka Prefecture 7pg' A9,
!34

8zumi %ro&ince

Settsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

I-umo ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today part of Shimane Prefecture' ,5umo bordered on /ingo, LTki, and ,*ami Pro)inces' see a(so3 /ingo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LTki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*ami Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimane Prefecture 7pg' A9,

I-u ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today part of Shi5uoka Prefecture' ,5u bordered on Sagami and Suruga Pro)inces' see a(so3 Sagami Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shi5uoka Prefecture 7pg' A9, Suruga Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Capan Communist arty , Cura+utei Castle


Capan Communist arty Capan "H%&an'e and Tea%&in' ro'ram
aka =P- Program -he =P- Program brings young peop(e to =apan to act as 0$-Gs 70ssistant $anguage -eachers9 in =apanese schoo(s' -he program is run by se)era( ministries of the =apanese go)ernment, inc(uding the "oreign <inistry and <ombusho, the <inistry of Sports, Pducation, and Cu(ture' Participants, *ho are se(ected by a rather opaHue process that may in)o()e thro*ing darts, must ha)e a pu(se and a co((ege degree 7in *hat doesnGt seem to matter9' Participants are gi)en one year contracts *orth about B mi((ion yen' -hey may rene* this contract upto t*ice --- thus the ma.imum stay on the =P- Program is three years, a(though most participants choose to (ea)e after one or t*o years' 6hi(e the go)ernmentGs p(an possib(y in)o()ed sending (ots of young peop(e home *ith *onderfu( memories of =apan --- P; in other *ords --- the rea(ity is that the go)ernment is sending a (ot of foreigners home *ith memories of ho*
!35

9apan /Ichange an- )eaching %rogram

=apan and the =apanese education system rea((y are' 6hether this *i(( backfire in the go)ernmentGs co((ecti)e face remains to be seen'

Capan Fabian #o%iety Capan #o%ialist arty


aka =SP

C"T ro'ram
see =apan P.change and -eaching Program on page AAA'

Cian
engT3 &02&--&02B' aka Chian'

Ci:i #&inp8 Cimmu9tenn8


-he &st emperor of =apan' ;eigned ::0 to @>@ /'C' <ytho(ogica( of course'

Cin'o9+eiun
engT3 J:J--J:?'

Cin+i
engT3 J24--J2>' aka Shinki'

Cire+i
engT3 &0:@--&0:>' aka Chiryaku'

Cis&8
engT3 &&JJ--&&>0' aka =i8T'

!36

9it0+tenn0

Cit89tenn8
Pmpress' $i)ed :4@ to 22 #ec' J02' -he 4&st ru(er of =apan' ;eigned & =an' :?0 to & 0ug' :?J'

C88
engT3 &:@2--&:@4' aka ShTT'

C8ei
engT3 &2B2--&2B2'

C8'an
engT3 >@?-->J:' aka =Tkan'

C8'en
engT3 ?J:--?JJ' aka -eigen'

C8'en
engT3 &20J--&2&0' aka ShTgen'

C8&8
engT3 &0J4--&0J:' aka ShThT'

C8:i
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B:2--&B:J'

Co+an
engT3

!37

90ky0

C8+y8
engT3 &:>4--&:>J' aka -eikyT'

C8+y>
engT3 &2&?--&22&' aka ShTkyX'

Comei9tenn8
-he B4th emperor of =apan' $i)ed @?B to ? Dct' :4&' ;eigned 4 =an' :2? to ? Dct' :4&'

C8to+u
engT3 &0?J--&0?>' aka ShTtoku'

Cuei
engT3 &&>2--&&>B'

Cunna9tenn8
-he @Brd emperor of =apan' $i)ed J>: to > <ay >40' ;eigned &: 0pri( >2B to 2> "eb' >BB'

Cunnin9tenn8
-he 4Jth emperor of =apan' $i)ed JBB to 2B Dct' J:@' ;eigned & 0ug' J@> to ? Dct' J:4'

Cunto+u9tenn8
-he >4th emperor of =apan' $i)ed &0 Sept' &&?J to &2 Sept' &242' ;eigned 2@ o)' &2&0 to 20 0pri( &22&'

!38

9urakutei Ca*tle

Cura+utei Castle
,n 4yTto' /ui(t by -oyotomi Lideyoshi' /ui(t 7comp(etedV9 in &@>:' #emo(ished in &@?@'

7aei , 7y>s&> Campai'n


7aei
engT3 &>4>--&>@B'

7a'a ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today part of ,shika*a Prefecture' 4aga bordered on Pchi5en, PtchX, Lida, and oto Pro)inces' see a(so3 Pchi5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, PtchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Lida Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,shika*a Prefecture 7pg' A9, oto Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

7a'a)a refe%ture
0rea3 &,>J@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 -akamatsu Popu(ation3 &,0B0,000 7&??:9

7a'a)a Toyo&i+o
$i)ed &>>> to &?:0'

7a'en
engT3 &B0B--&B0@'

7a'os&ima refe%ture
0rea3 ?,&>: km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 4agoshima Popu(ation3 &,>00,000 7&??:9

!3

:ah0

7a&8
engT3 &0?4--&0?@'

7aifu Tos&i+i
Prime <inister from &0 0ugust &?>? to 2> "ebruary &??0 and again 2> "ebruary &??0 to @ o)ember &??&' ;ep(aced by <iya5a*a 4iichi 7pg AAA9'

7ai+a9tenn8
-he ?th Pmperor of =apan' $i)ed 200 to ?> /'C' 7V9 ;eigned &@> to ?> /'C' -he third son of the emperor 4Tgen' 6ith dates (ike these, this emperor is mytho(ogica(, and shou(d be taken *ith a sa(t tab(et'

7ai+ei 7ai ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today Eamanashi Prefecture' 4ai bordered on 4T5uke, <usashi, Sagami, Shinano, and Suruga Pro)inces' see a(so3 4T5uke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <usashi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Sagami Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Suruga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamanashi Prefecture 7pg' A9,

7aiseit8 7a:8
engT3 >4>-->@0' aka 4ashT'

7a:8
engT3 &&0:--&&0J'
!4#

:a@0

aka 4ashT'

7a+ei
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B>J--&B>>'

7a+inomoto no Hitomaru
$i)ed :>@ to J0@'

7a+itsu
engT3 &44&--&44B'

7ama+ura #&8'unate 7ambun


engT3 &::&--&:J2'

7ameyama9tenn8
-he ?0th emperor of =apan' $i)ed 2J <ay &24? to &@ Sept' &B0@' ;eigned 2: o)' &2@? to 2: =an' &2J4'

7ami+a-e (0$
K4amika5eG trans(ates to Png(ish as K#i)ine 6indG' ,t is the name gi)en to the typhoon that destroyed the <ongo( f(eet supporting that in)asion of =apan' -he ships (ucky enough to sur)i)e (imped back to 4orea and the <ongo(s ne)er again attempted to in)ade =apan' -he =apanese interpreted the storm as a sort of di)ine protection of their is(ands, thus Kkamika5eG'

7ami+a-e (2$
,n 6or(d 6ar ,, / the Pacific 6ar, kamika5e pi(ots f(e* p(anes specia((y outfitted *ith bombs into 0merican ships' ,t *as a (ast ditch attemp to turn the tide of batt(e in the Pacific' ,t *as not effecti)e'

7amino:o. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &@:2' !dono agamochi 7*hoV9 defended the cast(e for the ,maga*a 7V9' -okuga*a ,eyasu beseiged the cast(e and *as ab(e to take it after using nin8a'

!4!

:ami

7ami
=apan *ord meaning KgodG or something (ike KspiritG in the sense of Ksou(G or Kdi)ineG' -hus, a kami cou(d be a god 7(o*er case g9 or the sou( / spirit of a departed person' /asica((y it is something supernatura( that is to be respected 7but not fearedV9'

7ammu9tenn8
-he @0th emperor of =apan' $i)ed JBJ to &J <arch >0:' ;eigned B 0pri( J>& to &J <arch >0:'

7amp8
engT3 &J4&--&J4B'

7ampy8
engT3 >>?-->?J'

7ana'a)a refe%ture
0rea3 2,4&4 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Eokohama Popu(ation3 >,&J0,000 7&??:9

7anayama. /attle of 7ana-a)a Castle


<aeda -oshinaga bui(t and resided in 4ana5a*a Cast(e' see a(so3 <aeda -oshinaga 7pg' A9,

7ana-a)a City
4ana5a*a is the capita( of ,shika*a Prefecture' Popu(ation is rough(y 4@0,000' ,t is famous for, among other things, its go(d-(eaf products, 4enrokuen, and the samurai district 7the bukeyashiki9' see a(so3 4enrokuen 7pg' A9, /ukeyashiki 7Samurai #istrict9 7pg' A9,

!4"

:anHei@i

7an;ei:i 7an;ei
engT3 &:24--&:4B'

7ane+o 7entar8
$i)ed 4 "eb' &>@B to &: <ay &?42'

7an;en
engT3 &J4>--&J@0'

7an'en
engT3 &24B--&24:'

7an:i
engT3 &0>J--&0?B'

7an+i
engT3 &22?--&2B&'

7an+8
engT3 &004--&0&&'

7anna
engT3 ?>@--?>:' aka 4an*a'

7annin
engT3 &0&J--&020'

7anno #u'a+o
aka 4anno Suga' $i)ed &>>& to &?&&'

7anno #u'a
see 4anno Sugako 7page AAA9

7an8 "ito+u
$i)ed &B =an' &@4B to &4 Sept' &@?0'
!43

:an0 /itoku

<omoyama era artist'

7an8 Ci'or8
$i)ed 2> Dct' &>:0 to 4 <ay &?B> 4anT =igorT is credited *ith creating the modern sport of =udo out of the o(der and more )io(ent fighting arts of the samurai'

7an;8
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B@0--&B@&'

7ansei
engT3 &J>?--&>00'

7ans&8
engT3 &4:0--&4:@'

7anto+u
engT3 &044--&04@'

7an)a
engT3 ?>@--?>:' 0(so kno*n as 4anna' See that entry for more detai(s'

7a8
engT3 &&:?--&&J0'

7are+i
engT3 &B2:--&B2>' 0(so kno*n as 4aryaku' See that entry for more detai(s'

7aro+u
engT3 &22@--&22:'

7arya+u
engT3 &B2:--&B2>' aka 4areki'

!44

:a*h0

7as&8
engT3 >4>-->@0'

7atao+a 7en+i%&i
$i)ed 2: #ec' &>4B 7&>44V9 to B& Dct' &?0B'

7atayama #en
$i)ed B #ec' &>@? 7&>:09 to @ o)' &?BB'

7atayama Tetsu
$i)ed 2> =u(y &>>J to B0 <ay &?J>' Prime <inister from 24 <ay &?4J to &0 <arch &?4>' 6as a(so brief(y <inister of 0gricu(ture and "orestry in his o*n cabinet --- from 4 o)ember &?4J &B #ecember &?4J'

7atei
engT3 &2B@--&2BJ'

7at8 Hiroyu+i
$i)ed 2B =une &>B: to ? "eb &?&:'

7ato 7a-ue
see <isora Libari on page AAA'

7at8 7omei
see 4atT -akaaki on page AAA'

7at8 Ta+aa+i
aka 4atT 4omei' $i)ed B =an' &>:0 to 2> =an &?2:'

!45

:at0 )akaaki
Cabinet 4 ,tT
th

Position "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister Prime <inister

From Dct &?, &?00 =an J, &?0: =an 2?, &?&B 0pr &:, &?&4 =un &&, &?24 0ug 2, &?2@

To =un 2, &?0& <ar B, &?0: "eb 20, &?&B 0ug &0, &?&@ 0ug 2, &?2@ =an B0, &?2:

&st Saion8i B 4atsura


rd

2 Skuma &st 4atT 7-akaaki9 2 4atT 7-akaaki9


nd

nd

Table 3&Cabinet Positions Held by Kat Takaaki

Name 4atT -akaaki -akahashi 4orekiyo -akahashi 4orekiyo Dka5aki 4unisuke Pgi -asuku -sukamoto Sei8i -akahashi 4orekiyo oda !tarT ,nukai -suyoshi 0dachi 4en5T Dkada ;yThei Lamaguchi Dsachi Shidehara 4i8urT 6akatsuki ;ei8irT Eokota Sennosuke -akahashi 4orekiyo Dga*a Leikichi -akarabe -akeshi Sengoku <itsugu !gaki 4a5ushige

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Commerce W ,ndustry Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar

From =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24 0pr &, &?2@ 0pr &J, &?2@ =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24 0pr &, &?2@ 0pr &J, &?2@ =un &&, &?24 <ay B&, &?2@ =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24 "eb @, &?2@ "eb ?, &?2@ =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24 =un &&, &?24

To 0ug 2, &?2@ 0pr &, &?2@ 0pr &J, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0pr &J, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ <ay B0, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ "eb @, &?2@ "eb ?, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@

Table 3* Kat Takaaki's >i st Cabinet

Name 4atT -akaaki Layami Sei8i -sukamoto Sei8i

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat

From 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@

To =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2:

!46

:at0 )akaaki
Name Eamaka*a -adao 4ataoka aoharu 0dachi 4en5T Dkada ;yThei Lamaguchi Dsachi Shidehara 4i8urT 6akatsuki ;ei8irT Pgi -asuku -akarabe -akeshi Sengoku <itsugu !gaki 4a5ushige Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar From 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ 0ug 2, &?2@ To =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2: =an B0, &?2:

Table 43Kat Takaaki's #econd Cabinet

7at8 Tomosabur8
$i)ed &>:& to &?2B'
Cabinet 2nd Skuma -erauchi Lara -akahashi 4atT 7-omosaburT9 4atT 7-omosaburT9 a)y a)y a)y a)y a)y Prime <inister Position From 0ug &0, &?&@ Dct ?, &?&: Sep 2?, &?&> o) &B, &?2& =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 To Dct ?, &?&: Sep 2?, &?&> o) &B, &?&2 =un &2, &?22 <ay &@, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B

Table 41 Cabinet Positions Held by Kat To.osabu

Name 4atT -omosaburT 0rai 4entarT <iyata <itsuo /aba Piichi <aeda -oshisada 4amata Pikichi ,chiki Dtohiko !chida 4Tsai <i5uno ;entarT Dkano 4ei8irT

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice

From =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22

To Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B !47

:at0 )omo*abur0
Name 4atT -omosaburT -akarabe -akeshi Ski Pnkichi Eamanashi Lan5T a)y a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar Position From =un &2, &?22 <ay &@, &?2B =un &2, &?22 =un &2, &?22 To <ay &@, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B Sep 2, &?2B

Table 42 Kat To.osabu 's Cabinet

7atsu A)a
see 4atsu 4aishu on page AAA

7atsu 7ais&u
aka 4atsu 0*a aka 4atsu ;intaro $i)ed &>2B to &>??'

7atsura Tar8
$i)ed 2> o) &>4J to &0 Dct &?&B'
Cabinet B ,tT & Skuma
st rd

Position 6ar 6ar 6ar 6ar Prime <inister Lome 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Pducation Prime <inister "inance "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister

From =an &2, &>?> =un B0, &>?> o) >, &>?> Dct &?, &?00 =un 2, &?0& Dct &2, &?0B =u( B, &?0@ o) 4, &?0@ #ec &4, &?0@ =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2

To =un B0, &>?> o) >, &>?> Dct &?, &?00 #ec 2B, &?00 =an J, &?0: "eb 20, &?04 Dct &>, &?0@ =an 2, &?0: =an J, &?0: 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& =an 2?, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B

2nd Eamagata 4 ,tT


th

&st 4atsura & 4atsura


st st

& 4atsura &st 4atsura & 4atsura 2 4atsura


nd st

2nd 4atsura B 4atsura


rd

Brd 4atsura

Table 43Cabinet Positions Held by Katsu a Ta

Name 4atsura -arT Lirata -Tsuke !48

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce

From =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0&

To =an J, &?0: =u( &J, &?0B

:at*ura )ar0
Name 4iyoura 4eigo Shibata 4amon Dkuda Eoshindo ,chiki 4itokurT Eoshika*a 0kimasa Sone 0rasuke Sura 4anetake 4ikuchi #airoku 4odama GentarT 4ubota Eu5uru 4atsura -arT Sone 0rasuke Sone 0rasuke 4omura =XtarT 4omura =XtarT 4atsura -arT 4omura =XtarT 4atsura -arT !tsumi -adakatsu 4odama GentarT 4atsura -arT Eoshika*a 0kimasa 4iyoura 4eigo 4iyoura 4eigo Latano -akanao Eamamoto GonnohyTe 4odama GentarT -erauchi <asatake Position 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Communications Communications Pducation Pducation Pducation Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice a)y 6ar 6ar From =u( &J, &?0B =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& Sep 2:, &?02 =un 2, &?0& =u( &J, &?0B Sep 22, &?0B =un 2, &?0& =u( &J, &?0B Sep 22, &?0B #ec &4, &?0@ =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& Sep 2&, &?0& =an 2, &?0@ =u( B, &?0@ Dct &>, &?0@ o) 4, &?0@ =un 2, &?0& =u( &@, &?0B Dct &2, &?0B "eb 20, &?04 Sep &:, &?0@ =un 2, &?0& Sep 22, &?0B =un 2, &?0& =un 2, &?0& <ar 2J, &?02 To =an J, &?0: =an J, &?0: Sep 2:, &?02 =an J, &?0: =u( &J, &?0B Sep 22, &?0B =an J, &?0: =u( &J, &?0B Sep 22, &?0B #ec &4, &?0@ =an J, &?0: =an J, &?0: Sep 2&, &?0& =u( B, &?0@ =an J, &?0@ Dct &>, &?0@ o) 4, &?0@ =an 2, &?0: =u( &@, &?0B Dct &2, &?0B "eb 20, &?04 Sep &:, &?0@ =an J, &?0: Sep 22, &?0B =an J, &?0: =an J, &?0: <ar 2J, &?02 =an J, &?0:

Table 44 Katsu a Ta 's >i st Cabinet

Name 4atsura -arT Sura 4anetake 4omatsubara PitarT Sura 4anetake

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce

From =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> <ar 2>, &?&0 Sep B, &?&0

To 0ug B0, &?&& <ar 2:, &?&0 Sep B, &?&0 0ug B0, &?&&

!4

:at*ura )ar0
Name Shibata 4amon Easuhiro /anGichirT GotT Shinpei 4omatsubara PitarT 4atsura -arT -erauchi <asatake 4omura =XtarT Lirata -Tsuke Dkabe agamoto SaitT <akoto -erauchi <asatake Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y 6ar From =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> 0ug 2J, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> To 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug 2J, &?0> 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&& 0ug B0, &?&&

Table 4"Katsu a Ta 's #econd Cabinet

Name 4atsura -arT akakT8i ;en Pgi -asuku ,chiki 4itokurT GotT Shinpei Shibata 4amon 6akatsuki ;ei8irT 4atsura -arT 4atT -akaaki Sura 4anetake <atsumuro ,taru SaitT <akoto 4igoshi Easutsuna

Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y 6ar

From #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 =an 2?, &?&B #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2 #ec 2&, &?&2

To "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B =an 2?, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B "eb 20, &?&B

Table 4$Katsu a Ta 's Thi d Cabinet

7atsu !intaro
see 4atsu 4aishu on page AAA'

7a)a%&i ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today a part of Ssaka Prefecture' 4a*achi bordered on ,5umi, 4ii, Settsu, Eamashiro, and Eamato Pro)inces'

!5#

:awachi %ro&ince

see a(so3 ,5umi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4ii Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Ssaka Prefecture 7pg' A9, Settsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamato Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

7a)a:i Tos&iyos&i 7a)a+ami Ha:ime


$i)ed &>J? to &?4:'

7a)amoto Daisa+u 7a)ana+a:ima. /attles of


/et*een &@@B and &@:B, -akeda Shingen and !esugi 4enshin fought each other se)era( times in the 4a*anaka8ima area of northeastern Shinano' one of the batt(es *as particu(ar(y decisi)e and according to Sansom4 MsansomN&?:&O none of the men in)o()ed sho*ed any signs of mi(itary genius, (eading Sansom to conc(ude that Shingen and 4enshin *ere not entire(y deser)ing of their reputations' see a(so3 Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -akeda Shingen 7pg' A9, !esugi 4enshin 7pg' A9,

7a-an9tenn8
-he :@th emperor of =apan' ;eigned ?>4 to ?>:'

7a-usa ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today a part of Chiba Prefecture' 4a5usa bordered on 0*a and ShimTsa Pro)inces' see a(so3
4 George Sansom, #"History"of"Japan0"1223)1415, pg VV

!5!

:azu*a %ro&ince

0*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chiba Prefecture 7pg' A9, ShimTsa Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

7eian
engT3 &:4>--&:@&'

7ei%&8
engT3 &@?:--&:&4'

7ei+89tenn8
-he &2th emperor of =apan' ;eigned J& to &B0'

7ei8
engT3 &>:@--&>:J'

7eitai9tenn8
-he 2:th emperor of =apan' ;eigned @0J to @B&'

7eiun
engT3 J04--J0J'

7emmu
engT3 &BB4--&BB@' -his one needs some e.p(anation soon'

7emp8
engT3 &2&B--&2&>'

7en%&8
engT3 &24?--&2@@'

7en;ei
engT3 &20:--&20:'

!5"

:engen

7en'en
engT3 &B02--&B02'

7en:i
engT3 &2J@--&2JJ'

7en+y>
engT3 &&?0--&&?>'

7ennin
engT3 &20&--&20B'

7enro+uen
0 famous garden / park in 4ana5a*a, ,shika*a-ken' -he garden *as once part of the <aeda fami(y (ands, situated near the cast(e' ,t is no* one of the three most famous gardens in =apan and a ma8or tourist attraction' see a(so3 4ana5a*a Cast(e 7pg' A9, 4ana5a*a City 7pg' A9, <aeda "ami(y 7pg' A9,

7enrya+u
engT3 &2&&--&2&2'

7ensei+ai 7en
see Prefectures on page AAA'

7ento+u
engT3 &BJ0--&BJ&'

7en-89tenn8
-he 2Brd emperor of =apan' ;eigned 4>@ to 4>J'

7ido 78i%&i
$i)ed &> =u(y &>>? to : 0pri( &?JJ' Grandson of 4ido 4Tin'
!53

:i-o :0ichi

$ord Pri)y Sea( from &?40 to &?4@'


Cabinet "irst 4onoe "irst 4onoe Liranuma Position Pducation 6e(fare Lome 0ffairs From Dct 22, &?BJ =an &&, &?B> =an @, &?B? To <ay 2:, &?B> =an @, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B?

Table 4% Cabinet Positions Held by Kido Kichi

-ried as a C(ass K0G 6ar Crimina(' ;e(eased from his sentence of (ife imprisonment in &?@B for reasons of hea(th' /ut managed to hang on for another 24 years'

7ido 78in
aka 4ido -akayoshi and 4atsura 4ogorT' $i)ed 2: =une &>BB to 2: <ay &>JJ' Grandfather of 4ido 4Tichi' 0cti)e in the <ei8i ;estoration' P(ayed a prominent ro(e in the abo(ition of the han' 6as a member of the ,*akura <ission' see a(so3 0bo(ition of the #omains 7pg' A9, ,*akura <ission 7pg' A9, <ei8i ;estoration 7pg' A9,

7ido Ta+ayos&i
See 4ido 4Tin, on page AAA'

7ii ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today a part of <ie and 6akayama Prefectures' 4ii bordered on ,se, ,5umi, 4a*achi, Shima, and Eamato Pro)inces' see a(so3 ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4a*achi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ie Prefecture 7pg' A9, Shima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 6akayama Prefecture 7pg' A9, Eamato Pro)ince 7pg' A9

7i++a)a *oto&aru
$i)ed &@B0 to &@ o)' &@>:' 0 son of <Tri <otonari' 0dopted by 4ikka*a Dkitsune' <otoharu *as the father of <otonaga 7his heir9, <otou8i, Liroie, and Liromasa'

!54

:oan

7oan
0 5en ridd(e used by some sects as a *ay of obtaining en(ightenment' 7-here has to be a better *ay to *ord that'9 0 famous Png(ish e.amp(e is 16hat is the sound of one hand c(appingV2

78an (02IA902AI$
engT3 &2J>--&2>J' -he high(ight of this nengT *ou(d ha)e to be the mongo( in)asion of &2>&' See <ongo( ,n)asions on page AA'

78an (0320990322$
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B:&--&B:2'

78an no "+i
-he =apanese name for the *ar against the <ongo( in)aders in &2>&' "or more information, see <ongo( ,n)asions on page AA'

78an9tenno
-he :th emperor of =apan' ;eigned B?2 to 2?& /'C' 0s you might surmise from the dates, a mytho(ogica( emperor'

7obaya+a)a Family
0 samurai fami(y descended from #oi Sanehira 7pg' A9' -hey ser)ed the <Tri and gre* in inf(uence and po*er after <Tri <otonariGs 7pg' A9 son -akakage *as adopted into the fami(y'

7obaya+a)a Hidea+i
$i)ed &@JJ 7&@>2V9 to &> Dct' &:02' /orn the @th son of 4inoshita ,esada but *as adopted by Lideyoshi' ,n &@?2 he *as adopted by 4obayaka*a -akakage and became his heir' ,n &@?J at age 20, Lideaki *as gi)en command of the in)asion of 4orea' -he fighting in 4orea did not go *e(( and ,shida <itsunari denounced Lideaki, ca((ing him incompetent' ,n the resu(ting friction bet*een Lideaki and Lideyoshi, -okuga*a ,eyasu successfu((y acted as mediator to bring them together again' 0fter LideyoshiGs death, Lideaki *as courted by both ,shida <itsunari and -okuga*a ,eyasu' 0(though Lideaki origina((y thought to side *ith ,eyasu, he *as (ater persuaded to support LideyoshiGs heir Lideyori' Lo*e)er, at Sekigahara, after hours of apparent indecision, Lideaki choose -okuga*a o)er ,shida and he(ped gi)e the )ictory to ,eyasu' see a(so3
!55

:obayakawa 4i-eaki

4inoshita ,esada 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, 4obayaka*a -akakage 7pg' A9, 4orea, ,n)asion of 7pg' A9, ,shida <itsunari 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyori 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9

7obaya+a)a Hide+ane
$i)ed &@:: to &:0&' -he ?th son of <Tri <otonari' !nc(ear e.act(y ho* he ended up a 4obayaka*a'

7obaya+a)a Ta+a+a'e
$i)ed &@B2 7&@BBV9 to &2 =une &@?J' -he Brd son of <Tri <otonari, -akakage *as adopted by the 4obayaka*a fami(y' -akakage fought in many batt(es and he(d his o*n against e)en the armies of Dda obunaga and Lideyoshi' "ought in LideyoshiGs campaigns in 4orea' -akakage had no chi(dren so in &@?2, Lideyoshi ga)e him his nephe* Lideaki as adopted son' see a(so3 <Tri <otonari 7pg' A9, Dda -oyotomi Lideaki 7pg' A9 obunaga 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

7obayas&i I%&i-o
$i)ed &>JB to &?@J'

78be City
Capita( of LyTgo Prefecture 7pg AA9'

7obiyama Naoto
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Su5uki 4' Su5uki 4' Ligashikuni -ransport -ransport Position -ransport W Communications From 0pr &&, &?4@ <ay &?, &?4@ 0ug &J, &?4@ To <ay &?, &?4@ 0ug &J, &?4@ Dct ?, &?4@

Table 4&Cabinet Positions Held by Kobiya.a Naoto

!56

:0bu 3attai

78bu Dattai 78bun9tenno


-he B?th emperor of =apan' ;eigned :J& to :J2'

78%&i City
Capita( city of 4Tchi Prefecture'

78%&i refe%ture
0rea3 J,&04 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 4Tchi Popu(ation3 >B0,000 7&??:9

78%&8
engT3 &2:&--&2:B'

7odama Dentar8
$i)ed &>@2 to &?0:'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 4 ,tT
th

Position 6ar 6ar Lome 0ffairs Pducation

From #ec 2B, &?00 =un 2, &?0& =u( &@, &?0B =u( &J, &?0B

To =un 2, &?0& <ar 2J, &?02 Dct &2, &?0B Sep 22, 200B

&st 4atsura & 4atsura


st

&st 4atsura

Table 4*Cabinet Positions Held by Koda.a 8enta

7odama Hideo
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet -erauchi Dkada Layashi Eonai Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Co(oni5ation Communications Lome 0ffairs From Dct ?, &?&: Dct 2@, &?B4 "eb &0, &?BJ =an &:, &?40 To Sep 2?, &?&> <ar ?, &?B: =un 4, &?BJ =u( 22, &?40

!57

:o-ama 4i-eo
Cabinet 4oiso 4oiso State Pducation Position From =u( 22, &?44 =an 2:, &?4@ To "eb &0, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@

Table "3Cabinet Positions Held by Koda.a Hideo

7odama 5os&io
/orn &?&&'

7odo&a
See 1,mperia( 6ay "action2 on page AA'

78ei
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B42--&B44'

78 Family
0 samurai fami(y that ser)ed the 0shikaga'

78fu City
Capita( city of Eamanashi Prefecture 7pg' A9'

7ofu+u:i 7ofu+u:i. /attle of 7ofun


-he 4ofun period 7ca' 0'#' 2@0-ca' :009 takes its name, *hich means 1o(d tomb2 from the cu(tureGs rich funerary ritua(s and distincti)e earthen mounds' -he mounds contained (arge stone buria( chambers, many of *hich *ere shaped (ike keyho(es and some of *hich *ere surrounded by moats' /y the (ate 4ofun period, the distincti)e buria( chambers, origina((y used by the ru(ing e(ite, a(so *ere bui(t for commoners' #uring the 4ofun period, a high(y aristocratic society *ith mi(itaristic ru(ers de)e(oped' ,ts horse-riding *arriors *ore armor, carried s*ords and other *eapons, and used ad)anced mi(itary methods (ike those of ortheast 0sia' P)idence of these ad)ances is seen in funerary figures 7ca((ed hani*a+ (itera((y, c(ay rings9, found in thousands of kofun scattered throughout =apan' -he most important of the hani*a *ere found in southern Lonshu --- especia((y the 4inai region around ara --- and northern 4yushu' Lani*a gra)e offerings *ere made in numerous forms, such as horses, chickens, birds, fans, fish, houses, *eapons, shie(ds, sunshades, pi((o*s, and ma(e and fema(e humans' 0nother funerary

!58

:o!un

piece, the magatama, became one of the symbo(s of the po*er of the imperia( house' -he 4ofun period *as a critica( stage in =apanGs e)o(ution to*ard a more cohesi)e and recogni5ed state' -his society *as most de)e(oped in the 4inai ;egion and the easternmost part of the ,n(and Sea 7Seto aikai9, and its armies estab(ished a footho(d on the southern tip of 4orea' =apanGs ru(ers of the time e)en petitioned the Chinese court for confirmation of roya( tit(es+ the Chinese, in turn, recogni5ed =apanese mi(itary contro( o)er parts of the 4orean peninsu(a' -he Eamato po(ity, *hich emerged by the (ate fifth century, *as distinguished by po*erfu( great c(ans or e.tended fami(ies, inc(uding their dependents' Pach c(an *as headed by a patriarch *ho performed sacred rites to the c(anGs kami to ensure the (ong-term *e(fare of the c(an' C(an members *ere the aristocracy, and the king(y (ine that contro((ed the Eamato court *as at its pinnac(e' <ore e.change occurred bet*een =apan and the continent of 0sia (ate in the 4ofun period' /uddhism *as introduced from 4orea, probab(y in 0'#' @B>, e.posing =apan to a ne* body of re(igious doctrine' -he Soga, a =apanese court fami(y that rose to prominence *ith the accession of the Pmperor 4immei about 0'#' @B&, fa)ored the adoption of /uddhism and of go)ernmenta( and cu(tura( mode(s based on Chinese Confucianism' /ut some at the Eamato court --- such as the akatomi fami(y, *hich *as responsib(e for performing Shinto ritua(s at court, and the <ononobe, a mi(itary c(an --- *ere set on maintaining their prerogati)es and resisted the a(ien re(igious inf(uence of /uddhism' -he Soga introduced Chinese-mode(ed fisca( po(icies, estab(ished the first nationa( treasury, and considered the 4orean peninsu(a a trade route rather than an ob8ect of territoria( e.pansion' 0crimony continued bet*een the Soga and the akatomi and <ononobe c(ans for more than a century, during *hich the Soga temporari(y emerged ascendant' -he 4ofun period is seen as ending by around 0'#' :00, *hen the use of e(aborate kofun by the Eamato and other e(ite fe(( out of use because of pre)ai(ing ne* /uddhist be(iefs, *hich put greater emphasis on the transience of human (ife' Commoners and the e(ite in out(ying regions, ho*e)er, continued to use kofun unti( the (ate se)enth century, and simp(er but distincti)e tombs continued in use throughout the fo((o*ing period' -he Eamato state e)o()ed sti(( further during the 0suka period, *hich is named after the 0suka region, south of modern ara, the site of numerous temporary imperia( capita(s estab(ished during the period' -he 0suka period is kno*n for its significant artistic, socia(, and po(itica( transformations, *hich had their origins in the (ate 4ofun period'
Credits(

-he artic(e is origina((y based on materia(s from $ibrary of Congress3 Country Study
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC
!5

:o!un httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleL:o!un

78'en
engT3 &2@:--&2@:'

78'en9tenn8
-he >th emperor of =apan' ;eigned 2&4 to &@> /'C'

78'yo+u9tenno
0n empress' -he B@th ru(er of =apan' ;eigned :42 to :4@'

78&ei
engT3 &0@>--&0:4'

78&8
engT3 ?:4--?:J'

7oiso 7unia+i
$i)ed & 0pri( &>>0 to B o)' &?@0 7&?@@V9' ,ndicted as a c(ass G0G *ar crimina('
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Liranuma Eonai 4oiso Position Co(oni5ation Co(oni5ation Prime <inister From 0pr J, &?B? =an &:, &?40 =u( 22, &?44 To 0ug B0, &?B? =u( 22, &?40 0pr J, &?4@

Table "1Cabinet Positions Held by Koiso Kuniaki

Cabinet
Name 4oiso 4uniaki Shimada -oshio <iura 4unio -anaka -akeo Lirose Lisatada Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat From =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 2?, &?44 "eb &0, &?4@ To 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ =u( 2?, &?44 "eb &0, &?4@ "eb 2&, &?4@

!6#

:oi*o :uniaki
Name ,shi*ata STtarT <iura 4unio inomiya Larushige 4odama Lideo ,shi*ata STtarT -sushima =uichi Shigemitsu <amoru Sdachi Shigeo Shigemitsu <amoru "u8ihara Gin8irT Eoshida Shigeru Eonai <itsumasa 4odama Lideo Dgata -aketora <achida ChX8i 4obayashi Sei5T Lirose Lisatada ,shi*ata STtarT <aeda Eone5T Sugiyama Gen Lirose Lisatada 0ika*a 4atsuroku Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Pducation Pducation "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Greater Past 0sia <unitions <unitions a)y State State State State State State -ransport W Communications 6ar 6e(fare 6e(fare From "eb 2&, &?4@ =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =an 2:, &?4@ =u( 22, &?44 "eb 2&, &?4@ =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 #ec &?, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 #ec &?, &?44 "eb &0, &?4@ "eb 2&, &?4@ =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 =u( 22, &?44 "eb &0, &?4@ To 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ =an 2:, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ "eb 2&, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ #ec &?, &?44 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ "eb &0, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ <ar &, &?4@ "eb 2&, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@ "eb &0, &?4@ 0pr J, &?4@

<atsu5aka Liromasa =ustice

Table "2Koiso Kuniaki's Cabinet

7oi-umi Cun;i%&ir8
Prime <inister from 2: 0pri( 200& to the present'

78:i (0032$
engT3 &&42--&&4B'

78:i (0111$
engT3 &@@@--&@@J'

78+a
engT3 &>44--&>4J'
!6!

:0kaku+tenno

78+a+u9tenno
-he &&?th emperor of =apan' $i)ed &@ 0ug &JJ& to &? o) &>40' ;eigned 2@ o) &JJ? 7&J>0V9 to 22 <arch &>&J'

7o+a)adera 78+e
$itera((y 1Ligh "ami(ies,2 kTke *as the name gi)en to a group of specia( e.daimyT fami(ies during the -okuga*a period' -hese fami(ies he(d no (ands but recei)ed a sma(( stipend from the Shogunate' -he system *as instituted in &:0> 7&:0BV9 and there *ere e)entua((y about 2: kTke fami(ies' Se)era( duties / offices in the bakufu go)ernment *ere reser)ed for members of these fami(ies' Some of the kTke fami(ies *ere3
Fami y Latakeyama 4ira Ssa*a -akeda Eura
Table "3Kke >a.ilies

Page ,maga*a Dda Stomo Eokose

Fami y

Page

0(so see Dmote-kTke, pg AA' /ut there is not current(y anything there'

78+en9tenn8
0n empress' -he 4:th ru(er of =apan' $i)ed J&> to 4 0ug' JJ0' ;eigned 2 =u(y J4? to & 0ug' J@>' 0(so reigned ? Dct' J:4 to 4 0ug' JJ0 as ShTtoku-tennT 7pg' 2:49,the 4>th ru(er of =apan'

78+89tenno
-he @>th emperor of =apan' ;eigned >>4 to >>J'

!6"

:0koku

78+o+u
engT3 &B40--&B4@'

7o+u
0 unit of )o(ume, eHua( to rough(y &>0 (iters' -his *as theoretica((y enough rice for one man for one year' $and *as c(assified by ho* many koku of rice it cou(d produce' -hus daimyT cou(d be ranked based on ho* many koku the (ands they contro((ed cou(d produce' -his in turn a((o*ed (eaders (ike -oyotomi Lideyoshi and -okuga*a ,eyasu to punish or re*ard their fo((o*ers by mo)ing them to fiefs that produced more or (ess rice' -o Hua(ify as a daimyT, a man had to contro( (ands producing at (east &0,000 koku' <any daimyT had 8ust that *hi(e a fe* 7(ike the -okuga*a and the <aeda9 contro((ed hundreds of thousands of koku' Lideyoshi instituted a nation*ide and )ery thorough program of (and c(assification in the &@>0s and &@?0s' 7check dates9

7o+umin Domei 7o+ury>+ai 78mei9tenno


-he &2&th emperor of =apan' $i)ed &4 =une &>B& to 2@ #ec &>::' ;eigned &B "eb &>4: 7&>4JV9 to 2@ #ec &>::'

78 *oroa+i
Son of 4T <oronao'

78 *orofuyu
Son of 4T <oroshige'

78 *oromo%&i
Son of 4T <oroshige'

78 *oronao
#ied in &B@&'

!63

:0 Moronao

Ser)ed 0shikaga -akau8i 7pg AA9 for many years' "ought and *on se)era( batt(es, but (ost to 0shikaga -adayoshi 7pg AA9 in &@B& and *as ki((ed trying to get a*ay'

78 *oronatsu
Son of 4T <oronao'

78 *oros&i'e
"ather of <oronao, <oroshige, <oroyasu, and <oromochi'

78 *oroyasu
Son of 4T <oroshige' 0ssassinated in &B@&'

78 *oroyo
Son of 4T <oroyasu' #ied *ith his father in &B@&'

78no To'ama
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st <atsukata & <atsukata
st

Position 0gricu(ture W Commerce =ustice Lome 0ffairs

From <ar &4, &>?2 =un 2B, &>?2 =u( &4, &>?2

To =u( &4, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2

&st <atsukata

Table "4Cabinet Positions Held by Kno To,a.a

7omura C>tar8
$i)ed &>@@ to &?&&'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & 4atsura
st

Position "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs

From Sep 2&, &?0& =an 2, &?0@ Dct &>, &?0@ 0ug 2J, &?0>

To =u( B, &?0@ =an J, &?0@ o) 4, &?0@ 0ug B0, &?&&

&st 4atsura & 4atsura


st

2nd 4atsura

Table ""Cabinet Positions Held by Ko.u a 6<ta

!64

:0nin+tenno

78nin9tenno
-he 4?th emperor of =apan' ;eigned JJ0 to J>&'

78nin
engT3 >&0-->2B'

7ono /in+en
see 4ono -ogama on page AA'

7ono Hirona+a
$i)ed &>4? to &?2B'

7ono To'ama
aka 4ono /inken' $i)ed &>44 to &>?@'

7onoe Fumimaro
$i)ed &2 Dct &>?& to &: #ec &?4@' /e(ie)ing he *as going to be arrested as a *ar crimina(, "umimaro committed suicide in &?4@'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & 4onoe
st

Position Prime <inister Co(oni5ation "oreign 0ffairs Lanretsu 0gricu(ture W "orestry Prime <inister =ustice Prime <inister State

From =un 4, &?BJ Sep B0, &?B> Sep B0, &?B> =an @, &?B? =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& 0ug &J, &?4@

To =an @, &?B? Dct 2?, &?B> Dct 2?, &?B> 0ug B0, &?B? =u( 24, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& =u( 2@, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct ?, &?4@

&st 4onoe & 4onoe


st

Liranuma 2nd 4onoe 2


nd

4onoe

Brd 4onoe Brd 4onoe Ligashikuni

Table "$Cabinet Positions Held by Konoe >u.i.a o

First Cabinet
Name 4onoe "umimaro Position Prime <inister From =un 4, &?BJ To =an @, &?B?

!65

:onoe Fumimaro
Name 0rima Eoriyasu 4a5ami 0kira "unada aka -aki <asao !gaki 4a5ushige 4onoe "umimaro Latta Eoshiaki ,keda Shigeaki Eoshino Shin8i agai ;yXtarT Easui Pi8i 4ido 4Tichi 0raki Sadao ,keda Shigeaki 4aya Dkinori !gaki 4a5ushige 4onoe "umimaro 0rita LachirT Lirota 4Tki /aba Piichi Suetsugu obumasa 4ido 4Tichi aka8ima Chikuhei Stani SonyX Shiono Suehiko Eonai <itsumasa Sugiyama Gen ,tagaki SeishirT Position 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Co(oni5ation Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation Pducation Pducation "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs 6e(fare ;ai(*ays Co(oni5ation =ustice a)y 6ar 6ar From =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ Dct 2@, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 2@, &?B> Sep B0, &?B> Dct 2?, &?B> <ay 2:, &?B> =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ Dct 22, &?BJ <ay 2:, &?B> <ay 2:, &?B> =un 4, &?BJ <ay 2:, &?B> Sep B0, &?B> Dct 2?, &?B> =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ #ec &4, &?BJ =an &&, &?B> =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =un B, &?B> To =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? Dct 2@, &?BJ Sep B0, &?B> Dct 2?, &?B> =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? <ay 2:, &?B> =an @, &?B? Dct 22, &?BJ <ay 2:, &?B> =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? <ay 2:, &?B> Sep B0, &?B> Dct 2?, &?B> =an @, &?B? <ay 2:, &?B> #ec &4, &?BJ =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =un 2@, &?B> =an @, &?B? =an @, &?B? =un B, &?B> =an @, &?B?

Table "%Konoe >u.i.a o's >i st Cabinet

#e%ond Cabinet
Name 4onoe "umimaro ,no -etsuya ,shiguro -adaatsu !66 Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0gricu(ture W "orestry From =u( 22, &?40 =un &&, &?4& =u( 24, &?40 To =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =un &&, &?4&

:onoe Fumimaro
Name 4onoe "umimaro -omita 4en8i <urase aokai 0kita 4iyoshi <atsuoka ETsuke 4obayashi ,chi5T -oyoda -ei8irT <urata ShT5T Lashida 4unihiko 4a*ada ,sao <atsuoka ETsuke Loshino aoki Liranuma 4iichirT Easui Pi8i 4a5ami 0kira Eanaga*a Leisuke Liranuma 4iichirT Loshino aoki Dgura <asatsune Su5uki -eiichi Dika*a 4oshirT Eoshida Rengo <urata ShT5T Dga*a GTtarT -T8T Lideki Easui Pi8i 4anemitsu -suneo Position 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Co(oni5ation Commerce 0 # ,ndustry Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lanretsu Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice <inister of State <inister of State <inister of State <inister of State a)y a)y ;ai(*ays ;ai(*ays 6ar 6e(fare 6e(fare From =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 Sep 2>, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 0pr 4, &?4& =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 #ec 2&, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 #ec 2&, &?40 #ec :, &?40 #ec :, &?40 0pr 2, &?4& 0pr 4, &?4& Sep @, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 Sep 2>, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 Sep 2>, &?40 To =u( 24, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& Sep 2>, &?40 0pr 4, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& #ec 2&, &?40 #ec 2&, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& #ec 2&, &?40 0pr 4, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& Sep @, &?40 Sep 2>, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& Sep 2>, &?40 =u( &>, &?4&

Table "&Konoe >u.i.a o's #econd Cabinet

T&ird Cabinet
Name 4onoe "umimaro ,no -etsuya -omita 4en8i <urase aokai Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau From =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& To Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& !67

:onoe Fumimaro
Name -oyoda -ei8irT Sakon8i <asa5T <urata ShT5T Lashida 4unihiko Dgura <asatsune -oyoda -ei8irT -anabe Larumichi ,*amura <ichiyo 4onoe "umimaro Liranuma 4iichirT Su5uki -eiichi Eanaga*a Leisuke Dika*a 4oshirT <urata ShT5T -T8T Lideki 4oi5umi Chikahiko Position Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice <inister of State <inister of State <inister of State a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar 6e(fare From =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( 2@, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& =u( &>, &?4& To Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& =u( 2@, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4&

Table "*Konoe >u.i.a o's Thi d Cabinet

7onoe9tenno
-he J:th emperor of =apan' $i)ed &> <ay &&B? to 2B =u(y &&@@ ;eigned J #ec &&4& to 2B =u(y &&@@'

788
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B>?--&B>?'

7orea. In4asion of
*hich oneV

7orea. rote%torate of 78rei9tenno


-he Jth emperor of =apan' ;eigned 2?0 to 2&@ /'C'

!68

:oreya*u

7oreyasu 7oriyama. #ei'e


-ook p(ace in &@40--&@4&' 0mako Laruhisa, *ith B,000 men, attacked 4oriyama Cast(e, *hich be(onged to <Tri <otonari and *as defended by >,000 men' 6hen <Tri sent an army to re(ie)e the seige, 0mako *as forced to (ea)e' see a(so3 0mako Laruhisa 7pg' A9, <Tri <otonari 7pg' A9

78rya+u
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &BJ?--&B>0'

78s&8
engT3 &4@@--&4@:'

78s&89tenno
-he @th emperor of =apan' ;eigned 4J@ to B?B /'C'

7otoamatsu+ami
,n =apanese Shintoism, 4otoamatsukami is the co((ecti)e name for the first po*ers *hich came into e.istence at the time of the creation of the uni)erse' -hey *ere born in -akamagahara, the *or(d of Lea)en at the time of the creation, as 0menominakanushi 7Sky9, -akamimusubi 7Ligh Producer9, 4amimusubi 7#i)ine Producer9, and a bit (ater !mashiashikabihiko8i 7;eed9 and 0menotokotachi 7Lea)en9' -hese forces then became gods and goddesses, the ten5ai shoshin 7hea)en(y kami93

0me no minakanushi no kami -akami-musubi no Tkami 4amimusubi no Tkami !mashiashikabihiko8i no kami 0me no -okotachi no kami 4uni no -okotachi no kami -oyokumono no kami
!6

:otoamat*ukami

!hi8ini no mikoto Suhi8ini no kami -sunokuhi no kami ,kukuhi no kami Stono8i no kami Stonobe no kami Dmodaru no kami 4ashikone no kami ,5anagi no kami ,5anami no kami 0materasu Tmikami'
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleL:otoamat*ukami

78to+u9tenno
-he B:th emperor of =apan' $i)ed @?:7V9 to &0 Dct :@4' ;eigned &4 =une :4@ to &0 Dct :@4'

78to+u
engT3 &4@2--&4@4' 0(so 4yTtoku' See that entry on page AA for more information'

78to+u #&>sui
Socia(ist and 0narchist' /orn in 4Tchi Prefecture' $i)ed &>J& to &?&&'
#ee Also

0narchism 7pg 249, ;ed "(ag ,ncident 7pg 2B>9,

78)a (00BB$
engT3 &0??--&&0B'

!7#

:0wa ("'2")

78)a (03A0$
engT3 &B>&Z&B>B'

7o)ale)s+i. Can
$i)ed VV Sometimes 14o*a(efsky, =an2 Po(ish crypto(ogica( e.pert *ho came to =apan in September of &?24 7=anuary &?2B according to MkahnN2004O9 to he(p the =apanese army impro)e its codes and codebreaking ski((s' #a)id 4ahn describes 4o*a(e*ski as 1a ta((ish, broad, handsome man, *ith a *onderfu( sense of humor and great inte((ectua( intuition2 7MkahnN2004O, pg >:9' 0fter teaching a three month seminar for se(ected officers, 4o*a(e*ski returned to Po(and' "our of his =apanese students *ent *ith him to gain practica( e.perience *ith the Po(ish mi(itary crytana(ysts in 6arsa*' -hese students returned to =apan a year (ater and others *ere sent to 6arsa* to rep(ace them' -his e.change program of sorts supposed(y (asted unti( &?B>' !nfortunate(y, there does not seem to be anything a)ai(ab(e in Png(ish to confirm the abo)e' <ost of the information is from MhiyamaN&??4O, in *hich Liyama Eoshiaki discusses 4o*a(e*skiGs ro(e in =apanese crypto(ogica( history' Liyama pro)ides no sources for his information' Dther recent =apanese books on crypto(ogy, such as Mtakaga*aN200BO, present a(most no significant ne* information' 4ahn does not mention 4o*a(e*skiGs students )isiting Po(and at a(( and MkahnN2004O 7pg >J9 says that 4o*a(e*ski on(y taught four =apanese students'
#our%es and #u''ested !eadin'

MkahnN2004O pages >:->J, a(though some of the data does not match that in =apanese (anguage sources (ike
#ee Also

78y8 Dun+an 78-u+e ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today Gunma Prefecture' 4T5uke bordered on Pchigo, ,*ashiro, <usashi, Shimotsuke, and Shinano Pro)inces' see a(so3 Pchigo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Gumma Prefecture 7pg' A9, ,*ashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <usashi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimotsuke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9

!7!

:0zuki, 1eige o!

78-u+i. #ei'e of
4T5uki Cast(e sits at an e(e)ation of &?B meters abo)e sea (e)e( atop <t' 4o8in in the to*n of 4T5uki, in *estern LyTgo Prefecture' #uring the 6arring States Period, the cast(e sat at the intersection of three domains3 /i5en, Larima and <imasaka' ,t a(so stood *atch o)er the on(y ma8or trade route connecting (ands to the *est *ith those to the east' -hese t*o factors made 4T5uki Cast(e a )ery )a(uab(e piece of property for any *ho *ished to gain dominance in the region' "or the armies of Dda obunaga to push *est to Liroshima, 4T5uki Cast(e had to be captured' "or <ori to push east into DdaGs domain, he had to keep contro( of 4T5uki Cast(e' ,t *as these t*o great po*ers of the day, Dda and <ori, *hich sent tens of thousands to fight and die for contro( of 4T5uki Cast(e' -he 1Siege2 of 4T5uki Cast(e is a misnomer, as the cast(e *as the site of successi)e sieges and attacks o)er a t*o-year period C &@JJ to &@J>' ,n the year &@JJ, the (ord *ho contro((ed 4T5uki Cast(e for the <ori *as named 0kamatsu <asanori' -hat year sa* the first massi)e in)asion of DdaGs armies into the region, under the (eadership of Lideyoshi Lashiba 7*ho *ou(d (ater take the name by *hich he is *e(( kno*n today C Lideyoshi -oyotomi9' Lideyoshi (ed an army numbering from thirty to forty thousand so(diers in an assau(t on the region' -he )ast ma8ority of (oca( (ords, facing insurmountab(e odds, Huick(y s*ore a((egiance to Dda and so ma8or batt(es in the region *ere some*hat rare' -hen Lideyoshi brought the armies of Dda to 4T5uki, *here 0kamatsu <asanori faced the cha((enge of Lideyoshi *ith a refusa( to deny <ori as his master' 0nd so the batt(e *as 8oined' 0fter the death of thousands of his o*n, 0kamatsu must ha)e rea(i5ed that defeat *as imminent' ,n #ecember of &@JJ, 0kamatsu <asanori and his (ieutenants committed ritua( suicide *ithin the *a((s of the cast(e, and Lideyoshi c(aimed )ictory in the name of Dda obunaga'@ 0fter LideyoshiGs )ictory, the genera( p(aced the (ord, 0mago 4atsuhisa, in the cast(e' ,t *as not 0mago, but 0magoGs top retainer, Eamanaka Shikanosuke, *ho gained fame in the siege of &@J>' ,n that year, <ori sent an army of appro.imate(y thirty thousand into the region, to take back contro( of 4T5uki Cast(e, through *hich he *ou(d regain contro( of the region' ,n Dctober of that year, the <ori army surrounded 4T5uki Cast(e and began the attack' 0mago 4atsuhisa had, at most, one thousand men in his army to defend the cast(e':
@ Lideyoshi Lashiba became infamous for his use of terror tactics to maintain contro( o)er popu(ations and to punish those *ho dared to oppose him' -o punish 0kamatsu and his fo((o*ers, Lideyoshi searched out and found the *i)es and chi(dren of the so(diers defending the cast(e' Le then crucified a(( of them, as an ob8ect (esson to his opponents' : ote3 =apanese history te.tbooks ha)e it that 0mago defended the cast(e *ith fi)e thousand men, but the physica( si5e of the cast(e and the mountain itse(f Huick(y discredit this c(aim as an impossibi(ity'

!7"

:0zuki, 1eige o!

6hi(e 4T5uki Cast(e *as under siege by the army of <ori, Lideyoshi himse(f returned *ith ten thousand so(diers to aid 0mago in his defense of the cast(e' Lideyoshi sent a reHuest to Dda obunaga for more so(diers to aid in the defense' DdaGs rep(y condemned the defenders of the cast(e to their deaths' 0t that time, Dda obunaga had prob(ems further east C at <iki Cast(e 7(ocated in present day eastern Lyogo Prefecture9' Lideyoshi *as sent no troops' ;ather, Lideyoshi and his army of ten thousand *ere reca((ed to aid in DdaGs assau(t on <iki Cast(e' Lideyoshi and his men *ere (itera((y *ithin three mi(es of 4T5uki Cast(e *hen they *ere reca((ed' -he 0mago forces repe((ed attack after attack, but their numbers *ere being reduced steadi(y *ith each assau(t and a <ori )ictory *as 8ust a matter of time' 6ithout his (ordGs permission, Eamanaka Shikanosuke met in secret *ith the (eaders of the attacking <ori army and made them an offer' ,n e.change for the safety of 0magoGs retainers, Eamanaka and the defenders of 4T5uki Cast(e *ou(d surrender' Lis offer *as accepted' Eamanaka Shikanosuke surrendered *ith *hat *as (eft of 0mago 4atsuhisaGs army' 0s promised, those *ho surrendered *ere kept a(i)e and changed their a((egiance to side *ith <ori' 0mago 4atsuhisa committed ritua( suicide *ithin the cast(e *a((s' -he bargain Eamanaka Shikanosuke had made *ith the <ori did not app(y to himse(f' Eamanaka Shikanosuke *as taken prisoner and taken into the *est' -here he *as e.ecuted in a dishonorab(e fashion C being cut do*n from behind' Dne theory suggests that Eamanaka struck a bargain *ith the <ori in an attempt to sa)e his o*n (ife' 0nother suggests that he sacrificed himse(f for the sake of his men' -he finer detai(s of the secret meeting *ere ne)er recorded and it is impossib(e to kno* EamanakaGs true moti)es'
by Carl F. :elley Contribute- ,ecember <==<

see a(so3 0mago 70mako9 4atsuhisa 7pg' A9, -oyotomi 7Lashiba9 Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, 4obayaka*a -akakage 7pg' A9, 4ikka*a <otoharu 7pg' A9 7todo3 inde. this entry9

7u+ai
$i)ed JJ4 to >B@'

7u+i 5os&ita+a 7umamoto National arty 7umamoto refe%ture


0rea3 J,40B km2 7&??@9
!73

:umamoto %re!ecture

Capita(3 4umamoto Popu(ation3 &,>J0,000 7&??:9

7uno&e *asa-ane
$i)ed

7uroda 7iyota+a
$i)ed &: Dct' &>40 to 2B 0ug' &?00' Prime <inister from B0 0pri( &>>> to 24 #ecember &>>?'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & ,tT
st

Position 0gricu(ture W Commerce Prime <inister Lanretsu

From Sep &:, &>>J 0pr B0, &>>> <ar &J, &>?@

To 0pr B0, &>>> #ec 24, &>>? Sep &>, &>?:

4uroda 2nd ,tT

Table $3Cabinet Positions Held by Ku oda Kiyotaka

Cabinet
Name 4uroda 4iyotaka Pnomoto -akeaki 4omaki /anchT ,noue 4o*ashi Pnomoto -akeaki GotT ShT8irT <ori 0rinori Syama ,*ao Pnomoto -akeaki Skuma Shigenobu ,tT Lirobumi Eamagata 0ritomo Eamagata 0ritomo Eamada 0kiyoshi SaigT -sugumichi Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Communications Pducation Pducation Pducation "oreign 0ffairs Lanretsu Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y From 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> <ar 22, &>>? 0pr B0, &>>> "eb &:, &>>? <ar 22, &>>? 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> #ec B, &>>> Dct B, &>>? 0pr B0, &>>> 0pr B0, &>>> To #ec 24, &>>? =u( 2@, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? <ar 22, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? "eb &2, &>>? <ar 22, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? #ec B, &>>> Dct B, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? #ec 24, &>>? #ec 24, &>>?

<atsukata <asayoshi "inance

<atsukata <asayoshi Lome 0ffairs

!74

:uro-a :iyotaka
Name Syama ,*ao 6ar Position From 0pr B0, &>>> To #ec 24, &>>?

Table $1Ku oda Kiyotaka's Cabinet

7uroda Na'amasa
$i)ed B #ec' &@:> to 4 0ug' &:2B' Son of 4uroda Eoshitaka' "ought for -oyotomi Lideyoshi in 4yXshX and 4orea' Sided *ith -okuga*a ,eyasu at the /att(e of Sekigahara and again at the Seige of Ssaka' 6as gi)en a8ima 7@20,000 koku9 in Chiku5en after Sekigahara' Pre)ious(y he had he(d akatsu 7&20,000 koku9 in /u5en' see a(so3 /u5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Chiku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4orea, ,n)asion of 7pg' A9, 4yXshX 7pg' A9, Ssaka, Seige of 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

7uroi)a !ui+o
$i)ed &>:2 to &?20'

7urosa)a A+ira
$i)ed 2B <arch &?&0 to : Sept' &??> Dne of =apanGs most famous directors, many famous 0merican and Puropean directors ha)e paid homage to 4urosa*a' Lis *orks inc(ude Se)en Samurai, ;ashTmon, ;an, Ligh and $o*, and many others' <ifune -oshiro appeared in many of 4urosa*aGs fi(ms' todo3 add dates, more fi(ms, and the 8apanese tit(es' a(so (ist the a*ards he *on *ith dates'

7urusu Ta+eo
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 4atayama 0shida 0shida "inance State3 #irector of Pconomic Stabi(i5ation /oard W #irector of Price /oard State3 #irector of Centra( Pconomic ,n)estigation 0gency Position From =un 2@, &?4J <ar &0, &?4> 0ug &, &?4> To <ar &0, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> !75

:uru*u )akeo
Table $2Cabinet Positions Held by Ku usu Takeo

7uru-uryu'a)a. /attle of 7usuno+i *asas&i'e


$i)ed &2?4 to &BB:'

7y8'o+u Ta+atsu'u
$i)ed &@:0 to &:0?' Samurai' Christian' "ought for Dda obunaga' ;ecei)ed Stsu 7:0,000 koku9 in Smi from Lideyoshi 7*hat yearV9' Side *ith the -okuga*a 7*henV9 and *as attacked at his cast(e by -achibana <uneshige and -sukushi Lirokado' 7#etai(sV9 6as gi)en Dbama 7?2,000 koku9 in 6akasa in &:00' /aptised in &:02' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -achibana <uneshige 7pg' A9, -okuga*a "ami(y 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, -sukushi Lirokado 7pg' A9, 6akasa Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

7y8&8
engT3 &J&:--&JB@'

7yo+utei /a+in
See /akin on page AA'

7y8ro+u
engT3 &@2>--&@B&'

7y8to City
-he capita( of 4yTto Prefecture'

7y8to refe%ture
ot technica((y a ken but rather a fu' 0rea3 4,:&2 km2 7&??@9

!76

:y0to %re!ecture

Capita(3 4yTto Popu(ation3 2,@@0,000 7&??:9

7y8to+u
engT3 &4@2--&4@4' aka 4Ttoku'

7y8)a
engT3 &>0&--&>0B'

7y>an
engT3 &&4@--&&@0'

7y>:u
engT3 &&@4--&&@@'

7y>s&>
Dne of the four main is(ands of =apan' Df the four, 4yXXshX is the farthest South and 6est' ,t is thus re(ati)e(y c(ose to both China and 4orea' Listorica((y, 4yXshX has had more freedom from the centra( go)ernment than other areas of the main is(ands ha)e had 7*ith the notab(e e.ception of LokkaidT9' see a(so3 LokkaidT, LonshX, Shikoku

7y>s&> Campai'n

!77

.an*ing, ;obert .ytton

Eansin'. !obert , Eytton


Eansin'. !obert Ei Hun'9%&an' Eobano4 Eytton

*a%Art&ur. Dou'las , *utsu ro4in%e


*a%Art&ur. Dou'las
$i)ed &>>0 to &?:4'

*a%&ida C&>:i
$i)ed &>:B to &?4:'
Cabinet &st 6akatsuki Lamaguchi 2nd 6akatsuki Dkada Dkada 4oiso Position 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0gricu(ture W "orestry Commerce W ,ndustry "inance State From =un B, &?2: =u( 2, &?2? 0pr &4, &?B& =u( >, &?B4 "eb 2J, &?B: =u( 22, &?44 To 0pr 20, &?2J 0pr &4, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& <ar ?, &?B: <ar ?, &?B: 0pr J, &?4@

Table $3Cabinet Positions Held by ?achida Ch<9i

*aebara Issei
$i)ed &>B4 to &>J:'

*aebas&i City
Capita( of Gunma Prefecture 7pg' A9

*aeda Family
0 daimyT fami(y from D*ari *ho *ere descended from Suga*ara no <ichi5ane 7pg' A9'

*aeda *itsumasa
$i)ed &:&B to &:4@'
!78

Mae-a Mit*uma*a

Son of <aeda -oshitsune 7pg' A9'

*aeda Tos&i&aru
$i)ed &:&> to &::0' Son of <aeda -oshitsune 7pg' A9'

*aeda Tos&iie
$i)ed &@B? 7&@B>V9 to &@??' "ought for Dda obunaga 7pg AAA9' 0ssisted Lideyoshi *ith the in)asion of 4orea, from =apan' 6as one of the fi)e daimyT Lideyoshi appointed to ru(e *hi(e his son *as a minor' -oshiie tried to curb the po*er of the -okuga*a, but died before Sekigahara'

*aeda Tos&imasa
aka <aeda -akamasa Son of -oshiie' 6as the daimyT of oto 72&@,000 koku9 but supported Lideyori at Sekigahara' "or this he *as forced to retire and his (ands *ent to his brother <aeda -oshinaga'

*aeda Tos&ina'a
$i)ed &@:2 to &:&4' P(dest son of <aeda -oshiie' <arried one of -okuga*a ,eyasuGs daughters' Supported ,eyasu and after recei)ing his brother -oshimasaGs (ands 7 oto, 2&@,000 koku9 contro((ed a tota( of &,2@0,000 koku, an amount e.ceeded on(y by the Shogunate' -oshinaga bui(t and resided in 4ana5a*a Cast(e' Lad no chi(dren and adopted his brother -oshitsune as his heir'

*aeda Tos&itsu'i *aeda Tos&itsune


$i)ed &@?B to &:@>' /rother to <aeda -oshinaga' 0dopted as his heir, becoming the *ea(thest daimyT outside of the -okuga*a' Le contro((ed Ptchu, 4aga, and oto'

!7

Mae-a 5onez0

*aeda 5one-8
$i)ed
Cabinet -anaka G' ,nukai 7datesV9 Lirota Liranuma 4oiso Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Commerce W ,ndustry ;ai(*ays ;ai(*ays -ransport W Communications From 0pr 20, &?2J #ec &B, &?B& <ar ?, &?B: =an @, &?B? =u( 22, &?44 To =u( 2, &?2? <ay 2:, &?B2 "eb 2, &?BJ 0ug B0, &?B? 0pr J, &?4@

Table $4Cabinet Positions Held by ?aeda @onez

*ae:ima Hiso+a
$i)ed &>B@ to &?&?'

*aibara City *a+ino Nobua+i


$i)ed &>:& to &?4?'
Cabinet &st Saion8i 2 Saion8i &st Eamamoto
nd

Position Pducation 0gricu(ture W Commerce "oreign 0ffairs

From <ar 2J, &?0: 0ug B0, &?&& "eb 20, &?&B

To =u( &4, &?0> #ec 2&, &?&2 0pr &:, &?&4

Table $"Cabinet Positions Held by ?akino Nobuaki

*an%&urian In%ident *an%&urian !ail)ay Company *an;en


engT3 &>:0--&>:0'

*an:i
engT3 &:@>--&::0'

*an:u
engT3 &024--&02J'

!8#

Marco %olo ri-ge 8nci-ent

*ar%o olo /rid'e In%ident *arune. #ei'e of


-ook p(ace in &@:0' 7-okuga*aV <atsudaira <otoyasuV9 took the cast(e from Sakuma <orishige, a )assa( of Dda obunaga' see a(so3 -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9,

*asuda Ta+as&i
$i)ed &>4> to &?B>'

*atsudaira 7a'etada *atsudaira 7oremasu *atsudaira *otoyasu *atsudaira #adanobu


$i)ed 2J #ec' &J@> 7&J@?V9 to &B <ay &>2?'

*atsuda *asa&isa
$i)ed &>4@ to &?&4'
Cabinet &st Skuma 4 ,tT
th st

Position "inance Pducation =ustice "inance =ustice =ustice

From =un B0, &>?> Dct &?, &?00 =an J, &?0: =an &4, &?0> 0ug B0, &?&& "eb 20, &?&B

To o) >, &>?> =un 2, &?0& <ar 2@, &?0> =u( &4, &?0> #ec 2&, &?&2 o) &&, &?&B

& Saion8i &st Saion8i 2 Saion8i &st Eamamoto


nd

Table $$Cabinet Positions Held by ?atsuda ?asahisa

*atsue City
Capita( of Shimane Prefecture 7pg' A9'

!8!

Mat*ukata Ma*ayo*hi

*atsu+ata *asayos&i
$i)ed &>B@ to &?2?' Prime <inister from : <ay &>?& to > 0ugust &>?2 and &> September &>?: to &2 =anuary &>?>'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st ,tT 4urota 4urota &st Eamagata &st <atsukata &st <atsukata &st <atsukata 2 ,tT
nd nd

Position "inance "inance Lome 0ffairs "inance "inance Prime <inister Lome 0ffairs "inance "inance Prime <inister "inance

From #ec 22, &>>@ 0pr B0, &>>> #ec B, &>>> #ec 24, &>>? <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& =un >, &>?2 <ar &J, &>?@ Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: o) >, &>?>

To 0pr B0, &>>> #ec 24, &>>? Dct B, &>>? <ay :, &>?& 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 =u( &4, &>?2 0ug 2J, &>?@ =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> Dct &?, &?00

2 <atsukata 2nd <atsukata 2 Eamagata


nd

Table $%Cabinet Positions Held by ?atsukata ?asayoshi

*atsu+ata *asayos&i;s First Cabinet


Name <atsukata <asayoshi 4Tno -ogama <utsu <unemitsu Sano -sunetami Liranuma arinobu D5aki SaburT GotT ShT8irT Ski -akatT Ski -akatT Eoshika*a 0kimasa <atsukata <asayoshi <atsukata <asayoshi 0oki ShX5T Pnomoto -akeaki Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation Pducation Pducation "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs From <ay :, &>?& <ar &4, &>?2 <ay :, &>?& =u( &4, &>?2 <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& =un &, &>?& =un &, &>?& <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& <ay 2?, &>?& To 0ug >, &>?2 =u( &4, &>?2 <ar &4, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 =un &, &>?& 0ug >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 <ay 2?, &>?& 0ug >, &>?2

!8"

Mat*ukata Ma*ayo*hi
Name 4Tno -ogama <atsukata <asayoshi SaigT -sugumichi Shinaga*a Ea8irT Soe8ima -aneomi 4Tno -ogama -anaka "u8imaro Eamada 0kiyoshi 4abayama Sukenori Syama ,*ao -akashima -omonosuke Position Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice =ustice a)y 6ar 6ar <ay &J, &>?& 0ug >, &>?2 From =u( &4, &>?2 =un >, &>?2 <ay :, &>?& =un &, &>?& <ar &&, &>?2 =un 2B, &>?2 =un &, &>?& <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& <ay :, &>?& To 0ug >, &>?2 =u( &4, &>?2 =un &, &>?& <ar &&, &>?2 =un >, &>?2 0ug >, &>?2 =un 2B, &>?2 =un &, &>?& 0ug >, &>?2 <ay &J, &>?&

Table $&?atsukata ?asayoshi's >i st Cabinet

*atsu+ata *asayos&i;s #e%ond Cabinet


Name <atsukata <asayoshi Pnomoto -akeaki Skuma Shigenobu Eamada obumichi Liranuma arinobu -akahashi 4en5T 4Tmuchi -omotsune !me 4en8irT -akashima -omonosuke omura Easushi Shirane SenGichi Lachisuka <ochiaki Lamao 0rata Saion8i 4inmochi <atsukata <asayoshi ishi -oku8irT Skuma Shigenobu Saion8i 4inmochi ,tagaki -aisuke Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Sep &>, &>?: Communications Communications Pducation Pducation Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Sep 2:, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep 2>, &>?: o) :, &>?J Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: o) :, &>?J Sep 22, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep 2, &>?J =an &2, &>?> Sep 2:, &>?: o) :, &>?J =an &2, &>?> Sep 2>, &>?: =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> o) :, &>?J Sep 22, &>?: Sep 20, &>?: !83 From Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: <ar 2?, &>?J o) >, &>?J Dct >, &>?J Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Dct 2>, &>?J To =an &2, &>?> <ar 2?, &>?J o) :, &>?J =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> Dct >, &>?J Dct 2>, &>?J =an &2, &>?>

Mat*ukata Ma*ayo*hi
Name 4abayama Sukenori 4iyoura 4eigo Eoshika*a 0kimasa SaigT -sugumichi Syama ,*ao -akashima -omonosuke =ustice =ustice a)y 6ar 6ar Sep 20, &>?: =an &2, &>?> Position Lome 0ffairs From Sep 20, &>?: Sep 2:, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: Sep &>, &>?: To =an &2, &>?> =an &2, &>?> Sep 2:, &>?: =an &2, &>?> Sep 20, &>?@

Table $*?atsukata ?asayoshi's #econd Cabinet

*atsu+ura Castle
Cast(e in PtchX, bui(t by "umon -oshikiyo'

*atsumoto C8:i
$i)ed Cabinet Positions Le(d by <atsumoto =T8i
Cabinet 2 Eamamoto
nd

Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Commerce W ,ndustry State

From Sep 2, &?2B "eb ?, &?B4 Dct ?, &?4@

To =an J, &?24 =u( >, &?B4 <ay 22, &?4:

SaitT Shidehara

Table %3Cabinet Positions Held by ?atsu.oto 69i

*atsumura 7en-8
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Ligashikuni Ligashikuni Shidehara 6e(fare 0gricu(ture W "orestry Position Pducation From 0ug &J, &?4@ 0ug &J, &?4@ Dct ?, &?4@ To 0ug &>, &?4@ Dct ?, &?4@ =an &B, &?4:

Table %1Cabinet Positions Held by ?atsu.u a Kenz

*atsuna'a Hisa&ide
$i)ed &@&0 to &@JJ Samurai'

!84

Mat*unaga 4i*ahi-e

Spent much time fighting in shTguna( succession disputes' /rief(y contro((ed a baby shTgun' /ecame a )assa( of Dda obunaga in &@:>' ;e)o(ted in &@J2 but soon turned on his co-traitors' -ried to re)o(t again in &@JJ but Dda forces destroyed his cast(e 7*hich *as *hereV9 and Lisahide committed suicide' -his reminds me --- need to add an entry on gekoku & '
#ee Also

gekoku & 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9,

*atsuo /as&8
$i)ed &>44 to &:?4'

*atsuo+a 7oma+i%&i
$i)ed &>>> to &?@>'

*atsuo+a 5osu+e
$i)ed &>>0 to &?4:'

*atsusa+a9&an *atsus&ita 7onosu+e


$i)ed &>?4 to &?>?'

*atsuyama City
Capita( of Phime Prefecture 7pg' AA9'

*atsuyama9&an *atsu-a+a9&an *ay Fifteen In%ident *ay Fourt& *o4ement *ei:i Constitution
See Constitution of &>>?, on page @0'

!85

Mei@i

*ei:i
engT3 &>:>-&?&2' -he <ei8i Pra 7&>:>--&?&29 marks the reign of the Pmperor <ei8i' #uring this time, =apan *as moderni5ed and rose to *or(d po*er status' -he <ei8i ;estoration 7&>:J--&>:>9 ended the o)er 2@0 years of ru(e by the -okuga*a shTguns' ,t a(so is a con)enient break bet*een o(d feuda(-(ike and 1modern2 =apan' ,n &>:>, &4-year-o(d <utsuhito succeded his father, the Pmperor 4omei, taking the tit(e <ei8i, meaning 1en(ightened ru(e'2 Considering that the economic structure and production of the country *as rough(y eHui)a(ent to P(i5abethan era Png(and, to become a *or(d po*er in such a short amount of time is *ide(y regarded as remarkab(e progress' -his process *as c(ose(y monitored and hea)i(y subsidi5ed by the <ei8i go)ernment, creating companies *hose po*er and inf(uence *ou(d gro* such that *ou(d (ater be kno*n as 15aibatsu'2 "o((o*ing her defeat of China in 4orea in the Sino-=apanese 6ar 7&>?4-&>?@9, =apanGs breakthrough as an internationa( po*er came *ith her )ictory against ;ussia in 4orea and <anchuria 7north-eastern China9 in the ;usso-=apanese 6ar of &?04--&?0@' 0((ied *ith /ritain since &?02, =apan 8oined the 0((ies in 6or(d 6ar ,, sei5ing German-he(d territory in China and the Pacific in the process, but other*ise remained (arge(y out of the conf(ict' 0fter the *ar, a *eakened Purope (eft a greater share in internationa( markets to the !'S' and =apan, *hich emerged great(y strengthened' =apanese competition made great inroads into hitherto Puropeandominated markets in 0sia, not on(y in China, but e)en in Puropean co(onies (ike ,ndia and ,ndonesia' -he Pmperor <ei8i died in &?&2 and the -aisho emperor took the throne and thus began the -aisho Pra'
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleLMei@iM/ra

*ei:i !estoration *ei:i9tenn8


-he &22nd emperor of =apan' $i)ed 22 Sept' &>@2 to 2? =u(y &?&2' ;eigned ? =an' &>:J to 2? 7B0V9 =u(y &?&2' Lis coronation *as in &>:>'

*ei8
engT3 &4?2--&@00'

!86

Meireki

*eire+i
engT3 &:@@--&:@J'

*eis&89tenn8
0n empress, not an emperor' -he &0?th ru(er of =apan' -he (ast *oman to sit on the throne' $i)ed from &? o) &:2B to &0 o) &:?:' ;eigned from > o) &:2? 7&:B0V9 to B Dct &:4B' Second daughter of Gomi5unT-tennT'

*eito+u (Nort&ern Dynasty$


engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B?0-&B?B'

*eito+u (#out&ern Dynasty$


engT of the Southern #ynasty3 &B?B-&B?B'

*ei)a
engT3 &J:4--&JJ&'

*ie refe%ture
0rea3 @,JJ4 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 -su Popu(ation3 &,>40,000 7&??:9

*ii+e Coal *ine *i+a'e&ama. /attle of


&B@&' 0 batt(e bet*een 0shikaga -akau8i and 4T <orona on one side and ,shidT Eorifusa on the other' ,shidT *on'

*i+ata'a&ara. /attle of
"ought in &@J2' -akeda Shingen *as headed for ,eyasuGs cast(e at Lamamatsu' 0mong his men *ere Eamagata <asakage and /aba obuharu' ,eyasu took about &&,000 men 7B,000 of them Dda obunagaGs troops9 out to meet Shingen in batt(e' Shingen had as many as B0,000 men'

!87

Mikatagahara, attle o!

Shingen defeated ,eyasu but bad *eather and -okuga*a cunning pre)ented him from fo((o*ing up on the )ictory' -he cunning part is this3 ,eyasu managed to retreat into his cast(e, but ordered the gates (eft open and bonfires (it, to he(p his scattered troops to find their *ay back' Sakai -adatsugu, in the cast(e, e)en *ent so far as to beat on a drum' ,n addition to he(ping mora(e, these efforts con)inced <asakage and obuharu --- pursuing the retreating -okuga*a forces --- that there must be some trick' ,nstead of attacking the *ide open cast(e, they camped outside for the night' -he fo((o*ing day, the -akeda army (eft' see a(so3 -akeda Shingen 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, Eamagata <asakage 7pg' A9, /aba obuharu 7pg' A9, Sakai -adatsugu 7pg' A9

*i+a)a ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 0ichi Prefecture' <ika*a bordered on D*ari, <ino, Shinano, and -TtTmi Pro)inces' see a(so3 0ichi Prefecture 7pg' A9, D*ari Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ino Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -TtTmi Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

*i+i 7iyos&i
$i)ed &>?J to &?4@'

*i+i. #ei'e of
$asted from &@J>--&@>0' Lideyoshi took <iki Cast(e from /essho agaharu, a retainer of the <Tri' see a(so3 -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, <Tri "ami(y 7pg' A9, /essho agaharu 7pg' A9,

*i+i Ta+eo
$i)ed &?0J to &?>>'
!88

Miki )akeo

Po(itician' P(ected to the #iet in &?BJ and remained there unti( at (east &?>4' 6as prime minister from ? #ecember &?J4 to 24 #ecember &?J:' <iki *as popu(ar *ith the pub(ic for his attempts at reform and unpopu(ar *ith big business and his o*n party for the same reason' Le he(d many other posts during his career in addition to being prime minister'

*imasa+a ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Dkayama Prefecture' <imasaka bordered on /itchX, /i5en, Larima, LTki, and ,naba Pro)inces' <imasaka *as (and(ocked' see a(so3 /itchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, /i5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Larima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LTki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,naba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Dkayama Prefecture 7pg' A9,

*imaseto'e. /attle of
-ook p(ace in &@:?' LT8T !8iteru and LT8T !8ikuni attacked -akeda Shingen' 0(though outnumbered 2 to &, Shingen and his army managed to escape' see a(so3 -akeda Shingen 7pg' A9, LT8T !8iteru 7pg' A9, LT8T !8ikuni 7pg' A9

*inami Hiros&i
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & Saion8i 2nd Saion8i SaitT
st

Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Communications

From =an 04 &?0> B0 0ug &?&& 2: <ay &?B2

To &4 =u(y &?0> 2& #ec &?&2 0> =u(y &?B4

Table %2Cabinet Positions Held by ?ina.i Hi oshi

!8

Minamoto Akira

*inamoto A+ira
$i)ed >&4 to >4B'

*inamoto Ari+o
$i)ed &&J& to &2@J'

*inamoto C&i+a+o
#aughter of <orochika 7*hoV9' 6ife to Pmperors 4ameyama and Godaigo'

*inamoto Families
0n important 8ob for any hereditary ru(er is to pro)ide an heir' ,n the past it *as not uncommon for many chi(dren to die before reaching adu(thood and thus it *as not safe for a monarch to ha)e on(y a fe* chi(dren' <ore sons offered a better chance of at (east one making it safe(y to adu(thood and e)entua((y to become ru(er' /ut *hat to do *ith a(( the other roya( chi(dren *ho do not dieV 0t best they are a drain on the treasury and at *orst 7the usua( case9 they are in)o()ed in a(( sorts of court p(ots and conspiracies' -he Pmperor Saga 7reigned >0? to >2B9 started the tradition of gi)ing the name K<inamotoG to the sons and sometimes brothers of emperors and then casting them free, as ne* fami(ies, separate from the imperia( court' 0s time *ent on there *ere so many <inamotos that they started being distinguished by *hich emperor they *ere descended from' -hus, the #aigo-<inamoto are descendents of the Pmperor #aigo and the !da-<inamoto are descendents of the Pmperor !da'

*inamoto Family (Dai'o /ran%&$


0 branch of the <inamoto fami(y decended from <inamoto -akaaki, a son of Pmperor #aigo' -oshikata, -akakuni, -oshiaki, and Liromasa are among the members of this (ine of the <inamoto' see a(so3 #aigo-tennT 7pg' A9, <inamoto Liromasa 7pg' A9, <inamoto -akaaki 7pg' A9, <inamoto -akakuni 7pg' A9, <inamoto -oshiaki 7pg' A9, <inamoto -oshikata 7pg' A9,
! #

Minamoto Family (Murakami ranch)

*inamoto Family (*ura+ami /ran%&$


0 branch of the <inamoto fami(y descended from -amehira and -omohira, sons of the Pmperor <urakami'

*inamoto Family (#a'a /ran%&$


0 branch of the <inamoto fami(y decended from <inamoto <akoto, a son of the Pmperor Saga' -sune, 0kira, Sadamu, -Tru, Likaru, and Shitagau are among the members of this (ine of the <inamoto' see a(so3 <inamoto 0kira 7pg' A9, <inamoto Likaru 7pg' A9, <inamoto <akoto 7pg' A9, <inamoto Sadamu 7pg' A9, <inamoto Shitagau 7pg' A9, <inamoto -Tru 7pg' A9, <inamoto -sune 7pg' A9, Saga-tennT 7pg' A9,

*inamoto Family (#ei)a /ran%&$


0 branch of the <inamoto fami(y descended from Sadatoshi, Sadayasu, and Sada5umi, sons of the Pmperor Sei*a'

*inamoto Family (=da /ran%&$


0 branch of the <inamoto fami(y descended from -okiyo and 0tsu5ane, sons of the Pmperor !da'

*inamoto Hidea+ira
#ied ?40'

*inamoto Hi+aru
$i)ed >4@ to ?&B'

*inamoto Hiromasa
$i)ed ?&> to ?>0'

! !

Minamoto 8chiman

*inamoto I%&iman
$i)ed &200 to &20B'

*inamoto 7u'yo *inamoto *a+oto


$i)ed >&0 to >:?'

*inamoto *asanobu
$i)ed ?20 to ??B'

*inamoto *asa-ane
$i)ed &0@? to &&2J'

*inamoto *i%&i%&i+a
$i)ed &&4? to &202'

*inamoto *itsuna+a
$i)ed ?&2 to ??J'

*inamoto *orofusa
$i)ed &00B to &0JJ'

*inamoto *oroyori
$i)ed &0J0 to &&B?'

*inamoto Na+atsuna
#ied &&>0'

*inamoto Noriyori
$i)ed &&@: to &&?B'

*inamoto #adamu
$i)ed >&@ to >:B'

*inamoto #anetomo
$i)ed &&?2 to &2&?' -he Brd 4amakura shTgun' ,n office3 &20B to &2&?'
! "

Minamoto 1en@u+maru

*inamoto #en:u9maru
$i)ed &20& to &2&4'

*inamoto #&ita'au
$i)ed ?&& to ?>B'

*inamoto Ta+aa+i
$i)ed ?&4 to ?>2'

*inamoto Ta+a+uni
$i)ed &004 to &0JJ'

*inamoto Tametomo
$i)ed &&B? to &&J0'

*inamoto Tameyos&i
$i)ed &0?: to &&@:'

*inamoto Tomona'a
$i)ed &&44 to &&:0'

*inamoto T8ru
$i)ed >22 to >?@'

*inamoto Tos&ia+i
$i)ed &044 to &&&4'

*inamoto Tos&ifusa
$i)ed &0B@ to &&B&'

*inamoto Tos&i+ata
$i)ed ?@? to &02J'

*inamoto Tsunemoto
$i)ed >?4 to ?:&'

*inamoto Tsune
$i)ed >&2 to >@4'

! 3

Minamoto 5oriie

*inamoto 5oriie
$i)ed &&>2 to &204' -he 2nd 4amakura shTgun' ,n office3 &202 to &20B'

*inamoto 5orimasa
$i)ed &&0: to &&>0'

*inamoto 5orimitsu
$i)ed ?44 to &02&'

*inamoto 5orinobu
$i)ed ?:> to &04>'

*inamoto 5oritomo
$i)ed &&4J to &&??' -he &st 4amakura shTgun' ,n office3 &&?2 to &&??'

*inamoto 5oriyos&i
$i)ed ??@ to &0>2'

*inamoto 5os&i%&i+a
#ied &&&J'

*inamoto 5os&i&ira
$i)ed &&40 to &&:0'

*inamoto 5os&iie
$i)ed &04& to &&0>'

*inamoto 5os&i+ata
#ied &&@@'

*inamoto 5os&i+uni
#ied &&@@'

! 4

Minamoto 5o*himit*u

*inamoto 5os&imitsu
$i)ed &0@: to &&2J'

*inamoto 5os&ina+a
$i)ed &&@4 to &&>4'

*inamoto 5os&itomo
$i)ed &&2B to &&:0'

*inamoto 5os&itsuna
#ied &&B4'

*inamoto 5os&itsune
$i)ed &&@? to &&>?'

*inamoto 5u+iie
#ied &&>:'

*inin' *inobe Tatsu+i%&i


$i)ed &>JB to &?4>'

*inomura !i-aemon
$i)ed &>2& to &>JJ'

*ino ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Gifu Prefecture' <ino bordered on Pchi5en, Lida, ,se, <ika*a, Smi, D*ari, and Shinano Pro)inces' see a(so3 Pchi5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Gifu Prefecture 7pg' A9, Lida Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ika*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, D*ari Pro)ince 7pg' A9,
! 5

Mino %ro&ince

Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

*inseito *ins&> #&a+ait8 *is&ima *i%&itsune


$i)ed &>B@ to &>>>'

*is&ima 5u+io
$i)ed &4 =an' &?2@ to 2@ o)' &?J0' o)e(ist' Graduate of -okyo !ni)ersity' 6orks inc(ude 7](dots9'

*isora Hibari
aka 4ato 4a5ue $i)ed &?BJ to &?>?'

*ito City
Capita( of ,baraki Prefecture 7pg' A9'

*itsu%&i C&>-8
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet -akahashi -anaka G' -anaka G' ,nukai 7Check dates9 SaitT Shidehara Shidehara Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Pducation "inance Communications ;ai(*ays Lome 0ffairs -ransport From &B o) &?2& 20 0pr &?2J 02 =une &?2J &B #ec &?B& 2: <ay &?B2 &B =an &?4: &B =an &?4: To &2 =une &?22 02 =une &?2J 02 =u(y &?2? 2: <ay &?B2 0> =u(y &?B4 22 <ay &?4: 2: =an &?4:

Table %3Cabinet Positions Held by ?itsuchi Ch<z

! 6

Mit*ui

*itsui *itsu+uri !ins&o


$i)ed &>4: to &>?J'

*iura Doro
$i)ed &>4J to &?2:'

*iya'i refe%ture
0rea3 J,2>@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Sendai Popu(ation3 2,B&0,000 7&??:9

*iya+e #etsurei
$i)ed &>:0 to &?4@'

*iyamoto *usas&i
aka iten $i)ed &@>4 to &? <ay &:4@' <ost famous as a s*ordsman but a(so *e(( kno*n as an author and artist' "ounder of the iten-,chiryu 7spV9 schoo( of s*ordfighting' $egend has it that <usashi fought at (east :0 dua(s bet*een &@?J and &:&B *ithout (osing a sing(e one' 0fter KretiringG from s*ordfighting, <usashi spend his time *riting his famous book, kno*n in Png(ish as 1-he /ook of "i)e ;ings2 and on painting and dra*ing, in *hich he sho*ed considerab(e ta(ent' Le (eft se)era( paintings that are sti(( *e((-regarded today'

*iya-a+i City
Capita( of <iya5aki Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

*iya-a+i refe%ture
0rea3 J,JB4 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 <iya5aki Popu(ation3 &,&?0,000 7&??:9

! 7

Miyazawa :iichi

*iya-a)a 7ii%&i
Prime <inister from @ o)ember &??& to ? 0ugust &??B' 7;ep(aced by Losoka*a <orihiro 7pg AAA99'

*iyos&i C&8+ei
$i)ed &@2B to &@:4' Samurai'

*i-uno Nobumoto
#ied &@J:' Son of <i5uno -adamasa' /rother of <i5uno -adashige' S*itched his a((egiance from the ,maga*a fami(y to Dda obuhide' 4i((ed by -okuga*a ,eyasu on orders from Dda obunaga' 76hyV9

*i-uno !entar8
$i)ed Cabinet Positions Le(d by <i5uno ;entarT
Cabinet -erauchi 4atT -omosaburT 4iyoura -anaka G' Position Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Pducation From 2B 0pr &?&> &2 =une &?22 0J =an &?24 02 =une &?2J To 2? Sep &?&> 02 Sep &?2B && =une &?24 2@ <ay &?2>

Table %4Cabinet Positions Held by ?izuno Aenta

*i-uno Tadas&i'e
$i)ed &@4& to &:00' Son of <i5uno -adamasa' /rother of <i5uno obumoto' 6as gi)en his brotherGs fief of 4ariya 7VV koku9 in <ika*a' 6as ki((ed by 4agai Lidemasa' 76hyV9

*o%&i-u+e 7eisu+e
$i)ed

! 8

Mochizuke :ei*uke

Cabinet ositions
Cabinet -anaka G' -anaka G' Dkada Position Communications Lome 0ffairs Communications From 20 0pr &?2J 2B <ay &?2> &2 Sep &?B@ To 2B <ay &?2> 02 =u(y &?2? 0? <ar &?B:

Table %"Cabinet Positions Held by ?ochizuke Keisuke

*ommu9tenn8
-he 42nd emperor of =apan' ;eigned :?J to J0J'

*omo-ono9tenn8
-he &&:th emperor of =apan' ;eigned &J4J to &J:2'

*on'ol In4asions *onto+u9tenn8


-he @@th emperor of =apan' ;eigned >@0 to >@>'

*ori Arinori
$i)ed &>4J to &>>?'

*8ri Family
"ami(y of daimyT, descended from Se Liromoto' Pstab(ished themse()es in 0ki Pro)ince'

*ori 7a+u
$i)ed &>>B to &?B2'

*ori+uni
$i)ed &B0& to &BBB' -he ?th 4amakura ShTgun' ;u(ed &B0> to &BBB' Son of the ShTgun Lisaakira' Grandson of the Pmperor Gofukakusa'

Morikuni

see a(so3 Gofukakusa-tennT 7pg' A9, Lisaakira 7pg' A9, 4amakura ShTgunate 7pg' A9,

*8ri *otonari
$i)ed &4?J to &@J&'

*orina'a
$i)ed &B0> to &BB@' -he &0th 4amakura ShTgun' ;u(ed &BBB to &BB4' Son of the Pmperor Godaigo and <inamoto Chikako' see a(so3 Gofukakusa-tennT 7pg' A9, Lisaakira 7pg' A9, 4amakura ShTgunate 7pg' A9,

*ori Na'ayos&i *ori 6'ai


$i)ed &>:2 to &?22'

*orio+a City
Capita( of ,*ate Prefecture 7pg' A9

*8ri Ta+amoto
$i)ed

*8ri Terumoto
$i)ed 22 =an' &@@B to 2J 0pri( &:2@ Son of <Tri -akamoto' "ought against -oyotomi Lideyoshi but *as e)entua((y o)ercome' Participated in the 4XshX campaign 7&@>J9 on LideyoshiGs side' /ui(t Liroshima Cast(e'
"##

M0ri )erumoto

-erumoto *as one of the fi)e -airT appointed by Lideyoshi' 0t the height of his po*er, -erumoto contro((ed &'2 mi((ion koku' 7*henV *hereV9 Sided against -okuga*a ,eysasu but *as not present at the /att(e of Sekigahara' -erumoto *as in Ssaka Cast(e at the time and surrendered to ,eyasu soon after Sekigahara' ,eyasu reduced -erumotoGs domains, (ea)ing him on(y agato and SuT Pro)inces, *orth B:?,000 koku tota(' see a(so3 Liroshima Cast(e 7pg' A9, 4yXshX Campaign 7pg' A9, <Tri -akamoto 7pg' A9, agato Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Ssaka Cast(e 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9, SuT Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -airT 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eysasu 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

*oriyama Hisa+ane *ori 5os&ir8


/orn =u(y &4, &?BJ in ,shika*a Prefecture' Prime <inister from @ 0pri( 2000 to 4 =u(y 2000 and 4 =u(y 2000 to 2: 0pri( 200&' ;ep(aced by 4oi5umi =unGichirT 7pg AAA9'

*otoda "ifu
aka <otoda aka5ane $i)ed &>&> to &>?&

*otoda Ha:ime
$i)ed

"#!

Moto-a 4a@ime

Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & Eamamoto
st

Position Communications ;ai(*ays ;ai(*ays

From 20 "eb &?&B &@ <ay &?20 &B o) &?2&

To &: 0pr &?&4 &B o) &?2& &2 =une &?22

Lara -akahashi

Table %$Cabinet Positions Held by ?otoda Ha9i.e

*otoori Norina'a
$i)ed &JB0 to &>0&'

*u+ai C&ia+i
<s' <ukai *as the first =apanese *oman to become an astronaut' 0s of September 200&, she has participated in t*o missions on the !'S' space shutt(e'

*uneta+a
$i)ed &242 to &2J4' -he :th 4amakura ShTgun' ;u(ed &2@2 to &2::' Son of the Pmperor Gosaga' ;ep(aced the deposed "u8i*ara Eoritsuga as shTgun' see a(so3 Gosaga-tennT 7pg' A9, "u8i*ara Eoritsuga 7pg' A9, 4amakura ShTgunate 7pg' A9,

*ura+ami9tenn8
-he :2nd emperor of =apan' $i)ed 2 =une ?2: to 2@ <ay ?:J' ;eigned 20 0pri( ?4: to 2@ <ay ?:J' "ather of ;ei5ei-tennT 7pg AAA9'

*ura+ami 5os&i+iyo
$i)ed &@0& to &@JB'

"#"

Murakami 5o*hikiyo

"ought against the both -akeda !esugi 4enshin'

obutora and -akeda Shingen' 6as a((ied *ith

"ought at 7one or more ofV9 the /att(es of 4a*anaka8ima' see a(so3 4a*anaka8ima, /att(es of 7pg' A9, -akeda obutora 7pg' A9, -akeda Shingen 7pg' A9, !esugi 4enshin 7pg' A9,

*urasa+i #&i+ibu
#ied ??2' #aughter of "u8i*ara -ametoki' 6ife of "u8i*ara obutaka' -he author of !he"!ale"of"Gen i 7pg 2J>9, a masterpiece of *or(d (iterature' 0(so (eft a diary, appropriate(y enough kno*n as !he"Dairy"of"Murasaki"Shikibu'

*urase Nao+ai
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2nd 4onoe B 4onoe Su5uki 4' Ligashikuni
rd

Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau

From 22 =u(y &?40 &> =u(y &?4& 0J 0pr &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@

To &> =u(y &?4& &> Dct &?4& &J 0ug &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@

Table %%Cabinet Positions Held by ?u ase Naokai

*urata #&8-8
$i)ed Cabinet Positions Le(d by <urata ShT5T

"#3

Murata 1h0z0
Cabinet 2 4onoe
nd

Position Communications ;ai(*ays Communications ;ai(*ays

From 22 =u(y &?40 22 =u(y &?40 &> =u(y &?4& &> =u(y &?4&

To &> =u(y &?4& 2> Sep &?40 &> Dct &?4& &> Dct &?4&

2nd 4onoe B 4onoe


rd rd

B 4onoe

Table %&Cabinet Positions Held by ?u ata #hz

*urayama !yo&ei
$i)ed &>@0 to &?BB'

*urayama Tomii%&i
Prime <inister from B0 =une &??4 to && =anuary &??:' 7;ep(aced by Lashimoto ;yXtarT 7pg AAA99'

*usas&i ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Saitama and -TkyT Prefectures' <usashi bordered on 4ai, 4T5uke, Sagami, ShimTsa, and Shimotsuke Pro)inces' see a(so3 4ai Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4T5uke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Sagami Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Saitama Prefecture 7pg' A9, ShimTsa Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimotsuke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -TkyT Prefecture 7pg' A9,

*uto #an:i
$i)ed &>:J to &?B4'

*utsu *unemitsu
$i)ed &>44 to &>?J' Cabinet Positions Le(d by <utsu <unemitsu
Cabinet &st Eamagata &st <atsukata 2nd ,tT 2 ,tT
nd

Position 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs

From &J <ay &>?0 0: <ay &>?& 0> 0ug &>?2 0B 0pr &>?:

To 0: <ay &>?& &4 <ar &>?2 0@ =une &>?@ B0 <ay &>?:

Table %*Cabinet Positions Held by ?utsu ?une.itsu

"#4

Mut*u %ro&ince

*utsu ro4in%e
0 pro)ince that is today 0omori Prefecture' <utsu bordered on ;ikuchX and !go Pro)inces' see a(so3 0omori Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ;ikuchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !go Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Nabeyama #ada%&i+a , Nunobeyama. /attle of


Nabeyama #ada%&i+a
$i)ed &?0& to &?J?'

Na'ai 7afu
$i)ed &>J? to &?@?'

Na'ai !y>tar8
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet SaitT & 4onoe
st

Position Co(oni5ation Communications Communications ;ai(*ays

From 2: <ay &?B2 04 =une &?BJ B0 0ug &?B? B0 0ug &?B?

To 0> =u(y &?B4 0@ =an &?B? &: =an &?40 2? o) &?B?

0be 0be

Table &3Cabinet Positions Held by Na,ai Ay<ta

Na'a+ute. /attle of
-ook p(ace &@>4' Lideyoshi forces raided into <ika*a' ,eyasu attacked them from behind' 0fter soom initia( skirmishing, the sides faced off near the )i((age of agakute' <ori agayoshi and ,keda obuteru, t*o of LideyoshiGs commanders, *ere ki((ed in the fighting' Lo*e)er, Lideyoshi *as a(ready on his *ay *ith reinforcements' ,t became a sta(emate and *ith no ad)antage to continued fighting, both sides *ithdre*' see a(so3 -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eysasu 7pg' A9, <ika*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ori agayoshi 7pg' A9, ,keda obuteru 7pg' A9,

"#5

Nagano City

Na'ano City
-he capita( city of agano Prefecture'

Na'ano refe%ture
0rea3 &B,@>@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 agano Popu(ation3 2,&?0,000 7&??:9

Na'asa+i. /ombin' of
Dn ? 0ugust &?4@, the !nited States mi(itary dropped an atomic bomb on the city of agasaki' -his *as three days after a simi(ar bomb *as dropped on Liroshima' =apan surrendered si. days (ater, on &@ 0ugust &?4@' -he ro(e of the atomic bombs in bringing about =apanGs surrender is a ma8or historica( contro)ersy' Some historians suggest that the bombings *ere mi(itari(y unnecessary, perhaps more of a sho* of force against the So)iet !nion' Dthers contend that the on(y a(ternati)e to the destruction of Liroshima and agasaki *as an in)asion of the home is(ands themse()es---*hich cou(d ha)e resu(ted in hundreds of thousands or possib(y mi((ions of 0((ied and =apanese so(diers and ci)i(ians in8ured or ki((ed' -hus, in this )ie*, the po*er demonstated by the 0((ies in the form of the atom bombs *as needed to con)ince the =apanese go)ernment to accept surrender and spare both sides a protracted and horrib(y destructi)e in)asion' President -ruman authori5ed the use of the *eapons and insisted to the end of his (ife that he considered them no different than any other *eapon at his disposa(' -he firebombing of -okyo ki((ed a comparab(e number of peop(e 7more during the bombing and as a resu(t of the fires, but possib(y fe*er (ong term )ictims as the firebombs did not gi)e anyone radiation sickness9' -he biggest difference being that the bombing of -okyo in)o()ed many p(anes and thousands of bombs *hereas Liroshima and agasaki *ere destroyed by one p(ane and one bomb each' agasaki (ies at the head of a (ong bay *hich forms the best natura( harbor on the southern =apanese home is(and of 4yushu' -he main commercia( and residentia( area of the city (ies on a sma(( p(ain near the end of the bay' -*o ri)ers di)ided by a mountain spur form the t*o main )a((eys in *hich the city (ies' -his mountain spur and the irregu(ar (ay-out of the city tremendous(y reduced the area of destruction, so that at first g(ance agasaki appeared to ha)e been (ess de)astated than Liroshima' -he hea)i(y bui(d-up area of the city is confined by the terrain to (ess than 4 sHuare mi(es out of a tota( of about B@ sHuare mi(es in the city as a *ho(e'

"#6

Naga*aki, ombing o!

-he city of agasaki had been one of the (argest sea ports in southern =apan and *as of great *ar-time importance because of its many and )aried industries, inc(uding the production of ordnance, ships, mi(itary eHuipment, and other *ar materia(s' -he narro* (ong strip attacked *as of particu(ar importance because of its industries' ,n contrast to many modern aspects of agasaki, the residences a(most *ithout e.ception *ere of f(imsy, typica( =apanese construction, consisting of *ood or *ood-frame bui(dings, *ith *ood *a((s *ith or *ithout p(aster, and ti(e roofs' <any of the sma((er industries and business estab(ishments *ere a(so housed in *ooden bui(dings or f(imsi(y bui(t masonry bui(dings' agasaki had been permitted to gro* for many years *ithout conforming to any definite city 5oning p(an and therefore residences *ere constructed ad8acent to factory bui(dings and to each other a(most as c(ose as it *as possib(e to bui(d them throughout the entire industria( )a((ey' agasaki had not been sub8ected to (arge sca(e bombing prior to the e.p(osion of the atomic bomb there' Dn 0ugust &st, &?4@, ho*e)er, a number of high e.p(osi)e bombs *ere dropped on the city' 0 fe* of these bombs hit in the shipyards and dock areas in the south*est portion of the city' Se)era( of the bombs hit the <itsubishi Stee( and 0rms 6orks and si. bombs (anded at the agasaki <edica( Schoo( and Lospita(, *ith three direct hits on bui(dings there' 6hi(e the damage from these fe* bombs *ere re(ati)e(y sma((, it created considerab(e concern in agasaki and a number of peop(e, principa((y schoo( chi(dren, *ere e)acuated to rura( areas for safety, thus reducing the popu(ation in the city at the time of the atomic attack' Dn the morning of 0ugust ?th, &?4@, at about J3@0 0'<', =apanese time, an air raid a(ert *as sounded in agasaki, but the 10(( c(ear2 signa( *as gi)en at >3B0' 6hen on(y t*o /-2? superfortresses *ere sighted at &03@B the =apanese apparent(y assumed that the p(anes *ere on(y on reconnaissance and no further a(arm *as gi)en' 0 fe* moments (ater, at &&300 oGc(ock, the obser)ation /-2? dropped instruments attached to three parachutes and at &&302 the other p(ane re(eased the atomic bomb' -he bomb e.p(oded high o)er the industria( )a((ey of agasaki, a(most mid*ay bet*een the <itsubishi Stee( and 0rms 6orks, in the south, and the <itsubishi-!rakami Drdnance 6orks 7-orpedo 6orks9, in the north, the t*o principa( targets of the city' #espite its e.treme importance, the first bombing mission on Liroshima had been a(most routine' -he second mission *as not so une)entfu(' 0gain the cre* *as specia((y trained and se(ected+ but bad *eather introduced some momentous comp(ications' -hese comp(ications are best described in the brief account of the missionGs *eaponeer, Comdr', no* Capt', "' $' 0sh*orth, !'S' ', *ho *as in technica( command of the bomb and *as charged *ith the responsibi(ity of insuring that the bomb *as successfu((y dropped at the proper time and on the designated target' Lis narrati)e runs as fo((o*s3 KK-he night of our take-off *as one of tropica( rain sHua((s, and f(ashes of (ightning stabbed into the darkness *ith disconcerting regu(arity'
"#7

Naga*aki, ombing o!

-he *eather forecast to(d us of storms a(( the *ay from the <arianas to the Pmpire' Dur rende5)ous *as to be off the southeast coast of 4yushu, some &@00 mi(es a*ay' -here *e *ere to 8oin *ith our t*o companion obser)ation /-2?Gs that took off a fe* minutes behind us' Ski((fu( pi(oting and e.pert na)igation brought us to the rende5)ous *ithout incident' KK0bout fi)e minutes after our arri)a(, *e *ere 8oined by the first of our /-2?Gs' -he second, ho*e)er, fai(ed to arri)e, ha)ing apparent(y been thro*n off its course by storms during the night' 6e *aited B0 minutes and then proceeded *ithout the second p(ane to*ard the target area' KK#uring the approach to the target the specia( instruments insta((ed in the p(ane to(d us that the bomb *as ready to function' 6e *ere prepared to drop the second atomic bomb on =apan' /ut fate *as against us, for the target *as comp(ete(y obscured by smoke and ha5e' -hree times *e attempted bombing runs, but *ithout success' -hen *ith anti-aircraft fire bursting around us and *ith a number of enemy fighters coming up after us, *e headed for our secondary target, agasaki' KK-he bomb burst *ith a b(inding f(ash and a huge co(umn of b(ack smoke s*ir(ed up to*ard us' Dut of this co(umn of smoke there boi(ed a great s*ir(ing mushroom of gray smoke, (uminous *ith red, f(ashing f(ame, that reached to 40,000 feet in (ess than > minutes' /e(o* through the c(ouds *e cou(d see the pa(( of b(ack smoke ringed *ith fire that co)ered *hat had been the industria( area of agasaki' KK/y this time our fue( supp(y *as dangerous(y (o*, so after one Huick circ(e of agasaki, *e headed direct for Dkina*a for an emergency (anding and refue(ingGG'
!eferen%es(

-LP 0-D<,C /D</, GS D" L,;DSL,<0 0 # hattan Pngineer #istrict, &?4:' 70)ai(ab(e on(ine9

0G0S04, by -he <an-

Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleLNaga*aki

Na'asa+i City
-he capita( of agasaki Prefecture' -he second city in =apan to be destroyed by an atomic bomb' -his *as on ? 0ugust &?4@' agasaki is a city at the south-*estern coast of =apan' "ounded before &@00, it *as origina((y a sec(uded harbor )i((age *ith (itt(e historica( significance unti( contact *ith Puropean e.p(orers in the mid-&:th century, *hen a Portuguese ship
"#8

Naga*aki City

accidenta((y (anded at 4agoshima Prefecture in &@42' -he 5ea(ous =esuit missionary "rancis Aa)ier arri)ed in another part of the territory in &@4?, but a(though he (eft for China in &@@& and died soon after departure his fo((o*ers *ho remained behind con)erted a number of daimyo 7*ar(ords9' -he most notab(e among them *as Dmura Sumitada, *ho deri)ed great profit from his con)ersion through an accompanying dea( to recei)e a portion of the trade from Portuguese ships at a port they estab(ished in agasaki in &@J& *ith his assistance' -he (itt(e harbor )i((age Huick(y gre* into a di)erse port city, and Portuguese products imported through agasaki 7such as tobacco, bread, tempura, spongecake, and ne* c(othing sty(es9 *ere assimi(ated into popu(ar =apanese cu(ture' -he Portuguese a(so brought *ith them many goods of Chinese origin' ,n &@>J agasakiGs prosperity *as threatened *hen Lideyoshi -oyotomi came to po*er' Concerned *ith the (arge Christian inf(uence in southern =apan, he ordered the e.pu(sion of a(( missionaries' Dmura had gi)en the =esuits partia( administrati)e contro( of agasaki, and the city no* returned to imperia( contro(' =apanese and foreign Christians *ere persecuted, *ith Lideyoshi crucifying 2: Christians in agasaki in &@?: to deter any attempt to usurp his po*er' Portuguese traders *ere not ostraci5ed, ho*e)er, and so the city continued to thri)e' 6hen -okuga*a ,eyasu took po*er a(most t*enty years (ater conditions did not much impro)e' Christianity *as banned outright in &:&4 and a(( missionaries *ere deported, as *e(( as daimyo *ho *ou(d not renounce the re(igion' 0 bruta( campaign of persecution fo((o*ed, *ith thousands across agasaki and other parts of =apan ki((ed or tortured' -he Christians did put up some initia( resistance, *ith the agasaki Shimabara enc(a)e of destitute Christians and (oca( peasants rising in rebe((ion in &:BJ' !(timate(y numbering 40,000, they captured Lara Cast(e and humi(iated the (oca( daimyo' -he shogun dispatched &20,000 so(diers to Huash the uprising, thus ending =apanGs brief GChristian Century'G Christians sti(( remained, of course, but a(( *ent into hiding, sti(( the )ictims of occasiona( inHuisitions' -he #utch had been Huiet(y making inroads into =apan during this time, despite the shogunateGs officia( po(icy of ending foreign inf(uence *ithin the country' -he #utch demonstrated that they *ere interested in trading a(one, and demonstrated their commitment during the Shimabara rebe((ion by firing on the Christians in support of the shogun' ,n &:4& they *ere granted #e8ima, an artificia( is(and in agasaki /ay, as a base of operations' "rom this date unti( &>@@, =apanGs contact *ith the outside *or(d *as (imited to agasaki' ,n &J20 the ban on #utch books *as (ifted, causing hundreds of scho(ars to f(ood into agasaki to study Puropean science and art' 0fter !S Commodore <atthe* Perry (anded in &>@B and the shogunate crumb(ed short(y after*ard, =apan opened its doors again' agasaki became a free port in &>@? and moderni5ation began in earnest in &>:>' 6ith the <ei8i ;estoration, agasaki Huick(y began to assume some economic dominance' ,ts main industry *as ship bui(ding'
"#

Naga*aki City

-his )ery industry *ou(d e)entua((y make it a target in 6or(d 6ar ,,' 0t &&302 am on 0ugust ? &?4@, the 0merican /-2? Superfortress 1/ockGs Car,2 in search of the shipyards, instead spotting the <itsubishi 0rms 6orks through a break in the c(ouds' ,t dropped the 1"at <an2 nuc(ear bomb on this target, the second nuc(ear bomb to be detonated o)er =apan' J@,000 of agasakiGs 240,000 residents *ere ki((ed, fo((o*ed by the death of at (east as many from resu(ting sickness and in8ury' -he city rebui(t after the *ar, a(beit dramatica((y changed, as any city *ou(d be after such co(ossa( damage' e* temp(es *ere bui(t, and ne* churches as *e((, since the Christian presence ne)er died out and e)en increased dramatica((y in numbers after the *ar' Some of the rubb(e *as (eft as a memoria(, (ike the one(egged torii gate and a stone arch near ground 5ero' e* structures *ere a(so raised as memoria(s, such as the 0tomic /omb <useum' /ut agasaki a(so remains first and foremost a port city, supporting a rich shipping industry and setting a strong e.amp(e of perse)erance and peace'
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleLNaga*aki

see a(so3 Liroshima, /ombing ofWpg AAA agasaki, /ombing ofWpg AAA Liroshima CityWpg AAA

Na'asa+i refe%ture
0rea3 40?& km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 agasaki Popu(ation3 &,@@0,000 7&??:9

Na'as&ima. #ei'e of (01I0$


-ook p(ace in &@J&' agashima *as a fortress contro((ed by the ,kkT-ikki' 0ctua((y, it *as a *ho(e series of fortresses and defensi)e *orks' obunaga attacked three times o)er the course of four years, before fina((y destroying agashima itse(f' DdaGs forces attacked across a ri)er' !nfortunate(y, the samuraiGs horses got stuck in the mud' -he samurai that managed to drag themse()es to shore --- *hi(e being fired on --- *ere dro*ned *hen the defenders opened a dike and f(ooded the area' ,t *as a tota( disaster for obunaga' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, ,kkT-ikki 7pg' A9,
"!#

Naga*hima, 1eige o! ("5(")

agashima, Second Seige of 7pg' A9, agashima, -hird Seige of 7pg' A9,

Na'as&ima. #ei'e of (01I3$


-ook p(ace in &@JB' obunagaGs run of i((-(uck *ith the ,kkT-ikki continued *hen a rainstorm hit 8ust as he *as about to open the batt(e *ith his arHuebuses' -he rain rendered them use(ess and (eft his men in a *eak defensi)e position' -he ,kkT-ikki troops immediate(y counter-attacked' -heir arHuebuses *ere co)ered during the storm and they started using them as soon as the rain (et up' -he ,kkT-ikki troops came c(ose to ki((ing obunaga' Le retreated' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, ,kkT-ikki 7pg' A9, agashima, "irst Seige of 7pg' A9, agashima, -hird Seige of 7pg' A9,

Na'as&ima. #ei'e of (01I3$


"ate *as kinder to Dda agashima' obunaga on his third attempt to reduce the fortress at

6hi(e a f(eet of ships (ead by 4uki Eoshitaka b(ockaded and bombarded the area, Dda took the outer forts' P)entua((y, the defenders *ere forced back, into the cast(es of GanshT8i and agashima' -here *ere about 20,000 of them and they *ere no* comp(ete(y cut off' 0s their situation *orsened, it became more and more point(ess for DdaGs enemies to try to he(p them, and the defenders found themse()es *ithout anyone *i((ing to try to he(p them' DdaGs men bui(t a *ooden *a(( from one outer fort to another, cutting the ,kkTikki off from the outside and pre)enting them from seeing *hat *as coming' obunaga had *ood pi(ed against the *a(( and (it of fire' -he fire spread to GanshT8i and agashima' 0(( 20,000 of the defenders *ere ki((ed' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, ,kkT-ikki 7pg' A9, agashima, "irst Seige of 7pg' A9, agashima, Second Seige of 7pg' A9, 4uki Eoshitaka 7pg' A9,
"!!

Naga*hima 1higeo

Na'as&ima #&i'eo
/aseba(( p(ayer and (ater the manager of the -okyo Giants' Le retired at the end of the 200& season'

Na'as&ino. /attle of
&@JB, agashino in <ika*a -akeda 4atsuyori beseiged Dkudaira obumasa at agashino Cast(e in &@JB' obumasa *as ho(ding the cast(e for -okuga*a ,eyasu' /oth ,eyasu and Dda obunaga sent troops and 4atsuyori *as defeated'

Na'as&ino Castle
Cast(e in <ika*a Pro)ince' Drigina((y the home of the Suganuma fami(y, -okuga*a ,eyasu took the cast(e in &@JB' $ater that year, -okuga*a and Dda forces combined to defeat -akeda 4atsuyori *hen besieged agashino Cast(e'

Na'ato ro4in%e
0 pro)ince at the e.treme *estern end of LonshX, in the area that is today Eamaguchi Prefecture' agato bordered on ,*ami and SuT Pro)inces' see a(so3 LonshX 7pg' A9, ,*ami Pro)ince 7pg' A9, SuT Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamaguchi Prefecture 7pg' A9,

Na'oya Castle
Shiba Eoshimune bui(t the origina( cast(e around &@2@' Dda from ,maga*a !8itoyo in &@B2, but (ater abandoned it' obuhide took it

,n &:&0 ,eyasu ordered the )arious daimyT to he(p *ith the bui(ding of a ne* cast(e on the site'

Na'oya City (Ai%&i refe%ture$


-he capita( city of 0ichi Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

Na'oya City (Na'asa+i refe%ture$


0 city in agasaki Prefecture' -oyotomi Lideyoshi directed the in)asion of 4orea from agoya, at that time a part of Li5en pro)ince'

"!"

Naha City

Na&a City
-he capita( city of Dkina*a Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

Nairan
D(d go)ernment position *hich trans(ates as K,nspector of ,mperia( #ocuments'G

Nait8 Family (*i+a)a$


#escended from "u8i*ara Lidesato 7pg' A9'

Nait8 Family (Tamba$


Gen5aemon ^]rightarro*^ Eukiyasu

Nait8 Den-aemon
"ather of aitT Eukiyasu' Ser)ed Dda obunaga' 6as gi)en 4ameyama 7200,000 koku9 in -amba'

Nait8 *asana'a
$i)ed &@:> to &:B4'

Nait8 Nobunari
$i)ed &@4@ to &:&2'

Nait8 Tada+atsu
#ied &:>0'

Nait8 5u+iyasu
#ied &:2:' /aptised in &@:4' 6as banished to <ani(a in &:&4'

Na+ae C&omin
aka akae -okusuke' $i)ed &>4J to &?0&' Phi(osopher' Studied in "rance from &>J& to &>J4' -rans(ated some of the *ritings of ='=' ;ousseau into =apanese'

Na+a'a)a Family
#aimyT fami(y descended from <inamoto Eorimitsu 7pg' A9'

"!3

Nakagawa 4i-ema*a

Na+a'a)a Hidemasa
P(dest son of akaga*a 4iyohide' #ied fighting in 4orea'

Na+a'a)a Hidenari
$i)ed &@J0 to &:&2'

Na+a'a)a 7iyo&ide
$i)ed &@42 to &@>B'

Na+a&as&i To+u'or8
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Lara -akahashi -anaka G' ,nukai 7Check dates9 Position Pducation Pducation Commerce W ,ndustry Lome 0ffairs From 2? Sep &?&> &B o) &?2& 20 0pr &?2J &B #ec &?B& To &B o) &?2& &2 =une &?22 02 =u(y &?2? &: <ar &?B2

Table &1Cabinet Positions Held by Nakahashi Toku,o

Na+a:ima C&i+u&ei
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st 4onoe Ligashikuni Ligashikuni Position ;ai(*ays <unitions Commerce W ,ndustry From 04 =une &?BJ &J 0ug &?4@ 2: 0ug &?4@ To 0@ =an &?B? 2: 0ug &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@

Table &2Cabinet Positions Held by Naka9i.a Chikuhei

Na+ami'a)a Hi+o:iro
$i)ed &>@4 to &?0&'

Na+ami+ado9tenn8
-he &&4th emperor of =apan' ;eigned &J&0 to &JB@'
"!4

Nakamura Ma*anao

Na+amura *asanao
aka akamura 4eiu' $i)ed &>B2 to &>?&'

Na+ano #ei'o
$i)ed &>>: to &?4B'

Na+asone 5asu&iro
Prime <inister from 2: o)ember &?>2 to 2J #ecember &?>B, 2J #ecember &?>B to 22 =u(y &?>:, and 22 =u(y &?>: to : o)ember &?>J' ;ep(aced by -akeshita oboru 7pg AAA9'

Na+ayama *i+i
$i)ed &J?> to &>>J'

Namamu'i In%ident Nanao. /attle of Nara City


-he capita( city of ara Prefecture'

Nara&as&i @ataru
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Shidehara Shidehara Shidehara Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of Cabinet Secretariat State From 0? Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: 2: "eb &?4: To &B =an &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4:

Table &3Cabinet Positions Held by Na ahashi -ata u

Nara refe%ture
0rea3 B,:?& km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 ara Popu(ation3 &,440,000 7&??:9

"!5

Narinaga

Narina'a
$i)ed &B2@ to &BB>' -he &&th and (ast 4amakura ShTgun' ;u(ed &BB4 to &BB>' Son of the Pmperor Godaigo' #eposed and ki((ed, a(ong *ith his brother, -sunenaga, in &BB>' see a(so3 Godaigo-tennT 7pg' A9, 4amakura ShTgunate 7pg' A9,

Natsume #ose+i
aka atsume 4innosuke' $i)ed &>:J to &?&:'

Nen'8
=apanese3 0 ca(endar system used in =apan to count years' $ike simi(ar systems in Past 0sia, the era name system *as origina((y deri)ed from Chinese ,mperia( practice, a(though the =apanese system is independent from the Chinese or 4orean ca(endar systems' !n(ike other simi(ar systems, the =apanese era name is sti(( in use' Go)ernment offices usua((y reHuire era names and years for officia( papers' Sometimes an era name is e.pressed *ith the first (etter of the romani5ed name' "or e.amp(e, S@@ means Sho*a @@ years' 6ith :4 years, Sho*a is the (ongest era'
*odern "ra Names

6ith the moderni5ation of =apan after the ascension of the <ei8i Pmperor and no* under current =apanese (a* since &?J?, it has become practice to change era names on(y upon occasion of imperia( succession' 0(so, the deceased emperor *i(( thereafter be referred to as his corresponding era name posthumous(y' !nder current (a*, on(y ma(es can assume the throne' ,n the =apanese (anguage, the current emperor on the throne is a(most a(*ays referred to as -ennT Leika 7 , Lis <a8esty the Pmperor9 or rare(y and (ess forma((y as 4in8T -ennT 7 , current emperor9 and e)en more rare(y, if e)er by his name 0kihito' -o ca(( the current emperor by the current era name Leisei e)en in Png(ish *ou(d be a fau. pas as it is and *i(( be his posthumous name'

"!6

Neng0

,n modern practice, the first year of a reign 7 gannen9 starts immediate(y upon the emperorGs ascension to the throne, but a(*ays ends on #ecember B&st' SubseHuent years fo((o* the 6estern ca(endar' ConseHuent(y, &?>? is kno*n as both 1Sho*a :42 and 1Leisei &2, a(though technica((y Sho*a :4 ended on =anuary Jth *ith LirohitoGs death'
Histori% "ra Names

Listorica((y ho*e)er, prior to the <ei8i ;estoration, era names *ere changed on many different occasions such as ce(ebration, ma8or po(itica( incidents, natura( disasters, and so on, but the emperors posthumous name ne)er took the name of an era' ,ncidenta((y, on modern officia( papers, those *ho *ere born prior to the <ei8i era did not *rite the era name in *hich they born, but *rote Pdo period 7though no* no one born o)er &B0 years ago in that time period is sti(( a(i)e no*9'
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable at (,?E ./ C4/C:)C httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleL9apane*eM/raMName*

#ee Also

Chrono(ogica( $ist of engT 7pg B2@9

Ne) #tru%ture *o4ement Ni%&iren


$i)ed &222 to &2>2 -he founder of a sect of /uddhism'

Ni%&ir89#ens8
See ;usso-=apanese 6ar on page AAA'

Nii'ata City
-he capita( of iigata Prefecture'

Nii'ata refe%ture
0rea3 &2,@>2 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 iigata Popu(ation3 2,4?0,000 7&??:9

Nii:ima Co
$i)ed &>4B to &>?0'

"!7

Ni@0+tenn0

Ni:89tenn8
-he J>th emperor of =apan' ;eigned &&@> to &&:@' "ather of ;oku8T-tennT 7pg' A9'

Nimmy89tenn8
-he @4th emperor of =apan' ;eigned >BB to >@0'

Nimpei
engT3 &&@&--&&@B' aka impyT'

Nine9 o)ers Treaty


-reaty negotiated by "rance, Great /ritain, =apan, and the !nited States 7and the other four *ereVV9 at the 6ashington a)a( Conference of &?2&-&?22' -he ine-Po*ers -reaty confirmed the 1Dpen #oor2 po(icy in China'
#ee Also

6ashington a)a( Conference 7pg B049

Nin:i
engT3 &240--&242'

Nin:u
engT3 >@&-->@B'

Nin+en9tenn8
-he 24th emperor of =apan' ;eigned 4>> to 4?>'

Nin+89tenn8
-he &20th emperor of =apan' $i)ed 2& "eb &>00 to 2: =an &>4:' ;eigned 22 <arch &>&J to 2: =an &>4:'

"!8

Ninnan

Ninnan
aka inGan' engT3 &&::--&&:>'

Ninna
aka in*a' engT3 >>@-->>>'

Ninomiya #onto+u
$i)ed &J>J to &>@:

Ninto+u9tenn8
-he &:th emperor of =apan' ;eigned B&B to B??'

Nis&i Amane
$i)ed &>2? to &>?J'

Nis&ida 7itaro
$i)ed &>J0 to &?4@'

Nis&ida *itsu'u
aka ishida Rei aka ishida Chikara $i)ed &?0& to &?BJ

Nis&i&ara Eoans Nis&imura #&i'e+i


$i)ed &>2> to &?02'

Nis&io #ue&iro
/orn &>?&' Cabinet Positions Le(d by ishio Suehiro
Cabinet 4atayama Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat From 0& =une &?4J To &0 <ar &?4>

"!

Ni*hio 1uehiro
Cabinet 4atayama 0shida Position State3 6ithout Portfo(io State3 6ithout Portfo(io From 0& =une &?4J &0 <ar &?4> To &0 <ar &?4> 0: =u(y &?4>

Table &4Cabinet Positions Held by Nishio #uehi o

Niss&in9#ens8
See Sino-=apanese 6ar on page AAA'

Nitobe Ina-o
$i)ed &>:2 to &?BB'

Nitta Family
#aimyT fami(y descended from <inamoto Eoshishige and nati)e to 4T5uke Pro)ince' itta in

Noda Castle
,n <ika*a, origina((y contro((ed by the Suganuma fami(y' -he cast(e *as beseiged in &@JB by the forces of -akeda Shingen' ,t *as at that seige that Shingen *as morta((y *ounded by a sniperGs bu((et'

Noda. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &@JB' -akeda Shingen 7pg AAA9 (aid seige to the cast(e 7contro((ed by V9' Shingen *as hit by a sniperGs bu((et and died 7ho* muchV9 (ater' Lis army *ithdre* but his death *as kept secret for t*o years'

Noda =i%&i
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet B Eoshida
rd rd

Position Construction State3 #irector 0dministrati)e <anagement 0gency State3 #irector ;eparations 0gency

From

To

B Eoshida VV

Table &"Cabinet Positions Held by Noda +ichi

""#

No-a Etar0

Noda =tar8
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Lara -akahashi & 4atT -akaaki
st

Position Communications Communications Commerce W ,ndustry

From 2? Sep &?&> &B o) &?2& &J 0pr &?2@

To &B o) &?2& &2 =une &?22 02 0ug &?2@

Table &$Cabinet Positions Held by Noda +ta

No'i *aresu+e
aka ogi 4itenV $i)ed && o)' &>4? to &B Sept' &?&2' Samurai from ChTshX' Sided *ith the anti-/akufu forces and 8oined the ne* ,mperia( 0rmy after the fa(( of the -okuga*a /akufu' "ought in the Sino=apanese 6ar of &>?4-?@ and *as in charge of the forces that took Port 0rthur in the ;usso-=apanese 6ar of &?04-&?0@' ,n bet*een those *ars, from &>?: to &>?>, <aresuke ser)ed as go)ernor-genera( of "ormosa' Le ki((ed himse(f to fo((o* his (ord C the Pmperor <ei8i C in death' Lis 7<aresukeGs9 *ife a(so ki((ed herse(f as an act of (oya(ty'

Noma #ei:i
$i)ed &>J> to &?B>

Nosa+a #an-o
/orn &>?2'

Noto eninsula
aka oto-hanto 7hanto being =apanese for Gha(f-is(andG and thus, peninsu(a in Png(ish9 0 peninsu(a in ,shika*a Prefecture 7pg' A9 that 8uts out into the Sea of =apan'

Noto ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today ,shika*a Prefecture' oto bordered on PtchX and 4aga Pro)inces' see a(so3 PtchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,shika*a Prefecture 7pg' A9,
""!

Noto %ro&ince

4aga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, oto Peninsu(a 7pg' A9,

Numa *ori+a-u
$i)ed &>44 to &>?0'

Nunobeyama. /attle of

Jan , 6-u 5asu:iro


Jan
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B:>--&BJ4'

6bon
see /on on page AA'

6bu%&i 7ei-8
Prime <inister from B0 =u(y &??> to @ 0pri( 2000' ;ep(aced by <ori Eoshiro 7pg AAA9' #ied of a stroke *hi(e in office, so the date abo)e might be off by a fe* days'

J%&8
engT3 &B&&--&B&&'

6da C&i+a-ane
Son of -aira Sukemori' -ook the name Dda from the to*n in Pchi5en Pro)ince'

6da Family
#aimyT fami(y descended from -aira Sukemori' Dda Chika5ane *as the first to take the name KDdaG' Drigina((y ser)ed the Shiba fami(y and mo)ed *ith them from Pchi5en to D*ari'

6da Hide+atsu
$i)ed &@:J to &@?B'

6da Hidenobu
$i)ed &@>& to &:02'

"""

?-a 4i-eo

6da Hideo
aka Dda Lidekatsu' $i)ed &@JB to &:&0'

6da 7atsuna'a
$i)ed &@:> to &@>2'

6da Na'amasu
$i)ed &@4> to &:22' /rother of Dda obunaga' Con)erted to Christianity in &@>>' "ather of agamasa and -oshimasa' 0ccomp(ished practitioner of the tea ceremony, *hich he studied under the master, Sen no ;ikyX' agamasa e)entua((y started his o*n schoo( of the tea ceremony 7and its name isV9'

6dani. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &@JB' Dda obunaga took Ddani cast(e from 0sai agamasa' suicide' -his *as effecti)e(y the end of the 0sai fami(y' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, 0sai agamasa 7pg' A9, agamasa committed

6da Nobu&aru
$i)ed &@4? to &@J0'

6da Nobu&ide
#ied &@4?'

6da Nobu&iro
#ied &@J4'

6da Nobu+ane
$i)ed &@4> to &:&4'

6da Nobuna'a
$i)ed &@B4 to &@>2'
""3

?-a Nobuo

6da Nobuo
$i)ed &@@> to &:B0'

6da Nobutada
$i)ed &@@J to &@>2'

6da Nobuta+a
$i)ed &@@> to &@>B

6da Nobuyu+i
#ied &@@J'

6da Nobu-umi
$i)ed &@@@ to &@>B'

Jei
engT3 &B?4--&42J'

6'asa)ara Na'atada 6'ata 78an


$i)ed &>&0 to &>:B'

6'ata Ta+etora
$i)ed &>>> to &?@:'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 4oiso Ligashikuni Ligashikuni State Chief of Cabinet Secretariat State Position From 22 =u(y &?44 &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ To 0J 0pr &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@

Table &%Cabinet Positions Held by :,ata Taketo a

6'a 5as&iro
0 traitor *ho offered to (et -akeda 4atsuyori into the -okuga*a-contro((ed cast(e at Dka5aki'

J'ima%&i9tenn8
-he &0:th emperor of =apan'
""4

>gimachi+tenn0

;eigned &@@J to &@>:'

6'y> #orai
$i)ed &: "eb' &::: to &? =an' &J2>' 0 Confucianist of the kogaku schoo('

6&ara *a'osabur8
$i)ed 2> =u(y &>>0 to &> =an' &?4B' ati)e of Dkayama' 0 businessman and phi(anthropist'

6&ara Naos&i
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Dkada 0be 0be Position =ustice Lome 0ffairs 6e(fare From 0> =u(y &?B4 B0 0ug &?B? B0 0ug &?B? To 0? <ar &?B: &: =an &?40 2? o) &?B?

Table &&Cabinet Positions Held by :ha a Naoshi

J&i+o
0 son of 4Tgen-tennT 7pg &:09'

J&ira *asayos&i
$i)ed &?&0 to &?>0' Prime <inister from J #ecember &?J> to ? &?J? to &> =u(y &?>0' o)ember &?J? and ? o)ember

J&8
engT3 &&:&--&&:2'

6i 7entaro
$i)ed &>4B to &?22'

6is&i 5os&i
aka Dishi 4uranosuke'

""5

?i*hi 5o*hi

$i)ed &:@? to &J0B'

Jita City
-he capita( city of Sita Prefecture'

Jita refe%ture
0rea3 :,BBJ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Sita Popu(ation3 &,240,000 7&??:9

J:in9tenn8
-he &@th emperor of =apan' ;eigned 2J0 to B&0'

6+abe Na'anori 6+ada 7eisu+e


$i)ed 2& =an &>:> to &J Dct &?@2
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet -anaka G' SaitT Dkada Dkada Dkada a)y a)y Co(oni5ation Prime <inister Communications Position From 20 0pr &?2J 2: <ay &?B2 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 Sep 0? &?B@ To 02 =u(y &?2? =an 0? &?BB 2@ Dct &?B4 0? <ar &?B: &2 Sep &?B@

Table &*Cabinet Positions Held by :kada Keisuke

Cabinet
Name Dkada 4eisuke Eama5aki -atsunosuke 4a*ada ,sao Eoshida Shigeru Shirane -akesuke 4anamori -oku8irT Shashi LachirT Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture and "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau From > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 20 Dct &?B4 && <ay &?B@ > =u(y &?B4 && =an &?B: To ? <ar &?B: ? <ar &?B: 20 Dct &?B4 && <ay &?B@ ? <ar &?B: && =an &?B: ? <ar &?B:

""6

?ka-a :ei*uke
Name Dkada 4eisuke 4odama Lideo <achida ChX8i -okonami -ake8irT Dkada 4eisuke <ochi5uke 4eisuke <atsuda Gen8i 4a*asaki -akukichi "u8ii Sanenobu <achida ChX8i -akahashi 4orekiyo Lirota 4Tki GotT "umio Dhara aoshi Ssumi <ineo !chida 4Tsai Layashi Sen8XrT 4a*ashima Eoshiyuki Position Co(oni5ation Co(oni5ation Commerce and ,ndustry Communications Communications Communications Pducation Pducation "inance "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar 6ar From > =u(y &?B4 2@ Dct &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 ? Sep &?B@ &2 Sep &?B@ > =u(y &?B4 2 "eb &?B: > =u(y &?B4 2J "eb &?B: 2J o) &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 > =u(y &?B4 @ Sep &?B@ To 2@ Dct &?B4 ? <ar &?B: ? <ar &?B: > Sep &?B@ &2 Sep &?B@ ? <ar &?B: & "eb &?B: ? <ar &?B: 2: o) &?B4 ? <ar &?B: 2: "eb &?B: ? <ar &?B: ? <ar &?B: ? <ar &?B: ? <ar &?B: ? <ar &?B: @ Sep &?B@ ? <ar &?B:

Table *3:kada Keisuke's Cabinet

6+ada !y8&ei
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet -erauchi &st 4atT -akaaki 2 4atT -akaaki
nd

Position Pducation Pducation Pducation Pducation

From 0? Dct &?&: && =une &?24 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2:

To 2? Sep &?&> 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2: 20 0pr &?2J

&st 6akatsuki

Table *1Cabinet Positions Held by :kada Ayhei

6+a+ura Tens&in
aka Dkakura 4aku5o $i)ed &>:2 to &?&B

""7

?kano :ei@ir0

6+ano 7ei:ir8
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st Saion8i 2nd Saion8i & Eamamoto
st

Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau =ustice Pducation 0gricu(ture W Commerce

From 0J =an &?0: B0 0ug &?&& 20 "eb &?&B &2 =une &?22 Sep 0: &?2B 24 #ec &?2B

To &4 =u(y &?0> 2& #ec &?&2 20 Sep &?&B 02 Sep &?2B 0J =an &?24 0J =an &?24

4atT -omosaburT 2 Eamamoto


nd nd

2 Eamamoto

Table *2Cabinet Positions Held by :kano Kei9i

6+a)a #&umei
$i)ed &>>: to &?@J'

6+ayama City
-he capita( of Dkayama Prefecture'

6+ayama refe%ture
0rea3 J,&&& km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Dkayama Popu(ation3 &,?@0,000 7&??:9

6+a-a+i Castle
,n <ika*a' /ui(t in the &400s' -okuga*a ,eyasu *as born there in &@42'

6+e&a-ama. /attle of
-ook p(ace in &@:0' Dda obunaga defeated ,maga*a Eoshimoto' obunaga (aunched a surprise attack on Eoshimoto' -hanks in part to a sudden rainstorm, the attack *as a comp(ete success' Eoshimoto and many of his top officers *ere ki((ed' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, ,maga*a Eoshimoto 7pg' A9,
""8

>ki /nkichi

J+i "n+i%&i
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Lara -akahashi 4atT -omosaburT Position =ustice =ustice ;ai(*ays From &@ <ay &?20 &B o) &?2& &2 =une &?22 To &B o) &?2& &2 =une &?22 02 Sep &?2B

Table *3Cabinet Positions Held by Bki Cnkichi

6+ina)a. /attle of 6+ina)a refe%ture


0rea3 2,2:: km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 aha Popu(ation3 &,2?0,000 7&??:9 Dkina*a consists of more than @0 is(ands of the ;yXkX chain' -he is(ands *ere a semi-independent kingdom for much of their recorded history and officia((y became a part of =apan on(y in &?20' -he is(ands are strategica((y (ocated off the south*est of the main is(and of 4yXshX' -he is(and of Dkina*a 7the main is(and of the prefecture9 *as the scene of an important batt(e in 6or(d 6ar -*o'

6+ina)ate. /attle of 6+i ro4in%e


0 group of is(ands off the coast of ,5umo and LTki Pro)inces 7today Shimane and -ottori Prefectures9' -oday the is(ands are part of Shimane Prefecture' see a(so3 LTki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,5umo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimane Prefecture 7pg' A9, -ottori Prefecture 7pg' A9,

J+i Ta+at8
$i)ed &>B2 to &>??'

""

>ki )akat0

Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & Eamagata
st

Position Lanretsu =ustice Pducation

From 24 #ec &>>? 2@ #ec &>?0 0& =une &>?&

To 0: <ay &>?& 0J "eb &>?& 0> 0ug &>?2

&st Eamagata & <atsukata


st

Table *4Cabinet Positions Held by Bki Takat

J+8%&i Castle 6+ubo Tos&imi%&i


$i)ed &>B0 to &>J>'

6+udaira Family
"rom <ika*a' #escended from the <urakami branch of the <inamoto fami(y'

6+udaira #adamasa
$i)ed &@@@--&:&@' -he Dkudaira fami(y *ere origina((y retainers of the -okuga*a, but *ere forced to 8oin -akeda Shingen' 0fter Shingen died and 4atsuyori assumed (eadership of the -akeda c(an, Dkudaira Sadamasa *a(ked his men right out of -sukude cast(e and re8oined the -okuga*a' 4atsuyori had SadamasaGs *ife and brother --hostages to the -akeda --- crucified for this' ,eyasu accepted Sadamasa back and entrusted him *ith the defense of gashino cast(e' See a(so3 agashino, /att(e of 7pg' A9, agashino Cast(e 7pg' A9, Dkudaira "ami(y 7pg' A9, -akeda "ami(y 7pg' A9, -akeda 4atsuyori 7pg' A9, -akeda Shingen 7pg' A9, -okuga*a "ami(y 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, a-

6+uda 5os&indo
$i)ed

"3#

?ku-a 5o*hin-o

Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 4 ,tT
th

Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Pducation =ustice

From &? Dct &?00 02 =une &?0& 20 "eb &?&B && o) &?&B

To 02 =une &?0& 2: Sep &?02 0: <ar &?&4 &: 0pr &?&4

&st 4atsura & Eamamoto


st st

& Eamamoto

Table *"Cabinet Positions Held by :kuda @oshindo

6+uma 7i&a%&iro
$i)ed &>BJ to &?2>

J+uma #&i'enobu
$i)ed &: "eb &>B> to &0 =an &?22'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & ,tT 4uroda 2 <atsukata
nd nd st

Position "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs 0gricu(ture W Commerce Prime <inister "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Prime <inister Lome 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs

From & "eb &>>> B0 0pr &>>> 22 Sep &>?: 2? <ar &>?J B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 B0 =u(y &?&@ &0 0ug &?&@

To B0 0pr &>>> 24 #ec &>>? : o) &>?J : o) &>?J > o) &>?> > o) &>?> J =an &?&@ ? Dct &?&: &0 0ug &?&@ &B Dct &?&@

2 <atsukata &st Skuma & Skuma


st

2nd Skuma 2nd Skuma 2 Skuma


nd

2nd Skuma

Table *$Cabinet Positions Held by Bku.a #hi,enobu

First Cabinet
Name Skuma Shigenobu Sishi <asami -aketomi -okitoshi 4Tmuchi -omotsune Layashi Euu5T D5aki Eukio Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation From B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> To > o) &>?> > o) &>?> > o) &>?> > o) &>?> > o) &>?> 2J Dct &>?>

"3!

>kuma 1higenobu
Name <atsuda <asahisa Skuma Shigenobu ,tagaki -aisuke #aitT Gitetsu SaigT -sugumichi 4atsura -arT "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y 6ar Position From B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> B0 =une &>?> To > o) &>?> > o) &>?> > o) &>?> > o) &>?> > o) &>?> > o) &>?>

Table *%Bku.a #hi,enobu's >i st Cabinet

Skuma ShigenobuGs Second Cabinet


Name Skuma Shigenobu Sura 4anetake Dka ,chinosuke Pgi -asuku -akahashi Sakue -aketomi -okitoshi ,chiki 4itokurT 6akatsuki ;ei8irT 4atT -akaaki Skuma Shigenobu D5aki Eukio Easuhiro ;okurT Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0rmy Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y From &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 &: 0pri( &?&4 To ? Dct &?&: J =an &?&@ B0 <ar &?&: ? Dct &?&: ? Dct &?&: &0 0ug &?&@ &0 0ug &?&@ &0 0ug &?&@ &0 0ug &?&@ J =an &?&@ ? Dct &?&: &0 0ug &?&@

Table *&Bku.a #hi,enobu's #econd Cabinet

Jmi ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Shiga Prefecture' Smi bordered on Pchi5en, ,se, <ino, -amba 78ust bare(y9, 6akasa, and Eamashiro Pro)inces'
Domains

Stsu 7:0,000 koku93 4yTgoku -akatsugu recei)ed from -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7*hat yearV9'
"3"

>mi %ro&ince

#ee Also

Pchi5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4yTgoku -akatsugu 7pg' A9, <ino Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shiga Prefecture 7pg' A9, -amba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, 6akasa Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

6mote9+8+e 6mura *asa:iro


$i)ed &>24 to &>:?'

Jnin
engT3 &4:J--&4:>'

Jnin @ar
6nin"no"ran in =apanese'

6no A-usa
$i)ed &>@2 to &>>:'

6no'a)a
0 ri)er in /ungo Pro)ince'

Jsa+a Castle Jsa+a City


-he capita( of Ssaka Prefecture'

Jsa+a refe%ture
0 fu and not a ken' 0rea3 &,>?2 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Ssaka Popu(ation3 >,@?0,000 7&??:9

Jsa+a. #ei'e of
$asted &:&4--&:&@' -oyotomi Lideyori *as in Ssaka Cast(e *ith &&B,000' Dutside, the -okuga*a army numbered about &?4,000 men' -hey fought se)era( batt(es, starting *ith one in &:&4 at the mouth of the 4i5uga*a, and ending *hen LideyoriGs forces attacked those of the -okuga*a at the /att(e of -ennT8i, in &:&@'
"33

>*aka, 1eige o!

see a(so3 -oyotomi Lideyori 7pg' A9, Ssaka Cast(e 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, 4i5uga*a, /att(e of 7pg' A9, -ennT8i, /att(e of 7pg' A9,

Jsa)a Family Jsu'i #a+ae


$i)ed &>>@ to &?2B' 0narchist' 4i((ed after the Great 4anto ParthHuake of &?2B' Lad a re(ationship *ith ,tT
#ee Also

oe'

0narchism 7pg' 249 Great 4anto ParthHuake 7pg' ?>9, ,tT oe 7pg' &B29,

Jsumi ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4agoshima Prefecture' Ssumi bordered on LyXga and Satsuma Pro)inces' see a(so3 LyXga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4agoshima Prefecture 7pg' A9, Satsuma Pro)ince 7pg' A9

Jto+u
engT3 &0>4--&0>:'

Jtomo Family 6tsu City


-he capita( of Shiga Prefecture 7pg AA9'

Jtsu. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &:00' 4yTgoku -akatsugu defended Stsu cast(e for the -okuga*a' -achibana <uneshige and -sukushi Lirokado (aid seige' -he sides negotiated and -akatsugu
"34

>t*u, 1eige o!

surrendered' Lo*e)er, in the meantime -okuga*a ,eyasu had *on the /att(e of Sekigahara and the (oss of Stsu *as insignificant'
#ee Also

4yTgoku -akatsugu 7pg' A9, -achibana <uneshige 7pg' A9, -sukushi Lirokado 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9,

Ju%&i 5os&ita+a Jura 7aneta+e


$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & 4atsura 2nd 4atsura 2 4atsura
nd st

Position Communications 0gricu(ture W Commerce 0gricu(ture W Commerce Lome 0ffairs 0gricu(ture W Commerce Lome 0ffairs

From 22 Sep &?0B &4 =u(y &?0> 0B Sep &?&0 2& #ec &?&2 &: 0pr &?&4 0J =an &?&@

To 0J =an &?0: 2: <ar &?&0 B0 0ug &?&& 20 "eb &?&B 0J =an &?&@ B0 =u(y &?&@

Brd 4atsura 2 Skuma


nd nd

2 Skuma

Table **Cabinet Positions Held by Bu a Kanetake

6)ari ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 0ichi Prefecture' D*ari bordered on ,se, <ika*a, and <ino Pro)inces'
#ee Also

0ichi Prefecture 7pg' A9, ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ika*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ino Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

J)a
engT3 ?:&--?:B'

6yama I+uo
$i)ed &>>0 to &?@@'

Jyama I)ao
$i)ed &>42 to &?&: Cabinet Positions Le(d by Syama ,*ao

"35

>yama 8wao

Cabinet &st ,tT &st ,tT 4urota 4urota &st Eamagata & <atsukata 2nd ,tT 2nd ,tT 2nd <atsukata
st

Position 6ar a)y 6ar Pducation 6ar 6ar 6ar 6ar 6ar

"rom 22 #ec &>>@ =u(y &0 &>>: B0 0pr &>>> "eb &: &>>? 24 #ec &>>? 0: <ay &>?& 0> 0ug &>?2 2: <ay &>?@ &> Sep &>?:

-o B0 0pr &>>> =u(y 0& &>>J 24 #ec &>>? 22 <ar &>>? 0: <ay &>?& &J <ay &>?& 0? Dct &>?4 &> Sep &>?: 20 Sep &>?@

Table 133Cabinet Positions Held by Bya.a ;1ao

6yama9:in:a
0 shrine in 4ana5a*a, ,shika*a Prefecture' ,t is famous for its #utch stainedg(ass *indo*, *hich dates back se)era( hundred years'
#ee Also

4ana5a*a City 7pg' A9, ,shika*a Prefecture 7pg' A9,

6-a+i Hotsumi
$i)ed &?0& to &?44'

6-a+i 5u+io
$i)ed &>@? to &?@4'

6-u 5asu:iro
$i)ed &?0B to &?:B'

a%ifi% @ar , ri4y Coun%il


a%ifi% @ar ar+es. Harry
$i)ed &>2> to &>>@' /ritish #ip(omat

"36

%arke*, 4arry

0rri)ed in =apan in &>:@' 6as friend(y to*ard the /akufuGs ri)a(s and had some inf(uence in the <ei8i go)ernment as a resu(t' Parkes *orked in =apan unti( &>>B, *hen he *as posted to China'

ea%e reser4ation Ea) earl Harbor. /ombin' of


Dccurred J #ec' &?4& 0merican time 7> #ec' =apan time9'

erry. *att&e) C.
$i)ed &J?4 to &>@>' ,s credited by 0mericans and some others *ith opening =apan to the *or(d and thereby ending the =apanese period of nationa( iso(ation kno*n as sakoku'

oliti%al Crisis of 0AA0 oliti%al arties ortsmout& Treaty


!'S' President -heodore ;oose)e(t hosted negotiations bet*een =apan and ;ussia at Portsmouth, e* Lampshire, in 0ugust &?0@' -he purpose *as to end the ;usso-=apanese 6ar, in *hich =apan *as the c(ear )ictor but a(so in no state to continue fighting' 4omura =XtarT and Sergei 6itte finished negotiations on @ September' =apan gained a (ot from the treaty, but not near(y as much as the =apanese pub(ic had been (ed to e.pect' -he resu(t at home *as the Libuya riots and the co((apse of 4atsura -arTGs Cabinet on J =anuary &?0:' see a(so3 ;usso-=apanese 6ar 7pg' A9, 4omura =XtarT 7pg' A9, 6itte, Sergei 7pg' A9, 4atsura -arT 7pg' A9, Libuya ;iots 7pg' A9,

refe%tures
0n administrati)e di)ision, simi(ar to 0merican states or Canadian pro)inces' -hey are ca((ed ken in =apanese' -here are a(so a fe* specia( administati)e units simi(ar to ken but gi)en different names3 there is one dT 7LokkaidT, pg' AA9, one tT 7-TkyT-tT, pg' AA the capita( of =apan9, and t*o fu, 74yoto-fu pg' AA and Ssaka-fu pg' AA9' Co((ecti)e(y the =apanese refer to these as the tT-dT-fuken and there are 4J a(( together'
"37

%re!ecture*

-his encyc(opedia treats a(( four di)isions as KprefectureG in Png(ish' -hus, Ssaka-fu is (ocated on page AAA as Ssaka Prefecture' -here is a comp(ete (isting of the prefectures, their area, capita(, and popu(ation on page AAA'

ri4y Coun%il

(K( No "ntries$
othing here yet'

!an'a+u , !y>+y> ro4in%e


!an'a+u
see #utch $earning on page AAA'

!ed Fla' In%ident


Dccurred in &?0>'

!ei'en9tenn8
-he &&2th emperor of =apan' $i)ed 2@ <ay &:@4 to : 0ug &JB2 ;eigned 2: =an &::B to 2& <arch &:>J' -he &?th son of Pmperor Gomi5unT 7pg' A9'

!ei+i
engT3 J&@--J&:'

!eis%&auer. "d)in 6ldfat&er


$i)ed &@ Dct &?&0 to & Sep &??0'

!ei-ei9tenn8
-he :Brd emperor of =apan' $i)ed 2@ <ay ?@0 to 24 Dct &0&&' ;eigned 2@ <ay ?:J to &B 0ug ?:?' Second son of Pmperor <urakami 7pg' A9'

"38

;ennyo

!ennyo
$i)ed 2@ "eb &4&@ to 2@ <arch &4??'

!ensai
See 0dachi <orinaga on page AAA'

!i%&ardson. C&arles
#ied in &>:2'

!i%&>9tenn8
-he &Jth emperor of =apan' ;eigned 400 to 40@'

!i++en Dos&i+ai !i+u%&> ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today ,*ate Prefecture' ;ikuchX bordered on <utsu, ;iku5en, and !go Pro)inces' see a(so3 ,*ate Prefecture 7pg' A9, <utsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ;iku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !go Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

!i+u-en ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today <iyagi Prefecture' ;iku5en bordered on ,*aki, ;ikuchX, !go, and !5en Pro)inces' see a(so3 ,*aki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <iyagi Prefecture 7pg' A9, ;ikuchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !go Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

"3

;oche*, .eon

!o%&es. Eeon
$i)ed &>0? to &?0&' ;epresentati)e of the "rench go)ernment in =apan from &>:4 to &>:>' -he "rench go)ernment took the side of the -okuga*a /akufu and thus *as not rea( popu(ar in =apan after the <ei8i ;estoration'

!oesler. 7arl Friedri%& Hermann


$i)ed &> #ec' &>B4 to 2 #ec' &>?4' 6orked in =apan from &>J> to &>?B'

!o++a+u 5os&ita+a
#ied &@>&'

!o+u:89tenn8
-he J?th emperor of =apan' $i)ed &4 o) &&:4 to &J =u(y &&J:' ;eigned 2@ =une &&:@ to &? "eb &&:>' Son of i8T-tennT 7pg' A9'

!ono Fa%tion !oot. "li&u !usso9Capanese @ar


&?04 to &?0@' Lo* did 0merica *in a *ar against the most po*erfu( country on Parth in &J>&V -he co(onists *on because /ritain, in addition to being far a*ay from the fighting, had g(oba( interests and enemies and thus cou(dnGt afford to concentrate her po*er in any one region for fear of (osing another region' =apanGs *ar *ith ;ussia *as simi(ar in many *ays' ,t *asnGt fought in =apan, but in 4orea, much c(oser to =apan than to the Puropean end of ;ussia' 0(so, *hi(e =apan *as re(ati)e(y free to thro* herse(f fu((y into the *ar, ;ussia fought *ith one and a ha(f eyes on Germany, Png(and, and "rance' ,ndeed, Puropean neutra(ity he(ped =apan by denying ;ussia access to ports and repair and supp(y faci(ities in 0sia' -hus =apanGs sma(( si5e and re(ati)e *eakness *ere offset by ;ussiaGs distance and Puropean entang(ements' -he ;ussian bear, big though he *as, fought *ith his c(a*s tied behind his back'

"4#

;u**o+9apane*e Aar

-his is not to do*np(ay the ski(( or determination of the members of the =apanese 0rmy and a)y' 0(though they made their share of strategic and tactica( mistakes, the 0rmy and a)y performed Huite professiona((y in their first *ar against a Puropean po*er' !n(ike their beha)ior in 6or(d 6ar -*o, the =apanese mi(itary is genera((y gi)en credit for fighting in the best tradition of Puropean chi)a(ry' ;ight, so *hat *as the *ar about any*ayV ,t *as about *ho shou(d contro( 4orea' -he =apanese ha)e usua((y )ie*ed 4orea as a dagger pointed right at =apan and ha)e thus a(*ays preferred, if possib(e, to be the ones contro((ing it' "or ;ussia, the issues *ere (inked to the 0sian continenta( situation' ;ussia *anted to protect its rai(*ays and its access to ice-free ports' %(adi)ostok *as ;ussiaGs main port in 0sia, and a(though there *ere great hopes for Port 0rthur, there *as not time before the *ar to prepare it' %(adi)ostok *as too far a*ay and too far north to ha)e much inf(uence in China, thus the need for a better port further south' 0dditiona((y, as an up-and-coming po*er, =apan *as no (onger gi)en a free ride on the internationa( scene' She had become a member of the ba(ance-of-po*er c(ub and ;ussia *anted to e.tend its o*n interests in ortheast 0sia in order to (imit the po*er of one of Png(andGs a((ies' -he *ar itse(f *as messy and cost(y, both in terms of money and (i)es' -he =apanese siege of Port 0rthur foreshado*ed the sickening death to((s of the "irst 6or(d 6ar 7and probab(y cou(d ha)e been forseen by students of 0mericaGs Ci)i( 6ar9' 0t home such sacrifice seemed *orth*hi(e on(y if the payoff *as eHua((y (arge' e*spapers in =apan began specu(ating on more and more outrageous outcomes for the *ar, such as taking the ;ussian Pacific coast inc(uding %(adi)ostok or a(( the ;ussian contro((ed areas north of China' =apanese ne*spapers specu(ated in this reck(ess fashion part(y at the behest of the go)ernment' -his *as the e)er popu(ar de)ice of channe(ing domestic discontent into foreign *ars and it a(most backfired *hen the -reaty of Portsmouth *as signed, ending the *ar' <any =apanese *ere unhappy *ith the terms because they had no rea(istic notion of ho* much the *ar *as costing their country' P)en though the =apanese a)y assured a =apanese )ictory by annihi(ating the ;ussian /a(tic "(eet at the famous /att(e of -sushima, ;ussia cou(d theoretica((y ha)e pro(onged the ground *ar (ong enough to serious(y damage =apanGs economy, not to mention ki(( off (arge numbers of her young men' #oing so ho*e)er, *ou(d ha)e *eakened ;ussia 8ust as much and un(ike =apan, ;ussia had (and borders in Purope to *orry about' 6hen President -heodore ;oose)e(t suggested peace ta(ks, both sides *ere Huite *i((ing to negotiate' 6hat *as the outcomeV "or the first time in se)era( hundred years, a 6estern country had been humb(ed by a non-6estern one' Granted, the *inner *as the most *esterni5ed country in 0sia and the (oser *as the (east 6estern of the Puropean po*ers, the fact remained that a sma(( 0sian country had bested a (arge Puropean one' So *hatV ,t demonstrated in (i)ing co(or to the entire *or(d that 6estern po*er and hegemony *as not due to racia(, re(igious, nor e)en entire(y cu(tura( reasons' 6estern po*er *as based on science, techno(ogy, and ad)anced po(iti"4!

;u**o+9apane*e Aar

ca( and business methods, and by adopting and app(ying these methods =apan had sho*n the *or(d that anyone cou(d achie)e the same resu(ts as the 6est'

!ya+unin
engT3 &2B>--&2B>'

!ya+u8
engT3 &BB>--&B4& 7nengo of the northern dynasty9'

!y>+y> ro4in%e
-he ;yXkyX ,s(ands *ere a semi-independent kingdom, caught bet*een China and =apan' -he Chinese go)ernment )ie*ed them as a tributary state 7and therefore theoretica((y shou(d come to their aid if necessary9' 0 &:0? e.pedition 7from 4yXshXV9 captured the is(and of Dkina*a and from then on, the kings of the ;yXkyXs sent tribute to both China and the =apanese 7*hoV SatsumaV9' ,n &>J?, the <ei8i go)ernment announced the anne.ation of the ;yXkyXs' China ob8ected and the e.-President of the !nited States !'S' Grant *as asked to arbitrate' Le decided that =apanGs c(aim to the is(ands *as stronger and ru(ed in =apanGs fa)or' -oday the ;yXkyX is(ands are co((ecti)e(y Dkina*a Prefecture' -here are a host of prob(ems arising from the ;yXkyXGs (ess than comp(ete(y =apanese history' Some peop(e 7a sma(( number perhaps9 fee( that peop(e from Dkina*a Prefecture are not 1rea(2 =apanese' 0(so, some nati)es of the ;yXkyXs c(aim that the centra( go)ernment is discriminating against them by a((o*ing so many 0merican so(diers to be stationed in Dkina*a, a far higher percentage than are stationed any*here e(se in =apan' <any popu(ar singers and musica( groups come from Dkina*a Prefecture' -hese inc(ude 7among many others9 singer 0muro amie and the group #a Pump'

#ado ro4in%e , #u-u+i Len+8


#ado ro4in%e
0n is(and off the coast of iigata Prefecture 7or in the past, Pchigo Pro)ince9' -oday the is(and is part of iigata Prefecture' 7#oub(e check, *as the is(and rea((y a separate pro)ince or a specia( regionV9

#a'a City
-he capita( of Saga Prefecture'

"4"

1agami %ro&ince

#a'ami ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4anaga*a Prefecture' Sagami bordered on ,5u, 4ai, <usashi and Suruga Pro)inces' see a(so3 ,5u Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4ai Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4anaga*a Prefecture 7pg' A9, <usashi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Suruga Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

#a'a refe%ture
0rea3 2,4B? km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Saga Popu(ation3 >?0,000 7&??:9

#a'a !ebellion #a'a9tenn8


-he @2nd emperor of =apan' ;eigned >0? to >2B'

#ai%&o
$i)ed J:J to >22'

#ai'o Ta+amori
$i)ed &>2> to &>JJ'

#ai'8 Tsu'umi%&i
$i)ed &>4B to &?02'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st ,tT & ,tT
st

Position a)y a)y a)y a)y

From 22 #ec &>>@ 0& =u(y &>>J B0 0pr &>>> 24 #ec &>>?

To &0 =u(y &>>: B0 0pr &>>> 24 #ec &>>? &J <ay &>?0 "43

4urota & Eamagata


st

1aig0 )*ugumichi
Cabinet & Eamagata
st

Position Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs a)y 6ar 6ar a)y a)y a)y Lome 0ffairs

From &J <ay &>?0 0: <ay &>?& && <ar &>?B 0? Dct &>?4 2> 0pr &>?@ &> Sep &>?: &2 =an &>?> B0 =une &>?> 0> o) &>?>

To 0: <ay &>?& 0& =une &>?& &> Sep &>?: 0J <ar &>?@ 0> <ay &>?@ &2 =an &>?> B0 =une &>?> 0> o) &>?> &? Dct &?00

&st <atsukata 2 ,tT


nd nd

2 ,tT 2nd ,tT 2 <atsukata


nd

Brd ,tT &st Skuma 2 Eamagata


nd

Table 131Cabinet Positions Held by #ai, Tsu,u.ichi

#ai+8
engT3 >@4-->@:'

#aimei9tenn8
0n empress' -he BJth ru(er of =apan' ;eigned :@@ to ::&'

#aion:i 7inmo%&i
$i)ed &>4? to &?40' Prime <inister from J =anuary &?0: to &4 =u(y &?0> and B0 0ugust &?&& to &?&2'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2 ,tT
nd

Position Pducation "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Pducation "oreign 0ffairs Pducation Lanretsu "inance Pducation Prime <inister "oreign 0ffairs

From 0B Dct &>?4 0@ =une &>?@ B0 <ay &>?: &> Sep &>?: &> Sep &>?: &2 =an &>?> &? Dct &?00 <ay &4 &?0& 0J =an &?0: 0J =an &?0: <ar 0B &?0:

To &> Sep &>?: 0B 0pr &>?: &> Sep &>?: 2> Sep &>?: 22 Sep &>?: B0 0pr &>?> 02 =une &?0& 02 =une &?0& 2J <ar &?0: &4 =u(y &?0> &? <ay &?0:

2nd ,tT 2 ,tT


nd

2nd <atsukata 2 <atsukata


nd rd

B ,tT 4th ,tT 4 ,tT


th

&st Saion8i & Saion8i & Saion8i


st st

"44

1aion@i :inmochi
Cabinet & Saion8i
st

Position "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister

From B0 0ug &?0: B0 0ug &?&&

To &> Sep &?0: 2& #ec &?&2

2nd Saion8i

Table 132Cabinet Positions Held by #aion9i Kin.ochi

First Cabinet
Name Saion8i 4inmochi <atsuoka Easutake ,shi*atari /inGichi <inami Liroshi Dkano 4ei8irT Eamagata ,saburT Lara 4ei Lotta <asayasu Saion8i 4inmochi <akino obuaki Sakatani Eoshio <atsuda <asahisa 4atT -akaaki Saion8i 4inmochi Layashi -adasu Saion8i 4inmochi Layashi -adasu Lara 4ei <atsuda <asahisa Senke -akatomi SaitT <akoto -erauchi <asatake Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture and Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Communications Communications Pducation Pducation "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice =ustice a)y 6ar From 0J =an &?0: 0J =an &?0: 0J =an &?0: 04 =an &?0> 0J =an &?0: 0J =an &?0: &4 =an &?0> 2@ <ar &?0> 0J =an &?0: 2J <ar &?0: 0J =an &?0: &4 =an &?0> 0J =an &?0: 0B <ar &?0: &? <ay &?0: B0 0ug &?0: &> Sep &?0: 0J =an &?0: 0J =an &?0: 2@ <ar &?0> 0J =an &?0: 0J =an &?0: To &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> 04 =an &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =an &?0> 2@ <ar &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> 2J <ar &?0: &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =an &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> 0B <ar &?0: &? <ay &?0: B0 0ug &?0: &> Sep &?0: &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> 2@ <ar &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =u(y &?0>

Table 133#aion9i Kin.ochi's >i st Cabinet

#e%ond Cabinet
Name Saion8i 4inmochi <akino obuaki <inami Liroshi Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture and Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat From B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& To 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 "45

1aion@i :inmochi
Name Dkano 4ei8irT Layashi -adasu Laseba Sumitaka Eamamoto -atsuo !chida 4Tsai Lara 4ei <atsuda <asahisa SaitT <akoto ,shimoto Shinroku !ehara Euusaku Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y 6ar 6ar From B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& B0 0ug &?&& 0@ 0pr &?&2 To 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 2& #ec &?&2 02 0pr &?&2 2& #ec &?&2

Table 134#aion9i Kin.ochi's #econd Cabinet

#aitama refe%ture
0rea3 B,J?J km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 !ra*a Popu(ation3 :,J20,000 7&??:9

#ait8 *a+oto
$i)ed &>@> to &?B:' Prime <inister from 2: <ay &?B2 to > =u(y &?B4'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet & Saion8i
st

Position a)y a)y a)y a)y a)y "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister Pducation

From 0J =an &?0: &4 =u(y &?0> B0 0ug &?&& 2& #ec &?&2 20 "eb &?&B 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 <ar 0B &?B4

To &4 =u(y &?0> B0 0ug &?&& 2& #ec &?&2 20 "eb &?&B &: 0pr &?&4 0: =u(y &?B2 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4

2 4atsura
nd

2nd Saion8i B 4atsura


rd st

& Eamamoto SaitT SaitT SaitT

Table 13"Cabinet Positions Held by #ait ?akoto

"46

1ait0 Makoto

Cabinet
Name SaitT <akoto GotT "umio Shibata Ren5aburT Lorikiri Ren8irT Lorikiri Ren8irT 4urosaki -ei5T agai ;yuutarT aka8ima 4umakichi <atsumoto =T8i <inami Liroshi Latoyama ,chirT SaitT <akoto -akahashi 4orekiyo SaitT <akoto !chida 4Tsai Lirota 4Tki Eamamoto -atsuo 4oyama <atsukichi Dkada 4eisuke Ssumi <ineo <itsuchi Chuu5T 0raki Sadao Layashi Sen8uurT Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture and "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Commerce and ,ndustry Commerce and ,ndustry Communications Pducation Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar 6ar From 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 &B <ar &?BB 2: <ay &?B2 &B <ar &?BB 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 0? "eb &?B4 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 0B <ar &?B4 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 0: =u(y &?B2 &4 Sep &?BB 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 0? =an &?BB 2: <ay &?B2 2: <ay &?B2 2B =an &?B4 To 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 &B <ar &?BB 0> =u(y &?B4 &B <ar &?BB 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 0? "eb &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 0B <ar &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 0: =u(y &?B2 &4 Sep &?BB 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 0? =an &?BB 0> =u(y &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4 2B =an &?B4 0> =u(y &?B4

Table 13$#ait ?akoto's Cabinet

#ait8 Ta+ao
$i)ed &>J0 to &?4?' Po(itician'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2 6akatsuki
nd st

Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau State3 6ithout Portfo(io

From 0? o) &?B& 22 <ay &?4:

To &B #ec &?B& 2> o) &?4:

& Eoshida

"47

1ait0 )akao
Cabinet & Eoshida
st

Position State3 President of 0dministrati)e <anagement /ureau State3 President of 0dministrati)e <anagement /ureau

From 2> o) &?4: 24 <ay &?4J

To 24 <ay &?4J &0 <ar &?4>

4atayama

Table 13%Cabinet Positions Held by #ait Takao

#ait8 Tatsuo+i
$i)ed &@4> to &4 0ug &@JB' Son of SaitT Eoshitatsu' $ost to Dda obunaga in &@:4' 7*hereV9 Sur)i)ed, but the SaitT fami(y *ere no (onger p(ayers in the Sengoku *ars'

#a+ai Tadatsu'u #a+ai Tos&i&i+o


$i)ed &>J& to &?BB'

#a+amoto. /attle of #a+amoto !yoma


$i)ed &>B@ to &>:J'

#a+uma *orimasa
$i)ed &@@4 to &@>B' 0 retainer of Shibata 4atsuie' <orimasa beat akaga*a 4iyohide at the /att(e of Shi5ugatake 7&@>B9 but persued his )ictory too far' Lis forces *ere surprised and crushed by reinforcements sent by -oyotomi Lideyoshi' <orimasa f(ed but *as captured and beheaded' -he (oss *as so se)ere that Shibata 4atsuie committed suicide' 7todo3 doub(e check a(( these entries, add detai(s, and make them consistent'9 see a(so3 akaga*a 4iyohide 7pg' A9, Shibata 4atsuie 7pg' A9, Shi5ugatake, /att(e of 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9,

"48

1akuma Mori*hige

#a+uma *oris&i'e #a+uma #&8-an


aka Sakuma Ro5an 7RT5anV9' $i)ed 2> "eb' &>&& to && =u(y &>:4' 4no*(edgab(e on na)a( and coasta( defence issues' ,mprisoned by the -okuga*a /akufu from &>@4 to &>:2' 0d)ocated opening =apanese ports to foreign traders' 0ssassinated for his opinions by some radica( anti-foreign samurai'

#a+ura+ai #a+urama%&i9tenn8
-he &&@th emperor of =apan' ;eigned &JB@ to &J4J'

#a+urau%&i 5u+io
Po(itician'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2nd 6akatsuki Liranuma Eonai Position Commerce W ,ndustry 0gricu(ture W "orestry "inance From &4 0pr &?B& 0@ =an &?B? &: =an &?40 To &B #ec &?B& B0 0ug &?B? 22 =u(y &?40

Table 13&Cabinet Positions Held by #aku auchi @ukio

#anada *asayu+i
$i)ed &@44 7&@4JV9 to &:0> 74 =une &:&&V9' Son of Sanada Eukitaka' Drigina((y ser)ed the -akeda' "ought against -okuga*a ,eyasu se)era( times' Sided against ,eyasu at the /att(e of Sekigahara but had his son, obuyuki, fight for ,eyasu' -hus, *hen the batt(e *ent in ,eyasuGs fa)or, <asayuki *as sa)ed from death by his sonGs inf(uence' ,nstead of death, <asayuki *as banished to 4udoyama in 4ii Pro)ince'
#ee Also

4ii Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Sanada obuyuki 7pg' A9, Sanada Eukitaka 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9, -akeda "ami(y 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9,
"4

1ana-a Nobuyuki

#anada Nobuyu+i #anada 5u+imura


$i)ed &@J0 7&@:JV9 to J <ay &:&@' "ought against the -okuga*a at the /att(e of Sekigahara and again at the Seige of Ssaka Cast(e'

#anada 5u+ita+a #an:o #anetomi


$i)ed &>BJ to &>?&'

#an:89tenn8
-he :Jth emperor of =apan' ;eigned &0&& to &0&:'

#ano *anabu
$i)ed &>?2 to &?@B'

#ano Tsunetami
$i)ed &>2B to &?02'

#anu+i ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4aga*a Prefecture on Shikoku' Sanuki bordered on 0*a and ,yo Pro)inces' see a(so3 0*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,yo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4aga*a Prefecture 7pg' A9, Shikoku 7pg' A9,

#apporo City
-he capita( of LokkaidT Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

"5#

1a*aki Family

#asa+i Family #asamori Cun-8


Po(itician' Cabinet Positions Le(d by Sasamori =un5T
Cabinet 4atayama 4atayama 4atayama Position State3 President of the #emobi(iti5ation 0gency State3 6ithout Portfo(io From To 24 <ay &?4J &@ Dct &?4J &@ Dct &?4J 0& "eb &?4> &0 <ar &?4>

State3 President of the ;eparations 0gency 0& "eb &?4>

Table 13*Cabinet Positions Held by #asa.o i 6unz

#at8 "isa+u
$i)ed &?0& to &?J@' Prime <inister from ? o)ember &?:4 to &J "ebruary &?:J, &J "ebruary &?:J to &4 =anuary &?J0, and &4 =anuary &?J0 to J =u(y &?J2'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2 Eoshida Brd Eoshida B Eoshida
rd nd

Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Posts -e(ecommunications

From &@ Dct &?4>

To &: "eb &?4?

Table 113Cabinet Positions Held by #at Cisaku

First Cabinet
Name SatT Pisaku Position Prime <inister From ? o) &?:4 To &J "eb &?:J

Table 111#at Cisaku's >i st Cabinet

#e%ond Cabinet
Name SatT Pisaku Position Prime <inister From ? o) &?:4 To &J "eb &?:J

Table 112#at Cisaku's #econd Cabinet

#ato). "rnest *.
$i)ed B0 =une &>4B to 2: 0ug' &?2?'
"5!

1atow, /rne*t M.

/ritish #ip(omat and author' 6rote ' ' '

#atsuma9&an #atsuma ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4agoshima Prefecture on 4yXshX' Satsuma bordered on Ligo, LyXga, and Ssumi Pro)inces'
#ee Also

Ligo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LXyuga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4agoshima Prefecture 7pg' A9, 4yXshX 7pg' A9, Ssumi Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

#eimu9tenn8
-he &Bth emperor of =apan' ;eigned &B& to &?0'

#einei9tenn8
-he 22nd emperor of =apan' ;eigned 4>0 to 4>4'

#ei #&8na'on
#ates unkno*nV #aughter of 4iyo*ara <otosuke' Court (ady at the time of Pmperor ,chi8T' 0uthor of !he " 7illow " $ook " of " Sei " Sh&nagon, *hich is Makura " no " S&shi in =apanese'

#eitos&a #ei)a9tenn8
-he @:th emperor of =apan' ;eigned >@> to >J:'

#e+i'a&ara. /attle of
&:00 -oyotomi Lideyoshi arranged for a counci( of fi)e of his most po*erfu( retainers to ru(e =apan unti( his son *as o(d enough to ru(e by himse(f' Lis hope *as
"5"

1ekigahara, attle o!

that the fi)e daimyo *ou(d effecti)e(y ba(ance each other and pre)ent any one of them from taking contro(' o such (uck' -he daimyo Huick(y prepared for *ar C most of them opting to 8oin an anti--okuga*a coa(ition' -okuga*a ,eyasu *as the strongest of the daimyo' 0pparent(y he did not acti)e(y seek to bring his enemies to batt(e, but *hen they thre* do*n the gaunt(et, he did not mind a chance to fight' -hat chance came at Sekigahara in *hat is no* Gifu Prefecture' 0(though the batt(e *as c(ose, in the end -okuga*a ,eyasu and his a((ies *on a decisi)e )ictory'
%astern &rmy -okuga*a ,eyasu Londa -adakatsu Losoga*a -adaoki ,i aomasa <atsudaira -adayoshi -sutsui Sadatsugu 0rima -oyou8i 0sano Eukinaga "ukushima <asanori ,keda -erumasa ,koma 4a5umasa 4anamori agachika 4ato Eoshiaki 4uroda agamasa 4yTgoku -akatomo Dda EXraku -anaka Eoshimasa -era5a*a Lirotaka -TdT -akatora Eoshida Shigekatsu -ota(3 'estern &rmy B0,000 <ori -erumoto @00 ,shida <itsunari @,000 Shima Sakon B,:00 Gamon /itchX B,000 0ka5a aoyasu 2,>@0 ChTsokabe <orichika ?00 4ikka*a Liroie :,@&0 <Tri Lidemoto :,000 0nkoku8i Pkei 4,@:0 4obayaka*a Lideaki &,>B0 4onishi Eukinaga &,&40 4uchiki <ototsuna B,000 atsuka <asaie @,400 Dga*a -suketada B,000 Stani Eoshitsugu 4@0 Stani W 4inoshita B,000 Shima5u Eoshihiro 2,400 -oda W Liratsuka 2,4?0 -oyotomi ;etainers &,200 !kita Lideie 6aki5aka Easuharo >>,>>> -ota(3 0 4,000 7&0009 7&0009 :00 :,:00 B,000 &@,000 &,>00 &@,:00 4,000 :00 &,@00 2,&00 :00 B,@00 &,@00 &,@00 2,000 &J,000 ??0 >&,>?0 Source3 MbryantN&??@O, page 2@
Table 113Cast and -est A .ies at #eki,aha a

#ee Also

-oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' 2?:9, ,shida <itsunari 7pg' &2:9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' 2>?9
"53

1eki )akakazu

#e+i Ta+a+a-u
$i)ed &:40 to &J0>' 7check these9

#endai City
-he capita( of <iyagi Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

#en'o+u *itsu'u
Po(itician'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st 4atT -akaaki 2 4atT -akaaki
nd

Position ;ai(*ays ;ai(*ays ;ai(*ays

From && =une &?24 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2:

To 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2: 0B =une &?2:

&st 6akatsuki

Table 114Cabinet Positions Held by #en,oku ?itsu,u

#en'o+u eriod
-he Sengoku 8idai, kno*n in Png(ish as the Sengoku Period or 1*arring-states2 period, starts in &4:J *ith the 6nin"no"ran, 7Snin 6ar, &4:J-&4J>9 and ending in &@:> *ith the 05uchi period, starting *ith Dda obunagaGs entrance into 4yoto' -he end of the Sengoku 6arring States period is open to debate' -hree other dates gi)en for the end of this period in the Listory of =apan are3 &' -he tota( unification of =apan in &@?0 by -oyotomi Lideyoshi' Lideyoshi defeated the (ater Lo8o c(an of Sagami pro)ince in the conHuest and siege of Dda*ara 7Dda*ara Seibatsu9' 2' -he )ictory of -okuga*a ,eyasu o)er ,shida <itsunari in the /att(e of Sekigahara in &:00' B' -he estab(ishment of the -okuga*a Shogunate in &:0B by -okuga*a ,eyasu' -he po*er of the centra( go)ernment, in the form of the 0shikaga Shogunate, had dissipated, and (eading fami(ies throughout the (and took to armed conf(ict to secure and e.pand their po*er' ,n some areas, monks and peasants affi(iated *ith re(igious groups 7the ,kkT-,kki9 a(so competed against the martia( fami(ies' -he absence of rea( centra( authority (asted unti(, by ski((fu( dip(omacy and sho*manship -oyotomi Lideyoshi *as ab(e to (arge(y unify the country' LideyoshiGs success *as possib(e (arge(y because Dda obunaga had scared the daimyT into reconsidering their goa(s by sho*ing them the (ogica( conc(usion of 1e)ery man for himse(fGG' -hus, *hen Dda *as murdered and Lideyoshi assumed contro(, the daimyT *ere not ad)erse to dip(omacy if that he(p them assure the continuation of their fami(ies'
"54

1engoku %erioMo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleL1engokuM%erio-

#en+a9tenn8
-he 2>th emperor of =apan' ;eigned @B@ to @B?' Sen no ;ikyu $i)ed &@22 to &@?&'

#ettsu ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today LyTgo Prefecture' Settsu bordered on Larima, ,5umi, 4a*achi, -amba, and Eamashiro Pro)inces' see a(so3 Larima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LyTgo Prefecture 7pg' A9, ,5umi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4a*achi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -amba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

#&a+aimins&uto #&a+aitais&uto #&ibata 7amon


Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st 4atsura 2 4atsura
nd

Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Pducation

From 02 =une &?0& &4 =u(y &?0> 2& #ec &?&2

To 0J =an &?0: B0 0ug &?&& 20 "eb &?&B

Brd 4atsura

Table 11"Cabinet Positions Held by #hibata Ka.on

#&ibata 7atsuie
$i)ed &@B0 to &@>B'

"55

1hibata :at*uie

Lis forces, under the (eadership of Sakuma <orimasa, beseiged akaga*a 4iyohide at Shi5ugatake' Sakuma ignored ShibataGs orders and *as destroyed by -oyotomi LideyoshiGs forces' -he (oss *as so se)ere that Shibata 4atsuie committed suicide'
#ee Also

akaga*a 4iyohide 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, Sakuma <orimasa 7pg' A9, Shi5ugatake, /att(e of 7pg' A9,

#&ibusa)a "ii%&i
$i)ed &>4& to &?B&'

#&ide&ara 7i:>r8
$i)ed &>J2 to &?@&' Prime <inister from ? Dctober &?4@ to 22 <ay &?4:'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st 4atT -akaaki 2 4atT -akaaki
nd st

Position "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister "irst #emobi(i5ation Second #emobi(i5ation State3 6ithout Portfo(io State3 President of the #emobi(iti5ation 0gency

From && =une &?24 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2: 02 =u(y &?2? &4 0pr &?B& 0? Dct &?4@ #ec 0& &?4@ #ec 0& &?4@ 22 <ay &?4: =une &@ &?4:

To 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2: 20 0pr &?2J &4 0pr &?B& &B #ec &?B& 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: =une &@ &?4: 24 <ay &?4J

& 6akatsuki Lamaguchi 2 6akatsuki


nd

Shidehara Shidehara Shidehara &st Eoshida & Eoshida


st

Table 11$Cabinet Positions Held by #hideha a Ki9<

Cabinet
Name Shidehara 4i8XrT <atsumura 4en5T Soe8ima Senpachi -sugita #ai5aburT arahashi 6ataru Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture and "orestry 0gricu(ture and "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of Cabinet Secretariat From 0? Dct &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: 0? Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: To 22 <ay &?4: &B =an &?4: 22 <ay &?4: &B =an &?4: 22 <ay &?4:

"56

1hi-ehara :i@6r0
Name arahashi 6ataru ,shiguro -akeshige ,rie -oshirT Dgasa*ara SankurT <aeda -amon 0be Eoshishige Shibusa*a 4ei5T Shidehara 4i8XrT Eoshida Shigeru Lorikiri Ren8irT <itsuchi ChX5T ,*ata ChX5T Eonai <itsumasa Shidehara 4i8XrT <atsumoto =T8i 4obayashi ,chi5T -sugita #ai5aburT ,shiguro -akeshige arahashi 6ataru -anaka -akeo <itsuchi ChX5T <urakami Giichi Shimomura Sadamu 0shida Litoshi Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Commerce and ,ndustry Pducation Pducation "inance "irst #emobi(i5ation "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y Second #emobi(i5ation State State State State State -ransport -ransport -ransport 6ar 6e(fare From 0? Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: &? <ar &?4? 0? Dct &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: 0? Dct &?4@ 0& #ec &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: 0? Dct &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ 0& #ec &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ B0 Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: 2: "eb &?4: 2: "eb &?4: 0? Dct &?4@ &B =an &?4: 2: =an &?4: 0? Dct &?4@ 0? Dct &?4@ To &B =an &?4: &? <ar &?4? 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: &B =an &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: &B =an &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 0& #ec &?4@ 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 0? <ar &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 22 <ay &?4: &B =an &?4: 2: =an &?4: 22 <ay &?4: 0& #ec &?4@ 22 <ay &?4:

Table 11%#hideha a Ki9< 's Cabinet

#&i'a Naoya #&i'a refe%ture


0rea3 4,0&J km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Stsu Popu(ation3 &,2>0,000 7&??:9

#&i'emitsu *amoru
Po(itician'
"57

1higemit*u Mamoru

$i)ed &>>J to &?@J'


Cabinet ositions
Cabinet -T8T 4oiso 4oiso Ligashikuni Ligashikuni Position "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Greater Past 0sia "oreign 0ffairs Greater Past 0sia From 20 0pr &?4B 22 =u(y &?44 22 =u(y &?44 &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ To 22 =u(y &?44 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ &J Sep &?4@ 2: 0ug &?4@

Table 11&Cabinet Positions Held by #hi,e.itsu ?a.o u

#&i:89tenn8
-he >Jth emperor of =apan' ;eigned &2B2 to &242'

#&i+o+u
Dne of the four main is(ands of =apan, Shikoku is separated from Lonshu by the ,n(and Sea' -here are four prefectures on Shikoku3 -okushima 7pg AAA9, 4aga*a 7pg AAA9, Phime 7pg AAA9, and 4Tchi 7pg AAA9'

#&imabara !ebellion
0 rebe((ion in Shimabara' 7you ha)e a sense of humour, rightV9

#&imada #aburo
$i)ed &>@2 to &?2B'

#&imada Tos&io
Po(itician' Cabinet Positions Le(d by Shimada -oshio
Cabinet ,nukai 7check dates9 Lirota Eonai 4oiso Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0gricu(ture W "orestry 0gricu(ture W Commerce From &B #ec &?B& 0? <ar &?B: &: =an &?40 22 =u(y &?44 To 2: <ay &?B2 02 "eb &?BJ 22 =u(y &?40 0J 0pr &?4@

Table 11*Cabinet Positions Held by #hi.ada Toshio

"58

1himane %re!ecture

#&imane refe%ture
0rea3 :,J0J km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 <atsue Popu(ation3 JJ0,000 7&??:9

#&ima ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today <ie Prefecture' Shima bordered on 4ii Pro)ince' ,t *as the sma((est of the pro)inces' see a(so3 4ii Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ie Prefecture 7pg' A9,

#&ima-a+i T8son
$i)ed

#&ima-u Hisamitsu
$i)ed &>&J to &>>J'

#&ima-u Naria+ira
$i)ed &>0? to &>@>'

#&ima-u Ta+a&isa #&imonose+i. /ombardment of


,n reprisa( for ChTshX attacks on foreign ships, na)a( forces from four countries 7the !'S', Great /ritain, Lo((and, and "rance9 attacked forts in ChTshX' -hey a(so (anded forces to comp(ete the destruction of the forts' ChTshX Huick(y made peace' 7datesV9 see a(so3 ChTshX-han 7pg' A9,

#&im8sa ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Chiba Prefecture' ShimTsa bordered on Litachi, 4a5usa, 4T5uke, <usashi, and Shimotsuke Pro)inces' see a(so3

"5

1him0*a %ro&ince

Chiba Prefecture 7pg' A9, Litachi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4a5usa Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4T5uke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <usashi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shimotsuke Pro)ince 7pg' A9

#&imotsu+e ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today -ochigi Prefecture' Shimotsuke bordered on Litachi, ,*aki, ,*ashiro, 4T5uke, <usashi, and ShimTsa Pro)inces' see a(so3 Litachi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*aki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*ashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4T5uke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <usashi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ShimTsa Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -ochigi Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

#&imoyama #adanori
#ied &?4?'

#&impeitai In%ident #&imura Doto #&ina'a)a 5a:iro


$i)ed &>4B to &?00'

#&inano ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today agano Prefecture' Shinano bordered on Pchigo, PtchX, Lida, 4ai, 4T5uke, <ika*a, <ino, <usashi, Suruga, and -TtT mi Pro)inces' see a(so3 Pchigo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, PtchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Lida Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4ai Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4T5uke Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ika*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <ino Pro)ince 7pg' A9, <usashi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, agano Prefecture 7pg' A9, Suruga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -TtTmi Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

#&inran
$i)ed &&JB to &2:2'

#&int8
ShintT 7meaning 16ay of the GodsGG9 is the nati)e re(igion of =apan' ,t is not so much concerned *ith an after(ife as it is *ith this (ife' 0(though that may sound simi(ar to Confucianism, they are in fact )ery different' ShintT e)o()ed from the animistic, shamanistic ideas and practices of the stone age inhabitants 7and (ater immigrants as *e((9 and stresses the importance of importance of nature and
"6#

1hint0

c(ean(iness' ,n contrast to the ru(es, ritua(s, and concern for propriety *hich characteri5e Confucianism, 7and Christianity for that matter9 ShintT has no *e(( de)e(oped theo(ogy' ,t prefers that *e 8ust (i)e natura((y' -hus, *hat fe* ritua(s there are *ith (ifeGs important e)ents - birth, marriage, har)ests, and the such' 6hen /uddhism *as introduced into =apan, it managed to coe.ist re(igious(y, if not a(*ays po(itica((y, *ith ShintT because the =apanese sa* them as comp(ementing each other rather than competing *ith one another' ShintT is for this (ife and /uddhism is for the ne.t' P)en today, *hen many =apanese today are about as re(igious as many 0mericans -- that is, not )ery -- most =apanese get married in ShintT ceremonies and buried 7*e((, cremated9 in /uddhist ones' "or the record3 (ike most other peop(e on the p(anet, the ear(y =apanese be(ie)ed that there (and *as created by the gods and that they *ere therefore specia(' $ike many other societies, their ru(ers *ere considered descendants of those same gods - the sun goddess in the case of =apan' !n(ike most other societies, ho*e)er, the =apanese ne)er had to face the spectac(e of their semi-di)ine ru(er (osing the kingdom to some barbarian horde' -hus, =apan *as ne)er gi)en a reason to doubt the di)ine origin of their (and' Since it is a myth, and not a terrib(y interesting one at that, and because , donGt kno* it that *e((, , *i(( not reproduce it here' -here are t*o good books to read if you are interested in the ear(y =apanese )ersion of ancient =apanese history' -he first is a(so the first e.tant =apanese book, the 4o8iki 7;ecord of 0ncient <atters9, dated J&2 0# and the other is the ihongi 7, donGt remember9, dated J20 0#' -he dates on both books are mis(eading since they *ere compi(ed from ora( sources and added to o)er hundreds of years' /oth ha)e been trans(ated into Png(ish, so kno*(edge of ancient =apanese in not necessary'

#&iono #ue&i+o
Po(itician'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Layashi &st 4onoe Liranuma Liranuma Position =ustice =ustice Communications =ustice From 02 "eb &?BJ 04 =une &?BJ 0@ =an &?B? 0@ =an &?B? To 04 =une &?BJ 0@ =an &?B? 0J 0pr &?B? B0 0ug &?B?

Table 123Cabinet Positions Held by #hiono #uehiko

#&ira+a)a9tenn8
-he J2nd emperor of =apan' ;eigned &0J2 to &0>:'

#&ito+u
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B>4--&B>:'
"6!

1hizugatake, attle o!

#&i-u'ata+e. /attle of
-ook p(ace in &@>B' akaga*a 4iyohide he(d Shi5ugatake for -oyotomi Lideyoshi' Sakuma <orimasa attacked on orders from Shibata 4atsuie' akaga*a *as ki((ed, but the defenders he(d' Lideyoshi came *ith reinforcements, catching the attackers by surprise' SakumaGs forces *ere routed' -he (oss *as so se)ere that 4atsuie committed suicide' see a(so3 akaga*a 4iyohide 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, Sakuma <orimasa 7pg' A9, Shibata 4atsuie 7pg' A9,

#&i-uo+a City
-he capita( city of Shi5uoka Prefecture'

#&i-uo+a refe%ture
0rea3 J,JJ? km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Shi5uoka Popu(ation3 B,JB0,000 7&??:9

#&8an (0$
engT3 &&J&--&&J4'

#&8an (2$
engT3 &2??--&B0&'

#&8%&8
engT3 &42>--&42>'

#&8%&>
engT3 &B24--&B2@'

#&8'en
engT3 &2@?--&2@?'

#&8'un
-rans(ates as GGenera(G or G/arbarian-Subduing Genera((isimoG'

"6"

1h0gun

ShTgun is a mi(itary office dating to the >00s and origina((y meant something (ike 1commander-in-chief'2 !sua((y, the shTgun *as appointed for a fi.ed term or ob8ecti)e, after *hich a ne* man *as insta((ed or the post *as (eft )acant unti( needed again' D)er time, samurai fami(ies used the office of shTgun as a *ay of (egitimi5ing themse()es and their ru(e of the country 1in the name of the Pmperor'2 -here are three ma8or periods of shTgun ru(e3
Page %ntry 4amakura ShTgunate 0shikaga ShTgunate -okuga*a ShTgunate
Table 121#h,unates

(egin &&?2 &BB> &:0B &BB> &@JB &>:>

%n#

-he $ist of the ShTgun on page BBB (ists a(( the shTgun from each shTgunate, a(ong *ith their re(e)ant dates'

#&8&ei
engT3 ?B&--?BJ' aka ShThyT' aka =Thei'

#&8&ei
engT3 &B4:--&B:?' aka ShThyT'

#&8&8
engT3 &:44--&:4J'

#&8:i
engT3 &&??--&200'

#&8+a
engT3 &2@J--&2@>'

#&8+89tenn8
-he &0&st emperor of =apan' ;eigned &4&2 to &42>'

"63

1h0ky6 Aar

#&8+y> @ar
0 ci)i( *ar / disturbance that occurred in &22&'

#&8mu9tenn8
-he 4@th emperor of =apan' $i)ed J0& to J@:' ;eigned J24 to J4?'

#&8rya+u
engT3 ??0--??4'

#&8rya+u
engT3 &0JJ--&0>0' aka =Treki'

#&8tai
engT3 >?>--?00'

#&88
engT3 &2>>--&2?2'

#&8to+u9tenn8
0n empress' -he 4>th ru(er of =apan' $i)ed J&> to 4 0ug' JJ0' ;eigned ? Dct' J:4 to 4 0ug' JJ0' Pre)ious(y had reigned as 4Tken-tennT 7pg' &:29, from 2 =u(y J4? to & 0ug' J@>'

#&8to+u
engT3 &J&&--&J&@'

#&8)a (0$
engT3 >B4-->4J' aka =T*a'

#&8)a (2$
engT3 &B&2--&B&:'
"64

1h0wa (')

#&8)a (3$
engT3 &?2:--&?>>'

#&8)a9tenn8
-he &24th emperor of =apan' $i)ed &?0& to &?>?' ;eigned &?2: to &?>?'

#&u%&8
engT3 :>:--:>?'

#&urei9mon
Siberian ,nter)ention Siebo(d, Phi(ipp "ran5 )on $i)ed &J?: to &>::'

#ino9Capanese @ar (0AB390AB1$


-he first Sino-=apanese 6ar *as fought bet*een =apan and China during &>?4 and &>?@ primari(y o)er contro( of 4orea' 4orea 7under the Ei #ynasty9 had tradiona((y been a tributary state to China' ,n &>J@ the _ing #ynasty of China had a((o*ed =apan to recognise 4orea as an independent state' Lo*e)er China continued to try and assert inf(uence o)er 4orea and there *as a sp(it in pub(ic opinion in 4orea, *ith conser)ati)es *anting to retain a c(ose re(ationship *ith China, *hi(e reformists *anted 4orea to moderni5e, and to ha)e a c(oser re(ationship to =apan' "o((o*ing the assassination of a pro=apanese reformist in &>?4, a 4orean re(igious sect, the -onghak, began a rebe((ion' -he 4orean go)ernment reHuested he(p in putting it do*n from China' Lo*e)er, *hen it did, the =apanese go)ernment sent an e.pedition in support of the reformists, and sei5ed the roya( pa(ace in Seou( by =une >, &>?4' 6ar bet*een =apan and China *as officia((y dec(ared on 0ugust &, &>?4 though some na)a( fighting had a(ready taken p(ace' -he more modern =apanese army defeated the Chinese in a series of batt(es around Seou( and Pyongyang forcing them north, and by o)ember 2& the =apanese had taken Port 0rthur 7no* kno*n as $ushan9' ChinaGs northern f(eet *as mau(ed by the =apanese na)y off the mouth of the Ea(u ;i)er, (osing > out of &2 *arships, retreated behind the fortifications of the 6eihai*ei na)a( base, and *as then caught by a surprise =apanese (and attack across the $iaodong Peninsu(a *hich shattered the ships in harbour *ith she((ing

"65

1ino+9apane*e Aar ("27$+"275)

from the (and*ard side' 0fter 6eihai*eiGs fa(( on "ebruary 2 and an easing in harsh *inter conditions, =apanese troops pressed their ad)ance into <anchuria' "aced *ith these repeated defeats China signed the -reaty of Shimonoseki in 0pri( &>?@' -he defeat of China at the hands of =apan high(ighted the fai(ure of the Chinese army to moderni5e adeHuate(y, and resu(ted in increased ca((s *ithin China for acce(erated moderni5ation and reform'
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC www.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleL1ino+9apane*eMAarMN<2"27$+"275N<7

#o%ialism #o%ialist *o4ement #o%ialist #o%iety #oe:ima Taneomi


$i)ed &>2> to &?0@'

#o'a no =ma+o
#ied :2:'

#8+a Da++ai #one Arasu+e


Po(itician'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Brd ,tT 2 Eamagata
nd st

Position =ustice 0gricu(ture W Commerce "inance "oreign 0ffairs Communications

From &2 =an &>?> 0> o) &>?> 02 =une &?0& 02 =une &?0& &J =u(y &?0B

To B0 =une &>?> &? Dct &?00 0J =an &?0: 2& Sep &?0& 22 Sep &?0B

& 4atsura &st 4atsura & 4atsura


st

Table 122Cabinet Positions Held by #one A asuke

"66

1onn0 90i

#onn8 C8i #or'e. !i%&ard #tatisti%al 5earboo+ of Capan #ue Haru+ata #uematsu 7en%&8
Po(itician'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2 ,tT
nd

Position Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Lome 0ffairs

From 0> 0ug &>?2 &2 =an &>?> &? Dct &?00

To &> Sep &>?: B0 =une &>?> 02 =une &?0&

Brd ,tT 4 ,tT


th

Table 123Cabinet Positions Held by #ue.atsu Kench

#u'anuma *otonari #u'a)ara no *i%&i-ane


$i)ed >4@ to ?0B'

#u'iyama Den
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Layashi &st 4onoe 4oiso 6ar 6ar 6ar Position From 0? "eb &?BJ 04 =une &?BJ 22 =u(y &?44 To 04 =une &?BJ 0B =une &?B> 0J 0pr &?4@

Table 124Cabinet Positions Held by #u,iya.a 8en

#ui+o9tenn8
0n empress' -he BBrd ru(er of =apan' ;eigned @?2 to :2>'

#uinin9tenn8
-he &&th emperor of =apan'

"67

1uinin+tenn0

;eigned 2? /'C' to J0 0'#'

#ui-ei9tenn8
-he 2nd emperor of =apan' ;eigned @>& to @4? /'C'

#u:in9tenn8
-he &0th emperor of =apan' ;eigned ?J to B0 /'C'

#umino Nao+o
-he second =apanese *oman to Hua(ify as an astronaut' -he first *as <ukai Chiaki 7pg AA9'

#u8 ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Eamaguchi Prefecture' SuT bordered on 0ki, ,*ami, and agato Pro)inces' see a(so3 0ki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*ami Pro)ince 7pg' A9, agato Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamaguchi Prefecture 7pg' A9,

#uru'a ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today Shi5uoka Prefecture' Suruga bordered on ,5u, 4ai, Sagami, Shinano, and -TtTmi Pro)inces' see a(so3 ,5u Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4ai Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Sagami Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shinano Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Shi5uoka Prefecture 7pg' A9, -TtTmi Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

"68

1u*hun+tenn0

#us&un9tenn8
-he B2nd emperor of =apan' ;eigned @>J to @?2'

#uto+u9tenn8
-he J@th emperor of =apan' ;eigned &&2B to &&4&'

#u-a+u9tenn8
-he :&st emperor of =apan' ;eigned ?B0 to ?4:'

#u-u+i /un:i
$i)ed &>>@ to &?4:'

#u-u+i 7antar8
$i)ed &>:> to &?4>'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Su5uki 4' Su5uki 4' Su5uki 4' Position Greater Past 0sia Prime <inister "oreign 0ffairs From 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0? 0pr &?4@ To 0? 0pr &?4@ 0? 0pr &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@

Table 12"Cabinet Positions Held by #uzuki Kanta

Cabinet
Name Su5uki 4antarT ,shiguro -adaatsu Sakomi5u Lisatsune <urase aokai Sta 4T5T Lirose -oyosaku -TgT Shigenori Su5uki 4antarT -TgT Shigenori Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs Greater Past 0sia From 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0? 0pr &?4@ 0? 0pr &?4@ To 0? 0pr &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@

"6

1uzuki :antar0
Name Su5uki 4antarT 0be Genki <atsu5aka Liromasa -oyoda -ei8irT Eonai <itsumasa Sakurai LeigorT Shimomura Liroshi Sakon8i <asa5T Easui -T8i 4obiyama aoto 4obiyama aoto -oyoda -ei8irT 0nami 4orechika Dkada -adahiko Position Greater Past 0sia Lome 0ffairs =ustice <unitions a)y State State State State -ransport 6ar 6e(fare From 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ && 0pr &?4@ &? <ay &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ 0J 0pr &?4@ To 0? 0pr &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &? <ay &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ && 0pr &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@ &J 0ug &?4@

-ransport W Communications && 0pr &?4@ -ransport W Communications 0J 0pr &?4@

Table 12$#uzuki Kanta 's Cabinet

#u-u+i 7isabur8
7doub(e check dates of inukai cabinet and cabinet members9
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 4iyoura -anaka G' ,nukai ,nukai Position =ustice Lome 0ffairs =ustice Lome 0ffairs From 0J =an &?24 20 0pr &?2J &B #ec &?B& 2@ <ar &?B2 To && =une &?24 <ay 04 &?2> 2@ <ar &?B2 2: <ay &?B2

Table 12%Cabinet Positions Held by #uzuki Kisabu

"7#

1uzuki 1higeru

#u-u+i #&i'eru #u-u+i Teii%&i


Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 2nd 4onoe B 4onoe
rd

Position <inister of State <inister of State State

From 04 0pr &?4& &> =u(y &?4& &> Dct &?4&

To &> =u(y &?4& &> Dct &?4& 22 =u(y &?44

-T8T

Table 12&Cabinet Positions Held by #uzuki Teiichi

#u-u+i 5os&io
Cabinet Positions Le(d by Su5uki Eoshio
Cabinet 4atayama 4atayama 0shida Position =ustice 0ttorney Genera( 0ttorney Genera( From 24 <ay &?4J &@ "eb &?4> &0 <ar &?4> To &@ "eb &?4> &0 <ar &?4> &@ Dct &?4>

Table 12*Cabinet Positions Held by #uzuki @oshio

#u-u+i Len+8
/orn &?&&' Prime <inister from &> =u(y &?>0 to 2: o)ember &?>2'

Ta%&ibana *unes&i'e , T)enty96ne Demands


Ta%&ibana *unes&i'e Taft. @illiam H. Ta'u%&i =+i%&i
$i)ed &>@@ to &?0@'

Tai&8
engT3 J0&--J0B'

Tai+a
engT3 :4@--:4?'
"7!

)aira Family

Taira Family Taira 7iyomori


$i)ed &&&> to &&>&'

Tairoo Tais&8 Demo%ra%y Tais&8 oliti%al Crisis Tais&89tenn8


-he &2Brd emperor of =apan' $i)ed &>J? to &?2:' ;eigned &?&2 to &?2:' ot one of the more menta((y fit members of the imperia( (ine, possib(y the resu(t of a chi(dhood i((ness'

Tais&8
engT3 &?&2--&?2@'

Tai)an Taiy8 Ta:ima ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today LyTgo Prefecture' -a8ima bordered on Larima, ,naba, -amba, and -ango Pro)inces' see a(so3 Larima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, LyTgo Prefecture 7pg' A9, ,naba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -amba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -ango Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Ta+a&as&i 7ore+iyo
$i)ed &>@4 to &?B:' Prime <inister from &B o)ember &?2& to &2 =une &?22'
"7"

)akaha*hi :orekiyo

Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st Eamamoto Lara -akahashi -akahashi &st 4atT -akaaki &st 4atT -akaaki &st 4atT -akaaki &st 4atT -akaaki -anaka G' ,nukai 7Check dates9 SaitT Dkada "inance "inance "inance Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce =ustice 0gricu(ture W "orestry Commerce W ,ndustry "inance "inance "inance "inance Position From 20 "eb &?&B 2? Sep &?&> &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& && =une &?24 0@ "eb &?2@ 0& 0pr &?2@ 0& 0pr &?2@ 20 0pr &?2J &B #ec &?B& 2: <ay &?B2 o) 2J &?B4 To &: 0pr &?&4 &B o) &?2& &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 0& 0pr &?2@ 0? "eb &?2@ &J 0pr &?2@ &J 0pr &?2@ 02 =une &?2J 2: <ay &?B2 0> =u(y &?B4 2: "eb &?B:

Table 133Cabinet Positions Held by Takahashi Ko ekiyo

-akahashi 4orekiyoGs Cabinet


Name -akahashi 4orekiyo Eamamoto -atsuo <itsuchi ChX5T Eokota Sennosuke /aba Piichi oda !tarT akahashi -okugorT -akahashi 4orekiyo !chida 4Tsai -okonami -ake8irT Ski Pnkichi 4atT -omosaburT <otoda La8ime Eamanashi Lan5T Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar From &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& 2> <ar &?22 &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& &B o) &?2& To &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 2> <ar &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22 &2 =une &?22

Table 131Takahashi Ko ekiyo's Cabinet

"73

)akahira

Ta+a&ira Ta+a+ura9tenn8
-he >0th emperor of =apan' ;eigned &&:> to &&>0'

Ta+amatsu City
-he capita( of 4aga*a Prefecture 7pg AA9'

Ta+amatsu. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &@>2' Lideyoshi *as attacking the <Tri cast(e of -akamatsu *hen ne*s of Dda obunagaGs murder reached him' Lideyoshi had a(ready di)erted a ri)er to f(ood the cast(e and *hen he suggested a negotiated end to the seige the <Tri 7*ho *ere una*are of DdaGs murder9 *ere *i((ing to (isten' -hey surrendered the cast(e, freeing Lideyoshi to immediate(y (ea)e to pursue DdaGs assassin, 0kechi <itsuhide' see a(so3 <Tri "ami(y 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, 0kechi <itsuhide 7pg' A9,

Ta+ano C&8ei
$i)ed &>04 to &>@0' aka -akayanagi ;yXnosuke Studied #utch' Studied medicine under Eoshida ChTshuku' 6rote 8ume"Monogatori and trans(ated se)era( Puropean *orks' ,mprisoned for his )ie*s 7as set forth in his book9 but escaped' 6ent to *ork as a trans(ator for the daimyT of !*a8ima 7in ,yoV9' #ied fighting the so(diers sent to take him into custody again'

"74

)akano Ch0ei

#ee Also

Ta+ano Fusataro Ta+arabe Ta+es&i


Cabinet ositions
Cabinet 4atT -omosaburT 2nd Eamamoto &st 4atT -akaaki 2nd 4atT -akaaki &st 6akatsuki Lamaguchi a)y a)y a)y a)y a)y a)y Position From &@ <ay &?2B 02 Sep &?2B && =une &?24 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2: 02 =u(y &?2? To 02 Sep &?2B 0J =an &?24 02 0ug &?2@ B0 =an &?2: 20 0pr &?2J 0B Dct &?B0

Table 132Cabinet Positions Held by Taka abe Takeshi

Ta+as&ima #&u&an
$i)ed &J?> to &>::'

Ta+as&ima Tomonosu+e
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st <atsukata 2nd ,tT 2 <atsukata
nd nd

Position 6ar Co(oni5ation Co(oni5ation 6ar

From &J <ay &>?& 0> 0ug &>?2 &> Sep &>?: 20 Sep &>?:

To 0> 0ug &>?2 &> Sep &>?: 02 Sep &>?J &2 =an &>?>

2 <atsukata

Table 133Cabinet Positions Held by Takashi.a To.onosuke

Ta+asu'i #&insa+u
$i)ed &>B? to &>:J'

Ta+ata9&an Ta+aten:in. #ei'e of (01I3$


-ook p(ace in &@J4' Dgasa*ara agatada he(d the cast(e for the -okuga*a' -akeda 4atsuyori took it'

"75

)akaten@in, 1eige o! ("5($)

#ee Also

Dgasa*ara agatada 7pg' A9, -akeda 4atsuyori 7pg' A9

Ta+aten:in. #ei'e of (01A09901A0$


$asted &@>0--&@>&' Dkabe aganori he(d the cast(e for the -akeda' Dda obunaga took it'
#ee Also

Dkabe aganori 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9,

Ta+ayana'i !y>su+e
See -akano ChTei on page AAA

Ta+ebe 7ata&iro
$i)ed &::4 to &JB?'

Ta+e%&i Lui-an
$i)ed &>2? to &>:@'

Ta+eda Family
"ami(y of Sei*a Gen8i origin, descended from <inamoto Eoshimitsu'

Ta+eda Dii%&i
Cabinet Positions Le(d by -akeda Giichi
Cabinet 4atayama 4atayama 0shida Position State3 6ithout Portfo(io State3 Chairman of the $oca( "inance Committee 6e(fare From 24 <ay &?4J 0& =an &?4> &0 <ar &?4> To 0J =an &?4> &0 <ar &?4> &@ Dct &?4>

Table 134Cabinet Positions Held by Takeda 8iichi

Ta+eda I-umo Ta+eda 7atsuyori


$i)ed &@4: to &@>2' Son of -akeda Shingen' "ather of -akeda obukatsu' 4atsuyori took charge of the fami(y after the death of his father'

"76

)ake-a :at*uyori

"ought -okuga*a ,eyasu at -akaten8in in &@J4 and at agashino in &@J@' ,ncurred the *rath of the LT8T fami(y by he(ping !esugi 4agekatsu against !esugi 4agetora 7LT8T !8iyasuGs se)enth son, adopted by and heir to !esugi 4enshin9' $ost 7to *homV9 at -akaten8in in &@>&' Lis forces *ere destroyed by the combined armies of Dda obunaga and -okuga*a ,eyasu at -enmoku5an in &@>2, after *hich 4atsuyori and his son committed suicide'
#ee Also

LT8T "ami(y 7pg' A9, LT8T !8iyasu 7pg' A9, agashino, /att(e of 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, -akaten8in, Siege of 7&@J49 7pg' A9, -akaten8in, Siege of 7&@>0--&@>&9 7pg' A9, -akeda Shingen 7pg' A9, -enmoku5an, /att(e of 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, !esugi 4agekatsu 7pg' A9, !esugi 4agetora 7pg' A9, !esugi 4enshin 7pg' A9,

Ta+eda Nobutora Ta+eda Nobutoyo Ta+eda #&in'en


$i)ed &@2& to &@JB' aka -akeda Larunobu' -ook the name Shingen in &@@&' Son of -akeda obutora' #efeated -okuga*a ,eyasu at the /att(e of <ikatagahara in &@J&' #ied of a bu((et *ound recie)ed *hi(e his forces *ere beseiging oda Cast(e in &@JB' 0t his reHuest, his fami(y kept his death secret for se)era( years'

Ta+emitsu Toru
$i)ed &?B0 to &??:'

Ta+es&ita Noboru
Prime <inister from : o)ember &?>J to 2 =une &?>?' ;ep(aced by !no Sosuke 7pg AAA9'

Ta+etomi To+itos&i
Cabinet Positions Le(d by -aketomi -okitoshi
Cabinet &st Skuma 2nd Skuma Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Communications From B0 =une &>?> &: 0pr &?&4 To 0> o) &>?> &0 0ug &?&@ "77

)aketomi )okito*hi
Cabinet 2 Skuma
nd

Position "inance

From &0 0ug &?&@

To 0? Dct &?&:

Table 13"Cabinet Positions Held by Taketo.i Tokitoshi

Ta+i'a)a Tale of Genji


0 book by <urasaki Shikibu 7pg 20B9' 4no*n as Gen i"Monogatori in =apanese'

Tamba ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4yTto Prefecture' -amba bordered on Larima, Smi, Settsu, -a8ima, -ango, 6akasa, and Eamashiro Pro)inces' see a(so3 Larima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4yTto Prefecture 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Settsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -a8ima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -ango Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 6akasa Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Tanabe Harumi%&i
$i)ed
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Liranuma Liranuma B 4onoe
rd

Position Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Communications Lome 0ffairs

From 0@ =an &?B? 0J 0pr &?B? &> =u(y &?4&

To 0J 0pr &?B? B0 0ug &?B? &> Dct &?4&

Table 13$Cabinet Positions Held by Tanabe Ha u.ichi

Tana+a Dii%&i
$i)ed &>:B to &?2?' Prime <inister from 20 0pri( &?2J to 2 =u(y &?2?'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet Lara 2nd Eamamoto -anaka G' -anaka G' 6ar 6ar Co(oni5ation "oreign 0ffairs Position From 2? Sep &?&> 02 Sep &?2B 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J To 0? =une &?2& 0J =an &?24 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2?

"78

)anaka 3iichi
Cabinet -anaka G' -anaka G' Position Prime <inister Lome 0ffairs From 20 0pr &?2J 04 <ay &?2> To 02 =u(y &?2? 2B <ay &?2>

Table 13%Cabinet Positions Held by Tanaka 8iichi

Cabinet
Name -anaka Giichi Eamamoto -ei8iroo Latoyama ,chiroo <aeda Eone5oo -anaka Giichi akahashi -okugoroo <ochi5uke 4eisuke 4uhara "usanosuke <itsuchi Chuu5oo <i5uno ;entaroo 4atsuta 4a5ue -akahashi 4orekiyo <itsuchi Chuu5oo -anaka Giichi Su5uki 4isaburoo -anaka Giichi <ochi5uke 4eisuke Lara Eoshimichi Dkada 4eisuke Dga*a Leikichi Shiraka*a Eoshinori Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W "orestry Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Co(oni5ation Commerce W ,ndustry Communications Communications Pducation Pducation Pducation "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y ;ai(*ays 6ar From 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 2B <ay &?2> 20 0pr &?2J 02 =une &?2J 2@ <ay &?2> 20 0pr &?2J 02 =une &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 04 <ay &?2> 2B <ay &?2> 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J 20 0pr &?2J To 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 2B <ay &?2> 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =une &?2J 2@ <ay &?2> 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =une &?2J 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 04 <ay &?2> 2B <ay &?2> 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2? 02 =u(y &?2?

Table 13&Tanaka 8iichi's Cabinet

Tana+a 7a+uei
/orn &?&>' Prime <inister from J =u(y &?J2 to 22 #ecember &?J2 and 22 #ecember &?J2 to ? #ecember &?J4'

"7

)anaka 1hozo

Tana+a #&o-o
$i)ed &>4& to &?&B'

Tan'o ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4yTto Prefecture' -ango bordered on -a8ima, -amba, and 6akasa Pro)inces' see a(so3 4yTto Prefecture 7pg' A9, -a8ima Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -amba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 6akasa Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

Tani 7an:o
$i)ed &>BJ to &?&&'

Taniyama9#&imura Con:e%ture Taniyama 5uta+a Tani-a+i Cuni%&ir8


$i)ed &>>: to &?:@' 0uthor' <o)ed to 4yoto from -okyo after the Great 4anto ParthHuake of &?2B' Lis *orks inc(ude3 Naomi 7&?2B9, Some"7refer"Nettles 7&?2?9, #rrowroot 7&?B&9, #shikari 7&?B29, #"7ortrait"of"Shunkin 7&?B29, !he"Secret"History"of"the"+ord"of"Musashi 7&?B@9, -he"Makioka"Sisters 7&?4B--&?4>9, 9uicksand 7=apanese3 Man i9 7&?4J9, %ap) tain " Shigemoto's " Mother 7&?4?9, !he "Key 7&?@:9, and Diary "of " an ",ld" Man 7&?:&9'

Tanuma 6+itsu'u
$i)ed &J&? to &J>>'

Tayama 7atai Tedori'a)a. /attle of


-ook p(ace in &@JJ'
"8#

)e-origawa, attle o!

Dda obunaga, *ith about @0,000 men, crossed the -edoriga*a at night to attack !esugi 4enshin' 4enshin, *ho had about B0,000 men *as e.pecting the mo)e and *as ready' obunaga *as defeated' see a(so3 Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, !esugi 4enshin 7pg' A9,

Teiseit8 Tei)a
engT of the orthern #ynasty3 &B4@--&B4?'

Temmei
engT3 &J>&--&J>>'

Temmon
engT3 &@B2--&@@4' aka -embun'

Temmu9tenn8
-he 40th emperor of =apan' ;eigned :JB to :>:'

Temp8
engT3 &>B0--&>4B'

Tempu+u
engT3 &2BB--&2BB'

Tempy89&8:i
engT3 J@J--J:4'

Tempy89:in'o
engT3 J:@--J::' aka -empyT-shingo'

Tempy89+amp8
engT3 J4?--J4?'
"8!

)empy0+*h0h0

Tempy89s&8&8
engT3 J4?--J@:'

Tempy8
engT3 J2?--J4>'

Ten%&8
engT3 >24-->BB'

Ten;ei
engT3 &&&0--&&&2'

Ten;en
engT3 ?JB--?J@'

Ten'en
engT3 ?J>--?>2'

Ten'i
engT3 &0@B--&0@J'

Ten'y8
engT3 ?B>--?4:' aka -enkei'

Ten:i9tenn8
-he B>th emperor of =apan' $i)ed :2: to :J2' ;eigned ::2 to :J&'

Ten:i
engT3 &&24--&&2@' aka -en8u'

Tenmo+u-an. /attle of Tennan


engT3 >@J-->@>' aka -enGanVV
"8"

)enna

Tenna
engT3 &:>&--&:>B' aka -en*a'

Tennin
engT3 &&0>--&&0?'

Tenn8:i. /attle of Ten;8


engT3 J>&--J>&'

Tenro+u
engT3 ?J0--?J2'

Tenrya+u
engT3 ?4>--?@:'

Tens&8
engT3 &&B&--&&B&'

Tens&8
engT3 &@JB--&@?&'

Tento+u
engT3 ?@J--?:0'

Ten;y8
engT3 &&44--&&44'

Terabe. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &@@>' -his *as the first batt(e that -okuga*a ,eyasu *as in)o()ed in' 0t the time, he *as a )assa( of ,maga*a Eoshimoto' Su5uki Shigeteru, in charge of -erabe cast(e, dumped ,maga*a for Dda obunaga' ,eyasu attacked the cast(e, but *as dri)en off by reinforcements sent by obunaga' see a(so3
"83

)erabe, 1eige o!

-okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, ,maga*a Eoshimoto 7pg' A9, Su5uki Shigeru 7pg' A9,

Teras&ima *unenori
aka -era8ima <unenori' $i)ed &>B2 to &>?B'

Terau%&i *asata+e
$i)ed &>@2 to &?&?' Prime <inister from ? Dctober &?&: to 2? September &?&>'
Cabinet ositions
Cabinet &st 4atsura &st Saion8i 2 4atsura
nd

Position 6ar 6ar "oreign 0ffairs 6ar "inance "oreign 0ffairs Prime <inister

From 2J <ar &?02 0J =an &?0: &4 =u(y &?0> &4 =u(y &?0> 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&:

To 0J =an &?0: &4 =u(y &?0> 2J 0ug &?0> B0 0ug &?&& 0: #ec &?&: o) 2& &?&: 2? Sep &?&>

2nd 4atsura -erauchi -erauchi -erauchi

Table 13*Cabinet Positions Held by Te auchi ?asatake

Cabinet
Name -erauchi <asatake akakT8i ;en 4odama Lideo 0rimatsu Lideyoshi #en 4en8irT Dkada ;yThei -erauchi <asatake 4atsuta 4a5ue -erauchi <asatake <otono ,chirT "84 Position Prime <inister 0gricu(ture W Commerce Chief of Cabinet Secretariat Chief of $egis(ati)e /ureau Communications Pducation "inance "inance "oreign 0ffairs "oreign 0ffairs From 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0: #ec &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 2& o) &?&: To 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 0: #ec &?&: 2? Sep &?&> 2& o) &?&: 2B 0pr &?&>

)erauchi Ma*atake
Name GotT Shinpei GotT Shinpei <i5uno ;entarT <atsumuro ,taru 4atT -omosaburT Sshima 4enGichi Position "oreign 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs Lome 0ffairs =ustice a)y 6ar From 2B 0pr &?&> 0? Dct &?&: 2B 0pr &?&> 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: 0? Dct &?&: To 2? Sep &?&> 2B 0pr &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&> 2? Sep &?&>

Table 143Te auchi ?asatake's Cabinet

Toba9tenn8
-he J4th emperor of =apan' ;eigned &&0J to &&2B'

To%&i'i refe%ture
0rea3 :,40> km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 !tsunomiya Popu(ation3 &,?>0,000 7&??:9

Toda 7a-ua+i
$i)ed &@42 to &:04' 0 samurai in the ser)ice of -okuga*a ,eyasu' ,n &:0&, ,eyasu ga)e 4a5uaki the fief of Re5e 7say *hatV9 7B0,000 koku9 in Smi'

To'o Hei&a%&iro
$i)ed &>4> to &?B4' 0 samurai from Satsuma' Studied 7*hatV9 in Png(and from &>J& to &>J>' Drigina((y in the Satsuma a)y, 8oined the ,mperia( =apanese a)y 7at its formationV9' "ought in the Sino-=apanese 6ar of &>?4Z&>?@' Promoted to ;ear 0dmira( in &>?@, %ice 0dmira( in &?00, and fu(( 0dmira( in &?04' Leihachiro commanded the f(eet during the ;usso-=apanese 6ar 7&?04--&?0@9' Lis stunning success at the /att(e of -sushima effecti)e(y ended any hope that ;ussia e)er had of contro((ing or e)en contesting the seas around 4orea' see a(so3 ,mperia( =apanese a)y 7pg' A9, ;usso-=apanese 6ar 7pg' A9,

"85

)ogo 4eihachiro

Satsuma-han 7pg' A9, Sino-=apanese 6ar 7pg' A9, -sushima, /att(e of 7pg' A9,

To'o #&i'enori
$i)ed &>>2 to &?@0'

T8:8 Hide+i
$i)ed &>>4 to &?4>' 6as Prime <inister from &> Dctober &?4& to 22 =u(y &?44' Le rep(aced 4onoe "umimaro and *as rep(aced by 4oiso 4uniaki' see a(so3 4onoe "umimaro 7pg' A9, 4oiso 4uniaki 7pg' A9,

To+onami Ta+e:iro
$i)ed &>:J to &?B@'

To+u'a)a C&i+atada
$i)ed &4&> to &4>0'

To+u'a)a C&i+au:i
<ight ha)e died &40J' "ather of 7<atsudairaV9 Easuchika and Sakai -adahiro, among others'

To+u'a)a Family To+u'a)a Hidetada


$i)ed &@J? to &:B2' -he 2nd -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &:0@ to &:2B' Dne of -okuga*a ,eyasuGs sons'

To+u'a)a Hideyasu
$i)ed &@J4 to &:0J'

"86

)okugawa 4irota-a

To+u'a)a Hirotada
$i)ed &@2: to &@4?'

To+u'a)a Ie&aru
$i)ed &JBJ to &J>:' -he &0th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &J:0 to &J>:'

To+u'a)a Iemitsu
$i)ed &:04 to &:@&' -he Brd -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &:2B to &:@&' "irst son of Lidetada' /rother to Sen-Lime and 4a5uko' "ather of ,etsuna 7*ho *ou(d become the 4th -okuga*a shTgun9' Comp(eted the c(osing of =apan 7sakoku9' Persecuted Christians' <ade sankin) kotai ob(igatory for the daimyT'
#ee Also

Christianity 7pg' A9, -okuga*a Lidetada 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,etsuna 7pg' A9, -okuga*a 4a5uko 7pg' A9, -okuga*a Sen-Lime 7pg' A9, sakoku 7pg' A9, sankin-kotai 7pg' A9,

To+u'a)a Iemo%&i
$i)ed &>4: to &>::' -he &4th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &>@> to &>::'

To+u'a)a Iemoto
$i)ed &J:B to &JJ?' Son and origina( heir of -okuga*a ,eharu' #ied before his father'
"87

)okugawa 8enari

To+u'a)a Ienari
$i)ed &JJB to &>4& -he &&th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &J>: to &>BJ'

To+u'a)a Ienobu
$i)ed &::2 to &J&2' -he :th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &J0? to &J&2' Son of -okuga*a -sunashige' Drigina((y kno*n as -okuga*a -sunatoyo'

To+u'a)a Iesada
$i)ed &>24 to &>@>' -he &Bth -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &>@B to &>@>'

To+u'a)a Ies&i'e
$i)ed &J&2 to &J:&' -he ?th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &J4@ to &J:0' "irst son of -okuga*a Eoshimune' "ather of -okuga*a ,eharu'

To+u'a)a Ietsu'u
$i)ed &J0? to &J&:' -he Jth -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &J&2 to &J&:' Son of -okuga*a ,enobu' 6as on(y four years o(d *hen he became shTgun' #ied at age se)en' 7*hyV of *hatV9

To+u'a)a Ietsuna
$i)ed &:B? to &:>0' -he 4th -okuga*a shTgun'

"88

)okugawa 8et*una

,n office &:@& to &:>0' "irst son of -okuga*a ,emitsu' /rother to -okuga*a -sunayoshi' #ied *ithout an heir or any chi(dren'

To+u'a)a Ieyasu
$i)ed #ecember B0, &@42 - =une &, &:&: -he &st -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &:0B to &:0@' -okuga*a ,eyasu *as the founder of the -okuga*a shogunate of =apan, and is common(y kno*n as one of the 1three great (eaders2 of feuda( =apan 7the other t*o are Dda obunaga and -oyotomi Lideyoshi9' Drigina((y kno*n as -okuga*a -akechiyo' Gi)en the name 1<otonobu2 at age &4' $ater changed his name to 1<otoyasuGG' "ina((y took the name 1,eyasu2 in &@:@' ,t is by this name that he is most(y kno*n today' /orn in <ika*a' 6hen he *as about fi)e years o(d ,eyasu *as captured by forces (oya( to Dda obuhide' obuhide used ,eyasu as a barganing chip against -okuga*a VV' Le he(d firm and ,eyasu remained a capti)e of the 4atT fami(y 7at the -ennT-bT temp(e in D*ari9 for about &0 years - practica((y his entire chi(dhood' ,t *as short(y after he returned home 7&@@>9 that <otonobu changed his name to <otoyasu' 0(so around this time, -okuga*a married a daughter of Sekiguchi Chikanaga 7page AAA9' -ook the name 1,eyasu2 in &@:@' ,n &@:J the emperor ga)e ,eyasu permission to keep the name 1-okuga*a2 for his o*n immediate fami(y, *hi(e his other re(ati)es *ou(d continue using 1<atsudaira2 7etcV9' /ui(t Lamamatsu Cast(e 7page AAA9 in &@J0' -okuga*a *as origina((y daimyo of <ika*a 7present-day Pastern part of 0ichi prefecture9 but *as disp(aced to 4anto during -oyotomiGs ru(e' -okuga*aGs inf(uence made him an important a((y of Dda obunaga' 0fter Dda died and -oyotomi Lideyoshi became =apanGs dominant ru(er, -okuga*a *as named as one of fi)e regents 7tairo9 *ith the responsibi(ity of (ooking after -oyotomiGs son, -oyotomi Lideyori' 6hen Lideyoshi died in &@?>, Lideyori *as on(y fi)e years o(d' -he ne* regent *as p(aced in the care of -oyotomiGs c(osest a((y, ,shida <itsunari, *ho attempted to ho(d the -oyotomi coa(ition together' -okuga*a, ho*e)er, sa* a chance to usurp po*er from the -oyotomi (oya(ists, and assemb(ed an 1eastern army2 to take on ,shida' -he ensuing /att(e of Sekigahara 7&:009 ended in a crushing defeat for ,shidaGs 1*estern army2' ,n &:0B, -okuga*a became shogun of an a(most entire(y unified
"8

)okugawa 8eya*u

=apan, a concept that had been abandoned by Dda obunaga and -oyotomi Lideyoshi' Le abdicated in &:0@ and a((o*ed his son, -okuga*a Lidetada, to take o)er' -okuga*a *as enshrined in ikko after his death, and his mauso(eum, ikko -oshogu is a popu(ar tourist destination today' Sargent 7&>?4+ -he "orest "(ora of =apan9 recorded that a #aimyo *ho *as too poor to offer a stone (antern at the funera( reHuested instead to be a((o*ed to p(ant an a)enue of Sugi, Gthat future )isitors might be protected from the heat of the sunG' -he offer *as accepted+ the a)enue, *hich sti(( e.ists, is o)er :@km 740 mi(es9 (ong, and Ghas not its eHua( in state(y grandeurG'
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable at (,?E ./ C4/C:OO)C httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleL)okugawaM8eya*u

To+u'a)a Ieyos&i
$i)ed &J?2 to &>@B' -he &2th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &>BJ to &>@B'

To+u'a)a 7ei+i
aka -okuga*a Eoshinobu aka Litotsubashi 4eiki aka Litotsubashi Eoshinobu -he &@th and fina( -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &>:: to &>:>' <ember of the <ito branch of the -okuga*a "ami(y' Son of -okuga*a 7pg' A9' ariaki

To+u'a)a 7iyoyasu
$i)ed &@&& to &@B:'

To+u'a)a Na'a%&i+a
$i)ed &442 to &@&0'

To+u'a)a Naria+i
$i)ed &>00 to &>:0' "ather of -okuga*a 4eiki, the fina( -okuga*a ShTgun' 0 member of the <ito branch of the -okuga*a fami(y and daimyT of <ito'

" #

)okugawa Nariaki

ariaki *as put in charge of bakufu efforts to defend the country against the encrouching foreigners' Lis o*n )ie* *as that the bakufu shou(d strengthen its mi(itary and fight the foreigners, and *as at odds *ith ,i aosuke on the issue' Le *as pro-emperor and fa)ored restoration' ariaki and aosuke fought o)er *ho *ou(d succeed the ShTgun ,esada, *ith ariaki championing his son 4eiki' aosuke, *ho e)entua((y pre)ai(ed, fa)ored ,emochi' see a(so3 ,i aosuke 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,emochi 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,esada 7pg' A9, -okuga*a 4eiki 7pg' A9,

To+u'a)a Nobumitsu
$i)ed &B?0 to &4:@'

To+u'a)a Nobutada
$i)ed &4>? to &@B&'

To+u'a)a Nobuyasu
$i)ed &@@? to &@J?'

To+u'a)a Nobuyos&i
$i)ed &@>B to &:0B

To+u'a)a #en9&ime
$i)ed &@?J to &:::'

To+u'a)a #&i'eyos&i To+u'a)a #&8'unate


-okuga*a ,eyasu *as named shTgun in &:0B and his fami(y contro((ed the country through that office unti( the <ei8i ;estoration of &>:J-:>' 0ppendi. AAA has a (ist of the -okuga*a ShTgun on page AAA'

To+u'a)a Tadana'a
$i)ed &:0@ to &:@&'

To+u'a)a Tadateru
$i)ed &@?B to &:>B'

" !

)okugawa )a-ayo*hi

To+u'a)a Tadayos&i
$i)ed &@>0 to &:0J'

To+u'a)a Tsunas&i'e
$i)ed &:44 to &:J>'

To+u'a)a Tsunayos&i
$i)ed &:4: to &J0?' -he @th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &:>0 to &J0?'

To+u'a)a 5asu%&i+a
$i)ed &B:? to &4&2'

To+u'a)a 5orifusa
$i)ed &:0B to &::&' -okuga*a ,eyasuGs ?th son and founder of the <ito branch of the -okuga*a fami(y' "ather of <itsukuni, Eorishige, Eorimoto, Eoritaka, and Eorio' ;ecie)ed <ito 7B@0,000 koku9 in Litachi in &:0?' Lence they are kno*n as the <ito branch'

To+u'a)a 5orinobu
$i)ed &:02 to &:J&' -okuga*a ,eyasuGs >th son and founder of the 4ii branch of the -okuga*a fami(y' "ather of <itsusada and Eori5umi' ;ecei)ed 6akayama 7@@@,000 koku9 in 4ii in &:&?'

To+u'a)a 5os&imune
$i)ed &:>4 to &J@&' -he >th -okuga*a shTgun' ,n office &J&: to &J4@'

To+u'a)a 5os&inao
$i)ed &:00 to &:@0'
" "

)okugawa 5o*hinao

-okuga*a ,eyasuGs Jth son and founder of the D*ari branch of the -okuga*a fami(y' "ather of <itsutomo' ;ecie)ed agoya Cast(e in D*ari in &:&0'

To+u'a)a 5os&inobu
See -okuga*a 4eiki on page AAA'

To+u'a)a 5os&isue
aka -okuga*a Shiro'

To+u:i
engT3 &B0:--&B0J'

To+us&ima City
-he capita( city of -okuga*a Prefecture'

To+us&ima refe%ture
0rea3 4,&44 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 -okushima Popu(ation3 >40,000 7&??:9

To+utomi #o&o T8+y8 City


-he capita( of -TkyT Prefecture' 0(so the nationa( capita('

T8+y8 refe%ture
-echnica((y a to, not a ken' 0rea3 2,&>J km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 -TkyT Popu(ation3 &&,@40,000 7&??:9

" 3

)okyo Eni&er*ity

To+yo =ni4ersity T8+y8 @ar Crimes Trial Torii Family (Daimy8$


0 daimyT fami(y from <ika*a' #escended from "u8i*ara <oromasa'

Torii Family ( ainters$


0 fami(y of famous painters'

Torii 7iyomasa
Painter' $i)ed &J0: to &J:B'

Torii 7iyomine
Painter' $i)ed &J>J to &>:>'

Torii 7iyomitsu
Painter' $i)ed &JB@ to &J>@'

Torii 7iyona'a
Painter' #ied &>&B'

Torii 7iyonobu
Painter' $i)ed &::4 to &JB0'

Torii 7iyonobu
Painter'

Torii *ototada
$i)ed &@B? to &:00' Son of -adayoshi'

" 4

)orii Narit*ugu

Torii Naritsu'u
Son of <ototada' ;u(ed Eamura 74ai, B@,000 koku9 but *as dispossessed in &:B2 and banished to his nephe* -orii -adatsuneGs domain in Eamagata'

Torii Tada&aru
$i)ed &:0> to &:@&' Continued the fami(y name *hen his o(der brother -adatsune died *ithout an heir in &:B:' Le *as gi)en the -akatT 7Shinano, B0,000 koku9'

Torii Tadamasa
$i)ed &@:J to &:2>' ;ecei)ed ,*akidaira 7<utsu, &00,000 koku9 in &:0B' 6as mo)ed to Eamagata 7#e*a, 2:0,000 koku9 in &:22'

Torii Tadatsune
#ied &:B:' Son of -adamasa but his fief re)erted to the shogunate *hen -adatsune died *ithout an heir'

Torii Tadayos&i
#ied &@J&' "ather of -orii <ototada' Ser)ed <atsudaira Lirotada and (ater -okuga*a ,eyasu'

Torii Tosa9&an Tosa ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4Tchi Prefecture on Shikoku' -osa bordered on ,yo and 0*a Pro)inces' see a(so3 0*a Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,yo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4Tchi Prefecture 7pg' A9, Shikoku 7pg' A9,

" 5

)0*ei+ha

T8sei9&a T8t8mi ro4in%e


7needs to be finishedF9 0 pro)ince in the area that is today Prefecture' -TtTmi bordered on and Pro)inces' see a(so3

Tottori City
-he capita( city of -ottori Prefecture'

Tottori refe%ture
0rea3 B,@0J km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 -ottori Popu(ation3 :20,000 7&??:9

T8yama 7a'et8 Toyama *itsuru


$i)ed &>@@ to &?44'

Toyama refe%ture
0rea3 4,42J km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 -oyama Popu(ation3 &,&B0,000 7&??:9

Toyoda #a+i%&i
$i)ed &>:J to &?B0'

Toyotomi Family Toyotomi Hideyori Toyotomi Hideyos&i


$i)ed &@BJ to &@?>' Lideyoshi started (ife as a peasant, but managed to rise up in the ranks of Dda obunagaGs 7page AAA9 army+ Le *as a genera( *hen 0kechi <itsuhide 7page

" 6

)oyotomi 4i-eyo*hi

AAA9 assassinated Dda in &@>2' Lideyoshi prompt(y a)enged his (ordGs death and eHua((y prompt(y took his (ordGs p(ace' 0side from his *ork unifying the country, Lideyoshi is a(so remembered for his i((-ad)ised in)asions of main(and 0sia'

To-ama Treaty of #&imonose+i


-he -reaty of Shimonoseki *as signed on 0pri( &J, &>?@ bet*een China and =apan' ,t ended the Sino-=apanese 6ar 7&>?4-&>?@9 in fa)our of =apan' ,n the treaty China recogni5ed the independence of 4orea and renounced any c(aims, ceded the southern portion of "Vgtien 7current Shenyang, $iaoning9 pro)ince, the is(ands of "ormosa and the Pescadores ,s(ands to =apan' China a(so paid =apan a *ar indemnity of 200 mi((ion 4uping tae(s, and opened )arious ports and ri)ers to internationa( entry and trade' -he treaty *as signed by Count ,to Lirobumi and %iscount <utsu <unemitsu for the Pmperor of =apan and $i Lung-Chang and $i Ching-"ong on beha(f of the Pmperor of China' -he harsh conditions imposed on China (ed to the -rip(e ,nter)ention of ;ussia, "rance, and Germany' -hey demanded that =apan *ithdre* its c(aim on "Vgtien pro)ince, concerned that Port 0rthur *ou(d fa(( under =apanese contro(' ,n o)ember &>?@ =apan *ithdre* its c(aim on "Vgtien pro)ince in return for an increased *ar indemnity from China' -he Puropean po*ers *ere not concerned *ith any of the other conditions, or the Gfree handG =apan had been granted in 4orea'
Mo-i!ie- !rom the Aikipe-ia article a&ailable atC httpCJJwww.wikipe-ia.orgJwJwiki.phtmlKtitleL)reatyMo!M1himono*eki

Triple Inter4ention
0fter the signing of the -reaty of Shimonoseki, *hich ended the Sino-=apanese 6ar of &>?4-&>?@, ;ussia, "rance, and Germany ob8ected to part of the treaty and compe((ed =apan to *ithdre* its c(aim on "Vgtien pro)ince in return for an increased *ar indemnity from China' -he =apanese peop(e *ere not happy *ith the inter)ention in a treaty bet*een =apan and China and their anger *as increased *hen a fe* years (ater ;ussia assumed contro( of Port 0rthur from China C Port 0rthur *as in the area that ;ussia, "rance, and Germany had inter)ened to pre)ent =apan from contro((ing' -his *as part of a broader ;usso-=apanese ri)a(ry in ortheast 0sia that resu(ted in the ;usso-=apanese 6ar of &?04-&?0@'

" 7

)ruman, 4arry 1.

Truman. Harry #. Tsu%&imi+ado9tenn8


-he >Bth emperor of =apan' ;eigned &&?> to &2&0'

Tsu City
-he capita( of <ie Prefecture 7pg AA9'

Tsuda *ami%&i
$i)ed &>2? to &?0B'

Tsuda #o+i%&i
$i)ed &>JB to &?:&'

Tsuda =me+o
$i)ed &>:@ to &?2?

Tsu+ude Castle Tsu+us&i Hiro+ado Tsus&ima. /attle of Tsus&ima ro4in%e


0 group of is(ands that are today part of agasaki Prefecture' -hey (ay bet*een in the Sea of =apan, bet*een LonshX / 4yXshX and the 4orean peninsu(a' \\LB

T)enty96ne Demands

=%&ida !yo&ei , =-en ro4in%e


=%&ida !yo&ei
$i)ed &>J4 to &?BJ'

=%&ide&ama. /attle of
-ook p(ace in &@>2'

" 8

Echi-ehama, attle o!

-he 0kechi army, retreating from their (oss at the batt(e of Eama5aki, *as 8oined by 0kechi <itsuharu, the cousin of 0kechi <itsuhide' 7<itsuhide *as ki((ed at Eama5aki'9 <itsuharu fought Lori Lidemasa, *ho *as pursuing the 0kechi on beha(f of -oyotomi Lideyoshi, at !chidehama' -he 0kechi army (ost' see a(so3 0kechi <itsuharu 7pg' A9, 0kechi <itsuhide 7pg' A9, Dda obunaga 7pg' A9, -oyotomi Lideyoshi 7pg' A9, Lori Lidemasa 7pg' A9, Eama5aki, /att(e of 7pg' A9, LonnT8i, Seige of 7pg' A9,

=%&imura 7an-o
$i)ed &>:& to &?B0'

=dai:in =da9tenn8
-he @?th emperor of =apan' ;eigned >>J to >?J'

=eda&ara. /attle of
-ook p(ace in &@4>' -he first batt(e in =apan *here arHuebuses *ere used' -akeda Shingen (ost to <urakami Eoshikiyo' Eoshikiyo had @0 ashigaru armed *ith arHuebuses' see a(so3 -akeda Shingen 7pg' A9, <urakami Eoshikiyo 7pg' A9, 0rHuebus 7pg' A9, 0shigaru 7pg' A9,

=eda. #ei'e of
-ook p(ace in &:00'

"

Ee-a, 1eige o!

-okuga*a Lidetada, on his *ay to 8oin his father, ,eyasu, stopped to seige !eda cast(e' -he cast(e *as he(d by Sanada <asayuki and his son Sanada Eukimura' 6hen the cast(e did not fa(( as Huick(y as Lidetada had hoped / e.pected, he abandoned the seige and hurried to meet up *ith ,eyasu' 0s a resu(t of this de(ay, Lidetada missed the batt(e of Sekigahara' see a(so3 Sanada <asayuki 7pg' A9, Sanada Eukimura 7pg' A9, Sekigahara, /att(e of 7pg' A9, -okuga*a Lidetada 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9,

=e+i "mori
$i)ed &>@J to &>?2'

=esu'i Family (6'i'ayatsu$ =esu'i Family (5amaou%&i$


0 daimyT fami(y descended from "u8i*ara Eoshikado 7pg' A9'

=esu'i 7a'e+atsu
$i)ed &@@@ to &:2B'

=esu'i 7a'enobu =esu'i 7a'etora


$i)ed &@@2 to &@J?' -he Jth son of LT8T !8iyasu 7pg' A9, *as adopted by !esugi 4enshin'

=esu'i 7ens&in
aka agao 4agetora $i)ed &@B0 to &@J>' -he Brd son of agao -amekage' -he agao fami(y *ere )assa(s of the !esugi but in &@@&, 4enshin forced !esugi orimasa to adopt him as his son, gi)e him offices and tit(es, and of course the !esugi name' orimasa had been defeated by LT8T !8iyasu and didnGt ha)e much choice but to accept'

3##

Ee*ugi Norima*a

=esu'i Norimasa
$i)ed &@22 to &@J?' #efeated se)era( times by the LT8T, had the good fortune to ha)e a )ery capab(e retainer in agao 4agetora, *hom he *ou(d adopt'

=esu'i Norisada =esu'i Tomosada


#ied &@44' $ast of the Dgigayatsu !esugi'

=esu'i 5os&i&aru ='a+i 7a-us&i'e


$i)ed &>:> to &?@:'

='o ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 0kita Prefecture 7pg' 9' !go bordered on <utsu, ;ikuchX, ;iku5en, and !5en Pro)inces' see a(so3 0kita Prefecture 7pg' A9, <utsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ;ikuchX Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ;iku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

=+ita Hideie =me-u 5os&i:iro


$i)ed &>>2 to &?4?'

=n+ei
#ied &22B' <aybe'

=no #osu+e
Prime <inister from 2 =une &?>? to &0 0ugust &?>?' ;ep(aced by 4aifu -oshiki 7pg AAA9'
3#!

Erawa City

=ra)a City
-he capita( of Saitama Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

=.#.9Capan Treaty of Amity and Commer%e =tsunomiya City


-he capita( of -ochigi Prefecture 7pg AAA9'

=tsunomiya9&an =)a:ima =-en ro4in%e


0 pro)ince in the area that is today Eamagata Prefecture' !5en bordered on Pchigo, ,*aki, ,*ashiro, ;iku5en, and !go Pro)inces' see a(so3 Pchigo Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*aki Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,*ashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ;iku5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, !go Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamagata Prefecture 7pg' A9,

(F( No entries$
nothing here yet'

@ado ro4in%e , @itte. #er'ei


@ado ro4in%e @ad8
engT3 J0>--J&4'

@a:ima City
0 city of about B0,000 peop(e on the oto-hanto, in ,shika*a'

3#"

Aa@ima+nuri

@a:ima9nuri
0 sty(e of (aHuer*are from the city of 6a8ima in ,shika*a'

@a+amatsu9&an
6akasa Pro)ince 0 pro)ince in the area that is today "ukui Prefecture' 6akasa bordered on Pchi5en, Smi, -amba, -ango, and Eamashiro Pro)inces'
Domains

Dbama 7?2,000 koku93 4yTgoku -akatsugu recei)ed from -okuga*a ,eyasu in &:00' see a(so3 Pchi5en Pro)ince 7pg' A9, "ukui Prefecture 7pg' A9, 4yTgoku -akatsugu 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -amba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -ango Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -okuga*a ,eyasu 7pg' A9, Eamashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

@a+atsu+i !ei:ir8
$i)ed &>:: to &?4?' Prime <inister from B0 =anuary &?2: to 20 0pri( &?2J and &4 0pri( &?B& to &4 #ecember &?B&'

@a+ayama City
-he capita( city of 6akayama Prefecture'

@a+ayama refe%ture
0rea3 4,J24 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 6akayama Popu(ation3 &,&00,000 7&??:9

3#3

Aang Ching+wei

@an' C&in'9)ei
6ang Eang-ming 6ar Crimes, C(ass 0

@arrin' #tates eriod


-he period of more-or-(ess constant *arfare that (asted from the Snin 6ar unti( Lideyoshi managed to e.ert contro( o)er most of the country'

@aseda =ni4ersity
aka -TkyT Co((ege'

@as&in'ton Na4al Conferen%e


-ook p(ace in 6ashington, #C from o)ember &?2& to "ebruary &?22' , "rance, Great /ritain, ,ta(y, =apan, and the !nited States 7as *e(( as a coup(e of other countriesF9 participated' a)a( arms (imitations, ru(es for submarine *arfare, and the status of )arious is(ands he(d by the po*ers in the Pacific *ere among the topics discussed' -he conference resu(ted in se)era( treaties' -he "our-Po*ers -reaty 7"rance, Great /ritain, =apan, and the !nited States9 dea(t *ith the )arious countriesG )arious ho(dings in the Pacific' -he "i)e-Po*ers -reaty 7"rance, Great /ritain, ,ta(y, =apan, and the !nited States9 dea(t *ith na)a( arms (imitations' -he ine-Po*ers -reaty 7"rance, Great /ritain, ,ta(y, =apan, and the !nited States and VV9 dea(t *ith the 1Dpen #oor2 po(icy in China' -he 0mericans at (east *ere reading the =apanese de(egationGs te(egrams and it is possib(e that the /ritish *ere as *e((' -he 0merican snooping *as made pub(ic a fe* years (ater by Lerbert D' Eard(ey, the chief of the 0merican /(ack Chamber C the secret go)ernment agency that had cryptana(y5ed 7broken9 the =apanese codes during the conference'
#our%es and #u''ested !eadin'

!he"#merican"$lack"%hamber by Lerbert D' Eard(ey, Myard(eyN&?B&O !he"%odebreakers:"!he"Story"of"Secret"*riting by #a)id 4ahn, MkahnN&??:O !he"(eader"of"Gentlemen's"Mail by #a)id 4ahn, MkahnN2004O
#ee Also

0merican /(ack Chamber 7pg 229, #merican"$lack"%hamber0"!he 7pg 2B9, "i)ePo*ers -reaty 7pg >B9, "our-Po*ers -reaty 7pg >B9, ine-Po*ers -reaty 7pg 2&>9, Eard(ey, Lerbert D' 7pg B0J9

@atanabe Han-8
6atanabe =otaro
3#4

Aatanabe 4anz0

$i)ed

@itte. #er'ei

(G( No entries$
nothing here yet

5ama'ata Aritomo , 5>rya+u9tenn8


5ama'ata Aritomo
$i)ed &>B> to &?22' Prime <inister from 24 #ecember &>>? to : <ay &>?& and > o)ember &>?> to &? Dctober &?00'

5ama'ata City
-he capita( city of Eamagata Prefecture 7pg' A9'

5ama'ata *asa+a'e 5ama'ata refe%ture


0rea3 ?,B2B km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Eamagata Popu(ation3 &,2:0,000 7&??:9

5ama'u%&i City
-he capita( city of Eamaguchi Prefecture 7pg' A9'

5ama'u%&i refe%ture
0rea3 :,&&0 km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 Eamaguchi Popu(ation3 &,@@0,000 7&??:9

5ama+a)a Hitos&i
$i)ed &>>0 to &?@>'

5ama+a)a 7i+ue
$i)ed &>?0 to &?>0'
3#5

5amamoto 3onnohy0e

5amamoto Donno&y8e
aka Eamamoto Gonbei' $i)ed &>@2 to &?BB' Prime <inister from 20 "ebruary &?&B to &: 0pri( &?&4 and 2 September &?2B to J =anuary &?24'

5amamoto Isoro+u
$i)ed &>>4 to &?4B' a)a( officer' Le is genera((y credited *ith p(anning and managing the #ecember &?4& attack on Pear( Larbor' Le(d the rank of admira( *hen he *as shot do*n by 0merican fighters in &?4B'

5amanas&i refe%ture
0rea3 4,4:@ km2 7&??@9 Capita(3 4Tfu Popu(ation3 >>0,000 7&??:9

5amas&iro ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today 4yTto Prefecture' Eamashiro bordered on ,ga, 4a*achi, Smi, Settsu, -amba, 6akasa, and Eamato Pro)inces' see a(so3 ,ga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4a*achi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4yTto Prefecture 7pg' A9, Smi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Settsu Pro)ince 7pg' A9, -amba Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 6akasa Pro)ince 7pg' A9, Eamato Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

5amato ro4in%e
0 pro)ince in the area that is today ara Prefecture' Eamato bordered on ,ga, ,se, 4a*achi, 4ii, and Eamashiro Pro)inces'
#ee Also

,ga Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ,se Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4a*achi Pro)ince 7pg' A9, 4ii Pro)ince 7pg' A9, ara Prefecture 7pg' A9, Eamashiro Pro)ince 7pg' A9,

5ama-a+i. /attle of
&@>2 -oyotomi Lideyoshi crushed 0kechi <itsuhide, the assassin of Dda obunaga, at Eama5aki' <itsuhide had hoped to take obunagaGs p(ace, but *ith his defeat, obunagaGs authority *ent to Lideyoshi'
3#6

5anagi-a :unio

5ana'ida 7unio
$i)ed &>J@ to &?:2'

5ana'ida To)n
0 sma(( to*n on the oto Peninsu(a 7pg' A9 in ,shika*a Prefecture 7pg' A9'

5ana'i *uneyos&i
$i)ed &>>? to &?:&'

5anaibara Tadao
see Eanaihara -adao on page B0J'

5anai&ara Tadao
aka Eanaibara -adao' $i)ed &>?B to &?:&'

5ardley. Herbert 6.
$i)ed &B 0pri( &>>? to J 0ugust &?@> -he founder and head of the 0merican /(ack Chamber 7pg 229 and author of the book, !he"#merican"$lack"%hamber 7pg 2B9' !nder Eard(ey, the cryptana(ysts of the 0merican /(ack Chamber broke =apanese dip(omatic codes and *ere ab(e to furnish 0merican negotiators *ith significant information during the 6ashington a)a( Conference of &?2&-&?22' Le (ater he(ped the ationa(ists in China break =apanese codes and *orked brief(y for the Canadian go)ernment, he(ping it set up a crypto(ogica( section' Eard(ey *as born and raised in 6orthington, ,ndiana' Lis mother, <ary Pmma Eard(ey, died *hen he *as &B' Lis father, ;obert 4irkbride Eard(ey, *as a station master and te(egrapher for a rai(road' "rom him, Lerbert (earned to use the te(egraph' -he 1D2 in his name stands for Dsborn C his mothersG maiden name3 Lerbert added it to his name because he needed a third (etter for his te(egraph signature' 0fter graduating high schoo( in &?0J, Eard(ey *orked as a te(egrapher for a rai(road' ,n &?&2, after passing the ci)i( ser)ice e.am, he *as hired as a go)ernment te(egrapher' Lis *ork in the code room and started his career in crypto(ogy by breaking the !'S' go)ernment codes that crossed his desk' 0t that time, 0merican codes *ere )ery *eak and Eard(ey so()ed them easi(y' Le *as shocked to (earn that President 6i(son *as using a code that had been in use for o)er ten years' -he *eakness of 0merican codes *orried Eard(ey, especia((y considering the *ar in Purope, so he *rote up a hundred-page 1So(ution of 0merican #ip(omatic Codes2 and ga)e it to his boss'

3#7

5ar-ley, 4erbert ?.

/reaking 0merican codes got Eard(ey *ondering about the codes of other countries' 0merican participation in the *ar ga)e Eard(ey an opportunity to se(( the go)ernment on his idea to set up a section to break other countriesG codes' Le con)inced <a8or ;a(ph %an #eman of the need and in =une-=u(y of &?&J Lerbert Eard(ey became a first (ieutenant in the Signa( Corps and head of the ne*(y created eighth section of mi(itary inte((igence C <,->' Eard(ey pro)ed to be a )ery good administrator and during the *ar the peop(e of <,-> performed *e(( e)en if they did not ha)e any spectacu(ar successes' 0fter the *ar, the 0merican 0rmy and the State department decided to 8oint(y fund <,> and Eard(ey continued as head of the 1Cipher /ureau2' -hey set up shop in e* Eork City for (ega( reasons' Cracking =apanese codes *as a priority' 4ahn 7MkahnN2004O, pg :29 states3
-he most important target *as =apan' ,ts be((igerence to*ard China 8eopardi5ed 0mericaGs Dpen #oor po(icy' ,ts emigrants e.acerbated 0merican racism' ,ts na)a( gro*th menaced 0merican po*er in the *estern Pacific' ,ts commercia( e.pansion threatened 0merican dominance of "ar Pastern markets'

0fter c(ose to a year, Eard(ey and his staff fina((y managed to break the =apanese codes and *ere sti(( reading =apanese dip(omatic traffic *hen 6ashington hosted the 6ashington a)a( Conference in &?2&' -he information the the Cipher /ureau pro)ided the 0merican de(egation *as instrumenta( in getting the =apanese side to agree to a &03: ratio instead of the &03J ratio the =apanese *anted' -his *as the hight of Eard(eyGs cryptana(ytic career' !nfortunate(y, Eard(ey spent much of his time in e* Eork in)o()ed in unre(ated acti)ities' 0(so, the f(o* of dip(omatic te(egrams dried up as companies became (ess *i((ing to break the (a* to he(p the go)ernment' ,n 6ashington, 6i((iam "riedman *as acti)e(y e.p(oring cryptographic frontiers for the 0rmy C the Cipher /ureau *as becoming irre(e)ant' Lo*e)er, it *as mora( indignation that fina((y doomed the bureau' Lenry $' Stimpson *as Secretary of State under President Loo)er' 6hen he found out about Eard(ey and the Cipher /ureau, he *as furious and *ithdre* funding, summing up his argument *ith 1Gent(emen do not read each otherGs mai('2 -he Cipher /ureau c(osed its doors for good on B& Dctober &?2? C 8ust t*o days after the stock market crashed and the Great #epression began' ot a good time for someone *ith Lerbert D' Eard(eyGs rather esoteric ski((s to be out of a 8ob' !nab(e to find anything promising and *ith a *ife and young son to support, Eard(ey decided to try *riting about his o(d 8ob' -he resu(t *as !he"#merican $lack"%hamber pub(ished by /obbs-<erri(( in &?B&' !he"#merican"$lack"%hamber *as entertaining and based on fact C most(y te((ing the story of Eard(eyGs breaking of the =apanese codes and the effect of that at the 6ashington a)a( Conference' ,t so(d *e(( and ga)e Eard(ey a taste of fame and infamy' -he 0merican go)ernment *as high(y unhappy' -he =apanese go)ernment *as embarrassed and high(y unhappy'

3#8

5ar-ley, 4erbert ?.

one of Eard(eyGs many (ater attempts at *riting *ere as successfu( as !he #merican"$lack"%hamber' Sti((, he pub(ished se)era( artic(es, a no)e( ca((ed !he $londe"%ountess, and *orked on a fe* mo)ies 7inc(uding (ende.-ous, based )ery (oose(y on !he"$londe"%ountess9 as a *riter and technica( ad)isor' ,t paid the bi((s' M0dd info on China and CanadaO Eard(ey died at &3&@ pm on J 0ugust &?@>, a *eek or so after ha)ing a ma8or stroke' Le is buried at 0r(inton ationa( Cemetery, Gra)e 42?-& of Section B0'
#our%es and #u''ested !eadin'

!he"#merican"$lack"%hamber"by"Herbert",;"8ardley, Myard(eyN&?B&O !he"%odebreakers by #a)id 4ahn, MkahnN&??:O !he"(eader"of"Gentlemen's"Mail by #a)id 4ahn, MkahnN2004O
#ee Also

0merican /(ack Chamber 7pg 229, #merican " $lack " %hamber0 " !he 7pg 2B9, 6ashington a)a( Conference 7pg B049

5asuda Len:iro
$i)ed &>B> to &?2&'

5ayoi 5o+o&ama City


-he capita( of 4anaga*a Prefecture 7pg &429'

5o+oi #&onan
$i)ed &>0? to &>:?'

5o+ose Family 5o+oyama Dennosu+e


$i)ed &>J0 to &?&@'

58mei9tenn8
-he B&st Pmperor of =apan' ;eigned @>@-@>J'

5onai *itsumasa
$i)ed &>>0 to &?4>'
3#

5onai Mit*uma*a

Prime <inister from &: =anuary &?40 to 22 =u(y &?40'


Cabinet

5onemura 7ai%&ir8 58r8


engT3 J&J--J2B'

5os&ida Castle 5os&ida #&i'eru


$i)ed &>J> to &?:J' Prime <inister from3 22 <ay &?4: to 24 <ay &?4J &@ Dctober &?4> to &: "ebruary &?4? &: "ebruary &?4? to B0 Dctober &?@2 B0 Dctober &?@2 to 2& <ay &?@B 2& <ay &?@B to &0 #ecember &?@4

5os&ida #&oin
$i)ed &>B0 to &>@?'

5os&ino #a+u-o
$i)ed &>J> to &?BB'

58)a
engT3 &&>&--&&>&'

58-ei9tenn8
-he @Jth emperor of =apan' ;eigned >J: to >>4'

5u+a)a Hide+i
$i)ed &?0J to &?>&'

3!#

5ura Family

5ura Family 5>rya+u9tenn8


-he 20th emperor of =apan' ;eigned 4@: to 4J?'

Laibatsu , Leami
Laibatsu Leami
aka 4an5e <otokiyo' $i)ed &B:B to &44B'

3!!

Chronological .i*t o! /mperor*

C&ronolo'i%al Eist of "mperors


Lere is a (ist of the Pmperors of =apan' 0n 7f9 after an entry means fema(e---ie an empress rather than an emperor' ;eign dates are gi)en' /irth and death dates are gi)en 7or *i(( one day be gi)en9 in the indi)idua( entries' <any of the emperors prior to about @00 0'#' are mytho(ogica(' -he entry in Historical"and"Geographical"Dictionary"of"Japan MpapinotN&?J2O for the 1 ihonki2 7pg 44>9 has a good summary of ho* unre(iab(e the info on ear(y emperors is'
Page &B: =immu Sui5ei 0nnei ,toku 4TshT 4Tan 4Trei 4Tgen 4aika Su8in Suinin 4eikT Seimu ChXai 7=ingX 4TgTVV9 S8in intoku ;ichX Lan5ei ,ngyT 0nkT EXryaku Seinei 4en5T inken /uretsu 4eitai 0nkan 2J0 B&B 400 40: 4&2 4@B 4@: 4>0 4>@ 4>> 4?> @0J @B& B&0 B?? 40@ 4&0 4@B 4@: 4J? 4>4 4>J 4?> @0: @B& @B@ 3!3 %mperor From ::0 @>& @4? @&0 4J@ B?2 2?0 2&4 &@> ?J 2? /'C' J& &B& &?2 To @>@ /'C' @4? /'C' @&& /'C' 4JJ /'C' B?B /'C' 2?& /'C' 2&@ /'C' &@> /'C' ?> /'C' B0 /'C' J0 0'#' &B0 &?0 200 Notes

Chronological .i*t o! /mperor*


Page Senka 4immei /itatsu ETmei Sushun Suiko 7f9 =omei 4Tgyoku 7f9 4Ttoku Saimei 7f9 -en8i 4Tbun -emmu =itT 7f9 <ommu Gemmei GenshT ShTmu 4Tken 7f9 =unnin ShTtoku 7f9 4Tnin 4ammu Lei5ei Saga =unna immyT <ontoku Sei*a ET5ei 4TkT !da #aigo Su5aku <urakami %mperor From @B@ @B? @J2 @>@ @>J @?2 :2? :42 :4@ :@@ ::2 :J& :JB :?0 :?J J0J J&@ J24 J4? J@> J:4 JJ0 J>& >0: >0? >2B >BB >@0 >@> >J: >>4 >>J >?J ?B0 ?4: To @B? @J& @>@ @>J @?2 :2> :4& :4@ :@4 ::& :J& :J2 :>: :?J J0J J&@ J24 J4? J@> J:4 JJ0 J>& >0: >0? >2B >BB >@0 >@> >J: >>4 >>J >?J ?B0 ?4: ?:J Notes

3!4

Chronological .i*t o! /mperor*


Page ;ei5ei PnGyX 4a5an ,chi8T San8T Goichi8T Gosu5aku Gorei5ei Gosan8T Shiraka*a Lorika*a -oba Sutoku 4onoe Goshiraka*a i8T ;oku8T -akakura 0ntoku Gotoba -suchimikado =untoku ChXkyT Gohorika*a Shi8T Gosaga Gofukakusa 4ameyama Gouda "ushimi Gofushimi Goni8T Lana5ono Godaigo Gomurakami %mperor From ?:J ?:? ?>4 ?>: &0&& &0&: &0B: &04@ &0:> &0J2 &0>: &&0J &&2B &&4& &&@@ &&@> &&:@ &&:> &&>0 &&>B &&?> &2&0 &22& &22& &2B2 &242 &24: &2@? &2J4 &2>> &2?> &B0& &B0> &B&> &BB? To ?:? ?>4 ?>: &0&& &0&: &0B: &04@ &0:> &0J2 &0>: &&0J &&2B &&4& &&@@ &&@> &&:@ &&:> &&>0 &&>B &&?> &2&0 &22& &22& &2B2 &242 &24: &2@? &2J4 &2>J &2?> &B0& &B0> &B&> &BB? &B:> Notes

3!5

Chronological .i*t o! /mperor*


Page ChTkei Gokameyama Gokomatsu ShTkT Gohana5ono Gotsuchimikado Gokashi*abara Gonara Sgimachi GoyT5ei Gomi5unoo <eishT 7f9 GokTmyT Gosai ;eigen Ligashiyama akamikado Sakuramachi <omo5ono Gosakuramachi Gomomo5ono 4Tkaku inkT 4Tmei <ei8i -aishT ShT*a Leisei %mperor From &B:> &B>B &B?2 &4&2 &42? &4:@ &@00 &@2: &@@J &@>: &:&& &:B0 &:4B &:@: &:B &:>J &J&0 &JB@ &J4J &J:B &JJ& &J>0 &>&J &>4J &>:: &?&2 &?2: &?>? To &B>B &B?2 &4&2 &42> &4:4 &@00 &@2: &@@J &@>: &:&& &:2? &:4B &:@4 &::B &:>J &J0? &JB@ &J4J &J:2 &JJ0 &JJ? &>&J &>4: &>:: &?&2 &?2: &?>? present Notes

Table 141Ch onolo,ical Dist o! C.(e o s

Sources3 e* e(sonGs 4an8i #ictionary, pg' &2@B-&2@:, and the Listorica( and Geographica( #ictionary of =apan, pg' >&@->&J'

3!6

%rime Mini*ter*, "225 to %re*ent

rime *inisters. 0AA1 to resent


-his (ist is compi(ed from =anet LunterGs e.ce((ent %oncise " Dictionary " of Japanese"History MhunterN&?>4O, =apanese go)ernment *eb sites, artic(es from the =apan -imes, and misce((aneous *eb sites re(ated to =apanese history'
Page Prime )inister ,tT Lirobumi 4uroda 4iyotaka Eamagata 0ritomo <atsukata <asayoshi ,tT Lirobumi <atsukata <asayoshi ,tT Lirobumi Skuma Shigenobu Eamagata 0ritomo ,tT Lirobumi 4atsura -arT Saion8i 4inmochi 4atsura -arT Saion8i 4inmochi 4atsura -arT Eamamoto GonnohyTe Skuma Shigenobu -erauchi <asatake Lara 4ei -akahashi 4orekiyo 4atT -omosaburT Eamamoto GonnohyTe 4iyoura 4eigo 4atT -akaaki 4atT -akaaki 6akatsuki ;ei8irT -anaka Giichi Lamaguchi Dsachi 6akatsuki ;ei8irT ,nukai -suyoshi SaitT <akoto From #ec 22, &>>@ 0pr B0, &>>> #ec 24, &>>? <ay :, &>?& 0ug >, &>?2 Sep &>, &>?: =an &2, &>?> =un B0, &>?> o) >, &>?> Dct &?, &?00 =un 2, &?0& =an J, &?0: =u( &4, &?0> 0ug B0, &?&& #ec 2&, &?&2 "eb 20, &?&B 0pr &:, &?&4 Dct ?, &?&: Sep 2?, &?&> o) &B, &?2& =un &2, &?22 Sep 2, &?2B =an J, &?24 =un &&, &?24 0ug 2, &?2@ =an B0, &?2: 0pr 20, &?2J =u( 2, &?2? 0pr &4, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& <ay 2:, &?B2 To #ec 24, &>>? <ay :, &>?& &st Eamagata 0ug >, &>?2 &st <atsukata #ec B0, &>?? 2nd ,tT =an &2, &>?> 2nd <atsukata =un B0, &>?> Brd ,tT o) >, &>?> &st Skuma Dct &?, &?00 2nd Eamagata =un 2, &?0& 4th ,tT =an J, &?0: &st 4atsura =u( &4, &?0> &st Saion8i 0ug B0, &?&& 2nd 4atsura #ec 2&, &?&2 2nd Saion8i "eb 20, &?&B Brd 4atsura 0pr &:, &?&4 &st Eamamoto Dct ?, &?&: 2nd Skuma Sep 2?, &?&> o) &B, &?2& =un &2, &?22 Sep 2, &?2B 4atT -omosaburT =an J, &?24 2nd Eamamoto =un &&, &?24 0ug 2, &?2@ &st 4atT -akaaki =an B0, &?2: 2nd 4atT -akaaki 0pr 20, &?2J &st 6akatsuki =u( 2, &?2? -anaka G' 0pr &4, &?B& #ec &B, &?B& 2nd 6akatsuki <ay 2:, &?B2 check dates =u( >, &?B4 3!7 Notes 0pr B0, &>>> &st ,tT

%rime Mini*ter*, "225 to %re*ent


Page Prime )inister Dkada 4eisuke Lirota 4Tki Layashi Sen8XrT 4onoe "umimaro Liranuma 4iichirT 0be obuyuki Eonai <itsumasa 4onoe "umimaro 4onoe "umimaro -T8T Lideki 4oiso 4uniaki Su5uki 4antarT Ligashikuni aruhiko Shidehara 4i8XrT Eoshida Shigeru 4atayama -etsu 0shida Litoshi Eoshida Shigeru Eoshida Shigeru Eoshida Shigeru Eoshida Shigeru Latoyama ,chirT Latoyama ,chirT Latoyama ,chirT ,shibashi -an5an 4ishi obusuke 4ishi obusuke ,keda Layato ,keda Layato ,keda Layato SatT Pisaku SatT Pisaku SatT Pisaku -anaka 4akuei -anaka 4akuei From =u( >, &?B4 <ar ?, &?B: "eb 2, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =an @, &?B? 0ug B0, &?B? =an &:, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& Dct &>, &?4& =u( 22, &?44 0pr J, &?4@ 0ug &J, &?4@ Dct ?, &?4@ <ay 22, &?4: <ay 24, &?4J <ar &0, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> "eb &:, &?4? Dct B0, &?@2 <ay 2&, &?@B #ec &0, &?@4 <ar &?, &?@@ o) 22, &?@@ #ec 2B, &?@: "eb 2@, &?@J =un &2, &?@> =u( &?, &?:0 #ec >, &?:0 #ec ?, &?:B o) ?, &?:4 "eb &J, &?:J =an &4, &?J0 =u( J, &?J2 #ec 22, &?J2 To <ar ?, &?B: "eb 2, &?BJ =un 4, &?BJ =an @, &?B? &st 4onoe 0ug B0, &?B? =an &:, &?40 =u( 22, &?40 =u( &>, &?4& 2nd 4onoe Dct &>, &?4& Brd 4onoe =u( 22, &?44 0pr J, &?4@ 0ug &J, &?4@ Su5uki 4' Dct ?, &?4@ <ay 22, &?4: <ay 24, &?4J &st Eoshida <ar &0, &?4> Dct &@, &?4> "eb &:, &?4? 2nd Eoshida Dct B0, &?@2 Brd Eoshida <ay 2&, &?@B 4th Eoshida #ec &0, &?@4 @th Eoshida <ar &?, &?@@ &st Latoyama o) 22, &?@@ 2nd Latoyama #ec 2B, &?@: Brd Latoyama "eb 2@, &?@J =un &2, &?@> &st 4ishi =u( &?, &?:0 2nd 4ishi #ec >, &?:0 &st ,keda #ec ?, &?:B 2nd ,keda o) ?, &?:4 Brd ,keda "eb &J, &?:J &st SatT =an &4, &?J0 2nd SatT =u( J, &?J2 Brd SatT #ec 22, &?J2 &st -anaka 4' #ec ?, &?J4 2nd -anaka 4' Notes

3!8

%rime Mini*ter*, "225 to %re*ent


Page Prime )inister <iki -akeo "ukuda -akeo Shira <asayoshi Shira <asayoshi Su5uki RenkT akasone Easuhiro akasone Easuhiro akasone Easuhiro -akeshita oboru !no Sosuke 4aifu -oshiki 4aifu -oshiki <iya5a*a 4iichi Losoka*a <orihiro Lata -sutomu <urayama -omiichi Lashimoto ;yXtarT Lashimoto ;yXtarT Dbuchi 4ei5T <ori EoshirT <ori EoshirT 4oi5umi =unGichirT From #ec ?, &?J4 #ec 24, &?J: #ec J, &?J> o) ?, &?J? =u( &>, &?>0 o) 2:, &?>2 #ec 2J, &?>B =u( 22, &?>: o) :, &?>J =un 2, &?>? 0ug &0, &?>? "eb 2>, &??0 o) @, &??& 0ug ?, &??B 0pr 2>, &??4 =un 2?, &??4 =an &&, &??: o) J, &??: =u( B0, &??> 0pr @, 2000 =u( 4, 2000 0pr 2:, 200& To #ec 24, &?J: #ec J, &?J> o) ?, &?J? &st Shira =u( &>, &?>0 2nd Shira o) 2:, &?>2 Su5uki R' #ec 2J, &?>B &st akasone =u( 22, &?>: 2nd akasone o) :, &?>J Brd akasone =un 2, &?>? 0ug &0, &?>? check datesF "eb 2>, &??0 &st 4aifu o) @, &??& 2nd 4aifu 0ug ?, &??B 0pr 2>, &??4 =un B0, &??4 =an &&, &??: o) J, &??: &st Lashimoto =u( B0, &??> 2nd Lashimoto 0pr @, 2000 =u( 4, 2000 &st <ori 0pr 2:, 200& 2nd <ori Notes

Table 142P i.e ?iniste s) 1&&" to P esent

3!

Alphabetical .i*t o! the %re!ecture*

Alp&abeti%al Eist of t&e refe%tures


-his tab(e is based on data from oritaka EagasakiGs Japan:"Geographical"7er) specti-es " on " an " <sland " Nation MyagasakiN&??JO, Brd Pdition, pub(ished by -eikoku-Shoin, &??J'
Page 0ichi 0kita 0omori Chiba Phime "ukui "ukuoka "ukushima Gifu Gunma Liroshima LokkaidT LyTgo ,baraki ,shika*a ,*ate 4aga*a 4agoshima 4anaga*a 4Tchi 4umamoto 4yTto <ie <iyagi <iya5aki agano agasaki ara iigata Sita Dkayama 3"# Name &rea (km* ) @,&@0 &&,:&2 0kita ?,:0@ 0omori @,&@: Chiba @,:J@ <atsuyama 4,&>> "ukui 4,?:> "ukuoka &B,J>2 "ukushima &0,@?> Gifu :,B:B <aebashi >,4J@ Liroshima >B,4@2 Sapporo >,B>J 4Tbe :,0?4 <itT 4,&>@ 4ana5a*a &@,2J> <oriaki &,>J@ -akamatsu ?,&>: 4agoshima 2,4&4 Eokohama J,&04 4Tchi J,40B 4umamoto 4,:&2 4yTto @,JJ4 -su J,2>@ Sendai J,JB4 <iya5aki &B,@>@ 4,0?& B,:?& &2,@>2 agano agasaki ara iigata Capita agoya Popu ation :,JJ0,000 &,220,000 &,@&0,000 @,J>0,000 &,@20,000 >B0,000 4,?00,000 2,&40,000 2,&00,000 2,000,000 2,>J0,000 @,:?0,000 @,420,000 2,?J0,000 &,&J0,000 &,4B0,000 &,0B0,000 &,>00,000 >,&J0,000 >B0,000 &,>J0,000 2,@@0,000 &,>40,000 2,B&0,000 &,&?0,000 2,&?0,000 &,@@0,000 &,440,000 2,4?0,000 &,240,000 &,?@0,000

:,BBJ Sita J,&&& Dkayama

Alphabetical .i*t o! the %re!ecture*


Page Ssaka Saga Saitama Shiga Shimane Shi5uoka -ochigi -okushima -TkyT -ottori -oyama 6akayama Eamagata Eamaguchi Eamanashi Name Dkina*a &rea (km* ) 2,2:: aha &,>?2 Ssaka 2,4B? Saga B,J?J !ra*a 4,0&J Stsu :,J0J <atsue J,JJ? Shi5uoka :,40> !tsunomiya 4,&44 -okushima 2,&>J -TkyT B,@0J -ottori 4,42J -oyama 4,J24 6akayama ?,B2B Eamagata :,&&0 Eamaguchi 4,4:@ 4Tfu Capita Popu ation &,2?0,000 >,@?0,000 >?0,000 :,J20,000 &,2>0,000 JJ0,000 B,JB0,000 &,?>0,000 >40,000 &&,@40,000 :20,000 &,&B0,000 &,&00,000 &,2:0,000 &,@@0,000 >>0,000

Table 143Al(habetical Dist o! the P e!ectu es

3"!

%ro&ince* an- Corre*pon-ing %re!ecture*

ro4in%es and Correspondin' refe%tures


-his tab(e (ists the o(d pro)inces but is ordered by prefecture more or (ess from north to south' -his makes it easier to see *hich pro)inces make up the current prefectures' 0(so (isted are the region to *hich each prefecture / pro)ince be(ongs' -he first is the region as gi)en in the New"Nelson's"Kan i"Dictionary' e.t to that is the region as gi)en by the o(der and sometimes (ess re(iab(e Historical and"Geographical"Dictionary"of"Japan MpapinotN&?J2O'
Page Pro+ince <utsu !go ;ikuchX ;iku5en !5en ,*ashiro ,*aki Litachi Shimotsuke 4T5uke <usashi Sagami ShimTsa 4a5usa 0*a Pchigo Sado PtchX 4aga oto Pchi5en 6akasa Suruga ,5u 4ai Shinano <ika*a D*ari Prefecture 0omori 0kita ,*ate <iyagi Eamagata "ukushima "ukushima, <iyagi ,baraki -ochigi Gumma Saitama, -TkyT 4anaga*a Chiba Chiba Chiba iigata iigata -oyama ,shika*a ,shika*a "ukui "ukui Shi5uoka Shi5uoka Eamanashi agano 0ichi 0ichi ,egion (Ne son-s) -Thoku -Thoku -Thoku -Thoku -Thoku -Thoku -Thoku 4antT 4antT 4antT 4antT 4antT 4antT 4antT 4antT ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu ChXbu -TsandT -TsandT -TsandT -TsandT -TsandT -TsandT -TkaidT -TsandT -TsandT -TkaidT -TkaidT -TkaidT -TkaidT -TkaidT LokurokudT LokurokudT LokurokudT LokurokudT LokurokudT LokurokudT LokurokudT -TkaidT -TkaidT -TkaidT -TsandT -TkaidT -TkaidT ,egion (.G/0)

3""

%ro&ince* an- Corre*pon-ing %re!ecture*


Page Pro+ince <ino Lida Smi Eamashiro -amba -ango ,5umi 4a*achi Eamato 4ii ,se ,ga -a8ima Settsu Larima 0*a8i /i5en /itchX <imasaka /ingo 0ki agato SuT ,naba LTki ,5umo ,*ami Dki Sanuki ,yo 0*a -osa Chiku5en /u5en /ungo Gifu Gifu Shiga 4yTto 4yTto 4yTto Ssaka Ssaka ara 6akayama <ie <ie LyTgo LyTgo LyTgo LyTgo Dkayama Dkayama Dkayama Liroshima Liroshima Eamaguchi Eamaguchi -ottori -ottori Shimane Shimane Shimane 4aga*a Phime -okushima 4Tchi "ukuoka "ukuoka Sita Prefecture ,egion (Ne son-s) ChXbu ChXbu 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki 4inki ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku ChXgoku Shikoku Shikoku Shikoku Shikoku 4yXshX 4yXshX 4yXshX ,egion (.G/0) -TsandT -TsandT -TsandT Go-4inai SanGindT SanGindT Go-4inai Go-4inai Go-4inai ankaidT -TkaidT -TkaidT SanGindT Go-4inai SanGyTdT ankaidT SanGyTdT SanGyTdT SanGyTdT SanGyTdT SanGyTdT SanGyTdT SanGyTdT SanGindT SanGindT SanGindT SanGindT SanGindT ankaidT ankaidT ankaidT ankaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT

3"3

%ro&ince* an- Corre*pon-ing %re!ecture*


Page Pro+ince LyXga Chikugo Li5en ,ki -sushima Ligo Satsuma Ssumi ;yXkyX Saga agasaki agasaki agasaki 4umamoto 4agoshima 4agoshima Dkina*a Prefecture <iya5aki ,egion (Ne son-s) 4yXshX 4yXshX 4yXshX 4yXshX 4yXshX 4yXshX 4yXshX 4yXshX ;yXkyX ,egion (.G/0) SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT SaikaidT

Table 144P o=inces and Co es(ondin, P e!ectu es

3"4

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0

C&ronolo'i%al Eist of Nen'8


Sources3 New"Nelson's"Kan i"Dictionary and the Historical"and"Geographical Dictionary"of"Japan MpapinotN&?J2O' -he 1aka ...2 in the notes co(umn usua((y means that the (isted nengo 71...29 is gi)en in Papinot as an a(ternate reading for the kan8i, but does not appear in the (ist gi)en in e* e(sonGs'
Page -aika Lakuchi LakuchT ShuchT -aihT 4eiun 6adT ;eiki ETrT =inki -empyT -empyT-kampT -empyT-shThT -empyT-hT8i -empyT-8ingo =ingo-keiun LTki -enGT Pnryaku #aidT 4Tnin -enchT ShT*a 4a8T 4ashT in8u SaikT -ennan =Tgan Nengo From :4@ :@0 :JB :>: J0& J04 J0> J&@ J&J J24 J2? J4? J4? J@J J:@ J:J JJ0 J>& J>2 >0: >&0 >24 >B4 >4> >4> >@& >@4 >@J >@? To :4? :@4 :>@ :>? J0B J0J J&4 J&: J2B J2> J4> J4? J@: J:4 J:: J:? J>0 J>& >0@ >0? >2B >BB >4J >@0 >@0 >@B >@: >@> >J: aka SeikoVV aka -enGanV aka =Tkan 3"5 aka =T*a aka 4ashT aka 4a8T aka -empyT-shingo aka Shinki aka 4yTun Notes

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0


Page Genkei inna 4ampyT ShTtai Pngi PnchT ShThei -engyT -enryaku -entoku S*a 4ThT 0nna -enroku -enGen =Tgen -engen Pikan 4anna Pien Piso ShTryaku ChTtoku ChThT 4ankT ChT*a 4annin =ian <an8u ChTgen ChTryaku ChTkyX 4antoku PishT -engi Nengo From >JJ >>@ >>? >?> ?0& ?2B ?B& ?B> ?4> ?@J ?:& ?:4 ?:> ?J0 ?JB ?J: ?J> ?>B ?>@ ?>J ?>? ??0 ??@ ??? &004 &0&2 &0&J &02& &024 &02> &0BJ &040 &044 &04: &0@B To >>4 >>> >?J ?00 ?22 ?B0 ?BJ ?4: ?@: ?:0 ?:B ?:J ?:? ?J2 ?J@ ?JJ ?>2 ?>4 ?>: ?>> ?>? ??4 ??> &00B &0&& &0&: &020 &02B &02J &0B: &0B? &04B &04@ &0@2 &0@J aka Pi8T aka ChTreki aka Chian aka 4an*a aka -eigen aka 0n*a aka =Thei, ShThyT aka -enkei aka in*a Notes

3"6

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0


Page 4Thei =ireki PnkyX =ThT ShTryaku PihT Stoku 4an8i 4ahT PichT =Ttoku 4T*a ChT8i 4a8T -ennin -enGei PikyX GenGei LTan -en8i #ai8i -enshT ChTshT LTen Pi8i 4T8i -enGyT 4yXan impei 4yX8u LTgen Lei8i Piryaku ShT ChTkan Nengo From &0@> &0:@ &0:? &0J4 &0JJ &0>& &0>4 &0>J &0?4 &0?: &0?J &0?? &&04 &&0: &&0> &&&0 &&&B &&&> &&20 &&24 &&2: &&B& &&B2 &&B@ &&4& &&42 &&44 &&4@ &&@& &&@4 &&@: &&@? &&:0 &&:& &&:B To &0:4 &0:> &0JB &0J: &0>0 &0>B &0>: &0?B &0?@ &0?: &0?> &&0B &&0@ &&0J &&0? &&&2 &&&J &&&? &&2B &&2@ &&B0 &&B& &&B4 &&40 &&4& &&4B &&44 &&@0 &&@B &&@@ &&@> &&@? &&:0 &&:2 &&:4 aka /yT8i aka impyT aka ChT8T VV aka -en8u aka -ai8i aka GanGei aka 4ashT aka ShTtoku aka ShThT aka =Treki aka Chiryaku Notes

3"7

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0


Page Piman innan 4aT ShTan 0ngen =ishT ET*a =uei Genryaku /un8i 4enkyX ShT8i 4ennin GenkyX 4enGei =Tgen 4enryaku 4empT =TkyX =TT Gennin 4aroku 0ntei 4anki =Tei -empuku /unryaku 4atei ;yakunin PnGT in8i 4angen LT8i 4enchT 4Tgen Nengo From &&:@ &&:: &&:? &&J& &&J@ &&JJ &&>& &&>2 &&>4 &&>@ &&?0 &&?? &20& &204 &20: &20J &2&& &2&B &2&? &222 &224 &22@ &22J &22? &2B2 &2BB &2B4 &2B@ &2B> &2B? &240 &24B &24J &24? &2@: To &&:@ &&:> &&J0 &&J4 &&J: &&>0 &&>& &&>B &&>4 &&>? &&?> &200 &20B &20@ &20: &2&0 &2&2 &2&> &22& &22B &224 &22: &22> &2B& &2B2 &2BB &2B4 &2BJ &2B> &2B? &242 &24: &24> &2@@ &2@: aka -eiei aka ShTkyX aka -eiT aka ShTgen aka Ganryaku, Genreki aka =i8T aka =Tan aka inGan Notes

3"8

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0


Page ShTka ShTgen /unGT 4TchT /unGei 4en8i 4Tan ShTT Pinin ShTan 4engen 4agen -oku8i PnkyT SchT ShT*a /umpT GenGT GenkT ShTchX 4aryaku Gentoku GenkT 4emmu Pngen ;yakuT 4Tkoku 4Tei -ei*a ShThei 4anGT /un*a Pmbun 4Tan =T8i Nengo From &2@J &2@? &2:0 &2:& &2:4 &2J@ &2J> &2>> &2?B &2?? &B02 &B0B &B0: &B0> &B&& &B&2 &B&J &B&? &B2& &B24 &B2: &B2? &BB& &BB4 &BB: &BB> &B40 &B42 &B4@ &B4: &B@0 &B@2 &B@: &B:& &B:2 To &2@> &2@? &2:0 &2:B &2J4 &2JJ &2>J &2?2 &2?> &B0& &B02 &B0@ &B0J &B&0 &B&& &B&: &B&> &B20 &B2B &B2@ &B2> &BB0 &BBB &BB@ &BB? &B4& &B4@ &B44 &B4? &B:? &B@& &B@@ &B:0 &B:2 &B:J orthern orthern aka ShThyT orthern orthern orthern orthern orthern orthern see pg 2J0 aka 4areki aka GenkyT aka Pnkei Notes

3"

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0


Page San 4entoku Pi*a 4Tryaku GenchX Pitoku 4T*a Shitoku 4akei 4TT <eitoku <eitoku Sei ShTchT PikyT 4akitsu /unnan LTtoku 4yTtoku 4TshT ChTroku 4anshT /unshT Snin /ummei ChTkyT Pntoku <eiT /unki PishT #aiei 4yTroku -emmon 4T8i Piroku Nengo From &B:> &BJ0 &BJ@ &BJ? &B>0 &B>& &B>& &B>4 &B>J &B>? &B?0 &B?B &B?4 &42> &42? &44& &444 &44? &4@2 &4@@ &4@J &4:0 &4:: &4:J &4:? &4>J &4>? &4?2 &@0& &@04 &@2& &@2> &@B2 &@@@ &@@> To &BJ4 &BJ& &BJ> &B>0 &B>2 &B>B &B>B &B>: &B>> &B>? &B?B &B?B &42J &42> &440 &44B &44> &4@& &4@4 &4@: &4@? &4:@ &4:: &4:> &4>: &4>> &4?& &@00 &@0B &@20 &@2J &@B& &@@4 &@@J &@:? aka -embun aka -aiei aka ChTkT aka 4Ttoku aka /unGan orthern orthern orthern orthern Southern orthern orthern orthern orthern Notes

33#

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0


Page Genki -enshT /unroku 4eichT Genna 4anGei ShThT 4eian =TT <eireki <an8i 4ambun PmpT -enna =TkyT Genroku LTei ShTtoku 4yThT Gembun 4ampT PnkyT 4anGen LTreki <ei*a 0nGei -emmei 4ansei 4yT*a /unka /unsei -empT 4Tka 4aei 0nsei Nengo From &@J0 &@JB &@?2 &@?: &:&@ &:24 &:44 &:4> &:@2 &:@@ &:@> &::& &:JB &:>& &:>4 &:>> &J04 &J&& &J&: &JB: &J4& &J44 &J4> &J@& &J:4 &JJ2 &J>& &J>? &>0& &>04 &>&> &>B0 &>44 &>4> &>@4 To &@J2 &@?& &@?@ &:&4 &:2B &:4B &:4J &:@& &:@4 &:@J &::0 &:J2 &:>0 &:>B &:>J &J0B &J&0 &J&@ &JB@ &J40 &J4B &J4J &J@0 &J:B &JJ& &J>0 &J>> &>00 &>0B &>&J &>2? &>4B &>4J &>@B &>@? aka -en*a aka -eikyT aka ShTT aka Gen*a Notes

33!

Chronological .i*t o! Neng0


Page Nengo <anGen /unkyX Gen8i 4eiT <ei8i -aishT ShT*a Leisei From &>:0 &>:& &>:4 &>:@ &>:> &?&2 &?2: &?>? To &>:0 &>:B &>:4 &>:J &?&2 &?2@ &?>> aka Gan8i Notes

Table 14"Ch onolo,ical Dist o! Nen,o

33"

.i*t o! the 1h0gun

Eist of t&e #&8'un


7ama+ura #&8'unate
Page Name <inamoto Eoritomo <inamoto Eoriie <inamoto Sanetomo "u8i*ara Eoritsune "u8i*ara Eoritsugu <unetaka 4oreyasu Lisaakira <orikuni <orinaga arinaga (irth &&4J &&>2 &&?2 &2&> &2B? &242 &2:4 &2J4 &B0& &B0> &B2@ (egin &&?2 &202 &20B &22: &244 &2@2 &2:: &2>? &B0> &BBB &BB4 %n# &&?? &20B &2&? &244 &2@2 &2:: &2>? &B0> &BBB &BB4 &BB> /eath &&?? &204 &2&? &2@: &2@: &2J4 &B2: &B2> &BBB &BB@ &BB>

Table 14$Dist o! the Ka.aku a #h,un

As&i+a'a #&8'unate
Page Name 0shikaga -akau8i 0shikaga Eoshiakira 0shikaga Eoshimitsu 0shikaga Eoshimochi 0shikaga Eoshika5u 0shikaga Eoshinori 0shikaga Eoshikatsu 0shikaga Eoshimasa 0shikaga Eoshihisa 0shikaga Eoshitane 0shikaga Eoshi5umi 0shikaga Eoshitane 0shikaga Eoshiharu 0shikaga Eoshiteru 0shikaga Eoshihide 0shikaga Eoshiaki
Table 14%Dist o! the Ashika,a #h,un

(irth &B0> &BB0 &B@> &B>: &40J &B?4 &4BB &4B@ &4:@ &4:@ &4J> &4:@ &@&0 &@B@ &@:4 &@BJ

(egin &BB> &B@> &B:J &B?@ &42B &42> &44& &44? &4J4 &4?0 &4?B &@0> &@2& &@4@ &@:> &@:>

%n# &B@> &B:J &B?@ &42B &42@ &44& &44B &4J4 &4>? &4?B &@0> &@2& &@4@ &@:@ &@:> &@JB

/eath &B@> &B:> &40> &42> &42@ &44& &44B &4?0 &4>? &@22 &@&& &@22 &@@0 &@:@ &@:> &@?J

333

)okugawa 1h0gunate

To+u'a)a #&8'unate
Page Name -okuga*a ,eyasu -okuga*a Lidetada -okuga*a ,emitsu -okuga*a ,etsuna -okuga*a -sunayoshi -okuga*a ,enobu -okuga*a ,etsugu -okuga*a Eoshimune -okuga*a ,eshige -okuga*a ,eharu -okuga*a ,enari -okuga*a ,eyoshi -okuga*a ,esada -okuga*a ,emochi -okuga*a 4eiki
Table 14&Dist o! the Toku,a1a #h,un

(irth &@42 &@J? &:04 &:4& &:4: &::2 &J0? &:>4 &J&& &JBJ &JJB &J?B &>24 &>4: &>BJ

(egin &:0B &:0@ &:2B &:@& &:>0 &J0? &J&2 &J&: &J4@ &J:0 &J>: &>BJ &>@B &>@> &>::

%n# &:0@ &:2B &:@& &:>0 &J0? &J&2 &J&: &J4@ &J:0 &J>: &>BJ &>@B &>@> &>:: &>:>

/eath &:&: &:B2 &:@& &:>0 &J0? &J&2 &J&: &J@& &J:& &J>: &>4& &>@B &>@> &>::

334

3NE Free ,ocumentation .icen*e

DN= Free Do%umentation Ei%ense


%ersion &'&, <arch 2000 Copyright 7C9 2000"ree Soft*are "oundation, ,nc' @? -emp(e P(ace, Suite BB0, /oston, <002&&&-&B0J!S0 P)eryone is permitted to copy and distribute )erbatim copies of this (icense document, but changing it is not a((o*ed'

!"A*/E"
-he purpose of this $icense is to make a manua(, te.tbook, or other *ritten document 1free2 in the sense of freedom3 to assure e)eryone the effecti)e freedom to copy and redistribute it, *ith or *ithout modifying it, either commercia((y or noncommercia((y' Secondari(y, this $icense preser)es for the author and pub(isher a *ay to get credit for their *ork, *hi(e not being considered responsib(e for modifications made by others' -his $icense is a kind of 1copy(eftGG, *hich means that deri)ati)e *orks of the document must themse()es be free in the same sense',t comp(ements the G ! Genera( Pub(ic $icense, *hich is a copy(eft (icense designed for free soft*are' 6e ha)e designed this $icense in order to use it for manua(s for free soft*are, because free soft*are needs free documentation3 a free program shou(d come *ith manua(s pro)iding the same freedoms that the soft*are does'/ut this $icense is not (imited to soft*are manua(s+ it can be used for any te.tua( *ork, regard(ess of sub8ect matter or *hether it is pub(ished as a printed book'6e recommend this $icense principa((y for *orks *hose purpose is instruction or reference'

0. A

EICA/IEIT5 AND D"FINITI6N#

-his $icense app(ies to any manua( or other *ork that contains a notice p(aced by the copyright ho(der saying it can be distributed under the terms of this $icense'-he 1#ocumentGG, be(o*, refers to any such manua( or *ork' 0ny member of the pub(ic is a (icensee, and is addressed as 1youGG' 0 1<odified %ersion2 of the #ocument means any *ork containing the #ocument or a portion of it, either copied )erbatim, or *ith modifications and/or trans(ated into another (anguage' 0 1Secondary Section2 is a named appendi. or a front-matter section of the #ocument that dea(s e.c(usi)e(y *ith the re(ationship of the pub(ishers or authors of the #ocument to the #ocumentGs o)era(( sub8ect 7or to re(ated matters9 and contains nothing that cou(d fa(( direct(y *ithin that o)era(( sub8ect' 7"or e.amp(e, if the #ocument is in part a te.tbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not e.p(ain any mathematics'9 -he re(ationship cou(d be a matter of historica( con-

335

". A%%.8CA 8.8)5 AN, ,/F8N8)8?N1

nection *ith the sub8ect or *ith re(ated matters, or of (ega(, commercia(, phi(osophica(, ethica( or po(itica( position regarding them' -he 1,n)ariant Sections2 are certain Secondary Sections *hose tit(es are designated, as being those of ,n)ariant Sections, in the notice that says that the #ocument is re(eased under this $icense' -he 1Co)er -e.ts2 are certain short passages of te.t that are (isted, as "rontCo)er -e.ts or /ack-Co)er -e.ts, in the notice that says that the #ocument is re(eased under this $icense' 0 1-ransparent2 copy of the #ocument means a machine-readab(e copy, represented in a format *hose specification is a)ai(ab(e to the genera( pub(ic, *hose contents can be )ie*ed and edited direct(y and straightfor*ard(y *ith generic te.t editors or 7for images composed of pi.e(s9 generic paint programs or 7for dra*ings9 some *ide(y a)ai(ab(e dra*ing editor, and that is suitab(e for input to te.t formatters or for automatic trans(ation to a )ariety of formats suitab(e for input to te.t formatters'0 copy made in an other*ise -ransparent fi(e format *hose markup has been designed to th*art or discourage subseHuent modification by readers is not -ransparent' 0 copy that is not 1-ransparent2 is ca((ed 1DpaHueGG' P.amp(es of suitab(e formats for -ransparent copies inc(ude p(ain 0SC,, *ithout markup, -e.info input format, $a-eA input format, SG<$ or A<$ using a pub(ic(y a)ai(ab(e #-#, and standard-conforming simp(e L-<$ designed for human modification'DpaHue formats inc(ude PostScript, P#", proprietary formats that can be read and edited on(y by proprietary *ord processors, SG<$ or A<$ for *hich the #-# and/or processing too(s are not genera((y a)ai(ab(e, and the machine-generated L-<$ produced by some *ord processors for output purposes on(y' -he 1-it(e Page2 means, for a printed book, the tit(e page itse(f, p(us such fo((o*ing pages as are needed to ho(d, (egib(y, the materia( this $icense reHuires to appear in the tit(e page' "or *orks in formats *hich do not ha)e any tit(e page as such, 1-it(e Page2 means the te.t near the most prominent appearance of the *orkGs tit(e, preceding the beginning of the body of the te.t'

2. F"!/ATI* C6 5IND
Eou may copy and distribute the #ocument in any medium, either commercia((y or noncommercia((y, pro)ided that this $icense, the copyright notices, and the (icense notice saying this $icense app(ies to the #ocument are reproduced in a(( copies, and that you add no other conditions *hatsoe)er to those of this $icense'Eou may not use technica( measures to obstruct or contro( the reading or further copying of the copies you make or distribute'Lo*e)er, you may accept compensation in e.change for copies',f you distribute a (arge enough number of copies you must a(so fo((o* the conditions in section B' Eou may a(so (end copies, under the same conditions stated abo)e, and you may pub(ic(y disp(ay copies'
336

'. C?%58N3 8N BEAN)8)5

3. C6 5IND IN K=ANTIT5
,f you pub(ish printed copies of the #ocument numbering more than &00, and the #ocumentGs (icense notice reHuires Co)er -e.ts, you must enc(ose the copies in co)ers that carry, c(ear(y and (egib(y, a(( these Co)er -e.ts3 "ront-Co)er -e.ts on the front co)er, and /ack-Co)er -e.ts on the back co)er'/oth co)ers must a(so c(ear(y and (egib(y identify you as the pub(isher of these copies'-he front co)er must present the fu(( tit(e *ith a(( *ords of the tit(e eHua((y prominent and )isib(e'Eou may add other materia( on the co)ers in addition' Copying *ith changes (imited to the co)ers, as (ong as they preser)e the tit(e of the #ocument and satisfy these conditions, can be treated as )erbatim copying in other respects' ,f the reHuired te.ts for either co)er are too )o(uminous to fit (egib(y, you shou(d put the first ones (isted 7as many as fit reasonab(y9 on the actua( co)er, and continue the rest onto ad8acent pages' ,f you pub(ish or distribute DpaHue copies of the #ocument numbering more than &00, you must either inc(ude a machine-readab(e -ransparent copy a(ong *ith each DpaHue copy, or state in or *ith each DpaHue copy a pub(ic(y-accessib(e computer-net*ork (ocation containing a comp(ete -ransparent copy of the #ocument, free of added materia(, *hich the genera( net*ork-using pub(ic has access to do*n(oad anonymous(y at no charge using pub(ic-standard net*ork protoco(s',f you use the (atter option, you must take reasonab(y prudent steps, *hen you begin distribution of DpaHue copies in Huantity, to ensure that this -ransparent copy *i(( remain thus accessib(e at the stated (ocation unti( at (east one year after the (ast time you distribute an DpaHue copy 7direct(y or through your agents or retai(ers9 of that edition to the pub(ic' ,t is reHuested, but not reHuired, that you contact the authors of the #ocument *e(( before redistributing any (arge number of copies, to gi)e them a chance to pro)ide you *ith an updated )ersion of the #ocument'

3. *6DIFICATI6N#
Eou may copy and distribute a <odified %ersion of the #ocument under the conditions of sections 2 and B abo)e, pro)ided that you re(ease the <odified %ersion under precise(y this $icense, *ith the <odified %ersion fi((ing the ro(e of the #ocument, thus (icensing distribution and modification of the <odified %ersion to *hoe)er possesses a copy of it',n addition, you must do these things in the <odified %ersion3 0' !se in the -it(e Page 7and on the co)ers, if any9 a tit(e distinct from that of the #ocument, and from those of pre)ious )ersions 7*hich shou(d, if there *ere any, be (isted in the Listory section of the #ocument9'Eou may use the same tit(e as a pre)ious )ersion if the origina( pub(isher of that )ersion gi)es permission' /' $ist on the -it(e Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities responsib(e for authorship of the modifications in the <odified %ersion, together *ith at

337

$. M?,8F8CA)8?N1

(east fi)e of the principa( authors of the #ocument 7a(( of its principa( authors, if it has (ess than fi)e9' C' State on the -it(e page the name of the pub(isher of the <odified %ersion, as the pub(isher' #' Preser)e a(( the copyright notices of the #ocument' P' 0dd an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications ad8acent to the other copyright notices' "' ,nc(ude, immediate(y after the copyright notices, a (icense notice gi)ing the pub(ic permission to use the <odified %ersion under the terms of this $icense, in the form sho*n in the 0ddendum be(o*' G' Preser)e in that (icense notice the fu(( (ists of ,n)ariant Sections and reHuired Co)er -e.ts gi)en in the #ocumentGs (icense notice' L' ,nc(ude an una(tered copy of this $icense' ,' Preser)e the section entit(ed 1Listory2, and its tit(e, and add to it an item stating at (east the tit(e, year, ne* authors, and pub(isher of the <odified %ersion as gi)en on the -it(e Page',f there is no section entit(ed 1Listory2 in the #ocument, create one stating the tit(e, year, authors, and pub(isher of the #ocument as gi)en on its -it(e Page, then add an item describing the <odified %ersion as stated in the pre)ious sentence' =' Preser)e the net*ork (ocation, if any, gi)en in the #ocument for pub(ic access to a -ransparent copy of the #ocument, and (ike*ise the net*ork (ocations gi)en in the #ocument for pre)ious )ersions it *as based on'-hese may be p(aced in the 1Listory2 section' Eou may omit a net*ork (ocation for a *ork that *as pub(ished at (east four years before the #ocument itse(f, or if the origina( pub(isher of the )ersion it refers to gi)es permission' 4' ,n any section entit(ed 10ckno*(edgements2 or 1#edications2, preser)e the sectionGs tit(e, and preser)e in the section a(( the substance and tone of each of the contributor ackno*(edgements and/or dedications gi)en therein' $' Preser)e a(( the ,n)ariant Sections of the #ocument, una(tered in their te.t and in their tit(es'Section numbers or the eHui)a(ent are not considered part of the section tit(es' <' #e(ete any section entit(ed 1Pndorsements2' Such a section may not be inc(uded in the <odified %ersion' ' #o not retit(e any e.isting section as 1Pndorsements2 or to conf(ict in tit(e *ith any ,n)ariant Section' ,f the <odified %ersion inc(udes ne* front-matter sections or appendices that Hua(ify as Secondary Sections and contain no materia( copied from the #ocument, you may at your option designate some or a(( of these sections as in)ariant'-o do this, add their tit(es to the (ist of ,n)ariant Sections in the <odified %ersionGs (icense notice' -hese tit(es must be distinct from any other section tit(es'
338

$. M?,8F8CA)8?N1

Eou may add a section entit(ed 1PndorsementsGG, pro)ided it contains nothing but endorsements of your <odified %ersion by )arious parties---for e.amp(e, statements of peer re)ie* or that the te.t has been appro)ed by an organi5ation as the authoritati)e definition of a standard' Eou may add a passage of up to fi)e *ords as a "ront-Co)er -e.t, and a passage of up to 2@ *ords as a /ack-Co)er -e.t, to the end of the (ist of Co)er -e.ts in the <odified %ersion'Dn(y one passage of "ront-Co)er -e.t and one of /ackCo)er -e.t may be added by 7or through arrangements made by9 any one entity',f the #ocument a(ready inc(udes a co)er te.t for the same co)er, pre)ious(y added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on beha(f of, you may not add another+ but you may rep(ace the o(d one, on e.p(icit permission from the pre)ious pub(isher that added the o(d one' -he author7s9 and pub(isher7s9 of the #ocument do not by this $icense gi)e permission to use their names for pub(icity for or to assert or imp(y endorsement of any <odified %ersion'

1. C6*/ININD D6C=*"NT#
Eou may combine the #ocument *ith other documents re(eased under this $icense, under the terms defined in section 4 abo)e for modified )ersions, pro)ided that you inc(ude in the combination a(( of the ,n)ariant Sections of a(( of the origina( documents, unmodified, and (ist them a(( as ,n)ariant Sections of your combined *ork in its (icense notice' -he combined *ork need on(y contain one copy of this $icense, and mu(tip(e identica( ,n)ariant Sections may be rep(aced *ith a sing(e copy' ,f there are mu(tip(e ,n)ariant Sections *ith the same name but different contents, make the tit(e of each such section uniHue by adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the origina( author or pub(isher of that section if kno*n, or e(se a uniHue number' <ake the same ad8ustment to the section tit(es in the (ist of ,n)ariant Sections in the (icense notice of the combined *ork' ,n the combination, you must combine any sections entit(ed 1Listory2 in the )arious origina( documents, forming one section entit(ed 1ListoryGG+ (ike*ise combine any sections entit(ed 10ckno*(edgements2, and any sections entit(ed 1#edicationsGG'Eou must de(ete a(( sections entit(ed 1Pndorsements'2

2. C6EE"CTI6N# 6F D6C=*"NT#
Eou may make a co((ection consisting of the #ocument and other documents re(eased under this $icense, and rep(ace the indi)idua( copies of this $icense in the )arious documents *ith a sing(e copy that is inc(uded in the co((ection, pro)ided that you fo((o* the ru(es of this $icense for )erbatim copying of each of the documents in a(( other respects' Eou may e.tract a sing(e document from such a co((ection, and distribute it indi)idua((y under this $icense, pro)ided you insert a copy of this $icense into the

33

#. C?../C)8?N1 ?F ,?CEM/N)1

e.tracted document, and fo((o* this $icense in a(( other respects regarding )erbatim copying of that document'

I. A''re'ation )it& Independent @or+s


0 compi(ation of the #ocument or its deri)ati)es *ith other separate and independent documents or *orks, in or on a )o(ume of a storage or distribution medium, does not as a *ho(e count as a <odified %ersion of the #ocument, pro)ided no compi(ation copyright is c(aimed for the compi(ation'Such a compi(ation is ca((ed an 1aggregate2, and this $icense does not app(y to the other se(f-contained *orks thus compi(ed *ith the #ocument, on account of their being thus compi(ed, if they are not themse()es deri)ati)e *orks of the #ocument' ,f the Co)er -e.t reHuirement of section B is app(icab(e to these copies of the #ocument, then if the #ocument is (ess than one Huarter of the entire aggregate, the #ocumentGs Co)er -e.ts may be p(aced on co)ers that surround on(y the #ocument *ithin the aggregate' Dther*ise they must appear on co)ers around the *ho(e aggregate'

A. Translation
-rans(ation is considered a kind of modification, so you may distribute trans(ations of the #ocument under the terms of section 4' ;ep(acing ,n)ariant Sections *ith trans(ations reHuires specia( permission from their copyright ho(ders, but you may inc(ude trans(ations of some or a(( ,n)ariant Sections in addition to the origina( )ersions of these ,n)ariant Sections'Eou may inc(ude a trans(ation of this $icense pro)ided that you a(so inc(ude the origina( Png(ish )ersion of this $icense' ,n case of a disagreement bet*een the trans(ation and the origina( Png(ish )ersion of this $icense, the origina( Png(ish )ersion *i(( pre)ai('

B. Termination
Eou may not copy, modify, sub(icense, or distribute the #ocument e.cept as e.press(y pro)ided for under this $icense'0ny other attempt to copy, modify, sub(icense or distribute the #ocument is )oid, and *i(( automatica((y terminate your rights under this $icense' Lo*e)er, parties *ho ha)e recei)ed copies, or rights, from you under this $icense *i(( not ha)e their (icenses terminated so (ong as such parties remain in fu(( comp(iance'

00. Future !e4isions of t&is Ei%ense


-he "ree Soft*are "oundation may pub(ish ne*, re)ised )ersions of the G ! "ree #ocumentation $icense from time to time' Such ne* )ersions *i(( be simi(ar in spirit to the present )ersion, but may differ in detai( to address ne* prob(ems or concerns' See http3//***'gnu'org/copy(eft/' Pach )ersion of the $icense is gi)en a distinguishing )ersion number' ,f the #ocument specifies that a particu(ar numbered )ersion of this $icense 1or any (ater )ersion2 app(ies to it, you ha)e the option of fo((o*ing the terms and conditions either of that specified )ersion or of any (ater )ersion that has been pub(ished
34#

"=. Future ;e&i*ion* o! thi* .icen*e

7not as a draft9 by the "ree Soft*are "oundation',f the #ocument does not specify a )ersion number of this $icense, you may choose any )ersion e)er pub(ished 7not as a draft9 by the "ree Soft*are "oundation'

00. Ho) to use t&is Ei%ense for your do%uments


-o use this $icense in a document you ha)e *ritten, inc(ude a copy of the $icense in the document and put the fo((o*ing copyright and (icense notices 8ust after the tit(e page3 Copyright (c)YEARYOUR NAME. Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled GNU Free Documentation License. ,f you ha)e no ,n)ariant Sections, *rite 1*ith no ,n)ariant Sections2 instead of saying *hich ones are in)ariant',f you ha)e no "ront-Co)er -e.ts, *rite 1no "ront-Co)er -e.ts2 instead of 1"ront-Co)er -e.ts being $,S-`+ (ike*ise for /ack-Co)er -e.ts' ,f your document contains nontri)ia( e.amp(es of program code, *e recommend re(easing these e.amp(es in para((e( under your choice of free soft*are (icense, such as the G ! Genera( Pub(ic $icense, to permit their use in free soft*are'

34!

"". 4ow to u*e thi* .icen*e !or your -ocument*

/iblio'rap&y
MbryantN&??@O /ryant, 0nthony =', Sekigahara"14==:"!he"/inal"Struggle"for 7ower, Dsprey, &??@ MhiyamaN&??4O Liyama Eoshiaki, , 4an8insha, &??4 MhunterN&?>4O Lunter, =anet P', %oncise"Dictionary"of"Japanese"History, !ni)ersity of Ca(ifornia Press, &?>4 MkahnN&??:O 4ahn, #a)id, !he"%odebreakers:"!he"Story"of"Secret"*riting, Schribner, &??: MkahnN2004O 4ahn, #a)id, !he"(eader"of"Gentlemen's"Mail0"Herbert",;"8ardley and"the"$irth"of"#merican"%odebreaking, Ea(e !ni)ersity Press, 2004 MpapinotN&?J2O Papinot, P', Historical"and"Geographical"Dictionary"of"Japan, Char(es P' -utt(e Co', ,nc', MsansomN&?:&O Sansom, George /', #"History"of"Japan0"1223)1415, Stanford !ni)ersity Press, &?:& Mtakaga*aN200BO -akaga*a, -oshio, , PLP, 200B Mturnbu((N&??>O -urnbu((, Stephan, !he"Samurai"Sourcebook, Casse(( W Co', &??> MyagasakiN&??JO Eagasaki, oritaka, Japan:"Geographical"7erspecti-es"on"an <sland"Nation, -eikoku-Shoin, &??J Myard(eyN&?B&O Eard(ey, Lerbert D', #merican"$lack"%hamber0"!he, /obbs<erri((, &?B&

34"