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Key Concepts
How do materials enter
and leave cells?
How does cell size affect
the transport of materials?
Passive Transport
The membranes of cells and organelles perform different
functions. They form boundaries between cells. They also
control the movement of substances into and out of cells.
Cell membranes are semipermeable. This means that only
certain materials can enter or leave a cell. Substances can
pass through a cell membrane by one of several different
processes. The type of process depends on the physical and
chemical properties of the substance that is passing through
the membrane.
Small molecules, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide,
pass through a cells membrane by a process called passive
transport. Passive transport is the movement of substances through
a cell membrane without using the cells energy. Passive transport
depends on the amount of a substance on each side of the
membrane. If there are more oxygen molecules outside a cell
than there are inside a cell, oxygen molecules will move into
the cell by passive transport. Oxygen molecules will move
into a cell until the amount of oxygen outside the cell
equals the amount of oxygen inside the cell. There are
different types of passive transport.
What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide
whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before
column if you agree with the statement or a D if you disagree. After
youve read this lesson, reread the statements to see if you have changed
your mind.
Before Statement After
5. Diffusion and osmosis are the same process.
6. Cells with large surface areas can transport
more than cells with smaller surface areas.
Study Coach
Asking Questions Before
you read the lesson, preview
all the headings. Make a
chart and write a What or
How question for each
heading. As you read, write
the answers to your
questions.
Make a two-tab book to
organize information about
the different types of passive
and active transport.
Passive
transport
Active
transport
Cell Structure and Function
Moving Cellular Material
Reading Essentials Cell Structure and Function 29
C203_013_017_RE_L3_889406.indd 13 1/11/10 9:18:40 PM
Ch. 2, lesson 3
- Read, then answer
all marked questions
and tasks.
Ch 2 Readings, part 2 of 2
Name: _______________ block: __
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Diffusion
When the concentration, or amount per volume, of a
substance is unequal on each side of a membrane, molecules
will move from the side with a higher concentration of the
substance to the side with the lower concentration. Diffusion
is the movement of substances from an area of higher concentration to
an area of lower concentration.
ACADEMIC VOCABULARY
concentration
(noun) the amount of a given
substance in a certain area.
Visual Check
1. Predict What would
the water in the beaker on
the right look like if the
membrane did not let
anything through?



Reading Check
2. Compare osmosis and
diffusion.



Diffusion will continue until the concentration on each
side of the cell membrane is equal. The figure above shows
how dye passed through the membrane into the clear water
until there were equal concentrations of water and dye on
both sides of the membrane.
OsmosisThe Diffusion of Water
Diffusion is the movement of any small molecules from
areas of higher concentrations to areas of lower concentrations.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules only through a membrane.
Water molecules pass through a semipermeable membrane
from an area of high concentration to an area of low
concentration. For example, plant cells lose water because of
osmosis. The concentration of water in the air around a
plant is less than the concentration of water in the cells of
the plant. Water will leave plant cells and diffuse into the
air. If the plant is not watered to replace the water lost by its
cells, the plant will wilt and might die.
Facilitated Diffusion
Some molecules are too large or are chemically unable to
move through a membrane by diffusion. Facilitated diffusion
is the movement of molecules through a cell membrane using special
proteins called transport proteins. Facilitated diffusion does not
use the cells energy to move the molecules. The transport
proteins do the work. There are two types of transport
proteins.
Carrier Proteins Carrier proteins are transport proteins. They
carry large molecules, such as the sugar molecule glucose,
through the cell membrane.
Dye added to water After 30 minutes
30 Cell Structure and Function Reading Essentials
C203_013_017_RE_L3_889406.indd 14 1/11/10 9:18:44 PM
Do
wkbk
pg 18
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Channel Proteins Channel proteins are also transport
proteins. They form pores through the cell membrane. Ions,
such as sodium and potassium, pass through the cell
membrane by channel proteins. Transport proteins are
shown below.
Visual Check
4. Identify Circle the type
of transport protein that
carries large molecules
through the cell membrane.
Reading Check
3. Explain how materials
move through the cell
membrane in facilitated
diffusion.
Reading Check
5. Summarize how a cell
uses active transport.
Active Transport
Sometimes a cell uses energy when a substance passes
through its membrane. Active transport is the movement of
substances through a cell membrane only by using the cells energy.
Substances moving by active transport move from areas
of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration.
Active transport is important for cells and organelles. Cells
can take in nutrients from the environment through carrier
proteins by using active transport. Some molecules and
waste materials leave cells by active transport.
Endocytosis and Exocytosis
Some substances are too large to enter a cell membrane
by diffusion or by using a transport protein. There are other
ways that substances can enter a cell.
Endocytosis The process during which a cell takes in a substance by
surrounding it with the cell membrane is called endocytosis (en duh si
TOH sus). Some cells take in bacteria and viruses using
endocytosis.
Channel
protein
Outside
the cell
Inside
the cell
Carrier
proteins
Reading Essentials Cell Structure and Function 31
C203_013_017_RE_L3_889406.indd 15 1/11/10 9:18:53 PM
Do the
first part
of wkbk
pg 19
Do wkbk pg 19 & 20
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Exocytosis Some substances are too large to leave a cell by
diffusion or by using a transport protein. They can leave using
exocytosis (ek soh si TOH sus). Exocytosis is the process during
which a cells vesicles release their contents outside the cell. Proteins and
other substances are removed from a cell through exocytosis.
Both endocytosis and exocytosis are shown below.
Cell Size and Transport
For a cell to successfully transport materials, the size of the
cell membrane must be large compared to the space inside of
the cell. This means that the surface area of the cell must be
larger than the volume of the cell. When a cell grows, both
its surface area and its volume increase. However, the volume
of a cell increases faster than its surface area. If a cell becomes
too large, it might not survive. Its surface area will be too
small to move enough nutrients into the cell and remove
waste materials from the cell.
Key Concept Check
6. Explain how materials
enter and leave cells.



Visual Check
8 . Identify the structure
needed for exocytosis.



Exocytosis
A vesicles membrane
joins with the cell
membrane. The
contents of the
vesicle are released
outside the cell.
Active
transport
Cellular energy
is used to move
materials from
areas of lower
concentration
to areas of
higher
concentration.
Endocytosis
Part of the cell
membrane wraps
around a particle,
forming a vesicle
inside the cell.
Inside
the cell
Outside
the cell
A ratio is a comparison of
two numbers, such as
surface area and volume. If
a cell were cube shaped, you
would calculate surface area
by multiplying its length ()
by its width (w) by the
number of sides (6).
Surface area: w 6
You would calculate the
volume of the cell by
multiplying its length () by
its width (w) by its height (h).
Volume: w h
To find the surface-area-to-
volume ratio of the cell,
divide its surface area by its
volume.

Surface area

_________

Volume

7. Use Ratios What is the
surface-area-to-volume ratio
of a cube-shaped cell whose
sides are 6 mm long?

Math Skills
32 Cell Structure and Function Reading Essentials
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Mini Glossary
Reread the statements at the beginning of the
lesson. Fill in the After column with an A if you
agree with the statement or a D if you disagree.
Did you change your mind?
What do you think
END OF
LESSON
Log on to ConnectED.mcgraw-hill.com
and access your textbook to find this
lessons resources.
ConnectED
1. Review the terms and their definitions in the Mini Glossary. Write a sentence that
compares passive and active transport.
2. Fill in the table below to compare active and passive transport.
Energy needed? Structures Involved Examples
Active transport yes/no
Passive transport yes/no
active transport: the movement of substances through a cell
membrane only by using the cells energy
diffusion: the movement of substances from an area of higher
concentration to an area of lower concentration
endocytosis (en duh si TOH sus): the process during which
a cell takes in a substance by surrounding it with the cell
membrane
exocytosis (ek soh si TOH sus): the process during which a
cells vesicles release their contents outside the cell
facilitated diffusion: when molecules pass through a cell
membrane using special proteins called transport proteins
osmosis: the diffusion of water molecules only
passive transport: the movement of substances through a
cell membrane without using the cells energy
Reading Essentials Cell Structure and Function 33
C203_013_017_RE_L3_889406.indd 17 1/11/10 9:19:17 PM
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Cellular Respiration
All living organisms need energy to survive. Cells use
energy from food and make an energy-storing compound,
ATP. Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions that convert
the energy in food into a usable form of energy called ATP. Cellular
respiration takes place in the cytoplasm and in the
mitochondria of a cell.
Reactions in the Cytoplasm
The first step of cellular respiration is called glycolysis. It
takes place in the cytoplasm of all cells. Glycolysis is a process
by which a sugar called glucose is broken down into smaller molecules.
Glycolysis produces some ATP molecules. It also uses energy
from other ATP molecules.
More ATP is made during
the second step of cellular
respiration than during
glycolysis.
What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide
whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column
if you agree with the statement or a D if you disagree. After youve read this
lesson, reread the statements to see if you have changed your mind.
Before Statement After
7. ATP is the only form of energy found in cells.
8. Cellular respiration occurs only in lung cells.
Key Concepts
How does a cell obtain
energy?
How do some cells make
food molecules?
Visual Check
1. Locate Circle where
sugar breaks down in the cell
during glycolysis.
Study Coach
Use an Outline As you
read, make an outline to
summarize the information
in the lesson. Use the main
headings in the lesson as the
main headings in the outline.
Complete the outline with
the information under each
heading.
Chemical
reactions
Cytoplasm
Smaller
molecules
Glucose
(sugar)
ATP
ATP
Cell Structure and Function
Cells and Energy
34 Cell Structure and Function Reading Essentials
C203_018_022_RE_L4_889406.indd 18 1/11/10 9:21:01 PM
Ch. 2, lesson 4
-Read, then answer
all marked questions
and tasks.
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Reactions in the Mitochondria
The second step in cellular respiration, shown below,
takes place in the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells. This step
uses oxygen. The smaller molecules made during glycolysis
are broken down. Many ATP molecules are made. Cells use
ATP molecules to power all cellular processes. Two waste
products, water and carbon dioxide (CO
2
), are given off
during this step of cellular respiration. The CO
2
released by
cells as a waste product is used by plants and some
unicellular organisms in a process called photosynthesis.
Key Concept Check
3. Explain how a cell
obtains energy.
Visual Check
2. Compare the reactions
in mitochondria with
glycolysis.
Make a half-book to record
information about the
different types of energy
production.
Cellular
Respiration
Fermentation
Glycolysis
Step 1
Step 2
(Energy)
Water
(H
2
O)
Carbon
dioxide
(CO
2
)
Oxygen (O
2
)
Smaller
molecules
The products of
glycolysis are used
in step 2.
ATP
Mitochon
d
r
io
n
Reactions in the
mitochondria
convert oxygen and
small molecules into
energy, water, and
carbon dioxide.
Fermentation
Sometimes, as you exercise, there is not enough oxygen
in your cells to make ATP molecules through cellular
respiration. When this happens, cells use a process called
fermentation to obtain chemical energy. Fermentation is a
reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells use to obtain energy from
food when oxygen levels are low. Because no oxygen is used,
fermentation makes less ATP than cellular respiration does.
Fermentation takes place in a cells cytoplasm, not in
mitochondria.
Types of Fermentation
There are several types of fermentation. One type occurs
when glucose is changed into ATP and a waste product
called lactic acid.
Lactic-Acid Fermentation Some bacteria and fungi help
produce cheese, yogurt, and sour cream using lactic-acid
fermentation. The muscle cells in animals, including
humans, can release energy during exercise using lactic-acid
fermentation.
Reading Essentials Cell Structure and Function 35
C203_018_022_RE_L4_889406.indd 19 1/11/10 9:21:07 PM
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Reading Check
4. Compare lactic-acid
fermentation and alcohol
fermentation.



Visual Check
5. Identify the products of
both lactic-acid fermentation
and alcohol fermentation.



ATP
ATP
Lactic-Acid Fermentation
Alcohol Fermentation
Glucose
(C
6
H
12
O
6
)
+Alcohol
(Energy)
(Energy)
Glucose
(C
6
H
12
O
6
)
+Lactic acid
+
Muscle
cells
Yeast
cells
Carbon dioxide
(CO
2
)
ATP
ATP
Key Concept Check
6. Explain how some cells
make food molecules.
Alcohol Fermentation Some types of bacteria and yeast
make ATP through a process called alcohol fermentation.
Alcohol fermentation produces an alcohol, called ethanol,
and carbon dioxide. Many types of bread are made using
yeast. The carbon dioxide produced by yeast during alcohol
fermentation makes bread dough rise. Lactic-acid fermentation
and alcohol fermentation are shown below.
Photosynthesis
Plants and some unicellular organisms obtain energy
from light. They use photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a series
of chemical reactions that convert light energy, water, and carbon
dioxide into the food-energy molecule glucose and the waste product
oxygen.
Light and Pigments
Photosynthesis uses light energy. In plants, pigments
such as chlorophyll absorb light energy. As chlorophyll
absorbs light, it absorbs all the colors in it except green.
The green light is reflected as the green color that you see
in leaves and stems. Plants might also contain pigments that
reflect other colors, such as red, yellow, or orange light.
Reactions in Chloroplasts
The chlorophyll that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
is in chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are organelles in plant cells
that convert light energy to chemical energy in food. During
photosynthesis, light energy, water, and carbon dioxide
combine and make sugars. Photosynthesis also produces
oxygen, which is released into the atmosphere.
36 Cell Structure and Function Reading Essentials
C203_018_022_RE_L4_889406.indd 20 1/11/10 9:21:17 PM
Do wkbk
pg 21 & 22
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Importance of Photosynthesis
Photosynthesis uses light energy and carbon dioxide to
make food energy. Oxygen is released during this process.
This food energy is stored as glucose. When an organism
eats plant material, such as fruit, it takes in food energy. The
cells of the organism will then go through cellular
respiration. They will use the oxygen released during
photosynthesis and convert the food energy into ATP. These
organisms then release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
The relationship between cellular respiration and
photosynthesis is shown in the diagram below.
Visual Check
7. Explain the relationship
between cellular respiration
and photosynthesis.
Light
energy
Chloroplast
Mitochondrion
Photosynthesis
6CO
2
+6H
2
O C
6
H
12
O
6
+6O
2
Carbon dioxide (CO
2
)
Water (H
2
O)
Glucose (C
6
H
12
O
6
)
Oxygen (O
2
)
Cellular respiration
C
6
H
12
O
6
+6O
2
6CO
2
+6H
2
O+
ATP
ATP
(Energy)
WORD ORIGIN
photosynthesis
from Greek photo, means
light, and synthesis, means
composition
Reading Essentials Cell Structure and Function 37
C203_018_022_RE_L4_889406.indd 21 1/11/10 9:21:27 PM
Do wkbk
pg 23 & 24
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Mini Glossary
Reread the statements at the beginning of the
lesson. Fill in the After column with an A if you
agree with the statement or a D if you disagree.
Did you change your mind?
What do you think
END OF
LESSON
Log on to ConnectED.mcgraw-hill.com
and access your textbook to find this
lessons resources.
ConnectED
cellular respiration: a series of chemical reactions that
convert the energy in food molecules into a usable form of
energy called ATP
fermentation: a reaction that eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
use to obtain energy from food when oxygen levels are low
glycolosis: a process by which glucose, a sugar, is broken down
into smaller molecules
photosynthesis: a series of chemical reactions that converts
light energy, water, and carbon dioxide into the food-energy
molecule glucose and gives off oxygen
1. Review the terms and their definitions in the Mini Glossary. Explain, using complete
sentences, how photosynthesis and cellular respiration are related.
2. Fill in the table below to identify what is needed by each chemical reaction and what is
produced by each chemical reaction.
Photosynthesis Cellular Respiration Fermentation
What is
needed?
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
1. glucose molecules
What is
produced?
1.
2.
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
3. As chlorophyll in plants absorbs light, it absorbs all the colors except one color. Which
color is that?
38 Cell Structure and Function Reading Essentials
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