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"There are known knowns. These are things we know that we know. There are known unknowns. That is to say, there are things that we know we don't know. But there are also unknown unknowns. There are things we don't know we don't know," Donald Rumsfeld

Probability Theory

Reference: G.R. Grimmett and D.R. Stirzaker, Probability and Random Processes, Oxford Science Publications, 1997 Probability Space:

Example: Toss possibly biased coin once

Take Note: Fair coin if p = 1/2

Probability Theory

Example: Two coins tossed possibly multiple times and outcome is ordered pair

Let

Then

Definition: Events A and B are independent if

Random Variables and Distributions Definition: Definition: Definition: Example: .

Distributions and Densities Definition: Definition: Definition: PDF Properties: .

Density Properties Example: Example: .

Density Properties Additional Properties: .

Multivariate Distributions Note: Important for longitudinal data Joint CDF: Joint Density (if it exists): Example: .

Multivariate Distributions Example: Note: Note: .

Multivariate Distributions Definition: Definition: Marginal density function of X Definition: X and Y are independent if and only if or Note: .

Example: .Estimators and Estimates Definition: An estimator is a function or procedure for deriving an estimate from observed data. An estimator is a random variable whereas an estimate is a real number.

Other Estimators Commonly Employed Estimators: • Maximum likelihood • Bayes estimators • Particle filter (Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC)) • Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) • Kalman filter • Wiener filter .

Linear Regression Consider Example: .

Linear Regression Statistical Model: Assumptions: Goals: .

Least Squares Problem Minimize Note: General result for quadratic forms Thus where Least Squares Estimate: Least Squares Estimator: Note: .

Parameter Estimator Properties Estimator Mean: Estimator Covariance: .

Variance Estimator Properties Goal: Residual: Variance Estimator: Note: .

Variance Estimator Properties Note: .

Variance Estimator Properties Note: Unbiased Estimator: Unbiased Estimate: .

Parameter Estimator Properties Properties of B: Central Limit Theorem: .

Example Example: Consider the height-weight data from the 1975 World Almanac and Book of Facts Height (in) Weight (lbs) 58 115 59 117 60 120 61 123 62 126 63 129 64 132 65 135 66 139 67 142 68 146 69 150 70 154 71 159 72 164 Consider the model .

Example Here Least Square Estimate: Note: Note: .

.Example Variance Estimate: Parameter Covariance Estimate: Note: This yields variances and standard deviations for parameter estimates Goal: Can we additionally compute confidence intervals? Yes. but we need a little more statistics.

Example Hypothesis: One way to check the hypothesis of iid is to plot the residuals .

Random Variables Related to the Normal Chi-Square Random Variables: T Random Variables: .

Variance Estimator Properties Assumption: .

Variance Estimator Properties .

Variance Estimator Properties Confidence Interval: .

Example Previous Example: Note: .

Summary of Linear Theory Statistical Model: Assumptions: Least Squares Estimator and Estimate: Variance Estimator and Estimate: Covariance Estimator and Estimate: .

Summary of Linear Theory Statistical Properties: .

``Mathematics of a Lady Tasting Tea. Fisher.Null Hypothesis: Lady had no such ability -.’’ 1956 -. • Inferences may be estimates of parameters or tests of hypotheses regarding their values.Question: Could lady determine means of tea preparation based on taste? -. Karl Pearson and Egon Pearson • Fisher: Agricultural statistician: emphasized rigorous experiments and designs • Neyman: Emphasized mathematical rigor • Early Paper: R. Hypothesis Testing: • Largely originated with Ronald Fisher.Hypothesis Testing Statistical Testing: • An objective of statistics is to make inferences about unknown population parameters and models based on information in sample data. Jerzy Neyman.Fisher asserted that no alternative hypothesis was required .

Hypothesis Testing Elements of Test: Strategy: .

• Rejection Region: Value of test statistic for which null hypothesis is rejected.Hypothesis Testing Elements of Test: Definitions: • Test Statistic: Function of sample measurement upon which decision is made. Definitions: .

His committee is very pragmatic and wants to test the hypothesis that he will receive less than 50% of the vote. Here we take .Hypothesis Testing Example: Adam is running for Student body president and thinks he will gain more than 50% of the votes and hence win.

What is the probability of a Type II error? Note: The test using this rejection region protects Adam from Type I errors but not Type II errors. he will lose? Suppose that he will really win 30% of the vote so that p = 0.3. . in fact.Hypothesis Testing Example: Is this test equally protect us from erroneously concluding that Adam is the winner when.

Question: How can we reduce both errors? .Hypothesis Testing One Solution: Use a larger critical or rejection region. Conclusion: This provides a better balance between Type I and Type II errors.

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