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Safe Female

Dr. Sit Elbanat Khalid Mohamed Ali
Obstetrician Gynecologist
Khartoum University - Sudan

2- 2 -2009



1 - The Female Prepuce ((Clitorial Hood )) .
2 - Female Genital Anatomy and Sexual Dysfunction.
3 - Clitorial Un hooding.
4 - Medical Studies .
5 - Personal reports.
6 - Female Circumcision: Prohibition or Allowance?
Islamic & Medical Perspective.
7- Female Circumcision Negligence and Abuse.
8 - Stabilizing female Circumcision .
9 - A Candid Interview With Dr. Royal Benson, III
A Surgeon Who Has Performed Hundreds Of Clitoral
UnhoodingsOn His Surgical Method And Related Issues.
10 The Proper Way Of Safe Female Circumcision.

The Female Prepuce
((Clitorial Hood ))

Dr. Sit Elbanat Khalid Mohamed Ali
Obstetrician Gynecologist
Khartoum University - Sudan

2- 2 -2009
Introduction :
The prepuce is a common anatomical structure of the male and
female external genitalia of all human and non-human primates; it
has been present in primates for at least 65 million years, and is likely
to be over 100 million years old, based on its commonality as an
anatomical feature in mammals Certain cultures have excised the
prepuce from children to conform to societal standards, while other
cultures accept the complete external genitalia as normal. The
motives for circumcision in preliterate cultures are difficult to define,
but include rites of passage, blood sacrifices and cultural markings.
Ritualistic, childhood genital surgery has become popular in the last
several thousand years, making the prepuce the most vilified normal
anatomical structure of the human body. Rather than acknowledging
the prepuce as normal anatomy, some contemporary physicians
consider the penile and clitoral prepuce (or clitoral hood) to be
dangerous and unhealthy. However, before theoretical justifications
for circumcision can be considered, a complete understanding of the
normal anatomy and function of the prepuce is required. This paper
reviews the embryology, anatomy and function of the prepuce.
Overview :
The prepuce is an integral, normal part of the external genitalia
that forms the anatomical covering of the glans penis and clitoris. The
outer epithelium has the protective function of internalising the glans
(clitoris and penis), urethral meatus (in the male) and the inner
preputial epithelium, thus decreasing external irritation or
contamination.The prepuce is a specialized, junctional
mucocutaneous tissue which marks the boundary between mucosa
and skin; it is similar to the eyelids, labia minora, anus and lips.
Ritualistic circumcision involves the involuntary removal of
normal, healthy genital tissue from infants and children for religious,
societal or theoretical medical benefits. Although the amount of
genital tissue removed is variable, the penile prepuce is removed in
nearly all male circumcisions, and the clitoral prepuce is removed in a
grade 1 female circumcision.
The clitoral prepuce develops similarly to that in the male. The
prepuce of the clitoris forms independently of the urogenital and
labioscrotal folds, which form the labia minora and labia majora,
respectively. The clitoral prepuce is formed by a cellular lamella
which grows down on the dorsum of the clitoris and is fused to the
clitoris in the fetus.
Some authors state that the clitoral prepuce is formed by a
splitting of the urogenital folds around the clitoris, with development of
the prepuce superiorly and the clitoral frenulum inferiorly. However,
this theory is discordant with earlier studies and has not been
explicitly proved. The urogenital groove on the ventral surface of the
clitoris prevents circumferential preputial development and results in
the hoodlike appearance of the clitoral prepuce. The urogenital
groove of the clitoris eventually regresses and develops into the labia
minora. In the female, there is no mesenchymal proliferation in the
prepuce to form a dartos muscle layer. Physicians can allay parental
fear of normal, intact external genitalia by explaining normal
development and maturation.
Innervation of the prepuce:
The female prepuce has somato-sensory innervation by the
dorsal nerve of the clitoris and branches of the perineal nerve
(including the posterior labial nerves. Autonomic innervation of the
prepuce arises from the pelvic plexus. The parasympathetic visceral
efferent and afferent fibres arise from the sacral centre (S2-S4), and
sympathetic preganglionic afferent and visceral afferent fibres from
the thoracolumbar centre (T11-L2). The parasympathetic nerves run
adjacent to and through the wall of the membranous urethra.
Although the sensory and autonomic innervation of the penis and
clitoris are similar, there is a remarkable difference in their
encapsulated somato-sensory receptors. Sensory receptors can be
classified as mechano-receptors, e.g. Meissner's corpuscles, Vater-
Pacinian corpuscles and Merkel cells; and nocio-receptors (free
nerve endings)]. A multitude of names have been used to describe
these encapsulated receptors, e.g. Krause, Dogiel, genital
corpuscles, Endkalpsen and mucocutaneous end-organs, but the
term corpuscular (encapsulated) receptors will be used here to
include all of these mechano-receptors. Most of the encapsulated
receptors of the prepuce are Meissner corpuscles, as they contact
the epithelial basement membrane.
In females, the glans clitoris and the inner plate of the prepuce
have corpuscular receptors on their oppositional surfaces. The glans
clitoris also has a much denser concentration of Vater-Pacinian
corpuscles than either the glans penis or the male prepuce. The
fused common epithelium of the clitoris and the inner plate of the
prepuce are reported to have intraepithelial nerves. Merkel cells
mediate tactile sensations, and are found in glabrous skin ; they have
been reported in the clitoris and can be identified in the male
Mucosal epithelium (inner plate of the prepuce):
The epithelium of the clitoral prepuce is fused in the fetus and
has intraepithelial nerves. The fused inner plate of the male
prepuce/glans has also been reported to have intraepithelial
nerves.The clitoral prepuce has only a dermal component with fewer
elastic fibres than the male prepuce. The inner layer of the male and
female prepuce has occasional sebaceous glands and sweat glands.
The preputial sac:
The preputial sac contains desquamated squamous epithelial cells
similar to other mucosal cavities such as the oral cavity or vagina.
This white, creamy material may collect under the prepuce of the
clitoris and is called (smegma clitoridis) .
Preputial coverage of the glans:
There is variability in the preputial coverage of the intact glans penis
and clitoris. Some adult men have the glans penis completely
covered by the prepuce while others have only partial coverage of the
glans. In a similar manner, the glans clitoris can be partially or
completely covered by the prepuce; this merely represents
anatomical variation.
1 - C.J. COLD and J.R. TAYLOR* The prepuce
Departments of Pathology, Marshfield Clinic, Wisconsin, USA, and
Health Sciences Centre, University of Manitoba, Canada

Female Genital Anatomy
and Sexual Dysfunction
By Carol Ezzell
October 31, 2000

Why do so many women have difficulty reaching orgasm? A new
study suggests that, for some, an anatomical disorder may be to
blame. Researchers at Boston University School of Medicine report
that roughly one quarter of the women they have treated for sexual
dysfunction have clitoral phimosis, which means the hood of skin
surrounding their clitoris is too tight or there is no opening in the skin
for the glans of the clitoris to protrude for stimulation. The scientists,
who were led by Irwin Goldstein, presented their findings at the
Female Sexual Function Forum, a four-day meeting in Boston of
physicians and therapists that ended Sunday.
The analysis was based on photographs taken of the vulvas of
roughly 200 women who have been evaluated at Boston
University's Woman's Sexual Health Clinic since its opening in
1998. The photos were made during examinations in which a
physician placed a finger on either side of each woman's clitoris to
retract the clitoral hood. Goldstein and his co-workers found that
women with the highest degrees of phimosis were the most likely to
report problems experiencing orgasm. Clitoral phimosis is roughly
equivalent to an uncircumcised man with an extremely tight foreskin.
Such men often cannot achieve an erection because it is painful; the
condition is easily remedied by circumcision or surgical loosening of
the foreskin. There is no standard treatment for clitoral phimosis,
although some women have undergone surgery to increase the
exposure of the clitoral glans.
Goldstein speculates that many women with clitoral phimosis are
never diagnosed because gynecologists generally avoid the
clitoris during routine pelvic examinations. He says more
research will be needed to determine the overall incidence of clitoral
phimosis and the degree to which it underlies female sexual
dysfunction. More than 40 percent of women (and 30 percent of men)
in the U.S. experience some form of sexual problem, according to a
study published last year in the Journal of the American Medical

Clitoral UN -Hooding
Also referred to as Hoodectomy, is a minor feminine genital
surgical procedure to remove excess Prepuce tissuethe
surrounding hood that sheaths the clitoral node on three sides.
Normally, the Prepuce is anatomically designed to offer the clitoris a
degree of protection against undue abrasionor over stimulation
and naturally retracts during sexual intercourse, thereby leaving the
highly innervated surface of the clitoral nodewhat is commonly
referred to as the exterior G-spotor Glans, to be more exposed . . .
resulting in female sexual orgasms. Sometimes however, women with
small clitoral nodes or those that have excess Prepuce tissueboth
common conditionsfind that they cant achieve orgasm, or have a
harder time reaching climax, because the clitoris is literally covered,
or restricted by too much skin tissue, thus greatly lessening tactile
sensation, and/or even eliminating it entirely.
In another closely related conditionand as was reported by
researchers at the Boston University School of Medicine
roughly 25% of all women treated for sexual dysfunction
suffered from what was medically termed clitoral Phimosis, a
condition whereby the Prepuce tissue is so closely aligned with the
clitoral node, there is not enough tissue flexibility to allow the clitoris
to naturally move beyond the surrounding skin and protrude,
permitting needed stimulation to achieve climax. This condition, also
addressed through Hoodectomy, involves the surgical retraction
and/or excising of tissue surrounding the Clitoris.
Sometimes referred to as female clitoral circumsision, the clitoral
Unhooding procedure is somewhat analogous to penile circumcision
in men, although male penile circumcision is still primarily performed
from a perspective of genital hygiene. In women, however,
Hoodectomy is done more commonly to allow women to experience
heightened arousal, by reducing the tissue that forms the hood
(Prepuce) covering the clitoris . . . almost always resulting in
greater, faster orgasms. To some extent it has been suspected that
excessive Prepuce tissue can also result in some hygiene-related
issues as well for women, giving sanctuary to increased bacterial
counts, and sometimes resulting in what are commonly termed
yeast or vaginal infections from the close proximity to the vaginal
Also, it is important to note that clitoralUnhooding (Hoodectomy) is
sometimes mistakenly referred to as Clitoridectomyanother surgical
procedure to completely remove the clitoral nodea repulsive
societal/cultural procedure and insalubrious form of Female Genital
Mutilation (FGM).
Female Genital Mutilation ( FGM.)
Because of the innervations of the clitoris, (neuron cell density), there
are gynecologists that aren't comfortable performing the CLITORAL
Unhooding procedure. Many times this is due to a lack of surgical
experience. Some also object to it on social groundsin a parallel
implication that a womans sexual enjoyment, in or out of a
relationship, is somehow considered taboo. But, there are a growing
number of well-respected cosmetic gynecological surgeons and
plastic surgeons with urology training that understand the need,
and will perform this delicate operation with the proper training and
experience needed to do an outstanding job. Many of these excellent
surgeons are listed on this web site. Most important, when it comes to
selecting a surgeon to do your Hoodectomy, experience is the key.
The reason?
The clitoral node has many more nerve endings than the surrounding
tissue areasthus if not done correctly, clitoral Unhooding can result
in heightened sensation of the node by normal movements, in some
cases creating considerable discomfort. However, for surgeons who
perform the procedure regularly, clitoral Unhooding can result in an
increased stimulus of the clitoral node and the majority of patients
who have reported on their clitoral Unhooding procedure, most have
commented favorably, saying theyve had increased sexual climaxes
(orgasms). Surgeons who do Hoodectomy usually have a method of
determining the extent of sensitivity of the clitoris before proceeding
by testing the area with cold and warm swabs. Patients SHOULD
ONLY have this procedure performed by a surgeon who has
extensive experience in this area and has performed many clitoral
1--Dr. Royal Benson, III, located in Bryan/Houston, Texas (979-
776-1660) has performed well over one hundred (100+ procedures)
clitoral Unhooding procedures. Dr. Benson has a proven method for
pre-operative testing, to determine the actual need, and has a unique
surgical method that employs his aesthetic skills in assuring the best
post-operative result. Dr.Benson founded the Southwest Genital
Refinement Clinic, a State certified outpatient surgical facility that
offers not only Hoodectomy, but Labiaplasty and Vaginoplasty as
2 - Dr. John Miklos, located in Alphretta/Atlanta, Georgia
(770-475-4499). Dr.Miklos is considered an international authority in
minimally invasive reconstructive and rejuvenation. He has operated
personally on patients from more than 46 states and 25 countries. He
is board certified in obstetrics and gynecology, a Fellow of the
American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fellow of American
College of Surgeons, Fellow of International College of Surgeons.
3 - Dr. Susan Kolb, located in Atlanta, Georgia
(770-457-4677). Dr.Kolb is a board certified plastic and
reconstructive surgeon and is a Founding Diplomate of the American
Board of Holistic Medicine. Combining compassionate care and
holistic healing modalities, she creates a truly unique surgical
experience. Dr. Susan Kolb has a performed female aesthetic genital
surgery for over 14 years.
4 - Dr. Oscar Aguirre, located in Englewood/Denver, Colorado
(303-322-0500). Dr. Aguirre is a preeminent pelvic surgeon, providing
urogynecologic care for 10 years, he is ideally suited to address both
women's functional and aesthetic concerns. Dr.Aguirre is the Director
of Pelvic Specialty Care, The Center for Female Pelvic Medicine.
This site will explain how female genital surgery and Hoodectomy can
enhance a womans sexual gratification and boost their self-esteem.
It will also examine the most common social implications of female
genital surgery and review these issues in a contemporary, open

Clitoris Unhooding
Medical Studies

Although several reports by physicians prior to or shortly after
the turn of the 20
century are sometimes cited and discussed by
critics of hood removal, to the best of my knowledge, there have
been very few published modern medical studies or reports by
doctors who perform this form of surgery. All of those that I have
found, however, report a striking percentage of those who had the
procedure done experience enhanced sexual enjoyment.

1. Dawson, Benjamin E., Circumcision in the Female: Its Necessity
and How to Perform It. American Journal of Clinical Medicine 22.6
(June 1915), 520-523.
A very early medical report of hood removal, claiming all kinds of
clinical (and psychological) benefits. This article can be found at an
anti-circumcision website.

2. Morris, Dr. R. O. Fifty Years a Surgeon. (London?), 1935.
Surgically removed many clitoral hoods to treat perpetual
adhesions. Dr. Morris noted a frequent finding of the clitoral glans
undeveloped and buried beneath an adherent prepuce. I
investigated and found that because of the irritation caused by
perpetual adhesions, both boys and girls require circumcision in
equal numbers .

3. McDonald, C. F. Circumcision of the Female. General
Practitioner 18.3 (September, 1958). 98-99.
Claims to have performed circumcision on perhaps 40 patients,
including some adult women. Among the adult women who
underwent the procedure, Very thankful patients were the reward.
For the first time in their lives, sex ambition became normally
satisfied. However, McDonalds procedure actually does not remove
the hood, but instead stretches it to the point where It is seldom that
the prepuce will overgrow again once it has been opened. In other
words, the effect of McDonalds stretching technique is essentially the
same as removing the hood. This article may now be found online at
an anti-circumcision website.
4. Rathmann, W. G. Female Circumcision, Indications and a New
Technique. General Practitioner 20.3 (September, 1959). 115-120.
This article is now available online at a pro-circumcision website, and
also at an anti-circumcision website.
Sent out a questionnaire to women whose hoods he had removed,
and received 112 replies. Of the 72 women who reported having
never experienced an orgasm prior to the surgery, 9 [12.4%] reported
continued failure to achieve orgasm; 64 [87.6%] reported successful
achievement of orgasm after the surgery. Of the 39 who reported
achieving orgasm only with difficulty prior to the surgery, 5 [12.5%]
reported no improvement; 34 [87.5%] reported improvement after the
surgery. Rathmann provides a number of indications and
contraindications for the surgery, and invented a new clamp for the
5 . Wollman , Leo. Hooded Clitoris : Preliminary Report. The
Journal of the American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and
Medicine 20.1 (1973), 3-4.
Provides a Statistical analysis of one hundred cases. Not clear
whether the statistics Wollman reports include all one hundred
women (32 of whom did not receive the surgerysee below) or a
statistical report of those who were clitoridotomised. In this study, he
reports the frequency of sexual intercourse before treatment as 3
times per week on average; after treatment as 5 times per week on
average. 49 women were able to attain orgasm prior to treatment; 92
after. 92 subjectively report improvement in intensity of sexual
response, rapidity of sexual response, and/or greater number of
orgasms; 7 subjectively report no change, and 1 subjectively reports
being worse off. The longest time since treatment was 20 years; 64
patients were followed up after 5 years since treatment. The
treatment occurred in Wollmans office 98 times; in the hospital (at
patients request) 2 times.
6. Wollman, Leo. Female Circumcision. The Journal of the
American Society of Psychosomatic Dentistry and Medicine 20.4
(1973), 130-131.
Reports on one hundred consecutive patients referred to him by
psychoanalysts and clinical psychologists. Sixty eight benefited by
surgical female circumcision: of the remaining thirty-two, twenty-eight
showed no need for this procedure; four refused to be treated by this
7. Crist, Takey. Female Circumcision. Medical Aspects of
Human Sexuality 11.8 (August, 1977), 77.
Reports on Crists hood removals on of fifteen women, and provides
a list of four conditions for when the surgery would be indicated: a)
they could achieve orgasm only by masturbation and/or oral sex, b)
they could have orgasm in the lateral or female-superior positions
only, c) they stated, it feels good, I get there, but suddenly its over.
d) they had a positive cotton-tip test, where patients felt a distinct
difference when a cotton-tipped applicator was applied directly to the
clitoris when the foreskin was retracted as opposed to application to
the foreskin . Crists study concludes, Patients who have undergone
this procedure have generally commented that they have enhanced
sexual response.
8. David Haldane, Clitoral Circumcision. Forum (UK), 1990 (?),
41-43, 49.
Haldane interviews several women who had their hoods removed,
and several doctors about the procedure. Those who have actually
undertaken studies (as opposed to simply expressing opinions)
include the following:

Dr. Stanley Daniels, who had performed hundreds of these
surgeries. Daniels says that the surgery isnt for everyone, and
refuses to perform it on about half of those who request it. In those
he does agree to perform the surgery on, however, Daniels claims
that a large percentage report a significant increase in the level of
sensation and satisfaction in their sex lives after the operation .
Dr. W. G. Rathmann (see [4], above), who repeats his results and
recommendations from his published article.
Dr. Leo Wollman, whose articles are cited and whose results are
Constance Knowles, a marriage and family counselor, whose interest
in the procedure began with her own hood removal in 1972 (for
which, see Personal Reports in Print). Knowles was undertaking a
long-term study of women who had the surgery and reported 75% as
saying that the results were significant and lasting improvement in
their sex lives, and 25% [who] reported no long term positive
It is interesting to note that Haldane quotes one critic of the surgery,
Dr. Leon Zussman, who claims that removal of the clitoral hood is not
necessary because women get all the sensation they need from the
motion [] transmitted through the labia to the hood and then from
the hood to the clitoris. Zussman seems oblivious to the fact that
many women find this form of indirect stimulation inadequate and
unsatisfying. Zussman goes on to warn that Theoretically it [hood
removal] could even be detrimental to sexual response, but honesty
requires him to add, I am not willing to say that Ive seen cases in
which it [hood removal] has been [detrimental to sexual response].
He does claim, we have seen many women who have undergone
the procedure and most of them admitted that it just doesnt do
much. Given the abundance of personal and medical reports to the
contrary (which this web site is dedicated to making more readily
available), one wonders how accurate Zussmans impressions of
what most women who had their hoods removed have to say about
the results they have achieved from the surgery.

9. Krista Foss, New Hot Cosmetic Surgery for Women, Toronto
Globe and Mail, Tuesday, November 10, 1998.

Foss reports on a Toronto surgeon named Dr. Robert H. Stubbs,
who performs various kinds of sexual enhancement surgery. Most of
the article is about labiaplasty, but it is clear that Dr. Stubbs also
performs hood removals. Dr. Stubbs is reported as saying, "Some
women report to me they have had an orgasm for the first time after I
have unhooded the clitoris.

10. Dr. Irene Anderson contributed a report of her own hood
removal to this website, and also reported the following results of
nearly a hundred hood removals she performed in her surgical
practice in Mexico:

I had it [her own hood removal] in November 1991. The reason was
that I never had a vaginal orgasm, so I wanted to improve the
sensitivity of my clitoris, releasing it from the hood. The result is great.
Regarding my patients, the success rate was very high. I had nearly
one hundred surgeries of that type, and only three patients were not
satisfied by the result. I recommend the procedure to every woman,
especially those who are not able to have vaginal orgasm.
Comparison of the Glans of the clitoris with the Glans of the

11. Scott, F. Brantley. Nerve Endings in Glans clitoris vs. Glans
Penis. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality. 15.7 (July, 1981),

Several argumentssome by famous sexologists (see, e.g. W. H.
Masters, V. E. Johnson, and R. C. Kolodny, Masters and Johnson on
Sex and Human Loving, 1986, 32-3)have been published over the
years claiming that the removal of the clitoral hood should not be
compared to the removal of the male foreskin, on the ground that the
clitoral glans was much more sensitive to stimulation than the male
glans. This claim is repeated as fact by several self-identified
experts. Scotts brief answer to a question sent to the journal would
appear to count against any such claim: Anatomic studies have
shown that on a per centimeter surface area, the number of
nerve endings in the glans clitoris is equal to that in the same
surface area of the glans penis .The same evidence would seem
to support the surgical removal of the clitoral hood, for women
who find its presence has the effect of dampening stimulation, on the
simple ground that the clitoral glans is so much smaller, and thus
offers less opportunity for stimulation than does the male glans.


Personal Reports

Personal reports on the Web inherently raise questions about
reliability and accuracy. Indeed, see listings 11 and 41 in this section--
postings in which the authenticity of other reports is challenged.
Plainly, there is no way to ascertain with certainty if any or all of the
following personal reports are genuine. I include and characterize each
of the, not as an endorseent of their content or authenticity, but
erely as a report that has been posted. I encourage those reading
these suaries to !udge the "alue of indi"idual reports in the light of
all of the other a"ailable inforation, and also to bear in ind those
indi"idual results and reactions to this surgery--as with ale
circucision and for that atter other surgical procedures--ay allow
for considerable "ariation.

#$pice of %ife& 'http())"oices)body)body.htl*
was a site dedicated to pro"iding a foru for woen to tal+ with one
another about se,(

#-ere, in this foru, woen can a+e a place for oursel"es to share,
teach, and tal+ with each other about se,.lo"ing, the nuts and bolts
of se,uality, our feelings 'uneasy or wonderful*, as well as the plain
e"eryday acts that define us as woen.&

/ll of the following reports coe fro this site, which was shut down
in 0eceber, 1222. I pro"ide suaries of the postings that were
a"ailable there prior to the site3s shutdown 'with the now-defunct
4R%s*, in chronological order. Prior to the shutdown of that site, I
copied and ha"e archi"ed e"ery one of the coplete postings I
suarize below. 5hose interested in the coplete "ersions of any or
all of the following listings ay contact e at
for copies.

1. #7lit -ood Reo"ed&* was a posting by $ally dated 8ctober 9,
1::;. $ally reports ha"ing had her clitoral hood reo"ed in 1::4
because her hood was too long. $he reports the operation as #"ery
inor.& #/fter a shot of <o"ocaine =sic>, she =the doctor> reo"ed a
tiny piece of s+in !ust o"er the clit.& $ally sees "ery happy with the
results( #=?>y clit is now @e,posed3 and I get stiulated ore easily.&
1. 5he ne,t posting #$ally, 7lit hood reo"ed& was fro a Phyl dated
8ctober 4, 1::;, who says she +nows a woan who had her hood
reo"ed, #and she thin+s its wonderful. $he says she3s uch ore
se,ually responsi"e now.& Phyl as+s $ally if $ally is bothered by her
clit rubbing against her clothing, and closes by speculating that she
'Phyl* ight li+e to ha"e the surgery herself. %ater postings show that
Phyl actually does go and ha"e the surgery herself.
9. $ally responded to Phyl on 8ctober A, 1::;, #5o Phyl& by saying
that her e,posed clitoris is still #protected to a large e,tent& by her
outer labia. $he says that #5ight clothing will e,ert soe +ind of
pressure in any case, whether the clit is co"ered by the hood or not. In
tight !eans, the sensation is quite nice 'not at all irritating*.&

4. /lso posted on 8ctober A, 1::; was soething fro 5ricia, #-ood
Reo"ed&. 5ricia says that she had her hood reo"ed #a few years
ago,& on the ad"ice of a doctor who told her she had a #hidden clit.&
5ricia finally decided to ha"e the operation #=a>fter quite a bit of
hesitation.& 5he doctor #reo"ed the s+in that usually co"ers the clit,
which is now ore or less e,posed.& 5ricia says that #It3s not a big
deal and does sol"e soe probles( <ow I ha"e better contact and
se, is ore pleasurable.& 5ricia does not recoend the surgery for
e"eryone, but concludes by saying that for woen with #hidden clits&
li+e her, #it does enhance your se, life.&

B. /lso posted on 8ctober A, 1::;, 7hristy, who had not yet had the
surgery 'but who does later.see 11, below*, posts a nuber of
questions to those who ha"e had it, #%ubricants C e,posed clit&.
7hristy wants to +now if it would help her to figure out how her
husband felt after his circucision. $he as+s those who ha"e had it
done( Was it painfulD -ow uch s+in was reo"edD -ow long does it
ta+e to healD 0oes it loo+ betterD

A. /lso on 8ctober A, 1::;, there was a posting by 5anya, #7lit hood&.
5anya #had this little operation in /pril 1::4.& 5anya had suffered fro
a sall infection under her hood, and used the infection as an e,cuse
to as+ her doctor for a clitoral hood reo"al. 5anya says that
whene"er she pulled bac+ her hood, she wished it would stay li+e that.
-er gynecologist resisted at first, but when 5anya insisted, the doctor
ga"e in. 5anya says the shot of local anesthetic is what hurt the ost.
5he doctor then pulled bac+ the hood, claped it, and then cut off the
hood. #When she reo"ed the clap, there was a little blood 'not too
uch*& and 5anya didn3t feel anything e,cept the anesthesia shot.
#5he whole thing healed in 4-B days and that was it.& 5anya says, #?y
clit is now e,posed, "ery uch the sae as a circ3ed penis.& -er
partners didn3t e"en notice that she had had the surgery, but when
she pointed it out to the, #they said it was sarter that way.& $he
li+es the feeling of letting the water in the bathtub hit her clit. #5he !et
hits y clit directly and a+es e coe. Eefore y circ, I had to hold
the hood bac+ with y hand.& 5anya closes by saying, #I agree with
the other posters that it definitely enhanced y se,uality, and I feel
good that I had it done.&

;. 8n 8ctober F, 1::;, Phyl* posted again, #5o $ally, 5ricia,
5anya..Geale 7irc.& than+ing the woen who had told about their
hood reo"als. #Hou all see to be "ery pleased with your
circucisions.& $he 'Phyl* now has an appointent with her
gynecologist, planning to as+ hi to perfor the surgery on her.

F. /lso on 8ctober F, Phyl posted essentially the sae essage to
7hristy, #7hristy, Geale circ.& .

:. 8n 8ctober 11, 1::;, Phyl posted to <elly and 7hristy, #<elly,
7hristy Geale circ& than+ing the for their support and proising to
let the +now the details of her upcoing "isit to her gynecologist .

12. 8n 8ctober 1F, 1::;, Phyl posted to report the results of her "isit
to her gynecologist on 5uesday '8ctober 14, 1::;*, #5o <elly, 7lit
hood reo"ed& Phyl had the surgery, and says, #5he surgery is quite
siple and too+ only a few inutes. Gour days later, she reports being
#still sore and a not bac+ into se,ual acti"ity yet,& but says that her
boyfriend is #quite turned on by the loo+ of y e,posed clit,& and Phyl
herself is loo+ing forward to her new sensations.

11. 8n 8ctober 12, 1::;, a new poster, $andy, e,pressed s+epticis
about Phyl3s report, #Phyl I Ga+e& $andy can3t belie"e that Phyl and
her boyfriend would be tal+ing after four days about how good Phyl
loo+s, because, $andy says, #I underwent this operation a few years
ago and belie"e e the first wee+ it was not "ery good loo+ing.&
$andy allows that #5oday I can tell you it was worthwhile,& but thin+s
Phyl is not telling the truth about her situation.

11. 8n 8ctober 14, 1::;, Phyl replied to $andy3s e,pression of
s+epticis, #$andy..%IJ-5K< 4PLL& Phyl says that she is sorry that
$andy sees to ha"e had coplications after her surgery, but Phyl
insists, #I was only swollen for 1 or 9 days, after that I was a little
@itchy.3& <ow ten days after the actual surgery, Phyl hopes to a+e
peace, saying, #I3 glad you3re happy with your circucision, I3
happy with ine.&
19. Gi"e days later '8ctober 1:, 1::;*, Phyl posted a new report,
responding to soe questions, #<at, $hirley, Geale circ&. Phyl says
that she is not yet #bac+ to @full swing3 since y circ,& but lists a few
changes she has already e,perienced. $he says that she still sees to
be able to asturbate the sae way as she did prior to the operation,
en!oys a strea of water on her clitoris, and #!ust rubbing up against
soething wor+s well, especially with no hood to get in the way.& $he
li+es how she loo+s now. #$ince y operation, y whole genital area
has a nice, delicate, sensual feeling.& $he clais already to ha"e a
#faster response tie,& on the basis of one oral se, session with her
husband '#I ha"e to say, it was !ust terrificLL&* $he goes on to say, #I
cae "ery fast and with a lot of intensity,& but cannot be sure if this
will be her new nor until she has ore post-operati"e e,perience.
$he clais #I do ha"e a new awareness of y clit, which is probably
because it is e,posed and is sub!ected to stiulation in any new
ways. In other words, I feel ore ready for se,L& 5ight !eans don3t
#tic+le& her down there, but they do #gi"e e a "ery pleasant, se,y
feeling.& $he loo+s forward to ore e,periences, and thin+s that it
ight turn out that #any straddling acti"ities, 'li+e horsebac+ riding or
bicycling etc.* could pro"e to be a =sic> "ery orgasic e,perienceLL&
Phyl concludes by saying, #/t this point, I3 happy with y
circucision and ha"en3t seen anything negati"e about it. I thin+ any
woan who li+es se, would benefit fro it.&

14. /fter another e,pression of s+epticis by yet another woan,
soeone else !oined the discussion. Mathy 'perhaps the sae Mathy as
the one who posted at circlist.see 1.1.1, abo"eN or perhaps the sae
Mathy as the friend naed by $haron in 1.1.1, abo"eN see also 1;, 1:,
14, 1A-1F, B1-B4, BA, BF-B:, A1, A9-A4, ;2-;1, below* #?andy..
Geale =sic> circ writes on <o"eber 1, 1::; that she had been
circucised two years earlier, and finds nothing incredible in Phyl3s
reports of her own recuperation and return to se,ual acti"ity. Mathy
writes, #We are not tal+ing a!or surgery, this in"ol"es reo"ing only
a "ery sall piece of s+in. I thin+ Phyls =sic> description is quite
accurate, and is siilar to y own e,perience. I sure didn3t put y life
@on hold3 for "ery long.&

1B. 8n <o"eber ;, Phyl responded to Mathy, #5han+s, Mathy& and
clais a new ad"antage for the surgery( #Gor the first tie since our
arriage I can reach orgas in the sae tie frae as y 0-
=husband>, soeties sooner. I feel li+e were =sic> on a ore le"el
playing field.&
1A. Oanity posted on <o"eber 1F, 1::;, #What3s a nice quiD& who
had her inner labia #clipped off by a doctor& four years earlier for
cosetic reasons. #I was uneasy with that piece of dar+ and redundant
s+in and now y pussy loo+s neater. It has nothing to do with
utilation and if I had to do it again, I certainly would without
hesitation.& Oanity says that this is a #"ery inor surgery.&
1;. Mathy returned to the discussion on 0eceber 9, 1::;, #?erany,
feale circucision&. Mathy tells ?erany 'who had apparently reported
being clitoridotoised two years earlier*, #I was also circucised two
years ago. It !ust did wonders for y se, life, y response tie is
unreal.& Mathy clais to reach orgas as fast or faster than her
boyfriend, and li+es the feeling of her clit rubbing on her clothing, #it
sure +eeps e focused on se,.& $he is "ery enthusiastic about her
results, #5his was !ust a wonderful e,perience for e, y only regret
is that I didn3t +now about it soonerLL&

1F. Het another new "oice was added the sae date '0eceber 9,
1::;*, #Geale circ IIwhen /nita writes that she #had it done in 1:FA,
when no one dared to tal+ about that. I felt I was a "ery rare
specien, as ost of the tal+s =sic> around feale circ was related to
plain utilation 'as practiced in /frica and in /rab countries*.
7onsequently, I ne"er dared to share this info regarding yself with
anyone.& /nita says that her gynecologist had recoended the
procedure to her, since she was #inorgasic to a certain degree.& $he
says that #the procedure is siple and the whole thing heals up within
a wee+.& <ow ele"en years after ha"ing the operation, she has this to
say about it( #I a e,treely pleased with the results and y
difficulties reaching orgas are now sol"ed.&
1:. Mathy responded on <o"eber 11, 1::; to Oanity, #7litoral hood&
as+ing if Oanity also had her hood reo"ed. Mathy says that she had
her hood reo"ed two years ago and #5he results were !ust

12. 8n 0eceber 4, 1::;, %ynn posted a nuber of questions about
what it is li+e for those who ha"e had the surgery. 8n the sae day,
Phyl wrote #7ircucised and "ery happy& in response to %ynn3s query.
-a"ing had her hood reo"ed not quite two onths ago 'on 8ctober
14, 1::;.see 12, abo"e*, Phyl tells %ynn that her results were #quite
draatic.& Phyl clais that the surgery #?ade e uch ore aware of
y clitoris as I reach orgas at least as soon 'soeties sooner than
y 0- =husband> during intercourse.& 8ral intercourse, she finds, #is
also ore pleasant& since she is freed fro ha"ing to hold bac+ her
hood fro getting in the way. $he does not find contact of her now
e,posed clitoral tip with clothing 'such as tight !eans* to be a probleN
#actually, it gi"es e a pleasant, delicate feeling.& $he e,plains how
she asturbates now that she has no hood( #I !ust sort of @trap3 y clit
between y fingers and gently o"e it bac+ and forth, soeties I
"ery JK<5%H touch the tip.& $he closes with the encourageent, #I3
"ery @happily circucised.3&
5he following essage was fro $ue, who as+s a nuber of additional
11. Phyl then answered these questions, #?ore on feale
circucision&. It was outpatient surgeryN done in the doctor3s officeN a
couple of shots of Pylocaine is all it too+ for anestheticN after the
surgery, she +ept it clean #Qust dabbing the area with a dap cloth
and antiseptic soap&N healing tie was #only about 12 days&N she
ne"er had really used her hood to asturbate anyway, so her ethod
now was not really different e,cept that the hood was no longer in the
wayN it is actually easier to asturbate now, since she can now !ust
rub up against soething #li+e a pillow etc.& to reach orgas. $ue also
as+ed for a picture of Phyl3s results, and Phyl proises to pro"ide one
11. Posting on 0eceber 4, 1::;, 7hristy, #7lit-hood Reo"ed& who
had not had the surgery as of 8ctober A reports ha"ing had her clitoral
hood reo"ed #a few wee+s ago.& $he reports that #5he appearance is
ipro"ed,& and that her husband li+es it so uch that his #appetite& is
ipro"ed. 7hristy reports #K,posed clit turns out !ust li+e a circed
penis and gi"es e new feelings and sensations.& 7hristy encourages
others to share their e,periences.
19. /lso on 0eceber 4, 1::;, after another posting filled with
questions, a new participant in the discussion, <ora-Qean, tells about
her hood reo"al in #In y caseR&. <ora-Qean3s own husband, an
?0, did her surgery #about 9 yrs ago.& <ora-Qean says that her clit
was #hidden by a quite long hood.& -er hood actually protruded
beyond the opening of her outer labia, and she didn3t li+e how that
loo+ed. $he, too, a+es the coparison of how her hoodless clitoris
loo+s li+e ale circucision( #<ow that I3 done y clit loo+s "ery
uch the sae as his =her circucised husband3s> circ3d head, e,cept,
of course, uch saller.& <ow, nothing protrudes beyond her outer
labia, and although she thin+s this decision is a "ery personal one.
which she would neither encourage nor discourage others fro
a+ing.she closes, #I can only say that I3 "ery pleased I3"e had it
done 'both se,ually and aesthetically*.
14. Mathy !oined this discussion on 0eceber B, 1::;, #hoodless and
happy& and says she had her hood reo"ed two years ago, #in order
to speed up y response tie.& $he says she now usually reaches
orgas before her boyfriend does during intercourse. #With no hood to
get in the way, y clit is sub!ected to ore stiulation in any
different ways and is a real plus in all se,ual acti"ities.& Mathy say that
her clit does protrude #slightly past y outer lips,& and during se,ual
e,citeent, #it protrudes soewhat further.&
1B. Phyl returned to the discussion on 0eceber A, 1::;, #I lo"e
circLL& Phyl anticipates that soe uncircucised en will say to
woen who prefer circucised en that if they thin+ li+e this, they
should go and ha"e their hoods reo"ed. Phyl gladly reports that she
did !ust that, and her husband #also li+es to loo+ at y e,posed
1A. /fter a question about the iportance of the clitoral hood for
stiulation during intercourse, Mathy offered a reply on 0eceber 92,
1::;, #7arol, clit hood reo"al&. Mathy says, #=8>ften the clitoral hood
is too long to stiulate the clitoris during intercourse. Mathy notes that
#only about 1BS of woen can orgas regularly during intercourse,&
and says that ha"ing her hood reo"ed put her into this #luc+y 1BS.&
Mathy says, #I3 OKRH pleased with the surgery. With no hood, y
clitoris is easily stiulated in "arious ways during intercourse 'and all
other se,ual acti"ities* so I really don3t ha"e to wor+ hard at all to
achi"e =sic> orgas.&
1;. /fter a post by a an who claied that hood reo"al pro"ides no
edical benefits, on 0eceber 1A, 1::;, Mathy disputed this clai,
#Geale 7ircucision 7/< be beneficial. Mathy says, #I was
circucised as an adult woan and the results of the operation were
beyond y e,pectations. I3 OKRH pleased with the outcoe.& $he
notes that in the #$pice of %ife& site, there had been nuerous
postings by woen who had their hoods reo"ed, and #you won3t find
one negati"e post.&

1F. Mathy posted again on 0eceber 92, 1::;, #?aybe ha"e your clit
hood reo"ed& Mathy suggests that another woan3s inability to ha"e
an orgas fro intercourse ight be helped by ha"ing her hood
reo"ed. #/fter I had y clitoral hood reo"ed y ability to orgas
during intercourse ipro"ed draatically.& Mathy says she now usually
reaches orgas before her partner, whereas before her hood reo"al
she had trouble reaching orgas at all during intercourse.
1:. 8n Qanuary 1, 1::F, Gloyd 0unha, #Geale 7ircucision& posted
the web address of a clinic in %a+e 5ahoe that at that tie ad"ertised
that they did this sort of surgery. '7litoral hood reo"al is no longer
ad"ertised on their website, but I ha"e independently confired that
they still do perfor this surgery. Gor this and other clinics who
perfor the surgery, go here.* Gloyd entions that one of his wife3s
friends had this surgery 'at another clinic* prior to her arriage.

92. 5he question is raised whether it would be a good or bad idea to
ha"e one3s clit hood reo"ed. <ancy responded on 8ctober 1B, 1222,
#anonR7lit hood reo"al&. <ancy says that a friend who had her
clitoral hood reo"ed #had no trouble ad!usting to it.& <ancy reports
that, #/t first she felt a little bare with her clitoris e,posed to clothing
all the tie, but she soon got used to the feeling which she describes
as pleasant now.& <ancy goes on to say, #I thin+ a woan is !ust as
capable as a an in dealing with new sensations of an e,posed glans,
it !ust ta+es a little getting used to, and E5W, she had no loss of
sensiti"ity. $e,ually, she has her orgass uch sooner now, uch
faster than her husband which wor+s for both of the.&
Nancy concludes by noting that one additional advantage of
clitoral hood removal is that there is no place for smegma to be
trapped, once the hood is removed.


A Candid Interview With Dr. Royal Benson, III
A Surgeon Who Has Performed Hundreds Of Clitoral
UnhoodingsOn His Surgical Method And Related
0r. Eenson, the -oodectoy procedure is fairly coon in that its
ob!ecti"e is to unhood the clitoris. Eut, how do you specifically perfor
the procedureD
Well, this "aries fro surgeon to surgeon, as you ight e,pect. ?y
technique has "aried soewhat in the 1B2 procedures I3"e done o"er
the last se"eral years. I3"e now gained significant e,perience dealing
with "arying body types and anatoies to assure a good result.
5he way I begin is by first deterining the e,tent of the sensory
perieter of the clitoris. Ey this, I ean I actually test the region
around the clitoris, when the patient is fully conscious, using hot and
cold swabs. 5his tells e two things. Girst, it tells e if the woan has
a horonal issue, or one of sensiti"ity. If it3s a sensiti"ity proble, this
testing gi"es e an understanding about how far out the ner"ous
tissue fro the clitoris e,tends. <ow, don3t get e wrong . . . norally
the inner"ation of the clitoris is localized to the iediate area, and
few people +now that soeties there will be ore sensiti"ity to one
side of the clitoris, "ersus the other. 5his is e,treely iportant in
ascertaining the e,tent of the procedure. <e,t, I use the e,perience
I3"e gained fro studying the natural folds and uscular action of the
genital area and ar+ what I belie"e will be the best areas to reo"e.
/s I said, it3s "ery iportant to realize that there are no two "ul"as
that are the sae. / good result can 8<%H coe fro doing any,
any procedures. 5he size of the clitoris deterines the e,tent of the
8nce I3"e established a perieter, and ar+ed the area accordingly, I
apply a topical benzocaine anesthesia ointent to nub the
iediate area. /fter waiting for this nubing action to occur, about
twenty inutes, I further infiltrate the area with a ore concentrated
anesthetic, usually one cobined with epinephrine to reduce fluid loss.
Gro there, I retract the clitoral node fro the Prepuce 'clitoral hood*
allowing sufficient space for a surgical incision. Jenerally, I use a "ery
sall cur"ed incision ade roughly 1;2 degrees in an arc, around the
clitoral hood. In ost instances the incision is appro,iately 1T4& long.
<e"er, at any tie, is the clitoris node near enough to the incision
area to ris+ any in!ury to the ner"ous tissue, because it is retracted far
enough to pre"ent accidental daage. /t all ties the patient is
awa+e. 5he area reains nub for appro,iately A2-:2 inutes,
which is ore than enough tie to finish the -oodectoy procedure.
5he sall incision is closed with a few sutures that dissol"e in about
se"en days. /lso, I used soe special instruents that I3"e designed
that allow for a nice accoodation of the artistic arc that3s needed to
assure natural tissue o"eent after the surgery is finished. I also
use soe graft techniques that enhance healing and ipro"e the
results. I specifically don3t tal+ about these because of the years it3s
ta+en e to de"elop the. Eut the botto line is that y graft
technique cuts down on pain, swelling and scarring.
How long does the procedure take?
In "irtually e"ery case, the surgical part of the procedure I do, ta+es
less than an hour. <ow that3s not the entire process, needless to say,
because I do soe sensiti"ity testing beforehand.
What are the complications youve seen?
I3"e ne"er had any notable coplications. -owe"er, as with any
surgical procedure, coplications can occur. 4sually they are few.
Inflaation is an e,aple of soething that can occur, not so uch
fro the anesthetics, but fro a histaine reaction to the suture
aterial. $oeties there is soe irritation fro the separation of the
tissues. Infection is usually ne"er an issue because patients are gi"en
antibiotics a few days prior to the procedure.and a wee+ after, which
"irtually eliinates any chance of infection happening. If any infection
does occur, it is usually treated with topical antibiotic creas and)or
ointents. /ctually, there is soething rather beneficial fro ha"ing a
-oodectoy done. It3s rarely tal+ed about but it3s well +nown that for
soe woen who ha"e frequent urinary tract infections and frequent
"aginitis, those conditions see to resol"e after a -oodectoy. 5he
theory behind it of course is that if one has a considerable aount of
e,cess tissue in this areaN this e,cess tissue can cause a proble with
e,cess bacterial build up, thus increasing the possibility of these
feinine infections.
How painful is the procedure?
?ost patients are able to return to noral acti"ities within 9A hours,
any in less tie. In e"ery instance, they3ll ne"er feel pain during the
procedure. Ice pac+s are pro"ided as well and soeties, for those
woen who are particular sensiti"e, we3ll pro"ide a ild pain relie"er,
usually an oral ed. I ha"e any woen who3ll fly in, ha"e the
procedure done, and head right out to the airport to head hoe. <o
probles whatsoe"er.
What are the main reasons a woman would want to have a
Clitoral Unhooding done?
I3"e disco"ered that in ost cases, the ain reason is always the
sae. he woman wants to have the procedure done to help her
reach orgasm faster, or to have a much stronger clima!. /nother
reason gi"en frequently is that the woan wants to ipro"e her
potential for ha"ing ultiple clia,es. 5here3s been soe data that
says that roughly 1BS of the population is capable of ultiple
clia,es and that nuber ipro"es significantly with a Clitoral
Unhooding. Eut, the real benefit for woen, and for en to a large
e,tent, is that if a woan can achie"e clia, faster and with greater
intensity, she naturally wants to ha"e se, ore often . . . so generally,
her ate would benefit as well. $e, becoes real en!oyable, for both
people, again. 5hat3s a huge benefit for a few thousand buc+s.
How would you describe the typical woman who is having this
procedure done?
Well, there is no real stereotype. I3"e done procedures on woen in
their early twenties and e"en on soe woen in their si,ties. $oe
are arried, soe di"orced, soe single. In any cases, a woan will
coe to see e for a %abiaplasty proble, and she3ll also ha"e the
7litoral 4nhooding done at the sae tie. 5he reason is because the
Prepuce, or 7litoral -ood is actually an e,tension of the labia. $he
ight ention to e that she3s had a difficult tie with reaching
clia, or does so "ery infrequently. $he ight say soething li+e,
#y friend says she3s reaching orgas with this guy in inutes and
how great it is, and she3s not achie"ing clia, at all.& $he3ll tell e
that soeties she thin+s it3s a ental proble, which is really sad. I
usually offer to gi"e her a sensiti"ity e,aination and testing, and in
soe of these cases, I3ll usually find the proble to be with e,cessi"e
Prepuce tissue. Eut at least half the tie woen coe to e solely to
ha"e a -oodectoy done. /s far as being a arried woan or being a
single woan, well, the nubers are about e"en.
"re your patients usually willing to give their perspectives on
Hoodectomy postoperatively?
I3"e done nuerous patients who are willing to discuss their cases with
prospecti"e patients. /nd, in fact, we ha"e a few of the on this web
site. I3"e ne"er had a patient who3s been unhappy with the results.
What have you heard about the main ob#ections from women to
having this procedure done?
5he ain ob!ection I3"e heard is largely fro bad inforation that
they3"e heard or read about loss of sensiti"ity. /lso, the procedure is
confused with Clitoridectomy, which is nothing ore than Geale
Jenital ?utilation. Eut, let3s tal+ about the issue of loss of sensiti"ity.
$oe people clai it can lead to loss of sensiti"ity.
What people are tal+ing about with 7litoral 4nhooding is usually a
clai that in"ol"es loss of sensiti"ity o"er tie, because of chronic
e,posure. 5here are no studies that support this "iew. 0uring a
-oodectoy, there is no loss of sensiti"ity because if the surgeon has
the e,perience to not o"ere,pose the clitoris and properly lets the
clitoris seat in its protecti"e sheathing.eaning they ha"e an
aesthetic understanding of each woan3s particular anatoy.there
will not be any chance of loss of sensation because the clitoris will still
ha"e its protecti"e hood. The concept isn't to completely remove
the hood . . . the concept of a successful -oodectoy is to reo"e
the probleatic tissue that is inhibiting the clitoris fro protruding,
thus +eeping it fro recei"ing the proper aount of stiulation. 5hat3s
what this is all about.
$ets be honest here % % % does this procedure really work to help
increase stimulation?
/bsolutely. 5here3s no doubt about it. 5he clitoris is the end of the J-
$pot. ItUs a long bundle of ner"ous tissue. 8nce I reo"e that e,cess
hood tissue there3s ore of the highly inner"ated surface of the clitoral
node e,posed, allowing ore sensation and helping the woan
achie"e a faster, stronger clia,.
"re the results immediate?
I tell y patients that they should a"oid se, for at least a few wee+s,
to allow the area to heal properly. Eut, I will say that IU"e had woen
call e after the first wee+, and tell e they couldnUt resist, telling e
how wonderful the se,ual clia,es can be. <ow, IU not
recoending this, but soeties I hear about it. 5he results,
howe"er, are iediate.
What should a patient look for selecting a surgeon?
It3s li+e of li+e the real estate line. Hou +now, the one that says,
#location, location, locationD& Well, the sae thing is true of this
procedure . . . only the saying is #e,perience, e,perience, e,perience&.
5hatUs because e,perience is the +ey to assuring that you3ll get a good
result. / surgeon that has perfored hundreds of 7litoral 4nhoodings,
li+e I ha"e, understands the aesthetic architecture of the feale
genitalia and can allow for natural o"eent of the tissues before,
and afterward. -ow the e,posure of the clitoral node appears after the
surgery is whatUs iportant. 5his is perhaps the ost iportant aspect
of the assure that the clitoral node won3t be e,posed too
uch, which can result in o"er stiulation and possibly pain. Hou
should only consider using a surgeon who has a huge nuber of
procedures to their credit.
How many procedures must surgeons do to consider
themselves &e!perienced& in it?
ItUs iportant to realize that there are fine differences between body
types, depending on race, weight, anatoical proportion and other
issues. 8<%H an e,perienced surgeon that has perfored a successful
nuber of -oodectoies can appreciate this fine detail. / surgeon
doing this procedure usually gains the necessary e,perience after
perforing at least '( procedures. IUd say that3s the iniu
What is the best tie for soeone to get this procedure doneD
5here3s nothing special about tiing. 5he best answer to that question
is, whene"er she feels it3s appropriate for her. 8ne would thin+ that
young woen would want this procedure done ore than older
woen, but it3s e,actly the opposite that is true. 5he reason is that as
woen get older, they often feel ore insecure about the proble
during se,. Hounger woen ha"enUt usually disco"ered the proble


Female Circumcision: Prohibition or Allowance?
Islamic & Medical Perspective

Dr. Asim Abdelmoneim Hussein
Preventive Medicine
Khartoum University Sudan May 2004
5he issue of feale circucision( a clear picture of
intellectual dilea that we
as ?usli 4a nowadays e,perienceN also has becoe an area of
$oe spea+ing with the nae of edicine fro which they are
$oe near to edicine but lac+ scientific facts and fundaental
tools of gi"ing fatwa3s
$oe are woen or others addicted with edia and e,citeent
$oe I<J8s and other agencies ha"e nothing to do but feale
circucision W though not authorized neither possessing a solutionL

- Eut $olution already e,ists( %oo+ at Islaic sources and in
?usli $cholars writings and interpretations
- 5he paper as such is a scientific arguent and a religious
discussion W a essage to face the current un!ustified and
unscientific global capaign to prohibit e"ery and all fors of
feale circucision, because, as they clai, e"ery and all fors
of feale circucision are genital utilationsL Is that trueDL
$cientificDL 8r QustifiedD L.
5ruth should be said and announced despite all sorts of oppression(

)ur first *ntroductory Comment(
#Prophet ?ohaed was the first in history to abolish
Pharaonic 7ircucision. It is totally Gorbidden in Isla. $cience only
did that "ery "ery recently& and after 1422 after the PtLLLL
I ha"e to apologize for discussing this sensiti"e issue, I hope not
"iolating shyness. I a, howe"er, addressing elites and future
physicians. $hyness though a highly honored quality in Isla, it is not
to hinder learning or to bring good for public interests.
!" #$% & '($) *$+, ) -!./0 -!1.23 *$140 : 56740 8!(940, (
Prophet $aying( 5wo things pre"ent learning( ignorance C
:4!", ;<=!) : *1> 8!?.40 8!?> @!A>B0 *4 CD1.23 8!(940 CE -0 CDFGH3 #I C3J40
$o( Was it an absolute prohibition of all fors of circucisionD Wasn3t
there options gi"enD
/nd to what e,tent Kbryological C /natoical facts substantiate that
It is a wrong and deliberate essage to confuse between the
Pharaonic, that sa"age and cruel circucision stopped by the Prophetic
wisdo and for the first tie in history and between a different
option. -e is the sae courageous and erciful an #$KK% & 'KK($)
*$KK+, who said no to cruelty through saying yes to oderation and a
erciful practice. 5his practice has been described as a tradition of
oderation, as a Gitra tradition, as a healthy easure. 5o what e,tent
that sounds true and scientific, not through ere shouting, but
through scientific ethods and facts, through /natoical and
ebryological facts and reseblance, let us say, to ale circucision,
its stereotype and other "ersionLLL
Prophet Mohamed #$KK% & 'KK($) *$KK+, was the first we +now of in
history who prohibited the Pharaonic circumcision. -owD

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4 /tia /lansaria said that the Prophet told a lady who used
to circucise woen in ?adina, a coon pre-Islaic 'practice*(
Just touch and don't destroy, thats more pleasing to woman and
more beloved to the husband!
5his -adith (
Prohibited and for e"er that for of circucision which was pre"ailing
in ?edina C /rab peninsula in general before Isla ' pharaonic *
0escribed practically though broadly how to perfor an alternate for
of circucision
Ja"ing 1 ad"antages of the alternate for( one for the wife and one
for the husband(
Whats then this +new option, -emale Circumcision?
$. us see/
/ccording to this -adith, =Prophetic $aying> no genital organ to
be reo"ed or destroyed W don3t destroyL.
Interpretation and understanding of that lady to the -adith and
of the following ?usli $cholars resulted in what was then
described as $unna Geale 7ircucision( the reo"al of the
lowest portion of the prepuce, that s+in topping clitoris, Islaic
circucision for feales is to follow that for ales
5he 4 ?usli scholars after re"iewing ain sources all agreed
on its allowance with "aried degrees fro being obligatory to
both ales and feales to being obligatory to ales allowed if
feales request it (
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W-8 in 1:;: #7ustos that affect -ealth of woen C children&(
he right manoeuvre of female circumcision is to remove the prepuce
and is
anatomically similar to male circumcision !removal of glance prepuce"
this is #nown as $unna circumcision and this type has no harmful
effects on health
$urgical reo"al of prepuce in feales is also reported in the
/erican edical literature as a reedy for certain conditions such as
loss of se,ual libido in soe woan, adhesions, inflaation and
selly clitorial secretions.
5here are now recognized Jynaecological)Psychological indications
for Prepucetoy including(
1. Knlarged, sizable Prepuce
1. Inflaation in the prepuce-clitoral !unction
9. Increased sensiti"e and pain on slightest touch at the prepuce-
clitoral !unction
4. /dhesions at the prepuce-clitoral !unction
B. 0ecreased se,ual libido
A. -yper se,uality C Increased se,ual libido.

.mbryology of 0eproductive 1ystem

5ill ;th wee+ of ebryonic de"elopent origin of reproducti"e
organs foration is the sae in both ale C feale.
/t Fth Wto- 12th wee+ ale C feale reproducti"e organs are
/fter 11th wee+ ob"ious differentiation between the 1 se,es

Kbryological differentiation in the e,ternal genitalia.
X $crotal s+in of ales is equi"alent to %abia a!or in feales
X Gront part of ale urethra C spongy tissues around it 'corpus
spongiosu* which e,tends to for the glans penis in equi"alent to
the tissues of labia inora 'bulb of "estibule* that e,tend to constitute
the head of the clitoris C the s+in of the
Reo"al of prepuce of penile glance in ale circucision is the
equi"alent to the reo"al of prepuce co"ering clitoris in $unna feale
If $unna circucision is genital utilation, Why ale circucision is
not then genital utilationD 8r e"en why not cutting nails or head hair
or beards not a physical utilation in stead of being a hygienic )
fashion practicesD
If $unna feale circucision is to be prohibited, who can guarantee
not prohibiting also ale circucisionD. Is it going to be in the coing
International Resolutions, ?uslis legitiately as+D
2repuce in females
$+in tissue present o"er the head of clitoris.
It has two surfaces with connecti"e tissue in between, the
outer surface is a noral s+in and the inner is an epithelial
surface ha"ing 5ayson glands which secretes a sebaceous li+e
secretion which is good edia for bacterial growth C other
icroorganiss and ight lead to inflaations, adhesions,
itching and pain.
Its size C length differ fro one feale to another
Resection of prepuce e,poses head of the clitoris for a better
functionL It doesn3t touch any bit of the labia inora which
eets at the lower part of 7litoris or of the labia a!ora. 5hey
are totally intact C preser"ed, the rich esh of neural cople,es
are there, se,ual sensation and !oy are there and Gitra
preser"ed as well and as it is said(
%slam is the &eligion of 'itra
( 'itra is the good old traditions of the Prophets ( Messengers of
he 2ractice of 1unna Circumcision 3 a minor surgical
$iple surgical procedure
Prepare child psychologically, read Yuran on her C a+e 0uwaZ
/septic conditions, local aesthesia onlyL
8nly Resection of that part of prepuce 'the superficial C inner
layers toping the head of clitoris 'nothing to be touched of head
or body C clitoris*
<o stitches needed at all, the wound held by forceps for B-12
inutes C finishedL
1. Isla is the religion of Gitra C circucision of both ales C
feales is one of the Gitra traditions and practices
1. Geale circucision was a +nown practice in pre-Islaic era and
in ?adina during Prophets ?ohaed #$% & '($) *$+, tie
9. It was a Pharaonic-type of circucision and Prophet ?ohaed
Prayers be upon hi #$KK% & 'KK($) *$KK+, was the first to abolish
and suggested an alternati"e
4. 7onfusion between Pharaonic and legalized $unna circucision
by soe people is a deliberate act to distort the picture of Isla.
B. It is not an obligatory act but an allowed act. /llowed practices
in Islaic $haria ean that there should be no denials to those
who do the
A. 5he intensi"e capaigns and rabid international and
unfortunately soeties national calls to prohibit all fors of
feale circucision as we ha"e already argued is contro"ersial
to scientific facts, to the 8rthodo, 5eachings of ?uslis and to
their Religious Rights and [7ultural $ecularities
;. <ot e"erybody is qualified to gi"e his opinion in such a atter
unless she)he is able to reproduce Islaic e"idence, qualified to
reliably argue scientific facts C possessing the required tools to
do so..
;. $unna feale circucisions is a inor surgical aneu"er, requires
only local anesthesia, no stitches, and is a atter of few inutes.
F. #$unna feale circucision& and #$afe 7ircucision&
are synonyous and describing it as utilation is an offence to IslaL
:. 8ur obstetricians instead of blindly following international
capaigns they better de"elop their own critical ethodology, go bac+
C re"ise ?usli $cholars sayings and e"idence fro Yuran C $unna,
they should instead start a capaign to abolish pharaonic
circucision C to train idwi"es on how to perfor the ost siplest
procedure of resecting the prepuce.
12. 7onteporary ?edical practice C e,periences "erify the healthy
ad"antages of the $unna feale circucision(
Prepuce frequently a site for unwanted secretions
Its reo"al stops unpleasant sells
Reduces incidence of urinary C genital tract infections.
Preser"es se,ual !oy in its best for
11. Gro a religious point of "iew
$unna circucision is a Gitra practice and as such an
obedience to the Prophet prayers and peace be upon hi
7leanliness C 5uhara are ipro"ed
?ore pleasant for both husband and wife
5o be intended as an act of worship and not as a social


Stabilizing female Circumcision.

Presented in A seminar titled :
Standards and values of controlling harmful traditional
practices (i.e. female circumcisions)

Prepared by(
0r( Gathiya -asan ?argani
7ollege of Islaic sharia and law
8duran Islaic 4ni"ersity.
Mhartou( 19th ay 1221

In the nae of /llah, the ost beneficent, the ost erciful.
Praise be /llah, and prayers and peace be upon our prophet
?ohaed, and on to his faily and copanions.
/ndR7ircucision is one of natureUs disposition qualities, affired by
the prophetUs $unna, it is an old, and well-+nown practice to /rabs and
K"en before the coing of Isla. In this paper we consider these
following two a,is(
-irst 4 the definitions of circumcisions both le!ically and
idiomatically %
Kntry circucision, to circucise both boy and girl .5he noun is
circucision, and the transiti"e "erb of it is circucised. 5he ter is
different in the /rabic language but it could be applied and used for
both ales and feales
In Knglish .7ircucision , is the part circucised of a aleUs , or the
5o be reo"ed of a fealeUs genital parts
/bu ?ansour stated (' Ii is the part, which is reo"ed out of a ale,
and fealeUs genital parts.* /nd as the prophetUs traditional -adith
states 'If the two circucised parts et. 5hen it is obligatory to
perfor the ritual ablution* the ter \the circucised parts] suggests
a genuine dual not an alteration one. It is start that feale
circucision is li+e aleUs circucision, so the ter can be applied and
used for both se,es.
he idiomatic definition of circumcision(-
/bi -a!er said( 'circucision is the infiniti"e of circucised, eaning
to cut or reo"e ./nd circucision is the reo"al of a particular part
fro a particular organ.* /l ?awardi said regarding aleUs
circucision( '?ales circucision is the reo"al of s+in co"ering the
prepuce.* /nd he said on fealeUs circucision( 'It is the reo"al of
the s+in at the top of her "ul"a, abo"e the aleUs entrance. Whish is
li+e a roosterUs crest, and it is proper to cut the transcendent s+in
without ablation.* /nd Ibn 5ayiyya said on fealeUs circucision ('
5o circucise her, is to cut of the transcended s+in whish is li+e a
roosterUs crest.* 5his definition was also agreed upon by both,
?ohaed /li Kl Ear in his saying( '7ircucision is the reo"al of the
prepuce on the penis ,or the co"ering layer of s+in on a fealeUs
clitoris.* /nd by 0r ( ?ohaed Ein ?ohaed Kl ?u+htar Kl
$hingitti on circucision surgery ( 'It is the surgery concerning the
reo"al of the piece of s+in co"ering the prepuce ' the top of the
penis* for en 'or the cutting of the lowest part of s+in on the top of
the "ul"a for woen.* 0r( -aid Rshwan /nd other doctors stated
that ( '$unna circucision eans to cut the s+in ,or the prepuce
co"ering the clitoris.*
5hus, it is clear that feale circucision by sharia law is li+e aleUs
circucision, which is the reo"al of s+in co"ering the prepuce for
ales and the one co"ering the clitoris for feales.
1econd4 the )rigin of legitimacy and manner of circumcision 4
5"6 5he traditional -adith concerning circucisions are general for
both ales and feales ,soe of the are (
1- $tated on the $ahihes , upon /bu -urrayraUs narration( 'Gi"e things
are in accordance with /lfitra ( to be circucised , to sha"e the pel"ic
region , to pull out the hair of the arpits , to cut short the ustache ,
and to clip the nails.*
1- WhatUs reported on Ibn /bbasUs ay god be pleased with hi on
the glorified and /lightyUs saying ( '/nd reeber that /braha
was tried by his lord with certain coands , which he fulfilled .* -e
said ( ' Jod has afflicted hi with odesty .fi"e on the body .5he ones
on the head are (triing of the ustache , rinsing out the outh ,
cleaning the nose trails with water ,Erushing the teeth , and parting of
the hair ./nd the fi"e on the body are ( <ail clipping , sha"ing of pubic
hears , circucision ,0epilating the arpits , and the washing of feces
and urine tracts with water.* 5hese scripts indicate that circucision is
one of natureUs dispositions, and that it is general for ales and
feales ali+e ./nd there hasnUt been a script restricting the act to
ales alone.
576 5he particularized -adith on feales circucision are(
1- 8n behalf of u /ttiya the supporter that while a woen was
circucising in /l ?edina the Prophet said( '0on3t e,haust for it is
fortunate for her , and desired by her husband.* /bu 0aoud claied
that the -adith was wea+ on the narration of ?ohaed Ein -assan
/l Mufi and he is wea+. /nd this -adith was also deli"ered by the
narration of /l /lla Ein /l /rra , and he is a proper attributer . It was
also brought out by /l /llbani on the proper -adithes series under the
nuber ':11*
1- 5here were two witnesses to /nnasUs narration and to u ianUs
with Kl $hie+h , on a boo+ called \ /l-/geeg] and in another boo+ with
/l 0haha+ bin Jais. /nd it was also entioned on = /l ?ustadir+> by /l
-a+e, the saying of the prophet ay prayers and peace be upon hi
, to the supporters woen ( ' 0ye by dipping ,and circucise , but
donUt e,haust.* it is proper and was deli"ered by /l -aithay on =
?u!aU /l ^awUaid > and was brought out by /l 5abarani .
/nd on the e"idence supporting 4 /ttiyahUs report , was the
narration of /l Eu+hary , in the =/l /dab /l ?ofrad> .5hat 4 ?uha!ir
ay /llahUs pleasing be upon her said ( 'I was captured along with
other Roan woen . 8san Ein /ffan offered Isla to us , so e
and another ade ipraced Isla , he ordered us to be circucised ,
and we used to ser"e hi ay /lla be pleased with hi.*
Eut Ibn /l ?unzir wea+ened the -adith regarding circucision by
saying( ' 5here arenUt any benefits or proper $unna that we can refer
to and follow concerning circucision*
5his was refutable by the narration of /l /rra and the nuber of
-adith and e"idence stated , which strengthens and confirs the
narration of ?ohaed Ein -assan /l Muffi .Gor the prophet had
confired feales circucision , and didnUt forbid the woen to
perfor the rituals , but he ordered her to coplete , which eans to
cut fro abo"e , and he pre"ented her not to e,haust , which eans
not to cut too e,treely ./nd Ibn /l Jaie /l Quziyah said ( ' 5here is
significance in the -adith to the order of iniizing the aount to be
hird 4 scholars 8decisions and views regarding circumcision4
$cholars ha"e stated three "iews on circucision(-
he first view 49
7ircucision is obligatory for ales and feales .5his is proper and
well +nown to /l $hafiya , /l -anabila , Ibn 5ayiyya , Ibn /l Jaie /l
Quziyah . 5he $hafiya said is obligatory ./nd /ttah said( '/ ature
person doesnUt becoe a coplete ?usli, unless circucised.* /nd
they said( '/ an should order his ?usli wife for circucision, !ust
as he orders her for prayers.* /nd they based the obligation on the
following (-
'/* 8n /llah the glorified and /lightyUs saying (' Gollow the ways of
/braha the true in faith*
It was presented on both $ahihes ' /braha circucised hiself when
he was eighty years old and he circucise hiself with an adze.* /nd
/bu /l $hei+h presented on = /l /geega> through ?usa Ein /li Ibn
Rabah , upon his fatherUs words (' 5hat /braha ay peace be upon
hi as+ed to be circucised when he was eighty years old, but he
shied, so he was circucised with adze.* /nd so the incident indicates
'E* 7ircucision is painful, and pain e,ists only for necessary
'7* 7ircucision in"ol"es e,posure of the genital organs, and
e,posure is forbidden, but only allowed for necessary easures .Kct.
he second view49
7ircucision is a $unna for both ales and feales, which is the faith
of /l -anafiyah, /l I a ?ali+, and /hed said .presented on =/l
0our /l ?u+htar>( '7ircucision is a $unna, it is a ritual of Isla and if
people agreed to abandon it. 5hen the Ia should declare war
against the, sae as when they abandon /l /zzan. 5here for, it
should not be left without a reason.*
/lso, /l Ia ?ali+ said %( 'If a person is not circucised, he is
neither accepted as a leader, nor his testiony.*
he third view49
Gor ales it is obligatory, and for feales itUs a noble deed. 5his
narration of /l Ia /hed Ibn -anbal, and soe ?ali+iya and
0hahiriya refers to this ./nd they inferred to $hadad Ibn /ousUs words(
'7ircucision is a $unna for ales, and it brings nobility to feales.*
/l Eaihagi said that the -adith is wea+, for it has /l -a!a! Ibn /rtah ,
and it he is an iposter but the -adith has a witness by /l 5abarany .
/nd on /bdul RazagUs classification told by 8ar, he said regarding
circucision( 'Gor ales it is a $unna, and it brings cleanness to
feales.* /l <awawi said (' What is proper in our faith , and followed
by our copanions , is that circucision is perissible at childhood ,
and not obligatory ./s /% $haw+ani stated in =/l 5ar!eeh> ( ' -onesty ,
there hasnUt been any genuine e"idence suggesting positi"ness and
obligation. It is of the $unna and properness to follow the positi"e,
until we are obliged to do other wise.*
/nd fro all this, it is apparent that scholars agreed on the
perissibility of circucision in general, but they disagreed on its
obligation for both se,es.
/nd on whether it was a $unna, or whether it is only obligatory to
en, and whether it brings nobility to feale.
Eut none of the said that it was forbidden for woen. K"en Ibn /l
?unzir , where he wea+ened the -adith , but didnUt restrict it to ales
rather than feales
5ypes of feale circucision, its tie, in"itation, and fare(
-emale circumcision is divided into two types49
1- %awful circucision(-
/nd itUs the reo"al of the prepuce , which co"ers the fealeUs clitoris
/nd itUs li+e the aleUs circucision, and itUs called the $unna.
1- 4nlawful circucision(-
/nd its reo"al of any e,tra parts beside the clitorisUs prepuce, and it
includes the '7oplete* pharaohUs circucision, the ediu, and the
ipro"ed one, and others.
5here for, any type of circucision in"ol"ing the reo"al of any parts
of the clitoris is under unlawful circucision, and is not under the
$unna type, but is under the pharaoh type.
$cholars disagreed on its proper tie ./l ?awardi said( 'It has two
proper ties, an obligatory one, and a preferable one .5he obligatory
is when one reaches adulthood and the preferable one is before that
.5he choice is between the se"enth days after deli"ery, but should it
be postponed, then on the fortieth day. /nd should it be postponed
also then on the se"enth year.* 5he ia of the two -oly osques
said( 'It is not right before adulthood, for the boy is not obliged with
bodily worship, let alone with painful ones.*
/nd /bu /l Gara! /l $ir+hasi said that( 'there is benefit in circucising
the boy while still young, for his s+in is still soft.* /nd Ia ?ali+
said( 'It is better if he is younger than se"en years old, or around this
age.* 0r ./al /hed /l Eashir said on the tie of feale
circucision( 'It should be around the age where it is easier for the
doctor or well trained ade to part and cut the prepuce fro the
clitoris without reo"ing any other part fro the surrounding area.
/nd it3s different fro one child to another, thatUs why there should be
a edical chec+ up for each feale genital part before deciding upon a
tie for her circucision.*
5he in"itation and fare for circucision (-
It was ststed on = /l /l ofrad> on /isha ay /lla be pleased with her
said( ' I was in"ited for a banquet , when I +new that it was a fealeUs
circucision I said , we ne"er used to announce for it. *
Ibn /l -a! /l ali+i stated on his boo+ =/l ?ad+hal>( '5he $unna on
aleUs circucision is to re"eal it, and to conceal it on feales.*
$o fealeUs circucision was +nown, but the disagreeent was on its

Circumcision fees49
It is acceptable to hire soebody for it, Ibn Jodaa said (' We ha"e
no +nowledge of disagreeent on the atter, and it is lawful*
who pays the fees?
$cholars said that( 'It should be fro the circucised own oney. if
he)she had any .8r fro the father, or on whoe"er is responsible for
his)her e,penses.*
he advantages of lawful circumcision49
1- 5o establish the e,alted and glorified /llahUs laws, and his apostleUs
$unna, ay /llahUa blessing be upon hi.
1- 5o establish the rightful adequate substitution to fight a harful
practice 'pharaohUs circucision* with regards to the social and
psychological outcoes in lea"ing it all together.
9- 5o ele"ate ritual adoration 'lawful circucision* rather than the
habitual 'pharaoh3s circucision*.
4- 5he /rabs always spo+e ill of a prepuce person in both their poes
and reality. 5hey belie"ed on its filthiness ./nd it becoes difficult to
refine enstrual blood and urine, which leads to foul sells and
B- 5o reduce eroticis by reo"ing the prepuce 'Kroticis eans, to
be preoccupied by your se,ual desires. Reducing the prepuce eans
ore oderation.* Gor both circucised ales and feales ali+e.
A- Reducing the possibility of cancer in both se,es.
;- 5o iniize asturbation aong ature people, because the
prepuce discharges stiulates the se,ual ner"es around the prepuce
which leads to itching, which is in itself a delightful in"itation for
F- 5he pre"ention of infections, because the stench and icrobes
resides on the prepuce of both se,es
:isadvantages of unlawful circumcision 5he pharaoh649
1- It differs in anners to the lawful one.
1- ?utilation and changes to /lighty /llahUs creations by cutting
parts of a fealeUs genital organs .5he e,alted /llah said( 'We indeed
created an in the best of oulds.* /nd the prophet ?ay /llahUs
blessings be upon hi cursed those who try to change the creations of
9- -ealth hazards such as( bleedings, infections, abscesses, retention
of urine, difficult deli"ery, ris+ to the infant, puerperal fe"er, and the
ris+ of torn perineu.
4- Psychological probles such as( psychological shoc+s, to fear and
dread arriage, and labor with the difficulties of social relations.
B- 5he social daages of getting arried to foreigners, which leads to
/nd by "iew the stated of affairs in our current $udanese society
today, we find the following(-
1- 5he strong attachent to circucision, and e,ceeding the liits
stated by the $haria '5he Islaic laws* by using the pharaoh type.
1- 5hose who are against, and abandoned feale circucision.
Eecause of its daages.
9- 5hose who were guidea by the sharia '5he Islaic laws* and offered
their worship and ser"ices in order to bring the closer to /llah ./nd
neither sharia nor a ind accept the pharaoh type.
-emale circumcision in the 1udanese law49
Ey referring to the $udanese acts and laws for the years 1:1B and
1:;4, chapter twenty-two under cries against huan body, we find
the following(-
/rticle 1F4-'/* unlawful circucision(
K,cept where it is entioned, it is a crie on to any person
perforing unlawful circucision. 8r whoe"er causes intentionally any
har or daage to any e,ternal part of a fealeUs se,ual organ.
5he reo"ing of the pointy part, which descends fro a fealeUs
clitoris, is not a crie according to this act.
Whoe"er coits the crie of perforing unlawful circucision is
sub!ected for less than fi"e years iprisonent or sub!ected to fine or
is sub!ected to both penalties.
7onsidered a criinal , any feale who self-perfors these acts5he
$udanese laws for the years 1:1B and 1:;4 , di"ided circucision into
two types(
8ne is accepted by the laws , and the other is unlawful and is under
criinal beha"ior , since one does not coply to the law in the atter
of reo"ing only the pointy part of a fealeUs clitoris.
5he agistrate 0errar said( '/ccording to the article 192 '/* '0* fro
the criinal procedures for the year l:;4, it is not acceptable to ta+e
any legal actions concerning article 1F4)/ unless by perission fro
the go"ernor.*
5he state of the capital punishents laws for the years 1:F9 and
5here hasnUt been a ter in the capital punishent law for the year
l:F9, nor in the criinal law for the year 1::1 , that is siilar to
article 1F4)/ in the law of 1:1B and 1:;4 . 5he articles concerning
circucision had been oitted fro the 1:F9Us law .5he agistrate
0errar said( 'What is +nown about !urisprudence of criinal law, that
a crie has two parts( a aterial side and a oral side . /nd if we
loo+ into the coponents of the aterialistic side of circucision, in
coparison with the aterialistic side for the cries of daage or
aputation of organs , we find that it is e,actly siilar in +ind .Eut the
atter differs when "iewed fro the oral side , where the criinal
intention in daage cries differs fro the straight forward good or
the probable intentions. 5he doers intentions in circucisionUs cries
are not in an atrocious anner .In fact he is see+ing the welfare 'of
the circucised* whether it be socially or health wise. 5herefore, it is
difficult to establish to the crie and include it with the rest of cries
./nd according to the public principalsU e,planation of the law. 5he
oitting of the criinal section in this anner is an indicator of the
intentions of those who wrote the law, as not to include it as a crie*
5he article 1;1)1 of the criinal law for the year 1:F9 is as follows(-
/- 5he reo"al of any organ of the body or to cause daage to it,
whether be it partially or copletely.
E- 5o paralyze the sense of hearing , or sight , or articulation , or
sell , or taste , or the reo"al of "oice , or the ability to intercourse ,
or to reo"e the ability to stand up , or sit down , or to reo"e any
ad"antageUs of the body , or to any of its ebers partially or
copletely R/ll these ha"e capital punishents and are regarded as
harful cries , and those who wrote on this atter or e,plained its
coponents e,cluded circucision fro the lists of cries R5he fact of
the criinal law is to suarize its e,planation. '5here is neither
crie nor punishent without an article*.
Eearing in ind that the criinal laws and punishents for the year
1::1, are not in contrast with the Islaic $haria laws .Eecause the law
with its sub-branches, is deri"ed fro the Islaic !urisprudence
.5herefore, it is unacceptable to e,plain any law to contradict with the
Islaic $haria ./nd it is well +nown that circucision is appro"ed by
the apostleUs $unna, so foring any law or article, should be in
agreeent with the spirit of the law.
Gro a theoretical point of "iew .5he $udanese stated laws here arenUt
fir enough so as to include feale $unna circucisions as a crie
into the $udanese laws, nor is it firs enough so as to bring lawsuit,
or capital punishent against whoe"er coits the act of feale

1- 7ircucision is one of the eleents of natureUs depositions. /nd it is
an Islaic ritual , scholars ha"e indeed agreed on its perissibility ,
but none the less disagreed on its !udgent
'obligatory of $unna , or foulness.* but none of the scholars said any
thing about it being forbidden .
1- 5he e"idence on the legitiacy of circucision is general for ales
and feales ali+e.
9- 5o aniate the order of en!oining in all that is good and the
prohibition of all that is wrong. /nd the public should +now it, clear
and distincti"ely, the differences between lawful circucision and the
unlawful type, so that they would stop fro practicing the wrong
deeds 'pharaoh* and obey en!oining for there arenUt any
e,tra"agancies nor negligence concerning feale $unna circucision.
4- %awful feale circucision is not a burial of feale , but itUs a
strong attachent to the /postleUs $unna .Gor there isnUt e"idence or
ad"antage or any !ustifiable e,planation for forbidden the practice
unless to trespass on the /postleUs $unna.
B- Referring to soe wea+ -adiths, isnUt sufficient enough as to be
hold as an e"idence to forbid fealeUs circucision, and thatUs for the
following reasons(-
/- 5he presented proper -adiths were attributed with naturalUs
dispositions .Which indicates circucision rightfulness
E- 5he wea+ -adiths, soe of the were narrated differently by other
"ersions and pro"ed preperness and the rest were reported with
strong e"idence supporting the.
7- 5he origin of deeds is lawfulness, therefore, loo+ing for e"idence
supporting prohibition of feale circucisions are uch harder than
loo+ing for perissible ones. /nd there hasnUt been any Islaic or
legal te,ts saying to its forability or its prohibition.
A- 5o a+e sure of stopping the unlawful feale circucision practice.
$o as to eliinate daage by establishing lawful circucision ./nd as
the prophetUs saying(
1- 5o stabilize edical science , and to prepare +nowledgeable doctors
1- 5o train doctors, idwifes and nurses on lawful feale circucision
and to inter the sub!ect into the edical curriculu .9- 5o set edical
centers to practice lawful circucision.
4- 5o a"oid passing enactent , which pro"es to be against Islaic
$haria laws , and therefore pro"es public passi"eness 'for the "ictiUs
own acceptance alone is sufficient not to press criinal charges
regarding circucision*
B- 5o wor+ in order to eliinate all traditional harful practices , and
to preser"e religious and good custos.
A- 5o proote and ele"ate religious and health awareness particularly
aong others.
;- 5o release a religious legal opinion to forbid the pharaohUs
circucision and to legalize Islaic $unna circucision.
7onclusion RJod, do not blae us if we ha"e forgotten or sinned.
Gathiya -assan.


-emale Circumcision
Negligence and "buse

0r. /al /hed Klbasheir,
?aster of 7ounity edicine,
4ni"ersity of Mhartou, $udan

5here are different "iewpoints about feale circucision. $oe people
totally abandoned it, while others went to the other e,tree and
in"ol"ed into wrong practices. I focused on this issue _feale
circucision, negligence and abuse_ so as to try to e,clude any e,isted
contradiction. I see+ to /llah the /lighty to a+e the result of this
study a useful +nowledge for all people, /en.

-emale Circumcision in *slam
$hei+h ?ahoud $haltoot, eber of Proinent $cholars Jroup said(
''7ircucision is an old habit since Prophet IbrahiUs 'peace be upon
hi* era. /t that tie circucision applied for both ales and
feales. ?any authentic sayings were told by the Prophet 'P.E.4.-*,
such as( 'fi"e traditions e,isted in ?an by instinct( circucision,
cutting fro the oustache, pubic and arpit hair sha"ing, and nail
slitting*. ?ost Islaic scholars considered circucision as an obligation
for both se,es. While others asserted an obligation for ale and an
honor for the feale**.
In this study we will show that the "iewpoint, which proclais equality
between both se,es in circucision, is the correct one.

he e!ternal -emale ;enitals
5he e,ternal parts are the "aginal opening, the labia inora and
a!ora and the clitoris. 5he clitoris, a sall erectile organ resebling
the penis, is in the !oint of the labia inora, abo"e the urethral
eatus. 5he glans of the clitoris is sensiti"e li+e the glans of the penis.
/ s+in 'prepuce* co"ers the clitoris and is called preputiu
clitoris,which is the sae as the prepuce of the penis 'preputiu
penis*. $ega 'sega preputii* and icrobes ay collect and
proliferate, beneath the prepuce, in both se,es.

<ethods of female circumcision
=% he proper method 51unni circumcision64
Islaic scholar /lawordi said( ''feale circucision is the cutting of
the s+in, which co"ers the nawah 'clitoris* that lies abo"e the urethral
0r. ?ohaed /li /l-Ear, a consultant of Islaic edicine in Ming
Gahad Research 7enter, and 0r. -aid Rashwan, a consultant in
$udan, also agreed on the sae definition. /lso the proper ethod of
feale circucision was described in a boo+ published in 1:;: by
5he feale $unni circucision 'li+e the ale circucision* can be
referred to as Prepucectoy and neither 7litoridectoy nor
clitoridotoy, which is entioned in soe boo+s. Geale
prepucectoy is the cutting of the preputiu clitoridis. It is done
under local analgesia, and coplete sterilization of instruents and
s+in area.5he anaethetized prepuce is held with an artery forceps. 5he
s+in o"er the forceps is reo"ed with a cur"ed scissors. 5he forceps is
left for soe tie to stop any bleeding fro the cut edges. 5his
operation is siple and safe, if done by a trained staff and using sterile
instruents 'it is sipler than gi"ing a child the 5riple "accine
in!ection*. In case of lac+ of trained staff prepucectoy should be
postponed, as probles fro a wrong operation are frequently ore
than probles fro the delay. %i+e all other siple operations,
coplications are rare and are not ore than siple curable bleeding
or inflaation. If there is ore than ild bleeding, the cut edges of
the prepuce should not be held together by a stitch. Instead UGigure
eightU stitch can be inserted at the bleeding point. 5his a"oids co"ering
of the clitoris again. 5he ad"antages of correct prepucectoy for both
se,es e,ceed all alleged dangers, steing fro the wrong practices
of feale circucision.
>% Wrong <ethods4
/ny cutting fro the clitoris, or fro the labia inora or a!ora is
considered to be against $unni circucision 'Prepucectoy*. $titching
and adhesions of the labia 'inora or a!ora* led to closure of the
urethral eatus lea"ing a co"ered space that is difficult to clean. /lso
the sall hole left causes psychological and physical troubles for both
se,es in the beginning of their arital life.

"dvantages of -emale Circumcision
/ccording to Prof. /bdel-/lal /bdullah, Professor of $urgery in $udan,
soe beha"ioral acts reported in sayings of the Prophet 'peace be
upon hi* to be followed by people in "arious doains, were not
results of research and laboratory e,perients. 5he Prophet was fully
confident that they were right, as the 8niscient 7reator of the
4ni"erse inspired the. /d"anced edical and health laboratory
research ha"e reached the great pre"entional benefits ?uslis gain for
adhering to ablution rituals and natural beha"ior reported in the
$ayings of the Prophet 'peace be upon hi*. /nd here we are, in the
1Bth -i!ri century, disco"ering soe of these facts, finding out that
penis cancer does not affect circucised ale, but is 122S liited to
the uncircucised. 5he direct cause of this cancer is the secretions by
the fores+in reo"ed in the circucision operation. Prof. /bdullah
asserts that cancer affects uncircucised feales, though at a lower
rate than ales for difference in sizes of the prepuce and quantity of
/ustaz ?ohaed /l %ban entioned that in feale circucision, the
fores+in is reo"ed because it pre"ents cleaning of the enstrual
blood and urine, a atter that creates nasty sells.
In a report issued in 1:F: , the Eritish %ancet ?agazine stated( '5he
genital organs in ales and feales constitute an iportant factor in
occurrence of urinary tracts inflaation and nephritis. It is also
found that these inflaations with their coplications can be
a"oided by reo"ing a sall s+in called the prepuce*.
In the sae line, 0r. /l-Ear wrote( 'Geale $unni circucision has
any ad"antages that researchers re"iewed in the edical Islaic
7onference on _Islaic $haria and Present ?edical Issues_.
he advantages are4
1- Pre"ention of inflaations resulting fro accuulation of
sega and icrobes beneath the prepuce of the feale and
1- 0ecreasing cancer rates in circucised persons of both
9- Jenital -erpes, chancroid and granuloa are less in
circucised en and woen.
4- ?oderation of the se,ual desires in circucised persons of
both se,es. 5he e,planation of this is that, if the person is
uncircucised it is difficult for hi or her to get satisfaction fro
the arital intercourse. 5his is because the sensiti"e glans of the
penis or of the clitoris is co"ered with the prepuce which is a less
sensiti"e s+in, thus the uncircucised ale or feale, +eeps in
peranent search for satisfaction.
In one of the W-8 boo+s, it was stated that _circucision
proper_ is also soeties practiced in the 4nited $tates for
treating non-occurrence of woanUs clia, in cases of loose or
tight prepuce.
0r. /.E %urry, an /erican doctor, warned that the prepuce of
the clitoris is soeties "ery tight, so instead of pre"ention it
becoes a source of peranent se,ual agitation due to the
natural secretions withheld beneath it. $he added that any
woen ha"e reained ner"ous for the rest of their li"es, and
early circucision in a woanUs childhood would be a definite
With reference to "iews of these scholars and doctors we find
that the ad"antages of woan circucision are siilar to those
of ale circucision. 5hese include(
B - 7leanness(
Gollowing reo"al of the prepuce of the clitoris, cleaning of the
natural secretions, the enstrual blood and urine becoes easy
and this protects the woan fro any organic and
psychological diseases.
?oderation of se,ual desires "ia two eans(
Girst the prepuce decreases the pleasure of the arrital se,ual
life, so after its reo"al the clia, and satisfaction are realized.
/lso reo"al of the prepuce pre"ents accuulation of the
natural secretions beneath it, thus the frequent arousal of the
genital ner"es around the glans "anishes. -ere both arried and
single woen are concerned.
/n added ad"antage of feale prepucectoy is that it ay be
the ost useful alternati"e to replace the alpractice of the
present woen circucision.
/lso idwi"es ay be ore cooperati"e since they ha"e an
alternati"e, because circucision is one of their sources of
incoe generation.
he time of circumcising the female
5he tie of circucision is not agreed upon. /l-?awordi said
that both the ale and feale should be circucised before
/ edical chec+ should be ade before setting the girlUs tie of
1. 1. Kncourageent of feale prepucectoy in $udan and in
the world at large. 5his ay be the ost useful alternati"e to
replace the alpractice of the present feale circucision.
1. 1. Postponeent of the girlUs circucision to the tie at
which we find a qualified edical cadre trained on feale
prepucectoy, this is because har of wrong circucision is
greater than that caused by postponeent.
9. ?ore field studies are needed to in"estigate the incidence of
gynecological probles in uncircucised and circucised
4. Woen should pay due concern to such researches dealing
with their probles.

X $tedanUs ?edical 0ictionary, 14th edition, P119B.
X 5raditional practices affecting the health of Woen C 7hildren,
W-8, 1:F;.
X 0r. $it Klbanat Mhalid ?ohaed /li, ?aster of 8bstetrics C
gynecology, 4ni"ersity of Mhartou, $udan.

* '-'- -- '-= '-=' - .
* '-- = -- . `-' -= . -' '-=' -'=- .
* ,--=' -` '-' '= -=- . .
* ,=' , - '-' '='- -' -=- .
* '-= .'-. =,--' =` ,- `-` =' _`-` ,--' -=
= 1997 .
* -= -=- ,-` -=-' -- .
* - -=- - -= - '-`' '=-' _,=- '=-' .,='--' 7 / 206 .
* ==' -=' -'--` -,=- 5 --- 1994 ) ' 1732 (

5he $afe Geale 7ircucision

Prepare child psychologically, read Yuran on her C a+e 0uwaZ
/septic conditions, local aesthesia onlyL
8nly Resection of that part of prepuce 'the superficial C inner
layers toping the head of clitoris 'nothing to be touched of head
or body C clitoris*
<o stitches needed at all, the wound held by forceps for B-12
inutes C finished

= 9 *t is done under complete
sterili?ation of the skin area%

> @ his is the land mark
between the prepuce and the
skin of the body of the


' @ he local anesthetic i%e%
!ylocain > A will be in#ected on
the land mark between the
prepuce and the skin of the
body of the clitoris.

B 9 he anaestheti?ed prepuce is
griped by a holding artery forceps%

CCCChe skin over the forceps is
removed with a curved scissor%


( @ his is the prepuce

D9 he forceps is left for (
minutes to stop any bleeding
from the cut edges% No stitches
will be needed%

E @ H. C$*)0*1 *1 F.2

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